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Sample records for okinawa trough mineralogy

  1. Tectonic evolution of the northernmost Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiwane, H.; Tonai, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Kiyokawa, S.; Tokuyama, H.

    2007-12-01

    Over the last decades, mechanism of backarc opening has been the subject of controversy. Okinawa Trough has been noticed as an incipient continental backarc basin. So far studies on the Okinawa Trough have been conducted mainly in its southern and middle part. Nevertheless, only a few studies have been conducted on the relationship between geologic structures and the tectonic evolution of northernmost Okinawa Trough. Our main object is to consider the tectonic evolution of the Okinawa Trough by means of structural geology, not only in ocean but also land area. We executed seismic reflection survey in northernmost Okinawa trough and investigated fault systems on Koshikijima islands located on northeastern edge of the Okinawa Trough. Then we compared geologic structures on land and sea floor. First of all, we interpreted seismic reflection data acquired by hydraulic department of Japan Coast Guard in northernmost Okinawa Trough in 1975. Furthermore, we executed multi-channel seismic reflection survey in this area (KT06-03, KT07-03 cruise). NNE and ENE trending fault systems were recognized. It is clear that Northernmost Okinawa Trough has been subsided by activation of NNE trending fault system at the east edge of trough basin with several hundred meters of displacement. The ENE trending fault system has displacement in the surface sediment, which means they are active faults. On the other hand, we held on-land field survey in northern part of the Koshikijima Islands. Fault system, which can be related to the Okinawa Trough, is reported in this area (Inoue et al., 1982). So we focused on that NNE trending normal fault system (F2 fault system). On the basis of crosscut relationship and K-Ar dating of fault rocks and dikes, F2 fault system was formed after late Miocene and likely to have been formed in a shallow underground. F2 fault system on Koshikijima islands and NNE trending fault systems in the Okinawa Trough have similar strike, displaced direction and

  2. Tectonic evolution and volcanism of Okinawa Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Sibuet, J.C.; Letouzey, J.; Marsset, B.; Davagnier, M.; Foucher, J.P.; Bougault, H.; Dosso, L.; Maury, R.; Joron, J.L.

    1986-07-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin formed by extension of the east China continental lithosphere behind the Ryukyu Trench system. The age of marine deposits drilled in the northern Okinawa Trough indicates a Miocene age for the splitting of the volcanic arc and the first tensional movements. The POP 1 cruise of the R/V Jean-Charcot (September-October 1984) provided new evidence concerning the two main periods of extension as recognized by Kimura (Marine and Petroleum Geology, 1985). Tilted fault blocks in the northern Okinawa Trough trend north 40/sup 0/-60/sup 0/ and belong to the early Pleistocene phase (2-0.5 Ma). The present-day phase is characterized over the entire basin by normal faults oriented 80/sup 0/N in the north and 90/sup 0/N in the south. In the southern Okinawa Trough, most of the deformation occurs along linear, subparallel, en echelon depressions intruded by volcanic ridges associated with positive magnetic anomalies. The system of volcanic ridges ends northeast of Okinawa Island in a series of parallel volcanic ridges named the VAMP (Volcanic arc-rift migration processes) area, which merges into an active volcanic chain extending north to Japan. Chemical analyses of the vesicular basalts dredged on the back-arc basin display flat to enriched rare-earth patterns. The niobium-tantalum negative anomalies reflect a subduction signature. A good positive correlation between strontium isotopic compositions and concentrations suggests a contamination effect.

  3. Seafloor hydrothermal clay alteration at Jade in the back-arc Okinawa Trough: Mineralogy, geochemistry and isotope characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Marumo, Katsumi; Hattori, K.H.

    1999-09-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal activity at Jade has resulted in extensive alteration of the host epiclastic sediments and pumiceous tuffs, forming mica, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite), Mg-rich chlorite, talc, montmorillonite, and a mixed-layer mineral of dioctahedral chlorite and montmorillonite (Chl/Mont). Clay mineral assemblages show a vertical variation, which reflects variable amounts of cold seawater incorporated into hot hydrothermal fluids in subsurface sediments and tuff. However, mixing alone cannot explain the occurrence of abundant kaolin minerals at Jade. The formation of kaolin minerals requires much more acidic fluid than expected from simple mixing of hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Low pH values are likely attained by oxidation of H{sub 2}S either dissolved in the hydrothermal fluid or released from the fluid during decompression. The fluid reaching the seafloor is discharged into cold seawater, which caused precipitation of sulfides close to vents and native sulfur and barite at the margins of the vent areas. Halloysite, barite and anhydrite show Sr isotope compositions similar to marine Sr, indicating the derivation of marine Sr directly from seawater or by the dissolution of calcareous nannoplanktons. At Jade, there is only one black smoker actively discharging high temperature ({approximately}320 C) fluid, but there are many fossil sulfide chimneys and mounds in the area. The mineralogy and high Au and Cu in these precipitates suggest highly metalliferous hydrothermal activity in the past. These activities likely resulted in discharge of hydrothermal plumes and fall-outs of sulfides and sulfates on the seafloor. These fall-outs were incorporated in sediments far from the vent areas. They are now recorded as high metal contents in sediments with no petrographic and mineralogical evidence of in-situ hydrothermal activity. Some are high as 8,100 ppm for Cu, 12,500 ppm for Zn, 1,000 ppm for As, 100 ppm for Ag and 21,000 ppm for Pb. Detrital

  4. Seafloor hydrothermal clay alteration at Jade in the back-arc Okinawa trough: Mineralogy, geochemistry and isotope characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marumo, Katsumi; Hattori, Kéiko H.

    1999-09-01

    is usually consumed to form metal sulfides. Therefore, abundant native sulfur at Jade suggests high H 2S/metals ratios of the hydrothermal fluids. The alteration assemblages and isotopic data of hydrothermal minerals from Jade are very similar to those of Kuroko-type barite deposits of middle Miocene age, which formed from fluids of high S/metals ratios at less than 200°C. At Jade, there is only one black smoker actively discharging high temperature (˜320°C) fluid, but there are many fossil sulfide chimneys and mounds in the area. The mineralogy and high Au and Cu in these precipitates suggest highly metalliferous hydrothermal activity in the past. These activities likely resulted in discharge of hydrothermal plumes and fall-outs of sulfides and sulfates on the seafloor. These fall-outs were incorporated in sediments far from the vent areas. They are now recorded as high metal contents in sediments with no petrographic and mineralogical evidence of in-situ hydrothermal activity. Some are high as 8,100 ppm for Cu, 12,500 ppm for Zn, 1,000 ppm for As, 100 ppm for Ag and 21,000 ppm for Pb. Detrital grains of montmorillonite in such sediments are coated with Fe-oxyhydroxides during the suspension in seawater before settling on the seafloor. The depths of such metal anomalies in sediments suggest high levels of metalliferous hydrothermal activities from 1,800 to 300 ybp.

  5. Intermediate and deep water formation in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hirohiko; Nishina, Ayako; Liu, Zhaojun; Tanaka, Fumiyo; Wimbush, Mark; Park, Jae-Hun

    2013-12-01

    Water mass formation in the intermediate and deep layers of the Okinawa Trough is investigated using two distinct data sets: a quasi-climatological data set of the water properties of the minimum salinity surface produced from Argo float profiles and historical CTD data, and a velocity data set in the Kerama Gap measured by moored current meters during June 2009 to June 2011. The formation process of Okinawa Trough Intermediate Water is explained on the basis of horizontal advection and mixing of North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) and South China Sea Intermediate Water (SCSIW). The salinity-minimum water intruding into the Okinawa Trough through the channel east of Taiwan is approximately composed of 45% NPIW and 55% SCSIW, while that through the Kerama Gap is 75% NPIW and 25% SCSIW. Salinities of these water masses increase in the Okinawa Trough due to strong diapycnal diffusion; its coefficient is estimated as 6.8-21.5 × 10-4 m2 s-1 based on a simple advection-diffusion equation. On the other hand, deep water in the Okinawa Trough, below the sill depth of the Kerama Gap (˜1100 m), is ventilated by overflow in the bottom layer of the Kerama Gap down to the deepest layer (˜2000 m) in the southern Okinawa Trough. A simple box model predicts that this bottom overflow (0.18-0.35 Sv) causes strong upwelling (3.8-7.6 × 10-6 m s-1) in the southern Okinawa Trough, which must be maintained by buoyancy gain of the deep water due to strong diapycnal diffusion (4.8-9.5 × 10-4 m2 s-1).

  6. Gravity Inversion with Geological Modeling Constraint and Its Application in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.

    2014-12-01

    The satellite altimetry gravity data is used to recover the 3D distribution of oceanic lithosphere density in the Okinawa Trough and its neighbor region. It's difficult to use only gravity data to invert complex geological structure and density distribution by 3D gravity Inversion method. In order to improve the vertical resolution of the density inversion result, 3D geological modeling method is used to build structural model for the inversion, prior constraint conditions can be applied to solve the non-unique problem. In the Okinawa Trough, it is proved by earthquake data that the Philippine plate dives beneath the Okinawa Trough, which result in the upwelling of mantel material and decrease of the crust thickness. The Benioff zone clearly shows the plate's subduction parameter, such as direction, dip, transformation. Therefore, a structural subduction model is created by geological modeling method and works as the initial model and as constraint condition in gravity inversion. The 3D gravity inversion result and seismology CMT data are both used to explain the oceanic lithosphere structure in the Okinawa Trough. The inversion result illustrates high density anomaly under the Okinawa Trough. Affected by small scale mantle convections, the continental lithosphere is separated, which result in the spreading of back-arc basin and the formation of the Okinawa Trough.

  7. Structural features related to the volcanic gases in Southern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. F.; Hsu, S. K.; Tsia, C. H.; Chen, S. C.; Wu, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a rifted back-arc basin, heavily sedimented and formed in an intracontinental rift zone behind the Ryukyu trench-arc system. The Southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) east of Taiwan is the place where post-collisional extension happened. The collision moved southwestward and the Ryukyu trench-arc extension westward, Arc volcanism is dominant in the Northern Ryukyu volcanic arc and back-arc volcanism in the Southern Okinawa Trough. Marine geophysical data including side-scan sonar (SSS), sub-bottom profiler (SBP) and echo sounder system (EK60) data are used in this study. Active fluid activities out of seafloor are obvious from various images observed on these data, such as gas plumes. These hydrothermal vents have been located at a water depth of 1400 m. Our preliminary results show that gas seepage structures appear in the location where is a week zone, such as a normal fault in the slope. The hydrothermal activity within the Okinawa Trough is associated with volcanism located in rift zones in the Southern Okinawa Trough. However, the origin of the submarine hydrothermal fluids within the Okinawa Trough is diverse with contributions from volcanic, sedimentary and magmatic sources, needed further investigations.

  8. Origin and model of transform faults in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Li, Sanzhong; Jiang, Suhua; Suo, Yanhui; Guo, Lingli; Wang, Yongming; Zhang, Huixuan

    2017-06-01

    Transform faults in back-arc basins are the key to revealing the opening and development of marginal seas. The Okinawa Trough (OT) represents an incipient and active back-arc or marginal sea basin oriented in a general NE-SW direction. To determine the strikes and spatial distribution of transform faults in the OT, this paper dissects the NW- and NNE-SN-trending fault patterns on the basis of seismic profiles, gravity anomalies and region geological data. There are three main NW-trending transpressional faults in the OT, which are the seaward propagation of NW-trending faults in the East China Continent. The NNE-SN-trending faults with right-stepping distribution behave as right-lateral shearing. The strike-slip pull-apart process or transtensional faulting triggered the back-arc rifting or extension, and these faults evolved into transform faults with the emergence of oceanic crust. Thus, the transform fault patterns are inherited from pre-existing oblique transtensional faults at the offsets between rifting segments. Therefore, the OT performs the oblique spreading mechanism similar to nascent oceans such as the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.

  9. Origin and model of transform faults in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Li, Sanzhong; Jiang, Suhua; Suo, Yanhui; Guo, Lingli; Wang, Yongming; Zhang, Huixuan

    2017-03-01

    Transform faults in back-arc basins are the key to revealing the opening and development of marginal seas. The Okinawa Trough (OT) represents an incipient and active back-arc or marginal sea basin oriented in a general NE-SW direction. To determine the strikes and spatial distribution of transform faults in the OT, this paper dissects the NW- and NNE-SN-trending fault patterns on the basis of seismic profiles, gravity anomalies and region geological data. There are three main NW-trending transpressional faults in the OT, which are the seaward propagation of NW-trending faults in the East China Continent. The NNE-SN-trending faults with right-stepping distribution behave as right-lateral shearing. The strike-slip pull-apart process or transtensional faulting triggered the back-arc rifting or extension, and these faults evolved into transform faults with the emergence of oceanic crust. Thus, the transform fault patterns are inherited from pre-existing oblique transtensional faults at the offsets between rifting segments. Therefore, the OT performs the oblique spreading mechanism similar to nascent oceans such as the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.

  10. Microearthquakes and Crustal Structures in the Southern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Sibuet, J.; Lee, C.; Hsu, S.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Auffret, Y.; Pelleau, P.; Crozon, J.

    2004-12-01

    Located east of Taiwan, the southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) is a portion of a young continental backarc basin, which is still in the rifting stage. Based on seismicity data, a slab tear was identified along 123.3°E. In order to better understand the nature and role of tectonic features in this region, a passive seismic Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) experiment was conducted from November 19 to December 1, 2003. 15 OBSs were deployed in a 130 x 90 km area including the Ryukyu slab tear and the Cross Backarc Volcanic Trail (CBVT). OBSs with three 4.5 Hz component geophones and an hydrophone recorded about 4000 microearthquakes. Most of them (about 94%) are crustal earthquakes (0-20 km) which occured in the SOT central graben. Just a few earthquakes were recorded from the upper slope of the northern SOT and from the Ryukyu forearc. Most of the earthquake local magnitudes (ML) range from 1 to 2, even if the whole range of magnitudes spans from 0.9 to 4. Three clusters of high microearthquake activity are observed in : (1) the CBVT area (24.7-25°N; 122.5-123°E); (2) the southern central graben area (24.65-24.85°N;123-123.3°E); and (3) the northern central graben area (24.9-25.2°N ;123.2-123.65°E). The southern central graben cluster is also identified by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The earthquakes determined by the JMA in the northern central graben present larger magnitudes than ours, but are globally located 10-km south of our cluster. The CBVT cluster is not recorded in JMA data probably because the shallow (O-5 km) volcanic activity only involved small earthquakes which are too far from the JMA's network. Based on swath bathymetric and seismic data, most of the epicenters lie along already identified normal faults. Thus, except the volcanic activity, which occurs in the CBVT area, the main factor controlling the SOT tectonic activity is normal faulting. On the northern and southern slopes of the central graben, hypocenters occur along normal fauls

  11. Terrigenous transportation to the Okinawa Trough and the influence of typhoons on suspended sediment concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Changwei; Jiang, Wensheng; Song, Dehai

    2010-06-01

    The source and transport mechanisms of land-derived Okinawa Trough sediments were studied using the field data of temperature, salinity and turbidity in the East China Seas. The results suggest that there are two primary sediments sources from the Chinese Mainland to the Okinawa Trough: one is the Old Huanghe River submarine delta, and the other is the Changjiang River sediments, which are distributed at the Changjiang River estuary and the off-coast of Zhejiang and Fujian provinces. It is difficult for the Huanghe River suspended sediments to arrive in the Okinawa Trough via the new estuary. Although the Taiwan warm current blocks the seaward terrigenous transportation to a certain extent, part of the coastal suspended sediments are transported to the outer shelf. Suspended particulate matter is unable to get through the barrier of the Kuroshio Current under normal conditions. However, episodic events, such as winter storms, internal-tidal waves and turbidity flows, are capable of transporting suspended particulate matter into the Okinawa Trough. The super typhoon "Ewiniar" induced strong waves and influenced the thermocline depth and suspended sediment concentration of the East China Seas. The typhoon-induced waves pushed the thermocline depth down to around 40 m and caused the resuspension of large volumes of sediments in its path. In the other East China Seas regions, the typhoon-induced swells deepened the thermocline depth by about 5 m and increased suspended sediment concentrations. The typhoon effect on suspended sediment concentration of the East China Seas disappeared within 2 weeks.

  12. Acoustic Impact of Short-Term Ocean Variability in the Okinawa Trough

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-20

    Florida State University Tallahassee, FL USA P. Spence QinetiQ North America Technology Solutions Group —PSI, Stennis Space Center, MS, USA...analyses and public observations in the Okinawa Trough region over I August - 31 October 2007. MLD(m) ILD(m) SLD (m) BLG ((m/s)/100m) RMS BIAS RMS BIAS RMS

  13. Basic geochemical characteristics of sediments in the Okinawa trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yiyang; He, Lijuan; Zhang, Xiulian; Jia, Fengmei; Xia, Qing

    1986-09-01

    A total of 21 elements, Si, Al, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ti, P, Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cr, Rb, Sr Ba, Cd and Corg(organic carbon), was determined in the trough. Average contents of most elements were found to be higher in the trough bottom than in the western and eastern slopes. We call these elements the indicator elements because of their “transition” property. This is in keeping with the “intermediate” geographical position of the trough where the continental crust turns to oceanic crust. Though the authigenic fraction of some elements here increases, the detrital fraction of most elements is still dominant, indicating that the influences of terrigenous and volcanic detrital materials on the trough sediments are still dominant. The abundant biogenous component in the trough is characterized by the increase of Ca, Sr, and Corg contents. Ca existes mainly in the form of CaCo3 that is mostly found in various shells. Sr often easily replaces Ca within the shells. A belt-shaped distribution pattern of elements was found in the south and a “block” pattern in the north trough. Such distribution patterns are directly controlled by water depth, topography, current sediment type, and mineral, biological, and volcanic processes.

  14. Deep ventilation in the Okinawa Trough induced by Kerama Gap overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishina, Ayako; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Park, Jae-Hun; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Tanaka, Yuki; Seo, Seongbong; Hibiya, Toshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Near-bottom water flowing over the Kerama Gap's sills is thought to ventilate the deep water below ˜1100 m depth in the Okinawa Trough and then upwell with 5-10 years residence time. The present study follows up on this phenomenon, using comprehensive profile data of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, currents and turbulence obtained by intensive shipboard observations performed in June 2013 and June 2014 in the region. Strong near-bottom subtidal flow with speeds exceeding 0.5 m s-1 was observed within a layer of about 100 m thickness over the western side of the peak of the main sill. Temperature and salinity sections along the Kerama Gap indicated some depressions and overturns of the deep water downstream of the strong overflow, suggesting the existence of breaking internal gravity waves and hydraulic jumps. Associated vertical diffusivities, estimated using the Thorpe scale and the buoyancy frequency, were three to four orders of magnitude larger than typical values observed in the thermocline of the open ocean (˜10-5 m2 s-1). The dissolved oxygen section also indicated strong vertical mixing and associated upwelling with the entrainment of the near-bottom overflow water into the lower thermocline beneath the Kuroshio in the Okinawa Trough. The present study not only supports the previous conceptual model but also provides new evidence that the Okinawa Trough is an upwelling location where nutrient rich Philippine Sea intermediate water is sucked up into the lower thermocline below the Kuroshio.

  15. Deepwater redox changes in the southern Okinawa Trough since the last glacial maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Yanguang; Yang, Shouye; Li, Chao; Shi, Xuefa; Liu, Jihua; Bi, Lei

    2015-06-01

    In this study, rare earth element (REE) was treated as a paleo-redox proxy to investigate the changes of depositional environment in the southern Okinawa Trough since the last glacial maximum. The acid-leachable fraction (leachate) of the sediments recovered from the ODP Site 1202B is dominated by biogenic and authigenic components while detrital contamination is minor. The significant enrichment of middle REE suggests a large contribution from authigenic Mn oxyhydroxides and cerium (Ce) anomaly can indicate deepwater redox change. The REE parameters including Ce anomaly in the leachate exhibit remarkable and abrupt changes in the early Holocene (∼9.5 ka) and during LGM (∼20 ka). An increase of Ce anomaly at 28-22 ka implies the suboxic deepwater condition probably caused by increased primary productivity. Weak positive Ce anomalies during the last glacial maximum and deglaciation suggest an oxic depositional environment responding to the enhanced deepwater ventilation with the advection of the North Pacific Intermediate Water and/or South China Sea Intermediate Water into the trough. A decrease of Ce anomaly in the early Holocene might be caused by the intrusion and strengthening of the Kuroshio Current in the trough that enhanced the water stratification and induced a gradual development of suboxic depositional condition. Furthermore, an abrupt change of chemical composition at ca. 4 ka probably indicates a decrease of dissolved oxygen in deepwater and a weakening of ventilation in the Okinawa Trough. This study suggests that REE proxy can provide new insights into the linkage among surface current, deepwater circulation and sediment record in the continental margin where terrigenous input dominates.

  16. Interaction of Kuroshio Current with Global Oceanic and Atmospheric Circulations: Evidences of Grain Size from Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Li, A.; Xu, K.; Huang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Okinawa Trough is an ideal place for the study of paleoceanography and paleoenvironment changes. However, the provenances of the sediments and paleoenvironment evolution of the Okinawa Trough have still not been settled yet. Based on grain size, clay minerals and AMS 14C data of the Core OKI03, the provenances and paleoenvironemnt evolution in the middle Okinawa Trough during the last 8 ka were studied. The results indicate that terrigenous sediments deposited in the middle Okinawa Trough were mainly from Yangtze River and Taiwanese rivers since 8 ka. Kuroshio Current (KC), a Western Pacific Ocean boundary current, flows into Okinawa Trough by eastern Taiwan Island, and influences the sediments delivery and distribution within the trough, and also impact the regional and local marine environment in adjacent seas. Statistics study of high resolution grain size in the trough recognizes a millennial-scale oscillation (center around 1800 yr) and a centennial-scale oscillation (center around 512 yr) for KC evolution since last 8 ka. The millennial-scale oscillation is probably related to the North Atlantic Deep Water production with 1400-yr time lag, via the mixing upwelling and impacts on the sea surface temperature (SST) in equatorial Pacific. Meanwhile, the centennial-scale variation possibly corresponds to the solar irradiation with a 240-yr time uncertainty, through the SST change. KC possible influences the climate and North Atlantic Deep Water formation by transferring heat to the atmosphere in high latitude of Pacific Ocean, and also interacts with the thermohaline circulation by transferring heat to Indian Ocean through North Pacific Intermediate Water.

  17. Sea surface temperature variability in southern Okinawa Trough during last 2700 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weichao; Tan, Wenbing; Zhou, Liping; Yang, Huan; Xu, Yunping

    2012-07-01

    Most of the temperature reconstructions for the past two millennia are based on proxy data from various sites on land. Here we present a bidecadal resolution record of sea surface temperature (SST) in Southern Okinawa Trough for the past ca. 2700 years by analyzing tetraether lipids of planktonic archaea in the ODP Hole 1202B, a site under the strong influence of Kuroshio Current and East Asian monsoon. The reconstructed SST anomalies generally coincided with previously reported late Holocene climate events, including the Roman Warm Period, Sui-Tang dynasty Warm Period, Medieval Warm Period, Current Warm Period, Dark Age Cold Period and Little Ice Age. However, the Medieval Warm Period usually thought to be a historical analogue for the Current Warm Period has a mean SST of 0.6-0.8°C lower than that of the Roman Warm Period and Sui-Tang dynasty Warm Period. Despite an increase since 1850 AD, the mean SST in the 20th century is still within the range of natural variability during the past 2700 years. A close correlation of SST in Southern Okinawa Trough with air temperature in East China, intensity of East Asian monsoon and the El-Niño Southern Oscillation index has been attributed to the fluctuations in solar output and oceanic-atmospheric circulation.

  18. Geological Structures of the South Okinawa Trough based on Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, M.; Liu, C.; Teng, L. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) located offshore northeastern Taiwan is an extensional basin north of the Ryukyu Island Arc that opens toward Taiwan. In order to better understand the geological processes in the Southern Okinawa Trough, we collect all the available multi-channel seismic reflection data, reprocess some of them to improve the data quality, and interpret 22 seismic reflection profiles. A structural map, which shows the distribution of fault structures and submarine volcanoes in the study area, is compiled with the aid of seismic sequence analysis. We found that normal faults developed in both the northern and southern flanks of the SOT, and also in the axial area where volcanic extrusions are abundant, suggesting that the SOT is presently undergoing active extension. Some deeply rooted compressional structures are observed below the younger normal faults, which may indicate that the area offshore northern Taiwan was once in a convergent tectonic environment. We use seismic and bathymetry data to discuss the fault activities and related tectonic processes, also examine the volcanic activities and their geological environment.

  19. A biomarker record of temperature and phytoplankton community in Okinawa Trough since the last glacial maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Jiaping

    2017-04-01

    A variety of biomarkers were examined from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) core 1202B to reconstruct temperature and phytoplankton community structures in the southern Okinawa Trough for the past ca. 20000 years. Two molecular temperature proxies (Uk37 and TEX86) show 5-6 ℃ warming during the glacial/interglacial transition. Prior to the Holocene, the Uk37-derived temperature was generally 1-4 ℃ higher than TEX86-derived temperature. This difference, however, was reduced to <1 ℃ in the Holocene when the Kuroshio Current was intensified. Correspondingly, the phytoplankton biomarkers (e.g., C37:2 alkenone, brassicasterol, C30 1,15-diols and dinosterol) suggest a shift of planktonic community assemblages with coccolithophorids becoming more abundant in the Holocene at the expense of diatoms/dinoflagellates. Such a shift is related to the variability of nutrient, temperature and salinity in the Okinawa Trough, controlled by the sea level and the intensity of Kuroshio Current. The phytoplankton community change may have profound implications on atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during glacial/interglacial cycles since diatoms and dinoflagellates have a higher efficiency of biological pump than coccolithophorids.

  20. Sources and burial of organic carbon in the middle Okinawa Trough during late Quaternary paleoenvironmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hebin; Yang, Shouye; Cai, Feng; Li, Chao; Liang, Jie; Li, Qing; Hyun, Sangmin; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Dou, Yanguang; Hu, Bangqi; Dong, Gang; Wang, Feng

    2016-12-01

    The sediments from a piston core ECS12A recovered from the middle Okinawa Trough in the East China Sea were measured for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and other biogenic elements to provide constraints on the sources and burial rates of depositional organic matter (OM) and on the changes in primary productivity since 19 ka. The last glacial sediments (ca. 17-19 ka) are characterized by low contents of biogenic elements and well-developed turbidite layers, suggesting low primary productivity but a high component of terrigenous sediment. With rising sea level and enhanced monsoons during the deglacial period, the proportion of marine OM gradually increased. The least negative δ13Corg values and the smallest grain size of sediments deposited ca. 10-14.5 ka indicate high primary productivity and a sedimentary environment dominated by the marine component. The source and burial rates of OM in the Holocene sediments (ca. 5.4-10 ka) were largely controlled by the intensification of the Kuroshio Current, which caused a slight decrease in primary productivity, but strengthened the oceanic circulation in the East China Sea. Overall, the source-to-sink process of OM in the Okinawa Trough is governed by complex interactions between sea level, climate and ocean circulation.

  1. Spatial variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution of earthquakes in the southwestern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.-Y.; Sibuet, J.-C.; Lee, C.-S.; Hsu, S.-K.; Klingelhoefer, F.

    2007-04-01

    The relations between the frequency of occurrence and the magnitude of earthquakes are established in the southern Okinawa Trough for 2823 relocated earthquakes recorded during a passive ocean bottom seismometer experiment. Three high b-values areas are identified: (1) for an area offshore of the Ilan Plain, south of the andesitic Kueishantao Island from a depth of 50 km to the surface, thereby confirming the subduction component of the island andesites; (2) for a body lying along the 123.3°E meridian at depths ranging from 0 to 50 km that may reflect the high temperature inflow rising up from a slab tear; (3) for a third cylindrical body about 15 km in diameter beneath the Cross Backarc Volcanic Trail, at depths ranging from 0 to 15 km. This anomaly might be related to the presence of a magma chamber at the base of the crust already evidenced by tomographic and geochemical results. The high b-values are generally linked to magmatic and geothermal activities, although most of the seismicity is linked to normal faulting processes in the southern Okinawa Trough.

  2. Fe-rich carbonate chimney in Okinawa Trough Implication for Fe-driven Microbial Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AMO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, X.; Guo, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Marine sediments associated with cold seeps at continental margins discharge substantial amounts of methane. Microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AMO) is a key biogeochemical process in these environments, which can trigger the formation of carbonate chimneys within sediments. The exact biogeochemical mechanism of how AMO control the formation of carbonate chimneys and influence their mineralogy and chemistry remains poorly constrained. Here, we use nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry to characterize the petrology and geochemistry of methane-derived Fe-rich carbonate chimneys formed between 5-7 Ma in the Northern Okinawa Trough. We find abundant framboid pyrites formed in the authigenic carbonates in the chimneys, indicating a non-Fe limitation sedimentary system. The δ13C values of carbonate (-18.9‰ to -45.9‰, PDB) show their probable origin from a mixing source of biogenic and thermogenic methane. The δ34S values range from -3.9 ± 0.5‰ to 23.2 ± 0.5‰ (VCDT), indicative of a strong exhaustion of sulfates in a local sulfate pool. We proposed that Fe-rich carbonate chimneys formed at the bottom of the sulfate-methane transition zone, beneath which Fe-driven AOM may happen and provide available ferrous for the extensive precipitation of pyrite in carbonate chimneys. The accumulation of reductive Fe in sediments via this process may widely occur in other analogous settings, with important application for Fe and S biogeochemical cycling within deep sediments at continental margins.

  3. Magnesium isotopic behavior during the formation of chlorite-rich hydrothermal sediment in the middle Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, H.; Yang, S.; Teng, F. Z.; Cai, D.; Humphris, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Chlorite is a common alteration product during water-rock reactions in seafloor hydrothermal systems. This chlorite is commonly characterized by high concentrations of magnesium. However, the source of the Mg and its behavior during hydrothermal alteration have yet to be clarified. Mg isotopes have been used in recent years to investigate a variety of geological processes, including low temperature weathering and metamorphism processes, and Mg cycling in sediments. In this study, we investigate the source of Mg and its behavior in chlorite-rich sediments collected during IODP Expedition 331 from the active hydrothermal Iheya North Knoll field in the middle Okinawa Trough — an intra-continental rift in continental crust. This area is characterized by hemipelagic muds with interbedded thick layers of felsic pumiceous volcanic material. Based on mineralogical, geochemical, and isotopic data, we have previously suggested that the chlorite-rich sediments resulted from hydrothermal alteration of the pumiceous layers at temperatures of 220-300°C. Prior to Mg isotope analysis, all selected samples were pretreated with 1N HCl in order to remove carbonates and other unstable minerals, and measurements were made on both the residues (mainly chlorite) and leachates, as well as on bulk samples. The residues are expected to show higher δ26Mg than the leachates reflecting the Mg isotopic signature of the pumiceous material precursor and provide insight into the behavior of Mg isotopes during the high-temperature hydrothermal processes.

  4. Origin of the southern Okinawa Trough volcanism from detailed seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Sibuet, J.-C.; Lee, Chao-Shing; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Klingelhoefer, Frauke

    2007-08-01

    Magmatism associated with subducting plate edges or slab tears has been suggested in the southern Okinawa Trough. The cross back-arc volcanic trail, which consists of a cluster of about 70 seamounts, is located above a Ryukyu slab tear lying along the 123.3°E meridian. In November 2003, more than 3300 earthquakes recorded in this area by 15 ocean bottom seismometers and surrounding land stations during a period of 12 days were used to determine the three-dimensional Vp and Vs velocity structures and Vp/Vs ratios. A mantle inflow characterized by low Vp and Vs and high Vp/Vs passing through the slab tear is imaged. The fluid and/or melt component is rising obliquely from the slab tear in the directions of the cross back-arc volcanic trail, the northern slope of the southern Okinawa Trough and to north of Iriomote Island. The asthenospheric intake is also imaged by an inclined chip-like high Vp/Vs and low Vp and Vs body dipping northerly, which might be linked to the slab retreat. West of the slab tear, most of the earthquakes are located around low Vp and Vs and high Vp/Vs bodies, which suggests that the seismicity is related to magmatic and/or fluid activities. East of it, earthquakes are concentrated in an area characterized by high Vp and Vs velocities and low Vp/Vs, suggesting that the magma chamber is absent beneath the axial part of the trough and that normal faulting is the main factor controlling the seismicity.

  5. Litarcturus kexueiae sp. nov., a new deep-sea isopod from the Okinawa Trough (Crustacea, Isopoda, Valvifera, Antarcturidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenliang; Sha, Zhongli

    2015-09-11

    A new species of the genus Litarcturus Brandt, 1990, L. kexueiae sp. nov., collected from deep sea of the Okinawa Trough, is described and illustrated. It is readily distinguished from the other seven species of the genus by bearing long supraocular spines about as long as the head and posterolateral pleotelsonic spines overreaching the pleotelson apex.

  6. The study of active submarine volcanoes and hydrothermal vents in the Southernmost Part of Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Tsai, C.; Lee, C.

    2004-12-01

    The study area is located in the Southernmost Part of Okinawa Trough (SPOT), which is a back-arc basin formed by extension of Eurasian plate. Previous research indicated two extensional stages in SPOT area. Many normal-fault structures were come into existence during both extensional processes. The SPOT is presently in an activity tectonic episode. Therefore, the area becomes a frequent earthquake and abundant magmatism. The purpose of this study is to discuss which relationship between tectonics, submarine volcanoes and hydrothermal vents in SPOT area. The investigations are continued from 1998 to 2004, we have found at least twelve active hydrothermal vents in study area. Compare the locations hydrothermal vents with fault systems, we find both of them have highly correlated. We can distinguish them into two shapes, pyramidal shape and non-pyramidal shape. According to plumes height, we are able to divide these vents into two groups near east longitude 122.5° . East of this longitude, the hydrothermal plumes are more powerful and west of it are the weaker. This is closely related to the present extensional axis (N80° E) of the southern part of the Okinawa Trough. This can be explained the reason of why the more powerful vents coming out of the east group. The east group is associated with the present back-arc spreading system. West of 122.5° , the spreading system are in a primary stage. The andesitic volcanic island, the Turtle Island, is a result of N60° E extensional tectonism with a lot of faults. Besides the pyramidal shape, this can be proved indirectly. The vents located in the west side were occurred from previous extensional faults and are weaker than the eastern. Therefore, we suggest that if last the extension keeps going on, the hydrothermal vents located at the west side of the longitude 122.5° will be intensified.

  7. Experimental study on hydrothermal alteration of dacite collected from the Hatoma knoll, Okinawa Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Y.; Shibuya, T.; Yoshizaki, M.; Nozaki, T.; Suzuki, K.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin located between the southern part of Japan offshore and Taiwan North. Hemipelagic sediments supplied from the continents covered at the bottom of the trough. Vigorous hydrothermal activity exists with rifting. The Hatoma Knoll (the depth 1500 m) is one of the active hydrothermal fields located in the southern part of the trough. The measured highest temperature of the vent fluid was 301 °C. The rocks were sampled by manned research submersible ship "Shinkai 2000" in 2000. During the dive program, 25 hydrothermal fluid samples were collected and their chemical compositions were analyzed (Nakano et al., 2001). As a result, it was revealed that the compositions of the hydrothermal vent fluids are strongly influenced by the dacitic rock presumably in a reaction zone. In this presentation, we will show the results of experimental study on hydrothermal alteration dacite sample collected from the Hatoma Knoll. The sample was obtained near the hydrothermal area with ROV "Hyper-Dolphin" during the NT11-20 cruise in 2011. The experiment simulating water/rock reaction was conducted at 300 °C and 325 bars for more than 2,200 hours using the dacite sample and synthetic seawater. The reaction cell is made of a gold tube with a titanium head, which is pressurized in an autoclave. The chemical components of reacted fluid and altered dacite were measured with pH meter, ion chromatograph, ICP-AES, gas chromatograph, and XRD. We also observed thin section of the samples before and after the experiment under microscope. The major element concentrations of the reacted fluid were comparable with those of the natural hydrothermal fluids in the Hatoma Knoll in an order of magnitude except for Mn. As a result of XRD analysis, there was no significant difference in mineral assemblage between the starting material and the experimental product.

  8. Dating of barite and anhydrite in sea-floor hydrothermal deposits in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taisei, F.; Toyoda, S.; Uchida, A.; Ishibashi, J. I.; Totsuka, S.; Shimada, K.; Nakai, S.

    2016-12-01

    Dating of submarine hydrothermal activities has been an important issue in the aspect of the ore formation (Urabe, 1995) and biological systems sustained by the chemical species arising from hydrothermal activities (Macdonald et al., 1980). For this purpose, dating methods using radioactive disequilibrium such as U-Th method (e.g. You and Bickle, 1998) for sulfide, 226Ra-210Pb and 228Ra-228Th (e.g. Noguchi et al., 2011), Ra/Ba, and ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) methods for barite (Okumura et al., 2010) have been employed. In this study, firstly, we will report the first successful dating results on anhydrite using 226Ra-210Pb and 228Ra-228Th methods. The anhydrite samples were taken from the Daiyon-Yonaguni knoll field and the Hatoma knoll field and the Iheya North Knoll field of the Okinawa Trough by research cruises operated by JAMSTEC. The anhydrite crystals were physically scratched out of the samples. 226Ra, 228Ra and daughter nuclei were measured in the same samples for the ESR method by the low background gamma ray spectrometry. From the activity ratios, disequilibrium ages were obtained to be about 7.3 years by 226Ra-210Pb method, and to be 0.6-2.5 years by 228Ra-228Th method. Secondly, the ESR ages of barite taken from hydrothermal areas in the Okinawa trough range from 4.1 to 16000 years, filling the age gap of the maximum age, 150 years, of 226Ra-210Pb method and the minimum age, several thousand years of U-Th method, being the most appropriate age range to discuss the evolution of the hydrothermal systems. Interestingly, the 226Ra-210Pb and 228Ra-228Th ages for the same samples are the same or younger than the ESR ages. As for the latter samples, the reason has already been discussed (Uchida et al., 2015) as the deposits had been formed by two or more hydrothermal events. In the present paper, the disequilibrium and ESR ages will be simulated with these multiple hydrothermal events so that the differences in the ages are explained.

  9. Hydrographic changes in the northern Okinawa Trough over the last 88 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xuefa; Zou, Jianjun; Wu, Yonghua

    2015-04-01

    The surface hydrographic conditions of the northern Okinawa Trough are influenced strongly by fluctuations of the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) and the Kuroshio. However, the high-resolution records of past surface hydrographic condition remain scarce in the northern Okinawa Trough (OT) on orbital and millennial time scales. In this study, we applied a multiproxy (planktonic foraminiferal species, δ18O, alkenone sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS)) reconstruction from sediment core CSH1, which is located at the main axis of the Tsushima Warm Current, a branch of the Kuroshio, in the northern OT since the last 88 ka. The relative abundances of the warm-water planktonic foraminiferal species related to the Kuroshio are high during MIS 1 and MIS 5.1, while cold-water species related to East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) and subarctic water mass are high during MIS 2. Alkenone SST measured from core CSH1 ranges between 21 and 25 ℃, with higher values during interglacials (MIS 1, 3.3, 5.1) and interstadials and lower values during glacials and Heinrich (H)/stadial events. The CSH1 SSS appears to be mainly controlled by the local river runoff and the Kuroshio, while the DOT change seems to be closely related to the strength of the Kuroshio and the latitudinal shift of the subarctic frontal zone. Our records suggest that, during MIS 1 and MIS 5.1, while global sea level was high, the Kuroshio was dominant; while during MIS 2, MIS 3 and MIS 4, with a low sea level, stronger EAWM and a more southerly subarctic front played important roles in governing the hydrographic characteristics in the OT. The hydrographic records, such as SST, SSS and DOT, show regional responses corresponding mainly to the global sea level, the Kuroshio, EAWM and subarctic front, factors which are consistently invoked in the interpretations of other regional records from the OT. Acknowledgements. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41476056

  10. Exploring fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Guang-Hua; Xu, Xin-Ya; Nong, Xu-Hua; Wang, Jie; Amin, Muhammad; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the fungal diversity in four different deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1). A total of 40,297 fungal ITS1 sequences clustered into 420 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 97% sequence similarity and 170 taxa were recovered from these sediments. Most ITS1 sequences (78%) belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, followed by Basidiomycota (17.3%), Zygomycota (1.5%) and Chytridiomycota (0.8%), and a small proportion (2.4%) belonged to unassigned fungal phyla. Compared with previous studies on fungal diversity of sediments from deep-sea environments by culture-dependent approach and clone library analysis, the present result suggested that Illumina sequencing had been dramatically accelerating the discovery of fungal community of deep-sea sediments. Furthermore, our results revealed that Sordariomycetes was the most diverse and abundant fungal class in this study, challenging the traditional view that the diversity of Sordariomycetes phylotypes was low in the deep-sea environments. In addition, more than 12 taxa accounted for 21.5% sequences were found to be rarely reported as deep-sea fungi, suggesting the deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough harbored a plethora of different fungal communities compared with other deep-sea environments. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing.

  11. Rare Earth Element Compositions of Chlorite-rich Hydrothermal Sediments in the middle Okinawa Trough, East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, H.; Yang, S.; Humphris, S. E.; Cai, D.; Wang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have been used as powerful tracers in the study of hot fluid-rock reaction in hydrothermal system. However, the behavior of the REEs during interaction of hydrothermal solution with rocks remains to be clarified more quantitatively. The Okinawa Trough (OT), located in the East Asian continental margin, is characterized by thick terrigenous sediment and ubiquitous volcanic-hydrothermal activities. In this study, the sediments collected during IODP Expedition 331 to the mid-OT were determined for mineralogical and REEs as well as Nd isotopic compositions, aiming to investigate the geochemical behavior of REEs during hydrothermal processes. All samples were separated into bulk and clay-size (˂ 2 μm) fractions and pretreated by 1N HCl to remove carbonate and other unstable components. The hydrothermal sediments in the mid-OT is dominated by Mg-rich chlorite based on the XRD analysis, especially the clay-size fraction comprising pure chlorite. The clay-size samples bear different mineralogical and geochemical compositions between the upper and lower parts in this hydrothermal area. All hydrothermal samples are relatively enriched in HREEs in the residues. The upper clays have higher values of δEu and (La/Yb)N as well as LREEs concentration than the lower part, while the bulk samples have weak REE differentiation. In the 1N HCl leachates, the concentrations of REEs in the bulk samples are higher than in the clays in the lower part but LREEs are obviously enriched in the upper clays. We infer that the grain size may be an important factor controlling the behavior of REEs in the mid-OT hydrothermal system. Both bulk and clay samples show negative Eu anomalies relative to chondrite, similar as the detrital sediments and volcanic rocks. This study confirms the hypothesis that HREEs patterns are constant throughout the system compatible with higher LREEs mobility as chlorine ion complexes in acidic solutions (Mills and Elderfield 1995; Douville

  12. Geochemical characteristics of hydrothermal sediments from Iheya North Knoll in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiannan; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Fuqing; Wang, Bing; Luan, Zhendong; Chen, Chang'an; Yan, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Thirty sediment subsamples were recovered from the Iheya North hydrothermal field (with an average of 38 m away from the hydrothermal vent) in the middle Okinawa Trough. Samples were obtained by the ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) Faxian during the virgin cruise of the R/V Kexue in 2014 with the application of push cores. The chemical compositions of the sediments show that the hydrothermal sediments near the hydrothermal vent are mainly composed of SO3, ZnO and Fe2O3. Moreover, the hydrothermal sediments are also highly enriched in Pb, As, Sb, Hg, Se, Ag, Ba, Mo and Cd comparing with previous analysis results. On the other hand, the concentrations of Sr, Hg and Ag in studied sediments are strongly and positively correlated, these elements can be used as an hydrothermal indicator. In addition, a factor analysis of the sediments suggested that the sediments were mainly influenced by hydrothermal origin, and terrestrial and biogenic input are limited in studied area. It is also suggested that different stages of crystallization were involved in the formation of hydrothermal chimney from factor analysis.

  13. Characteristics of hydrocarbons in sediment core samples from the northern Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Shuai; Zeng, Zhigang; Pu, Xiaoqiang; Hou, Qinghua

    2017-02-15

    Sediment core samples from the northern Okinawa Trough (OT) were analyzed to determine abundances and distributions of hydrocarbons by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the n-alkanes in this sediment core conform to a bimodal distribution, and exhibit an odd-to-even predominance of high molecular weights compared to an even-to-odd predominance in low molecular weight n-alkanes with maxima at C16 and C18. The concentrations of bitumen, alkanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were higher in samples S10-07 than all others. Three maturity parameters as well as the ratios between parent phenanthrenes (Ps) and methylphenanthrenes (MPs) in samples S10-07 and S10-17 were higher. The distribution and composition of hydrocarbons in sample S10-07 suggest that one, or several, undetected hydrothermal fields may be present in the region of this sediment core. Results also suggest that volcanism may be the main reason for the observed distribution and composition of hydrocarbons in S10-17 sample.

  14. Geochemical characteristics of hydrothermal sediments from Iheya North Knoll in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiannan; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Fuqing; Wang, Bing; Luan, Zhendong; Chen, Chang'an; Yan, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Thirty sediment subsamples were recovered from the Iheya North hydrothermal field (with an average of 38 m away from the hydrothermal vent) in the middle Okinawa Trough. Samples were obtained by the ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) Faxian during the virgin cruise of the R/V Kexue in 2014 with the application of push cores. The chemical compositions of the sediments show that the hydrothermal sediments near the hydrothermal vent are mainly composed of SO3, ZnO and Fe2O3. Moreover, the hydrothermal sediments are also highly enriched in Pb, As, Sb, Hg, Se, Ag, Ba, Mo and Cd comparing with previous analysis results. On the other hand, the concentrations of Sr, Hg and Ag in studied sediments are strongly and positively correlated, these elements can be used as an hydrothermal indicator. In addition, a factor analysis of the sediments suggested that the sediments were mainly influenced by hydrothermal origin, and terrestrial and biogenic input are limited in studied area. It is also suggested that different stages of crystallization were involved in the formation of hydrothermal chimney from factor analysis.

  15. Unique chemistry of the hydrothermal solution in the mid-Okinawa Trough Backarc Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, H.; Gamo, T.; Kim, E.S.; Shitashima, K.; Yanagisawa, F.; Tsutsumi, M.; Ishibashi, J.; Sano, Y.; Wakita, H. ); Tanaka, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Naganuma, T.; Mitsuzawa, K. )

    1990-11-01

    Submarine hydrothermal fluids from JADE and CLAM sites in the mid-Okinawa Trough Backarc Basin are highly enriched in CO{sub 2}, K, Li, NH{sub 4}, CH{sub 4} and titration alkalinity compared to MOR fluids so far studied, while their H{sub 2}S and {sup 3}He contents are similar. The He and C isotropic ratios as well as these chemical features indicate that the hydrothermal systems are controlled by reaction between seawater and CO{sub 2}-rich intermediate to acid volcanic rocks of island-arc type, with strong influence of organic matter and are consistent with its initial stage of rifting on a continental plate margin. While the endmember JADE fluid is nearly devoid of Mg and SO{sub 4}, the CLAM fluid has definite concentrations of Mg (upper limit 22 {plus minus} 5 mM) and, most interestingly of {sup 34}S-enriched SO{sub 4} (upper limit 10 {plus minus} 2 mM, {delta}{sup 34}S = 27 to 39{per thousand}).

  16. Geochemical features of trace and rare earth elements of pumice in middle Okinawa Trough and its indication of magmatic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Shikui; Guo, Kun; Zong, Tong; Yu, Zenghui; Wang, Shujie; Cai, Zongwei; Zhang, Xia

    2017-04-01

    Pumice, the most widely distributed volcanic rock in Okinawa Trough, is loose and porous. Since its formation, it has definitely suffered from the denudation of the sea to different degrees. In order to truly reveal the geochemical features of pumice, we choose the method of mineral separation. Firstly, the phenocryst is separated from glass. Then the phenocryst is divided into light and heavy mineral compositions. By ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) analytical technology, the contents of trace and rare earth elements in the whole pumice, the glass and the heavy and light mineral compositions are determined respectively. By researching the elemental geochemical features, the magma dynamic processes are found. It shows that the initial magma for the pumice in Okinawa Trough came from the depleted mantle, from which the N-MORB (normal type of mid-ocean ridge basalt) is formed, homologous with the local basalts. But they are formed in different periods of magma crystal fractionation. Featured with sufficient crystal fractionation for pumice, it is found that the earlier crystallizing minerals are olivine, plagioclase and pyroxene. The pumice magma, formed from the depleted mantle, was mixed with additional subduction-related materials (components), and contaminated with the mass from upper crust when it rose up into the crust. As the Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin in its early back-arc spreading stage, its magmatism has a series of its own unique characteristics, different from not only the mid-ocean ridge expansion, but also the mature back-arc basin.

  17. Geochemical Evidence for Recent Hydrothermal Alteration of Marine Sediments in Mid-Okinawa Trough, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.; Abe, G.; Yamaguchi, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that submarine hydrothermal system supports diverse microbial life. Bio-essential metals supporting such microbial communities were released from basalts by high-temperature water-rock interaction in deeper part of the oceanic crust and carried by submarine fluid flow. Its total quantity in global hydrothermal settings has been estimated to be on the order of ~1019 g/yr, which is surprisingly on the same order of the total river flows (Urabe et al., 2011). Therefore, it is important to explore how submarine river system works, i.e., to understand mechanism and extent of elemental transport, which should lead to understanding of the roles of hydrothermal circulation in oceanic crust in controlling elemental budget in the global ocean and geochemical conditions to support deep hot biosphere.  We performed REE analysis of marine sediments influenced by submarine hydrothermal activity in Mid-Okinawa Trough. The sediment samples used in this study are from IODP site at Iheya North region and JADE site at Izena region. The samples show alternation between volcanic and clastic sediments. Hydrothermal fluids of this area contain elevated concentrations of volatile components such as H2, CO2, CH4, NH4+, and H2S, supporting diverse chemoautotrophic microbial community (Nakagawa et al., 2005). The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of hydrothermal activity on the REE signature of the sediments. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the samples show relative enrichment of light over heavy REEs, weak positive Ce anomalies, and variable degrees of negative Eu anomalies. The REE patterns suggest the sediments source was mainly basalt, suggesting insignificant input of continental materials. Negative Eu anomalies found in the IODP site become more pronounced with increasing depth, suggesting progressive increase of hydrothermal alteration where Eu was reductively dissolved into fluids by decomposition of feldspars. Contrary, at the JADE site

  18. Comparative Single-Cell Genomics of Chloroflexi from the Okinawa Trough Deep-Subsurface Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Heather

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chloroflexi small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences are frequently recovered from subseafloor environments, but the metabolic potential of the phylum is poorly understood. The phylum Chloroflexi is represented by isolates with diverse metabolic strategies, including anoxic phototrophy, fermentation, and reductive dehalogenation; therefore, function cannot be attributed to these organisms based solely on phylogeny. Single-cell genomics can provide metabolic insights into uncultured organisms, like the deep-subsurface Chloroflexi. Nine SSU rRNA gene sequences were identified from single-cell sorts of whole-round core material collected from the Okinawa Trough at Iheya North hydrothermal field as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 331 (Deep Hot Biosphere). Previous studies of subsurface Chloroflexi single amplified genomes (SAGs) suggested heterotrophic or lithotrophic metabolisms and provided no evidence for growth by reductive dehalogenation. Our nine Chloroflexi SAGs (seven of which are from the order Anaerolineales) indicate that, in addition to genes for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, exogenous carbon sources can be actively transported into cells. At least one subunit for pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase was found in four of the Chloroflexi SAGs. This protein can provide a link between the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and other carbon anabolic pathways. Finally, one of the seven Anaerolineales SAGs contains a distinct reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdhA) gene. IMPORTANCE Through the use of single amplified genomes (SAGs), we have extended the metabolic potential of an understudied group of subsurface microbes, the Chloroflexi. These microbes are frequently detected in the subsurface biosphere, though their metabolic capabilities have remained elusive. In contrast to previously examined Chloroflexi SAGs, our genomes (several are from the order Anaerolineales) were recovered from a hydrothermally driven system and therefore provide a

  19. Microbial diversity in the deep-sea sediments of Iheya North and Iheya Ridge, Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Sun, Qing-lei; Zeng, Zhi-gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the bacterial and archaeal diversities of the deep-sea sediments in Iheya North and Iheya Ridge, Okinawa Trough, using the high-throughput sequencing technology of Illumina MiSeq 2500 platform. Four samples (IN1, IN2, IR1 and IR2) were used in this study, of which IN1 and IN2 were located at regions close to and distant, respectively, from the active hydrothermal vents in Iheya North, while IR1 and IR2 were located at regions close to and distant, respectively, from the active hydrothermal vents in Iheya Ridge. The four samples were rich in different metal elements. Sequence analysis based on the V3-V4 regions of 16S rDNA gene obtained 170,363 taxon tags, including 122,920 bacterial tags and 47,433 archaeal tags, which cover 31 phyla, 50 classes, 59 orders, 87 families, and 138 genera. Overall, the microbial communities in all samples were dominated by bacteria, in which Proteobacteria was the largest phylum, followed by Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Nitrospirae, which together accounted for 64.6% of the total taxon tags. In contrast to the high bacterial diversities, the archaeal diversity was low and dominated by Thaumarchaeota, which accounted for 22.9% of the total taxon tags. Comparative analysis showed that (i) IN2 and IR2 exhibited more microbial richness than IN1 and IR1, (ii) IR1 and IR2 exhibited higher microbial diversities than IN1 and IN2, (iii) samples from Iheya Ridge and Iheya North fell into two groups based on principle component analysis. Furthermore, microbes potentially involved in sulfur, nitrogen, and metal metabolism and cycling were detected in all samples. These results provide for the first time a comparative picture of the microbial diversities in the sediments of Iheya North and Iheya Ridge and indicate that geological features and distance from active hydrothermal vents likely play important roles in the shaping of microbial community structure. Copyright

  20. Comparative Single-Cell Genomics of Chloroflexi from the Okinawa Trough Deep-Subsurface Biosphere.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Heather; Moyer, Craig L

    2016-05-15

    Chloroflexi small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences are frequently recovered from subseafloor environments, but the metabolic potential of the phylum is poorly understood. The phylum Chloroflexi is represented by isolates with diverse metabolic strategies, including anoxic phototrophy, fermentation, and reductive dehalogenation; therefore, function cannot be attributed to these organisms based solely on phylogeny. Single-cell genomics can provide metabolic insights into uncultured organisms, like the deep-subsurface Chloroflexi Nine SSU rRNA gene sequences were identified from single-cell sorts of whole-round core material collected from the Okinawa Trough at Iheya North hydrothermal field as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 331 (Deep Hot Biosphere). Previous studies of subsurface Chloroflexi single amplified genomes (SAGs) suggested heterotrophic or lithotrophic metabolisms and provided no evidence for growth by reductive dehalogenation. Our nine Chloroflexi SAGs (seven of which are from the order Anaerolineales) indicate that, in addition to genes for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, exogenous carbon sources can be actively transported into cells. At least one subunit for pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase was found in four of the Chloroflexi SAGs. This protein can provide a link between the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and other carbon anabolic pathways. Finally, one of the seven Anaerolineales SAGs contains a distinct reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdhA) gene. Through the use of single amplified genomes (SAGs), we have extended the metabolic potential of an understudied group of subsurface microbes, the Chloroflexi These microbes are frequently detected in the subsurface biosphere, though their metabolic capabilities have remained elusive. In contrast to previously examined Chloroflexi SAGs, our genomes (several are from the order Anaerolineales) were recovered from a hydrothermally driven system and therefore provide a unique window into

  1. ESR dating of barite in sea-floor hydrothermal sulfide deposits at Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, T.; Toyoda, S.; Uchida, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Nakai, S.; Takamasa, A.

    2013-12-01

    The temporal change of submarine hydrothermal activities has been an important issue in the aspect of the evolution of hydrothermal systems which is related with ore formation and biological systems sustained by the chemical species arising from hydrothermal activities (Macdonald et al., 1980). With this aspect, Okumura et al. (2010) made the first practical application of ESR (electron spin resonance) dating technique to a sample of submarine hydrothermal barite to obtain preliminary ages, while Kasuya et al. (1991) first pointed out that barite can be used for ESR dating. ESR is a method to observe radicals having unpaired electrons. As natural radiation creates unpaired electrons in minerals, the age is deduced by dividing the natural radiation dose (obtained from the amount of unpaired electrons) by the dose rate which is estimated by the amount of environmental radioactive elements. The samples were taken by the research cruises, NT12-10 and NT11-20 and NT12-06 operated by JAMSTEC from Hatoma, Yoron, Izena, North Iheya, and Yonaguni IV Knolls of Okinawa Trough. The blocks of sulfide deposits were cut into pieces, and about 2.0g was crushed. The samples were soaked in 12M hydrochloric acid, left for approximately 24 hours. Then, 13M nitric acid was added. Finally, after rinsing in distilled water, the sample was filtered and dried. Impurities were removed by handpicking. A X-ray diffraction study was made to confirm that the grains are pure barite. After γ-ray irradiation at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, they were measured at room temperature with an ESR spectrometer (JES-PX2300) with a microwave power of 1mW, and the magnetic field modulation amplitude of 0.1mT. The equivalent natural radiation doses were obtained from the increase of ESR signal intensity of SO3- by irradiation. The bulk Ra concentration was measured by the low background pure Ge gamma ray spectrometer. Assuming that Ra is populated only in barite

  2. Intense winter cooling of the surface water in the northern Okinawa Trough during the last glacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masanobu; Kishizaki, Midori; Oba, Tadamichi; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2013-06-01

    We generated a 42,000-year record of TEX86 (TEX86L and TEX86H) from core MD98-2195 to better understand changes in the hydrology of the East China Sea (ECS) in the last glacial period. The TEX86-derived temperature showed an intense cooling in the last glacial period, whereas U37K-derived spring sea surface temperature (SST) and foraminiferal Mg/Ca-derived summer SST showed a much smaller-scale cooling. The difference between the TEX86- and Mg/Ca-derived temperatures was around 14 °C from 19 to 16 ka and abruptly decreased to around 5 °C from 16 to 13 ka. This suggests a strong winter cooling of the surface water during the last glacial period. TEX86-, U37K'-, and Mg/Ca-derived temperatures were lowest at 18-17 ka, implying that the formation of cold water was maximized during that period. These results show that the cold water mass developed in the northern Okinawa Trough during the last glacial and the Kuroshio branch did not fully enter the northern margin of the Okinawa Trough.

  3. A study of ambient seismic noise on the seafloor of the Okinawa trough and the Bashi Channel south of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Kuo, B.; Wang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Since September. 2006, the Institute of Earth Sciences, Acadmia Sinica (IES-AS) has begun deployment of Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) in the waters around Taiwan in collaboration with the National Sun Yat-sen University and the Taiwan Ocean Research Institute. So far there are three kinds of OBSs with different bandwidth that have been deployed and analyzed: 120 s - 50 Hz for WHOI designed broadband OBS, 60 s - 50 Hz for Lobster, KUM, and 20 s - 45 Hz for Yardbird-20s designed by IES (Lin et al., 2012). We have analyzed noise levels for these OBSs deployed in the Okinawa trough to the NE of Taiwan and, the Bashi channel south of Taiwan, and the Huatung basin east of Tawian. The early results had very few samples in the Okinawa trough and the Huatung basin ( Lin et al., 2010). This poster presents new results offshore southern Taiwan and increases the samples in previously studied regions. References: Ching-Ren Lin, Chai-ChangWang, Po-Chi Chen, Hsu-Kuang Chang, Jia-Pu Jang, Ban-Yuan Kuo (2012), OBS development and data analysis in Taiwan. 2012 AGU Fall Meeting. Lin, C.R., B. Y. Kuo, W. T. Liang, W. C. Chi, Y. C. Huang, J. Collins and C. Y. Wang (2010), Ambient Noise and Teleseismic Signals Recorded by Ocean-Bottom Seismometers Offshore Eastern Taiwan. Terr. Atmos. Ocea Sci., 21, No. 5, 743-75510.

  4. Plutonium activities and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in sediment cores from the east China sea and Okinawa Trough: Sources and inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong-liang; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2005-05-01

    Plutonium concentrations and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediment cores were determined by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after separation using ion-exchange chromatography. The results showed that 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediments, ranging from 0.21 to 0.33, were much higher than the reported value of global fallout (0.18). The highest 240Pu/ 239Pu ratios (0.32-0.33) were observed in the deepest Okinawa Trough sediment samples. These ratios suggested the US nuclear weapons tests in the early 1950s at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands were a major source of plutonium in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediments, in addition to the global fallout source. It was proposed that close-in fallout plutonium was delivered from the Pacific Proving Grounds test sites via early direct tropospheric fallout and transportation by the North Pacific Equatorial Circulation system and Kuroshio Current into the Okinawa Trough and East China Sea. The total 239 + 240 Pu inventories in the cores were about 150-200% of that expected from direct global fallout; about 46-67% of the total inventories were delivered from the Pacific Proving Grounds. Much higher 239 + 240 Pu inventories were observed in the East China Sea sediments than in sediments of the Okinawa Trough, because in the open oceans, part of the 239 + 240 Pu was still retained in the water column, and continued Pu scavenging was higher over the margin than the trough. According to the vertical distributions of 239 + 240 Pu activities and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in these cores, it was concluded that sediment mixing was the dominant process in controlling profiles of plutonium in this area. Faster mixing in the coastal samples has homogenized the entire 240Pu/ 239Pu ratio record today; slightly slower mixing and less scavenging in the Okinawa Trough have left the surface sediment ratios closer

  5. Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) Survey for SMS exploration in Izena Cauldron, Okinawa-Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hitoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu; Tara, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    In 2014, the Japanese government started the Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP), which includes 'New-generation Offshore Exploration Techniques' as an area of interest. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey technique for this program, especially for the exploration of Seafloor Massive Sulfides (SMS). VCS is a reflection seismic method that uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by various acoustic sources. This method is useful to delineate detailed structures in a spatially-limited area below the seabed in the deep sea where conventional surface seismic is not effective. We have been developing an autonomous VCS system with the financial support of the Japanese government since 2009. We have carried out several VCS surveys and completed our VCS system. Izena Cauldron, Okinawa Trough is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. There are two high potential areas, the north and south mound. We carried out the first VCS survey around the north mound in 2011 and the second survey around the south mound in 2013 respectively. The first VCS survey in Izena Cauldron was carried out using a GI gun in September, 2011, with the objective of surveying the large-scale and deeper structure of the hydrothermal system. The water depth was 1,500-1,600m. Four VCS systems were deployed. The shooting lines covered an area of 9 km x 9 km with a shooting interval of about 25m and line spacing of 200m to 400m. In the second survey, we used a high-voltage sparker. The objective is to explore very shallow parts to delineate very thin SMS deposits. The survey area was about 4 km x 4km with a 12.5 m shooting interval and 100m to 200m line spacing. Three VCS systems were deployed in this survey. The result of the first GI gun VCS survey was a 3D PSDM volume of the subsurface structure. It extends 2,000m horizontally and down to 1,500m in depth. Further, by re-processing the data with a

  6. Distinct control mechanism of fine-grained sediments from Yellow River and Kyushu supply in the northern Okinawa Trough since the last glacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Debo; Wan, Shiming; Toucanne, Samuel; Clift, Peter D.; Tada, Ryuji; Révillon, Sidonie; Kubota, Yoshimi; Zheng, Xufeng; Yu, Zhaojie; Huang, Jie; Jiang, Hanchao; Xu, Zhaokai; Shi, Xuefa; Li, Anchun

    2017-08-01

    High-resolution multiproxy records, including clay minerals and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of the clay-sized silicate fraction of sediments from IODP Site U1429 in the northern Okinawa Trough, provide reliable evidence for distinct control mechanism on fine-grained sediments input from the Yellow River and the southern Japanese Islands to the northern Okinawa Trough since 34 ka BP. Provenance analysis indicates that the sediments were mainly derived from the Yellow River and the island of Kyushu. Since the last glacial, clay-sized sediments transported from the Yellow River to the study site were strongly influenced by sea-level fluctuation. During low sea-level stage (˜34-14 ka BP), the paleo-Yellow River mouth was positioned closer to the northern Okinawa Trough, favoring large fluvial discharge or even direct input of detrital sediments, which resulted about four times more flux of clay-sized sediments supply to the study area as during the relatively high sea-level stage (˜14-0 ka BP). The input of Kyushu-derived clay-sized sediments to the study site was mainly controlled by the Kuroshio Current and Tsushima Warm Current intensity, with increased input in phase with weakened Kuroshio Current/Tsushima Warm Current. Our study suggests that the Kuroshio Current was very likely flowed into the Okinawa Trough and thus influenced the fine-grained sediment transport in the area throughout the last glacial and deglacial. During ˜34-11 ka BP, the Kyushu clay-sized sediment input was mainly controlled by the Kuroshio Current. Since ˜11 ka BP, the occurrence of Tsushima Warm Current became important in influencing the Kyushu fine-grained sediment input to the northern Okinawa Trough.

  7. A new species of the genus Tegastes (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Tegastidae) from hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Back, Jinwook; Huys, Rony; Lee, Wonchoel

    2010-08-01

    We describe a new species, Tegastes okinawaensis, from 583-711 meter-deep hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough, Japan. This species is clearly distinguishable from its congeners by four combined characters, namely 1) the last three abdominal somites are depressed inwardly towards the body, 2) there is sexual dimorphism in the number of setae of P3 and P4, 3) the male antennule is 9-segmented, with the 7th segment formed by incomplete fusion of two segments, and 4) the caudal rami are small with a distorted quadrangular shape. Additionally, the species is easily distinguishable from its congeners by the distal endopodal segment of P4, which is armed with six setae - this character has never been reported in previous descriptions of congeners. This report is the first of a species in the genus Tegastes living at ocean depths of greater than 580 m in the northwestern Pacific.

  8. Venting of carbon dioxide-rich fluid and hydrate formation in mid-okinawa trough backarc basin.

    PubMed

    Sakai, H; Gamo, T; Kim, E S; Tsutsumi, M; Tanaka, T; Ishibashi, J; Wakita, H; Yamano, M; Oomori, T

    1990-06-01

    Carbon dioxide-rich fluid bubbles, containing approximately 86 percent CO(2), 3 percent H(2)S, and 11 percent residual gas (CH(4) + H(2)), were observed to emerge from the sea floor at 1335- to 1550-m depth in the JADE hydrothermal field, mid-Okinawa Trough. Upon contact with seawater at 3.8 degrees C, gas hydrate immediately formed on the surface of the bubbles and these hydrates coalesced to form pipes standing on the sediments. Chemical composition and carbon, sulfur, and helium isotopic ratios indicate that the CO(2)-rich fluid was derived from the same magmatic source as dissolved gases in 320 degrees C hydrothermal solution emitted from a nearby black smoker chimney. The CO(2)-rich fluid phase may be separated by subsurface boiling of hydrothermal solutions or by leaching of CO(2)-rich fluid inclusion during posteruption interaction between pore water and volcanogenic sediments.

  9. Seismic observed structure of Natsushima 86-2 knoll in Iheya small-ridges of mid-Okinawa Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Fumihiko; Tsuji, Takeshi; Kumagai, Hidenori; Takai, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Iheya small ridges are the group of the ENE-WSW elongated rod-shaped knolls at the central axis of mid-Okinawa trough back-arc extensional basin. The basin has been actively stretching more than 1000 km long at 250 km west of the convergent boundary between Philippine oceanic lithosphere and Eurasian continental counterpart since ~2 Ma (Hsu et al., 2001). Natsushima 86-2 knoll is the westernmost one of the Iheya small ridges which height is 600 m from the 1600 m depth seafloor. Multiple hydrothermal sites have been reported for these 25 years in the mid-Okinawa Trough region while previously well-studied Calyptogena site (Tanaka et al., 1989; Gamo et al., 1991) is just at the northeastern extension of the knoll. Five profiles of single-channel seismic reflection survey were obtained in Natsushima 86-2 knoll during YK-12-16 cruise in order to find structure controlling hydrothermal activity. Every profile makes the cross-section of the knoll. The source of the reflection was 150 cubic inches G-I gun with 10 seconds interval. As a result of the interpretation for seismic profiles, it is fair to conclude that the knoll has possible volcanic origin and relatively new structure. Natsushima 86-2 knoll is positioned on the normal faulted stratified deposits which are dipping from the both sides of the knoll. The surface of the knoll shows mostly low amplitude reflection which can be interpreted as pumices or other high porosity materials which is consistent with the past dredging retrieval by Kimura et al. (1987). Bend and fading of the stratified reflection approximately 100 m beneath the Calyptogena site indicates shallow intrusion of magmatic body has responsible with the formation of the hydrothermal site.

  10. Petrology and Geochemistry of Hydrothermally Altered Volcanic Rocks in the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field, Middle Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Iheya North hydrothermal field is located in the middle Okinawa Trough, a young and actively spreading back-arc basin extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. In this hydrothermal field, two scientific drilling expeditions (IODP Exp 331 and SIP CK14-04) were conducted using a deep-sea drilling vessel "Chikyu," and samples from a total of 27 holes were taken. Through these expeditions, Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMS), hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, and pumiceous and pelagic sediments were recovered. The recovered core provided important information about the relationship between hydrothermal activity, alteration, and ore mineralization. Whole-rock major element composition and trace element (TE) patterns of pumices were very similar to those of rhyolites in the middle Okinawa Trough (RMO). However, pumices were relatively enriched in chalcophile elements Sr and Nb, which suggest incipient mineralization. Volcanic rock generally demonstrated strong silicification and was greenish pale gray in color. Regardless of severe alteration, some rock displayed major element composition broadly similar to the RMO. Alteration was evidenced by an increase in the content of SiO2 and MgO, and decrease in Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O content. The most striking geochemical feature of altered volcanic rock was the discordance between texture and the degree of modification of TEs. Some samples showed decussate texture occupied by petal-like quartz with severe silicification, but no prominent disturbance of concentration and patterns of TEs were observed. In contrast, samples with well-preserved igneous porphyritic texture showed very low TE content and modification of TE patterns. These results suggest that the modification of texture and composition of TEs, as well as silicification, do not occur by a uniform process, but several processes. This may reflect the differences in temperature and the

  11. A new species and new record of deep-sea scale-worms (Polynoidae: Polychaeta) from the Okinawa Trough and the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sui, Jixing; Li, Xinzheng

    2017-03-06

    A new species of scale-worm, Lepidonotopodium okinawae sp. nov. from the Okinawa Trough is described. The new species differs from the other species of Lepidonotopodium by having 24 segments and numerous foveolae on the surface of elytra with one globular micropapilla in every foveola. A new record of the mussel commensal Branchipolynoe pettiboneae Miura & Hashimoto, 1991 is reported and described from the northern South China Sea, where for the first time the scale-worm is noted as occurring at a cold-seep. Keys to distinguish the species of Branchipolynoe and Lepidonotopodium are provided.

  12. Probathylepadidae, a new family of Scalpelliformes (Thoracica: Cirripedia: Crustacea), for Probathylepas faxian gen. nov., sp. nov., from a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xian-Qiu; Sha, Zhong-Li

    2015-10-21

    A new pedunculate barnacle, Probathylepas faxian gen. and sp. nov., is described from a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough. A new scalpelliform family, Probathylepadidae, is also proposed for the new genus and species. Probathylepadidae differs from all other five families of the order Scalpelliformes by the capitulum bearing eight primal plates and two whorls of imbricating supplementary plates, and the peduncle being without scales. The relationships between the species of the new family and sessile barnacles are also discussed.

  13. Drilling constraints on bimodal volcanism and subsequent formation of contrasted uppermost crustal compositions at the middle Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, T.; Takaya, Y.; Mukae, N.; Nagase, T.; Tindell, T.; Totsuka, S.; Uno, Y.; Yonezu, K.; Nozaki, T.; Ishibashi, J. I.; Kumagai, H.; Maeda, L.; Shipboard Scientist, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough (OT) is a young and actively spreading back-arc basin, extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. The OT is believed to be in an initial rifting stage (starting from 6-9 Ma), prior to the normal/stable seafloor spreading which constitutes the main stage of back-arc basin formation. Two drilling cruises ‒ the IODP Exp. 331 and SIP CK14-04 D/V Chikyu Cruise (Exp. 907) in 2010 and 2014 ‒ were conducted at the Iheya North Knoll, middle OT. The Iheya North Knoll is a domal volcanic complex consisting of small volcanic bodies. On these cruises, pumiceous gravel and altered rhyolitic rocks, as well as hemi-pelagic sediments, hydrothermal clay and Kuroko-type ores, were recovered from the upper 200 m of the crust. From Feb. 11, 2016 to Mar. 17, 2016, the SIP CK16-01 (Exp. 908) D/V Chikyu cruise was conducted at Iheya North Knoll and the sediment-covered rifting center of the Iheya-Minor Ridge area, middle OT. The Iheya-Minor ridge area is also an active hydrothermal field, located 25 km southeast of the Iheya North Knoll. In this area, basaltic rocks are widely distributed, and drilling has confirmed that the basaltic materials continue to 120 m below the seafloor. From an igneous petrological point of view, the volcanic rocks in the Okinawa Trough are characterized by bimodal basaltic and rhyolitic compositions, with a compositional gap between SiO2 = 56-66 wt%. The origin of the rhyolitic rock has been interpreted as magmatic differentiation of basaltic magma. However, the existence of an active basalt-hosted hydrothermal field in the Iheya-Minor ridge area suggests the presence of hot basaltic rocks at a shallow position in the crust, and reaching recharged seawater at this depth. Furthermore, the composition of felsic rocks just after the compositional gap (SiO2 = 67 wt%) is very similar to that of the minimum melt of a granitic system, and experimental partial melt of hydrous basalt. Therefore

  14. Marine Subsurface Microbial Communities Across a Hydrothermal Gradient in Okinawa Trough Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; Hser Wah Saw, J.; Ettema, T.; House, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study the microbial stratigraphy within the sediments surrounding a hydrothermal vent. The Okinawa backarc basin is a sedimented region of the seafloor located on a continental margin, and also hosts a hydrothermal network within the subsurface. Site C0014 within the Iheya North hydrothermal field is located 450 m east of the active vent and has a surface temperature of 5°C with no evidence of hydrothermal alteration within the top 10 meters below sea floor (mbsf). Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m and transitions from non-hydrothermal margin sediments to a hydrothermally altered regime below 10 mbsf. In this study, we utilized deep 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA from IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014 sediment horizons in order to assess diversity throughout the sediment column as well as determine the potential limits of the biosphere. Analysis of the amplicon data shows a shift over 15 mbsf from a heterogeneous community of cosmopolitan marine subsurface taxa toward an archaeal-dominated community in the deepest horizons of the predicted biosphere. Notably, the phylum Chloroflexi represents a substantial taxon through most horizons, where it appears to be replaced below 10 mbsf by punctuations of thermophilic and methanotrophic Archaea and Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group abundances. DNA from the aforementioned transition horizons was further analyzed using metagenomic sequencing. Preliminary taxonomic analysis of the metagenomic data agrees well with amplicon data in capturing the shift in relative abundance of Archaea increasing with depth. Additionally, reverse gyrase, a gene found exclusively in hyperthermophilic microorganisms, was recovered only in the metagenome of the deepest horizon. A BLAST search of this protein sequence against the GenBank non-redudnant protein database produced top hits with reverse gyrase from Thermococcus and Pyrococcus, which are

  15. Pb-210 fluxes and sedimentation rates on the lower continental slope between Taiwan and the South Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Y.; Chang, W. C.

    1995-03-01

    Pb-210 and Ra-226 have been measured on 11 cores taken from the continental slope between northern Taiwan and the western South Okinawa Trough. Ra-226 activities generally fall between 0.5 and 2 dpm g -1. Pb-210 activities are widely variable in these cores: negligible excess Pb-210 (or no Pb-210 flux) is observed on the upper and middle slope while large excess Pb-210 values (50-90 dpm g -1) are present on the lower slope. Sedimentation rates estimated from the excess Pb-210 profiles of the cores range from 0.09 to 0.52 cm y -1 (0.08 - 0.42 g cm -2 y -1) for the lower slope and decrease toward the deeper (eastern) slope. Excess Pb-210 inventories and the Pb-210 fluxes calculated from the lower slope are 320-840 dpm cm -2 and 10-26 dpm cm -2 y -1 , respectively, assuming a steady-state input at each site for the past 100 years. Atmospheric input of Pb-210 and local production from Ra-226 do not account for the observed fluxes. Two alternative explanations are proposed: (1) boundary scavenging coupled with the Kuroshio water flowing through the area; or (2) downslope transport of high Pb-210 activity fine-grained particles from the shelf and upper/middle slope to the lower slope where they are deposited.

  16. Characteristics of the cultivable bacteria from sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents in Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-lei; Wang, Ming-qing; Sun, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this study, different culture-dependent methods were used to examine the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in the sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents (named HV1 and HV2) located at Iheya Ridge and Iheya North in Okinawa Trough. The two vents differed in morphology, with HV1 exhibiting diffuse flows while HV2 being a black smoker with a chimney-like structure. A total of 213 isolates were identified by near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Of these isolates, 128 were from HV1 and 85 were from HV2. The bacterial community structures were, in large parts, similar between HV1 and HV2. Nevertheless, differences between HV1 and HV2 were observed in one phylum, one class, 4 orders, 10 families, and 20 genera. Bioactivity analysis revealed that 25 isolates belonging to 9 different genera exhibited extracellular protease activities, 21 isolates from 11 genera exhibited extracellular lipase activities, and 13 isolates of 8 genera displayed antimicrobial activities. This is the first observation of a large population of bacteria with extracellular bioactivities existing in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, the results of this study provide new insights into the characteristics of the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems.

  17. Marine Subsurface Microbial Community Shifts Across a Hydrothermal Gradient in Okinawa Trough Sediments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sediments within the Okinawa back-arc basin overlay a subsurface hydrothermal network, creating intense temperature gradients with sediment depth and potential limits for microbial diversity. We investigated taxonomic changes across 45 m of recovered core with a temperature gradient of 3°C/m from the dynamic Iheya North Hydrothermal System. The interval transitions sharply from low-temperature marine mud to hydrothermally altered clay at 10 meters below seafloor (mbsf). Here, we present taxonomic results from an analysis of the 16S rRNA gene that support a conceptual model in which common marine subsurface taxa persist into the subsurface, while high temperature adapted archaeal taxa show localized peaks in abundances in the hydrothermal clay horizons. Specifically, the bacterial phylum Chloroflexi accounts for a major proportion of the total microbial community within the upper 10 mbsf, whereas high temperature archaea (Terrestrial Hot Spring Crenarchaeotic Group and methanotrophic archaea) appear in varying local abundances in deeper, hydrothermal clay horizons with higher in situ temperatures (up to 55°C, 15 mbsf). In addition, geochemical evidence suggests that methanotrophy may be occurring in various horizons. There is also relict DNA (i.e., DNA preserved after cell death) that persists in horizons where the conditions suitable for microbial communities have ceased. PMID:28096736

  18. Marine Subsurface Microbial Community Shifts Across a Hydrothermal Gradient in Okinawa Trough Sediments.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Leah D; House, Christopher H

    2016-01-01

    Sediments within the Okinawa back-arc basin overlay a subsurface hydrothermal network, creating intense temperature gradients with sediment depth and potential limits for microbial diversity. We investigated taxonomic changes across 45 m of recovered core with a temperature gradient of 3°C/m from the dynamic Iheya North Hydrothermal System. The interval transitions sharply from low-temperature marine mud to hydrothermally altered clay at 10 meters below seafloor (mbsf). Here, we present taxonomic results from an analysis of the 16S rRNA gene that support a conceptual model in which common marine subsurface taxa persist into the subsurface, while high temperature adapted archaeal taxa show localized peaks in abundances in the hydrothermal clay horizons. Specifically, the bacterial phylum Chloroflexi accounts for a major proportion of the total microbial community within the upper 10 mbsf, whereas high temperature archaea (Terrestrial Hot Spring Crenarchaeotic Group and methanotrophic archaea) appear in varying local abundances in deeper, hydrothermal clay horizons with higher in situ temperatures (up to 55°C, 15 mbsf). In addition, geochemical evidence suggests that methanotrophy may be occurring in various horizons. There is also relict DNA (i.e., DNA preserved after cell death) that persists in horizons where the conditions suitable for microbial communities have ceased.

  19. The influence of a subduction component on magmatism in the Okinawa Trough: Evidence from thorium and related trace element ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kun; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Yu-Xiang; Qi, Hai-Yan; Ma, Yao

    2017-09-01

    The Okinawa Trough (OT) is a back-arc, initial continental marginal sea basin located behind the Ryukyu Arc-Trench System. Formation and evolution of the OT have been intimately related to subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) since the late Miocene; thus, the magma source of the trough has been affected by subduction components, as in the case of other active back-arc basins, including the Lau Basin (LB) and Mariana Trough (MT). We review all the available geochemical data relating to basaltic lavas from the OT and the middle Ryukyu Arc (RA) in this paper in order to determine the influence of the subduction components on the formation of arc and back-arc magmas within this subduction system. The results of this study reveal that the abundances of Th in OT basalts (OTBs) are higher than that in LB (LBBs) and MT basalts (MTBs) due to the mixing of subducted sediments and EMI-like enriched materials. The geochemical characteristics of Th and other trace element ratios indicate that the OTB originated from a more enriched mantle source (compared to N-mid-ocean ridge basalt, N-MORB) and was augmented by subducted sediments. Data show that the magma sources of the south OT (SOT) and middle Ryukyu Arc (MRA) basalts were principally influenced by subducted aqueous fluids and bulk sediments, which were potentially added into magma sources by accretion and underplating. At the same time, the magma sources of the middle OT (MOT) and Kobi-syo and Sekibi-Syo (KBS+SBS) basalts were impacted by subducted aqueous fluids from both altered oceanic crust (AOC) and sediment. The variable geochemical characteristics of these basalts are due to different Wadati-Benioff depths and tectonic environments of formation, while the addition of subducted bulk sediment to SOT and MRA basalts may be due to accretion and underplating, and subsequent to form mélange formation, which would occur partial melting after aqueous fluids are added. The addition of AOC and sediment aqueous fluid

  20. What is the constraint on formation of oil-starved hydrothermal systems in the sediment-rich Okinawa Trough, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, T.; Akashi, H.; Mitsunari, T.

    2012-12-01

    Petroleum generation associated with seafloor hydrothermal systems was first identified at the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California in 1978 (Simoneit et al., 1979). Since the first discovery, hydrothermal petroleums have been discovered at other seafloor hydrothermal fields, Escanaba Trough, Middle Valley, and the Red Sea, where thick sedimentary layer overlay the active spreading center. Simoneit (1990) suggested that hydrothermal petroleum can be occurred any hydrothermal systems as a result of interaction between hot hydrothermal fluid and organic mater in the sedimentary layer. In the middle Okinawa Trough, where typical sediment-hosted hydrothermal systems distribute, occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum has not been found. In 2010 IODP Exp. 331 had been performed, and then five sites were drilled at the Iheya North hydrothermal system. However, hydrothermal petroleum generation has not been reported even at that time. On the other hand, significant hydrothermal petroleum generation has been observed at a shallow-seafloor hydrothermal system in the Kagoshima Bay, north extension of Okinawa Trough (Yamanaka et al., 1999). It is an interesting subject why hydrothermal petroleum can not be found in the Okinawa Trough. So we considered what is the most critical constraint on occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum based on comparison with the well known hydrothermal fields occurred hydrothermal petroleum. Three major control factors for petroleum generation at seafloor hydrothermal systems are expected; (i) temperature, (ii) elapsed time, (iii) type of sediment. High temperature is essential for maturation of organic matter, but under extremely high temperature condition pyrolysis to gaseous hydrocarbon and other low-molecular weight product may be prevailed. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and methane concentrations may reflect the temperature condition, because methane generation may continue under extreme condition but DOM, especially low-molecular weight organic acid

  1. Measurement of high turbidity water behavior by ADCP at Izena Caldera in Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, S.; Arai, R.; Yamazaki, T.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrothermal processes associated with spreading centers of plate-tectonics form hydrothermal activities and the resulted seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposits. Given that the SMS deposits found in the western Pacific have been considered to be potential sources of gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead, there is a strong possibility that they will be mined near future. In order to take measures against environmental impacts during the mining of SMS deposits, it is important to measure components of hydrothermal origin with high temporal and spatial resolution on site, and to understand the mass circulation and transfer systems around the mining area. The Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) is effective tool for measurement of current field in water column in general. In addition, it is also useful for detection of turbidity profile in the water column simultaneously, applying an acoustic propagation model to the data. Izena Caldera, which is 3 km in short, 6 km in long axes and is generically from1,600 m to 1,700 m in depth, is located at the northwest of Okinawa Island. There both attractive SMS deposits and active hydrothermal vent systems have been confirmed. Because of the active vent systems and a bowl-like geographical structure, a quite unique mass circulation and transfer background condition is expected in Izena Caldera. The mining operation will add plenty of suspended materials into the background condition. For a primary understanding of the background condition, the authors analyzed the ADCP data and found two high-turbidity water zones in Izena Caldera and their behavior relationships with the current structure. The vertical downward current affects one of the high-turbidity zones around 1,220 m in depth. The current velocity against north-south direction and east-west direction affects the other high-turbidity zone 1,550 m in depth. Also the zones are recognized the higher synchronization with the lumi-solar diurnal tide, about 24 hours. The

  2. Geochemical Characteristics of Volcanic Rocks from the Southern Okinawa Trough and its Implications for Tectono-magmatic Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinjo, R.; Hokakubo, S.; Haraguchi, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Woodhead, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a site of ongoing backarc rifting behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system. Recent intensive surveys, including submersible dives, at the southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) have revealed details of bathymetric, geological, and geophysical features. Here, we present the petrological and geochemical characteristics of volcanic rocks collected during these cruises, and discuss its relation to the evolutionary stage of rifting. Based on bathymetirc and magmatic features, SOT can be divided into two (i.e., eastern and western) segments with non-transform offset at ˜ 123.5° E. The eastern segment represents a well-developed rift system with E-W-trending central graben and separated NE-SW-trending volcanic front; these two features merge at ˜ 125° E. In contrast, the western segment is in the incipient rifting stage; rift axis exists close to 100 km contour of the Wadati-Benioff zone. The most notable feature is the presence of 'abnormal' volcanic chain (Cross Backarc Volcanic Trail, CBVT), which trends NE-SW and is obviously oblique to the axial trend. All rocks are subalkaline, but range from basalt to rhyolite; dacite-rhyolite are dominant in the eastern volcanic front and CBVT. Basalts from both segments are low-K tholeiites; they have high abundance of LILEs relative to HFSEs, negative Nb anomalies on MORB-normalized diagrams, and range of 143Nd/144Nd (0.5128-0.5129) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7034-0.7048). Pb isotope systematics indicate 206Pb/204Pb=18.398-18.582, 207Pb/204Pb=15.594-15.652 and 208Pb/204Pb=38.570-38.912, clearly above the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line. These elemental and isotopic variations are compatible with derivation from Indian Ocean MORB-like mantle with strong overprint of subduction components from the slab. There is clear difference among more felsic rocks between two segments. At similar silica contents, most of felsic rocks from the western segment, including CBVT rhyolites, have higher LILE contents, 87Sr/86Sr and 208Pb/204Pb

  3. Molecular isotopic evidence for anaerobic oxidation of methane in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment in Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, M.; Takai, K.; Inagaki, F.

    2003-04-01

    Large amount of methane in anoxic marine sediments as well as cold seeps and hydrothermal vents is recycled through for an anoxic oxidation of methane processes. Now that combined results of field and laboratory studies revealed that microbiological activity associated with syntrophic consortium of archaea performing reversed methanogenesis and sulfate-reducing bacteria is significant roles in methane recycling, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). In this study, we examined the diversity of archaeal and bacterial assemblages of AOM using compound-specific stable carbon isotopic and phylogenetic analyses. "Iheya North" in Okinawa Trough is sediment-rich, back arc type hydrothermal system (27^o47'N, 126^o53'E). Sediment samples were collected from three sites where are "bubbling sites", yellow-colored microbial mats are formed with continuous bubbling from the seafloor bottom, vent mussel's colonies site together with slowly venting and simmering, and control site off 100 m distance from thermal vent. This subsea floor structure has important effect in the microbial ecosystem and interaction between their activity and geochemical processes in the subseafloor habitats. Culture-independent, molecular biological analysis clearly indicated the presence of thermophilic methanogens in deeper area having higher temperatures and potential activity of AMOs consortium in the shallower area. AMO is composed with sulfate-reducing bacterial components (Desulfosarcina spp.) and anoxic methane oxidizing archaea (ANME-2). These results were consistent with the results of compound-specific carbon analysis of archaeal biomarkers. They showed extremely depleted 13C contents (-80 ppm ˜ -100 ppm), which also appeared to be capable of directly oxidizing methane.

  4. ITCZ and ENSO pacing on East Asian winter monsoon variation during the Holocene: Sedimentological evidence from the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Anchun; Wan, Shiming; Kao, Shuhji; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Deep-sea fan sediments provide an excellent geological archive for paleoenvironment reconstruction. Grain size, clay mineral and elemental (Ti, Fe, Ca) compositions were measured for a core retrieved from a submarine fan in the Okinawa Trough. Varimax-rotated Principal Component Analysis (V-PCA) on time-evolution of grain size spectrum reveals that, since the Holocene, sediment was transported mainly by the benthic nepheloid layer (33%) and upper layers (33%) which is driven by the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). The intensification of the Kuroshio Current during the Holocene, masks the fluvial signal of the summer monsoon and obstructs clay minerals derived from the Yellow River, a major contributor prior to 12 ka BP. A new grain size index (GSI), which represents the EAWM well, exhibits a negative correlation with the δ18O record in Dongge Cave, China during the Holocene when sea level was relatively steady. This anticorrelation suggests the southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The consistency among our records and rainfall records in Peru, Ti counts in the Cariaco Basin, monsoon records in Oman and the averaged summer insolation pattern at 30°N further support the ITCZ's impact on monsoon systems globally. Cross-Correlation Analyses for GSI and log(Ti/Ca) against δ18O record in Dongge Cave reveal a decoupling between the East Asian winter and summer monsoon during 5500-2500 cal yr BP, with greater complexity in the last 2500 years. This can be attributed to exacerbated ENSO mode fluctuations and possibly anthropogenic interference superimposed on insolation and ITCZ forcing.

  5. Sea surface temperature proxies (alkenones, foraminiferal Mg/Ca, and planktonic foraminiferal assemblage) and their implications in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ryoung Ah; Lee, Kyung Eun; Bae, Si Woong

    2015-12-01

    We reviewed three sea surface temperature (SST) proxies in the Okinawa Trough (OT): alkenones, planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca, and planktonic foraminiferal assemblages. The seasonal and vertical distribution patterns of each proxy-related organism in the water column were reviewed to confirm the applicability of each proxy. In addition, current SSTs (Japan Oceanographic Data Center dataset from 1906 to 2003) were compared with core-top sediment temperatures reconstructed using the proxies. Temperatures calculated using the alkenone unsaturation index represent annual mean SSTs, and temperatures calculated using Mg/Ca of Globigerinoides ruber capture summer to autumn (June-November) SSTs. Core-top August SSTs calculated from planktonic foraminiferal assemblages corresponded well with the observed SSTs, but core-top February temperatures were ~3.6 °C warmer than the observed SSTs. SST proxy estimates from marine sediments dating back to the late Holocene (0-3 cal ky BP) and the last glacial maximum (18-21 cal ky BP) were compared. Comparisons between proxy SST estimates show that foraminiferal assemblage-based August SSTs were the warmest. Alkenone-based temperature estimates were lower than Mg/Ca-based temperature estimates, probably because the alkenone-based temperature represents the annual mean temperature, whereas the Mg/Ca-based temperature represents the summer-autumn mean temperature. February assemblage SSTs seem to be greatly affected by the statistical technique and/or database used. These results suggest that seasonality should be considered in past SST reconstruction using alkenone and Mg/Ca in the OT. The planktonic foraminiferal assemblage technique does not appear to be promising with respect to accurately reconstructing past SSTs (especially winter) in the OT. Habitat depth may not be an issue because both alkenone producers and G. ruber live at the upper surface mixed layer in the area.

  6. Isotopic composition and speciation of sedimentary nitrogen and carbon in the Okinawa Trough over the past 30 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Hsiao, Silver Sung-Yun; Ding, Xiao-Dong; Li, Dawei; Chang, Yuan-Pin; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2015-10-01

    Total organic carbon to total nitrogen ratios (C/N) and their isotopic compositions (δ13CTOC and δ15NTN) are oft-applied proxies to discern terrigenous from marine-sourced organics and to unravel ancient environmental information. In high depositional Asian marginal seas, the inclusion of N-bearing minerals in the bulk sediment dilutes or masks signals sought after in δ15N and δ13C analyses, thus leading to incorrect and even contradictory interpretations. We used KOH-KOBr to separate operationally defined total organic matter into oxidizable (labile) and residual fractions for content and isotope measurements. In a sediment core in the Okinawa Trough, significant amounts of carbon and nitrogen existed in the residual phase, in which the C/N ratio was ~9, resembling most documented sedimentary bulk C/N ratios in the China marginal seas. The residual carbon, which was included in operationally defined total organic carbon (TOC), displayed a δ13C range (-22.7 to -18.9‰, mean -20.7‰) similar to the oft-used marine end-member. After removing the interference from the residual fraction, we found that the temporal pattern of δ13CLOC (LOC denotes labile organic carbon) was more variable. The residual nitrogen content was associated with illite, suggesting a terrestrial origin. Additionally, δ15N in the residual fraction likely reflected the climatic controls (e.g., precipitation) on lithogenic source materials. Further studies are required to explore the controlling factors for carbon and nitrogen isotopic speciation and to retrieve the information locked in the residual fraction.

  7. A unique Fe-rich carbonate chimney associated with cold seeps in the Northern Okinawa Trough, East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhilei; Wei, Helong; Zhang, Xunhua; Shang, Luning; Yin, Xijie; Sun, Yunbao; Xu, Lei; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Xianrong

    2015-01-01

    The East China Sea is an important marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean, from which natural gas hydrate sample has not been acquired so far. Recently, copious carbonate chimneys have been discovered in turbidite deposits in the olistostrome zone located on the west slope of the northern section of Okinawa Trough. Here, the petrology, geochemistry and chronology of an iron-rich carbonate chimney were characterized, confirming a close relationship between its formation and the dissociation of natural gas hydrate beneath the chimney in OT. A distinctive relationship has been observed between goethite and total carbonate contents along with a negative correlation between Fe and Ca contents. Conversely, abundant Fe accumulated on carbonate substrate by mineralized microorganisms. The δ13C values of the chimney wall were from -27.56 to -43.66‰ (average: -37.18‰, V-PDB), implying anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as a predominant controlling factor on carbonate precipitation. As no pyrite and organic residues were identified in the iron-rich chimney, it was assumed that AOM was coupled to the iron reduction reaction at least to some extent during the chimney growth owing to the local deficiency of sulfate supply. The δ56Fe values of bulk chimney wall (ranging from -0.316‰ to -0.023‰, average -0.134‰) suggest mass and isotope exchanges between the chimney and ambient environment during its growth history, whereas the enrichment of δ18O of the carbonate implies these carbonate sourcing from hydrate dissociation underlying our sampling site. This assumption has been supported by a distinct bottom simulation reflector (BSR) and a well-developed fault system beneath the sampling site. This is the first report of cold seepage inside the OT and the identified iron-dependent AOM has shed a new light to the Carbon cycle related to the marine methane oxidation, particularly before the Great Oxidation Event ~2.45 Ga ago.

  8. Microbial community in a sediment-hosted CO2 lake of the southern Okinawa Trough hydrothermal system

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Fumio; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Tsunogai, Urumu; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Treude, Tina; Ohkubo, Satoru; Nakaseama, Miwako; Gena, Kaul; Chiba, Hitoshi; Hirayama, Hisako; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Horikoshi, Koki; Boetius, Antje

    2006-01-01

    Increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are expected to cause climatic change with negative effects on the earth's ecosystems and human society. Consequently, a variety of CO2 disposal options are discussed, including injection into the deep ocean. Because the dissolution of CO2 in seawater will decrease ambient pH considerably, negative consequences for deep-water ecosystems have been predicted. Hence, ecosystems associated with natural CO2 reservoirs in the deep sea, and the dynamics of gaseous, liquid, and solid CO2 in such environments, are of great interest to science and society. We report here a biogeochemical and microbiological characterization of a microbial community inhabiting deep-sea sediments overlying a natural CO2 lake at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, southern Okinawa Trough. We found high abundances (>109 cm−3) of microbial cells in sediment pavements above the CO2 lake, decreasing to strikingly low cell numbers (107 cm−3) at the liquid CO2/CO2-hydrate interface. The key groups in these sediments were as follows: (i) the anaerobic methanotrophic archaea ANME-2c and the Eel-2 group of Deltaproteobacteria and (ii) sulfur-metabolizing chemolithotrophs within the Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria. The detection of functional genes related to one-carbon assimilation and the presence of highly 13C-depleted archaeal and bacterial lipid biomarkers suggest that microorganisms assimilating CO2 and/or CH4 dominate the liquid CO2 and CO2-hydrate-bearing sediments. Clearly, the Yonaguni Knoll is an exceptional natural laboratory for the study of consequences of CO2 disposal as well as of natural CO2 reservoirs as potential microbial habitats on early Earth and other celestial bodies. PMID:16959888

  9. Formation of carbonate pipes in the northern Okinawa Trough linked to strong sulfate exhaustion and iron supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiaotong; Guo, Zixiao; Chen, Shun; Sun, Zhilei; Xu, Hengchao; Ta, Kaiwen; Zhang, Jianchao; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Jiwei; Du, Mengran

    2017-05-01

    The microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a key biogeochemical process that consumes substantial amounts of methane produced in seafloor sediments, can lead to the formation of carbonate deposits at or beneath the sea floor. Although Fe oxide-driven AOM has been identified in cold seep sediments, the exact mode by which it may influence the formation of carbonate deposits remains poorly understood. Here, we characterize the morphology, petrology and geochemistry of a methane-derived Fe-rich carbonate pipe in the northern Okinawa Trough (OT). We detect abundant authigenic pyrites, as well as widespread trace Fe, within microbial mat-like carbonate veins in the pipe. The in situ δ34S values of these pyrites range from -3.9 to 31.6‰ (VCDT), suggesting a strong consumption of seawater sulfate by sulfate-driven AOM at the bottom of sulfate reduction zone. The positive δ56Fe values of pyrite and notable enrichment of Fe in the OT pipe concurrently indicate that the pyrites are primarily derived from Fe oxides in deep sediments. We propose that the Fe-rich carbonate pipe formed at the bottom of sulfate reduction zone, below which Fe-driven AOM, rather than Fe-oxide reduction coupled to organic matter degradation, might be responsible for the abundantly available Fe2+ in the fluids from which pyrites precipitated. The Fe-rich carbonate pipe described in this study probably represents the first fossil example of carbonate deposits linked to Fe-driven AOM. Because Fe-rich carbonate deposits have also been found at other cold seeps worldwide, we infer that similar processes may play an essential role in biogeochemical cycling of sub-seafloor methane and Fe at continental margins.

  10. Magnetic anomalies associated with abundant production of pyrrhotite in a sulfide deposit in the Okinawa Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honsho, Chie; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Ura, Tamaki; Okino, Kyoko; Morozumi, Haruhisa; Ueda, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    We report here results from a deep-sea magnetic survey using an autonomous underwater vehicle over the Hakurei hydrothermal site, in the middle Okinawa Trough. Magnetic inversion revealed that the Hakurei site is associated with well-defined high-magnetization zones distributed within a broad low-magnetization zone. Results from rock magnetic measurements, performed on sulfide ore samples obtained by drilling, showed that some samples possessed extremely high natural remanent magnetization (NRM) (as much as 6.8-953.0 A/m), although most of the measured samples had much lower NRM. These high-NRM samples were characterized by high Königsberger ratios (101-103), indicating much larger NRM than induced magnetization, and contained pyrrhotite as the only magnetic mineral. This suggests that NRM carried by pyrrhotite is the source of the observed magnetic anomalies. The wide range of NRM intensity was considered to be due to a highly heterogeneous distribution of pyrrhotite, because pyrrhotite was commonly identified in both the high-NRM and low-NRM samples. Pyrrhotite production may have been occasionally drastically increased, with highly magnetic ores formed as a result. Rapid burial of active vents may result in the creation of an extensive reducing environment under the seafloor, which is favorable to pyrrhotite production, and may also prevent oxidation of pyrrhotite by isolating it from seawater. Because the magnetization intensity of sulfide ores was highly variable, it would not be straightforward to estimate the quantity of ore deposits from the magnetic anomalies. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates the usefulness of magnetic surveys in detecting hydrothermal deposits.

  11. Crustal structure of the southern Okinawa Trough: Symmetrical rifting, submarine volcano, and potential mantle accretion in the continental back-arc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Ryuta; Kodaira, Shuichi; Yuka, Kaiho; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Miura, Seiichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Back-arc basins are a primary target to understand lithospheric evolution in extension associated with plate subduction. Most of the currently active back-arc basins formed in intraoceanic settings and host well-developed spreading centers where seafloor spreading has occurred. However, rift structure at its initial stage, a key to understand how the continental lithosphere starts to break in a magma-rich back-arc setting, is poorly documented. Here we present seismological evidence for structure of the southern Okinawa Trough, an active rift zone behind the Ryukyu subduction zone. We find that the southern Okinawa Trough exhibits an almost symmetric rift system across the rift axis (Yaeyama Rift) and that the sedimentary layers are highly cut by inward dipping normal faults. The rift structure also accompanies a narrow (2-7 km wide) on-axis intrusion resulted from passive upwelling of magma. On the other hand, an active submarine volcano is located 10 km away from the rift axis. The P wave velocity (Vp) model derived from seismic refraction data suggests that the crust has been significantly thinned from the original 25 km thick arc crust and the thinnest part with 12 km thickness occurs directly beneath the rift axis. The velocity model also reveals that there exists a thick layer with Vp of 6.5-7.2 km/s at lower crustal levels and may indicate that mantle materials accreted at the bottom of the crust during the crustal stretching. The abrupt crustal thinning and the velocity-depth profile suggest that the southern Okinawa Trough is at a transitional stage from continental rifting to seafloor spreading.

  12. The tug-of-war between the West Philippine Sea and South China Sea Tropical Waters and Intermediate Waters in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. T. A.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known that Kuroshio subsurface waters are the major source of nutrients to the East China Sea continental shelf, a major fishing ground. It has also been known that subsurface waters that upwell onto the shelf are heavily affected by the South China Sea (SCS) Tropical Water and the SCS Intermediate Water which contain more nutrients than the tropical (Smax) and intermediate (Smin) waters from the West Philippine Sea (WPS). A front has been found to separate the tropical and intermediate waters from the SCS and WPS. The reported front in the Okinawa Trough, however, was identified based only on one-time data from a single cross-section in the central Okinawa Trough. Here historical hydrographic data between Mar. 1950 and Dec. 2011 in the Okinawa Trough and its neighborhood are analyzed. A vertical front tilted toward the west is found in all seasons in all years across the World Ocean Circulation Repeated Lines PR 18 and 19 as well as at the PN cross-section in the central Okinawa Trough. The front at the Smax level (sigma theta=24.6-24.9) shows large seasonal and interannual variations. In winter during normal and La Niña periods the presence of the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent. It is the weakest in autumn during normal periods and in spring during La Nina periods. Yet during El Niño periods the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent in spring and it becomes the weakest in winter. As for intermediate waters (Smin at sigma theta= 26.7-26.9) the WPS Intermediate Water and SCS Intermediate Water show much weaker seasonality compared with tropical waters although during normal periods in winter the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is slightly larger than during other times. During El Niño periods the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is the smallest but in spring it is much strengthened. On the other hand, the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is the smallest in spring, and the largest in winter during La Niña periods.

  13. IODP Exp 331: Iron-oxidizing Bacteria from the Okinawa Trough Deep Subsurface Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, C. L.; McAllister, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Communities of Fe-oxidizing Bacteria (FeOB) are common at sites of hydrothermal venting and are known to form complex communities in microbial mats, hydrothermal sediments, and borehole fluids. Studies at sites around the Pacific Ocean have found the Zetaproteobacteria to be dominant members of these FeOB communities. Preliminary culture-independent analyses indicate that borehole fluids from the deep subsurface may support several novel and distinct Zetaproteobacteria phylotypes (McAllister et al., 2011). Sampling from the deep subsurface at the Iheya North hydrothermal field has provided an opportunity to explore the microbial biodiversity of this unique subsurface habitat. Onboard enrichment experiments for FeOB were carried out at several sites over a wide range of depths as part of IODP Expedition 331. Enrichment experiments were carried out in both microaerophilic and anaerobic environments, with oxygen and nitrate as terminal electron acceptors, respectively. Although tested for the presence of FeOB from 0.23 to 42.45 meters below the seafloor (mbsf), Site C0014 showed little growth except for in the top half meter of hydrothermally unaltered, weakly oxidized sediment. Site C0015, which was diffusely venting and had a relatively low-temperature (~15°C), showed growth throughout the hole with both microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions to a depth of nine mbsf. Growth at this low-temperature site is consistent with previous studies of iron-oxidizing communities, and may correlate best with the borehole community at the Southern Mariana Trough (Kato et al., 2009). At Site C0017, a potential zone of recharge flow (down-welling of cold oxygenated seawater) was traversed from ~26 to 35 mbsf, and at the top of this zone the microaerophilic enrichment experiments showed growth. Growth in this recharge zone represents the deepest subsurface cultivation of FeOB to date, and may lend insight into the colonization of low-temperature vent systems via subsurface fluid

  14. Near-seafloor magnetics using the AUV URASHIMA at strongly magnetized active back-arc volcanoes of the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, M.; Okino, K.

    2016-12-01

    Near-seafloor magnetic fields near the Irabu knolls were obtained by using the AUV URASHIMA during the R/V Yokosuka cruise YK14-16. The Irabu knolls are located on the axial segment boundary of the back-arc rift zone in the Okinawa Trough and consist of basalt to andesite. Active hydrothermal vents have been confirmed at the top of the conical knoll and along the rim of the caldera. Seafloor rock samples from the same region were used for rock magnetic measurements. The integrated analysis of the magnetic anomaly and rock magnetic properties led to the following conclusions: (i) The Irabu hydrothermal fields (IHFs) are associated with reduced magnetization reflecting the hydrothermal alteration of magnetic minerals present in the crust and the deposits of non-magnetic hydrothermal material. (ii) The basaltic rocks show high natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensity ranging from 7 to 214 A/m. The extremely strong NRM was caused by less oxidation, abundant single-domain-titanomagnetite grains formed under proper crystal growth rates, and low Ti content for titanomagnetites. These strongly magnetized host rocks produce large variations of magnetic anomalies in the Irabu knolls, resulting in a clear magnetic contrast between the IHFs and their surroundings areas. (iii) The low magnetization zones (LMZs) related to the IHFs are located at the rim of the caldera floor in an elongated direction parallel to the local strike of the caldera, and extend into the caldera wall. These observations suggest that the hydrothermal fluids ascended through the caldera fault and the occurrence of hydrothermally altered zones in both the caldera floor rim and wall. (iv) The LMZ extends across several hundred meters along the caldera rim. Compared with similar hydrothermal fields of the Hakurei and Brothers situated in other arc-back-arc volcanoes with summit calderas, it is clarified that hydrothermal systems controlled by caldera faults have horizontal spatial scale equal to or

  15. Sedimentation in the Southern Okinawa Trough: enhanced particle scavenging and teleconnection between the Equatorial Pacific and western Pacific margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Huh, Chih-An; Su, Chih-Chieh; You, Chen-Feng

    2004-11-01

    Owing to its location, geomorphology and hydrodynamic conditions, the southernmost part of the Southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) acts like an efficient receptacle for sediments from Taiwan and the East China Sea shelf. The high sediment flux coupled with the passage, bifurcation, upwelling, swirling and detour of Kuroshio in the SOT area result in intense particle scavenging, with sedimentary inventories of 210Pb and 239, 240Pu far greater than expected from local atmospheric input and in situ water column production. The unusually high inventories, as well as the deposition history of Pu isotopes must be explained by advective transport of Pu westward from the Marshall Islands, the largest source of Pu in the Pacific, by the North Equatorial Current (NEC) followed by northward transport of Kuroshio to the SOT area. The high sedimentation rate in the SOT area enabled us to differentiate the subsurface peak of 239, 240Pu resulting from the global fallout maximum in AD 1963 and the subsurface maximum of 240Pu/239Pu caused by close-in fallout from neutron-rich thermonuclear tests conducted by the US during AD 1952-1954 at the Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. The vertical offset between the subsurface peaks of 239, 240Pu and 240Pu/239Pu in sediments suggests that deposition of the 240Pu/239Pu maximum preceded that of the 239, 240Pu maximum by 3-5 yr and that the transit time of the 240Pu-enriched Pu from its source (at ∼12°N, 162°E) to the SOT area is ∼6 yr. The mean velocity of NEC thus calculated is ∼0.022 m s-1. The present is the key to the past. This study reveals teleconnection between the Equatorial Pacific and the western Pacific margins and suggests that ODP and IMAGES cores recently collected from the SOT area holds great promise for the reconstruction of high-resolution paleoceanographic records along the trajectories of NEC and Kuroshio.

  16. Microbial Community in a Sediment-Hosted CO2 Lake of the Southern Okinawa Trough Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; Kuypers, M. M.; Tsunogai, U.; Ishibashi, J.; Nakamura, K.; Treude, T.; Ohkubo, S.; Nakaseama, M.; Gena, K.; Chiba, H.; Hirayama, H.; Nunoura, T.; Takai, K.; Jorgensen, B. B.; Horikoshi, K.; Boetius, A.

    2006-12-01

    One-carbon assimilating (micro-)organisms play an important role for global carbon cycling; however, the increasing level of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere has exceeded the capacity of natural biological feedback, hence as greenhouse gasses it is expected to cause climacteric change with negative effects on the earth's ecosystems and human society. To reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, a variety of options have been discussed, including a disposal of CO2 into the deep ocean. However, the impact of CO2 disposal on deep-sea ecosystems as well as of the consequent microbiological feedback remains largely unknown. At the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, southern Okinawa Trough, we observed a natural liquid CO2 lake in sediments overlying elemental sulfur and CO2 hydrates at a water depth of 1380m. The liquid CO2 droplets were composed of 85% CO2 and 14% methane with hydrogen below the detection limit. We found high abundances (>109 cm-3) of microbial cells in sediment pavements above the CO2 lake, decreasing to strikingly low cell numbers (10&^{7} cm-3) at the liquid CO2/CO2-hydrate interface. Molecular ecological study based on the sequences of 16S rRNA genes showed that the key groups in these sediments were: (i) the anaerobic methanotrophic archaea ANME-2c and the Eel-2 group of Deltaproteobacteria, and (ii) sulfur-metabolizing chemolithotrophs within the Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria. The detection of functional genes (mcrA, cbbL) related to one- carbon assimilation as well as the presence of highly 13C-depleted archaeal and bacterial lipid biomarkers suggest that microorganisms assimilating CO2 and/or methane dominate the liquid CO2 and CO2-hydrate-bearing sediments. We propose that the Yonaguni Knoll is an exceptional natural laboratory for the study of consequences of CO2 disposal as well as of natural CO2 reservoirs as potential microbial habitats on early Earth and other celestial bodies.

  17. New insights into the origin of the bimodal volcanism in the middle Okinawa Trough: not a basalt-rhyolite differentiation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Zeng, Zhigang; Chen, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Yin, Xuebo

    2017-04-01

    In the middle Okinawa Trough (MOT), rhyolites have been typically considered as products of crystallization differentiation of basaltic magma as a feature of bimodal volcanism. However, the evidence is insufficient. This paper compared chemical trends of volcanic rocks from the MOT with fractional crystallization simulation models and experimental results and utilized trace element modeling combined with Rayleigh fractionation calculations to re-examine fractional crystallization processes in generating rhyolites. Both qualitative and quantitative studies indicate that andesites, rather than rhyolites, originate by fractional crystallization from basalts in the MOT. Furthermore, we established two batch-melting models for the MOT rhyolites and proposed that type 1 rhyolites are produced by remelting of andesites with amphiboles in the residue, while type 2 rhyolites are derived from remelting of andesites without residual amphiboles. It is difficult to produce melts with a SiO2 content ranging from 62% to 68% either by magmatic differentiation from basalts or by remelting of andesites, and this difficulty might help account for the compositional gap (Daly gap) for bimodal volcanism in the Okinawa Trough.

  18. First Comparative Analysis of the Community Structures and Carbon Metabolic Pathways of the Bacteria Associated with Alvinocaris longirostris in a Hydrothermal Vent of Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-Lei; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Alvinocaris longirostris is a species of shrimp existing in the hydrothermal fields of Okinawa Trough. To date the structure and function of the microbial community associated with A. longirostris are essentially unknown. In this study, by employment of the techniques of high through-put sequencing and clone library construction and analysis, we compared for the first time the community structures and metabolic profiles of microbes associated with the gill and gut of A. longirostris in a hydrothermal field of Okinawa Trough. Fourteen phyla were detected in the gill and gut communities, of which 11 phyla were shared by both tissues. Proteobacteria made up a substantial proportion in both tissues, while Firmicutes was abundant only in gut. Although gill and gut communities were similar in bacterial diversities, the bacterial community structures in these two tissues were significantly different. Further, we discovered for the first time the existence in the gill and gut communities of A. longirostris the genes (cbbM and aclB) encoding the key enzymes of Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle, and that both cbbM and aclB were significantly more abundant in gill than in gut. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that at least two carbon fixation pathways are present in both the gill and the gut communities of A. longirostris, and that the communities in different tissues likely differ in autotrophic productivity.

  19. The tug-of-war between the West Philippine Sea and South China Sea Tropical Waters and Intermediate Waters in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Yeh, Ya-Ting; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Bai, Yan; He, Xianqiang; Huang, Ting-Hsuan

    2016-03-01

    Kuroshio subsurface waters are the major source of nutrients to the East China Sea continental shelf, a major fishing ground. These subsurface waters are heavily affected by the South China Sea (SCS) Tropical and Intermediate Waters which contain more nutrients than the tropical (Smax) and intermediate (Smin) waters from the West Philippine Sea (WPS). A front was found to separate these waters from the SCS and WPS. The reported front in the Okinawa Trough, however, was identified based only on one-time data from a single cross section. Here historical hydrographic data between March 1950 and December 2011 are analyzed. A vertical front tilted toward the west is found in all seasons in all years in the Okinawa Trough. In winter, the presence of the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent. It is the weakest in autumn. As for intermediate waters (Smin), the WPS and SCS Intermediate Waters show much weaker seasonality compared with tropical waters although in summer, the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is slightly larger than during other times.

  20. First Comparative Analysis of the Community Structures and Carbon Metabolic Pathways of the Bacteria Associated with Alvinocaris longirostris in a Hydrothermal Vent of Okinawa Trough

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qing-lei; Zeng, Zhi-gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Alvinocaris longirostris is a species of shrimp existing in the hydrothermal fields of Okinawa Trough. To date the structure and function of the microbial community associated with A. longirostris are essentially unknown. In this study, by employment of the techniques of high through-put sequencing and clone library construction and analysis, we compared for the first time the community structures and metabolic profiles of microbes associated with the gill and gut of A. longirostris in a hydrothermal field of Okinawa Trough. Fourteen phyla were detected in the gill and gut communities, of which 11 phyla were shared by both tissues. Proteobacteria made up a substantial proportion in both tissues, while Firmicutes was abundant only in gut. Although gill and gut communities were similar in bacterial diversities, the bacterial community structures in these two tissues were significantly different. Further, we discovered for the first time the existence in the gill and gut communities of A. longirostris the genes (cbbM and aclB) encoding the key enzymes of Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle, and that both cbbM and aclB were significantly more abundant in gill than in gut. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that at least two carbon fixation pathways are present in both the gill and the gut communities of A. longirostris, and that the communities in different tissues likely differ in autotrophic productivity. PMID:27111851

  1. Dispersal of hydrothermal plumes in the near field of natural CO2 seeps in the Okinawa Trough using primordial helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buss, A.; Walter, M.; Mertens, C.; Sültenfuss, J.; Nakamura, K.; Rehder, G. J.; Rhein, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough back-arc basin in the west Pacific Ocean is one of the two known hydrothermal active areas where venting of liquid CO2 bubbles has been observed. During the RV Sonne cruise SO-196 in March 2008 two hydrothermal vent sites in the southern Okinawa Trough were investigated: Hatoma Knoll and Yonaguni Knoll IV. Data were collected to characterise the dispersal of the hydrothermal plume and hence the spreading of CO2 in the water column. The data set consists of CTD casts with additional sensors for redox potential and pH as well as velocity measurements with a lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) and water samples to determine helium isotope concentrations. The dispersal of the hydrothermal plumes at the two vent sites was analysed using primordial helium as a conservative tracer for hydrothermal venting and anomalies in the redox potential and pH as an indicator of plume characteristics. The relation between the measured decrease in pH and δ3He showed a good correlation in the density ranges of the plumes at Hatoma Knoll as well as at Yonaguni Knoll IV. The heat fluxes from both vent sites were estimated through the maximum rise height of the plume and the background stratification. The vent site Hatoma Knoll lies in the middle of the caldera of a submarine volcano. One non-buoyant plume with a maximum rise height of 140 m above the seafloor has been identified. The vent site emitted a total heat flux of about 80 MW. The excess of δ3He in the water column agrees well with the maximum rise height of the plume, thus indicating a plume that had risen almost undisturbed. The vent site Yonaguni Knoll IV is located in a valley between a group of seamounts. Two non-buoyant plumes have been identified, with maximum rise heights of 230 m and 270 m above the seafloor. The total heat flux from the vent site was about 540 MW. An excess of δ3He has been found up to 600 m above the seafloor which could be caused by strong vertical mixing, but also

  2. The influence of Ryukyu subduction on magma genesis in the Northern Taiwan Volcanic Zone and Middle Okinawa Trough - Evidence from boron isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Ju-Lien; You, Chen-Feng; Wang, Kuo-Lung

    2016-09-01

    Boron (B) is an excellent geochemical tracer for investigating crustal recycling processes at convergent margins, due to its high fluid mobility under high P-T conditions, distinct elemental abundances and isotopic compositions in the mantle wedge and subducting slabs. The Northern Taiwan Volcanic Zone (NTVZ), wherein the nature of magma genesis has long been a topic of debate, is located at the rear side of the Okinawa Trough (OT), an atypical back-arc rift in the Ryukyu subduction system. In this study, B and B isotopes (δ11B) were measured in 19 volcanic rocks collected from the NTVZ and the middle Okinawa Trough (MOT) to assess the influence of the Ryukyu subduction system on magma genesis. The B concentrations in the MOT and NTVZ volcanic rocks are 5.8 to 13.6 mg/L and 2.2 to 48.6 mg/L, respectively. The large B abundances variation in the NTVZ was caused mainly by variable degrees of partial melting. The Nb/B and δ11B in the MOT have small ranges of 0.5 to 0.6 and - 2.7‰ to 0.2‰, respectively, whereas they range widely from 0.4 to 2.5 and from - 8.6‰ to 2.4‰, respectively in the NTVZ. These Nb/B values suggest that the magma contains a smaller subduction component than that normally observed in arcs, although this component is still more substantial than in a typical back-arc setting. The δ11B results indicate insignificant influence of the subducting Philippine Sea Plate at 2.6 Ma, but it becomes more substantial later in the NTVZ. The mixing proportions of sediment derived fluids in onshore volcanoes in the NTVZ imply a rather heterogeneous mantle wedge near the plate boundary, most likely due to either a heterogeneous source of slab derived fluids or more complicated mantle flow. A substantial B flux from the subducting slab in the incipient back-arc rifting in the MOT and NTVZ may reflect characteristics of a cold, steep and fast subducting slab, which may be capable of carrying volatiles efficiently into greater depth in subduction zones. The

  3. Results of Physical Property Measurements Obtained during the CHIKYU Cruise CK16-01 to Hydrothermal Fields of the Middle Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, W.; Masaki, Y.; Komori, S.; Torimoto, J.; Makio, M.; Ohta, Y.; Nozaki, T.; Ishibashi, J. I.; Kumagai, H.; Maeda, L.; Hamada, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The middle Okinawa trough, along the Ryukyu-arc on the margin of the western Pacific, fosters several hydrothermal fields. The cruise CK16-01 of D/V CHIKYU targeted the Iheya-North Field and Noho hydrothermal site. More than ten-days extensive coring was carried out with Logging While Drilling (LWD) and deployment of Kuroko cultivation apparatus between February 29th to March 17th2016. Here we present the results of the physical property measurements obtained using Chikyu's on-board laboratory. Cores were sampled among three sites where the seafloor environments were quite different: the Noho site (C9017), a site between the Natsu and Aki sites of the Iheya-North field (C9021), and the Iheya-North Aki site (C9023). Site C9017 was near the center of the hydrothermal activity, and the obtained core was limited 36 m in length and 30 % in the recovery rate. At 70 mbsf (meters below seafloor), the grain density and bulk density of the sediment reached their maxim (3.7 g/m3 and 2.7 g/cm3, respectively), while thermal conductivity reached its lowest value (0.6 W/m·K). Site C9021 yielded a 54 m core, with a core recovery rate of 50 %. Coarse pumiceous layers were found at 68 mbsf, with a hydrothermally altered layer appearing below 68 mbsf. The mean grain density value was 2.4 g/cm3 and was uniform throughout the core. The mean bulk density value of the pumiceous layers was 1.3 g/cm3, and of the hydrothermally altered layer was 2.1 g/cm3. Site C9023 was close to the active hydrothermal chimneys of the Iheya-North Aki site, and yielded 33 m of core with a core recovery rate of 16 %. Massive sulfide layers were found below 48 mbsf with grain density and bulk density values varying between 2.8-4.7 g/cm3 and 1.5-3.9 g/cm3, respectively. Magnetic susceptibility exhibited a high anomaly in a sedimented anhydrite layer found between 95 and 135 mbsf, and a high porosity and low resistivity zone was found below 150 mbsf. Together, these data from drilling cores and onboard

  4. The 2005 Ilan earthquake doublet and seismic crisis in northeastern Taiwan: evidence for dyke intrusion associated with on-land propagation of the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kuang-Yin; Chen, Yue-Gau; Wu, Yih-Min; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Wang, Yu; Chang, Chien-Hsin; Lin, Kuan-Chuan

    2009-11-01

    Northern Taiwan underwent mountain building in the early stage of the Taiwan orogeny but is currently subjected to post-collisional crustal extension. It may be related to gravitational collapse or to the rifting of the Okinawa Trough, which lies offshore northeastern Taiwan. The Ilan Plain, northeastern Taiwan, which is bounded by the normal fault systems and filled up with thick Pliocene-Pleistocene sedimentary sequences, formed under such an extension environment. Over there on 2005 March 5 two earthquakes with about the same magnitude (ML = 5.9) occurred within 68 s and produced intense aftershocks activity according to the records of Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network of Taiwan. We relocated the earthquake sequence by the three-dimension earthquake location algorithm with the newly published 3-D Vp and Vp/Vs velocity model, and determined the first-polarity focal mechanisms of the earthquake doublet. One major cluster of aftershocks which trends E-W and dips steeply to the south can be identified and picked up as a potential fault plane. The focal mechanisms of the two main shocks are both classified as normal type by first-polarity but strike-slip by centroid moment tensor inversion; however two methods both yield consistent E-W strike. Static coseismic deformation was additionally determined from Global Positioning System (GPS) daily solutions at a set of continuous GPS stations and from strong-motion seismographs. These data show NW-SE extension at high angle to the fault plane, which cannot be explained from a simple strike-slip double-couple mechanism. On the other hand, the small vertical displacements and steep fault plane cannot be explained from a simple normal event as well. We present from elastic dislocation modelling that the geodetic data are best explained by significant component of tensile source with centimetre-scale of opening on a 15-km-long fault extending from 1 to 13 km depth. We therefore interpret the crisis as the result of dyke

  5. Insights into life-history traits of Munidopsis spp. (Anomura: Munidopsidae) from hydrothermal vent fields in the Okinawa Trough, in comparison with the existing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masako; Chen, Chong; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    Squat lobsters in the genus Munidopsis are commonly found at, and near, hydrothermal vents. However, the reproductive traits of most Munidopsis spp. are unknown. This study examined the reproductive features of two Munidopsis species sampled from hydrothermal vent fields in the southern Okinawa Trough in February 2014. Three ovigerous females were collected: two Munidopsis ryukyuensis at Irabu Knoll (1661-1675 m depth) and one M. longispinosa at Hatoma Knoll (1482 m depth). Carapace sizes and egg volumes were measured and compared with those of other Munidopsis species. The ovigerous M. ryukyuensis specimens had postorbital carapace lengths of 10.3 and 11.8 mm, without the rostrum, and carapace widths of 8.6 and 9.7 mm. Mean egg volumes of M. ryukyuensis and M. longispinosa were ~4 mm3. These results are consistent with early sexual maturity in M. ryukyuensis and lecithotrophic development in both species, as described in other species of the genus. These life-history traits may enable these vent species to maximize their reproductive and dispersive potential.

  6. Experimental hydrothermal alteration of andesite at 325 ˚C, 300 bar: Comparison with the hydrothermal fluids in the Hatoma Knoll, southern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Masafumi; Shibuya, Takazo; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Torimoto, Junji; Ueda, Hisahiro; Sato, Tomoki; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Formation processes and types of hydrothermal sulfide deposits are closely related to chemical compositions of subseafloor hydrothermal fluids. Subseafloor hydrothermal alteration of intermediate to felsic rocks is a major process that controls the fluid compositions in the arc/back-arc hydrothermal systems, although the chemical reaction process during water-rock interaction has not been examined in detail. We experimentally reacted a NaCl solution under high-pressure and -temperature conditions with fresh andesite collected from the Hatoma Knoll, southern Okinawa Trough. The concentrations of selected elements (e.g., K, Ca, and Si) in the fluid obtained by the experiment are inconsistent with those of the hydrothermal fluids in the Hatoma Knoll. The present results suggest that the inputs of magmatic volatiles derived from andesitic magma to the hydrothermal fluids may not be significant whereas hydrothermal reactions with felsic rocks (e.g., dacite and rhyolite) and/or sediments may contribute substantially to the fluid compositions in the Hatoma Knoll.

  7. Sea surface temperature variation during the last deglaciation in the southern Okinawa Trough: Modulation of high latitude teleconnections and the Kuroshio Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jingtao; Li, Jun; Cai, Feng; Wei, Helong; Hu, Bangqi; Dou, Yanguang; Wang, Libo; Xiang, Rong; Cheng, Hongwei; Dong, Liang; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2015-11-01

    Three paleotemperature records (foraminiferal Mg/Ca, TEX86 and UK‧37) were generated for the past 17.3 ka in the southern Okinawa Trough (OT) using a sediment core (OKT-3) taken at a water depth of 1792 m. Temperature estimates based on the inorganic and organic indices for the OKT-3 core top sample approximated modern sea surface temperature (SST) and extended to the mixed layer (<50 m) in warmer seasons. Reconstructed SSTs from OKT-3 gradually increased towards the top of the core with lower values occurring during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). These values coincided with the glacial-interglacial cycles established by the Globigerinoides ruber δ18O curve. Notably, SSTs decreased during the BØlling-AllerØd (B-A) but warming occurred before and after the B-A, from approximately 16 to 14 ka and 12.5 to 10 ka. The SST cooling during the B-A corresponded to the timing of the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR), which is thought to be connected with melt water pulse 1a (MWP1a). The cooling was also concurrent with the spread of millennial-scale cold signals to the OT during the HS1 and YD periods, when widespread melt and collapse of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets occurred along with reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and a southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The last deglaciation, which began approximately 16-15 ka BP in the OT, might mark the time when the Kuroshio Current (KC) began to strengthen.

  8. Description of Domibacillus iocasae sp. nov., isolated from the deep sea sediment of Okinawa Trough, and emended description of the genus Domibacillus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-Lei; Sun, Li

    2015-12-04

    In this study, we reported a novel Gram-positive bacterium, designated as strain S6T, isolated from the deep sea sediment in Okinawa Trough. Growth of strain S6T occurred at 10-45 °C (optimum, 35 °C), pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum, 8.0), and with 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain S6T belonged to the genus Domibacillus. The closest phylogenetic neighbors of strain S6T were Domibacillus robiginosus DSM 25058T (98.6 %), D. indicus DSM 28032T (97.6 %), D. enclensis DSM 25145T (97.6 %), and D. tundrae DSM 29572T (97.6 %). The identities between strain S6T and other close members were below 96%. The values of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain S6T and its closest relatives in genus Domibacillus were well below 70 %. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain S6T was 44.4 mol%. MK-6 (87.4 %) was the major menaquinone of strain S6T. The polar lipids of strain S6T contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylethanolamine, and three unknown phospholipids. Strain S6T harbored meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and an A1γ type of peptidoglycan. The major cell wall sugars of strain S6T were xylose and glucose. Phylogenetic, physiological, biochemical, and morphological analyses suggest that this strain represents a novel species of genus Domibacillus, and the name Domibacillus iocasae sp. nov. is proposed with the type species S6T (= DSM 29979T = CCTCC AB 2015183T). An emended description of the genus Domibacillus is also provided.

  9. Solar-, monsoon- and Kuroshio-influenced thermocline depth and sea surface salinity in the southern Okinawa Trough during the past 17,300 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Libo; Li, Jun; Zhao, Jingtao; Wei, Helong; Hu, Bangqi; Dou, Yanguang; Sun, Zhilei; Zou, Liang; Bai, Fenglong

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing millennial-scale variability in the thermocline depth (vertical mixing) and sea surface salinity (SSS) of the southern Okinawa Trough (OT) during the past 17,300 years were investigated based on foraminifer oxygen isotope records of the surface dweller Globigerinoides ruber sensu stricto and the thermocline dweller Pulleniatina obliquiloculata in the AMS 14C dated OKT-3 core. The thermocline depth is influenced by surface thermal buoyancy (heat) flux, in turn controlled by the annual mean insolation at 30°N and the strength of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). Strong insolation and weak EAWM tend to increase buoyancy gain (decrease buoyancy loss), corresponding to shallow thermocline depths, and vice versa. Regional SSS is influenced by the global ice volume, the Kuroshio Current (KC), and vertical mixing. A deep thermocline coincides with a high SSS because strong vertical mixing brings more, saltier subsurface KC water to the surface, and vice versa. Local SSS (excluding the global ice volume effect) became lower in the northern OT than in the southern OT after ~9.2 ka, implying that Changjiang diluted water had stronger influence in the northern sector. SSS show no major changes during the Bølling/Allerød and Younger Dryas events, probably because the KC disturbed the North Atlantic signals. This argues against earlier interpretations of sea surface temperature records of this core. Wavelet and spectral analyses of the Δδ18OP-G (δ18O of P. obliquiloculata minus G. ruber s.s.) and δ18Olocal records display 1,540-, 1,480-, 1,050-, 860-, 640-, and 630-year periods. These are consistent with published evidence of a pervasive periodicity of 1,500 years in global climate as well as EAWM and KC signatures, and a fundamental solar periodicity of 1,000 years and intermediary derived periodicity of 700 years.

  10. Post-Drilling Changes in Seabed Landscape and Megabenthos in a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal System, the Iheya North Field, Okinawa Trough

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takaya, Yutaro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Chen, Chong; Fujikura, Katsunori; Miwa, Tetsuya; Takai, Ken

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331) on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014) where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, ‘artificially’ creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the ecosystem in the area

  11. Geochemical observations within the water column at the CO2-rich hydrothermal systems Hatoma Knoll and Yonaguni Knoll IV, in the southern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedzior, Stine; Buß, Antje; Schneider, Bernd; Schneider von Deimling, Jens; Sültenfuß, Jürgen; Walter, Maren; Mertens, Christian; Rehder, Gregor

    2016-09-01

    The Okinawa Trough is one of three known hydrothermal sites worldwide where liquid carbon dioxide is emitted from the seafloor into the water column. In March 2008, investigations were performed at two active areas, Yonaguni Knoll IV and Hatoma Knoll, in order to identify impacts of hydrothermal venting on the water column chemistry. Vertical profiles of pH and redox potential (Eh) were recorded and discrete water samples were taken for the analysis of total carbon dioxide (CT) and helium (3He, 4He). Anomalies with respect to reference stations (ΔCT, ΔpH) and 3He with respect to saturation with the atmosphere (3Heexcess) were used to characterize the impact of hydrothermal vents. These data indicate that the flux of CO2 into the water column is dominated by hot hydrothermal CO2-rich vents located in close proximity to the liquid CO2 emission sites. Bubbles and droplets sampled at the cold gas outlets at Hatoma Knoll differed considerably from the water column regarding CO2/3He ratios, and thus, provide additional evidence that cold liquid phase CO2 is of minor importance for the total CO2 flux at both hydrothermal systems. Although hydrothermal vents at back-arc basins are known to emit large amounts of acids other than CO2, the correlation between ΔpH and ΔCT at both research areas clearly suggests that the observed pH reduction is mainly caused by the addition of CO2. Deviating ΔCT/3He and ΔCT/ΔpH ratios and the prevailing water currents indicate a yet undiscovered vent site at the flank of a seamount in the northeast.

  12. Microearthquake activity around Kueishantao island, offshore northeastern Taiwan: Insights into the volcano-tectonic interactions at the tip of the southern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinou, K. I.; Pan, C.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.

    2013-05-01

    Kueishantao is a volcanic island located offshore the northeastern coast of Taiwan and lies at the tip of the southern Okinawa Trough which is the back-arc basin of the Ryukyu subduction zone. Its last eruption occurred during the Holocene (~ 7 ka), hence Kueishantao can be considered as an active volcano. In an effort to better understand how magmatic processes may interact with the regional tectonics, a seismic network was installed in the area during early January 2008. This network consisted of 16 three-component seismometers located both on Kueishantao and the coast of northeastern Taiwan. One year of data was analyzed yielding 425 earthquakes whose P and S arrival times were manually picked and each event was located using a nonlinear probabilistic location method. In order to improve the location accuracy, the minimum 1-D velocity model for this dataset was derived and all earthquakes were relocated using this model. The results show a tight cluster of events near Kueishantao while the remaining earthquakes are scattered between the island and mainland Taiwan. The majority of hypocentral depths range between 2.5 and 10 km where the former depth coincides with the bottom of the shallow sedimentary layer and the latter with the ductile lower crust. Waveforms of the three largest events were also inverted for the determination of their deviatoric and full moment tensor. No statistically significant isotropic component was found, while two of the events can be explained by a double-couple source. The third event exhibited a low frequency content (< 10 Hz) and a large non-double-couple component suggesting fluid involvement at its source. A stress inversion of all available focal mechanisms in the area shows that fluid circulation in the upper crust generates a local stress field around Kueishantao facilitating the opening of cracks along the NW-SE direction of regional extension.

  13. New evidence for Kuroshio inflow and deepwater circulation in the Okinawa Trough, East China Sea: Sedimentary mercury variations over the last 20 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Dhongil; Kim, Jihun; Xu, Zhaokai; Jeong, Kapsik; Jung, Hoisoo

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of the Kuroshio Current (KC) in the Okinawa Trough (OT) has long been of paleoceanographic interest and has been the focus of many investigations because of its large impacts on both the ocean environment and the climate in East Asia. Here we present a new high-resolution mercury (Hg) record from the OT sediments that provides robust evidence for the glacial-interglacial variabilities of KC inflow. The Hg levels are anomalously high in the Holocene deposits, which feature a large and abrupt Hg increase at 9.6 ka and a significant drop at 4.5-3.2 ka. Our observations show that most Hg was derived from seafloor hydrothermal plumes via active lateral transportation. Thus, the generally high Hg levels since 9.6 ka are associated with enhanced basin-wide deepwater circulation triggered by the KC inflow. This driving mechanism for the deposition and widespread of Hg is also evidenced by an abrupt drop in Hg levels during the late Holocene neoglacial cold period ( 5-3 ka) when the KC inflow was temporarily interrupted and deepwater circulation was consequently weak or even absent in the OT. The changes in sedimentary Hg appear to be synchronous with those in other geochemical proxies that suggest that bottom water conditions switched from anoxic to oxic due to increased upwelling from the bottom in tandem with the strengthening KC and reduced freshwater effect since 9.6 ka. This study shows that the hydrothermal Hg is a sensitive and independent tool for the reconstruction of paleodynamics of KC in the OT.

  14. Post-drilling changes in seabed landscape and megabenthos in a deep-sea hydrothermal system, the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takaya, Yutaro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Chen, Chong; Fujikura, Katsunori; Miwa, Tetsuya; Takai, Ken

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331) on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014) where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, 'artificially' creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the ecosystem in the area has

  15. Post-drilling hydrothermal vent and associated biological activities seen through artificial hydrothermal vents in the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, K.; Kawagucci, S.; Miyazaki, J.; Watsuji, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Yamamoto, H.; Nozaki, T.; Kashiwabara, T.; Shibuya, T.

    2012-12-01

    In 2010, IODP Expedition 331 was conducted in the Iheya North Field, the Okinawa Trough and drilled several sites in hydrothermally active subseafloor. In addition, during the IODP Expedition 331, four new hydrothermal vents were created. These post-drilling artificial hydrothermal vents provide excellent opportunities to investigate the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the previously unexplored subseafloor hydrothermal fluid reservoirs, and to monitor and estimate how the anthropogenic drilling behaviors affect the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem. We were very much interested in the difference of hydrothermal fluid chemistry between the natural hydrothermal vents and the artificial hydrothermal vents. The IODP porewater chemistry of the cores pointed to the density-driven stratification of the phase-separated hydrothermal fluids and the natural vent fluids were likely derived only from the shallower vapor-enriched phases. However, the artificial hydrothermal vents had deeper fluid sources in the subseafloor hydrothermal fluid reservoirs composed of vapor-lost (Cl-enriched) phases. The fluids from the artificial hydrothermal vents were sampled by ROV at 5, 12 and 18 months after the IODP expedition. The artificial hydrothermal vent fluids were slightly enriched with Cl as compared to the natural hydrothermal vent fluids. Thus, the artificial hydrothermal vents successfully entrained the previously unexplored subseafloor hydrothermal fluids. The newly created hydrothermal vents also hosted the very quickly grown, enormous chimney structures, of which mineral compositions were highly variable among the vents. However, the quickly grown C0016B and C0016D vent chimneys were found to be typical Kuroko ore even though the chimney growth rates in the artificial vents were extremely faster than those in the natural vents. In addition, the IODP drilling operation not only created new hydrothermal vents by deep drilling but also induced the

  16. Molecular diversity and distribution pattern of ciliates in sediments from deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and adjacent sea areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-10-01

    In comparison with the macrobenthos and prokaryotes, patterns of diversity and distribution of microbial eukaryotes in deep-sea hydrothermal vents are poorly known. The widely used high-throughput sequencing of 18S rDNA has revealed a high diversity of microeukaryotes yielded from both living organisms and buried DNA in marine sediments. More recently, cDNA surveys have been utilized to uncover the diversity of active organisms. However, both methods have never been used to evaluate the diversity of ciliates in hydrothermal vents. By using high-throughput DNA and cDNA sequencing of 18S rDNA, we evaluated the molecular diversity of ciliates, a representative group of microbial eukaryotes, from the sediments of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and compared it with that of an adjacent deep-sea area about 15 km away and that of an offshore area of the Yellow Sea about 500 km away. The results of DNA sequencing showed that Spirotrichea and Oligohymenophorea were the most diverse and abundant groups in all the three habitats. The proportion of sequences of Oligohymenophorea was the highest in the hydrothermal vents whereas Spirotrichea was the most diverse group at all three habitats. Plagiopyleans were found only in the hydrothermal vents but with low diversity and abundance. By contrast, the cDNA sequencing showed that Plagiopylea was the most diverse and most abundant group in the hydrothermal vents, followed by Spirotrichea in terms of diversity and Oligohymenophorea in terms of relative abundance. A novel group of ciliates, distinctly separate from the 12 known classes, was detected in the hydrothermal vents, indicating undescribed, possibly highly divergent ciliates may inhabit this environment. Statistical analyses showed that: (i) the three habitats differed significantly from one another in terms of diversity of both the rare and the total ciliate taxa, and; (ii) the adjacent deep sea was more similar to the offshore area than to the

  17. Mineralogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veblen, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mineralogy has become increasingly linked to chemistry and physics during recent years. This relationship between chemistry, physics, and mineralogy, as indicated by the content of conference papers, research studies, and physical/chemical laboratory procedures used in mineralogy, is reviewed. Creative applications of established mineralogic…

  18. The mechanism of formation of the seafloor massive sulfide ore body beneath the seafloor at HAKUREI Site in Izena Caldera, Middle Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizumi, R.; Urabe, T.

    2012-12-01

    The first seafloor hydrothermal activity in northwest Pacific was found at the northeastern rim of the Izena Caldera (Jade Site), Middle Okinawa Trough in 1988 (Halbach et al.,1989). The tectonic setting of the sulfide occurrence, even though small in amount, is similar to that of Kuroko deposits which are the volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits found in volcano-sedimentary units in northern Japan. Later, large seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) ore bodies were discovered above and beneath the seafloor in the central part of the Izena Caldera (HAKUREI Site). The ore reserve is estimated to be 5million tons based on some 100 short (<20 meters), dense drillings (Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC), 2011), and is regarded as the biggest "proven" SMS deposit in the world. It is worthy to note that the HAKUREI ore deposit can be divided into Ore A (Upper ore bodies) and the Ore B (Lower ore bodies) which are separated by silt and pumice-rich sedimentary layer of a few meter in thickness. The Upper ore bodies are composed of sulfide "mounds" and "chimneys", which are commonly observed in hydrothermal areas. However, the nature of the Lower ore bodies remain uninvestigated. We conducted two research cruises at the HAKUREI site in 2011: TAIGA11 cruise of Exploration Vessel Hakurei-Maru NO.2 (JOGMEC) with Benthic Multicoreing System (BMS) and NT11-15 cruise of R/V Natshushima with ROV Hyper Dolphin (JAMSTEC). In the former cruise, a core (H-1) 5.4m in length was drilled to intersect both the Upper and Lower ore bodies which are separated by sediment using BMS. While, in latter cruise, volcanic rocks (aphyric rhyolite) and sulfide ores (Upper ore) were collected using Hyper Dolphin. The obtained sulfide ores were served for examination with the ore microscopy, electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and heating stage for fluid inclusions in barite in ore. Sphalerite and galena dominate at upper part of the Lower ore, while chalcopyrite and covellite

  19. Mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. Darby; Treiman, Allan; Beauchamp, Patricia; Blake, David; Blaney, Diana; Kim, Sun S.; Klingelhoefer, Goestar; Mehall, Greg; Morris, Richard; Ninkov, Zoran; Sprague, Ann; Zolensky, Michael; Pieters, Carle

    1996-01-01

    The power of mineralogical analysis as a descriptive or predictive technique stems from the fact that only a few thousand minerals are known to occur in nature as compared to several hundred thousand inorganic compounds. Further, all of the known minerals have specific stability ranges in pressure, temperature, an composition. A specific knowledge of the mineralogy of a planets surface or interior therefore allows one to characterize the present or past conditions under which the minerals were formed or have existed. For the purposes of this paper, a slightly broader definition of mineralogy was adopted by including not only crystalline materials found on planetary surfaces, but also ices and classes that can benefit from in situ types of analyses. Both visual examination and the various spectroscopies available for robotic probes to planetary surfaces are discussed.

  20. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  1. First results from the in-situ temperature measurements by the newly developed downhole tool during the drilling cruise in the hydrothermal fields of the mid-Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitada, K.; Wu, H. Y.; Miyazaki, J.; Akiyama, K.; Nozaki, T.; Ishibashi, J. I.; Kumagai, H.; Maeda, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Okinawa trough is an active backarc basin behind the Ryukyu subduction zone and exhibits active rifting associated with extension of the continental margin. The temperature measurement in this area is essential for understanding hydrothermal system and hydraulic structure. During the CK16-01 cruise this March, we have conducted the in-situ temperature measurements by the newly developed downhole tool, TRDT (Thermo-Resistant Downhole Thermometer) in hydrothermal fields of the mid-Okinawa Trough. The purpose of this measurement is to investigate the in-situ temperature structure in deep-hot zones and its variation after coring and/or drilling. TRDT was designed by JAMSTEC as a memory downhole tool to measure in-situ borehole temperature under the extreme high temperature environment. First trial was conducted in the CK14-04 cruise by the free fall deployment to reduce the operation time. However, there was no temperature data recorded due to the strong vibration during the operation. After CK14-04 cruise, TRDT was modified to improve the function against vibration and shock. The improved TRDT passed the high temperature, vibration and shock tests to ensure the data acquisition of borehole logging. During the CK16-01 cruise, we have first successfully collected the in-situ temperature data from hydrothermal borehole in the Iheya North Knoll with wireline system. The temperature at depth of 187mbsf continued to increase almost linearly from 220 to 245°C during the 20 minute measurements time. This suggests that the inside borehole was cooled down by pumping seawater through drill pipes during the coring and lowering down the TRDT tool to the bottom hole. The in-situ temperature were extrapolated with exponential curve using nonlinear least squares fitting and the estimated equilibrium temperature was 278°C. To recover the in-situ temperature more precisely, the measurement time should kept as long as possible by considering the temperature rating. The operational

  2. Depth profiles of resistivity and spectral IP for active modern submarine hydrothermal deposits: a case study from the Iheya North Knoll and the Iheya Minor Ridge in Okinawa Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komori, Shogo; Masaki, Yuka; Tanikawa, Wataru; Torimoto, Junji; Ohta, Yusuke; Makio, Masato; Maeda, Lena; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Tadai, Osamu; Kumagai, Hidenori

    2017-08-01

    Submarine hydrothermal deposits are one of the promising seafloor mineral resources, because they can store a large amount of metallic minerals as sulfides. The present study focuses on the electrical properties of active modern submarine hydrothermal deposits, in order to provide constraints on the interpretation of electrical structures obtained from marine electromagnetic surveys. Measurements of resistivity and spectral induced polarization (IP) were made using drillcore samples taken from the Iheya North Knoll and the Iheya Minor Ridge in Okinawa Trough, Japan. These hydrothermal sediments are dominantly composed of disseminated sulfides, with minor amounts of massive sulfide rocks. The depth profiles of resistivity and spectral IP properties were successfully revealed to correspond well to layer-by-layer lithological features. Comparison with other physical properties and occurrence of constituent minerals showed that resistivity is essentially sensitive to the connectivity of interstitial fluids, rather than by sulfide and clay content. This suggests that, in active modern submarine hydrothermal systems, not only typical massive sulfide rocks but also high-temperature hydrothermal fluids could be imaged as low-resistivity anomalies in seabed surveys. The spectral IP signature was shown to be sensitive to the presence or absence of sulfide minerals, and total chargeability is positively correlated with sulfide mineral abundance. In addition, the massive sulfide rock exhibits the distinctive IP feature that the phase steadily increases with a decrease of frequency. These results show the effective usage of IP for developing and improving marine IP exploration techniques.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. The first microbiological contamination assessment by deep-sea drilling and coring by the D/V Chikyu at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331)

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Nunoura, Takuro; McAllister, Sean M.; Hirai, Miho; Breuker, Anja; Brandt, Leah; House, Christopher H.; Moyer, Craig L.; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Aoike, Kan; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Mottl, Michael J.; Takai, Ken

    2013-01-01

    During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 at the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the Mid-Okinawa Trough by the D/V Chikyu, we conducted microbiological contamination tests of the drilling and coring operations. The contamination from the drilling mud fluids was assessed using both perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) and fluorescent microsphere beads. PFT infiltration was detected from the periphery of almost all whole round cores (WRCs). By contrast, fluorescent microspheres were not detected in hydrothermally active core samples, possibly due to thermal decomposition of the microspheres under high-temperature conditions. Microbial contamination from drilling mud fluids to the core interior subsamples was further characterized by molecular-based evaluation. The microbial 16S rRNA gene phylotype compositions in the drilling mud fluids were mainly composed of sequences of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and not archaeal sequences. The phylotypes that displayed more than 97% similarity to the sequences obtained from the drilling mud fluids were defined as possible contaminants in this study and were detected as minor components of the bacterial phylotype compositions in 13 of 37 core samples. The degree of microbiological contamination was consistent with that determined by the PFT and/or microsphere assessments. This study suggests a constructive approach for evaluation and eliminating microbial contamination during riser-less drilling and coring operations by the D/V Chikyu. PMID:24265628

  4. The first microbiological contamination assessment by deep-sea drilling and coring by the D/V Chikyu at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331).

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Nunoura, Takuro; McAllister, Sean M; Hirai, Miho; Breuker, Anja; Brandt, Leah; House, Christopher H; Moyer, Craig L; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Aoike, Kan; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Mottl, Michael J; Takai, Ken

    2013-01-01

    During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 at the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the Mid-Okinawa Trough by the D/V Chikyu, we conducted microbiological contamination tests of the drilling and coring operations. The contamination from the drilling mud fluids was assessed using both perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) and fluorescent microsphere beads. PFT infiltration was detected from the periphery of almost all whole round cores (WRCs). By contrast, fluorescent microspheres were not detected in hydrothermally active core samples, possibly due to thermal decomposition of the microspheres under high-temperature conditions. Microbial contamination from drilling mud fluids to the core interior subsamples was further characterized by molecular-based evaluation. The microbial 16S rRNA gene phylotype compositions in the drilling mud fluids were mainly composed of sequences of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and not archaeal sequences. The phylotypes that displayed more than 97% similarity to the sequences obtained from the drilling mud fluids were defined as possible contaminants in this study and were detected as minor components of the bacterial phylotype compositions in 13 of 37 core samples. The degree of microbiological contamination was consistent with that determined by the PFT and/or microsphere assessments. This study suggests a constructive approach for evaluation and eliminating microbial contamination during riser-less drilling and coring operations by the D/V Chikyu.

  5. Microbial community stratification controlled by the subseafloor fluid flow and geothermal gradient at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331).

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2014-10-01

    The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (∼90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments.

  6. Microbial Community Stratification Controlled by the Subseafloor Fluid Flow and Geothermal Gradient at the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331)

    PubMed Central

    Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (∼90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments. PMID:25063666

  7. Designer Troughs

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-11

    This MOC image shows a wide, flat-floored trough flanked by several smaller, branching troughs in the Olympica Fossae region of Mars. Dark- and intermediate-toned slope streaks -- created by dry avalanches of dust -- occur on the trough walls

  8. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  9. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the

  10. T-cell lymphoma in a wild Okinawa rail (Gallirallus okinawae).

    PubMed

    Neagari, Yasuko; Nagamine, Takashi; Nakaya, Yumiko; Onuma, Manabu; Murata, Koichi; Kuwana, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    The Okinawa rail (Gallirallus okinawae) is an endangered species that inhabits the northern part of Okinawa Main Island in southern Japan. A wild Okinawa rail was rescued from a road in Kunigami Village in Okinawa in October 2009. The bird subsequently died and underwent necropsy. Tumors were found in the liver, spleen and part of the small intestine. Microscopically, lymphoid neoplasm was confirmed in these tissues. The tumor cells were mainly positive for CD3 and CD8α by immunohistochemistry. No Marek's disease virus genes were detected by PCR of a liver tumor. This is the first report of T-cell lymphoma in the Okinawa rail.

  11. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  12. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  13. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  14. Hawaii-Okinawa Building Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, I.; Salasovich, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL conducted energy evaluations at the Itoman City Hall building in Itoman, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the Hawaii State Capitol building in Honolulu, Hawaii. This report summarizes the findings from the evaluations, including the best practices identified at each site and opportunities for improving energy efficiency and renewable energy. The findings from this evaluation are intended to inform energy efficient building design, energy efficiency technology, and management protocols for buildings in subtropical climates.

  15. Progress in infant health in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin

    2012-07-01

    The infant mortality rate (IMR) and neonatal mortality rate (NMR) defined as the number of infant and newborn deaths per 1000 live births, respectively, are widely accepted as population indicators of the level of perinatal and postnatal health. Since the end of World War II, Japan has made substantial progress in reducing its IMR and NMR. This resulted from improving living standards and the provision of universal maternal and child health care (MCH) services. Okinawa, the island prefecture that is the furthest from mainland Japan, had the third highest IMR and the highest low-birth-weight rate (LBW) among all prefectures when its statistics were integrated into Japan in 1973. Even though the LBW rate in Okinawa has remained higher than the all-Japan average, Okinawa has shown a considerable improvement in IMR and NMR. The aim is to review the trends in IMR, NMR, and LBW in Japan and Okinawa and to discuss sociodemographic trends, economics, and the provision of health care services. The IMR and NMR in Okinawa decreased during that time from 14.8 to 2.4 and from 7.5 to 0.8, respectively. The LBW rate decreased until the mid-1980s, but since then it has increased to 11.5 (Okinawa) and 9.6 (Japan) in 2009. Okinawa's public health and primary health care model for infants has been very successful and may be applicable to child health in island nations of the Asia-Pacific region.

  16. The Tippy Trough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donald Francis

    2006-01-01

    Consider a trough with a uniform cross section that is bounded by different functions on its two sides, and assume that the trough can be tipped either way. The question explored is this: If the trough is partially filled with water, what angle of tipping will maximize the depth of the water?

  17. The Tippy Trough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donald Francis

    2006-01-01

    Consider a trough with a uniform cross section that is bounded by different functions on its two sides, and assume that the trough can be tipped either way. The question explored is this: If the trough is partially filled with water, what angle of tipping will maximize the depth of the water?

  18. Rinse trough with improved flow

    DOEpatents

    O`Hern, T.J.; Grasser, T.W.

    1998-08-11

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The troughs are suitable for one or more essentially planar objects having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs provide uniform rinse fluid flow over the objects` surfaces to accomplish a more thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 5 figs.

  19. Rinse trough with improved flow

    DOEpatents

    O'Hern, Timothy J.; Grasser, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The troughs are suitable for one or more essentially planar objects having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs provide uniform rinse fluid flow over the objects' surfaces to accomplish a more thorough rinse than prior art troughs.

  20. Comments on dietary restriction, Okinawa diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A

    2012-01-01

    Longevity in Okinawa is considered to be a result of traditional low calorie diet. Le Bourg suggests that Okinawa is an example of severe malnutrition, which is harmful for later generations. We believe that current loss of longevity advantage in Okinawa is a result of diet westernization and that the dietary restriction is a valid way of life extension in humans.

  1. Comments on Dietary Restriction, Okinawa Diet and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilova, Natalia S.; Gavrilov, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Longevity in Okinawa is considered to be a result of traditional low calorie diet. Le Bourg suggests that Okinawa is an example of severe malnutrition, which is harmful for later generations. We believe that current loss of longevity advantage in Okinawa is a result of diet westernization and that the dietary restriction is a valid way of life extension in humans. PMID:21893946

  2. Genetic diversity and phylogeny of the endangered Okinawa Rail, Gallirallus okinawae.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Kiyoaki; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamagishi, Satoshi

    2010-02-01

    Genetic diversity of the wild population of the endangered Okinawa Rail, Gallirallus okinawae, was revealed by analyzing haplotypes in the mitochondrial control region for 177 individuals. We found 6 haplotypes with nucleotide differences at 6 sites. The four major haplotypes, Type 1 to Type 4, were present in 121 (68.4%), 21 (11.9%), 8 (4.5%) and 25 individuals (14.1%), respectively. Type 5 and Type 6 were each found in one individual. The gene diversity (h) and nucleotide diversity (pi) of Okinawa Rail were calculated to be 0.499 +/- 0.040 and 0.00146 +/- 0.00098, respectively. Gene diversity in Okinawa Rail is higher than that found in other endangered avian species, but the relative nucleotide diversity is lower due to few nucleotide differences among the haplotypes. Our sample of 177 individuals represents 20-25% of the total population, and thus allows a rigorous estimate of the population structure of Okinawa Rail, and makes it unlikely that more haplotypes would be found with additional sampling. The low nucleotide diversity in the control region may indicate that Okinawa Rail has gone through a recent bottleneck. The minimal span network of haplotypes, and the distribution pattern of sampled individuals, indicate that the number of birds with rare haplotypes, Type 5 and 6, decreased during the recent population decline caused by habitat loss and introduced predators. Our results are relevant to the current conservation program for the endangered Okinawa Rail, and perhaps for other species of flightless rails.

  3. The light ion trough.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A distinct feature of the ion composition results from the OGO-2, 4 and 6 satellites is the light ion trough, wherein the mid-latitude concentrations of H+ and He+ decrease sharply with latitude. In contrast to the 'main trough' in electron density observed primarily as a nightside phenomenon, the light ion trough persists during both day and night. For daytime winter hemisphere conditions and for all seasons during night, the mid-latitude light ion concentration decrease is a pronounced feature. In the dayside summer and equinox hemispheres, the rate of light ion decrease with latitude is comparatively gradual, and the trough boundary is less well defined, particularly for quiet magnetic conditions. In response to magnetic storms, the light ion trough minimum moves equatorward, and deepens, consistent with earlier evidence of the contraction of the plasmasphere in response to storm time enhancements in magnetospheric plasma convection.

  4. The 1768 and 1791 Okinawa tsunamis in the Ryukyu Trench region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.

    2013-12-01

    Risk of the great earthquakes and tsunamis has been assumed to be low in the Ryukyu Trench because the interplate coupling is weak and great interplate earthquakes (> M8.0) had not been recorded historically for about 300 years. However, recent study revealed that the 1771 Yaeyama earthquake (M8.5 from tsunami heights distribution) at south Ryukyu Trench and the 1911 Kikaijima earthquake (M 8.0) at north-central Ryukyu Trench were the interplate earthquakes. We need re-examine the great historical earthquakes in the Ryukyu Trench. Two historical tsunamis which occurred on 1768 and 1791 in the Okinawa Island were documented in the old document 'Kyuyo' (formal chronicles of Ryukyu). I investigated the source fault model of two tsunami events using numerical simulations of tsunami and earthquake shaking, and showed that their events would be the interplate earthquakes. One earthquake occurred at noon of July 22th, 1768. The rock-walls of castle, grave of royal family were collapsed by the earthquake shaking around Naha, Okinawa Island. After the shaking, tsunami arrived Naha port and Zamami Island, which is west of Okinawa Island. Recorded tsunami heights were about 1 m at Naha port. Nine houses and rice fields were damaged by the inundation of the tsunami in the Zamami Island. Estimated tsunami heights were 4 and 5 m in the villages of the Zamami Island. The numerical modeling of tsunami and the estimation of earthquake shaking using empirical formula were employed, and the fault parameters of the 1768 earthquake were estimated. The faults were set to Okinawa Trough (M7.5 normal faults), southwest of Okinawa island (M7.5 normal faults), southwest of Okinawa island (M7.5 reverse fault), and Ryukyu Trench (M8.0 thrust faults). The computed tsunami heights and intensities of the ground shaking of the M7.5 reverse fault near the Zamami Island and the M8.0 interplate earthquake models are consistent with to the recorded ones. Another tsunami was also recorded in the

  5. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOEpatents

    Kempka, Steven N.; Walters, Robert N.

    1996-01-01

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs.

  6. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOEpatents

    Kempka, S.N.; Walters, R.N.

    1996-07-02

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 9 figs.

  7. Rifting Process and Geomorphic Development of the Okinawa Tough, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Arai, K.; Inoue, T.; Matsumoto, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Ryukyu Island Arc extends from Kyushu to Taiwan, a distance of 1,200 km, along the Ryukyu Trench where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian Plate. The Okinawa Trough, a back arc basin has formed behind the Ryukyu Island Arc in late Pliocene to early Pleistocene. The research cruises of GH11 (from 14 July to 15 August, 2011) and GH12 (from 20 to 30 July, 2012) were carried out around the Okinawa Trough. More than 3,600 miles multi channel high-resolution seismic profiles were acquired during these cruises by the GI-gun (Generator 250 cu inch and Injector 105 cu. inch) systems with 16ch digital streamer cable. As a result, two unconformities and three depositional sequence divided by the unconformities are recognized in the trough. The lower and the midlle sequence are tilted and blocked by many normal faults, on the other hand the upper one is not tilted and shows the pattern of onlap fill. From this result, the upper sequence started to deposit after start of the rifting. Additionally, internal reflection of the upper sequence shows the cyclic activities of the rifting. The position of the rifting axis was revealed based on dip of the normal faults. As a result, rifting axis shows echelon arrangement and the displacement of the faults are varied with the segment of the arrangement. The location of the segment boundaries is correlated with geometrical boundary of the adjacent slope. Steep slope with incised valley is distributed in southwestern part where the displacement of the normal fault is large, on the other hand, gentle slope without incised valley is distributed in northeastern part where the displacement is small. This difference of the displacement strongly controls the geometry of the adjacent slope.

  8. Cut By Troughs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    1 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater cut by troughs which formed after the crater formed. The crater and troughs have large windblown ripples on their floors. The ripples, troughs, craters, and other surfaces in this scene have all been mantled by dust. Dark streaks on slopes indicate areas where avalanches of dry dust have occurred. These features are located on Sacra Mena, a large mesa in the Kasei Valles region.

    Location near: 25.4oN, 66.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  9. Imported malaria cases in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Tasato, Daisuke; Karimata, Yosuke; Nakamura, Hideta; Miyagi, Kazuya; Haranaga, Shusaku; Hirata, Tetsuo; Hokama, Akira; Cash, Haley L; Toma, Hiromu; Fujita, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in global transportation, imported malaria has become a significant public health concern in Japan. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed all imported malaria cases in Okinawa Prefecture from 1988 to 2012. In that period, 23 patients with imported malaria were admitted to the University of the Ryukyus Hospital. Malaria types observed included Plasmodium falciparum (14 cases), P. vivax (7 cases), combined P. falciparum and P. ovale (1 case), and combined P. vivax and P. malariae (1 case). All cases were resolved by anti-malarial treatment. The clinical data from these patients highlights the importance of collecting patient travel history and ensuring an adequate supply of both diagnostic test and drug treatments in Okinawa.

  10. Demographic, phenotypic, and genetic characteristics of centenarians in Okinawa and Japan: Part 1-centenarians in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Bradley J; Willcox, Donald Craig; Suzuki, Makoto

    2016-11-12

    A study of elderly Okinawans has been carried out by the Okinawa Centenarian Study (OCS) research group for over four decades. The OCS began in 1975 as a population-based study of centenarians (99-year-olds and older) and other selected elderly persons residing in the main island of the Japanese prefecture of Okinawa. As of 2015, over 1000 centenarians have been examined. By several measures of health and longevity the Okinawans can claim to be the world's healthiest and longest-lived people. In this paper we explore the demographic, phenotypic, and genetic characteristics of this fascinating population.

  11. Session: Parabolic Troughs (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.

    2008-04-01

    The project description is R and D activities at NREL and Sandia aimed at lowering the delivered energy cost of parabolic trough collector systems and FOA awards to support industry in trought development. The primary objectives are: (1) support development of near-term parabolic trought technology for central station power generation; (2) support development of next-generation trought fields; and (3) support expansion of US trough industry. The major FY08 activities were: (1) improving reflector optics; (2) reducing receiver heat loss (including improved receiver coating and mitigating hydrogen accumulation); (3) measuring collector optical efficiency; (4) optimizing plant performance and reducing cost; (5) reducing plant water consumption; and (6) directly supporting industry needs, including FOA support.

  12. Reproductive cycle observation of the Okinawa rail (Gallirallus okinawae) in the wild.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Manabu; Nagamine, Takashi; Nakaya, Yumiko; Neagari, Yasuko

    2011-09-01

    The captive breeding program of the Okinawa rail started in 2008. For successful captive breeding, information related to reproduction, such as age at sexual maturity, testicular cycles and ovulatory cycles, is essential to predict when reproduction is possible and when certain reproductive behaviors are most likely to occur. We made gross and histological observations of the reproductive organs of Okinawa rails to gain understanding of sexual maturity, the testicular cycle and the ovulatory cycle. We found that the weight of the testis was smallest in December and largest in March. Changes in the diameter of the seminiferous tubule showed the same pattern. Mature sperm were observed from March to June. The heaviest ovary was observed in April. A single peak of reproduction, from March to April, was observed in males and females. Our observations suggested that the Okinawa rail is a seasonal breeder. Establishing suitable breeding pairs will be critical to ensure success of the Okinawa rail captive breeding program. Our results suggested that pairing must be started before March. If supportive breeding is used, semen should be collected from March to June and artificial insemination conducted in April.

  13. The magnetospheric trough

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, M.F.; McComas, D.J.; Elphic, R.C.; Borovsky, J.E.

    1997-03-04

    The authors review the history of the concepts of the magnetospheric cold-ion trough and hot-electron trough and conclude that the two regions are actually essentially the same. The magnetospheric trough may be viewed as a temporal state in the evolution of convecting flux tubes. These flux tubes are in contact with the earth`s upper atmosphere which acts both as a sink for precipitating hot plasma sheet electrons and as a source for the cold ionospheric plasma leading to progressive depletion of the plasma sheet and refilling with cold plasma. Geosynchronous plasma observations show that the rate of loss of plasma-sheet electron energy density is commensurate with the precipitating electron flux at the low-latitude edge of the diffuse aurora. The rate at which geosynchronous flux tubes fill with cold ionospheric plasma is found to be consistent with previous estimates of early-time refilling. Geosynchronous observations further indicate that both Coulomb collisions and wave-particle effects probably play a role in trapping ionospheric material in the magnetosphere.

  14. Epidemiology of hip fractures in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Harumi; Owan, Ichiro; Kudoh, Hirohisa; Horizono, Hidehiro; Arakaki, Kaoru; Ikema, Yasunari; Shinjo, Hirotaka; Hayashi, Kaori; Kanaya, Fuminori

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the current incidence of hip fractures in Okinawa prefecture and compared the data with those obtained in our previous study, which was conducted using similar methods in 1987/1988. All patients, aged 50 years or older and residing in Okinawa, admitted to Okinawa hospitals in 2004 for a fresh hip fracture were identified from hospital registries. Details were obtained from the medical records and radiographs of all patients and classified according to fracture type (cervical or trochanteric), age, sex, and fracture location. Subtrochanteric fractures and pathological fractures were excluded. A total of 1,349 patients (242 men and 1,107 women) were admitted for a fresh hip fracture in 2004. Their average age was 76.9 years for men and 82.4 years for women. There were 671 cervical fractures, 654 trochanteric fractures, and 24 unclassified proximal femoral fractures. Comparing the data from 1987/1988 to those from 2004, the total number of hip fractures increased by 188%, from 469 to 1,349. The age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000, standardized to the 2000 US population, were 75.7 and 296.1 in 1987/1988 and 123.6 and 420 in 2004 for men and women, respectively. The incidence rates in all age groups (at 5-year intervals) were higher in 2004 than in 1987/1988, indicating that people 50 years of age or older became more susceptible to hip fractures. Accordingly, the accretion of the hip fracture incidence rate was greater than that which could be explained purely by changes in population size and structure.

  15. Evaluation of Assimilative SST Forecasts in the Okinawa Trough and Gulf of Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-06

    shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number...the background. The experimental case additionally assimilated SST from AMSR–E while the control did not. Results in Table 1 indicate that inclusion...introduction of GOES into the standard AVHRR– centric input stream of satellite observations. The control case assimilates NOAA AVHRR SST (GAC and LAC), a

  16. Sirenum Fossae Trough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) orbits the red planet twelve times each day. The number of pictures that MOC can take varies from orbit to orbit, depending upon whether the data are being stored in MGS's onboard tape recorder for playback at a later time, or whether the data are being sent directly back to Earth via a real-time radio link. More data can be acquired during orbits with real-time downlink.

    During real-time orbits, the MOC team often will take a few random or semi-random pictures in between the carefully-selected, hand-targeted images. On rare occasions, one of these random pictures will surprise the MOC team. The picture shown here is an excellent example, because the high resolution view (top) is centered so nicely on a trough and an adjacent, shallow crater that it is as if someone very carefully selected the target for MOC. The high-resolution view covers an area only 1.1 km (0.7 mi) wide by 2.3 km (1.4 mi) long. Hitting a target such as this with such a small image is very difficult to do, on purpose, because there are small uncertainties in the predicted orbit, the maps used to select targets, and the minor adjustments of spacecraft pointing at any given moment. Nevertheless, a very impressive image was received.

    The high resolution view crosses one of the troughs of the Sirenum Fossae near 31.2oS, 152.3oW. The context image (above) was acquired at the same time as the high resolution view on July 23, 2000. The small white box shows the location of the high resolution picture. The lines running diagonally across the context image from upper right toward lower left are the Sirenum Fossae troughs, formed by faults that are radial to the volcanic region of Tharsis. Both pictures are illuminated from the upper left. The scene shows part of the martian southern hemisphere nearly autumn.

  17. [Three Cases of Tsutsugamushi Disease in Miyakojima Island, Okinawa, Japan].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kei; Shinzato, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Tsutsugamushi disease (Scrub thyphus) has been reported from all over Japan except the Hokkaido area. In Okinawa, only one patient was reported in 2001, who was infected outside Okinawa Prefecture. The first case infected in Okinawa was reported at Miyakojima Island in 2008. We report herein on the second case diagnosed in 2010, and the third and fourth in 2011, and all three patients were suspected to have been infected at Ikemajima Island adjacent to the island of Miyakojima. The patients recovered without any severe complications after antibiotic therapy with tetracyclines. We should take Tsutsugamushi disease into consideration in the differential diagnosis for a patient with fever, skin rash, and/or eschar even in the Okinawa area. Implementation of appropriate information and education about the disease should be carried out for local residents and tourists.

  18. An Epidemiological Analysis of Summer Influenza Epidemics in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Satoko; Iha, Yoshikazu; Taira, Katsuya; Okano, Sho; Kinjo, Takeshi; Higa, Futoshi; Kuba, Kazufumi; Tateyama, Masao; Nakamura, Katsunori; Nakamura, Shota; Motooka, Daisuke; Horii, Toshihiro; Parrott, Gretchen L; Fujita, Jiro

    Objective This study evaluates the difference between winter influenza and summer influenza in Okinawa. Methods From January 2007 to June 2014, weekly rapid antigen test (RAT) results performed in four acute care hospitals were collected for the surveillance of regional influenza prevalence in the Naha region of the Okinawa Islands. Results An antigenic data analysis revealed that multiple H1N1 and H3N2 viruses consistently co-circulate in Okinawa, creating synchronized seasonal patterns and a high genetic diversity of influenza A. Additionally, influenza B viruses play a significant role in summer epidemics, almost every year. To further understand influenza epidemics during the summer in Okinawa, we evaluated the full genome sequences of some representative human influenza A and influenza B viruses isolated in Okinawa. Phylogenetic data analysis also revealed that multiple H1N1 and H3N2 viruses consistently co-circulate in Okinawa. Conclusion This surveillance revealed a distinct epidemic pattern of seasonal and pandemic influenza in this subtropical region.

  19. An Epidemiological Analysis of Summer Influenza Epidemics in Okinawa

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Satoko; Iha, Yoshikazu; Taira, Katsuya; Okano, Sho; Kinjo, Takeshi; Higa, Futoshi; Kuba, Kazufumi; Tateyama, Masao; Nakamura, Katsunori; Nakamura, Shota; Motooka, Daisuke; Horii, Toshihiro; Parrott, Gretchen L.; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study evaluates the difference between winter influenza and summer influenza in Okinawa. Methods From January 2007 to June 2014, weekly rapid antigen test (RAT) results performed in four acute care hospitals were collected for the surveillance of regional influenza prevalence in the Naha region of the Okinawa Islands. Results An antigenic data analysis revealed that multiple H1N1 and H3N2 viruses consistently co-circulate in Okinawa, creating synchronized seasonal patterns and a high genetic diversity of influenza A. Additionally, influenza B viruses play a significant role in summer epidemics, almost every year. To further understand influenza epidemics during the summer in Okinawa, we evaluated the full genome sequences of some representative human influenza A and influenza B viruses isolated in Okinawa. Phylogenetic data analysis also revealed that multiple H1N1 and H3N2 viruses consistently co-circulate in Okinawa. Conclusion This surveillance revealed a distinct epidemic pattern of seasonal and pandemic influenza in this subtropical region. PMID:27980256

  20. Can we improve breast cancer mortality in Okinawa? Consensus of the 7th Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kano; Zaha, Hisamitsu; Onomura, Mai; Ueda, Makoto; Kurashita, Kaname; Miyazato, Keiko; Higa, Junko; Miyara, Kyuichiro; Shiraishi, Makiko; Murayama, Shigemi; Ishida, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    The rate of breast cancer mortality in Okinawa has gradually been increasing up to 2010. Now Okinawa has the second worst mortality rate in Japan, in part due to the enormous dietary changes resulting from the post-World War II US military occupation, high incidence of obesity, high non-optimal treatment rate, and low breast-cancer screening rate. To reduce breast cancer mortality in Okinawa, we established the Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting (OBOM) in 2012. At the 7th OBOM held on January 10th, 2014, we discussed the breast cancer mortality in Okinawa focusing on lifestyle, breast cancer screening and optimal treatments. The Okinawan women who were overweight and/or obese during premenopausal and postmenopausal ages had a statistically significant higher risk of breast cancer development compared to those with non-overweight and/or obese women. The traditional diet of Okinawa consists of foods low in calories but rich in nutritional value. Therefore, we recommend Okinawan people not to forget the Okinawan traditional lifestyle, and to reduce their bodyweight to prevent breast cancer. One of the main goals of the OBOM is to raise breast cancer screening attendance rates to 50% (29.2% in 2010). We should standardize the quality control for breast cancer screening in Okinawa. It is important to continue enlightening the Okinawan population to receive optimal treatment. In addition, we are striving to establish systematic medical cooperation between the hospitals specializing in breast cancer treatment with rural hospitals. The OBOM group endeavors to contribute to the improvement of breast cancer mortality in Okinawa.

  1. The light ion trough, the main trough, and the plasmapause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Walsh, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Extensive observations of mid-latitude depletions in electron and total ion density by both direct and indirect techniques, have prompted numerous studies of the possible association between these troughs, observed in the F-region, the topside ionosphere, and the plasmapause. One basic problem arises, in that while the plasmapause was detected as a global phenomenon both by VLF and ion composition measurements, the electron and ion density troughs were identified primarily as nightside features. This problem, as well as the difficulty in explaining various inconsistencies in relating the position of the plasmapause and the ionization trough, is explained by a close examination of the ion composition. In particular, ion composition results from the polar orbiting OGO satellites identify the persistence of a pronounced light ion trough in H(+) and He(+) identified by order of magnitude decreases in the light ion concentrations.

  2. Mineralogy and cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Artioli, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been an escalation in the number of mineralogical studies involving cultural heritage materials. A number of factors have contributed to this exponential growth, including the shrinking budgets in traditional research fields, which forced the expansion of applications of mineralogical methods to novel research areas. Mineralogy as a discipline is traditionally connected to geology, petrology, and geochemistry, although it also has the strong tendency to embody the methods and techniques of modern crystallography and advanced materials science. Arguably, this makes it ideally suited and well equipped to meet the demanding challenges posed by archaeometric analysis and conservation problems. A few case studies linking mineralogy and archaeometry are discussed.

  3. Investigating the effect of hydrothermal conditions on the subvent biosphere of the Okinawa backarc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; House, C. H.; Nunoura, T.; Yanagawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study an interesting subset of the ocean floor -- the subsurface environment surrounding an active hydrothermal vent. The subsurface sediments of the Iheya North Field within the mid-Okinawa trough are affected by high temperature fluids. In addition, the Okinawa backarc basin is situated on a continental margin. This particular environment has a unique set of conditions for investigating the vertical variability in microbial communities with depth as conditions become increasingly restrictive. IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014, located 450 m east of the active vent, has a surface temperature of 5°C and has no evidence of hydrothermal alteration. Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m. Below a depth of ~10 mbsf, the sedimentary sequence is hydrothermally altered to a pale, gray clay with alteration products illite and montmorillonite. Thus, Site C0014 represents an ideal location to characterize whether 1) the microbial community structure shifts from non-hydrothermal margin microorganisms toward a more temperature-adapted group of microorganisms, or 2) repeating clades represented throughout the sediment column are seemingly adapting to the increasingly extreme conditions. DNA from sediments (0-44 mbsf) was extracted using a modified protocol from the MoBio PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit. Primers were designed to amplify the V6-V9 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Select samples were sequenced with the Roche 454 FLX sequencer at The Pennsylvania State University. The amplicon data suggest that the subvent biosphere resides in the top 12-14 meters below seafloor (mbsf). The archaeal sequences abruptly disappear beyond the 14 mbsf horizon. The phylum Euryarchaeota, dominated by Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group 6 (DHVEG-6) and ANME-1, are present throughout the top 14 meters. However, there is an increasingly stronger signal of non-Euryarchaeota clades Marine Crenarchaeotic

  4. Structure of the Mekong trough

    SciTech Connect

    Van Khy, L.

    1986-01-01

    The Mekong trough occupies the shelf of southern Vietnam between the sea coast and the Condao-Cu Lao Tu line of islands and the adjacent area of the onshore Mekong delta. It extends for 400 km from southwest to northeast with a width of 100 km. The Mekong trough is situated on the upper Mesozoic volcanic belt of South Vietnam, which is part of the East Asian volcanogenic belt. It is bounded on the southeast by the Con Son high, on the southwest by the Corat-Ca Mau high, and on the northwest by the Dalat massif. The Mekong trough is considered to have major potential as a new petroleum province. Since 1969, numerous common depth point (CDP) seismic profiles have been run and seven deep wells have been drilled on the shelf in the Mekong trough. This paper is devoted to an analysis of the findings. 9 references, 4 figures.

  5. Introduction to Mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittle, Elise

    A course in mineralogy is a rite of passage for most undergraduate Earth sciences majors. As fluency with minerals is so basic for deciphering a range of geologic processes, many Earth scientists can recall long hours in the lab memorizing mineral samples, their chemical formulae and crystal systems, and perhaps staring through a petrographic microscope wondering, what exactly is 2V? In this venerable field with so many classic textbooks, one might ask why another mineralogy text is warranted.Introduction to Mineralogy is organized in a traditional way, with Part I covering the topics of symmetry, crystallography, crystal chemistry and structure, and crystal growth. Part II covers physical properties of minerals and methods for studying mineral structures and chemistry (including optical mineralogy and x-ray diffraction), and Part III presents the systematic mineralogy of all of the mineral groups.

  6. Dengue virus presence and surveillance in Okinawa (Review).

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi; Shintani, Hideharu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that the dengue virus (DENV) is a serious concern worldwide, especially in subtropical areas such as South-East Asia. With the development of transportation systems, the risk of DENV infection spreading is increasing. Since mosquitoes transmit DENV to humans, surveillance of DENV-infected mosquito vectors is the most effective approach for preventing DENV. Okinawa is the only prefecture located in a subtropical region in Japan and historically shows continuous importation of DENV-related mosquito vectors. In this review, we describe the current and historical status of DENV in Okinawa.

  7. Dengue virus presence and surveillance in Okinawa (Review)

    PubMed Central

    SAKUDO, AKIKAZU; ONODERA, TAKASHI; SHINTANI, HIDEHARU; IKUTA, KAZUYOSHI

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that the dengue virus (DENV) is a serious concern worldwide, especially in subtropical areas such as South-East Asia. With the development of transportation systems, the risk of DENV infection spreading is increasing. Since mosquitoes transmit DENV to humans, surveillance of DENV-infected mosquito vectors is the most effective approach for preventing DENV. Okinawa is the only prefecture located in a subtropical region in Japan and historically shows continuous importation of DENV-related mosquito vectors. In this review, we describe the current and historical status of DENV in Okinawa. PMID:22969837

  8. The challenge to reduce breast cancer mortality in Okinawa: consensus of the first Okinawa breast oncology meeting.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kano; Zaha, Hisamitsu; Onomura, Mai; Gushimiyagi, Masanori; Kurashita, Kaname; Miyazato, Keiko; Tengan, Hiromu; Miyara, Kyuichiro; Ishida, Takanori

    2013-02-01

    Breast cancer mortality is gradually increasing in Okinawa. The 1st Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting was held on 6 July 2012 and discussions on how to curb the rising trend were focused on breast cancer screening, adjuvant treatment, socioeconomic and geographic issues, and the problem of complementary and alternative medicine. The consensus of the 1st Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting was that ultrasonography screening is an acceptable screening system for Okinawan women because of the geographic disadvantage of having many small islands and rural areas. Educational and economic support is needed for women in rural areas to get correct information, for access to urban areas and to be treated by evidence-based optimal therapy for breast cancer. In addition, new approaches are needed for Okinawan people to successfully educate patients to correctly interpret evidence-based information.

  9. Neotectonics of the Manych Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makshaev, R. R.; Svitoch, A. A.

    2012-04-01

    Regional and local neotectonic features of the Manych Trough and regulating role of its tresholds in Caspian water overflows to the Black Sea are examined. Various evidence for neotectonic activity, with the maximums in Early and Late Khazarian epochs, of all the local tectonic rises in the Manych Trough, which were thresholds during the existence of the strait in the past, has been found. The Manych Trough is superimposed on the deep-laid faults of the Scythian Plate and in the sublatitudinal direction, it extends by more than 500 km. Throughout the Cenozoic, the system of narrow longitudinal and transverse structures continued to develop along the faults and some portions of these structures suffered differentiated motions in the Pleistocene as well. The general regional neotectonic Pleistocene character of the Manych Trough is confidently identified on the basis of coincidence with the large trough, which had been developing during Meso-Cenozoic; the non-altered character of modern relief; and the stable paleogeographic regime throughout the Pleistocene, when the Caspian straits repeatedly existed in the lowland parts of the trough. All these facts unambiguously indicate a general downward tectonic regime of the Manych Trough during the Pleistocene up to 100 m in amplitude. The amplitude of neotectonic motions of the trough over long time periods and within the Pleistocene in general were determined by comparative analysis of the modern and initial positions of reference horizons of the marine Pleistocene in the Manych Trough. The subsequent step-by-step comparison between the hypsometry of the bottom positions of the initial straits and the modern level of the corresponding strata allowed us to specify the value of tectonic deformation of the bottom for any concrete time period. The structural differentiation of the trough is clearly expressed in its modern relief and configuration of the river network; the former is en echelon sublatitudinal depressions joined

  10. NASA Moon Mineralogy Mapper

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-12-17

    Different wavelengths of light provide new information about the Orientale Basin region of the moon in a composite image taken by NASA Moon Mineralogy Mapper, a guest instrument aboard the Indian Space Research Organization Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft.

  11. Risk in the Ryukyu Islands: Joint Planning for Okinawa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    Hagushi landings and overcome its associated risks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Joint Operational Planning, Operational Art, Operation Iceberg, Okinawa. 16...The decision to recognize the benefits associated with the Hagushi landings, considering the potential consequences, displayed sound operational...across the joint force to produce an operational approach to exploit the benefits of the Hagushi landings and overcome its associated risks. iv

  12. Hanford basalt flow mineralogy

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, L.L.

    1980-09-01

    Mineralogy of the core samples from five core wells was examined in some detail. The primary mineralogy study included an optical examination of polished mounts, photomicrographs, chemical analyses of feldspars, pyroxenes, metallic oxides and microcrystalline groundmasses and determination from the chemical analyses of the varieties of feldspars, pyroxenes and metallic oxides. From the primary mineralogy data, a firm understanding of the average Hanford basalt flow primary mineralogy emerged. The average primary feldspar was a laboradorite, the average pyroxene was an augite and the average metallic oxide was a solid solution of ilmenite and magnetite. Secondary mineralization consisted of vug filling and joint coating, chiefly with a nontronite-beidellite clay, several zeolites, quartz, calcite, and opal. Specific flow units also were examined to determine the possibility of using the mineralogy to trace flows between core wells. These included units of the Pomona, the Umatilla and a high chromium flow just below the Huntzinger. In the Umatilla, or high barium flow, the compositional variation of the feldspars was unique in range. The pyroxenes in the Pomona were relatively highly zoned and accumulated chromium. The high chromium flow contained chromium spinels that graded in chromium content into simple magnetites very low in chromium content. A study of the statistical relationships of flow unit chemical constituents showed that flow unit constituents could be roughly correlated between wells. The probable cause of the correlation was on-going physical-chemical changes in the source magma.

  13. The U.S. Military Presence in Okinawa and the Futenma Base Controversy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-03

    CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress The U.S. Military Presence in Okinawa and the Futenma Base...in Okinawa and the Futenma Base Controversy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 The U.S. Military Presence in Okinawa and the Futenma Base Controversy Congressional Research

  14. Mineralogy: A Historical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews changing concepts of the origins, properties, and classification of minerals. Emphasis is placed on developments of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, during which time the interwoven advances of chemistry, physics, crystallography, and high-temperature, high-pressure studies transformed mineralogy from a qualitative to a…

  15. Nutritional factors for longevity in Okinawa--present and future.

    PubMed

    Mimura, G; Murakami, K; Gushiken, M

    1992-01-01

    Several factors, such as environment and heredity, are presumed to be related to longevity. Of these nutrition is believed to function as a regulatory factor. Okinawa prefecture is well known as the leading area for longevity in the world. We therefore examined present and past nutrition records together with the background of all the 88 centenarians (18 male, 70 female) who are living in Okinawa in 1991. Their leading occupation was agriculture, and they were in work until the 8th decade. They took rice or potato as carbohydrate with abundant vegetables and vegetable protein or fish protein. Although they did not take a rich diet it was well balanced, and was assumed to be related to longevity because of the decreased incidence of atherosclerosis; together with a good genetic background, suggested by the accumulation of longevity in their siblings.

  16. Declining longevity advantage and low birthweight in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin

    2008-10-01

    The prefecture of Okinawa is known for the longevity of its population, for 30 years it had the longest life expectancy of all prefectures in Japan. However this advantage was lost in 2000 and male longevity is now ranked 26th among the 47 prefectures of Japan. The aim of this study was to explore whether the recent decline in Okinawan life expectancy advantage is due to the cohort effect of low birthweight infants becoming middle- and older- aged Okinawans. This is an observational study using existing demographic and health statistics. Data on life expectancy, mortality and low birthweight rates were obtained from the Okinawan Prefectural Department of Health and Welfare and the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In the year 2000 the longevity advantage of Okinawan males over the Japanese mainland was lost and the relative life expectancy of females declines. The mortality ratio for heart disease has reversed showing a cohort effect, with younger Okinawans having higher death rates than those living in the rest of Japan. The low birthweight rate for Okinawa is 20% greater than mainland Japan. As the post World War cohort of low birthweight infants reaches middle age, the longevity advantage of Okinawans has been lost. The loss of the longevity advantage of Okinawa over the rest of Japan may be due to the increase in non-communicable disease in the post war cohort that has experienced a higher low birthweight rate.

  17. Stable isotopes in mineralogy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Stable isotope fractionations between minerals are functions of the fundamental vibrational frequencies of the minerals and therefore bear on several topics of mineralogical interest. Isotopic compositions of the elements H, C, O, Si, and S can now be determined routinely in almost any mineral. A summary has been made of both published and new results of laboratory investigations, analyses of natural materials, and theoretical considerations which bear on the importance of temperature, pressure, chemical composition and crystal structure to the isotopic properties of minerals. It is shown that stable isotope studies can sometimes provide evidence for elucidating details of crystal structure and can be a powerful tool for use in tracing the reaction paths of mineralogical reactions. ?? 1977 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Sulfide Mineralogy and Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilles, John

    2007-02-01

    Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry Series, Volume 61 David J. Vaughan, Editor Geochemical Society and Mineralogical Society of America; ISBN 0-939950-73-1 xiii + 714 pp.; 2006; $40. Sulfide minerals as a class represent important minor rock-forming minerals, but they are generally known as the chief sources of many economic metallic ores. In the past two decades, sulfide research has been extended to include important roles in environmental geology of sulfide weathering and resultant acid mine drainage, as well as in geomicrobiology in which bacteria make use of sulfides for metabolic energy sources. In the latter respect, sulfides played an important role in early evolution of life on Earth and in geochemical cycling of elements in the Earth's crust and hydrosphere.

  19. Physics Meets Mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Hideo; Syono, Yasuhiko; Hemley, Russell J.

    2000-09-01

    Condensed matter physics leads to a "first-principles" way of looking at crystals, enabling physicists and mineralogists to study the rich and sometimes unexpected behavior that minerals exhibit under the extreme conditions within the earth. This volume fully details the exciting interaction between geophysics and condensed matter physics. Leading international researchers from both geosciences and condensed matter physics detail this cutting edge, interdisciplinary field. The volume is an excellent summary for specialists and graduate students researching mineralogy and crystallography.

  20. The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzeng, Megan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the last major battle of World War II that occurred at Okinawa (Japan) in 1945. Explains why the Battle of Okinawa was the turning point in World War II. Includes two maps in the appendix and an annotated bibliography. (CMK)

  1. International Collaboration and the Management of Linguistic Resources at a Diaspora Festival in Okinawa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrucci, Peter R.; Miyahira, Katsuyuki

    2009-01-01

    This article uses Jernudd and Neustupny's (1987) theory of language management to address the planning, management and distribution of linguistic resources at the 4th Worldwide Uchinaanchu Festival (WUF), a diaspora festival held in Okinawa, Japan. WUF organizers--from Okinawa and diaspora communities abroad--were concerned with both international…

  2. International Collaboration and the Management of Linguistic Resources at a Diaspora Festival in Okinawa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrucci, Peter R.; Miyahira, Katsuyuki

    2009-01-01

    This article uses Jernudd and Neustupny's (1987) theory of language management to address the planning, management and distribution of linguistic resources at the 4th Worldwide Uchinaanchu Festival (WUF), a diaspora festival held in Okinawa, Japan. WUF organizers--from Okinawa and diaspora communities abroad--were concerned with both international…

  3. Fabrication of trough-shaped solar collectors

    DOEpatents

    Schertz, William W.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a radiant energy concentration and collection device formed of a one-piece thin-walled plastic substrate including a plurality of nonimaging troughs with certain metallized surfaces of the substrate serving as reflective side walls for each trough. The one-piece plastic substrate is provided with a seating surface at the bottom of each trough which conforms to the shape of an energy receiver to be seated therein.

  4. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  5. Incidence of hyperlipemia in diabetics in Okinawa and its relation to ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Mimura, G; Nakamasu, J; Irie, M

    1983-12-01

    The average value for total cholesterol in the healthy population of Okinawa was significantly higher than that of Kyushu, but there were no differences in triglyceride levels. It is presumed that the difference in cholesterol levels was due to a 10 g difference in fat intake. The average values for total cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetics before treatment in both Kyushu and Okinawa were higher than in the healthy populations of Kyushu and Okinawa. The average values for total cholesterol and triglycerides in the diabetics in Okinawa were higher than those in the diabetics of Kyushu. The incidence of ischemic heart disease in diabetics in Okinawa classified by the Minnesota Code was higher than in the healthy population. It can be concluded that the development of ischemic heart disease in diabetics is influenced by both hypercholesterolemia and other metabolic disorders due to insufficiency of insulin action.

  6. Identification and characterization of the active hydrothermal deposits in Okinawa Trough, SW Japan: Estimates from logging-while-drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, S.; Sanada, Y.; Moe, K.; Kido, Y. N.; Hamada, Y.; Kumagai, H.; Nozaki, T.; Takai, K.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-12-01

    A scientific drilling expedition was conducted at an active hydrothermal field on the Iheya-North Knoll by D/V Chikyu in 2014 (Expedition 907) as a part of "Next-generation Technology for Ocean Resources Survey" of the Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program. During the expedition logging while drilling (LWD) was deployed to constrain the area of the fluid reservoir beneath seafloor followed by three coring holes down to 150 meter below the seafloor (mbsf). The LWD system is composed of arcVISION for resistivity and natural gamma ray measurement and TeleScope for real-time transmission of drilling parameters and arcVISION data. Five sites (C9011-15) at the Iheya-North Original Site and one site (C9016) at Aki Site were drilled with LWD. At C9012 and C9016, the arcVISION detected temperature anomaly up to 84℃ at 234 mbsf and up to 39℃ at 80 mbsf, respectively. The temperature quickly increases at that depth and it would reflect the existence of high-temperature heat source along borehole. Due to the continuous fluid circulation during drilling, the measured temperature does not indicate in-situ temperature, but it reflects the heat disturbed by the cold circulated water instead. High quality resistivity and natural gamma ray data were acquired at six sites. The log curves at Site C9016 show characteristic response; the natural gamma ray log exhibits extremely high radiation (>500 gAPI) at 7-13 and 23-31 mbsf (Zone A). In the underlying interval of 31-40 mbsf, the resistivity log exhibits extremely low value (<0.2 ohm-m) (Zone B). Then the resistivity log exhibits higher value (~10 ohm-m) and the natural gamma ray log shows very low radiation (<50 gAPI) at the interval of 41-48 mbsf (Zone C). The log characteristics in Zone A, B, and C can be interpreted as a series of K-rich alteration zone, sulfide zone, and low-K hard (silicified) sediments, respectively. The LWD-based lithological interpretation was confirmed by the following core description. Zones A and B can be correlated to altered clay zone and sulfide zone including sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, and pyrite. Our results show that LWD is a powerful tool for the identification and characterization of submarine hydrothermal deposits and LWD survey enhances the successful recovery of sulfide samples.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Alcanivorax sp. Strain KX64203 Isolated from Deep-Sea Sediments of Iheya North, Okinawa Trough

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Gao, Qiang; Hou, Zhanhui; Gao, Dahai

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the draft genome sequence of Alcanivorax sp. strain KX64203, isolated from deep-sea sediment samples. The reads generated by an Ion Torrent PGM were assembled into contigs, with a total size of 4.76 Mb. The data will improve our understanding of the strain’s function in alkane degradation. PMID:27563046

  8. Longevity and diet in Okinawa, Japan: the past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, S; Iwama, N; Kawabata, T; Hasegawa, K

    2003-01-01

    Japan has the longest life expectancy at birth (LEB) in the world. Okinawa, Japan's poorest prefecture, previously had the highest longevity indices in the country. However, the latest LEB for men in Okinawa is no higher than the national average. The purpose of this study is to examine why the longevity indices in Okinawa were once the highest in Japan, and to examine the reasons for their recent decline. In 1990, in Okinawa, the age-adjusted death rates (ADR) of the three leading causes of death were lower than their national averages. By 2000, the standard mortality ratios (SMR, Japan=100) of heart disease and cerebrovascular disease for both sexes in Okinawa had increased, compared to their 1990 levels. Both of the ADR of ischemic heart disease and the ADR of cerebrovascular disease for men increased to 45.5 and 63.5 in 2000, up from 42.9 and 59.1 in 1990, respectively, and the SMR of ischemic heart disease for men in Okinawa reached 101 in 2000. Consequently, the national ranking of Okinawa prefecture for LEB of men has dropped. As of 1988, in Okinawa, daily intake of meat and daily intake of pulses were both approximately 90 grams, which is about 20% and 30% higher than the national average, respectively. Also, as of 1988, daily intake of green and yellow vegetables in Okinawa was about 50% higher than the national average. However, by 1998, daily meat intake and fat energy ratio had surpassed 100 grams and 30%, respectively, and daily intake of pulses and green and yellow vegetables had declined to the level of the national average. Recently, young Japanese, particularly young men in Okinawa, have shown a tendency to avoid the traditional dishes of stewed meat and champuru.

  9. Factors restricting the range expansion of the invasive green anole Anolis carolinensis on Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki-Ohno, Yukari; Morita, Kenjiro; Nagata, Nobuaki; Mori, Hideaki; Abe, Shintaro; Makino, Takashi; Kawata, Masakado

    2017-06-01

    The green anole Anolis carolinensis invaded the Ogasawara Islands in Japan, drove various native species to extinction, and its distribution expanded 14 years after initial establishment. A. carolinensis invaded Okinawa Island, but it has not expanded its distribution in more than 25 years, although its density is extremely high in the southern region. To determine whether A. carolinensis has the potential to expand its distribution on Okinawa Island, we performed phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial ND2 DNA sequences to study the origin of A. carolinensis that invaded Okinawa Island. We further used a species distribution model (MaxEnt) based on the distribution of native populations in North America to identify ecologically suitable areas on Okinawa Island. Nucleotide sequence analysis shows that the invader A. carolinensis originated in the western part of the Gulf Coast and inland areas of the United States and that a portion of the anoles on Okinawa was not introduced via the Ogasawara Islands. The MaxEnt predictions indicate that most areas in Okinawa Island are suitable for A. carolinensis. Therefore, A. carolinensis may have the potential to expand its distribution in Okinawa Island. The predictions indicate that habitat suitability is high in areas of high annual mean temperature and urbanized areas. The values of precipitation in summer in the northern region of Okinawa Island were higher compared with those of North America, which reduced the habitat suitability in Okinawa Island. Adaptation to low temperatures, an increase in the mean temperature through global warming, and an increase in open environments through land development will likely expand the distribution of A. carolinensis in Okinawa Island. Therefore, we must continue to monitor the introduced populations and be alert to the possibility that city planning that increases open environments may cause their range to expand.

  10. Solargenix Energy Advanced Parabolic Trough Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, R. C.; Hale, M. J.

    2005-11-01

    The Solargenix Advanced Trough Development Project was initiated in the Year 2000 with the support of the DOE CSP Program and, more recently, with the added support of the Nevada Southwest Energy Partnership. Parabolic trough plants are the most mature solar power technology, but no large-scale plants have been built in over a decade. Given this lengthy lull in deployment, our first Project objective was development of improved trough technology for near-term deployment, closely patterned after the best of the prior-generation troughs. The second objective is to develop further improvements in next-generation trough technology that will lead to even larger reductions in the cost of the delivered energy. To date, this Project has successfully developed an advanced trough, which is being deployed on a 1-MW plant in Arizona and will soon be deployed in a 64-MW plant in Nevada. This advanced trough offers a 10% increase in performance and over an 20% decrease in cost, relative to prior-generation troughs.

  11. Carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotopic characterization of biological samples from chemo-synthetic communities in southern Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, T.; Mizota, C.; Ishibashi, J.; Nakayama, N.; Tsunogai, U.; Morimoto, Y.; Kataoka, S.; Kosaka, A.; Maki, Y.; Fujiwara, Y.; Tsuchida, S.; Fujikura, K.

    2002-12-01

    Direct measurement of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotopic compositions of the seafloor hydrothermal bacteria involves many difficulties, mainly due to lack of suitable size of samples. In contrast, the isotopic measurements of the hydrothermal vent animals can easily be made. The animals depends mainly on bacterial primary production. Carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur budget from the bacterial source should be estimated using the stable isotopic compositions of the soft tissue constituents. The hydrothermal environment involves several types of chemoautotrophc and methanotrophic bacteria such as suspending, matting, and endosymbiosis. Each hydrothermal vent animal feeds on or harbors the bacteria according to their physiology and ecology. For example, the crustaceans, Shinkaiya and Alvinocaris, feed on bacteria and the deep-sea mussel, Bathymodiolus, harbors endosymbionts in their gill tissues. Our objectives are to make clear the sources of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur of these bacteria and the relationship between the bacteria and the geochemistry of emitting hydrothermal fluids. We studied the vent animals from two hydrothermal systems where the tectonic settings are significantly different. One is located on the volcanic front of the Ryukyu Arc and the other is located on the west edge of the Okinawa Trough back-arc basin. The former hydrothermal vent site is active in the caldera where sediment starved hydrothermal system, while the latter site is active on the thick sediment-covered small trough. The geological settings of these two hydrothermal sites would provide different geochemical environments. We will discuss how the vent animals succeed to the geochemical characteristics from the viewpoint of stable isotope geochemistry.

  12. Ciguatera incidence and fish toxicity in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Naomasa; Yogi, Kentaro; Asato, Shuko; Sasaki, Toshiki; Tamanaha, Koji; Hirama, Masahiro; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Inafuku, Yasuo

    2010-10-01

    Okinawa being located in the subtropical region has the highest incidence of ciguatera in Japan. Officially, 33 outbreaks involving 103 patients have been reported between 1997 and 2006. The implicated species were Variola louti, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus monostigma, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, unidentified Lutjanus sp., Plectropomus areolatus, Oplegnathus punctatus, Epinephelus polyphekadion, Caranx ignobilis and moray eel. Toxicities of the leftover meals, as determined by mouse bioassays, ranged from 0.025 to 0.8 MU/g or above (equivalent to 0.175-5.6 ngCTX1B/g). We collected 612 specimens of fish belonging to L. monostigma, L. bohar, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Lutjanus russellii, V. louti, Variola albimarginata, and E. fuscoguttatus from the coasts around Okinawa and examined the toxicity of the flesh by the mouse bioassay. The rate of toxic fish was as follows: L. monostigma: 32.3%, L. bohar: 11.9%, V. louti: 14.3%, E. fuscoguttatus: 20.8%. Only one out of 36 samples of V. albimarginata and two of 74 samples of L. russellii were found toxic. None of the 35 samples of L. argentimaculatus was toxic. Nor the L. bohar samples weighing less than 4 kg were toxic. In all toxic samples, CTX1B was detected by LC/MS analysis but CTX3C and 51-hydroxyCTX3C were not. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Parabolic Trough VSHOT Optical Characterization in 2005-2006 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelin, T.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation regarding parabolic trough VSHOT optical characterization describes trough deployment and operation phases including: development, manufacture/installation, and maintenance/operation.

  14. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Official journal of Japan Association of Mineralogical Sciences (JAMS), focusing on mineralogical and petrological sciences and their related fields. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences (JMPS) is the successor journal to both “Journal of Mineralogy, Petrology and Economic Geology” and “Mineralogical Journal”. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences (JMPS) is indexed in the ISI database (Thomson Reuters), the Science Citation Index-Expanded, Current Contents/Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences, and ISI Alerting Services.

  15. Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, A.; Feik, C.; Hansen, R.; Phillips, S.; Bingham, C.; Netter, J.; Forristal, R.; Burkholder, F.; Meglan, B.; Wolfrum, E.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation describes the design, fabrication, and qualification of an experimental capability for thermal loss testing of full-size trough receiver elements; and the testing on a variety of receivers.

  16. Child Development in Okinawa Compared with Tokyo and Denver, and the Implications for Developmental Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    1978-01-01

    Developmental differences in the Denver Developmental Screening Test items were demonstrated between samples of children from Okinawa (n=615) and Tokyo (n=1171), who were 16 days to 6 years old. Journal availability: see EC 112 661. (Author)

  17. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E viruses from mongooses in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nidaira, Minoru; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Ogura, Go; Taira, Katsuya; Okano, Shou; Kudaka, Jun; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Mishiro, Shunji; Nakamura, Masaji

    2012-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has previously been reported in wild mongooses on Okinawa Island; to date however, only one HEV RNA sequence has been identified in a mongoose. Hence, this study was performed to detect HEV RNA in 209 wild mongooses on Okinawa Island. Six (2.9%) samples tested positive for HEV RNA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 6 HEV RNAs belonged to genotype 3 and were classified into groups A and B. In group B, mongoose-derived HEV sequences were very similar to mongoose HEV previously detected on Okinawa Island, as well as to those of a pig. This investigation emphasized the possibility that the mongoose is a reservoir animal for HEV on Okinawa Island.

  18. Child Development in Okinawa Compared with Tokyo and Denver, and the Implications for Developmental Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    1978-01-01

    Developmental differences in the Denver Developmental Screening Test items were demonstrated between samples of children from Okinawa (n=615) and Tokyo (n=1171), who were 16 days to 6 years old. Journal availability: see EC 112 661. (Author)

  19. Association between Helicobacter pylori virulence factors and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsunari, Osamu; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Kinjo, Nagisa; Murakami, Kazunari; Fujioka, Toshio; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer in Okinawa is lowest in Japan. Some previous reports using small number of strains suggested that the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori with Western-type cagA in Okinawa compared to other areas in Japan might contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer. It has still not been confirmed why the prevalence of Western-type cagA strains is high in Okinawa. We examined the association between the virulence factors of H. pylori and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa. The genotypes of cagA and vacA of 337 H. pylori strains were determined by PCR and gene sequencing. The genealogy of these Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Overall, 86.4% of the strains possessed cagA: 70.3% were East-Asian type and 16.0% were Western type. After adjustment by age and sex, the presence of East-Asian-type cagA/vacA s1m1 genotypes was significantly associated with gastric cancer compared to gastritis (odds ratio = 6.68, 95% confidence interval = 1.73 to 25.8). The structure of Western-type CagA in Okinawa was different from that of typical Western-type CagA found in Western countries. Intriguingly, MLST analysis revealed that the majority of Western-type cagA strains formed individual clusters but not hpEurope. Overall, low prevalence of gastric cancer in Okinawa may result from the high prevalence of non-East-Asian-type cagA strains. The origin of Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa may be different from those of Western countries.

  20. Association between Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors and Gastroduodenal Diseases in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsunari, Osamu; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Kinjo, Nagisa; Murakami, Kazunari; Fujioka, Toshio; Kinjo, Fukunori

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer in Okinawa is lowest in Japan. Some previous reports using small number of strains suggested that the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori with Western-type cagA in Okinawa compared to other areas in Japan might contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer. It has still not been confirmed why the prevalence of Western-type cagA strains is high in Okinawa. We examined the association between the virulence factors of H. pylori and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa. The genotypes of cagA and vacA of 337 H. pylori strains were determined by PCR and gene sequencing. The genealogy of these Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Overall, 86.4% of the strains possessed cagA: 70.3% were East-Asian type and 16.0% were Western type. After adjustment by age and sex, the presence of East-Asian-type cagA/vacA s1m1 genotypes was significantly associated with gastric cancer compared to gastritis (odds ratio = 6.68, 95% confidence interval = 1.73 to 25.8). The structure of Western-type CagA in Okinawa was different from that of typical Western-type CagA found in Western countries. Intriguingly, MLST analysis revealed that the majority of Western-type cagA strains formed individual clusters but not hpEurope. Overall, low prevalence of gastric cancer in Okinawa may result from the high prevalence of non-East-Asian-type cagA strains. The origin of Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa may be different from those of Western countries. PMID:22189111

  1. [Basic study on wartime reminiscences of older adults in Okinawa].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Maiko; Tanaka, Kanji

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated retrospectively the thoughts people had of World War II, especially the Battle of Okinawa at that time, and their current evaluation of their own wartime experience. A questionnaire survey was conducted, and 217 older adults, 114 women and 103 men between 65 and 88 years old, participated. Results indicated that men generally had more negative feelings than women at the end of the war. And psychological damages caused by traumatic war memories seemed to have persisted in not a few individuals in spite of over half a century since the end of the war. However, others had been more positive and accepting toward their wartime experiences. This difference appeared to be related to qualitative differences of various experiences, as well as the person's age. It is argued that a vigorous approach will be necessary for this sort of study of Japanese war victims from a number of viewpoints.

  2. Typhoon damage on a shallow mesophotic reef in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Taku; Fujii, Takuma; Kawamura, Iori; Mizuyama, Masaru; Montenegro, Javier; Shikiba, Haruka; Naruse, Tohru; McClelland, TY; Denis, Vianney; Reimer, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about effects of large storm systems on mesophotic reefs. This study reports on how Typhoon 17 (Jelawat) affected Ryugu Reef on Okinawa-jima, Japan in September 2012. Benthic communities were surveyed before and after the typhoon using line intercept transect method. Comparison of the benthic assemblages showed highly significant differences in coral coverage at depths of 25–32 m before and after Typhoon 17. A large deep stand of Pachyseris foliosa was apparently less resistant to the storm than the shallower high diversity area of this reef. Contradictory to common perception, this research shows that large foliose corals at deeper depths are just as susceptible to typhoon damage as shallower branching corals. However, descriptive functional group analyses resulted in only minor changes after the disturbance, suggesting the high likelihood of recovery and the high resilience capacity of this mesophotic reef. PMID:24032094

  3. Metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Shiohira, Y; Uezu, Y; Higa, A; Iseki, K

    2006-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a hospital-based screening program in Okinawa, Japan. The significance of metabolic syndrome as a determinant of CKD was examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 6980 participants, aged 30-79 years, participated in a screening program in Tomishiro Chuo Hospital. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). Data were also analyzed according to the modified criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) that defines abdominal obesity as a waist circumference of > oe =85 cm in men and > or =90 cm in women. CKD was defined as dipstick proteinuria (> or =1+) or a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR was estimated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and CKD was 12.8 and 13.7%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome was a significant determinant of CKD (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.537 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.277-1.850, P<0.0001). The adjusted OR (95% CI) was 1.770 (1.215-2.579, P=0.0029) for those with four metabolic syndrome risk factors compared to those with no metabolic syndrome risk factors. Metabolic syndrome was a significant determinant for younger participants (<60 years; OR 1.686, 95% CI 1.348-2.107, P<0.0001), but not for older participants (> or =60 years; OR 1.254, 95% CI 0.906-1.735, NS). The relationship between the number of metabolic syndrome risk factors and the prevalence of CKD was linear using the modified criteria. The results suggest that metabolic syndrome is a significant determinant of CKD in men under 60 years of age, in Okinawa, Japan.

  4. Microbial Communities of the Okinawa Backarc Basin Subvent Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; House, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study the microbial stratigraphy within the sediments surrounding a hydrothermal vent. The Okinawa backarc basin is a sedimented region of the seafloor located on a continental margin, and also hosts a hydrothermal network within the subsurface. Site C0014 within the Iheya North hydrothermal field is located 450 m east of the active vent and has a surface temperature of 5°C with no evidence of hydrothermal alteration within the top 10 m. Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m and transitions from non-hydrothermal margin sediments to a hydrothermally altered regime below 10 m. Site C0014 is a unique location to study changes in microbial communities with depth, as the hydrothermal system generates a thermally and geochemically restrictive subvent biosphere. In this study, we utilized deep 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA from IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014 sediment horizons in order to assess diversity throughout the sediment column as well as determine the potential limits of the biosphere. Analysis of the amplicon data suggests that Archaea represent a significant proportion of the indigenous community throughout the top 15 m of sediment, where Archaea then abruptly disappear. Furthermore, a deeper classification of Archaeal sequences suggests a transition from a mesophilic community to a potentially thermophilic one, where there is an increasingly stronger signal of Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG) followed by Terrestrial Hot Spring Crenarchaeotic Group (THSCG). Additionally, there are several horizons in which methanotrophy is likely supported, indicated by peaks in anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea. The cessation of Archaea as well as Chloroflexi, a common marine subsurface bacterial phylum, at approximately 15 meters below seafloor (mbsf) is suggestive of a potential boundary within Site C0014 in which the environmental conditions have become too restrictive

  5. Mineralogical and chemical characterization of suspended atmospheric particles over the east Mediterranean based on synoptic-scale circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalderon-Asael, Boriana; Erel, Yigal; Sandler, Amir; Dayan, Uri

    Suspended atmospheric particles were collected in Israel in order to identify their nature and relationships with the major synoptic-scale circulation patterns. The particles were analyzed for their major and trace element concentrations and mineralogical composition. Samples were collected during three synoptic systems associated with desert dust storms: Red Sea trough, Sharav cyclone and cold depression, and during deep and shallow modes of Persian Gulf trough, which prevails in the summer months and is not associated with dust storms. All samples mostly contain particles smaller than 2 μm. The suspended desert dust is composed primarily of illite-smectite and calcite. Some indicative secondary minerals were found for each of the dust transporting synoptic systems (e.g., palygorskite for Red Sea trough). The bulk chemistry data support the mineralogical observations and reveal additional chemical signatures of each dust transporting system. For instance, Red Sea trough samples have significantly higher Ca/Al and Ca/Mg in the carbonate and Mg/Al in Al-silicate fraction than cold depression samples. Nevertheless, Sharav cyclone samples have intermediate values in spite of the fact that the source of the dust during these conditions is similar to cold depression (i.e., North Africa). Even though differences in the chemical and the mineralogical composition of desert dust do exist, this study reveals their overall chemical and mineralogical similarities. In contrast to the synoptic systems that carry desert dust, the inorganic fraction of the Persian Gulf trough samples contains significant amount (up to 50%) of non-mineral material that has a pronounced chemical signature in terms of major element concentrations (e.g., Al, Ca, Mg, Na, S) implying their anthropogenic nature, probably from countries around the Black Sea. This striking finding is indicative for atmospheric pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean region during the summer.

  6. The Encyclopedia of Mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, George, Jr.

    This volume is the tenth in the ambitious Encyclopedia of Earth Science series. In addition to the standard short encyclopedia-style articles, it contains an alphabetical list of 3000 mineral species, groups, varieties, and mineraloids (which, following Fleischer, is called a glossary); this glossary presents basic physical and chemical properties for each entry.Editor Keith Frye has made a major effort, detailed in the preface, to assist the reader/user in avoiding many of the pitfalls in mineral nomenclature. For example, the book presents the names of valid mineral species in lower-case italic type, the names of series or groups in boldface italic letters, while varieties (and synonyms) are set in roman typeface. The worthwhile preface also contains a list, with addresses and date of first publication, of the world's 178 most important journals where mineral data are published. Also included are lists of the important mineral reference books and textbooks on mineralogy. The articles include one on museums with a 32-page table of museums with addresses, size of collection, and specialties.

  7. Mineralogy of asbestos.

    PubMed

    Sporn, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    The term asbestos collectively refers to a group of naturally occurring fibrous minerals which have been exploited in numerous commercial and industrial settings and applications dating to antiquity. Its myriad uses as a "miracle mineral" owe to its remarkable properties of extreme resistance to thermal and chemical breakdown, tensile strength, and fibrous habit which allows it to be spun and woven into textiles. Abundant in nature, it has been mined considerably, and in all continents save Antarctica. The nomenclature concerning asbestos and its related species is complex, owing to the interest held therein by scientific disciplines such as geology, mineralogy and medicine, as well as legal and regulatory authorities. As fibrous silicates, asbestos minerals are broadly classified into the serpentine (chrysotile) and amphibole (crocidolite, amosite, tremolite, anthophyllite, actinolite) groups, both of which may also contain allied but nonfibrous forms of similar or even identical chemical composition, nonpathogenic to humans. Recently, fibrous amphiboles, not historically classified or regulated as asbestos (winchite, richterite), have been implicated in the causation of serious disease due to their profusion as natural contaminants of vermiculite, a commercially useful and nonfibrous silicate mineral. Although generally grouped, classified, and regulated collectively as asbestos, the serpentine and amphibole groups have different geologic occurrences and, more importantly, significant differences in crystalline structures and chemical compositions. These in turn impart differences in fiber structure and dimension, as well as biopersistence, leading to marked differences in relative potency for causing disease in humans for the group of minerals known as asbestos.

  8. Climatology of the winter Red Sea Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Adel M.; Almazroui, Mansour

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a new and objective method for detecting the Red Sea Trough (RST) was developed using mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset from the winters of 1956 to 2015 to identify the Sudan Low and its trough. Approximately 96% of the winter RSTs were generated near two main sources, South Sudan and southeastern Sudan, and approximately 85% of these troughs were in four of the most outer areas surrounding the northern Red Sea. Moreover, from west to east of the Red Sea, the RST was affected by the relationships between the Siberian High and Azores High. The RST was oriented to the west when the strength of the Siberian High increased and to the east when the strength of the Azores High increased. Furthermore, the synoptic features of the upper level of the RST emphasize the impacts of subtropical anticyclones at 850 hPa on the orientation of the RST, the impacts of the northern cyclone trough and the maximum wind at a pressure level of 250 hPa. The average static stability between 1000 hPa and 500 hPa demonstrated that the RST followed the northern areas of low static stability. The results from previous studies were confirmed by a detailed case study of the RST that extended to its central outermost area. The results of a detailed case study of the short RST indicated that the trough becomes shorter with increasing static stability and that the Azores and Siberian high-pressure systems influence the northern region of the trough while the maximum upper wind shifts south of the climate position.

  9. Mineralogy of Meteorite Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1997-01-01

    Approximately 275 mineral species have been identified in meteorites, reflecting diverse redox environments, and, in some cases, unusual nebular formation conditions. Anhydrous ordinary, carbonaceous and R chondrites contain major olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase; major opaque phases include metallic Fe-Ni, troilite and chromite. Primitive achondrites are mineralogically similar. The highly reduced enstatite chondrites and achondrites contain major enstatite, plagioclase, free silica and kamacite as well as nitrides, a silicide and Ca-, Mg-, Mn-, Na-, Cr-, K- and Ti-rich sulfides. Aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites contain major amounts of hydrous phyllosilicates, complex organic compounds, magnetite, various sulfates and sulfides, and carbonates. In addition to kamacite and taenite, iron meteorites contain carbides, elemental C, nitrides, phosphates, phosphides, chromite and sulfides. Silicate inclusions in IAB/IIICD and lIE iron meteorites consist of mafic silicates, plagioclase and various sulfides, oxides and phosphates. Eucrites, howardites and diogenites have basaltic to orthopyroxenitic compositions and consist of major pyroxene and calcic plagioclase and several accessory oxides. Ureilttes .are made up mainly of calcic, chromian olivine and low-Ca clinopyroxene embedded in a carbonaceous matrix; accessory phases include the C polymorphs graphite, diamond, lonsdaleite and chaoite as well as metallic Fe-Ni, troilite and halides. Angrites are achondrites rich in fassaitic pyroxene (i.e. , AI-Ti diopside); minor olivine with included magnesian kirschsteinite is also present. Martian meteorites comprise basalts, Iherzolites, a dunite and an orthopyroxenite. Major phases include various pyroxenes and olivine; minor to accessory phases include various sulfides, magnetite, chromite and Ca-phosphates. Lunar meteorites comprise mare basalts with major augite and calcic plagioclase and anorthositic breccias with major calcic plagioclase. Several meteoritic

  10. Molecular Epidemiological Study of Mumps Epidemics of 2015 in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kuba, Yumani; Kyan, Hisako; Arakaki, Eri; Takara, Taketoshi; Kato, Takashi; Okano, Sho; Oshiro, Yuko; Kudaka, Jun; Kidokoro, Minoru

    2017-05-24

    Although major mumps epidemics occurred every 4-5 years in Okinawa Prefecture in Japan, no laboratory diagnoses were conducted. A mumps epidemic started in Okinawa in October 2014, and we collected clinical samples from 31 patients in 4 areas (Hokubu, Nanbu, Miyako, and Yaeyama) from July to December 2015, for virus isolation and RT-PCR, whose positive ratios were 52% and 87%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that all isolates were classified into genotype G, and with one exception, consisted of 2 subgenotypes, Ge (55.6%) and Gw (40.7%), which have been prominent in Japan recently. One isolate was classified in another lineage, which was detected in Japan for the first time, and was similar to a Hong Kong isolate from 2014. Remarkably, the geographic distributions of the 2 major lineages were separated. The Ge viruses were isolated from the main island of Okinawa and the Yaeyama Islands, whereas the Gw isolates were mainly detected from the Miyako Islands. These results suggest that the Ge and Gw mumps viruses mainly caused the mumps epidemics of 2015 in Okinawa, and that they spread independently in separate regions. This is the first report describing the molecular epidemiology of mumps epidemics in Okinawa Prefecture.

  11. Progressive illitization in fault gouge caused by seismic slip propagation along a megasplay fault in the Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Sakaguchi, A.; Kameda, J.; Hamada, Y.; Kimura, G.; Sakamoto, T.; Iijima, K.; Ujiie, K.; Chester, F. M.; Fabbri, O.; Goldsby, D. L.; Tsutsumi, A.; Curewitz, D.

    2011-12-01

    The question of whether coseismic ruptures along megasplay faults in accretionary prisms (i.e., large landward-dipping thrust faults branching from the plate boundary) reach the seafloor is critical for assessing the risk of tsunami disaster. To investigate the seismic history, geologic characteristics, and physical properties of the shallow part of a megasplay fault in the Kumano region of the Nankai Trough, core samples of the fault were acquired through scientific drilling at Site C0004 as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 316. The megasplay fault zone is characterized by localized shear zones of brecciated host rocks. A prominent slip zone, termed "dark gouge", was discovered within one of the shear zones. Recent vitrinite reflectance study on the core sample revealed that the dark gouge underwent localized temperatures of more than 390 degrees C (Sakaguchi et al., 2011). Moreover, non-destructive XRF core-imaging scanner and XRD analyses of the shear zone samples revealed geochemical and mineralogical features of shallow megasplay fault in the Nankai Trough. Compared to the surrounding breccias, the dark gouge is chemically enriched in Al and K, and depleted in Ca and Sr. It is also characterized by higher illite content in illite-smectite mixed-layer clays. These chemical and mineralogical features may reflect a transformation in clay mineralogy caused by frictional heating, and suggest that the seismic slip can propagate to very shallow levels along megasplay fault systems.

  12. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-05

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  13. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  14. Macrobenthos of the Novaya Zemlya Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, S. V.; Savilova, T. A.; Moskalev, L. I.; Kucheruk, N. V.

    2010-12-01

    During the 54th cruise of the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh the macrobenthos of the Novaya Zemlya Trough was studied using a Sigsby trawl along the submeridional transect near 75°30'N latitude at a depth range from 68 to 362 m. In total, 140 species of bottom animals were found. The relative role of the taxons was assessed using three indices: the number, biomass, and energy flow. Similarity indices were used for the comparison of the samples. The new material greatly contributes to the data on the composition of the fauna and the structure of the communities of the studied region. It was revealed that small scyphozoid polyps and sipunculoids play an important role in the trough's community. The presence of the community dominated by Ophiocten sericeum (with the important role of small bivalves) was revealed for the first time not only at the eastern by also at the western slope of the Novaya Zemlya Trough. The sharpest changes in the composition and structure of the bottom community were confined to the zone of the transition from the trough floor to the slope. These changes are determined by the specificity of the macrorelief (of the floor and slope), the composition of the ground (soft brown silts abound in rhizopods and dense gray silts with an admixture of pebbles), and possibly by the hydrodynamic processes near the bottom.

  15. Aerial mulching techniques-trough fire

    Treesearch

    Robert. Faust

    2008-01-01

    The Trough fire occurred in August 2001 on the Mendocino National Forest of northern California. A burned area emergency rehabilitation team evaluated the fire effects on the watershed. Concerns were soil from the denuded slopes moving into streams affecting fishery values, reservoir sedimentation and storm runoff plugging culverts leading to road wash outs. Past...

  16. Crustal structure of the Mariana Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Ambos, E.L.; Hussong, D.M.

    1982-05-10

    Three seismic refraction profiles were shot in the Mariana Trough in the vicinity of the proposed axial rift spreading center. One long east-west trending line was shot across the axial high region, the elevated portion of the trough associated with the rift zone. The two other lines were shot in a rough north-south orientation subparallel to the trend of the axial rift, on crusts 1 and 5--6 m.y. old. Comparison of the results of the ray-tracing analysis for these two profiles indicated that thinning of layer 2A (velocity of 3.3 km/s) and development of a distinct layer 2B (velocity of 5.3 km/s and development of a distinct layer 2B (velocity of 5.3 km/s) and layer 3A (velocity of 6.7 km/s) takes place with increasing crustal age, implying a process of crustal evolution. The presence of large-scale crustal faults was noted in several instances. In addition, a consistent but low upper mantle seismic velocity of 7.7 km/s was measured for all three lines. These characteristics correlate with those previously observed for other areas of young oceanic crust. When compared with major active spreading centers such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and East Pacific Rise, the Mariana Trough appears similar to the former in most respects. Both the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Mariana Trough are slow spreading (1-2 cm/yr half rate) and are characterized by rough topography, an axial rift, and a thick layer/sup 2/. Like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Mariana Trough also has no low-velocity zone in the crust that could be interpreted as a magma chamber at the spreading center.

  17. The light-ion trough, the main trough, and the plasmapause.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Walsh, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Although the plasmapause has been detected as a global phenomenon by both VLF and ion composition measurements, the electron and ion density troughs have been identified primarily as nightside features. This problem, as well as the difficulty in explaining various inconsistencies in relating the position of the plasmapause and the ionization trough, is explained by a close examination of the ion composition, generally unavailable in previous trough studies. In particular, ion composition results from the polar-orbiting Ogo satellites identify the persistence of a pronounced light-ion trough (LIT) in H(+) and He(+), often identified by order-of-magnitude decreases in the light-ion concentrations, that occurs within a few degrees of latitude and reaches residual concentration levels of 100 to 1000 ions/cu cm near 60 deg dipole latitude. The LIT, observed both within the thermosphere and at high latitudes in the magnetosphere, has been correlated directly with the VLF whistler identification of the plasmapause.

  18. Revisiting trough interactions and tropical cyclone intensity change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peirano, C. M.; Corbosiero, K. L.; Tang, B. H.

    2016-05-01

    An updated climatology of Atlantic basin tropical cyclone (TC) intensity change in the presence of upper tropospheric trough forcing is presented. To control for changes in the background thermodynamic environment, a methodology that normalizes intensity change by the potential intensity of the TC is used to more narrowly focus on the effect of troughs compared to previous studies. Relative to the full sample of Atlantic TCs, troughs are a negative influence on intensification: trough interaction cases are 4% less likely to intensify and 5% more likely to weaken. Troughs are especially detrimental compared to TCs without trough forcing: trough interaction cases are 14% less likely to intensify and 13% more likely to weaken. Additionally, eddy flux convergence of angular momentum, previously shown to positively affect TC intensity change, is shown to be a weak predictor of intensity change compared to vertical wind shear, which is enhanced during a trough interaction.

  19. Detail of pumps in troughs, detail of truss attachment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of pumps in troughs, detail of truss - attachment to the wall - as well as the troughs themselves. Interior of the main hatchery building, view to the east. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  20. [Investigation into drinking problem of patients who visited a general hospital in central and northern Okinawa].

    PubMed

    Nakai, Minori; Hotta, Hiroshi; Ootsuru, Taku; Hiejima, Shigeto; Murakami, Masaru; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2013-04-01

    In Japan, many problems related to alcohol are pointed out from before. We believe that there is a unique drinking culture in Okinawa, such as a large amount of alcohol. Therefore, we estimate many people in Okinawa have a drinking problem. We conducted a survey of patients who visited general hospital (medical or surgical or orthopedic) in 2007. The purpose of this study is to collect basic data for introducing alcoholics to specialized treatment as early as possible, detecting the person who drink large amounts of alcohol, performing early intervention for people who drink large amount of alcohol, and advancing cooperation with specialized medical agencies of alcohol. As a result, Among the patients who visited general hospital in Okinawa, many problem drinkers are concentrated in the young age. and they have strong fears of health. The possibility of early intervention with intervention techniques, such as brief intervention, has been suggested.

  1. Development of Education Program for Okinawa Model Creative and Capable Engineers in Advanced Welding Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Yukio; Matsue, Junji; Makishi, Takashi; Higa, Yoshikazu; Matsuda, Shoich

    Okinawa National College of Technology proposed “Educational Program for Practically Skilled Engineers in Advanced Welding Technology in Okinawa Style” to the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and was adopted as a 2-year project starting from 2005. This project designed to fit for the regional characteristics of Okinawa, aims to develop the core human resources program that will help reinforce and innovate the welding engineering in the manufacturing industries. In 2005, the education program and the original textbook were developed, and in 2006, a proof class was held to confirm the suitability and the effectiveness of the program and the textbook in order to improve the attendees' basics and the application ability of welding. The results were quite positive. Also, by collaborating with the Japan Welding Society, points scored in this course were authorized as the education points of IIW international welding engineer qualification.

  2. Evaluation of the trough-type rain gage

    Treesearch

    Irvin C. Reigner

    1964-01-01

    Although infrequently used, the trough-type rain gage has been described as aerodynamically the most efficient of gages (Hayes and Kittredge 1949). This applies only to the commercial semicircular eave-gutter type of trough and not to troughs rectangular in cross-section. The latter, as well as the upright cylindrical type of gage, produces greater disturbances in the...

  3. Composition of massive sulfide deposits from the sediment-covered floor of Escanaba Trough, Gorda Ridge: implications for depositional processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, Randolph A.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Oscarson, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Massive sulfide deposits with two distinct compositions are spatially related to volcanic edifices that penetrate up to 500 m of turbiditic sediment in Escanaba Trough (ET), southern Gorda Ridge. The mineralogy, metal content, sulfur isotope composition, and hydrocarbon content of massive sulfides from ET reflect the extensive interaction between underlying turbiditic sediment and hydrothermal fluid. Pyrrhotite-rich sulfide mounds are inferred to have formed under gentle temperature and chemical gradients related to diffuse, low-velocity flow through disrupted sediment near the sediment-capped hills.

  4. THz Radiation Source Trough Periodically Modulated Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-04

    Trough Periodically Modulated Structures C 6. AUTHOR(S) N 68171-96-C-9015 E. Gornik, Ch. Rauch, G. Strasser, K. Unterrainer, R. Kersting 7...is used to ,ad M6 probe the transmittance of undoped GaAs/Ga0.7A10 3As superlattices. The measured ofninjecte elnjectron collector current reflects...period superlattice is shown for different collector biases. The black solid line represents the transfer ratio at flat band condition (UBc=0). A clear

  5. Parabolic Trough Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, S.; Cohen, G.; Cable, R.; Brosseau, D.; Price, H.

    2005-01-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is required to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources in order to satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). In recent years, APS has installed and operates over 4.5 MWe of fixed, tracking, and concentrating photovoltaic systems to help meet the solar portion of this obligation and to develop an understanding of which solar technologies provide the best cost and performance to meet utility needs. During FY04, APS began construction of a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. The plant will also be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than a conventional steam Rankine cycle power plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  6. Flow dynamics in a trough blowout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesp, Patrick A.

    1996-02-01

    The dynamics and geomorphological development of a trough blowout located at Fiona Beach in the Myall Lakes National Park in NSW, Australia are examined. Wind velocities and flow structure were measured utilising an array of miniature Rimco cup anemometers, Gill bi-vane and UVW instruments, and wind vanes. Flow measurements indicate that when the wind approaches the trough blowout parallel to the throat orientation, jets occur both in the deflation basin and along the erosional walls, relative flow deceleration and expansion occur up the depositional lobe, jets are formed over the depositional lobe crest accompanied by downwind flow separation on the leeward side of the lobe, and flow separation and the formation of corkscrew vortices occur over the crests of the erosional walls. Maximum erosion and transport occur up the deflation basin and onto the depositional lobe. Trough blowout morphologies are explained as a function of these flow patterns. When the wind approaches the blowout obliquely, the flow is steered considerably within the blowout. The degree and complexity of topographic steering is dependent on the blowout topography. The flow is usually extremely turbulent and large corkscrew vortices are common. The local topography of a blowout can be very important in determining flow patterns, overall sand transport and blowout evolutionary conditions and paths. Estimates of potential sand transport within the blowout may be up to two orders of magnitude lower than actual rates if remote wind data are used.

  7. Designing Better Water Troughs: Does Trough Color Influence Dairy Cows' Preference?

    PubMed

    Lemos Teixeira, Dayane; Hötzel, Maria José; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos; Cazale, José Daniel; Enríquez-Hidalgo, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Eighteen lactating dairy cows were used to elucidate their preference for green, grey, or red troughs. The herd was managed under a rotational grazing system with ad-libitum access to water until 11:30 h. For 9 days, all cows were tested individually following the afternoon milking. Cows drank similar quantities, spent a similar amount of time drinking, and took a similar number of sips from the 3 trough colors (p > .05). In 75% of the tests, cows drank more than 95% of the test period from the same trough. Within this time, the percentage of choices did not differ among colors (33.3% green, 39.0% grey, and 27.7% red). When they chose the red trough, cows spent less time drinking (p ≤ .05) and tended to take fewer sips (p = .07), which could suggest a partial aversion to this color. Suboptimal water trough design may have long-term negative effects on both the production and welfare of dairy cattle; however, the results suggest that color does not play a major role in the drinking behavior of dairy cows.

  8. Archaeal Diversity and Distribution along Thermal and Geochemical Gradients in Hydrothermal Sediments at the Yonaguni Knoll IV Hydrothermal Field in the Southern Okinawa Trough▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Nunoura, Takuro; Oida, Hanako; Nakaseama, Miwako; Kosaka, Ayako; Ohkubo, Satoru B.; Kikuchi, Toru; Kazama, Hiromi; Hosoi-Tanabe, Shoko; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Kinoshita, Masataka; Hirayama, Hisako; Inagaki, Fumio; Tsunogai, Urumu; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Takai, Ken

    2010-01-01

    A variety of archaeal lineages have been identified using culture-independent molecular phylogenetic surveys of microbial habitats occurring in deep-sea hydrothermal environments such as chimney structures, sediments, vent emissions, and chemosynthetic macrofauna. With the exception of a few taxa, most of these archaea have not yet been cultivated, and their physiological and metabolic traits remain unclear. In this study, phylogenetic diversity and distribution profiles of the archaeal genes encoding small subunit (SSU) rRNA, methyl coenzyme A (CoA) reductase subunit A, and the ammonia monooxygenase large subunit were characterized in hydrothermally influenced sediments at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field in the Southern Okinawa Trough. Sediment cores were collected at distances of 0.5, 2, or 5 m from a vent emission (90°C). A moderate temperature gradient extends both horizontally and vertically (5 to 69°C), indicating the existence of moderate mixing between the hydrothermal fluid and the ambient sediment pore water. The mixing of reductive hot hydrothermal fluid and cold ambient sediment pore water establishes a wide spectrum of physical and chemical conditions in the microbial habitats that were investigated. Under these different physico-chemical conditions, variability in archaeal phylotype composition was observed. The relationship between the physical and chemical parameters and the archaeal phylotype composition provides important insight into the ecophysiological requirements of uncultivated archaeal lineages in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments, giving clues for approximating culture conditions to be used in future culturing efforts. PMID:20023079

  9. Deformation and Seismicity Within the Salton Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohman, R. B.; McGuire, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    We examine ground deformation and seismicity within the Salton Trough of Southern California with Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). The Salton Trough is the landward extension of the spreading centers and transforms within the Gulf of California, and is associated with a higher heat flow than is found further north along the San Andreas system. The Salton Trough region is characterized by seismicity swarms similar to those that are characteristic of fault systems on the East Pacific Rise. Transient episodes of shallow and deep creep occur on the southern San Andreas, Imperial, and Superstition Hills faults, and pronounced afterslip and triggered slip are associated with local and regional earthquakes. Documentation of the temporal and spatial evolution of transient and triggered slip phenomena is vital to development of stress transfer and strain partitioning models explaining the dynamics of interactions within the North America-Pacific plate boundary. We determine the extent to which aseismic fault slip can be observed with SAR data, and perform specific investigations of the time periods surrounding several of the ~10 major earthquake swarms that have occurred within the Salton Trough since 1992. We seek to determine whether seismic swarm activity is associated with aseismic slip transients. Extensive agricultural activity in the region limits the utility of traditional InSAR, so we explore use of the persistent scatterer method to isolate roads, buildings and other features that retain interferometric coherence over time. Because a large number of SAR acquisitions are available (>30), and because of the large spatial and temporal variations in coherence between urban, agricultural, water-covered and desert landscapes within the scene, the Salton trough provides an interesting test scenario for the persistent scatterer method. We use spatially and temporally varying fault slip to model observed activity on the Superstition Hills fault. We explore

  10. Situation Report--Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, Sarawak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, and Sarawak. Information is provided where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning…

  11. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei Strain LC-Ikematsu, Isolated from a Pineapple in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tada, Ipputa; Saitoh, Seikoh; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Shinzato, Naoya; Yamamoto, Norikuni; Arita, Masanori; Ikematsu, Shinya

    2017-02-02

    The draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei strain LC-Ikematsu, isolated from a pineapple in Okinawa, was determined. The total length of the 87 contigs was 3.08 Mb with a G+C content of 46.2% and 2,946 coding sequences. The genome analysis revealed its biosynthetic ability of 11 amino acids.

  12. Mosquito biodiversity patterns around urban environments in South-central okinawa island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Imanishi, Nozomi; Higa, Yukiko; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Okinawa is the largest, most urbanized, and densely populated island in the Ryukyus Archipelago, where mosquito species diversity has been thoroughly studied. However, the south-central Okinawa mosquito fauna has been relatively poorly studied. Here, we present results from a mosquito faunal survey in urban environments of Nishihara city, south-central Okinawa. Mosquitoes were sampled biweekly, from April 2007 to March 2008, at 3 different environments: a forest preserve, an animal farm, and a water reservoir. We employed 4 mosquito collection methods: 1) oviposition traps; 2) light traps; 3) sweep nets; and 4) larval surveys of tree holes, leaf axils, and artificial water containers. We collected a total of 568 adults and 10,270 larvae belonging to 6 genera and 13 species, including 6 species of medical importance: Aedes albopictus, Armigeres subalbatus, Anopheles Hyrcanus group, Culex bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Mosquito species composition was similar to data from previous studies in Okinawa Island. The flattening of the species accumulation curve suggests that our diversity sampling was exhaustive with light and oviposition traps, as well as the coincidence between the species richness we found in the field and estimates from the Chao2 index, a theoretical estimator of species richness based on species abundance. This study highlights the importance of combining several sampling techniques to properly characterize regional mosquito fauna and to monitor changes in the presence of mosquito species.

  13. Serologic and Virologic Studies of an Imported Dengue Case Occurring in 2014 in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mika; Tamayose, Maki; Miyagi, Kazuya; Takaragawa, Hiroo; Tateyama, Masao; Tadano, Masayuki; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    After returning from Bali, Indonesia, in February 2014, a 72-year-old man was hospitalized in Okinawa owing to a high fever and rash. Dengue was clinically suspected, and the patient tested positive for IgM against dengue using a commercial kit. Serologically, the patient showed secondary seroreactivity. Significant increases in neutralization titers (N-titers) against all 4 serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strains were recognized in convalescent-phase sera comparing to acute phase sera. The N-titer against DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1) was the highest among all DENV serotypes. Interestingly, the N-titers against JEV strains were significantly higher than those against all types of DENV comparing to acute phase sera. The virus was isolated from the acute-phase serum and identified as DENV-1 and designated RD14/Okinawa. The patient's symptoms were due to DENV-1 infection. Phylogenetic sequencing analysis indicated that the isolate RD14/Okinawa belonged to genotype I of DENV-1, which is closely related to the Southeast Asian strains and isolates found during the dengue outbreak in Japan in 2014. We should undertake control measures against dengue in Okinawa, which is a subtropical area with Aedes albopictus activity throughout year.

  14. Subclinical Carotid Atherosclerosis Burden in the Japanese: Comparison between Okinawa and Nagano Residents.

    PubMed

    Shimabukuro, Michio; Hasegawa, Yoshimasa; Higa, Moritake; Amano, Rie; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Mizushima, Shunsaku; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Sata, Masataka

    2015-08-26

    The prevalence of overweight and a change in atherosclerotic lipid profiles may be linked to region-specific differences in atherosclerotic diseases. We evaluated whether the lipid phenotype could be linked to region- and sex-specific differences in the degree of atherosclerosis. Non-diabetic subjects included Okinawa (n=1674) and Nagano (n=1392) residents aged 30-75 years who underwent carotid ultrasonography for the measurement of maximum intima-media thickness (max IMT). Average max IMT was higher in Okinawa men and women, and the increase in max IMT with age was enhanced in men. Multiple regression analysis showed that in addition to age and systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were IMT determinants only in men for both Okinawa and Nagano. Meanwhile, HDL-cholesterol was a determinant for Okinawa men and women, but not for Nagano men and women. This is the first report to show region- and sex-specific differences in the determinants for max IMT in a Japanese population. The evaluation of the relationship between lipid profile patterns and region- and sex-specific differences in carotid atherosclerosis burden may be required.

  15. Vertical distribution of precipitation particles in Baiu frontal stratiform intense rainfall around Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oue, M.; Ohigashi, T.; Tsuboki, K.; Nakakita, E.

    2015-06-01

    The vertical distribution of precipitation particles in an intensely precipitating stratiform cloud associated with the Baiu front around Okinawa Island was observed. X-band polarimetric radar, disdrometer, and hydrometeor videosonde data were used to examine the precipitation processes. The cloud top was approximately 12 km above sea level, as convection was depressed while stratiform regions developed near Okinawa Island. In the rain region below 3 km, the mean median volume diameter of the raindrop size distribution (DSD) estimated from the radar variables was 1.55 mm, and the mean normalized intercept parameter was 104.12 mm-1 m-3 with a mean radar reflectivity of 40.5 dBZe. The DSD indicates that the stratiform precipitation was characterized by higher number concentrations of smaller drops than observed previously in convective cells in a Baiu frontal convective precipitation region around Okinawa Island. The DSD also suggests the presence of larger raindrops than in convective cells embedded in a Baiu frontal stratiform precipitation region around Okinawa Island. In the ice region at 5-6 km, just above the melting layer and 6 km below the cloud top, the differential reflectivity and specific differential phase showed positive values, and videosonde measurements revealed that the number concentration of column-, plate-, and capped-column-like crystals (maximum dimensions of ≥0.1 mm) was 112 L-1. The high number concentration of these crystals contributed to the intense stratiform rainfall associated with the Baiu front.

  16. Mineralogical control of fracture alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, H.; Steefel, C. I.; Molins, S.; DePaolo, D.

    2016-12-01

    Fractures represent preferential flow pathways that control fluid migration in geological porous media that are subject to alteration by fluid-rock interaction. In the presence of complex mineral assemblages, fracture alteration involves changes within the fracture plane, and thus to fracture hydraulic properties, as well as changes in the near-fracture region of the rock matrix that influence the evolution of geochemical and geomechanical properties of the fracture. An example of this is the dissolution of fast-reacting minerals that are dispersed in a slower reacting mineral matrix. This can result in a porous altered layer (rather than fracture surface retreat) adjacent to the fracture surface, potentially introducing a diffusion control on bulk reaction rates within the fracture system. In this study, a novel 2.5D reactive transport model was developed to simulate fracture evolution in mineralogically complex systems. The model captures flow variations and aperture changes in the fracture plane and tracks the reaction front of each mineral in order to account for important processes in the dimension perpendicular to the fracture plane. The model was tested using data from experiments in which CO2-acidified fluid is injected into single fractures within rocks that are representative of those constituting caprock in geological storage systems. The model was applied to rock samples with a range of carbonate and clay mineral contents so as to investigate the role of mineralogical compositions in controlling fracture alteration when exposed to CO2-acidified fluid. Specifically, simulations explore the effect of different mineralogical compositions on the development of the altered layer and their impact on the evolution of the overall reaction rate and the fracture opening. The mineralogical composition of the fractured rock may also affect the stability of the altered layer and the spatial pattern of aperture change in the fracture plane, which control the

  17. The mineralogy of copper electrorefining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. T.; Dutrizac, J. E.

    1990-08-01

    The impurities in copper anodes occur both in solid solution in the copper metal matrix and in discrete inclusions at the copper grain boundaries. During electrorefining, all the impurities undergo extensive chemical and/or morphological changes. These changes impact significantly on anode passivation, cathode quality, electrolyte purification and, of course, the subsequent recovery of by-products from the anode slimes. Recently, mineralogical studies have been undertaken to characterize the various impurities and elucidate their transformations during copper electrorefining.

  18. Mineralogy of the Mercurian Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Nittler, Larry R.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Weider, Shoshana Z.; Evans, Larry R.; Frank, Elizabeth A.; McCoy, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft orbited Mercury for four years until April 2015, revealing its structure, chemical makeup, and compositional diversity. Data from the mission have confirmed that Mercury is a compositional end-member among the terrestrial planets. The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) and Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on board MESSENGER provided the first detailed geochemical analyses of Mercury's surface. These instruments have been used in conjunction with the Neutron Spectrometer and the Mercury Dual Imaging System to classify numerous geological and geochemical features on the surface of Mercury that were previously unknown. Furthermore, the data have revealed several surprising characteristics about Mercury's surface, including elevated S abundances (up to 4 wt%) and low Fe abundances (less than 2.5 wt%). The S and Fe abundances were used to quantify Mercury's highly reduced state, i.e., between 2.6 and 7.3 log10 units below the Iron-Wustite (IW) buffer. This fO2 is lower than any of the other terrestrial planets in the inner Solar System and has important consequences for the thermal and magmatic evolution of Mercury, its surface mineralogy and geochemistry, and the petrogenesis of the planet's magmas. Although MESSENGER has revealed substantial geochemical diversity across the surface of Mercury, until now, there have been only limited efforts to understand the mineralogical and petrological diversity of the planet. Here we present a systematic and comprehensive study of the potential mineralogical and petrological diversity of Mercury.

  19. Elemental and Mineralogical Analysis of Silt Fraction from Site U1420, IODP Expedition 341

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, J. K.; Jaeger, J. M.; Penkrot, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    In southeastern Alaska, the Chugach-St. Elias Mountains - the world's highest coastal mountain range - exhibit extreme topography due to the collision and subduction of the Yakutat microplate beneath the North American plate. The St. Elias orogen is younger than 30 Ma, with mountain building having occurred during a period of enhanced glacial erosion when erosive ice streams delivered sediment into the Gulf of Alaska. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 set out to investigate the relationship between mountain building and glacial dynamics in the Gulf of Alaska. Sediment cores from site U1420 were collected, within the Bering trough, just offshore of the Bering Glacier. Analysis of Bering Trough seismic profiles demonstrates an evolution from tectonically-controlled to depositionally-controlled continental margin strata formation (Worthington et al., 2010). The goal of this study is to investigate the provenance of the silt-sized fraction (15-63 μm) of U1420 sediments across this transition in seismic facies using mineralogy and elemental geochemical analyses. XRD mineralogical analysis shows consistent downhole mineralogy with minor variations in relative peak intensities. Elemental ICP-MS geochemical analysis reveal concentrations of both major and trace elements to be very well constrained, with all major (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and trace elemental data (Ce, Cr, Ga, La, Rb, Sc, Sr, Th, and Y) only varying downhole by few percent/ppm. Both the consistent downhole mineralogy and elemental data suggest that the provenance of the silt-sized sediment deposited offshore has not changed since initial deposition (<0.7 Ma). Comparison with onshore bedrock geochemistry and surface samples from the modern Gulf of Alaska indicate that U1420 silt is similar in composition to modern regional sediment sources and is a mixture of the different bedrock lithologies within the modern Bering Glacier drainage.

  20. Elemental composition and Its seasonal variation of bulk aerosols collected at the Okinawa archipelago, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Akihide; Oshiro, Seiji; Azechi, Sotaro; Handa, Daishi; Arakaki, Takemitsu

    2010-05-01

    Okinawa is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km south east of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location in Asia is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutions in East Asia, because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. In the present study, elemental composition and its seasonal variation of bulk aerosols collected at the Okinawa archipelago was investigated by a X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF). From these results, chemical properties of aerosols transported to Okinawa archipelago and long-range transport of metal pollutions were discussed. We continuously collected bulk aerosols for 7 days at a time during 2008 - 2009. The samplings were performed by using the same type of high volume air sampler at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS), respectively. XRF allows us to analyze bulk aerosols rapidly without any pretreatment. However, it is very difficult to determine trace metals in aerosol samples accurately. The concentration ratios to Al for 15-20 elements, whose accuracy was evaluated using standard reference materials (NIES No.28) and measuring by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after acid-digestion, were obtained by XRF. From seasonal variations obtained, the concentration rations to Al for Pb and As in aerosol particles were clearly higher in winter than in summer. These results suggest that North-west wind blown in winter would transport pollutant aerosols to Okinawa archipelago from East Asia.

  1. Aerosol hygroscopcity, volatility and chemical composition between the Pearl River Delta Region and Okinawa: a comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, M.; Tan, H.; Zhao, J.; Hatakeyama, S.; Mochida, M.; Kondo, Y.; Xu, H.; Li, F.; Shimada, K.; Deng, Y.; Liu, L.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol physical and chemical properties play important roles in affecting visibility and cloud formation, and the direct and indirect effects of Earth's radiative forcing. It is hence vital to understand aerosol properties in order to assess impacts of atmospheric aerosol particles. Aerosol hygroscopicity, volatility and chemical composition were measured at an urban site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) Region of China and at a marine site in Okinawa of Japan in November 2014 and November 2016, respectively. A hygroscopic/volatile tandem differential mobility analyzer (H/V-TDMA) and aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) were used to measure hygroscopicity/volatility and chemical composition respectively during the campaign. Aerosol particles were apportioned to more complex emission sources in the PRD than in Okinawa, resulting in about an order of magnitude higher number concentrations of particles (10nm-400nm) in the PRD than in Okinawa. The HR-ToF-AMS measurements show much higher total non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1) in the PRD than in Okinawa. The two sites represent distinctly different chemical compositions in the total NR-PM1: organics was dominant in the PRD, while sulfate is the major component in Okinawa, reflecting different emission sources. The V-TDMA measurements showed almost no non-volatile (NV) species in 40-300nm particles, while particles in the same size range might contain black carbon or low volatile organics in the PRD. Size-resolved particles hygroscopicity and mixing state between the two measurement sites are also compared in the presentation.

  2. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    DOEpatents

    Diver, Richard B.

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  3. Modal Mineralogy of Lunar Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J.; Martel, L.; Lucey, P. G.; Crites, S. T.; Blake, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    Modal mineralogy of the lunar regolith is fundamentally important. It varies with the composition of underlying bedrock, extent of addition of materials excavated by impact both local and distant, and small-scale reworking by micrometeorite bombardment, so it contains information about local geological history. Determining modal mineralogy of soils provides vital ground truth to remote sensing studies. Mineralogy can be determined by a variety of techniques that provide complementary information: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), optical point counting, element mapping by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or electron microprobe (EMP), and normative calculation from a bulk chemical analysis. SEM and EMP element mapping can be converted into mineral modal abundances in a variety of ways, including defining compositional windows for specific minerals and using image processing techniques. XRD provides direct determination of the phases present, but gives little information about the chemical composition of those phases. We have launched a project to determine the modal mineralogy of over 100 lunar soils from all Apollo sites. The goal is to use this quantitative mineralogy and laboratory and remote reflectance spectra of the same soils to improve our ability to extract quantitative mineralogy from remote sensing data. Samples (< 1mm bulk soils) were dry-sieved and the <150 micron fractions analyzed in a Terra XRD instrument (InXitu, Inc.) using sample sizes of ~35 mg. We reduced the data using Reitveld refinement as implemented by the Jade program (Materials Data, Inc.). Glass abundances were determined by choosing a linear background and fitting a broad Gaussian to the scattering hump above background. Quantitative XRD is well established, but usually requires some calibration, in spite of the sophisticated Reitveld refinement and whole-pattern fitting. We calibrated the instrument by using mixtures of terrestrial minerals and results from the Lunar Sample Characterization

  4. Parabolic trough collectors for industrial and commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, R.C.

    1997-06-01

    Industrial Solar Technology Corporation (IST) manufactures and installs parabolic trough solar energy systems for large-scale commercial and industrial applications. Parabolic trough collectors have advanced significantly over the last fifteen years and are the most developed and widely deployed type of solar concentrator. Collector efficiency has increased, installed costs have decreased, and system reliability has improved. These positive trends have moved parabolic trough technology to commercial viability in niche markets where energy costs are high and sunlight is abundant.

  5. The origin and evolution of the Cretaceous Benue Trough (Nigeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhelil, J.

    The intracontinental Benue Trough was initiated during the Lower Cretaceous in relation with the Atlantic Ocean opening. The first stage of its evolution started in the Aptian, forming isolated basins with continental sedimentation. In the Albian times, a great delta developed in the Upper Benue Trough, while the first marine transgression coming from the opening Gulf of Guinea occurred in the south and reached the Middle Benue. The widespread Turonian transgression made the Atlantic and Tethys waters communicate through the Sahara, Niger basins and the Benue Trough. The tectonic evolution of the Benue Trough was closely controlled by transcurrent faulting through an axial fault system, developing local compressional and tensional regimes and resulting in basins and basement horsts along releasing and restraining bends of the faults. Two major compressional phases occurred: in the Abakaliki area (southern Benue) during the Santonian; and at the end of the Cretaceous in the Upper Benue Trough. In Abakaliki, the sedimentary infilling was severely deformed through folding and flattening, and moderate folding and fracturing occurred in the northeast. The Cretaceous magmatism was restricted to main fault zones in most of the trough but was particularly active in the Abakaliki Trough, where it has alkaline affinities. From Albian to Santonian, the magmatism was accompanied in part of the Abakaliki Trough by a low-grade metamorphism. Geophysical data indicate a crustal thinning beneath the Benue Trough and, at a superficial level, an axial basement high flanked by two elongated deep basins including isolated sub-basins. The model of the tectonic evolution of the trough is based upon a general sinistral wrenching along the trough responsible for the structural arrangement and the geometry of the sub-basins. During the early stages of the Gulf of Guinea opening the Benue Trough was probably the expression on land of the Equatorial Fracture Zones.

  6. Ridges and Troughs in Sippar Sulcus, Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Embayment of ridges and troughs in a portion of the Sippar Sulcus area of Jupiter's moon Ganymede in this image from NASA's Galileo spacecraft is interpreted as evidence that the low-lying area was filled in by flooding with low-viscosity material, such as water or water-ice slush lavas. Bays of the material appeared to have formed in troughs (indicated by arrows) between the ridges.

    The smallest features visible are about 180 meters (590 feet) across. Analysis of such high-resolution images in combination with estimates of the features' relative elevations is helping scientists interpret the roles of volcanism and tectonics in creating the bright terrain on Ganymede.

    This image was prepared by the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, and included in a report by Dr. Paul Schenk et al. in the March 1, 2001, edition of the journal Nature.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

    Images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo .

  7. Age and structure of the southern Rockall Trough: New evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, D. G.; Masson, D. G.; Miles, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    The Rockall Trough separates the Rockall Plateau microcontinent from the shelf and slope west of the British Isles. The structure and age of the trough has been the source of considerable discussion. Although widely considered to be of oceanic origin, postulated ages for the spreading range from Permian to Cretaceous. New seismic profiles linked to the IPOD sites in the Bay of Biscay and to oceanic anomalies of known age are used to present a new assessment of the age and structure of the southern Rockall Trough. It is concluded that about 120 km of ocean crust is present in the trough and that spreading took place in the Albian-Maastrichtian interval.

  8. Eponym of Naso-Jugal Fold and Tear Trough.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the eponym of the naso-jugal fold and tear trough and to make a suggestion to standardize the terminology.In a PubMed search, the search terms (naso-jugal) and (fold OR groove); (tear trough) and (anatomy) were used, which resulted in 48 and 37 titles, respectively. Eliminating duplicated titles, 80 abstracts were reviewed. Among them, 18 full papers were reviewed. Two papers were excluded and 3 mined papers were added. Finally, 19 papers were reviewed.In a paper published by an ophthalmologist Dr David Miller, "tear trough" was first used for designating the circular trough carved into a scleral contact in 1969. In the remaining 18 papers including 1 conference presentation, 6 terms were used for the same structure; naso-jugal fold (4), naso-jugal groove (4), naso-jugal ditch (1), tear trough (5), tear trough deformity (6), and tear trough depression (1). Whitnall first used "naso-jugal" and 10 other papers stated "naso-jugal." Eight papers cited Whitnall (2), Duke-Elder (2), and Loeb (4) in the origin of the term "naso-jugal." Flowers adapted "tear trough" for the cheek groove and 12 other papers wrote "tear trough." Eleven papers cited Flowers (9), Le Louarn (1), Mendelson (1) when referring to the origin of the term "tear trough."The name of the structure should contain "naso-jugal" rather than "tear trough" because "naso-jugal" was coined earlier and expresses the location of the structure. The recommended term should be "the deepened naso-jugal groove" since it deepens with age.

  9. Fault and fluid interaction in the Bradano Trough, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinisi, Rosa; Vita Petrullo, Angela; Agosta, Fabrizio; Paternoster, Michele; Belviso, Claudia; Grassa, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    We report the preliminary results of a multidisciplinary study directed toward a better understanding of the fault and fluid interaction in the Bradano Trough, the foredeep basin of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt, Italy. The work focuses on fresh tuff deposits located along high-angle faults, which crosscut the foredeep basin infill and the Middle Pleistocene Vulture pyroclastic rocks. Two sites have been studied in detail by mean of integrated field and laboratory analyses. The field survey aimed at deciphering both fault architecture (nature, distribution, and relative timing of formation of the various structural elements) and stratigraphy of the fresh tuff deposits. Laboratory investigation of representative samples of both fresh tuff deposits and mineralized fault-related structural elements (e.g, veins and fluid pipe conduits) targeted their textural, mineralogical and stable isotope compositions. The fresh tuff deposits consist of a few m-thick, either well-layered or massive, carbonates that include fossils and syn-depositional calcite veins. These deposits grew primarily by lateral progradation. Optical microscopy analysis is consistent with seven main fresh tuff lithofacies, which all show the following similarities: (i) cement-supported textures; (ii) presence of peloids, phyto- and bio-clasts, imprints of gastropods, bivalves, and plants; (iii) occurrence of shrinkage pores, micropores, and fenestrae that are either partially or totally filled by secondary calcite. XRPD analysis of representative powders showed that calcite is the sole mineral phase except for quartz and feldspar, which are detected in trace in a few samples. Similarly, the mineralogical composition of the fault-related structural elements also shows minor amounts of quartz. Both nature and origin of the quartz mineral will be investigated in a future work. 13C and 18O signatures of representative fresh tuff powders are consistent with a pronounced different isotope

  10. Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Tetsuo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Kinjo, Nagisa; Hokama, Akira; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Fujita, Jiro

    2007-11-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Ryukyu University Hospital, Okinawa, Japan, between January 2004 and November 2006. Stool samples collected from 3,292 patients were examined by the direct smear method, formalin-ether sedimentation method, and agar plate culture method. The prevalence rate of B. hominis and S. stercoralis infection was 1.0 and 3.4%, respectively. The prevalence rate of B. hominis infection in patients aged >80 years old was significantly higher than that in patients <80 years old (P < 0.001). The prevalence rate of S. stercoralis infection was significantly higher in patients with B. hominis infection compared with those without (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated a prevalence rate for B. hominis and S. stercoralis infection and an association between B. hominis and S. stercoralis infection in Okinawa, Japan.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of human metapneumovirus from 2009 to 2011 in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nidaira, Minoru; Taira, Katsuya; Hamabata, Hirotsune; Kawaki, Tatsuyoshi; Gushi, Kazuo; Mahoe, Youko; Maeshiro, Noriyuki; Azama, Yasuhito; Okano, Shou; Kyan, Hisako; Kudaka, Jun; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Noda, Masahiro; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2012-07-01

    To clarify the molecular epidemiology of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in Okinawa Prefecture, located in a subtropical region of Japan, we performed genetic analysis of the F gene in HMPV from patients with acute respiratory infection from January 2009 to December 2011. HMPV was detected in 18 of 485 throat swabs (3.7%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that 17 strains belonged to subgroup A2 and 1 strain belonged to subgroup B1. We did not observe seasonal prevalence of HMPV during the investigation period. A high level of sequence identity was observed in the strains belonging to subgroup A2 (>95%), and no amino acid substitution was found compared with other strains detected in Japan and other countries. The pairwise distance values among the present strains belonging to subgroup A2 were short. Our results suggest that the predominant HMPV strains belonging to A2 are highly homologous and seasonal epidemics were not seen in Okinawa during the investigation period.

  12. Ribosomal DNA haplotype distribution of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Kyushu and Okinawa islands, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nose, Mine; Miyahara, Fumihiko; Ohira, Mineko; Matsunaga, Koji; Tobase, Masashi; Koyama, Takao; Yoshimoto, Kikuo

    2009-01-01

    Ribosomal DNA region sequences (partial 18S, 28S and complete ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) of the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) were obtained from DNA extracted directly from wood pieces collected from wilted pine trees throughout the Kyushu and Okinawa islands, Japan. Either a 2569bp or 2573bp sequence was obtained from 88 of 143 samples. Together with the 45 rDNA sequences of pinewood nematode isolates previously reported, there were eight single nucleotide polymorphisms and two indels of two bases. Based on these mutations, nine haplotypes were estimated. The haplotype frequencies differed among regions in Kyushu island (northwest, northeast and center, southeast, and southwest), and the distribution was consistent with the invasion and spreading routes of the pinewood nematode previously estimated from past records of pine wilt and wood importation. There was no significant difference in haplotype frequencies among the collection sites on Okinawa island. PMID:22736814

  13. Influence of climate on deep-water clastic sedimentation: application of a modern model, Peru-Chile Trough, to an ancient system, Ouachita Trough

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgar, N. Terence; Cecil, C. Blaine

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, an abrupt and massive influx of siliciclastic sediments into an area of deposition has been attributed to tectonic uplift without consideration of the influence of climate or climatic change on rates of weathering, erosion, transportation, and deposition. With few exceptions, fluvial sediment transport is minimal in both extremely arid climates and in perhumid (everwet) climates. Maximum sediment transport occurs in climates characterized by strongly seasonal rainfall, where the effect of vegetation on erosion is minimal. The Peru–Chile trench and Andes Mountain system (P–CT/AMS) of the eastern Pacific Ocean clearly illustrates the effects of climate on rates of weathering, erosion, transport, and deep-sea sedimentation. Terrigenous sediment is virtually absent in the arid belt north of lat. 30° S in the P–CT, but in the belt of seasonal rainfall south of lat. 30° S terrigenous sediment is abundant. Spatial variations in the amount and seasonality of annual precipitation are now generally accepted as the cause for this difference. The spatial variation in sediment supply to the P–CT appears to be an excellent modern analogue for the temporal variation in sediment supply to certain ancient systems, such as the Ouachita Trough in the southern United States. By comparison, during the Ordovician through the early Mississippian, sediment was deposited at very slow rates as the Ouachita Trough moved northward through the southern hemisphere dry belt (lat. 10° S to lat. 30° S). The deposystem approached the tropical humid zone during the Mississippian, coincident with increased coarse clastic sedimentation. By the Middle Pennsylvanian (Atokan), the provenance area and the deposystem moved well into the tropical humid zone, and as much as 8,500 m of mineralogically mature (but texturally immature) quartz sand was introduced and deposited. This increase in clastic sediment deposition traditionally has been attributed solely to tectonic activity

  14. A remarkable new species of the genus Teinotarsina (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae) from Okinawa-jima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Sadahisa; Hirowatari, Toshiya; Arita, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    A new species of long-legged clearwing moth Teinotarsina aurantiaca Yagi, Hirowatari & Arita, sp. n. is described from Okinawa-jima, the Ryukyus, Japan. The species is distinguishable at a glance from other related congeners by the remarkable orange scales ornamenting many parts of the body, such as antennae, palpi, legs, and wings. We hypothesize that the species acquired these differences as a result of convergence with toxic species (Batesian mimicry) or other mimics (Müllerian mimicry).

  15. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei Strain LC-Ikematsu, Isolated from a Pineapple in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, Seikoh; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Shinzato, Naoya; Yamamoto, Norikuni; Arita, Masanori; Ikematsu, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei strain LC-Ikematsu, isolated from a pineapple in Okinawa, was determined. The total length of the 87 contigs was 3.08 Mb with a G+C content of 46.2% and 2,946 coding sequences. The genome analysis revealed its biosynthetic ability of 11 amino acids. PMID:28153910

  16. A remarkable new species of the genus Teinotarsina (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae) from Okinawa-jima, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Sadahisa; Hirowatari, Toshiya; Arita, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of long-legged clearwing moth Teinotarsina aurantiaca Yagi, Hirowatari & Arita, sp. n. is described from Okinawa-jima, the Ryukyus, Japan. The species is distinguishable at a glance from other related congeners by the remarkable orange scales ornamenting many parts of the body, such as antennae, palpi, legs, and wings. We hypothesize that the species acquired these differences as a result of convergence with toxic species (Batesian mimicry) or other mimics (Müllerian mimicry). PMID:27110163

  17. Sedimentation and tectonics of the Sylhet trough, Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.Y.; Nur Alam, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Sylhet trough, a sub-basin of the Bengal Basin in northeastern Bangladesh, contains a thick fill (12 to 16 km) of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata that record its tectonic evolution. Stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and petrographic data collected from outcrops, cores, well logs, and seismic lines are used to reconstruct the history of this trough. -from Authors

  18. Postmidnight ionospheric troughs in summer at high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voiculescu, M.; Nygrén, T.; Aikio, A. T.; Vanhamäki, H.; Pierrard, V.

    2016-12-01

    In this article we identify possible mechanisms for the formation of postmidnight ionospheric troughs during summer, in sunlit plasma. Four events were identified in measurements of European Incoherent Scatter and ESR radars during CP3 experiments, when the ionosphere was scanned in a meridional plan. The spatial and temporal variation of plasma density, ion, and electron temperatures were analyzed for each of the four events. Super Dual Auroral Radar Network plasma velocity measurements were added, when these were available. For all high-latitude troughs the ion temperatures are high at density minima (within the trough), at places where the convection plasma velocity is eastward and high. There is no significant change in electron temperature inside the trough, regardless of its temporal evolution. We find that troughs in sunlit plasma form in two steps: the trough starts to form when energetic electron precipitation leads to faster recombination in the F region, and it deepens when entering a region with high eastward flow, producing frictional heating and further depleting the plasma. The high-latitude plasma convection plays an important role in formation and evolution of troughs in the postmidnight sector in sunlit plasma. During one event a second trough is identified at midlatitudes, with different characteristics, which is most likely produced by a rapid subauroral ion drift in the premidnight sector.

  19. 9 CFR 91.27 - Troughs and hayracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and pens aboard an ocean vessel shall be equipped with proper troughs for feeding and watering animals... hay from racks or nets or by placing the hay on the floor of the pens in which the animals are... animals. (b) Sheep, goats, and swine. Pens for these animals shall have feed troughs not less than 8...

  20. 9 CFR 91.27 - Troughs and hayracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and pens aboard an ocean vessel shall be equipped with proper troughs for feeding and watering animals... hay from racks or nets or by placing the hay on the floor of the pens in which the animals are... animals. (b) Sheep, goats, and swine. Pens for these animals shall have feed troughs not less than 8...

  1. 9 CFR 91.27 - Troughs and hayracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and pens aboard an ocean vessel shall be equipped with proper troughs for feeding and watering animals... hay from racks or nets or by placing the hay on the floor of the pens in which the animals are... animals. (b) Sheep, goats, and swine. Pens for these animals shall have feed troughs not less than 8...

  2. [Epidemiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in Okinawa, Japan (1977-2005)].

    PubMed

    Hirayasu, Kyomi; Oshiro, Satoshi; Nakada, Yukikatsu

    2010-11-01

    The epidemiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) has changed since the introduction of measles immunization in 1970's. We studied the incidence of SSPE in Okinawa. There were 22 cases (16 males and 6 females) of SSPE from 1977 to 2005 in Okinawa. The incidence was 0.63 per million population per year from 1977 to 1986, 0 from 1987 to 1993, 1.17 from 1994 to 1999 and 0.75 from 2000 to 2005. Twenty-one SSPE patients had a history of non-immunized measles and 19 of them (90%) had measles infection under 2 years of age. There were measles epidemic every 2-5 years in Okinawa. Ten of 21 cases contracted measles in 1990-1991. The percentage of patients with measles infection under 2 years of age during measles epidemics ranged from 46% to 56%. Early measles infection (under 2 years of age) is a risk factor for SSPE. Routine measles immunization to prevent measles infection is very important for the prevention of SSPE.

  3. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum from two different Japanese prefectures, Okinawa and Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Aita, Junya; Masatani, Tatsunori; Suzuki, Moemi; Nitta, Yoshiki; Tamayose, Genta; Iso, Takehiro; Suganuma, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Matsuyama, Keita; Niikura, Tadamasa; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Itagaki, Tadashi; Zakimi, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    Infectious diarrhea is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal calves. Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the main pathogens associated with calf diarrhea. Although diarrhea is a symptom of infection with various pathogens, investigations to detect the types of pathogens have never been performed in Japan. This study investigated the prevalence of four major diarrhea-causing pathogens in calves: C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli K99). Commercial immunochromatography testing of all four pathogens and molecular analysis of C. parvum with diarrhea in calves from southernmost Okinawa and northernmost Hokkaido, Japan, were conducted. The frequencies of C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and E. coli (K99) in Okinawa were 50%, 28%, 2.3%, and 4.7%, respectively. Watery fecal stools were significantly correlated with C. parvum (p<0.05). In oocyst calculations for C. parvum, no significant difference was observed between the single-infection cases and the mixed-infection cases with rotavirus. Interestingly, molecular analyses targeting small subunit ribosomal RNA as well as glycoprotein 60 (GP60) genes revealed that the C. parvum nucleotide sequences from the two prefectures were identical, indicating that C. parvum with a uniform characteristic is distributed throughout Japan. GP60 subtyping analysis identified C. parvum from Okinawa and Hokkaido as belonging to the IIaA15G2R1 subtype, a known zoonotic subtype. Hence, control of cryptosporidiosis is important not only for pre-weaned calves, but also for human health.

  4. Okinawa: an exception to the social gradient of life expectancy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, W C; Yamori, Y

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines why the social gradient of life expectancy does not apply in Japan when Okinawa is considered. The social gradient thesis links differences in longevity to social rank, with people and populations in higher status hierarchical positions having lower mortality and longer life expectancies than those beneath them in the social scale. Japan has been cited as a major example of this thesis in that Japanese life expectancy improved dramatically as Japan rose to the top echelon of nations in economic rank in the late 20th century. Thus it follows that Japan's most affluent and leading prefectures should be the major catalysts behind the nation's rise in life expectancy as well to the number one position in the world. However, this is not the case as life expectancy in Okinawa, Japan's poorest prefecture, exceeds that of Japan as a whole. We find that the social gradient of life expectancy does not apply at the prefectural level and question its validity for geographical areas. We suggest that healthy lifestyles, especially diet and the social support of family and friends, are more important than sense of hierarchy for longevity in Okinawa.

  5. Geographic difference in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among Japanese screened subjects: Ibaraki versus Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Iseki, Kunitoshi; Horio, Masaru; Imai, Enyu; Matsuo, Seiichi; Yamagata, Kunihiro

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, there is a geographic difference in the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Few epidemiologic studies, however, have compared the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among different geographic areas. Other than genetic factors, socioeconomic conditions and lifestyle are targets for modification. We examined the prevalence of CKD among two large community-based screened populations, 40 years of age and older, in Japan: Ibaraki (N = 187,863) and Okinawa (N = 83,150). Prevalence of CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) using the coefficient modified abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (aMDRD) study equation using a standardized serum creatinine value. CKD prevalence was compared among screenees with (+) or without (-) hypertension (systolic blood pressure > or =140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mmHg) and hyperglycemia (plasma glucose > or = 126 mg/dl). Both male and female participants in Okinawa had a significantly lower prevalence of hypertension (-)/hyperglycemia (-) than did patients in Ibaraki. The prevalence of CKD in Okinawa was higher than that in Ibaraki among screenees with hypertension (-)/hyperglycemia (-), and highest among screenees with hypertension (+)/hyperglycemia (-). The regional difference in CKD prevalence may underlie the variation in ESRD prevalence observed in Japan.

  6. Prehistoric introduction of domestic pigs onto the Okinawa Islands: ancient mitochondrial DNA evidence.

    PubMed

    Watanobe, Takuma; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Nakano, Masuo; Takamiya, Hiroto; Matsui, Akira; Hongo, Hitomi

    2002-08-01

    Ancient DNAs of Sus scrofa specimens excavated from archaeological sites on the Okinawa islands were examined to clarify the genetic relationships among prehistoric Sus scrofa, modern wild boars and domestic pigs inhabiting the Ryukyu archipelago, the Japanese islands, and the Asian continent. We extracted remain DNA from 161 bone specimens excavated from 12 archaeological sites on the Okinawa islands and successfully amplified mitochondrial DNA control region fragments from 33 of 161 specimens. Pairwise difference between prehistoric and modern S. scrofa nucleotide sequences showed that haplotypes of the East Asian domestic pig lineage were found from archaeological specimens together with Ryukyu wild boars native to the Ryukyu archipelago. Phylogenetic analysis of 14 ancient sequences (11 haplotypes; 574 bp) indicated that S. scrofa specimens from two Yayoi-Heian sites (Kitahara and Ara shellmiddens) and two Recent Times sites (Wakuta Kiln and Kiyuna sites) are grouped with modern East Asian domestic pigs. Sus scrofa specimens from Shimizu shellmidden (Yayoi-Heian Period) were very closely related to modern Sus scrofa riukiuanus but had a unique nucleotide insertion, indicating that the population is genetically distinct from the lineage of modern Ryukyu wild boars. This genetic evidence suggests that domestic pigs from the Asian continent were introduced to the Okinawa islands in the early Yayoi-Heian period (1700-2000 BP), or earlier.

  7. Use of water troughs by badgers and cattle.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, D T

    2014-12-01

    The frequency of visits by badgers and cattle to five water troughs was examined using motion-activated infra-red cameras in a farming landscape in Northern Ireland between May and July 2013. Cattle visit rates varied significantly across troughs, were greatest during daylight periods, and more frequent during dry weather. Badgers were recorded visiting only one of the five water troughs. These visits were recorded on 14 different nights between midnight and 0300 h and were mainly by individual badgers. Water troughs were not used concurrently by badgers and cattle and the minimum period between badger and cattle use was 3 days. Although badgers used water troughs rarely during the study there remains the potential for indirect transmission of a bacterium such as Mycobacterium bovis that may merit further investigation.

  8. Optical, Energetic and Exergetic Analyses of Parabolic Trough Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murat, Öztürk; Nalan Çiçek, Bezir; Nuri, Özek

    2007-07-01

    Parabolic trough collectors generate thermal energy from solar energy. Especially, they are very convenient for applications in high temperature solar power systems. To determine the design parameters, parabolic trough collectors must be analysed with optical analysis. In addition, thermodynamics (energy and exergy) analysis in the development of an energy efficient system must be achieved. Solar radiation passes through Earth's atmosphere until it reaches on Earth's surface and is focused from the parabolic trough collector to the tube receiver with a transparent insulated envelope. All of them constitute a complex mechanism. We investigate the geometry of parabolic trough reflector and characteristics of solar radiation to the reflecting surface through Earth's atmosphere, and calculate the collecting total energy in the receiver. The parabolic trough collector, of which design parameters are given, is analysed in regard to the energy and exergy analysis considering the meteorological specification in May, June, July and August in Isparta/Turkey, and the results are presented.

  9. Helicobacter pylori cagA 12-bp insertion can be a marker for duodenal ulcer in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yuichi; Shiota, Seiji; Matsunari, Osamu; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Binh, Tran Thanh; Kinjo, Nagisa; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds Helicobacter pylori cagA can be classified into mainly two types (East-Asian-type and Western-type cagA) according to the repeat regions located in the 3′ region. Recent studies showed that the Western-type cagA in strains from Okinawa, Japan formed a different cluster (J-Western-type cagA subtype). We also reported that J-Western-type cagA possess a 12-bp insertion located in the 5′ region of cagA sequence. Methods The prevalence of 12-bp insertion in cagA in Okinawa and the United States (U.S.) was examined by DNA sequencing. We then designed the primer pair which can detect the 12-bp insertion only by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence of strains with 12-bp insertion was examined in 336 strains isolated from Okinawa by PCR. Results In case of Western-type cagA/vacA s1m2 strains, the prevalence of 12-bp insertion was significantly higher in strains isolated from Okinawa than that from the U.S. (P = 0.002). Phylogenetic tree showed that strains with 12-bp insertion formed two individual clusters within J-Western-type cagA subtype; one is from Okinawa and another is from the U.S. Our designed primer set showed high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (90.8%) in Okinawa. The 12-bp insertion was found in 23.7%, 14.3%, 4.2%, and 4.0% of strains with duodenal ulcer (DU), gastritis, gastric cancer (GC), and gastric ulcer (GU), respectively (P < 0.001 for DU vs. GU) in Okinawa. Conclusions Although the mechanisms are unknown, the presence of 12-bp insertion was associated with the presence of DU and might have a suppressive action on GU and GC. PMID:23190390

  10. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations Adequate for Optimal Dosing?

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Gilmer; Jones, Brenda; Jelliffe, Roger W.; Drusano, George L.; Rodvold, Keith A.; Lodise, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend the use of only trough concentrations to manage the dosing of adults with Staphylococcus aureus infections. Both vancomycin efficacy and toxicity are likely to be related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). We assembled richly sampled vancomycin pharmacokinetic data from three studies comprising 47 adults with various levels of renal function. With Pmetrics, the nonparametric population modeling package for R, we compared AUCs estimated from models derived from trough-only and peak-trough depleted versions of the full data set and characterized the relationship between the vancomycin trough concentration and AUC. The trough-only and peak-trough depleted data sets underestimated the true AUCs compared to the full model by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 23% (11 to 33%; P = 0.0001) and 14% (7 to 19%; P < 0.0001), respectively. In contrast, using the full model as a Bayesian prior with trough-only data allowed 97% (93 to 102%; P = 0.23) accurate AUC estimation. On the basis of 5,000 profiles simulated from the full model, among adults with normal renal function and a therapeutic AUC of ≥400 mg · h/liter for an organism for which the vancomycin MIC is 1 mg/liter, approximately 60% are expected to have a trough concentration below the suggested minimum target of 15 mg/liter for serious infections, which could result in needlessly increased doses and a risk of toxicity. Our data indicate that adjustment of vancomycin doses on the basis of trough concentrations without a Bayesian tool results in poor achievement of maximally safe and effective drug exposures in plasma and that many adults can have an adequate vancomycin AUC with a trough concentration of <15 mg/liter. PMID:24165176

  11. Anaplasma marginale infection in a Japanese Black cow 13 years after eradication of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ooshiro, Mamoru; Zakimi, Satoshi; Matsukawa, Yoshimasa; Yafuso, Makoto; Katagiri, Yoshito; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2009-03-23

    In October 2007, a 15-year-old Japanese Black cow on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, Japan, was diagnosed with Anaplasma marginale infection based on clinical symptoms, blood examination, smear observation, 16S rRNA and groEL gene sequence analysis, and the result of a CF test. The cow was introduced into the farm from mainland Japan as a calf in 1993, one year before the eradication of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the main vector of A. marginale in Okinawa Prefecture. It is possible that the cow was first infected with A. marginale as a calf in Ishigaki Island and had been persistently infected since then. This is the first reported clinical case of A. marginale infection of cattle since the eradication of R. microplus in Okinawa Prefecture. Additional analysis of major surface protein 1alpha amino acid sequences revealed that the A. marginale Okinawa strain presented four new repeat forms which were not seen in other strains. This indicates that the Okinawa strain may be a unique geographical variant of A. marginale.

  12. The IODP 'Nankai Trough Submarine Landslide History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, Michael; Moore, Gregory F.

    2010-05-01

    With increasing awareness of oceanic geohazards, submarine landslides are gaining wide attention not only because of their catastrophic impacts (e.g. landslide-induced tsunamis), but also because they can be directly related to primary trigger mechanisms including earthquakes, rapid sedimentation, gas release, or clathrate dissociation, many of which represent geohazards themselves. Ocean drilling is a key element in understanding such geohazards, given that the submarine geological record preserves structures and past occurrences. To improve our knowledge, quantitative constraints on frequency and magnitude on relevant timescales need to be related to trigger and failure mechanisms. Towards this goal, the Ancillary Project Letter "Nankai Trough Submarine Landslide History" (NanTroSLIDE) aims to add one site to the IODP Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) study area to constrain timing, causes and consequences of submarine landslides in this well-studied accretionary complex. 3D seismic data interpretation in this area offshore Kii Peninsula, SW Japan, reveals a peculiar slope basin sedimentary succession that is composed of stacked Pleistocene-to-recent mass-transport deposits (MTDs), as seismically imaged by acoustically transparent to chaotic bodies with ponded geometries. A nearby small slope basin has been drilled during IODP NanTroSEIZE Stage 1a expedition 316. Site C0008 is located seaward of a prominent out-of-sequence thrust (OOST - mega splay fault). In the lower part of the slope-basin stratigraphic succession, early Pleistocene MTDs document increased slope failure activity along the upthrusted hangingwall block during a period of increased OOST activity. Apart from the deepest section, Site C0008 lacks clear evidence for MTDs, mainly because of a significant hiatus in its upper part, resulting from recent slumping. Proposed Drilling in a lower slope basin that (i) better represents the depocenter for downslope mass transport, (ii

  13. Elevated Vancomycin Trough Concentration: Increased Efficacy and/or Toxicity?

    PubMed Central

    Elyasi, Sepideh; Khalili, Hossein; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin; Emadi-Koochak, Hamid; Mohammadpour, Amirhooshang; Abdollahi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been changed over time and its average minimum inhibitory concentration increased from 1.5 to 1.75 mg/L.A recently published guideline by the American Society of Health Pharmacist recommended a daily dose of 15-20 mg/Kg every 8 to 12 hours of vancomycin to achieve a trough concentration between 15-20 mg/L for treatment of severe infections. Medical records of 69 patients from infectious ward of Imam Khomeini hospital, with suspected or confirmed gram-positive infection who had at least one trough level of vancomycin, were evaluated regarding vancomycin therapeutic goal; efficacy and renal safety. Most of patients (60.6%) with severe infections did not achieve the recommended vancomycin trough level during treatment course. Time to normalization of the signs and symptoms of infection did not correlate with the patients’ serum vancomycin trough levels. At the end of treatment course, there was no significant correlation between patients’ creatinine clearance and vancomycin trough levels (P=0.32). However, patients’cratinine clearance showed a negatively significant correlation with trough level of vancomycin (P=0.01). Vancomycin induced nephrotoxicity was detected in 4.3% of the patients. These data showed that vancomycin trough level may not necessarily assure treatment success, and also it would not essentially predict the risk of vancomycin induced nephrotoxicity. However, more well designed studies with larger sample size needed for better clinical and practical judgment. PMID:25587313

  14. Phobos surface spectra mineralogical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, M.; Lazzarin, M.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Roush, T. L.; Pendleton, Y.; Bertini, I.; Magrin, S.; Carli, C.; La Forgia, F.; Barbieri, C.

    2014-04-01

    A mineralogical model composed of a mixture of Tagish Lake meteorite (TL) and Pyroxene Glass (PM80) was presented in [1] to explain the surface reflectance of Phobos from 0.25 to 4.0 μm. The positive results we obtained, when comparing the OSIRIS data [2] extended in wavelength to include the [3,4] spectra, forced us to perform a wider comparison between our TL-PM80 model and the CRISM and OMEGA Phobos spectra presented in [5]. Such spectra cover three different regions of interest (ROIs) situated in the Phobos sub-Mars hemisphere: the interior of the Stickney crater, its eastern rim, and its proximity terrain southeast of the Reldresal crater. We decided to vary the percentage mixture of the components of our model (80% TL, 20% PM80), between pure TL and pure PM80, by means of the radiative transfer code based on the [6] formulation of the slab approximation. Once this spectral range was derived, see Fig. 1, we attempted to compare it with the [5] spectra between 0.4 and 2.6 μm, i.e. below the thermal emitted radiation, to see if any spectral match was possible. We observed that CRISM scaled spectra above 1.10 μm fall within pure Tagish Lake composition and the [1] model. The CRISM data below 1.10 μm present more discrepancies with our models, in particular for the Stickney's rim spectrum. Nevertheless the TL and PM80 components seem to be good mineralogical candidates on Phobos. We performed the same analysis with the OMEGA data and, again, we found out that the Stickney's rim spectrum lies out of our model range, while the two remaining spectra still lie between pure TL and 80% TL - 20% PM80, but indicating that a different, more complicated mixture is expected in order to explain properly both the spectral trend and the possible absorption bands located above 2.0 μm. Within this analysis, we point out that a big fraction of TL material (modeled pure or present with a minimum percentage of 80% mixed together with 20% PM80) seems to explain Phobos spectral

  15. Interior trough deposits on Mars: Subice volcanoes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    Widespread, several-kilometer-thick successions of layered deposits occur as mounds that partly fill the troughs or chasmata that compose the Valles Marineris on Mars. Like terrestrial subice volcanoes, the layered deposits occur in a volcano-tectonic setting within basins that may have held ponded water or ice. On the basis of their dimensions, morphologies, and associated catastrophic floods and other geologic events as shown in Viking and new Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data sets, we suggest that the interior deposits are volcanic in origin and possibly generated by subice eruptions. A tuya origin for the mounds can explain the lack of external sediment, mound heights that can rival the plateau, local flat-topped mesas, morphologically distinct mounds of different ages, horizontal to steep dips, fine-grained materials, indications of rare volcanic vents and lava flows, and spectral composition. The extremely diverse layering of west Candor Chasma and possible volcanic cones in Melas may have formed by related subaerial eruptions. Consistent with the suggestion that interior deposits are eroding out of the wall rock, some deposits could have been erupted from sites along the walls.

  16. A new mineralogical database for atmospheric dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Journet, E.; Balkanski, Y.; Harrison, S. P.

    2010-12-01

    The mineral composition of desert dust affects global climate both radiatively and as a source of nutrients to the terrestrial and the marine ecosystems. Dust clouds strongly influence the earth’s radiative budget by absorption and scattering in both the near-UV, the visible and infrared spectral regions. In addition, in high nutrient low chlorophyll regions, deposited mineral dust changes the global carbon budget by providing soluble iron to surface water to phytoplankton limited by the availability of soluble iron. Up to now, very little information has been gathered to describe the complex mixture of various minerals aggregated into dust. This information is essential to better describe the processes that affect climate. In one hand, the optical properties vary widely from mineral to mineral both in the visible and in the infrared and in other hand the mineralogical composition provides information to improve the estimate of soluble iron flux into the ocean. Therefore, incorporation of regionally and temporally varying size-resolved dust mineralogical composition into global climate models can decrease the current large uncertainty in the assessment of mineral dust radiative effect. It would also help for a better quantification of dust contribution insoluble iron flux delivery to the ocean’s surface. There is a large set of data on the mineralogical and chemical nature of the Earth's soils, which demonstrates the complex spatial variability of soil composition. Existing global data sets of soil properties currently include soil texture and types but they do not provide information on size-resolved mineralogical composition of the soil. To fill in the clear need for a new data set to provide this missing information, we present here an update at a global level of the soils mineralogical database provided by Claquin et al. in 1999. To build upon such database, we collected first a Database of soil surface mineralogy for 12 major minerals (quartz, feldspar

  17. Vesta Mineralogy: VIR maps Vesta's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coradina, A.; DeSanctis, M.; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, T.; Carraro, F.; Cartacci, M.; Filacchione, G.; Fonte, S.; Magni, G.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Dawn mission will have completed Survey orbit around 4 Vesta by the end of August 2011. We present a preliminary analysis of data acquired by the Visual and InfraRed Spectrometer (VIR) to map Vesta mineralogy. Thermal properties and mineralogical data are combined to provide constraints on Vesta's formation and thermal evolution. delivery of exogenic materials, space weathering processes, and origin of the howardite. eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites.

  18. Mineralogical Fingerprints for Corrosion Processes Induced

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    distribution is unlimited. ’ Abstract (Maximum 200 words). MineralogicaL data, thermodynamic stability ( Pourbaix ) diagrams , and the simpLexity principle for...stability ( Pourbaix ) diagrams , and the simplexity principle for precipitation reactions are used to rationalize corrosion product mineralogy in a...excluding those found in coal mine and peat-bog situations. In Figure 2, parallelograms have been superimposed on a Pourbaix diagram for iron in water

  19. Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsford, S.K.; Foltz, A.D.; Ek, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the {open_quotes}cradle to grave{close_quotes} ownership liabilities.

  20. Guidelines for reporting parabolic trough solar electric system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.W.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this activity is to develop a generic methodology which can be used to track and compare the performance of parabolic trough power plants. The approach needs to be general enough to work for all existing and future parabolic trough plant designs, provide meaningful comparisons of year to year performance, and allow for comparisons between dissimilar plant designs. The approach presented here uses the net annual system efficiency as the primary metric for evaluating the performance of parabolic trough power plants. However, given the complex nature of large parabolic trough plants, the net annual system efficiency by itself does not adequately characterize the performance of the plant. The approach taken here is to define a number of additional performance metrics which enable a more comprehensive understanding of overall plant performance.

  1. Detail view of concrete trough and metal stanchions at east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of concrete trough and metal stanchions at east side of middle level, with scale stick - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Cow Barn, 2700 Martin Luther King Jr Avenue SE, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. "Cheese" room in halfcellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Cheese" room in half-cellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, stairs inserted in original relieving arch. - Scheetz Farm, House, 7161 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, Montgomery County, PA

  3. Looking north inside of casthouse no. 6 at iron trough ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking north inside of casthouse no. 6 at iron trough and iron notch of blast furnace no. 6. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  4. Stable interior, showing center aisle, stalls, and feed troughs. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Stable interior, showing center aisle, stalls, and feed troughs. View looking southwest - Fort Hill Farm, Stable, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  5. Technical Manual for the SAM Physical Trough Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Gilman, P.

    2011-06-01

    NREL, in conjunction with Sandia National Lab and the U.S Department of Energy, developed the System Advisor Model (SAM) analysis tool for renewable energy system performance and economic analysis. This paper documents the technical background and engineering formulation for one of SAM's two parabolic trough system models in SAM. The Physical Trough model calculates performance relationships based on physical first principles where possible, allowing the modeler to predict electricity production for a wider range of component geometries than is possible in the Empirical Trough model. This document describes the major parabolic trough plant subsystems in detail including the solar field, power block, thermal storage, piping, auxiliary heating, and control systems. This model makes use of both existing subsystem performance modeling approaches, and new approaches developed specifically for SAM.

  6. Tectonic development of Baltimore Canyon trough

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, B.A.; Poag, C.W.; Sawyer, D.S.; Grow, J.A.

    1984-04-01

    New well data and a new gravity model across the southern end of Baltimore Canyon Trough provide a more complete history of the basin's tectonic evolution and deep crustal structure than was previously known. The basin, which formed during the separation of North America from Africa, narrows and shallows along strike, as basement depth decreases from about 18 km (59,000 ft) in the north near New York to about 4-6 km (13,123-19,685 ft) in the south near Cape Hatteras. Previous analysis of the Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test (COST) B2 and B3 wells using backstripping techniques showed a seaward increase in the amount of stretching during the basin's formation. The new biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental interpretations are from the USGS Island Beach well 1 just landward of the hinge zone in the basin. This well, along with the COST B2 and B3 data, provides a sampling of the sedimentary sections overlying continental, transitional (rift-stage), and oceanic crust. The subsidence histories derived from these data give a cross-sectional view of the basin's evolution. A gravity model of the southern end of the basin, along USGS multichannel seismic line 28, primarily analyzes a 60-mgal shelfedge anomaly. This anomaly reflects the change in bathymetry and more important a change toward the continent in underlying crustal thickness from typical oceanic to thinned continental crust. The crustal thinning is compared to the broad thinning zone to the north. Well-defined rift structures on the landward edge of the basin are modeled as rift grabens near the hinge zone.

  7. Tectonic development of Baltimore Canyon Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, B.A.; Poag, C.W.; Sawyer, D.S.; Grow, J.A.

    1984-04-01

    New well data and a new gravity model across the southern end of Baltimore Canyon Trough provide a more complete history of the basin's tectonic evolution and deep crustal structure than was previously known. The basin, which formed during the separation of North America from Africa, narrows and shallows along strike, as basement depth decreases from about 18 km (59,000 ft) in the north near New York to about 4-6 km (13,123-19,685 ft) in the south near Cape Hatteras. Previous analysis of the Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test (COST) B2 and B3 wells using backstripping techniques showed a seaward increase in the amount of stretching during the basin's formation. The new biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental interpretations are from the USGS Island Beach well 1 just landward of the hinge zone in the basin. This well, along with the COST B2 and B3 data, provides a sampling of the sedimentary sections overlying continental, transitional (rift-stage), and oceanic crust. The subsidence histories derived from these data give a cross-sectional view of the basin's evolution. A gravity model of the southern end of the basin, along USGS multichannel seismic line 28, primarily analyzes a 60-mgal shelfedge anomaly. This anomaly reflects the change in bathymetry and more important a change toward the continent in underlying crustal thickness from typical oceanic to thinned continental crust. The crustal thinning is compared to the broad thinning zone to the north. Well-defined rift structures on the landward edge of the basin are modeled as rift grabens near the hinge zone.

  8. Variations of short-term slow slip events along the Nankai Trough to the Ryukyu Trench, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, T.

    2013-12-01

    . Some of them accompany regular earthquakes with the maximum magnitude of ~5. A shallow Mw~6.4 SSE was detected east off southern Kyushu around January 27, 2010. VLFEs were coincidentally activated in a shallow adjacent region near the trench. Although a resolving power of SSEs along the Ryukyu arc is limited due to sparse GNSS stations, we found series of repeated SSEs near Kikaijima and Okinawa Islands in a depth of 10-30 km. A cumulative slip of the estimated SSEs over 16 years suggests along-trench variations of SSEs distribution. A band of large (> 10 cm) slip at a depth of 30-40 km stretches from Shikoku to northeast Kyushu which is ~50 km southwest of the western limit of the tremors. However, the cumulative slip in the Bungo channel and northeast Kyushu is one-third of that in western Shikoku. No shallow slip of SSEs was found from Shikoku to northeast Kyushu. Shallow separated patches of SSEs exist in a region southwest of southern Kyushu along the Ryukyu trench. The variation of SSEs may be related with that of large megathrust earthquakes, that is, repeated Mw>8 and few earthquakes along the Nankai Trough and the Ryukyu Trench, respectively.

  9. [Identification and characterization of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Okinawa, Japan].

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ayano; Tokashiki, Yoshino T; Nakasone, Isamu; Kisanuki, Kyoko; Nago, Tamami T; Yamane, Nobuhisa

    2010-09-01

    We experienced hospital-acquired infection in March 2008 that three nurses became infected with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Accordingly, we performed the retrospective study to determine the prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus in Okinawa. A total of 731 clinical isolates, consisting of 600 MRSA and 131 methicillin-susceptible isolates in Okinawa, were included. Of the isolates, 16 were positive for PVL gene (lukS-PV-lukF-PV). All the PVL-positive isolates were MRSA, and the first appeared in March 2008. The isolates from the University Hospital were characterized as staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec type IVa. Through the analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 16 PVL-positive MRSA isolates were divided in three groups. One isolate (the first group) from the other hospital was less similar (< 40% similarity) when compared with the remaining 15 isolates from the University Hospital. The second group consisted of two respective paired isolates from the same department wards, and those were very similar with each other, indicating possible patient-to-patient transmission. The 11 isolates were characterized as the third group with >80% similarity. The DiversiLab system (bioMérieux) based on repetitive-sequence-based PCR typing demonstrated that the isolates of the third group were similar and indistinguishable with the strains of USA300 clone. However, the first and second groups were not determinable which USA clone was the origin. With these, we could conclude that the PVL-positive MRSA close to USA300 clone first appeared in Okinawa in 2008 and is now becoming prevalent multi-focally. Also, person-to-person transmission is already likely in a hospital setting.

  10. Changes in the demographics and prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Okinawa, Japan (1993 to 2003).

    PubMed

    Iseki, Kunitoshi; Kohagura, Kentaro; Sakima, Atsushi; Iseki, Chiho; Kinjo, Kozen; Ikemiya, Yoshiharu; Takishita, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    To compare the risk factor demographics and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), we analyzed two databases from the 1993 (N=143,948) and 2003 (N=154,019) mass screenings in Okinawa, Japan (Okinawa General Health Maintenance Association registry). We estimated the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using serum creatinine (SCr) levels. SCr was measured by the modified Jaffe method in 1993 and by enzyme assay in 2003; the relation between the two methods was: SCr (Jaffe) = 0.194 + 1.079 x SCr (enzyme). CKD prevalence was compared using the estimated GFR calculated by the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. SCr was measured in 66.2% (1993) and 69.8% (2003) of the total screenees. Proteinuria was present in 3.4% (1993) and 4.3% (2003) of the total screened population, respectively. The prevalence of CKD (GFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) was similar between the two databases, being 15.7% in 1993 and 15.1% in 2003. However, the demographics of the CKD risk factors changed during the study period. The mean level of systolic blood pressure decreased, whereas the prevalence of obesity and the mean levels of serum cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose increased. In 2003, the estimated prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general population of Japan calculated using the modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria was 19.1%. The prevalence of CKD was significantly associated with that of metabolic syndrome: the age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio was 1.332 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.277-1.389; p<0.0001). In conclusion, the demographics of the participants of the general screenings in Okinawa, Japan differed between the 1993 and 2003 screenings, but the prevalence of CKD seemed to be similar, or at least did not increase substantially, between the two databases.

  11. Characterization of Mineralogy Across Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Capria, M. T.; Capaccioni, F.; Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Frigeri, A.; Magni, G.; Marchi, S.; Palomba, E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Dawn VIR spectra are characterized by pyroxene absorptions and no clear evidence for abundant other minerals are observed at the scale of the present measurements. Even though Vesta spectra are dominated by pyroxenes, spectral variation at regional and local scales are evident and distinct color units are identified. Although almost all of the surface materials exhibit spectra like those of howardites, some large units can be interpreted to be material richer in diogenite (based on pyroxenes band depths and band centers) and some others like eucrite-rich howardite units. VIR data strongly indicate that the south polar region (Rheasilvia) has its own spectral characteristics, indicating the presence of Mg-pyroxene-rich terrains (diogenite-like), while the equatorial areas have swallower band depths and average band centers at slightly longer wavelengths, consistent with more eucrite rich materials. Vesta surface shows considerable diversity at smaller scales (tens of km), in terms of spectral reflectance and emission, band depths and slopes. Many bright and dark spots are present on Vesta. Dark spots have low reflectance at visible wavelengths and are spectrally characterized by shallower 1 and 2 micron bands with respect the surrounding terrains. Bright materials have high reflectance and are often spectrally characterized by deep pyroxenes absorption bands. Vesta presents complex geology/topography and the mineral distribution is often correlated with geological and topographical structures. Ejecta from large craters have distinct spectral behaviors, and materials exposed in the craters show distinct spectra on floors and rims. VIR reveals the mineralogical variation of Vesta s crustal stratigraphy on local and global scales. Maps of spectral parameters show surface and subsurface unit compositions in their stratigraphic context. The hypothesis that Vesta is the HED parent body is consistent with, and strengthened by, the geologic and spectral context for pyroxene

  12. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs in DES Science Verification data

    SciTech Connect

    Gruen, D.; Friedrich, O.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Bonnett, C.; Hartley, W.; Jain, B.; M. Jarvis; Kavprzak, T.; Krause, E.; Mana, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Seitz, S.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Becker, M. R.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Bridle, S. L.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Neto, A. Fausti; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miguel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nord, B.; Orgando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-11-29

    In this study, we measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. The prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. The lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  13. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Troughs in DES Science Verification Data

    SciTech Connect

    Gruen, D.

    2015-09-29

    We measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. Furthermore, the prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. Finally, the lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  14. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs in DES Science Verification data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, D.; Friedrich, O.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Bonnett, C.; Hartley, W.; Jain, B.; Jarvis, M.; Kacprzak, T.; Krause, E.; Mana, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Seitz, S.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Becker, M. R.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Bridle, S. L.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Neto, A. Fausti; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.

    2016-01-01

    We measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ-15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ∈ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. The prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. The lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  15. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs in DES Science Verification data

    DOE PAGES

    Gruen, D.; Friedrich, O.; Amara, A.; ...

    2015-11-29

    In this study, we measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers ofmore » the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. The prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. The lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.« less

  16. Argon Spill Trough Bellows - Leak Test

    SciTech Connect

    Jaques, A.; /Fermilab

    1990-04-30

    The four argon spill trough bellows were leak tested with helium during the week of March 12, 1990. Three passed without incident, but the fourth was found to have a leak in the weld at one of the ring/clamps. The hole was approximately 1/32-inch in diameter (a likely result of a welding burn through) and located on an inflexible portion of the bellows, the ring/clamp. Frank Juravic, who conducted the tests, suggested using grey structural epoxy to plug the leak. The epoxy is metallic with some inherent flexibility. The epoxy was applied and the bellows retested in the same manner as before. The repair was a success as the bellows proved to be leaktight. The bellows were then put in their original shipping crates and placed in storage at Lab C. Included in this report is the manufacturer's spec sheets on the bellows, a copy of the Quality Control Report form and a sketch of the test setup with an explanation of the procedure. On the bellows data sheet entitled 'Analysis of Stress in Bellows', the analysis output is obtained through a theoretical bellows program that uses quadratic equations to approximate characteristic curves for such data as axial, lateral and angular movement and spring rates. The program is best suited for bellows with a wall thickness of at least 0.015-inch and an operating pressure significantly above atmospheric. Thus EJS Inc. warned that the output data would not be very accurate in some instances. The data given on the EJS Inc. sketch sheet should be taken as accurate, though, for it was taken from the actual bellows delivered. The 72-inch length includes the 64.64-inch of bellows section, the (3) 1/2-inch ring/clamps and the (2) 1-1/2-inch end bands. The remainder of the discrepancy is accounted for by a 2.75-inch factory elongation of the bellows from the original free length. The 40-inch compression capability includes the 2.75-inch of factory elongation, the program determined 31.9-inch of compression from free length and 5.35-inch of

  17. The Ferric Mineralogy of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, James Francis, III

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation presents new telescopic observations of Mars using the technique of imaging spectroscopy. Data at high spectral resolution (lambda/ Deltalambda = 350) and at the best possible spatial resolution (80-150 km) were obtained from Mauna Kea Observatory during the 1988 perihelic opposition. Spectra from 0.4-0.8 μm reveal distinct absorption features and slope changes that are characteristic of Fe^{3+}-bearing minerals. Poorly crystalline materials, similar to nanophase ferric minerals or palagonite-like weathering products of basaltic glass, dominate the spectral behavior of the Martian surface in the visible to near-IR. Analysis of absorption band shapes and positions and the strong near-UV ferric absorption edge provides solid evidence for the detection of minor amounts (4-8%) of crystalline hematite (alpha -Fe_2O_3) on Mars. Different models for the formation of hematite and other ferric minerals in the current and possibly past warmer, wetter Martian climate are discussed. Images in the 0.4-1.0 μm region reveal the "classical" albedo features at red and green wavelengths (lambda > 0.5 μm) and show a spectrally bland surface dominated by polar ices and atmospheric condensates at blue wavelengths. The main results are that (1) the 2-5% deep 0.6-0.7 mu m ferric absorption band varies across the surface with bright regions typically having a deeper band; (2) many dark regions and isolated bright regions are more spectrally heterogeneous than once thought; (3) 95% of the variance in Mars spectra can be modeled using two endmembers (classical bright and dark regions), and spatially coherent units within the remaining variance correlate with condensates and dark, ferric-rich materials; (4) ferric minerals have absorption features at 0.9-1.0 mum, and weak bands observed in previous Mars spectra at these wavelengths that have been ascribed entirely to Fe ^{2+} minerals may also be consistent with variations in Fe^{3+} mineralogy. The advantages of imaging

  18. Characteristics of radon and thoron exhalation rates in Okinawa, subtropical region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, Y; Kina, S; Fujitani, T; Hosoda, M; Sorimachi, A; Ishikawa, T; Sahoo, S K; Tokonami, S; Furukawa, M

    2012-11-01

    Radon and thoron exhalation rates from the ground surface were estimated in three islands of Okinawa Prefecture, a subtropical region of Japan. In situ measurements of the exhalation rates were conducted at a total of 88 points using an accumulation technique with a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. The radon and thoron exhalation rates were calculated to be 1-137 (arithmetic mean: 21) mBq m(-2) s(-1) and 32-6244 (1801) mBq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. In the surface soil samples collected at 53 measurement points, (238)U and (232)Th series concentrations were estimated to be 17.9-254.0 (64.0) Bq kg(-1) dry and 17.8-136.1 (58.8) Bq kg(-1) dry, respectively. The maximum rates and concentrations were observed in the dark red soil area. Recent studies strongly suggest that the base material of the soils may be the eolian dust derived from the southeastern part of China, a high background radiation area. The eolian dust is, therefore, considered to be an enhancer for the radon and thoron exhalations in Okinawa.

  19. [Survey of allergic diseases in 3-year old children in Okinawa City].

    PubMed

    Takeda, F; Toma, T; Miyagi, I; Kishimoto, M

    1996-12-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted between September 1993 and March 1994 to ascertain the presence of allergic diseases among 3-year old children in Okinawa City of Okinawa Prefecture. Nine hundred and twenty-two questionnaires were sent to caretakers of 3-year old children, with 697 responses of which five invalid cases were deleted for a total of 692 responses which were analyzed. About 30% of these children had allergic diseases as diagnosed by the medical doctor. Among the respondents 15.1% had experience of atopic dermatitis, while 13.9% had experience of asthma. The incidence of atopic dermatitis in this survey was lower than those reported in other prefectures of Japan. Symptoms for atopic dermatitis were more severe during summer. About 15% of the children had been on a diet regimen for prevention or treatment of allergic diseases since the time of conception. Eighteen percent of the respondents used a vacuum cleaner on their bedding. A high proportion of respondents (65.9%) obtained information from newspapers or magazines about allergic diseases.

  20. Reproductive traits of the Ryukyu long-furred rat (Diplothrix legata) on Okinawa-jima Island

    PubMed Central

    OKANO, Tsukasa; NAKATA, Katsuhi; NAKAYA, Yumiko; NAGAMINE, Takashi; ONUMA, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    The Ryukyu long-furred rat, Diplothrix legata, is a large rodent distributed only on Amami-ohshima Island, Tokuno-shima Island and Okinawa-jima Island, Japan. This animal is endangered as a result of deforestation, predation by introduced carnivores and mortality caused by vehicles. We performed theriogenological examinations of 32 male and 25 female Ryukyu long-furred rats carcasses collected from wild populations on northern Okinawa-jima Island from December 2005 to September 2013. Adult males had remarkably large preputial glands. Seminiferous diameter of adult was significantly small (136 ± 28 µm, n=8) from April to August. Numerous spermatozoa were observed from September through February, and seminiferous diameter was significantly large (216 ± 27 µm, n=12) during this time in adults; testes length changed in a similar pattern. These findings indicate that the mating season may occur from September through February. Size (body length) at sexual maturity was estimated to be >560 mm in both sexes. From observation of corpora lutea and placental scars, litter size was estimated to range from 2 to 12 (average=6, n=4). These results provide fundamental knowledge that will be beneficial for in situ and ex situ conservation of this rare species. PMID:25649850

  1. Epidemiological study of hepatitis E virus infection in the general population of Okinawa, Kyushu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Furusyo, Norihiro; Takeoka, Hiroaki; Murata, Masayuki; Sawayama, Yasunori; Hayashi, Jun

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in the general population of Japan by determining presence of the antibody to HEV (anti-HEV). The prevalence of HEV infection was determined by positivity of serum antibody to HEV (anti-HEV). On retrospective analysis, a significant decrease in anti-HEV prevalence was found in Okinawa healthy residents from 1995 (15.8%) to 2005 (5.5%) (P < 0.0001). In 2005, the anti-HEV prevalence was significantly higher in Okinawa wild boar hunters (25.3%) than in the residents (male 7.7% and female 4.1%) (P < 0.0001). A significant difference was found in the history of consumption of undercooked or raw boar meat between anti-HEV positive and negative hunters (100% vs 64.3%) (P = 0.0018). In conclusion, the anti-HEV prevalence has decreased in the residents of this area, but HEV infection has continued at a high rate in the hunters through the custom of eating undercooked or raw boar meat.

  2. Reproductive traits of the Ryukyu long-furred rat (Diplothrix legata) on Okinawa-jima Island.

    PubMed

    Okano, Tsukasa; Nakata, Katsuhi; Nakaya, Yumiko; Nagamine, Takashi; Onuma, Manabu

    2015-06-01

    The Ryukyu long-furred rat, Diplothrix legata, is a large rodent distributed only on Amami-ohshima Island, Tokuno-shima Island and Okinawa-jima Island, Japan. This animal is endangered as a result of deforestation, predation by introduced carnivores and mortality caused by vehicles. We performed theriogenological examinations of 32 male and 25 female Ryukyu long-furred rats carcasses collected from wild populations on northern Okinawa-jima Island from December 2005 to September 2013. Adult males had remarkably large preputial glands. Seminiferous diameter of adult was significantly small (136 ± 28 µm, n=8) from April to August. Numerous spermatozoa were observed from September through February, and seminiferous diameter was significantly large (216 ± 27 µm, n=12) during this time in adults; testes length changed in a similar pattern. These findings indicate that the mating season may occur from September through February. Size (body length) at sexual maturity was estimated to be >560 mm in both sexes. From observation of corpora lutea and placental scars, litter size was estimated to range from 2 to 12 (average=6, n=4). These results provide fundamental knowledge that will be beneficial for in situ and ex situ conservation of this rare species.

  3. Genotypic diversity of Theileria orientalis detected from cattle grazing in Kumamoto and Okinawa prefectures of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoaki; Ueno, Akio; Mizuno, Daisuke; Kuboki, Noritaka; Khukhuu, Altangerel; Igarashi, Ikuo; Miyahara, Tokuji; Shiraishi, Takashi; Kudo, Ryuta; Oshiro, Mamoru; Zakimi, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2011-03-01

    Theileria orientalis is a benign protozoan species that is widely distributed in Japan, yet sometimes causes serious economic losses in the livestock industry. In this study, we conducted a molecular survey based on genes encoding the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) and p23 for T. orientalis detected in cattle grazing in southern areas of Japan, consisting of 2 farms in Kumamoto prefecture (Aso and Kuma districts) and 3 farms in Okinawa prefecture (Ishigaki, Iriomote, and Yonaguni Islands). High prevalence rates of T. orientalis infection were shown in all the cattle populations using the diagnostic MPSP- and p23-PCR assays. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 4 MPSP genotypes and 3 p23 genotypes. Furthermore, MPSP genotype-specific PCR methods were developed in this study and wide distributions of 5-district genotypes of T. orientalis were observed for the examined farms. Our results indicate that at least 5 types of T. orientalis exist in Kumamoto and Okinawa prefectures of Japan and that genotype-specific PCR assays are highly applicable for the quarantine of transported cattle and for epidemiological surveys of bovine theileriosis in Japan.

  4. Recent change of the antigenicity and genotype of Japanese encephalitis viruses distributed on Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mika; Taira, Katsuya; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Mori, Naoki

    2007-10-01

    In this study, five isolates of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) were obtained from swine serum samples collected on Okinawa Island, Japan, between 2002 and 2003. All five JEV isolates belonged to genotype 1, and JEV isolates obtained from the island before 1992 were genotype 3. Genotype 1 was known to be distributed from northern Thailand to Cambodia and recently expanded to Australia, Vietnam, the Republic of Korea, and Japan. However, phylogenetic analysis showed that the source of the newly emerging genotype 1 in Asia is different from that in Australia. Sero-epidemiologic investigations showed that serum samples collected from 1985 to 1988 from JEV-immune swine neutralized both the Naha Meat 54 strain (1985 JEV Okinawan isolate from swine, genotype 3) and the Oki 431S strain (2002 JEV Okinawan isolate from swine, genotype 1), and many samples collected in 2002 neutralized the Oki 431S strain but not the Naha Meat 54 strain. These results strongly suggest that the genotype and antigenicity of JEV on Okinawa Island have changed significantly over the past decade.

  5. Estimation of radon emanation coefficient for representative soils in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, Y; Hosoda, M; Ishikawa, T; Sahoo, S K; Tokonami, S; Furukawa, M

    2015-11-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) emanation coefficients for the representative soils distributed in Okinawa Island, Japan, have been estimated empirically. Arithmetic means of the emanation coefficients for dry and moist conditions were calculated to be 0.19 and 0.29, respectively. In Okinawa, the soils are traditionally classified into three types, namely the dark red soils, the residual regosols and the red and yellow soils. The dark red soils have relatively high coefficients. The residual regosols and the red and yellow soils have relatively low coefficients. To investigate the variable factor of the emanation coefficients, analyses of radioactive elements and physical properties have also been performed on the soils. For the dark red soils, the contents of the fine particle and the (226)Ra are relatively higher than those for the other soils. Based on these results, it is suggested that the variation in the radon emanation coefficient is mainly regulated by the (226)Ra concentration, the particle sizes and the water contents of the soils.

  6. Sedimentary and petrofacies analyses of the Amasiri Sandstone, southern Benue Trough, Nigeria: Implications for depositional environment and tectonic provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoro, A. U.; Igwe, E. O.; Nwajide, C. S.

    2016-11-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the depositional environment, provenance and tectonic setting for the Turonian Amasiri Sandstone, southern Benue Trough, Nigeria, using lithofacies analysis and re-appraisal of petrography of the sandstones. Local stratigraphy and field relationships show a thick succession of shales alternating with elongate/parallel sandstone ridges extending eastwards from Akpoha to Amasiri through Itigidi and Ugep to Apiapum areas. Lithofacies analysis reveals 9 lithofacies suggestive of storm (mass flow) and tidal shelf processes. These include dark grey to black laminated shale/silty mudstones, bioturbated mudstones, coquinoid limestones, very fine-grained bioturbated sandstones with shell hash/debris in places and limestone rip-up clasts, massive and chaotic sandy conglomerate with rip - up clasts, fine to medium-grained, parallel laminated sandstone, hummocky cross-stratified, massive, medium to coarse-grained sandstones, medium to very coarse-grained, planar cross-bedded sandstone, with clay-draped foresets and Ophiomorpha burrows, and coarse-grained trough cross-bedded sandstone. Petrofacies analysis identifies the sandstones as feldspathic and arkosic arenites. Ternary plot of framework mineralogy indicates derivation from an uplifted continental block related to the nearby Oban Massif and Cameroon Basement Complex.

  7. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Experimental and analytical data on magnetic mineralogy was provided as an aid to the interpretation of magnetic anomaly maps. An integrated program, ranging from the chemistry of materials from 100 or more km depth within the Earth, to an examination of the MAGSAT anomaly maps at about 400 km above the Earth's surface, was undertaken. Within this framework, a detailed picture of the pertinent mineralogical and magnetic relationships for the region of West Africa was provided. Efforts were directed toward: (1) examining the geochemistry, mineralogy, magnetic properties, and phases relations of magnetic oxides and metal alloys in rocks demonstrated to have originated in the lower crust of upper mantle, (2) examining the assumption that these rocks portray the nature of their source regions; and (3) examining the regional geology, tectonics, gravity field and the MAGSAT anomaly maps for West Africa.

  8. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  9. Tear trough deformity: different types of anatomy and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jindou; Wang, Xuekun; Chen, Rongrong; Xia, Xueying; Sun, Sai

    2016-01-01

    Aim To explore the efficacy of tear trough deformity treatment with the use of hyaluronic acid gel or autologous fat for soft tissue augmentation and fat repositioning via arcus marginalis release. Material and methods Seventy-eight patients with the tear trough were divided into three groups. Class I has tear trough without bulging orbital fat or excess of the lower eyelid skin. Class II is associated with mild to moderate orbital fat bulging, without excess of the lower eyelid skin. Class III is associated with severe orbital fat bulging and excess of the lower eyelid skin. Class I or II was treated using hyaluronic acid gel or autologous fat injections. Class III was treated with fat repositioning via arcus marginalis release. The patients with a deep nasojugal groove of class III were treated with injecting autologous fat into the tear trough during fat repositioning lower blepharoplasty as a way of supplementing the volume added by the repositioned fat. Results Seventy-eight patients with tear trough deformity were confirmed from photographs taken before and after surgery. There were some complications, but all had complete resolution. Conclusions Patients with mild to moderate peri-orbital volume loss without severe orbital fat bulging may be good candidates for hyaluronic acid filler or fat grafting alone. However, patients with more pronounced deformities, severe orbital fat bulging and excess of the lower eyelid skin are often better served by fat repositioning via arcus marginalis release and fat grafting. PMID:27605904

  10. Development of a premidnight trough observed with EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voiculescu, Mirela; Nygren, Tuomo; Aikio, Anita; Kuula, Ritva

    An EISCAT UHF experiment scanning through 360 in azimuth with a fixed elevation was carried out on 9 November 1987 and observed a F region ionospheric trough in the post-noon and evening sectors. Since the radar rotates with the Earth, beams with different directions from subsequent scans meet in the same MLT-Mlat pixel in non-rotating frame. Measurements were combined to give a single value of electron density and ion/electron temperature in each pixel. The ion velocity full vector could also be calculated, since each measurement in a given bin corresponds to a different beam direction. Such calculations were possible because the geomagnetic conditions during the entire time of the experiment were quiet enough for assuming a quasi-stationary ionosphere. It was found that the trough minimum is due to recombination of F region plasma flowing for a long time within the dusk convection cell beyond the terminator. The northern edge of the trough is associated with particle precipitation and the southern edge is caused by plasma flow from the sunlit part of the F region. The southern edge is steeper than the northern edge. Both ion and electron temperatures have minima within the trough region. Plasma horizontal transport and convection pattern at the time of observations play an important role in maintaining the low density inside the trough.

  11. Aeolian Sediment Transport Pathways and Aerodynamics at Troughs on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourke, Mary C.; Bullard, Joanna E.; Barnouin-Jha, Olivier S.

    2004-01-01

    Interaction between wind regimes and topography can give rise to complex suites of aeolian landforms. This paper considers aeolian sediment associated wit11 troughs on Mars and identifies a wider range of deposit types than has previously been documented. These include wind streaks, falling dunes, "lateral" dunes, barchan dunes, linear dunes, transverse ridges, sand ramps, climbing dunes, sand streamers, and sand patches. The sediment incorporated into these deposits is supplied by wind streaks and ambient Planitia sources as well as originating within the trough itself, notably from the trough walls and floor. There is also transmission of sediment between dneTsh. e flow dynamics which account for the distribution of aeolian sediment have been modeled using two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics. The model predicts flow separation on the upwind side of the trough followed by reattachment and acceleration at the downwind margin. The inferred patterns of sediment transport compare well with the distribution of aeolian forms. Model data indicate an increase of wind velocity by approx. 30 % at the downwind trough margin. This suggests that the threshold wind speed necessary for sand mobilization on Mars will be more freqentmlye t in these inclined locations.

  12. Chemical characteristics of water masses in the Rockall Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Triona; Nolan, Glenn; McGovern, Evin

    2012-03-01

    Direct observations of physical and chemical data in the Rockall Trough during February of 2008, 2009 and 2010 are presented. Results are compared to a similar WOCE transect, AR24, completed in November/December 1996. Temperature and salinity data have been used to identify the water masses present in the Trough, and have been combined with nutrient (nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, silicate) and oxygen data to produce a table outlining the chemical characteristics of each of the water masses. Eastern North Atlantic Water (ENAW) moving north through the Trough gains nutrients from a branch of the North Atlantic Current (NAC). Mediterranean Water (MW) was identified as a warm saline core, with characteristically low oxygen and low preformed nutrients along the Irish continental shelf break near 53°N. Found at a similar density level at the southern entrance to the Trough, Sub Arctic Intermediate Water (SAIW) has relatively high oxygen and preformed nutrients, likely entrained from the subpolar gyre when it was formed. LSW was identified as a prominent water mass between 1500 and 2000 m deep, with characteristically high oxygen content. Lower silicate, and to a lesser extent preformed nitrate, in 2009 coincide with a freshening of Labrador Sea Water (LSW) relative to other years, and could indicate a stronger influence from the Labrador Current when it was formed. Finally, traces of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) were found as far north as 53°N, indicated by a sharp increase in nutrient concentrations, particularly silicate in the deepest parts of the Trough.

  13. Mineralogy of chondritic interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, I. D. R.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.

    1987-08-01

    This paper presents a synopsis of current investigations on the mineralogy of chondritic micrometeorites obtained from the lower stratosphere using flat-plate collection surfaces attached to high-flying aircraft. A compilation of detailed mineralogical analyses for 30 documented chondritic interplanetary dust particles indicates a wide variety of minerals present in assemblages which, as yet, are poorly defined. Two possible assemblages are: (1) carbonaceous phases and layer silicates and (2) carbonaceous and chain silicates or nesosilicates. Particles with both types of silicate assemblages are also observed.

  14. The Ferric Mineralogy of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, James F., III

    1992-12-01

    regions typically having a deeper band; (2) many dark regions and a few isolated bright regions are perhaps more spectrally hteterogeneous than once thought; (3) 95% of the variance in Mars spectra can be modeled using two endmembers (classical bright and dark regions), but there are distinct spatially coherent units within the remaining 5% of the variance that correlate with ices, condensates, and/or dark, ferric-rich materials; (4) numerous ferric minerals have absorption features in the 0.9-1.0 micron region, and the weak bands observed in previous Mars spectra at these wavelengths that have been ascribed entirely to Fe^2+ minerals may, within the limits of the available data, also be consistent with variations in Fe^3+ mineralogy. The advantages of imaging spectroscopy over traditional point spectroscopy or broadband filter imaging make it an ideal tool for high spatial-resolution spacecraft studies of the Martian surface. (SECTION: Dissertation Abstracts)

  15. Status of APS 1-Mwe Parabolic Trough Project

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, S.; Brosseau, D.; Kolb, G.; Moore, L.; Cable, R.; Price, H.

    2005-11-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is currently installing new power facilities to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources that will satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). During FY04, APS began construction on a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. Site preparation and construction activities continued throughout much of FY05, and startup activities are planned for Fall 2005 (with completion early in FY06). The plant will be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than the conventional steam Rankine cycle plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  16. Molten salt parabolic trough system with synthetic oil preheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Minoru; Hino, Koichi

    2017-06-01

    Molten salt parabolic trough system (MSPT), which can heat the heat transfer fluid (HTF) to 550 °C has a better performance than a synthetic oil parabolic trough system (SOPT), which can heat the HTF to 400 °C or less. The utilization of HTF at higher temperature in the parabolic trough system is able to realize the design of a smaller size of storage tank and higher heat to electricity conversion efficiency. However, with MSPT there is a great amount of heat loss at night so it is necessary to circulate the HTF at a high temperature of about 290 °C in order to prevent solidification. A new MSPT concept with SOPT preheating (MSSOPT) has been developed to reduce the heat loss at night. In this paper, the MSSOPT system, its performance by steady state analysis and annual performance analysis are introduced.

  17. Tectonic evolution of the Tobago Trough forearc basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speed, R.; Torrini, R., Jr.; Smith, P. L.

    1989-01-01

    The histories of configurational changes and sedimentation in the Tobago Trough, which is a modern bathymetric forearc basin of the Lesser Antilles island arc, were investigated using marine seismic data from the Tobago Trough. Special attention is given to two tectonic problems. The first is the evolution of the southeastern corner of the Caribbean as related to the finding that the early forearc basins had substantially different configurations from that of the modern forearc basin. The second is the interaction between the forearc basin and the accretionary prism within the Lesser Antilles system. It is pointed out that Miocene and younger features of the Tobago Trough might reflect a superposition of tectonism associated with the development of the Neogene Lesser Antilles arc on an older arc system.

  18. Design wind and sandstorm loads on trough collectors in fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Bo; Wang, Zhifeng; Wei, Zeyu

    2017-06-01

    Trough collectors are laid out in rows in a field withrow spacing. Wind and sandstorm loads on the collectors will be influenced by surrounding collectors. This paper presents analyzed results from a combined wind tunnel and sandstorm tunnel study on a trough collector field with seven rows and five spans. In wind tunneltests, the measured model with pressure taps was installed in the field to measure wind pressures on the surfaces. Mean and fluctuating pressures on the model were measured by the synchronous multi-pressure sensing system under typical boundary layer wind flow field. In sandstorm tunneltests,a isolated trough collector model was measured by the high-frequency force balance technique under wind-blown sand flow field.

  19. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  20. Baby Spider: Growth of a Martian Trough Network

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-20

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the growth of a branching network of troughs carved by thawing carbon dioxide over the span of three Martian years. This process is believed to also form larger radially patterned channel features known as Martian "spiders." The image is one of three taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and included in a report on the first detection of such troughs persisting and growing, from one Mars year to the next. An animation is available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21257

  1. Biogenic carbonate mineralogies through the Phanerozoic

    SciTech Connect

    Constantz, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Evidence is rapidly becoming available which indicates that global ocean chemistry has fluctuated with respect to carbonate solubility through Phanerozoic time; the mineralogy of inorganically precipitated carbonate cements appears to have changed as a result. Reported here are new scanning and transmission electron microscopic and ultrastructural evidence together with theoretical calculations that suggest such changes in global ocean chemistry also mediated mineralogic changes in the carbonate skeletons or some organisms. Many groups of organisms are thought to mediate the entire skeletal crystal growth process by actively directing ions into a potentially charged organic matrix, always constructing a specific mineral. A host of other groups of organisms only initiate skeletal crystal growth so that the majority of their skeletal mineral growth is physicochemical, akin to the precipitation of marine cements; inorganic skeletal crystal growth is usually followed by readsorption of these inorganically precipitating crystals by the organism, halting crystal growth and forming skeletons of finished adaptive design. The author propose that physicochemical dominated skeletonizers had heterogeneous primary mineralogies through Phanerozoic time; he further suggests that organisms most susceptible to mineralogic inversion with changing ocean chemistry are those that, by new definition (presented here), are organisms which are the dominant reef builders of any given ancient carbonate system.

  2. Moessbauer mineralogy of calcined Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard V.; Zolensky, M. E.; Hiroi, T.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    The three Antarctic meteorites B7904, Y82162, and Y86720 are unusual because they have characteristics in common with both CI and CM groups and because they apparently underwent thermal alteration after hydrous alteration on their parent body. They are also spectrally similar (visible and near-IR) to C, G, B, and F asteroids, which may imply that the surface materials on those asteroids may have undergone thermal alteration. Based on the reflectance spectra of samples of Murchison (CM2 carbonaceous chondrite) that were thermally altered in the laboratory (cryopumped and initial 10(exp -5) atm H2), Hiroi et al. concluded that putative thermal alteration occurred at temperatures of 600 to 1000 C. Similar experiments have been done on Murchison and reported mineralogical changes based on data from transmission electron diffraction microscopy, electron diffraction, and analytical electron microscopy. We report here the Mossbauer mineralogy of the same samples of thermally-altered Murchison. Mossbauer mineralogy gives the molar distribution of Fe among its oxidation states and iron-bearing mineralogies.

  3. Mineralogy of artificially heated carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Lipschutz, M. E.; Hiroi, T.

    1994-01-01

    We have examined suites of heated Murchison (CM2) and Allende (CV3) samples heated in the range 400-1200 C, in a H2 atmosphere with a pressure of 10(exp 5) bar for periods of 1 to 4 weeks. We used a combination of X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe and TEM analyses to determine the mineralogy of these samples.

  4. Silicate mineralogy at the surface of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namur, Olivier; Charlier, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft has revealed geochemical diversity across Mercury's volcanic crust. Near-infrared to ultraviolet spectra and images have provided evidence for the Fe2+-poor nature of silicate minerals, magnesium sulfide minerals in hollows and a darkening component attributed to graphite, but existing spectral data is insufficient to build a mineralogical map for the planet. Here we investigate the mineralogical variability of silicates in Mercury's crust using crystallization experiments on magmas with compositions and under reducing conditions expected for Mercury. We find a common crystallization sequence consisting of olivine, plagioclase, pyroxenes and tridymite for all magmas tested. Depending on the cooling rate, we suggest that lavas on Mercury are either fully crystallized or made of a glassy matrix with phenocrysts. Combining the experimental results with geochemical mapping, we can identify several mineralogical provinces: the Northern Volcanic Plains and Smooth Plains, dominated by plagioclase, the High-Mg province, strongly dominated by forsterite, and the Intermediate Plains, comprised of forsterite, plagioclase and enstatite. This implies a temporal evolution of the mineralogy from the oldest lavas, dominated by mafic minerals, to the youngest lavas, dominated by plagioclase, consistent with progressive shallowing and decreasing degree of mantle melting over time.

  5. Future climate change projections of the Okinawa baiu and large-scale feature using a 60-km-mesh global climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Y.; Takemi, T.; Ishikawa, H.

    2013-12-01

    Between May and July, East Asia experiences a rainy season that is known as the mei-yu in China and as the baiu in Japan. The precipitation of the baiu is indispensable to our life, but a heavy rain is often generated in this period and gives serious damage. As a starting point for further investigation, we focus on a rainy season around Okinawa region. Okinawa is located southwest of mainland Japan on the eastern fringe of the East China Sea, and consists numerous small islands. 'Baiu' in Okinawa (hereafter, Okinawa baiu) takes places earlier than that in mainland of Japan. It is different in the viewpoints of stationary of baiu front and atmospheric moisture flux from that in other regions of Japan. Okada and Yamazaki (2012) examined on the basis of the proposal of Sampe and Xie (2010), and showed the precipitation in May is explained by a strong north-south temperature gradient at 500 hPa and southerly winds in the vicinity of Okinawa. We investigate the future changes in precipitation and the feature large-scale meteorological fields around Okinawa region, with particular focus on the horizontal temperature advection at 500 hPa, using the present-day (1979-2003) and future (2075-2099) climate simulations data by the 60 km mesh Meteorological Research Institute atmospheric general circulation model (MRI-AGCM3.2H). Future changes in the precipitation of the Okinawa baiu increases slightly during May and June. However, when considered separately in May and June, it shows the precipitation in May increase, and is little change in June. In present-day climate, the May precipitation is associated with warm advection at 500 hPa, mainly due to the meridional temperature gradient and the prevailing southerly wind. This warm advection coincides with upward motion near Okinawa. Precipitation over Okinawa is reduced during late May when the baiu front shifts southeastward. A region of cold advection from the north shifts southward to cover the northern part of Okinawa

  6. Mineralogy of Eolian Sands at Gale Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achilles, C. N.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bristow, T. F.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has been exploring outcrop and regolith in Gale crater since August 6, 2012. During this exploration, the mission has collected 10 samples for mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), using the CheMin instrument. The CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity uses a CCD detector and a Co-anode tube source to acquire both mineralogy (from the pat-tern of Co diffraction) and chemical information (from energies of fluoresced X-rays). A detailed description of CheMin is provided in [1]. As part of the rover checkout after landing, the first sample selected for analysis was an eolian sand deposit (the Rocknest "sand shadow"). This sample was selected in part to characterize unconsolidated eolian regolith, but primarily to prove performance of the scoop collection system on the rover. The focus of the mission after Rocknest was on the consolidated sediments of Gale crater, so all of the nine subsequent samples were collected by drilling into bedrock com-posed of lithified sedimentary materials, including mudstone and sandstone. No scoop samples have been collected since Rocknest, but at the time this abstract was written the mission stands poised to use the scoop again, to collect active dune sands from the Bagnold dune field. Several abstracts at this conference outline the Bagnold dune campaign and summarize preliminary results from analyses on approach to the Namib dune sampling site. In this abstract we review the mineralogy of Rocknest, contrast that with the mineralogy of local sediments, and anticipate what will be learned by XRD analysis of Bagnold dune sands.

  7. Effects of causeway construction on environment and biota of subtropical tidal flats in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Reimer, James Davis; Yang, Sung-Yin; White, Kristine N; Asami, Ryuji; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Hongo, Chuki; Ito, Shingo; Kawamura, Iori; Maeda, Isshu; Mizuyama, Masaru; Obuchi, Masami; Sakamaki, Takashi; Tachihara, Katsunori; Tamura, Maiko; Tanahara, Akira; Yamaguchi, Aika; Jenke-Kodama, Holger

    2015-05-15

    Okinawa, Japan is known for its high marine biodiversity, yet little work has been performed on examining impacts of numerous large-scale coastal development projects on its marine ecosystems. Here, we examine apparent impacts of the construction of the Kaichu-Doro causeway, which was built over 40 years ago. The causeway is a 4.75 km long embankment that divides a large tidal flat and has only two points of water exchange along its entire length. We employed quadrats, transects, sampling, visual surveys, and microbial community analyses combined with environmental, water quality data, and 1m cores, at five stations of two paired sites each (one on each side of Kaichu-Doro) to investigate how the environment and biota have changed since the Kaichu-Doro was built. Results indicate reduction in water flow, and site S1 was particularly heavily impacted by poor water quality, with low diversity and disturbed biotic communities.

  8. Medical school hotline: A History of the University of Hawai'i Postgraduate Medical Education Program at Okinawa Chubu Hospital, 1966-2012.

    PubMed

    Maeshiro, Masao; Izutsu, Satoru; Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm

    2014-06-01

    The University of Hawai'i (UH) has been collaborating with Okinawa Prefectural Chubu Hospital for over 46 years. This collaboration started as a post-World War II effort to increase the physician workforce. At the initiation of the US Army and State Department, the University of Hawai'i was recruited, in cooperation with the government of the Ryukyus and USCAR, to initiate a US style postgraduate clinical training program. The Postgraduate Medical Training Program of University of Hawai'i at Okinawa Chubu Hospital introduced a style of training similar to that in the US by offering a rotating internship. The initial contract had UH establish and run the Postgraduate Medical Training Program of University of Hawaii at Okinawa Central Hospital. After Okinawa's reversion to Japan, under a new contract, UH physicians participated as consultants by providing lectures at "grand rounds" and guidance to faculty, staff, and students. To date, 895 physicians have completed the University of Hawai'i Postgraduate Medical Training Program with 74 currently training. Approximately 662 (74%) of the trainees have remained in Okinawa Prefecture to practice medicine. As a result, the program has enhanced the physician workforce for the islands of Okinawa and neighbor archipelagos of Miyako and Yaeyama Islands.

  9. Dissemination of panton-valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Mine, Yoshiko; Nakasone, Isamu; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Utani, Atsushi; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Uezato, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming cytotoxin that is produced by Staphylococcus aureus closely associated with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI). PVL-positive S. aureus strains have been identified worldwide, including in the USA; however, few studies have reported the presence of these strains in Japan. In this study, we prospectively investigated the prevalence of PVL in S. aureus strains from outpatients presenting with SSTI in Okinawa and characterized the PVL-positive S. aureus strains by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). From 2008-2010, 499 clinical samples were obtained from 497 people. S. aureus was identified in 274 samples, and 36% (99 of 274) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Seventeen (6.2%) PVL-positive S. aureus strains were detected by PCR, and 12 of the 17 PVL-positive strains were MRSA. Most PVL-positive S. aureus caused furuncles or carbuncles. Nine of the 17 PVL-positive isolates had an ST8 MRSA genotype and most harbored SCCmec type IVa and the arcA gene of the arginine catabolic mobile element, which is identical to the USA300 clone prevalent in the USA. PVL-positive S. aureus strains were more likely to be resistant to erythromycin (65%) and levofloxacin (53%). PVL-positive S. aureus strains have emerged and are spreading as a causative pathogen for SSTI in Okinawa.

  10. Spectroscopic characteristics and organic carbon contents in the aerosols collected in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, H. J.; Kasaba, T.

    2015-12-01

    Organics in the atmospheric aerosols occupy 20 to 70% of the total mass. Since the proportion of organics is so large that it's important to understand their detailed characteristics. Polymeric compounds called HUmic-Like Substance (HULIS) are known to be present in the atmospheric aerosols. Biomass burning can be a source of HULIS. In this study, atmospheric aerosols were collected at Cape Hedo, a northern tip of Okinawa Island, and we characterized overall features of the organics collected in different seasons. In Okinawa, continental air mass prevails in spring, fall and winter, while maritime air mass from Pacific Ocean prevails in summer. Thus, it is relatively straightforward to identify sources of organics in different seasons. We measured total organic carbon (TOC) and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentrations, and absorbance and fluorescence intensity for the aerosol samples collected during Nov 2012 and July 2014 (n=90). As a result, TOC and WSOC showed almost the same trend, higher concentrations when continental air mass prevailed in fall and winter, while lower concentrations in summer. Percentages of WSOC in TOC accounted for 33-44%. Absorption efficiency, absorbance per 1 ppm organic carbon concentration, of the samples showed higher values in winter and fall, and lower values in summer. Fluorescence efficiency, normalized fluorescence with quinine sulfate per 1 ppm organic carbon concentration, were also different, it is likely that different types of organics were present in the aerosols from different seasons. We are also planning to measure HULIS in the aerosols and will be discussed a link between their contribution and trans-boundary air pollution in Asia.

  11. Estimated protein intake and blood pressure in a screened cohort in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Iseki, Kunitoshi; Iseki, Chiho; Itoh, Kazue; Sanefuji, Miho; Uezono, Keiko; Ikemiya, Yoshiharu; Fukiyama, Koshiro; Kawasaki, Terukazu

    2003-04-01

    We examined the relation between protein intake and blood pressure in a screened cohort in Okinawa, Japan. A total of 1,299 screened subjects, 885 men and 414 women, were examined at the Okinawa General Health Maintenance Association. Daily intake of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) was estimated from Na, K, and creatinine excretion by the method of Kawasaki et al., and daily protein intake was estimated by the method of Maroni et al. as the estimated daily urinary excretion of urea nitrogen. Mean (SD) daily protein intake was 71.8 (18.6) g in men and 54.0 (13.5) g in women, and the mean (SD) daily protein intake per unit kg body weight was 1.1 (0.2) g/kg in men and 1.0 (0.2) g/kg in women. In men, both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were higher in those with lower protein intake (LP; < 1.0 g/kg/day) than in those with higher protein intake (HP; > or = 1.0 g/kg/day) (p < 0 .05 for DBP). In women, both SBP and DBP were higher in those with LP than in those with HP, but these differences were not statistically significant. However, urinary excretion of both Na and K was lower in those with LP than in those with HP, respectively, both in men and women (p < 0.0001). In summary, estimated daily protein intake was about 1.1 g/kg in men and 1.0 g/kg in women. Despite the higher urinary excretion of Na, both SBP and DBP tended to be lower in those with higher daily protein intake, particularly in men.

  12. Distribution of Aeromonas species in environmental water used in daily life in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Hirai, Itaru; Sano, Kouichi

    2016-09-01

    The genus Aeromonas is known to causes diseases such as food poisoning, sepsis, and wound infection. However, the mode of Aeromonas transmission from environment to humans is not clearly understood. To evaluate the health risks of Aeromonas spp. in environmental freshwater, the number, proportion and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas species were investigated in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Environmental freshwater samples were collected from three dams, two springs and three private wells. Aeromonas strains were identified by the biochemical method and the viable count was calculated. The production of extracellular enzymes and the virulence genes were investigated for possessing putative virulence factors using representative isolates. At least seven species of already-known Aeromonas isolates as well as unidentified Aeromonas spp. with/without arginin dehydrolase (ADH) exist in water at these sites. Aeromonas spp. was found to exist at over 1000 CFU/100 ml in one spring and two wells. A. veronii biovar sobria and A. jandaei were the predominant species in dams, and A. hydrophila and/or A. eucrenophila were predominant in wells. Almost all the sampled Aeromonas species produced protease, gelatinase, lipase, esterase and DNase, but A. caviae, A. caviae-like bacteria, and A. eucrenophila had low hemolytic activity. Most sampled A. hydrophila strains possessed both aerolysin gene (aer) and hemolysin gene (hlyA), but A. caviae and A. eucrenophila strains did not possess either gene. Since these results indicated that several Aeromonas species having potential pathogenicity exist in environmental water in Okinawa, surveys are recommended as a public health measure.

  13. Electrodynamic structure of the morning high-latitude trough region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhamäki, H.; Aikio, A.; Voiculescu, M.; Juusola, L.; Nygrén, T.; Kuula, R.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the electrodynamics of a postmidnight, high-latitude ionospheric trough, observed with the European Incoherent Scatter radar in northern Scandinavia on 24-25 June 2003 around 22:00-02:30 UT during quiet conditions. The UHF radar made meridian scans with a 30 min cadence resulting in nine cross sections of ionospheric parameters. The F region electric field was also determined with the tristatic system. Ionospheric equivalent currents, calculated from ground magnetometer data, mostly show an electrojet-like current that is reasonably uniform in the longitudinal direction. Combined analysis of the conductances and equivalent current with a local Kamide-Richmond-Matsushita (KRM) method yields the ionospheric electric field and field-aligned current (FAC) in a 2-D (latitude-longitude) area around the radar. We conclude that the most likely scenario is one where the trough is initially created poleward of the auroral oval by downward FAC that evacuates the F region, but as the trough moves to lower latitudes during the early morning hours, it becomes colocated with the westward electrojet. There the electron density further decreases due to increased recombination caused by enhanced ion temperature, which in turn is brought about by a larger convection speed. Later in the morning the convection speed decreases and the trough is filled by increasing photoionization.

  14. Parabolic trough solar power for competitive U.S. markets

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.W.; Kistner, R.

    1999-07-01

    Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 190. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a results of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive US power market.

  15. Parabolic Trough Solar Power for Competitive U.S. Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Henry W. Price

    1998-11-01

    Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 1990. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a result of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive U.S. power market.

  16. Optimized molten salt receivers for ultimate trough solar fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffelmann, Klaus-J.; Richert, Timo; Kuckelkorn, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Today parabolic trough collectors are the most successful concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. For the next development step new systems with increased operation temperature and new heat transfer fluids (HTF) are currently developed. Although the first power tower projects have successfully been realized, up to now there is no evidence of an all-dominant economic or technical advantage of power tower or parabolic trough. The development of parabolic trough technology towards higher performance and significant cost reduction have led to significant improvements in competitiveness. The use of molten salt instead of synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid will bring down the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) even further while providing dispatchable energy with high capacity factors. FLABEG has developed the Ultimate TroughTM (UT) collector, jointly with sbp Sonne GmbH and supported by public funds. Due to its validated high optical accuracy, the collector is very suitable to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C. SCHOTT will drive the key-innovations by introducing the 4th generation solar receiver that addresses the most significant performance and cost improvement measures. The new receivers have been completely redesigned to provide a product platform that is ready for high temperature operation up to 550 °C. Moreover distinct product features have been introduced to reduce costs and risks in solar field assembly and installation. The increased material and design challenges incurred with the high temperature operation have been reflected in sophisticated qualification and validation procedures.

  17. 9 CFR 91.27 - Troughs and hayracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and pens aboard an ocean vessel shall be equipped with proper troughs for feeding and watering animals... the inspector. The feeding of hay to the animals on ocean vessels may be by means of dispensing the hay from racks or nets or by placing the hay on the floor of the pens in which the animals...

  18. 9 CFR 91.27 - Troughs and hayracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and pens aboard an ocean vessel shall be equipped with proper troughs for feeding and watering animals... the inspector. The feeding of hay to the animals on ocean vessels may be by means of dispensing the hay from racks or nets or by placing the hay on the floor of the pens in which the animals...

  19. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

    2011-03-01

    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  20. 3. WOODLINED TROUGH WITH AQUEDUCT WASTE GATES IN THE OPEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WOOD-LINED TROUGH WITH AQUEDUCT WASTE GATES IN THE OPEN POSITION, LOOKING NORTH. TRANSVERSE GIRDERS HAVE BEEN ADDED TO HELP STABILIZE THE AQUEDUCT. - Ohio & Erie Canal, Tinker's Creek Aqueduct, Canal Road, South Tinkers Creek Road, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. Strawberry Production in Soilless Substrate Troughs – Plant Growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soilless substrates made of peat moss, coconut coir, perlite, rockwool or bark are pathogen free and they have been used in strawberry production in Europe in troughs or containers. Open field strawberry production in soilless substrate is new to California growers. The objective of this study was t...

  2. Infant asphyxia, soft mattresses, and the "trough" effect.

    PubMed

    Combrinck, Marais; Byard, Roger W

    2011-09-01

    Although unexpected infant death in a cot has traditionally been attributed to sudden infant death syndrome, careful evaluation of death scenes and sleeping environments has increasingly identified deaths due to accidental asphyxia from so-called sleeping accidents. The case of a 5-month-old infant boy who was found facedown and unresponsive in a wooden portable cot with a sagging canvas base is reported to illustrate another potentially lethal situation. Although the autopsy revealed no specific findings, examination of the cot showed a significant depression caused by the sagging canvas base that was exacerbated by a soft-foam mattress and layers of bedding. Once in the trough, the infant would not have been able to extricate himself. Death was therefore attributed to accidental suffocation due to the infant's position resulting in contact of the mouth and face with soft bedding. In addition to again demonstrating the potential dangers of using old second-hand cots, this case clearly shows the problems that may exist when soft and sagging bedding forms a central trough that may entrap an infant. Death scene investigators should specifically comment on the presence of such troughs and measure of depth of the trough and/or cot base to provide some quantification of the degree of concavity present.

  3. Small mammals in oak woodlands in the Puget Trough, Washington.

    Treesearch

    S.M. Wilson; A.B. Carey

    2001-01-01

    We surveyed the 22 largest sites dominated by Oregon white oaks on the Fort Lewis Military Reservation, Washington, to determine small-mammal community structure and population abundances. Study areas were in the Puget Trough physiographic province and western hemlock vegetation zone. Most oak communities were ecotonal between prairie and Douglas-fir forest. Small...

  4. Solar Thermal Power Plants with Parabolic-Trough Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarza, E.; Valenzuela, L.; León, J.

    2004-12-01

    Parabolic-trough collectors (PTC) are solar concentrating devices suitable to work in the 150°C- 400°C temperature range. Power plants based on this type of solar collectors are a very efficient way to produce electricity with solar energy. At present, there are eight commercial solar plants (called SEGS-II, III,.. IX) producing electricity with parabolic-trough collectors and their total output power is 340 MW. Though all SEGS plants currently in operation use thermal oil as a heat transfer fluid between the solar field and the power block, direct steam generation (DSG) in the receiver tubes is a promising option to reduce the cost of electricity produced with parabolic- trough power plants. Most of technical uncertainties associated to the DSG technology were studied and solved in the DISS project and it is expected that this new technology will be commercially available in a short term. In Spain, the Royal Decree No. 436/204 (March 12th , 2004) has defined a premium of 0,18€/kWh for the electricity produced by solar thermal power plants, thus promoting the installation of solar thermal power plants up to a limit of 200 MW. Due to the current legal and financial framework defined in Spain, several projects to install commercial solar power plants with parabolic-trough collectors are currently underway.

  5. Mineralogy and petrology of some lunar samples.

    PubMed

    Agrell, S O; Scoon, J H; Muir, I D; Long, J V; McConnell, J D; Peckett, A

    1970-01-30

    Chemical analyses and norms of four samples are presented which confirm original estimates of low silica, unusual abundance of titania, and low oxidation state of the rocks. Accounts are given of mineralogy and petrology of fine-and coarse-grained igneous rocks and microbreccias with emphasis on chemical composition of individual minerals and glasses. The glasses are either spheres that scatter widely around the composition of lunar basalts or coating glasses that approximate basalts and microbreccias in composition.

  6. Mineralogical characterization of West Chestnut Ridge soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Kopp, O.C.; Lietzke, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    The morphological, physicochemical, and mineralogical properties of the soils and residua from the proposed site of the Central Waste Disposal Facility were characterized. The proposed site is underlain by cherty dolostones, limestones, and shales of the Knox Group covered by a thick residuum. Three diagnostic horizons from four soil profiles and six samples from residuum cores were selected for mineralogical analysis. The coarse fractions (gravel and sand) of the samples included different types of chert, iron-manganese oxide nodules, and quartz. The samples were high in clay content (except those from the A and E horizons) and low in pH and base saturation. The clay fractions were composed of varying amounts of kaolinite, mica, vermiculite, aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite, amorphous iron and aluminum oxides, gibbsite, and quartz. Aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite is the major component in surface horizons, but kaolinite becomes dominant in subsurface horizons of the soils. Degradation of kaolinite and formation of aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite and iron and aluminum oxides are pronounced chemical weathering processes in the surface soils. The aluminum hydroxy interlayering of vermiculite reduces cation exchange and selective sorption capacities of soils. In the residua, micaceous minerals free of aluminum hydroxy interlayering, kaolinite, and amorphous iron and aluminum oxides are major components in the clay fraction. The sorption ratios of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 60/Co, and the uranium isotopes expected to be in the radioactive wastes should be very high for the clays having such mineralogical composition. The low acid-buffering capacity (base saturation) of the residua suggest that the fragile chemical and mineralogical equilibria can be easily broken if an extreme chemical condition is imposed on the residua.

  7. "Building" 3D visualization skills in mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, S. J.; Ajoku, C. N.; McCarthy, B. S.; Lambart, S.

    2016-12-01

    Studying mineralogy is fundamental for understanding the composition and physical behavior of natural materials in terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. However, some students struggle and ultimately get discouraged with mineralogy course material because they lack well-developed spatial visualization skills that are needed to deal with three-dimensional (3D) objects, such as crystal forms or atomic-scale structures, typically represented in two-dimensional (2D) space. Fortunately, spatial visualization can improve with practice. Our presentation demonstrates a set of experiential learning activities designed to support the development and improvement of spatial visualization skills in mineralogy using commercially available magnetic building tiles, rods, and spheres. These instructional support activities guide students in the creation of 3D models that replicate macroscopic crystal forms and atomic-scale structures in a low-pressure learning environment and at low cost. Students physically manipulate square and triangularly shaped magnetic tiles to build 3D open and closed crystal forms (platonic solids, prisms, pyramids and pinacoids). Prismatic shapes with different closing forms are used to demonstrate the relationship between crystal faces and Miller Indices. Silica tetrahedra and octahedra are constructed out of magnetic rods (bonds) and spheres (oxygen atoms) to illustrate polymerization, connectivity, and the consequences for mineral formulae. In another activity, students practice the identification of symmetry elements and plane lattice types by laying magnetic rods and spheres over wallpaper patterns. The spatial visualization skills developed and improved through our experiential learning activities are critical to the study of mineralogy and many other geology sub-disciplines. We will also present pre- and post- activity assessments that are aligned with explicit learning outcomes.

  8. The Mineralogy of Comet Wild 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The nature of cometary solids is of fundamental importance to our understanding of the early solar nebula and protoplanetary history. Samples of Comet Wild 2, provided by the Stardust Mission, have now been examined in terrestrial labs for two years, and are very surprising! Here we describe mainly the critical phases olivine, pyroxene and Fe-Ni sulfides in Wild 2 grains, as a guide to the general mineralogy of the returned comet samples.

  9. Calcareous nannofossil assemblages of the upper Miocene to Pliocene Shimajiri Group on Okinawa-jima, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Ryo; Sato, Tokiyuki; Iryu, Yasufumi

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and paleoceanography of the Shimajiri Group in two exploratory wells (depths, 1243 and 1800 m) drilled on southern Okinawa-jima, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan. Three late Miocene to Pliocene datum planes were identified: the first occurrence of Amaurolithus spp. (7.42 Ma), the last occurrence of Discoaster quinqueramus (5.59 Ma), and the first occurrence of Ceratolithus rugosus (5.12 Ma). These datum planes were also identified in two other deep wells on southern Okinawa-jima. Nutrient levels (reconstructed from the relative abundances of small Reticulofenestra spp., and the relative abundances of Discoaster spp. plus Sphenolithus abies) suggest that deposition of the Shimajiri Group (<8.29-3.50 Ma) occurred under conditions of increasing eutrophication. The eutrophication was likely caused by shallowing of the sedimentary basin, but a stepwise shift was associated with an abrupt eutrophication event that occurred in the northwestern Pacific Ocean at 5 Ma.

  10. Talc pneumoconiosis: a pathologic and mineralogic study.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, A E; Pooley, F D; Griffiths, D M; Mitha, R; Craighead, J E; Ruttner, J R

    1992-12-01

    Seventeen cases of "talc pneumoconiosis" were examined pathologically and mineralogically to ascertain whether a true talc pneumoconiosis existed and also to compare these results in primary, secondary, and tertiary exposures. Mineralogic analyses were performed on wet tissue or tissue blocks by a variety of techniques, including analytical transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Overall, the pathologic appearance of the tissues was similar in primary, secondary, and tertiary exposures, although ferruginous bodies and foreign body giant cells were not always present in cases caused by secondary exposures. Mixed dust fibrotic lesions were found in two cases in which there were substantial quantities of quartz present. There was great variation in the minerals found within the lung tissues. Several cases showed significant quantities of mica and kaolin in addition to talc. One case consisted predominantly of mica and in fact could be regarded as "mica pneumoconiosis"; this diagnosis was correctly attributed because of the mineralogic findings. Tremolite fibers were found in only two cases. Substantial quantities of crocidolite and amosite fibers were found in one case. This study shows that "talcosis" frequently represents disease associated with a variety of minerals and that talc is a common denominator. It shows also the usefulness of lung dust mineral analysis, particularly in secondary industries, for evaluating the cause of a pathologic reaction when exposures are especially complex.

  11. Remote sensing of asteroid surface mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, Martin William

    A major research question in asteroid science centres on how fragments from main belt asteroids, which are located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, end up in Earth crossing orbits. Advances in infrared astronomy have made it possible to test the validity of solar system dynamical models using observational data. Specifically, near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy can be employed to search the main asteroid belt for possible mineralogical analogues of Near Earth asteroids. Two asteroids, 3628 Bosnemcova and 2002 JB9, were studied using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. 3628 Bosnemcova had been suggested as a possible parent body for ordinary chondrite meteorites due to its unique spectral characteristics and the fact that it orbits in the vicinity of the 3:1 Kirkwood gap. A more recent suggestion by Cloutis et al. (2006) is that 3628 Bosnemcova is a type A clinopyroxene and possible parent body for the angrite meteorites. The spectrum of 3628 Bosnemcova obtained during the observing run of June 2011 shows distinct absorption features at 1.02 and 2.16 microns. It is therefore possible to effectively rule out an ordinary chrondrite or howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) mineralogy for this asteroid. While not entirely conclusive, the implied mineralogy for 3628 Bosnemcova, i.e., a high calcium type B clinopyroxene with a possible fassite component, suggests it may be a possible parent body for the angrite meteorites.

  12. Impacts of Long-Range Transport of Metals from East Asia in Bulk Aerosols Collected at the Okinawa Archipelago, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Sotaro; S, Yuka; I, Moriaki; N, Fumiya; H, Daishi; A, Takemitsu; T, Akira

    2010-05-01

    Economy of East Asia has been growing rapidly, and atmospheric aerosols discharged from this region have been transported to Japan. Okinawa island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km of south Korea. Its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same type of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of acid-digested metals using atomic absorption spectrometer and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of metals in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island during June, 2008 to June 2009. We also determined 'background' concentration of metals in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island to elucidate the influence of the transport processes and distances from Asian continent on metal concentrations.

  13. Degradation potential and microbial community structure of heavy oil-enriched microbial consortia from mangrove sediments in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Bacosa, Hernando P; Suto, Koichi; Inoue, Chihiro

    2013-01-01

    Mangroves constitute valuable coastal resources that are vulnerable to oil pollution. One of the major processes to remove oil from contaminated mangrove sediment is microbial degradation. A study on heavy oil- and hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortia from mangrove sediments in Okinawa, Japan was performed to evaluate their capacity to biodegrade and their microbial community composition. Surface sediment samples were obtained from mangrove sites in Okinawa (Teima, Oura, and Okukubi) and enriched with heavy oil as the sole carbon and energy source. The results revealed that all enriched microbial consortia degraded more than 20% of heavy oil in 21 days. The K1 consortium from Okukubi site showed the most extensive degradative capacity after 7 and 21 days. All consortia degraded more than 50% of hexadecane but had little ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The consortia were dominated by Pseudomonas or Burkholderia. When incubated in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds, the active bacterial community shifted to favor the dominance of Pseudomonas. The K1 consortium was a superior degrader, demonstrating the highest ability to degrade aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds; it was even able to degrade heavy oil at a concentration of 15%(w/v). The dominance and turn-over of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia in the consortia suggest an important ecological role for and relationship between these two genera in the mangrove sediments of Okinawa.

  14. Extremely low genetic variability within and among locations of the greenfish holothurian Stichopus chloronotus Brandt, 1835 in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Taha; Takama, Okuto; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Reimer, James D

    2016-01-01

    The greenfish sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus is an economically and ecologically important sea cucumber species throughout its range. This species is widely distributed, inhabiting coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Our study evaluated population genetic structure and levels of genetic diversity in southern Japan. A total of 180 individuals were collected from eight locations from Okinawa and Okinoerabu Islands and sequenced using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (16S) and nuclear histone H3 (H3) gene. Only three 16S haplotypes were detected (518 bp) with haplotype diversity ranging from 0 to 0.56 and nucleotide diversity from 0 to 0.1%. H3 showed no variation among the studied locations. It is plausible that such results could be due to a shift to asexual reproduction. Additionally, the presence of the species on the east coast of Okinawa could only be detected in one location and all individuals consisted of a single haplotype. Genetic differences between the east and west coasts of Okinawa have been noticed in other coral reef organisms, and attributed to either ecological or biogeographical historical differences between the coasts due to differing levels of isolation during Pleistocene ice ages. Results from the present study should inform management and conservation policies of S. chloronotus in southern Japan.

  15. Spatial and temporal variations of chemicals in the TSP aerosols simultaneously collected at three islands in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, Takemitsu; Azechi, Sotaro; Somada, Yuka; Ijyu, Moriaki; Nakaema, Fumiya; Hitomi, Yuya; Handa, Daishi; Oshiro, Yoshito; Miyagi, Youichi; Tsuhako, Ai; Murayama, Hitomi; Higaonna, Yumi; Tanahara, Akira; Itoh, Akihide; Fukushima, Soko; Higashi, Kazuaki; Henza, Yui; Nishikawa, Rin; Shinjo, Hibiki; Wang, Hongyan

    2014-11-01

    East Asia's rapid economic growth has led to concerns about the emission of air pollutants. We collected total suspended particle (TSP) aerosol samples simultaneously at three islands in Okinawa, Japan, which are downwind of East Asia, during the Asian dust season, to examine the spatial and temporal variations and chemical transformations of major chemicals in the aerosols. Weekly samples were collected from July 2008 to June 2010, and the concentrations of water-soluble cations, anions, and organic carbon (WSOC) were determined (n = 303). Spatial distribution analysis showed that monthly mean concentrations of non-sea-salt (nss)-SO42- in the spring (Asian dust season) decreased with increasing distance from Asia, while the trend for NO3- was less evident, suggesting that chemical transformation affected the long-range transport of certain chemicals. Temporal variation analysis showed that concentrations of nss-SO42-, NO3-, and WSOC during the spring were about 2.0, 2.4, and 1.8 times those in the summer (cleaner air mass from the Pacific Ocean), respectively. This study demonstrated that air pollutants were transported from the Asian continent to the Okinawa islands and affected the air quality in the region. There may also be impacts on ecosystems, because increased concentrations of particulate NO3- could increase nutrient levels around the Okinawa islands.

  16. Extremely low genetic variability within and among locations of the greenfish holothurian Stichopus chloronotus Brandt, 1835 in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Takama, Okuto; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Reimer, James D.

    2016-01-01

    The greenfish sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus is an economically and ecologically important sea cucumber species throughout its range. This species is widely distributed, inhabiting coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Our study evaluated population genetic structure and levels of genetic diversity in southern Japan. A total of 180 individuals were collected from eight locations from Okinawa and Okinoerabu Islands and sequenced using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (16S) and nuclear histone H3 (H3) gene. Only three 16S haplotypes were detected (518 bp) with haplotype diversity ranging from 0 to 0.56 and nucleotide diversity from 0 to 0.1%. H3 showed no variation among the studied locations. It is plausible that such results could be due to a shift to asexual reproduction. Additionally, the presence of the species on the east coast of Okinawa could only be detected in one location and all individuals consisted of a single haplotype. Genetic differences between the east and west coasts of Okinawa have been noticed in other coral reef organisms, and attributed to either ecological or biogeographical historical differences between the coasts due to differing levels of isolation during Pleistocene ice ages. Results from the present study should inform management and conservation policies of S. chloronotus in southern Japan. PMID:27703841

  17. Coincident observations of ionospheric troughs and the equatorial plasmapause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Maynard, N. C.; Tulunay, Y. K.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Electron-density observations made in the topside ionosphere by the Ariel 4 and Isis 2 satellites are examined in conjunction with results obtained by Explorer 45 when it traversed the near-equatorial plasmapause with one hour (both UT and MLT) of the Ariel and Isis traversals of the same L coordinate. Both dusk and night observations are analyzed, and an attempt is made to show that depressions in ionospheric electron density occur in the vicinity of the plasmapause field line. It is concluded that the electron distributions observed in the electron-density troughs at 550 km near dusk by Ariel and at 1400 km near midnight by Isis do not always parallel variations in the light-ion distribution inferred from the Explorer plasmapause traversals and that there appears to be no specific feature of the main ionospheric trough which can be used to identify the plasmapause field line except in a statistical sense.

  18. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  19. Performance contracting for parabolic trough solar thermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.; Hewett, R.; Walker, A.; Gee, R.; May, K.

    1997-12-31

    Several applications of solar energy have proven viable in the energy marketplace, due to competitive technology and economic performance. One example is the parabolic trough solar collectors, which use focused solar energy to maximize efficiency and reduce material use in construction. Technical improvements are complemented by new business practices to make parabolic trough solar thermal systems technically and economically viable in an ever widening range of applications. Technical developments in materials and fabrication techniques reduce production cost and expand applications from swimming pool heating and service hot water, to higher-temperature applications such as absorption cooling and process steam. Simultaneously, new financing mechanisms such as a recently awarded US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) indefinite quantity Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) facilitate and streamline implementation of the technology in federal facilities such as prisons and military bases.

  20. Second-generation parabolic trough solar energy systems optimization analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, R. R.

    1982-04-01

    In the near future high-efficiency, low-cost, parabolic trough collectors will probably become available. The economic feasibility of these parabolic trough solar-energy systems is affected by many parameters which include component cost, load shape, fraction of the load supplied by solar energy, average temperature of the collector field and its axis of rotation, and for solar Rankine cogeneration systems, the electrical-to-thermal energy output ratio. The sensitivity of economic feasibility and system design to changes in these and other relevant parameters is discussed. System design and economics generally were found to be sensitive to component cost. They were also found to be quite sensitive to some of the other parameters in restricted ranges.

  1. The nature of the crust under Cayman Trough from gravity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, U.S.; Coleman, D.F.; Dillon, William P.

    2002-01-01

    Considerable crustal thickness variations are inferred along Cayman Trough, a slow-spreading ocean basin in the Caribbean Sea, from modeling of the gravity field. The crust to a distance of 50 km from the spreading center is only 2-3 km thick in agreement with dredge and dive results. Crustal thickness increases to ???5.5 km at distances between 100 and 430 km west of the spreading center and to 3.5-6 km at distances between 60 and 370 km east of the spreading center. The increase in thickness is interpreted to represent serpentinization of the uppermost mantle lithosphere, rather than a true increase in the volume of accreted ocean crust. Serpentinized peridotite rocks have indeed been dredged from the base of escarpments of oceanic crust rocks in Cayman Trough. Laboratory-measured density and P-wave speed of peridotite with 40-50% serpentine are similar to the observed speed in published refraction results and to the inferred density from the model. Crustal thickness gradually increases to 7-8 at the far ends of the trough partially in areas where sea floor magnetic anomalies were identified. Basement depth becomes gradually shallower starting 250 km west of the rise and 340 km east of the rise, in contrast to the predicted trend of increasing depth to basement from cooling models of the oceanic lithosphere. The gradual increase in apparent crustal thickness and the shallowing trend of basement depth are interpreted to indicate that the deep distal parts of Cayman Trough are underlain by highly attenuated crust, not by a continuously accreted oceanic crust. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  2. Optimal Heat Collection Element Shapes for Parabolic Trough Concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C

    2007-11-15

    For nearly 150 years, the cross section of the heat collection tubes used at the focus of parabolic trough solar concentrators has been circular. This type of tube is obviously simple and easily fabricated, but it is not optimal. It is shown in this article that the optimal shape, assuming a perfect parabolic figure for the concentrating mirror, is instead oblong, and is approximately given by a pair of facing parabolic segments.

  3. DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. SLURRY EXITING THE BALL MILL WAS COLLECTED IN AN AMALGAMATION BOX (MISSING) FROM THE END OF THE MILL, AND INTRODUCED INTO THE CLASSIFIER. THE TAILINGS LAUDER IS ON THE GROUND AT LOWER RIGHT. THE LINE SHAFTING ABOVE PROVIDED POWER TO THE CONCENTRATION TABLES BELOW AT CENTER RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  4. Modular Trough Power Plant Cycle and Systems Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.; Hassani, V.

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes an analysis to reduce the cost of power production from modular concentrating solar power plants through a relatively new and exciting concept that merges two mature technologies to produce distributed modular electric power in the range of 500 to 1,500 kWe. These are the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant and the concentrating solar parabolic (CSP) trough technologies that have been developed independent of each other over many years.

  5. Oblique nonvolcanic seafloor spreading in Lena Trough, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Jonathan E.; Hellebrand, Eric; von der Handt, Anette; Nauret, Francois; Gao, Yongjun; Schenke, Hans Werner

    2011-10-01

    Passive rifting and the early non-volcanic formation of ocean basins are fundamental aspects of the plate tectonic cycle. Cenozoic plate margins where this has occurred are rare. Here we present new observations from Lena Trough in the Arctic Ocean that bear on the early phase of oceanic spreading in such rifts. Lena Trough is an oblique seafloor rift system bounding the North American and Eurasian plates, and connecting neighboring Gakkel Ridge with the rest of the global mid-ocean ridge system. Mapping and sampling show widespread mantle outcrop along two parallel basement ridges bounded by steeply dipping normal faults. Volcanism is limited to the intersection with Gakkel Ridge and to minor eruption of strongly potassic alkali basalts in a single location. Non-eruptive magmatism is shown by an increase in plagioclase- and vein-bearing lithologies over residual peridotite in the center of Lena Trough. Normal mid-ocean ridge stairstep geometry and obvious low-angle detachments as seen at other ridges are absent. Lena Trough thus is an example of a young nonvolcanic continental rift that is just now beginning the transition to oblique nonvolcanic seafloor spreading. This style of oblique rifting, without the formation of striated large-scale low-angle detachments appears to be a major mode of crust formation on ultraslow spreading ridges. The sharp transition from the continental margins on either side to nonvolcanic rifting, with mantle slab exhumation in the rift may provide a model for the early evolution of oblique continental rifts, such as the Cote d'Ivoire/NE Brazil conjugate margins.

  6. Detecting Strain Transients in the Salton Trough (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, J. J.; Segall, P.; Herring, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Salton Trough region routinely experiences fault creep transients with time-scales of days to weeks, and previous studies have documented a temporal relationship between these aseimsic transients and earthquake swarms. The Plate Boundary Observatory has greatly increased the density of continuous geodetic data available in the Salton Trough, and we are analyzing this dataset to detect time periods when aseismic transients occurred in the Salton Trough. We are searching the daily GPS solutions for the time period from 2005-2009 for transients using Kalman Filter based detection algorithm called the Network Strain Filter [Ohtani, McGuire, and Segall, 2009]. The NSF solves for estimates of the secular velocity field and a time-vary transient displacement field that are expanded in basis functions. We utilize two dimensional wavelets as the basis functions. Spatial smoothing of the transient and secular velocity field are achieved by weighting the prior covariance matrix elements based on the scale of the individual wavelet basis. Site specific colored noise (seasonal terms, etc) is estimated as an random walk for each component. The vast majority of the Salton Trough GPS records are well explained by a combination of secular velocity and seasonal terms. However, we do find two spatially coherent transient episodes visible at multiple stations in the GPS data. The largest occurs near the southern extension of the Superstition Hills fault (Weinert Fault) during the second half of 2007. About 1 cm of extra motion to the northwest is observed at station P494, P496, and P497. The time scale of this transient is a few months. A second, smaller more abrupt transient is observed at stations P500 and P744 at the time of the February 2008 earthquake swarm at Cerro Prieto. We are investigating whether these two transients can be explained by slip on the Superstition Hills and Imperial faults respectively.

  7. The Rome trough and evolution of the Iapetean margin

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.; Hamilton-Smith, T.; Drahovzal, J.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Recent structural mapping of the Rome trough suggests a complex structure very different from the symmetrical and laterally continuous graben commonly depicted. Early and Middle Cambrian extension in the Rome trough of eastern Kentucky and adjacent areas resulted in a series of alternately facing half-grabens with variable displacement. These half-grabens are bounded by southwest-northeast-trending normal faults (e.g., Kentucky River and Warfield faults), which are laterally continuous only on the order to tens of kilometers. The Rome trough is laterally segmented by north-south-trending faults (e.g., Lexington fault) commonly expressed as flexures in younger rocks (e.g., Burning Springs anticline and Floyd County channel). Many of these north-south-trending faults have significant left-lateral displacement, and probably represent reactivated thrust faults of the Grenville tectonic front. The Rome trough and the associated Mississippi Valley, Rough Creek, and Birmingham fault systems were initiated during an Early Cambrian shift in sea-floor spreading from the Blue Ridge-Pine Mountain rift to the Ouachita rift along the Alabama-Oklahoma transform fault. These fault systems have been proposed as having originated from extensional stress propagated northward from the Ouachita rift across the transform fault. In the alternate model proposed here, faulting was brittle, extensional failure resulting form subsidence and flexure of the continental margin to the east. Following initiation of sea-floor spreading at the Blue Ridge-Pine Mountain rift in the latest Proterozoic, margin subsidence in the presence of the Alabama-Oklahoma transform boundary and the inherited Grenville tectonic front resulted in this interior cratonic fault system.

  8. Underground dams for irrigation supplies in coastal limestone aquifer, Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumoto, J.; Nakano, T.; Nawa, N.

    2011-12-01

    The use of underground dams to store water in regions with arid or tropical climates is a method that has received considerable attention in the last few decades. And now, for the tropical and subtropical islands that are highly vulnerable to climate change underground dams have been attracting attention again as a method of groundwater management. Okinawa Prefecture is Japan's southernmost prefecture, which consists of hundreds of islands in a chain over 1,000 km long, called the Ryukyu Islands which extend southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan. The national irrigation project of the Ryukyu Islands has been carried out, and several underground dams have been constructed. The Komesu and Giiza underground dams are first full scale underground dam facilities constructed for irrigation in Japan. The Komesu underground dam is a salt-water proof type. It prevents salt-water intrusion and provides storage fresh-water for irrigation in coastal limestone aquifer. Giiza underground dam is a dam up type for storage of fresh-water. These groundwater reservoirs are located in the coastal region of southern part of Okinawa (main island), where Ryukyu limestone is extensively distributed. We studied the behaviour of groundwater flow, saltwater intrusion and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) in groundwater in this region by using observation data of groundwater and springs through long term (from 1993 to 2010) monitoring. And, a groundwater flow and salt-water intrusion analysis have been conducted with three dimensional numerical model applied to these dam reservoir areas. The MODFLOW-NWT with SWI code and PEST was used to simulate the complex groundwater flow patterns. Through the comparison with simulation and observed data, it was concluded that the cut off wall of underground dams effectively stores the groundwater and prevents the salt-water intrusion in the reservoir areas. The observed groundwater levels at the reservoir areas were almost reproduced by the numerical model, but there

  9. Mechanism of Hydrogen Formation in Solar Parabolic Trough Receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Moens, L.; Blake, D. M.

    2008-03-01

    Solar parabolic trough systems for electricity production are receiving renewed attention, and new solar plants are under construction to help meet the growing demands of the power market in the Western United States. The growing solar trough industry will rely on operating experience it has gained over the last two decades. Recently, researchers found that trough plants that use organic heat transfer fluids (HTF) such as Therminol VP-1 are experiencing significant heat losses in the receiver tubes. The cause has been traced back to the accumulation of excess hydrogen gas in the vacuum annulus that surrounds the steel receiver tube, thus compromising the thermal insulation of the receiver. The hydrogen gas is formed during the thermal decomposition of the organic HTF that circulates inside the receiver loop, and the installation of hydrogen getters inside the annulus has proven to be insufficient for controlling the hydrogen build-up over the lifetime of the receivers. This paper will provide an overview of the chemical literature dealing with the thermal decomposition of diphenyl oxide and biphenyl, the two constituents of Therminol VP-1.

  10. Mid-Oceanic Troughs and Associated Teleconnection Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mengmeng; Deng, Kaiqiang; Yang, Song; Zhou, Guojun; Tan, Yaheng

    2017-04-01

    The mid-oceanic troughs (MOTs) are two prominent circulation systems over the North Pacific and the North Atlantic during the boreal summer, which act as the atmospheric bridges linking their adjacent continental climate. On interannual time scale, the variation of the mid-Atlantic trough (MAT) is significantly associated with the NAO variability and a southeastward propagating stationary wave that originates from the northeastern Pacific. The MAT is significantly correlated with the surface climate including the precipitation and surface temperature over the American-Atlantic-Eurasian sector. On interdecadal time scale, the variation of the MAT is strongly related to the AMO and associated with a dipole structure of anomalous precipitation over the North Atlantic and the Greenland. This study also shows that the most dominant mode of the mid-Pacific trough (MPT) is associated with the eastern Pacific La Niña-like pattern and Atlantic SST variability, while the second mode is related to the central Pacific El Niño-like pattern and Arctic sea ice variability. These two modes of the MPT are linked to the Asian-Pacific-American precipitation and surface temperature differently.

  11. Laser welding on trough panel: 3D body part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Masato; Hisano, Hirohiko

    2003-03-01

    Laser welding for automotive bodies has been introduced mainly by European car manufacturers since more than 10 years ago. Their purposes of laser welding introduction were mainly vehicle performance improvement and lightweight. And laser welding was applied to limited portion where shapes of panels are simple and easy to fit welded flanges. Toyota also has introduced laser welding onto 3 dimensional parts named trough panel since 1999. Our purpose of the introduction was common use of equipment. Trough panel has a complex shape and different shapes in each car type. In order to realize common use of welding equipment, we introduced parts locating equipment which had unique, small & simple jigs fo each car type and NC (Numerical Controlled) locators and air-cooled small laser head developed by ourselves to the trough welding process. Laser welding replaced spot welding and was applied linearly like stitches. Length of laser welding was determined according to comparison with statistic tensile strength and fatigue strength of spot welding.

  12. Microbial Community in the Hydrothermal System at Southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Itahashi, S.; Kakegawa, T.; Utsumi, M.; Maruyama, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Marumo, K.; Urabe, T.; Yamagishi, A.

    2004-12-01

    There is unique ecosystem around deep-sea hydrothermal area. Living organisms are supported by chemical free energy provided by the hydrothermal water. The ecosystem is expected to be similar to those in early stage of life history on the earth, when photosynthetic organisms have not emerged. In this study, we have analyzed the microbial diversity in the hydrothermal area at southern Mariana trough. In the "Archaean Park Project" supported by special Coordination Fund, four holes were bored and cased by titanium pipes near hydrothermal vents in the southern Mariana trough in 2004. Hydrothermal fluids were collected from these cased holes and natural vents in this area. Microbial cells were collected by filtering the hydrothermal fluid in situ or in the mother sip. Filters were stored at -80C and used for DNA extraction. Chimneys at this area was also collected and stored at -80C. The filters and chimney samples were crushed and DNA was extracted. DNA samples were used for amplification of 16S rDNA fragments by PCR using archaea specific primers and universal primers. The PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced. These PCR clones of different samples will be compared. We will extend our knowledge about microbiological diversity at Southern Mariana trough to compare the results obtained at other area.

  13. Transports and pathways of overflow water in the Rockall Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Clare; Sherwin, Toby; Cunningham, Stuart; Dumont, Estelle; Houpert, Loïc; Holliday, N. Penny

    2017-04-01

    Water mass analysis reveals a persistent core of deep overflow water within the Rockall Trough which hugs the northern and western boundaries of the basin. Mean speeds within this overflow are 10-15 cm s-1 giving a transport time from the Wyville Thomson Ridge to the central basin of <50 days. Analysis of the 40-year Extended Ellett Line record shows proportions of Norwegian Sea Deep Water associated with the deep core exceed 15% around one quarter of the time. We present the first transport estimates for overflow water in the Rockall Trough. This flux is for overflow water modified by mixing with a density greater than 27.65 kg m-3. Mean values calculated both from a newly deployed mooring array (OSNAP project) and indirectly from the Extended Ellett Line time-series are -0.3±0.04 Sv. Although the flux is highly variable there is no long term trend. As some overflow appears to exit into the Iceland Basin via channels between the northern banks, we suggest that the volume transport will likely increase as the flow pathway is traced back around the boundary of the Rockall Trough towards the Wyville Thomson Ridge.

  14. Low cost vee-trough evacuated tube collector module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost solar collector capable of operating at 150-200 C is described. An evacuated tube receiver is combined with asymmetric vee-trough concentrators. Peak efficiencies of about 40% at 120 C and 30% at 180 C are expected. Predicted future collector cost is $70/sq m which yields an energy cost of $4.20/GJ at 120 C. During the development of the vee trough/evacuated tube collector both mathematical models to predict thermal and optical performance were developed and tests run to verify theory. The asymmetric vee trough concentrator increases the solar flux intensity for an average value of 2 for year-round performance. Optimized collector module has reflector angles of 55 deg/85 deg. The aperture plane is tilted to the latitude. The reflector is made of electropolished aluminum. The supporting frame is formed by bending sheet metal. Evacuated tube receivers are Pyrex, 15 cm diam and 2.4 m long. The module has 12 tubes on right and left sides altogether. Attainable operation at temperatures on the order of 150-200 C are suitable for absorption refrigeration and power generation via Rankine engines.

  15. Full parabolic trough qualification from prototype to demonstration loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janotte, Nicole; Lüpfert, Eckhard; Pottler, Klaus; Schmitz, Mark

    2017-06-01

    On the example of the HelioTrough® collector development the full accompanying and supporting qualification program for large-scale parabolic trough collectors for solar thermal power plants is described from prototype to demonstration loop scale. In the evaluation process the actual state and the optimization potential are assessed. This includes the optical and geometrical performance determined by concentrator shape, deformation, assembly quality and local intercept factor values. Furthermore, its mechanical performance in terms of tracking accuracy and torsional stiffness and its thermal system performance on the basis of the overall thermal output and heat loss are evaluated. Demonstration loop tests deliver results of collector modules statistical slope deviation of 1.9 to 2.6 mrad, intercept factor above 98%, peak optical performance of 81.6% and heat loss coefficients from field tests. The benefit of such a closely monitored development lies in prompt feedback on strengths, weaknesses and potential improvements on the new product at any development stage from first module tests until demonstration loop evaluation. The product developer takes advantage of the achieved technical maturity, already before the implementation in a commercial power plant. The well-understood performance characteristics allow the reduction of safety margins making the new HelioTrough collector competitive from the start.

  16. Low cost vee-trough evacuated tube collector module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost solar collector capable of operating at 150-200 C is described. An evacuated tube receiver is combined with asymmetric vee-trough concentrators. Peak efficiencies of about 40% at 120 C and 30% at 180 C are expected. Predicted future collector cost is $70/sq m which yields an energy cost of $4.20/GJ at 120 C. During the development of the vee trough/evacuated tube collector both mathematical models to predict thermal and optical performance were developed and tests run to verify theory. The asymmetric vee trough concentrator increases the solar flux intensity for an average value of 2 for year-round performance. Optimized collector module has reflector angles of 55 deg/85 deg. The aperture plane is tilted to the latitude. The reflector is made of electropolished aluminum. The supporting frame is formed by bending sheet metal. Evacuated tube receivers are Pyrex, 15 cm diam and 2.4 m long. The module has 12 tubes on right and left sides altogether. Attainable operation at temperatures on the order of 150-200 C are suitable for absorption refrigeration and power generation via Rankine engines.

  17. Detailed Physical Trough Model for NREL's Solar Advisor Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A.

    2010-10-01

    Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software package made available by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory, and the US Department of Energy. SAM contains hourly system performance and economic models for concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, photovoltaic, solar hot-water, and generic fuel-use technologies. Versions of SAM prior to 2010 included only the parabolic trough model based on Excelergy. This model uses top-level empirical performance curves to characterize plant behavior, and thus is limited in predictive capability for new technologies or component configurations. To address this and other functionality challenges, a new trough model; derived from physical first principles was commissioned to supplement the Excelergy-based empirical model. This new 'physical model' approaches the task of characterizing the performance of the whole parabolic trough plant by replacing empirical curve-fit relationships with more detailed calculations where practical. The resulting model matches the annual performance of the SAM empirical model (which has been previously verified with plant data) while maintaining run-times compatible with parametric analysis, adding additional flexibility in modeled system configurations, and providing more detailed performance calculations in the solar field, power block, piping, and storage subsystems.

  18. The upper Cenomanian-lower Turonian of the Preafrican Trough (Morocco): Platform configuration and palaeoenvironmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedel, V.; Lézin, C.; Andreu, B.; Ettachfini, El M.; Grosheny, D.

    2015-06-01

    A synthetic study was carried out based on sedimentological, palaeontological, geochemical and mineralogical data of the upper Cenomanian-lower Turonian carbonate platform of the Preafrican Trough (eastern Morocco) in order to (1) propose a 3D representation of the platform and constrain the temporal framework of the dysoxic/anoxic episodes recorded during the OAE2, (2) define and discuss the prevailing climate on the platform during this period, and (3) make comparisons with other Cenomanian-Turonian platforms. During the late Cenomanian, both before and during the CCIE (Cenomanian Carbon Isotope Excursion), the platform displayed an east-west polarity. Three third-order sequences of transgression-regression can be defined. Dysoxic conditions were developed in the sediments and the bottom waters of the deepest environment (mid- to outer-ramp setting), in the western part of the platform. Well-oxygenated waters were present in the eastern part of the platform (peritidal zone to mid-ramp environment). The climate was arid before the CCIE, becoming warm with contrasted seasons during the CCIE. This climate is associated with a low palaeoproductivity over the entire platform, along with the presence of photozoan followed by heterozoan carbonate-producers, as found also in other parts of the Saharan platform. However, such conditions are not in accordance with many studies which suggest a wet climate during the CCIE, leading to intense chemical weathering of the continent favouring the appearance of high palaeoproductivity at a global scale and the establishment of dysoxic/anoxic conditions. In the Preafrican Trough, poorly-oxygenated waters spread outwards from the deep basins and covered the platform in response to sea-level rise. Many disturbances are recorded in the platform succession during the early Turonian, after the CCIE. Indeed, just after the C/T boundary, the development of an outer-ramp environment over the entire Preafrican Trough reflects flooding of

  19. Chemical Analysis of Fractionated Halogens in Atmospheric Aerosols Collected in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuhako, A.; Miyagi, Y.; Somada, Y.; Azechi, S.; Handa, D.; Oshiro, Y.; Murayama, H.; Arakaki, T.

    2013-12-01

    Halogens (Cl, Br and I) play important roles in the atmosphere, e.g. ozone depletion by Br during spring in Polar Regions. Sources of halogens in atmospheric aerosols are mainly from ocean. But, for example, when we analyzed Br- with ion chromatography, its concentrations were almost always below the detection limit, which is also much lower than the estimated concentrations from sodium ion concentrations. We hypothesized that portions of halogens are escaped to the atmosphere, similar to chlorine loss, changed their chemical forms to such as BrO3- and IO3-, and/or even formed precipitates. There was few reported data so far about fractionated halogen concentrations in atmospheric aerosols. Thus, purpose of this study was to determine halogen concentrations in different fractions; free ion, water-soluble chemically transformed ions and precipitates using the authentic aerosols. Moreover, we analyzed seasonal variation for each fraction. Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) of Okinawa, Japan during January 2010 and August 2013. A high volume air sampler was used for collecting total particulate matters on quartz filters on a weekly basis. Ultrapure water was used to extract water-soluble factions of halogens. The extracted solutions were filtered with the membrane filter and used for chemical analysis with ion chromatography and ICP-MS. Moreover, the total halogens in aerosols were obtained after digesting aerosols with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) using the microwave and analysis with ICP-MS. For Cl, water-soluble Cl- accounted for about 70% of the estimates with Na content. No other forms of water-soluble Cl were found. About 30% of Cl was assumed volatilized to the gas-phase. For Br, water-soluble Br accounted for about 43% of the estimates with Na content, and within the 43%, about 10% of Br was not in the form of Br-. About 46% of Br was assumed volatilized to the gas-phase. For I

  20. Long-Range Transport of Perchlorate Observed in the Atmospheric Aerosols Collected at Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.; Oomori, T.; Miyagi, T.; Kadena, H.; Ishizaki, T.; Nakama, F.

    2007-12-01

    The study of perchlorate has become quite active in the U.S. in the last several years. Perchlorate has been recognized as a new environmental pollutant and it attracted much attention quickly in the world. The health concern about perchlorate stems from the fact that it displaces iodide in the thyroid gland, while iodine-containing thyroid hormones are essential for proper neural development from the fetal stage through the first years of life. In this study, we determined the concentrations of perchlorate ion present in the atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa Island, Japan. We then examined the relationships between the perchlorate concentrations and the environmental parameters and the climatic conditions peculiar to Okinawa. Bulk aerosol samples were collected on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS). Each sampling duration was one week. The quartz filters with aerosols were stirred with Milli-Q pure water for three hours before perchlorate ion was extracted. The extracted perchlorate ion concentrations were determined by ion chromatography (ICS-2000, DIONEX). The mean perchlorate concentration for the samples collected at CHAAMS was 1.83 ng/m3, and the minimum was 0.18 ng/m3. The samples collected during November 21-27, 2005, January 23-30, 2006 and April 24-01, 2006 had highest perchlorate concentrations. For these three samples, we performed back trajectory analysis, and found that the air mass for the three samples arrived from the Asian continent. A relatively strong correlation (r2 = 0.55) was found between perchlorate and nss-sulfate concentrations for the CHAAMS samples. Furthermore, we analyzed perchlorate in the soils and the fertilizers used for sugar cane farming around the CHAAMS area. The Milli-Q extract of the soil and the fertilizers did not contain any detectable levels of perchlorate ions. Therefore, it was suggested that perchlorate found in the atmospheric

  1. Mineralogical and geochemical evidence of Quachita provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, S.J. . Dept. of Earth Resources); Land, L.S.; Hutson, F. . Dept. of Geological Science); Awwiller, D.N. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    Provenance of the extremely thick Ouachita flysch has not been specifically identified, despite several recent studies. Detrital mineral compositions, Sm-Nd model ages, and single zircon dates strongly suggest that several sources contributed sediment that became well-mixed before deposition. Sm-Nd model ages are nearly uniform for flysch samples, regardless of geographic position or exact stratigraphic position. These ages appear to rule out significant contribution by a Paleozoic island arc, and suggest a single source, multiple sources with similar model ages, or thorough mixing of sources with different model ages. In contrast, single zircon ages are variable, including Archean, Proterozoic, and Paleozoic ages. These ages indicate multiple sediment sources, including some external to North America. The zircon ages, however, may not be generally representative of Ouachita sediment sources because they were obtained on zircons far larger than typical Ouachita detrital zircons. The Sm-Nd model ages and single zircon ages can both be explained if sediment entering the Ouachita Trough came from multiple sources, but was already thoroughly mixed before entering the trough. Such mixing is also suggested by detrital mineral analyses. Muscovite, garnet, and tourmaline have been analyzed.

  2. Pregnancy After Kidney Transplantation: Outcomes, Tacrolimus Doses, and Trough Levels.

    PubMed

    Aktürk, S; Çelebi, Z K; Erdoğmuş, Ş; Kanmaz, A G; Yüce, T; Şengül, Ş; Keven, K

    2015-06-01

    Although pregnancy after kidney transplantation has been considered as high risk for maternal and fetal complications, it can be successful in properly selected patients. It is well known that pregnancy can induce changes in the plasma concentrations of some drugs; however, there has been very limited information about tacrolimus pharmacokinetics during pregnancy. In this study, we evaluated the tacrolimus doses, blood levels, and the outcomes of pregnancies in kidney allograft recipients. From 2004 to 2014, we found 16 pregnancies in 12 kidney allograft recipients at our center. We reviewed the files and data reports including fetal outcomes, graft function, complications, tacrolimus trough levels, and doses. We analyzed the tacrolimus trough levels and doses before pregnancy, during pregnancy (monthly), and in the postpartum period. Throughout the pregnancy, we aimed to achieve tacrolimus trough levels between 4 and 7 ng/mL. All patients were on triple immunosuppression, including tacrolimus, azathioprine, and prednisolone. In total, 11 of 16 (68.7%) pregnancies were successful, with a mean weight gain of 12.5 ± 1.66 kg. One patient developed gestational diabetes mellitus and 2 had preeclampsia. Although 5 of 11 babies were found to have low birth weight, 4 of these were premature. Two patients lost their grafts, 1 due to acute rejection and the second due to progression of chronic allograft dysfunction. We have shown that tacrolimus doses need to be significantly increased to keep appropriate trough levels during pregnancy (the doses: before, 3.20 ± 0.9 mg/day; first trimester, 5.03 ± 1.5; second trimester, 6.50 ± 1.8; third trimester, 7.30 ± 2.3; post-partum, 3.5 ± 0.9). In conclusion, the dose of tacrolimus needs to be increased to provide safe and stable tacrolimus trough levels during pregnancy. Although pregnancy can be successful in most cases, it should be kept in mind that there is an increased risk of maternal and fetal complications, including

  3. Opaque mineralogy - Apollo 17, rock 75035

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, H. O. A.; Boctor, N. Z.

    1974-01-01

    Rock 75035 is a medium-grained, holocrystalline, subophitic ilmenite basalt collected from the rim of Camelot Crater, and is believed to represent the subfloor basalts of the Taurus-Littrow valley. The rock consists of the major minerals pyroxene (45%), plagioclase (31%), and ilmenite (17%). Minor minerals include cristobalite (about 5%), troilite, native Fe, tranquillityite, baddeleyite, zirconolite, and rare ulvospinel. No olivine or armalcolite was observed in the specimen 75035,76. Mineralogically and chemically, as well as in age, this rock is similar to others collected from Camelot and other stations during the Apollo 17 mission. These rocks are almost identical to the Type B ilmenite basalts of Mare Tranquillitatis.

  4. Mineralogical sinks for biogenic elements on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of biochemical reactions on Mars should depend not only on concentrations of the biogenic elements H, C, N, O, and S but also on the forms (compounds and water-souble ions) that are available to those elements. It is possible that mineralogical reactions could act to lock biogenic elements into relatively inaccessible inorganic forms or, alternatively, to shelter sensitive organic compounds from chemically hostile environments. Recognition of these competing pathways is essential in planning sampling mission and in situ experiments directed toward assessing the biological potential of Mars.

  5. Plagioclase mineralogy of olivine alkaline basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    A geological and mineralogical study of the Potrillo volcanics is reported. The investigation consisted first of field mapping to establish and identify the different rock types and volcanic features in order to determine the geological history. Next, samples were collected and analyzed petrographically to determine suitable rocks from the various stratigraphic units for study of plagioclase. Samples selected for further study were crushed and the plagioclase extracted for the determination of composition and structural state. These results were then related to the petrology and crystallization of the basalt.

  6. Opaque mineralogy - Apollo 17, rock 75035

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, H. O. A.; Boctor, N. Z.

    1974-01-01

    Rock 75035 is a medium-grained, holocrystalline, subophitic ilmenite basalt collected from the rim of Camelot Crater, and is believed to represent the subfloor basalts of the Taurus-Littrow valley. The rock consists of the major minerals pyroxene (45%), plagioclase (31%), and ilmenite (17%). Minor minerals include cristobalite (about 5%), troilite, native Fe, tranquillityite, baddeleyite, zirconolite, and rare ulvospinel. No olivine or armalcolite was observed in the specimen 75035,76. Mineralogically and chemically, as well as in age, this rock is similar to others collected from Camelot and other stations during the Apollo 17 mission. These rocks are almost identical to the Type B ilmenite basalts of Mare Tranquillitatis.

  7. The first introduction of reclaimed wastewater to dry-farming field in Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, T; Dayanthi, W K C N; Yamashita, N; Tanaka, H; Yamashita, T

    2008-01-01

    Reclaimed wastewater (RWW) will be introduced to the first large-scale irrigation project for dry-farming on Okinawa Island, Japan. The wastewater reclamation for agricultural use sounds attractive to the water resource management. Since there are no specific standards for the RWW irrigation, the monitoring and other demonstrative experiments have been conducted using the experimental reclamation facility, which is based on the criteria "Title22". The experiments showed that the existing system is sufficient to meet the above criteria of pathogens, protozoa and viruses, and the concentrations of hazardous chemicals are lower than the environmental standards in Japan. In addition, several laboratory soil column experiments were conducted to address the environmental issues. An increase of denitrification due to the continuous irrigation was observed. Salt and nitrate accumulation in the surface soil was observed as well. We can conclude that the RWW of the above facility assures the safety for human health, and further research based on environmental issues is needed in addition to an integrated risk assessment and communication. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  8. Gametogenesis and fecundity of Acropora tenella (Brook 1892) in a mesophotic coral ecosystem in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetia, Rian; Sinniger, Frederic; Harii, Saki

    2016-03-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (below 30-40 m depth) host a large diversity of zooxanthellate coral communities and may play an important role in the ecology and conservation of coral reefs. Investigating the reproductive biology of mesophotic corals is important to understand their life history traits. Despite an increase in research on mesophotic corals in the last decade, their reproductive biology is still poorly understood. Here, gametogenesis and fecundity of the Indo-Pacific mesophotic coral , Acropora tenella, were examined in an upper mesophotic reef (40 m depth) in Okinawa, Japan for the first time. Acropora tenella is a hermaphrodite with a single annual gametogenic cycle, and both oogenesis and spermatogenesis occurring for 11-12 and 5-6 months, respectively. Timing of spawning of this species was similar to other shallow Acropora spp. in the region. However, colonies had longer gametogenic cycles and less synchronous gamete maturation compared to shallow acroporids with spawning extended over consecutive months. Both the polyp fecundity (number of eggs per polyp) and gonad index (defined as the number of eggs per square centimeter) of A. tenella were lower than most acroporids. Our findings contribute to understanding of the life history of corals on mesophotic reefs and suggest that the reproductive biology of upper mesophotic corals is similar to that of shallow-water corals.

  9. Timing of spawning and early development of Palythoa tuberculosa (Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Mamiko; Obuchi, Masami; Hirose, Euichi; Reimer, James D

    2011-02-01

    The spawning behavior and early embryogenesis of Palythoa tuberculosa (Anthozoa, Zoantharia) were observed in August 2009 off Okinawa Island, Japan. P. tuberculosa released zygotes just after high tide around new moon nights. The mean diameter of zygotes was 365.6 ± s.d.14.8 μm, and zygotes did not contain any symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae). About 2 h after spawning, the first cleavage furrow appeared on one side of the zygotes, although it was uncertain when eggs were fertilized. After second cleavage, the arrangement of blastomeres was pseudospherical. At 9 h after spawning, the embryo became a concave-convex dish shape, then gastrulation occurred and the blastopore was formed. Seven-day old larvae were ellipsoid and about 700 μm long, with an open mouth at one end. Two weeks after spawning, the larvae developed a longitudinal band of long cilia (= ventral ciliate band) that is characteristic of zoanthella larvae. In P. tuberculosa, larvae show a non-radial body plan and then metamorphose to almost-radial (in outward appearance) polyps after settlement. These results may support a hypothesis that a common ancestor of Cnidaria had a bilateral body plan that has been secondarily lost in some extant cnidarians.

  10. Determination of Dicarboxylic Acid Concentrations in Surface Microlayer of Dams in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotani, Y.; Taira, N.; Kamizato, C.; Arakaki, T.

    2008-12-01

    The surface microlayer (SML) is a thin layer that forms the boundary between atmosphere and water body. The SML includes fatty acid, protein and other organic compounds. It is the site across which the atmosphere-water system interacts. It also has unique chemical, physical and biological properties, which are very different from those of the underlying water. We determined concentrations of dicarboxylic acids (oxalic, malic, malonic, succinic, adipic, phthalic, fumaric, and maleic acids) in the SML, and compared with those of underlying bulk water. Dicarboxylic acids are the major organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, which can be derived from the wind-blown SML. The sampling sites we chose were dams in Okinawa, Japan. The SML was sampled by using a glass plate method. Concentrations of dicarboxylic acids were determined by using a GC-FID after derivatization. The results showed that the dicarboxylic acid concentrations were 2- 17 times higher than those of the underlying water. We have also found that the concentrations of some of the dicarboxylic acids were lower in the afternoon than those in the morning at the same sampling site.

  11. Characterization of fatty acid composition in healthy and bleached corals from Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachok, Zainudin; Mfilinge, Prosper; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2006-11-01

    Under bleaching conditions, corals lose their symbiotic zooxanthellae, and thus, the ability to synthesize fatty acids (FAs) from photosynthetically derived carbon. This study investigated the lipid content and FA composition in healthy and bleached corals from the Odo reef flat in Okinawa, southern Japan, following a bleaching event. It was hypothesized that the FA composition and abundance would change as algae are lost or die, and possibly microbial abundance would increase in corals as a consequence of bleaching. The lipid content and FA composition of three healthy coral species ( Pavona frondifera, Acropora pulchra, and Goniastrea aspera) and of partially bleached and completely bleached colonies of P. frondifera were examined. The FA composition did not differ among healthy corals, but differed significantly among healthy, partially bleached, and completely bleached specimens of P. frondifera. Completely bleached corals contained significantly lower lipid and total FA content, as well as lower relative amounts of polyunsaturated FAs and higher relative amounts of saturated FAs, than healthy and partially bleached corals. Furthermore, there was a significantly higher relative concentration of monounsaturated FAs and odd-numbered branched FAs in completely bleached corals, indicating an increase in bacterial colonization in the bleached corals.

  12. Mineralogy of Saudi Arabian soils: eastern region

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Dixon, J.B.; Aba-Husayn, M.M.

    1983-03-01

    Mineralogical properties of soils along a 500 km east-west transect of an eastern province of Saudi Arabia were examined. Mineralogical composition of soils along the eastern coastal playa near Al Qatif is mostly gypsum or calcite in the whole soil, and smectite among layer silicate minerals in the clay fraction (<2mm). In soils of the Harad area palygorskite and smectite are the major layer silicate minerals. In the Al Kharj area kaolinite and smectite are the major clay minerals. Small amounts of chlorite occur in all soils studied although it varies in thermal stability and the amount is very small in Al Kharj 11 and Al Kharj Mountain surface soils. In the entire eastern region mica and vermiculite are present in the soil clays. The results of transmission electron microscpoy and x-ray diffraction analyses show that acicular palygorskite is widely distributed in the eastern-region soils. Palygorskite is believed to originate from the underlying Mio-Pliocene limestone in the basin, and to be redistributed by alluvial and eolian processes.

  13. Mapping surface mineralogy using imaging spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Fred A.

    2012-01-01

    Imaging spectrometry, simultaneous measurement of spectra and images in up to hundreds of spectral channels or bands, is a proven technology for identifying and mapping minerals based on their reflectance or emissivity signatures. Also known as hyperspectral imaging or "HSI", extraction of key spectral signatures from these data allows direct identification of iron minerals such as hematite, goethite, and jarosite in the visible/near infrared (VNIR); clays, carbonates, micas, sulfates, and other minerals in the short wave infrared (SWIR); and silicates and carbonates in the long wave infrared (LWIR). The unique capability of imaging spectrometry to produce detailed maps of the spatial distribution of specific minerals, mineral assemblages, and mineral variability on the surface of Earth makes it an ideal tool for enhanced geomorphic mapping. Case histories illustrate the use of HSI for characterizing and mapping active and relict geothermal/hydrothermal systems and determining relations between mineralogy and derived landforms. Imaging spectrometry, used in conjunction with complimentary datasets such as InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar), Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), or stereo (photogrammetric-derived) digital elevation models (DEMs), provides a unique means of visualizing the spatial distribution and association of mineralogy with topography, thus contributing to the understanding of the relations between geology and landscape and to improved interpretation of surface geologic processes.

  14. Magnetic Mineralogy in Oxidized Lava Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, A.; Kletetschka, G.; Wasilewski, P. J.

    2004-12-01

    Oxidized basaltic lava flows are common in terrestrial environment and magnetic mineralogy ranges from rhombohedral to spinel phases contributing to a complex overall magnetic behavior. Similar rock types are responsable for very intense magnetic anomalies on Earth and may be an equivalent to those on Mars. Therefore this research may identify the magnetic techniques that should be employed as part of instrumentation on board of remote control rover on surface of Mars. We obtained a large number of magnetic and mineralogic tests on a basaltic profile across a tree mold from Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, where the oxygen fugacity was presumably modified by the presence of combustible organic material within the lava flow. The lava flow cools down rapidly as it approaches much cooler organic material. This process results in contrasting contents of titanium in magnetic phases and different Fe-Ti oxide textures, which is important for the overall rock magnetic properties. We attempted to identify the contribution of all the magnetic phases within these rocks using different remanence and susceptibility measurement at very low-, low- and high-temperature as well as optical and electron microscope investigations. The phases within these rocks are titanohematite (self reversing composition), ferrian ilmenite and titanomagnetite, which contribute to the induced as well as to the remanent component of the magnetization.

  15. Upgrade of the Martian iron mineralogy maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrozzo, F. G.; Altieri, F.; Vincendon, M.; Daydou, Y.; Bellucci, G.; D'Aversa, E.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this paper is the mapping the 1 μm in order to study the Martian mineralogy on a global scale using the OMEGA spectrometer on board of Mars Express. OMEGA [2] is the imaging spectrometer on board of Mars Express probe. It consists of three spectral channels: the VNIR channel working in the visible-near infrared wavelengths (0.35-1.05 μm), the SWIR channel operating in the 0.92-2.7 μm range and the LWIR channel covering the 2.7-5.1 μm one. An automatic method to co-register the VNIR and SWIR channels to recover the whole spectral range where they overlap has been implemented, thus allowing the study of the 1 μm band. This work is an upgrade of Carrozzo et al. [1] where a gap in the data coverage existed. The previous maps were based on the data coverage until December 2005, while now they are built using the data acquired up to August 2010. The extended maps are based on the nine spectral indices reported in Table 1. The method used to co-register the VNIR and SWIR channels has been also implemented with a new algorithm that allow a better spatial and spectral alignment. This work, together with the results of other authors [3, 4, 5], completes the global mapping of the Martian mineralogy.

  16. Mineralogical Signatures in Electrically Coupled Marine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauermeister, A.; Gorby, Y. A.; Schramm, J.

    2014-12-01

    'Electric cable bacteria' are organisms of the family Desulfobulbaceaethat exhibit a novel method of electron transport. Cells form conductive filaments that function like electric wires, transferring electrons over distances of more than 1 cm from deep sulfidic sediments to oxygen or other electron acceptors near the soil/water interface. The rate of electron transfer across redox boundaries far exceeds that of diffusion limited processes and generates pH gradients that can significantly influence geochemical reactions, leading to the formation of distinct mineralogical profiles unlikely to be created by abiotic means. Electrically coupled sediments are characterized by carbonate and iron sulfide dissolution reactions occurring at depth and formation of carbonate and metal oxide crusts at the surface, exhibiting a reverse pattern compared to conventional sediment geochemistry. Our research seeks to address the following questions: How prevalent are electric cable bacteria in diverse environments? How do biogeochemical conditions such as ion concentration influence mineral formation? Do biogenic minerals participate in charge transfer? What is the importance of electric charge transfer in the subsurface or other low energy habitats? Can mineral banding patterns caused by cable bacteria activity be preserved in the geologic record? With this research we hope to further elucidate the impact of biologically-induced electric fields on the mineralogy of sediments.

  17. Spiral trough diversity on the north pole of Mars, as seen by Shallow Radar (SHARAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Isaac B.; Holt, John W.

    2015-03-01

    We combine observations from ground penetrating radar and optical instruments to conduct a comprehensive survey of spiral troughs on the north polar layered deposits of Mars. Our survey reveals that all north polar troughs have common characteristics, but there is strong regional diversity. We divide the north polar layered deposits (NPLD) into eight regions based on observations of morphology and stratigraphy in order to classify the spiral troughs. Morphologic features that separate the regions include central promontories, topographic undulations, bedrock floors, and trough asymmetry among others. We demonstrate here that the troughs formed during two periods. The first generation of troughs formed on the main lobe and in part of Gemina Lingula during accumulation of ~600 m of ice and dust. The second generation of troughs formed stratigraphically higher and immediately after large-scale erosion in Gemini Scopuli, which we conclude created the slopes necessary for troughs to form. We test scenarios of trough evolution and find that only three concurrent processes are required for their formation: wind transport, insolation-induced sublimation, and atmospheric deposition. Our observations are inconsistent with other hypothesized processes to produce spiral troughs, including incision after the formation of the NPLD, fracturing due to flowing ice, and sublimation-driven patterns from insolation.

  18. Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Processes in the Ionospheric Trough Region During Substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, S.; Moldwin, M.; Nicolls, M. J.; Ridley, A. J.; Coster, A. J.; Yizengaw, E.; Lyons, L. R.; Donovan, E.

    2013-12-01

    The ionospheric troughs are regions of remarkable electron density depression at the subauroral and auroral latitudes, and are categorized into the mid-latitude trough or high-latitude trough, depending on their relative location to the auroral oval. Substorms are one fundamental element of geomagnetic activity, during which structured field-aligned currents (FACs) and convection flows develop in the subauroral and auroral ionosphere. The auroral/trough region is expected to experience severe electron density variations during substorms. Accurate specification of the trough dynamics during substorms and understanding its relationship with the structured FACs and convection flows are of important practical purpose, including providing observational foundations for assessing the attendant impact on navigation and communication. In addition, troughs are important since they map to magnetospheric boundaries allowing the remote sensing of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes. In this talk, we discuss the dynamics of the mid-latitude and high-latitude troughs during substorms based on multi-instrument observations. Using GPS total electron content (TEC) data, we characterize the location and width of the mid-latitude trough through the substorm lifecycle and compare them with existing trough empirical models. Using a combination of incoherent scattering radar (ISR), GPS TEC, auroral imager and a data assimilative model, we investigate the relationship between the high-latitude trough and FACs as well as convection flows. The high-latitude trough is found to be collocated with a counter-clockwise convection flow vortex east of the Harang reversal region, and downward FACs as part of the substorm current system are suggested to be responsible for the high-latitude trough formation. In addition, complex ionospheric electron temperature within the high-latitude trough is found, i.e., increase in the E region while decrease in the F region. We discuss possible

  19. Geographical variation in echolocation call and body size of the Okinawan least horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus pumilus (Mammalia: Rhinolophidae), on Okinawa-jima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hajime; Matsumura, Sumiko; Kinjo, Kazumitsu; Tamura, Hisao; Ota, Hidetoshi; Izawa, Masako

    2006-08-01

    The Okinawan least horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus pumilus, is a cave-dwelling species endemic to the central and southern Ryukyus, Japan. We analyzed variation in the constant frequency (CF) of the echolocation call and in forearm length (FAL) of this species on Okinawa-jima Island on the basis of data for 479 individuals from 11 caves scattered over the island. CF values in samples from six caves, all located in the southwestern half of Okinawa-jima, were significantly higher than those in samples from five caves in the northeastern half of the island. Also, FAL was significantly greater in the latter group than in the former group, although the ranges of variation in this character substantially overlapped between the two groups. These results suggest substantial differentiation between R. pumilus populations on Okinawa-jima. The implications of our findings for the conservation of this endangered bat species are briefly discussed.

  20. Lupus-anticoagulant testing at NOAC trough levels.

    PubMed

    Ratzinger, Franz; Lang, Mona; Belik, Sabine; Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Schmetterer, Klaus G; Haslacher, Helmuth; Perkmann, Thomas; Quehenberger, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC), including rivaroxaban, apixaban or dabigatran, regularly show relevant effects on coagulation tests, making the interpretation of results difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible interferences of NOACs in trough level concentrations in lupus anticoagulant (LA) testing. Citrate plasma specimens of 30 healthy volunteers were spiked with rivaroxaban, apixaban or dabigatran in four plasma concentration levels at or below trough NOAC levels. The NOAC concentration was measured using dedicated surrogate concentration tests and a stepwise diagnostic procedure for LA-testing was applied using screening, mixing and confirmatory testing. Results were compared to NOAC-free specimens. Starting with a plasma concentration of 12.5 ng/ml, dabigatran-spiked specimens showed significant prolongations in the lupus anticoagulant-sensitive activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT-LA) as well as in the Dilute Russell viper venom time (dRVVT), leading to 43.3 % false positives in confirmatory testing in the dRVVT. In contrast, rivaroxaban, beginning with 7.5 ng/ml, exclusively affected dRVVT-based tests. In confirmatory tests, 30.0 % of rivaroxaban-spiked specimens showed false positive results. Starting with 18.75 ng/ml apixaban, a significant prolongation of the dRVVT and up to 20.7 % false positives in confirmatory tests were found. In contrast to other NOACs tested, apixaban did not present with a dose-dependent increase of the dRVVT ratio. In conclusion, the rate of false positive results in LA-testing is unacceptably high at expected trough levels of NOACs. Even at plasma concentrations below the LLOQ of commercially available surrogate tests, LA testing is best avoided in patients with NOAC therapy.

  1. Tufts submarine fan: turbidity-current gateway to Escanaba Trough

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Jane A.; Normark, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Turbidity-current overflow from Cascadia Channel near its western exit from the Blanco Fracture Zone has formed the Tufts submarine fan, which extends more than 350 km south on the Pacific Plate to the Mendocino Fracture Zone. For this study, available 3.5-kHz high-resolution and airgun seismic-reflection data, long-range side-scan sonar images, and sediment core data are used to define the growth pattern of the fan. Tufts fan deposits have smoothed and filled in the linear ridge-and-valley relief over an area exceeding 23,000 km2 on the west flank of the Gorda Ridge. The southernmost part of the fan is represented by a thick (as much as 500 m) sequence of turbidite deposits ponded along more than 100 km of the northern flank of the Mendocino Fracture Zone. Growth of the Tufts fan now permits turbidity-current overflow from Cascadia Channel to reach the Escanaba Trough, a deep rift valley along the southern axis of the Gorda Ridge. Scientific drilling during both the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) provided evidence that the 500-m-thick sediment fill of Escanaba Trough is dominantly sandy turbidites. Radiocarbon dating of the sediment at ODP Site 1037 showed that deposition of most of the upper 120 m of fill was coincident with Lake Missoula floods and that the provenance of the fill is from the eastern Columbia River drainage basin. The Lake Missoula flood discharge with its entrained sediment continued flowing downslope upon reaching the ocean as hyperpycnally generated turbidity currents. These huge turbidity currents followed the Cascadia Channel to reach the Pacific Plate, where overbank flow provided a significant volume of sediment on Tufts fan and in Escanaba Trough. Tufts fan and Tufts Abyssal Plain to the west probably received turbidite sediment from the Cascadia margin during much of the Pleistocene.

  2. On purpose simulation model for molten salt CSP parabolic trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caranese, Carlo; Matino, Francesca; Maccari, Augusto

    2017-06-01

    The utilization of computer codes and simulation software is one of the fundamental aspects for the development of any kind of technology and, in particular, in CSP sector for researchers, energy institutions, EPC and others stakeholders. In that extent, several models for the simulation of CSP plant have been developed with different main objectives (dynamic simulation, productivity analysis, techno economic optimization, etc.), each of which has shown its own validity and suitability. Some of those models have been designed to study several plant configurations taking into account different CSP plant technologies (Parabolic trough, Linear Fresnel, Solar Tower or Dish) and different settings for the heat transfer fluid, the thermal storage systems and for the overall plant operating logic. Due to a lack of direct experience of Molten Salt Parabolic Trough (MSPT) commercial plant operation, most of the simulation tools do not foresee a suitable management of the thermal energy storage logic and of the solar field freeze protection system, but follow standard schemes. ASSALT, Ase Software for SALT csp plants, has been developed to improve MSPT plant's simulations, by exploiting the most correct operational strategies in order to provide more accurate technical and economical results. In particular, ASSALT applies MSPT specific control logics for the electric energy production and delivery strategy as well as the operation modes of the Solar Field in off-normal sunshine condition. With this approach, the estimated plant efficiency is increased and the electricity consumptions required for the plant operation and management is drastically reduced. Here we present a first comparative study on a real case 55 MWe Molten Salt Parabolic Trough CSP plant placed in the Tibetan highlands, using ASSALT and SAM (System Advisor Model), which is a commercially available simulation tool.

  3. Epidemiologic study of influenza infection in Okinawa, Japan, from 2001 to 2007: changing patterns of seasonality and prevalence of amantadine-resistant influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasushi; Taira, Katsuya; Saito, Reiko; Nidaira, Minoru; Okano, Shou; Zaraket, Hassan; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2009-03-01

    To clarify seasonal influenza patterns and the prevalence of amantadine-resistant influenza A viruses in Okinawa, located at the southern extremity of Japan in a subtropical climate, we conducted a laboratory-based study of influenza virus infections from 2001 to 2007. The annual outbreaks tended to show two peaks in Okinawa, in summer and winter, although the main islands of Japan, located in a temperate climate area, showed only winter influenza activity. Epidemic types and subtypes in Okinawa mostly matched those on the main islands of Japan in winter and those in Taiwan in summer. Rates of amantadine resistance dramatically increased, from 7.3% in the November 2002-to-March 2003 season to 90.0% in summer 2005, and a similarly high rate of resistance continued for the rest of the study period. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin gene of A/H3N2 isolates collected from 2002 to 2007 revealed a monophyletic lineage that was divided into four period groups. Each group included amantadine-sensitive and -resistant viruses within independent clusters. In the November 2005-to-March 2006 season, all of the amantadine-resistant viruses were clustered in clade N, with dual (position 193 and 225) amino acid mutations in their HA1 subunits. In 2005, clade N amantadine-resistant viruses existed in Okinawa several months before the circulation of this clade on the main islands of Japan. In conclusion, surveillance in Okinawa to monitor influenza virus circulation is important for elucidating the dynamics of virus transmission in a border area between temperate and subtropical areas, as Okinawa is one of the best sentinel points in Japan.

  4. Organic geothermometry of petroleum from Escanaba Trough, offshore northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.; Hostettler, F.D.; David, King J.; Claypool, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    We have measured the extent of hopane and sterane isomerization and of monoaromatic-steroid-hydrocarbon aromatization in a sample of hydrothermally derived petroleum from the Escanaba Trough, a sediment-covered, volcanically active ridge axis. The results, along with kinetic parameters, predict the possible time-temperature history of the petrolum-forming process for this sample. The extent of these reactions is consistent with petroleum formation by intense heating (about 300-350??C) if the time period of this heating was as short as about 100 yr. Such a time scale is reasonable for hydrothermal-discharge events associated with ridge-crest volcanism. ?? 1987.

  5. High-resolution MIRU-VNTRs typing reveals the unique nature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Millet, Julie; Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Mokrousov, Igor; Rastogi, Nalin

    2012-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage is highly prevalent in Japan. The aim of the present study was to describe the population structure of the Beijing lineage in this country based on 12-, 15-, and 21-loci MIRU-VNTR genotyping schemes. The MIRU-VNTR patterns of Beijing strains from Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands were compared to those recently published from the Osaka-Kobe megalopolis of the main island of Japan, Honshu (Wada et al., 2009). We also compared proportions of "modern/typical" vs. "ancient/atypical" Beijing strains as defined by structure of the NTF locus. Contrarily to the 12-loci Minimum Spanning Tree (MST), the 15- and 21-loci trees allowed the distinction of two groups of strains in Okinawa. A 12-loci MIRU-VNTR pattern (223325173533) corresponding to MIRU international type MIT17 was identified as the most prevalent Beijing genotype in Japan. In the SITVIT2 database, this pattern was found to be disseminated worldwide and corresponded to the most widely distributed Beijing profile in East Asia and former USSR countries. A comparison of 15- and 21-loci MIRU-VNTR patterns showed that two loci (QUB-4156 and Mtub21) were most polymorphic in our study, and could be potential candidates to distinguish between NTF locus based subclassification of Beijing strains. High-resolution VNTR typing using 15- and 21-loci underlined an evolutionarily distinct "ancient/atypical" subpopulation of the Beijing genotype in Okinawa as well as a subgroup of strains closely related to "modern/typical" Beijing strains observed in Osaka/Kobe.

  6. Prevalence and clinical features of human papillomavirus in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in Okinawa, southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zeyi; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Matayoshi, Sen; Kiyuna, Asanori; Yamashita, Yukashi; Maeda, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Mikio

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies from Okinawa, a subtropical island in southern Japan, demonstrated a higher prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral carcinoma and a higher incidence of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma than those for mainland Japan. The present study aims to investigate epidemiologic and clinical features of HPV in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in Okinawa. A total of 150 DNA samples from 150 Okinawan patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were screened for HPV sequences by PCR using three consensus primer sets, and HPV types were determined by direct sequencing. The samples were consisted of 46 cases from the hypopharynx, 44 from the oropharynx, 16 from the larynx, 25 from the oral cavity, 10 from the maxillary sinus, and 9 from the nasopharynx. HPV DNA was detected in 45 (30.0%) HNSCCs, and HPV-16 was identified in 86.7% of positive specimens. The highest prevalence of the HPV sequence was found in oropharyngeal carcinomas (50.0%), especially in tonsillar cancer (63.6%). Multivariate analysis showed that oropharyngeal carcinoma (P = 0.002; OR = 5.34; 95% CI = 1.83-15.58), oral cavity carcinoma (P = 0.012; OR = 4.94; 95% CI = 1.43-17.10), and histological poor differentiation (P = 0.011; OR = 4.25; 95% CI = 1.39-13.04) each independently increased the prevalence of HPV infection. The present study reveals that patients with HNSCC, e.g., oropharyngeal and oral cavity carcinomas, in Okinawa have relatively high HPV-16 positive rates and low HPV-18 positive rates comparing with mainland Japan.

  7. Mineralogy and composition of the oceanic mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putirka, Keith; Ryerson, F.J.; Perfit, Michael; Ridley, W. Ian

    2011-01-01

    The mineralogy of the oceanic basalt source region is examined by testing whether a peridotite mineralogy can yield observed whole-rock and olivine compositions from (1) the Hawaiian Islands, our type example of a mantle plume, and (2) the Siqueiros Transform, which provides primitive samples of normal mid-ocean ridge basalt. New olivine compositional data from phase 2 of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP2) show that higher Ni-in-olivine at the Hawaiian Islands is due to higher temperatures (T) of melt generation and processing (by c. 300°C) related to the Hawaiian mantle plume. DNi is low at high T, so parental Hawaiian basalts are enriched in NiO. When Hawaiian (picritic) parental magmas are transported to shallow depths, olivine precipitation occurs at lower temperatures, where DNi is high, leading to high Ni-in-olivine. Similarly, variations in Mn and Fe/Mn ratios in olivines are explained by contrasts in the temperatures of magma processing. Using the most mafic rocks to delimit Siqueiros and Hawaiian Co and Ni contents in parental magmas and mantle source compositions also shows that both suites can be derived from natural peridotites, but are inconsistent with partial melting of natural pyroxenites. Whole-rock compositions at Hawaii and Siqueiros are also matched by partial melting experiments conducted on peridotite bulk compositions. Hawaiian whole-rocks have elevated FeO contents compared with Siqueiros, which can be explained if Hawaiian parental magmas are generated from peridotite at 4-5 GPa, in contrast to pressures of slightly greater than 1 GPa for melt generation at Siqueiros; these pressures are consistent with olivine thermometry, as described in an earlier paper. SiO2-enriched Koolau compositions are reproduced if high-Fe Hawaiian parental magmas re-equilibrate at 1-1·5 GPa. Peridotite partial melts from experimental studies also reproduce the CaO and Al2O3 contents of Hawaiian (and Siqueiros) whole-rocks. Hawaiian magmas have TiO2

  8. Petrochemical and Mineralogical Constraints on the Source and Processes of Uranium Mineralisation in the Granitoids of Zing-Monkin Area, Adamawa Massif, NE Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Haruna, I. V.; Orazulike, D. M.; Ofulume, A. B.; Mamman, Y. D.

    2011-12-15

    Zing-Monkin area, located in the northern part of Adamawa Massif, is underlain by extensive exposures of moderately radioactive granodiorites, anatectic migmatites, equigranular granites, porphyritic granites and highly radioactive fine-grained granites with minor pegmatites. Selected major and trace element petrochemical investigations of the rocks show that a progression from granodiorite through migmatite to granites is characterised by depletion of MgO, CaO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3,} Sr, Ba, and Zr, and enrichment of SiO{sub 2} and Rb. This trend is associated with uranium enrichment and shows a chemical gradation from the more primitive granodiorite to the more evolved granites. Electron microprobe analysis shows that the uranium is content in uranothorite and in accessories, such as monazite, titanite, apatite, epidote and zircon. Based on petrochemical and mineralogical data, the more differentiated granitoids (e.g., fine-grained granite) bordering the Benue Trough are the immediate source of the uranium prospect in Bima Sandstone within the Trough. Uranium was derived from the granitoids by weathering and erosion. Transportation and subsequent interaction with organic matter within the Bima Sandstone led to precipitation of insoluble secondary uranium minerals in the Benue Trough.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of shallow marine sediments from the Nankai Trough, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 333

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Hugh; Thomas, Brittney; Rowe, Harry; Nieto, Michael

    2014-04-01

    We measured nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation times on samples from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 333 Sites C0011, C0012, and C0018. We compared our results to permeability, grain size, and specific surface measurements, pore size distributions from mercury injection capillary pressure, and mineralogy from X-ray fluorescence. We found that permeability could be predicted from NMR measurements by including grain size and specific surface to quantify pore networks and that grain size is the most important factor in relating NMR response to permeability. Samples within zones of anomalously high porosity from Sites C0011 and C0012 were found to have different NMR-permeability relationships than samples from outside these zones, suggesting that the porosity anomaly is related to a fundamental difference in pore structure. We additionally estimated the size of paramagnetic sites that cause proton relaxation and found that in most of our samples, paramagnetic material is present mainly as discrete, clay-sized grains. This distribution of paramagnetic material may cause pronounced heterogeneity in NMR properties at the pore scale that is not accounted for in most NMR interpretation techniques. Our results provide important insight into the microstructure of marine sediments in the Nankai Trough.

  10. Microbial communities in iron-silica-rich microbial mats at deep-sea hydrothermal fields of the Southern Mariana Trough.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shingo; Kobayashi, Chiyori; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2009-08-01

    The abundance, diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal communities in the microbial mats at deep-sea hydrothermal fields were investigated, using culture-independent 16S rRNA and functional gene analyses combined with mineralogical analysis. Microbial mats were collected at two hydrothermal areas on the ridge of the back-arc spreading centre in the Southern Mariana Trough. Scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (SEM-EDS) analyses revealed that the mats were mainly composed of amorphous silica and contained numerous filamentous structures of iron hydroxides. Direct cell counting with SYBR Green I staining showed that the prokaryotic cell densities were more than 10(8) cells g(-1). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) analysis revealed that Bacteria are more abundant than Archaea in the microbial communities. Furthermore, zetaproteobacterial cells accounted for 6% and 22% of the prokaryotic cells in each mat estimated by Q-PCR with newly designed primers and TaqMan probe. Phylotypes related to iron-oxidizers, methanotrophs/methylotrophs, ammonia-oxidizers and sulfate-reducers were found in the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from each mat sample. A variety of unique archaeal 16S rRNA gene phylotypes, several pmoA, dsrAB and archaeal amoA gene phylotypes were also recovered from the microbial mats. Our results provide insights into the diversity and abundance of microbial communities within microbial mats in deep-sea hydrothermal fields.

  11. Sediment dynamics of a sandy contourite: the sedimentary context of the Darwin cold-water coral mounds, Northern Rockall Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huvenne, V. A. I.; Masson, D. G.; Wheeler, A. J.

    2009-06-01

    Grainsize, mineralogy and current-meter data from the Northern Rockall Trough are presented in order to characterise the sandy contourite that forms the sedimentary environment of the Darwin cold-water coral mounds, and to investigate the impact of this environment on the mound build-up. Large clusters of small cold-water coral mounds, 75 m across and 5 m high, have been found southwest of the Wyville Thomson Ridge, at 900-1,100 m water depth. Their present-day sedimentary environment consists of a subtly sorted sandy contourite, elongated NE-SW, roughly parallel to the contours. Critical erosional and depositional current speeds were calculated, and trends in both the quartz/feldspar and foraminifera fractions of the sands show a bi-directional fining from bedload/erosion-dominated sands in the NE to suspension/deposition-dominated sediments in the SW and towards the S (downslope). This is caused by a gradual reduction in governing current speed, linked to a reduction in slope gradient, and by the increasing distance from the current core in the downslope direction. No specific characteristics were found distinguishing the mound sediments from the surrounding sands: they fit in the overall spatial pattern. Some mound cores show hints of a fining-upward trend. Overall the mound build-up process is interpreted as a result of sediment baffling.

  12. On the prevalence of Asiatic cholera in Okinawa, 1879 and "Ryukyu-kiko" Written by Hironobu Tsuchiya.

    PubMed

    Fukase, Y

    1999-09-01

    The greatest prevalence of Asiatic cholera since the adoption of modern statistics was in 1879. Especially in Okinawa Prefecture, its morbidity rate was the largest in Japan in that year. Dr. Hironobu Tsuchiya, who was appointed as an official of the Department of Inner Affairs, wrote "Ryukyu-kiko" as a private memorandum. He wrote more about the situation of administrative confusion than he did about the condition of Asiatic cholera. This paper also mentions the brief sketch of Tsuchiya's life and the description of the manufacturing methods, effectiveness and use of chemical drugs which are contained in his "Sinyaku-shoko".

  13. Relationship between trough plasma and epithelial lining fluid concentrations of voriconazole in lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Heng, Siow-Chin; Snell, Gregory I; Levvey, Bronwyn; Keating, Dominic; Westall, Glen P; Williams, Trevor J; Whitford, Helen; Nation, Roger L; Slavin, Monica A; Morrissey, Orla; Kong, David C M

    2013-09-01

    Trough (predose) voriconazole concentrations in plasma and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of lung transplant recipients receiving oral voriconazole preemptive treatment were determined. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) ELF/plasma ratio was 12.5 ± 6.3. A strong positive linear relationship was noted between trough plasma and ELF voriconazole concentrations (r(2) = 0.87), suggesting the feasibility of using trough plasma voriconazole concentration as a surrogate to estimate the corresponding concentration in ELF of lung transplant recipients.

  14. A Study of Mobile Trough Genesis Over The Yellow Sea-East China Sea Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-21

    Mongolian Plateau. The maximum that extends over the Yellow Sea and East China Sea is the only region of enhanced mobile trough formation which is...Gammon used PTD to further investigate mobile troughs and extratropical cyclones. An investigation of mobile trough formation over the Mongolian Plateau...over the Mongolian plateau. The results from the previous studies provide a measure of confidence for this research. Two case studies were chosen using

  15. Mineralogy and chemistry of planets and meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The data collection and the interpretation with respect to the mineralogy of meteoritic and terrestrial samples are summarized. The key conclusion is that the Moon underwent a series of melting episodes with complex crystal-liquid differentiation. It was not possible to determine whether the Moon melted completely or only partially. The stage is now set for a systematical geochemical and geophysical survey of the Moon. Emphasis was moved to meteorites in order to sort out their interrelationships from the viewpoint of mineral chemistry. Several parent bodies are needed for the achondrites with different chemical properties. Exploration of Mars is required to test ideas based on the possible assignment of shergottites, nakhlites and chassignite to this planet. Early rocks on the Earth have properties consistent with a heavy bombardment and strong volcanic activity prior to 4 billion years ago.

  16. Radionuclide migration as a function of mineralogy

    SciTech Connect

    Triay, I.R.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.

    1991-02-01

    The migration of radionuclides is studied as a function of mineralogy utilizing batch sorption and column experiments. The transport behavior of alkaline, alkaline-earth, and transition metals, and actinide species is studied in pure mineral separates. The solid phases utilized for these investigations are silicates, alumino-silicates, carbonates, and metal oxides and oxyhydroxides. The results of this effort are utilized to aid in the elucidation of the dominant chemical mechanisms of radionuclide migration, the prediction of radionuclide transport in conditions similar to those expected at the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the identification of materials that act as natural geological barriers or that can be utilized as strong sorbers in engineered barriers. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Surface chemistry and mineralogy. [of planet Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Clark, B. C.; Waenke, H.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulated knowledge on the chemistry and mineralogy of Martian surface materials is reviewed. Pertinent information obtained by direct analyses of the soil on Mars by the Viking Landers, by remote sensing of Mars from flyby and orbiting spacecraft, by telescopic observations from earth, and through detailed analyses of the SNC meteorites presumed to be Martian rocks are summarized and analyzed. A compositional model for Mars soil, giving selected average elemental concentrations of major and trace elements, is suggested. It is proposed that the fine surface materials on Mars are a multicomponent mixture of weathered and nonweathered minerals. Smectite clays, silicate mineraloids similar to palagonite, and scapolite are suggested as possible major candidate components among the weathered minerals.

  18. Ouachita trough: Part of a Cambrian failed rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Donald R.

    1985-11-01

    Pre-flysch (Cambrian-Mississippian) strata of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma include two main sandstone lithofacies: (1) a craton-derived lithofacies made up largely of mature medium- to coarse-grained quartzose and carbonate detritus and, in some units, sediment eroded from exposed basement rocks and (2) an orogen-derived facies made up mainly of fine-grained quartzose sedimentary and metasedimentary debris and possibly, in lower units, a volcaniclastic component. Paleocurrent and distribution patterns indicate that detritus of facies I in the Benton uplift was derived from north and detritus of facies II throughout the Ouachitas was derived from south and east of the depositional basin. Overall sedimentological results suggest that the Ouachita trough was a relatively narrow, two-sided basin throughout most and probably all of its existence and never formed the southern margin of the North American craton. Regional comparisons suggest that it was one of several basins, including the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen, Reelfoot Rift, Illinois Basin, and Rome trough, that formed as a Cambrian failed rift system 150 to 250 m.y. after initial rifting along the Appalachian margin of the North American craton.

  19. Simulation of point light concentration with parabolic trough collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danylyuk, Andriy; Zettl, Marcus; Lynass, Mark

    2010-08-01

    As the amount of solar generated energy usage increases worldwide, researches are turning to more advanced methods to increase collection efficiencies and drive down system costs. In this paper, four different optical system designs for solar concentrator applications are discussed. Each of the designs studied utilizes a parabolic trough optical element. The use of the parabolic trough in conjunction with a secondary optical component eliminates the need for expensive complicated 2-axis tracking, whilst still allowing the precise point focus normally only possible with more complex paraboloid systems. The result is an optical system, which offers all the advantages of a linear focus geometry combined with the possibility to utilize point focus concentration. The results were obtained using photometric geometrical ray tracing methods. Ideal surface simulations were initially used to separate surface from geometrical loss contributions. Later, more realistic simulations, including surface and reflectivity data of typical manufacturing methods and materials, were used to compare optical output power densities and system losses. For the systems studied, the minimum and maximum optical efficiencies obtained were 76.73% and 81% respectively. The AM 1.5 solar spectrum power densities in the absorption plane ranged from 50 to 195.8Wm-2.

  20. Exergetic analysis of parabolic trough solar thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Ruperez, B.; San Miguel, G.

    2014-12-01

    A very important component to achieve sustainable development in the energy sector is the improvement of energy efficiency of widely applied thermodynamic processes. Evaluation and optimization methods of energy processes play a crucial role in fulfilling this goal. A suitable method for the evaluation and optimization of energy conversion systems has been proven to be the exergetic analysis. In this work, two parabolic trough solar thermal power plants are simulated in detail using commercial software, and they are further analysed and compared using an exergetic analysis. The first plant uses a thermal fluid to produce the steam required in a steam generator, while the second one produces the steam directly in the solar field. The analysis involves the evaluation of the individual components of the power plants, as well as the performance evaluation of the overall structures. The main goal is to detect thermodynamic inefficiencies of the two different configurations and propose measures to minimize those. We find that the two examined plants have similar main sources of exergy destruction: the solar field (parabolic trough solar collectors), followed by the steam generator. This reveals the importance of an optimal design of these particular components, which could reduce inefficiencies present in the system. The differences in the exergy destruction and exergetic efficiencies of individual components of the two plants are analyzed in detail based on comparable operational conditions.

  1. A trough for improved SFG spectroscopy of lipid monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Johannes; van Zadel, Marc-Jan; Weidner, Tobias

    2017-05-01

    Lipid monolayers are indispensable model systems for biological membranes. The main advantage over bilayer model systems is that the surface pressure within the layer can be directly and reliably controlled. The sensitive interplay between surface pressure and temperature determines the molecular order within a model membrane and consequently determines the membrane phase behavior. The lipid phase is of crucial importance for a range of membrane functions such as protein interactions and membrane permeability. A very reliable method to probe the structure of lipid monolayers is sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Not only is SFG extremely surface sensitive but it can also directly access critical parameters such as lipid order and orientation, and it can provide valuable information about protein interactions along with interfacial hydration. However, recent studies have shown that temperature gradients caused by high power laser beams perturb the lipid layers and potentially obscure the spectroscopic results. Here we demonstrate how the local heating problem can be effectively reduced by spatially distributing the laser pulses on the sample surface using a translating Langmuir trough for SFG experiments at lipid monolayers. The efficiency of the trough is illustrated by the detection of enhanced molecular order due to reduced heat load.

  2. Early diagenesis of lead in Laurentian Trough sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobeil, Charles; Silverberg, Norman

    1989-08-01

    The depth distributions of various solid-phase and porewater fractions of Pb, Fe and Cd in boxcores from three stations in the Laurentian Trough demonstrate that Pb is subject to early diagenetic change. High total-Pb concentrations, compared to background levels, indicate that much of the Pb in these cores is of anthropogenic origin. Patterns of mobilization and fixation, and of changes in the chemical reactivity towards extradants, are consistent from core to core. Pb is mobilized both near the sediment surface and at intermediate depth. In these zones dissolved Pb concentrations attain levels of 8-13.5 nM, which are two orders of magnitude greater than in the overlying bottom waters of the Laurentian Trough (0.1 nM). A fraction of Pb, soluble in a pH 5 sodium acetate-acetic acid solution, is produced diagenetically within the sediment. It is most abundant at intermediate depth, where it accounts for as much as 31% of the total Pb. Another fraction, soluble in hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid solution, decreases in abundance with depth. Flux calculations indicate that significant amounts of Pb are subject to postdepositional transformation. Parallels in the vertical distribution of the various fractions suggest that some Pb, like Cd, is mobilized near the sediment surface during the aerobic degradation of organic matter and that other forms are implicated in the redox-controlled cycles of Fe diagenesis.

  3. Scroll wave drift along steps, troughs, and corners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Hua; Zhang, Zhihui; Steinbock, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Three-dimensional excitable systems can create nonlinear scroll waves that rotate around one-dimensional phase singularities. Recent theoretical work predicts that these filaments drift along step-like height variations. Here, we test this prediction using experiments with thin layers of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. We observe that over short distances scroll waves are attracted towards the step and then rapidly commence a steady drift along the step line. The translating filaments always reside on the shallow side of the step near the edge. Accordingly, filaments in the deep domain initially collide with and shorten at the step wall. The drift speeds obey the predicted proportional dependence on the logarithm of the height ratio and the direction depends on the vortex chirality. We also observe drift along the perimeter of rectangular plateaus and find that the filaments perform sharp turns at the corners. In addition, we investigate rectangular troughs for which vortices of equal chirality can drift in different directions. The latter two effects are reproduced in numerical simulations with the Barkley model. The simulations show that narrow troughs instigate scroll wave encounters that induce repulsive interaction and symmetry breaking. Similar phenomena could exist in the geometrically complicated ventricles of the human heart where reentrant vortex waves cause tachycardia and fibrillation.

  4. Magnetic mineralogy of the Mercurian lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Becky; Feinberg, Joshua; Johnson, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Mercury and Earth are the only inner solar system planets with present-day core-dynamo magnetic fields, in contrast to the past fields of Mars and the Moon and the absence of evidence for a past or present field at Venus. Recently, the MESSENGER mission also measured magnetic fields from lithospheric magnetization on Mercury for the first time. These fields are consistent with remanent magnetization held by rocks exposed to an ancient, internally generated planetary magnetic field. However, the conditions for magnetization in the lithosphere of Mercury are unique among terrestrial planets, and the mechanisms for the acquisition (induced versus remanent) and alteration of magnetization are still unknown. We investigate the physical and chemical environment of Mercury's crust, past and present, to establish the conditions in which magnetization may have been acquired and subsequently modified. Three factors are particularly crucial to the determination of crustal composition and iron mineralogy: the temperature profile of the lithosphere and its evolution over time, redox conditions in the planet's crust and mantle, and the iron content of the lithosphere. We explore potential mechanisms for remanence acquisition and alteration on Mercury, whose surface environment is distinct from that of other inner solar system planets in that it is both very hot and highly reducing. The long-term thermal history of Mercury's crust plays an important role in the longevity of any crustal magnetization, which may be subject to remagnetization through thermal, viscous, and shock mechanisms. This thermal and compositional framework isused to constrain plausible candidate magnetic mineralogies, which can then be analyzed in terms of their capacity to acquire and retain magnetic remanence that is detectable from satellite orbit. We propose a suite of minerals and materials that could be carriers of remanence in the lithosphere of Mercury, including iron alloys, silicides, and sulfides.

  5. Clay mineralogy in agrochernozems of western Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papish, I. Ya.; Chizhikova, N. P.; Poznyak, S. P.; Varlamov, E. B.

    2016-10-01

    The mineralogy of clay fractions separated from deep low-humus deep-gleyic loamy typical agrochernozems on loess-like loams of the Upper Bug and Dniester uplands in the Central Russian loess province of Ukraine consists of complex disordered interstratifications with the segregation of mica- and smectite-type layers (hereafter, smectite phase), tri- and dioctahedral hydromicas, kaolinite, and chlorite. The distribution of the clay fraction is uniform. The proportions of the layered silicates vary significantly within the profile: a decrease in the content of the smectite phase and a relative increase in the content of hydromicas up the soil profile are recorded. In the upper horizons, the contents of kaolinite and chlorite increase, and some amounts of fine quartz, potassium feldspars, and plagioclases are observed. This tendency is observed in agrochernozems developed on the both Upper Bug and Dniester uplands. The differences include the larger amounts of quartz, potassium feldspars, and plagioclases in the clay material of the Upper Bug Upland, while the contents of the smectite phase in the soil profiles of the areas considered are similar. An analogous mineral association is noted in podzolized agrochernozems on loess-like deposits in the Cis-Carpathian region of the Southern Russian loess province developed on the Prut-Dniester and Syan-Dniester uplands. The distribution of particle-size fractions and the mineralogy of the clay fraction indicate the lithogenic heterogeneity of the soil-forming substrate. When the drifts change, the mineral association of the soils developed within the loess-like deposits gives place to minerals dominated by individual smectite with some mica-smectite inter stratifications, hydromicas, and chlorite.

  6. Erionite series minerals: mineralogical and carcinogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Dogan, A Umran; Dogan, Meral; Hoskins, John A

    2008-08-01

    Erionite is a human and animal carcinogen and one of the most toxic minerals known. Erionite deposits have been reported in many countries; however, it is only in the area of three villages of Cappadocia, Turkey, that environmental exposure to erionite has been demonstrated to be the cause of an epidemic of the disease mesothelioma. In the USA, no cases of mesothelioma have been reliably proven to be the result of erionite exposure, though the possibility exists. Erionite samples from three villages of the Cappadocia region were characterized mineralogically and compared with three different standards from the USA. Micro morphological details of erionite minerals using a high-resolution field-emission SEM showed that microstructures of "bundles", "fibers", and "fibrils" are important physical properties of fibrous erionite minerals. Typical lung burden of erionite and asbestos fibers were compared in terms of number of fibers. Assuming the lung burden of fibers in a human mesothelioma victim is about 1 mg, and the hazardous fibers are approximately 1 mum in diameter and 10 mum long, that milligram contains approximately 40 million asbestos and 50 million erionite fibers. These microstructures of erionite minerals draw attention to the concepts of surface area or surface-area-to-volume ratio and their relationship to the carcinogenicity of the mineral. The larger surface area creates a wider platform for mineral-cell interaction and thus more possibilities of proliferative transformation of mesothelial cells. Consequently, understanding the exact mineralogical properties will help determination of the true carcinogenic mechanism(s) of the mineral for prevention and possibly treatment of malignant mesothelioma.

  7. Seasonal variations of biogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers in Cape Hedo, Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fu, Pingqing

    2016-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) substantially contributes to particulate organic matter affecting the regional and global air quality and the climate. Total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected in October 2009 to February 2012 on a weekly basis at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan in the western North Pacific Rim, an outflow region of Asian aerosols and precursors. The TSP samples were analyzed for SOA tracers derived from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Total isoprene-SOA tracers showed a maximum in summer (2.12 ± 2.02 ng m-3) and minimum in winter (1.16 ± 0.92 ng m-3). This seasonality is mainly controlled by isoprene emission from the local subtropical forest, followed by regional scale emission of isoprene from the surrounding seas and long-range transported air masses. Total monoterpene-SOA tracers peaked in March (3.38 ± 2.03 ng m-3) followed by October (2.95 ± 1.62 ng m-3). In contrast, sesquiterpene-SOA tracer, β-caryophyllinic acid, showed winter maximum (1.63 ± 1.18 ng m-3) and summer minimum (0.20 ± 0.46 ng m-3). The variations of the monoterpene- and sesquiterpene-SOA tracers are likely related to the continental outflow of oxidation products of BVOC. Using a tracer-based method, we estimated the total biogenic SOC of 0.25-157 ng m-3 (mean 35.8 ng m-3) that accounts for 0.01-9.8% (mean 2.7%) of aerosol organic carbon. Our study suggests that SOA formation in the western North Pacific Rim is involved with not only local but also regional emissions followed by long-range atmospheric transport.

  8. Use of microbial analysis to evaluate denitrification in the karstic aquifer of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumoto, J.

    2014-12-01

    Denitrification, a microbial process in the nitrogen cycle, is a facultative respiratory pathway in which nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O), successively, are reduced to nitrogen gas (N2). This study explores the use of microbial analysis to evaluate the processes involved in nitrate attenuation in groundwater. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is used to identify denitrifiers based only on their 16SrRNA gene sequences, and Real-Time PCR analysis is used to quantify nitrite reducing genes (nirK and nirS), this suggest that a new methods for detecting denitrification activity by comparing the gene dosage that has been detected by RT-PCR and the value of the δ15NNO3- and δ18ONO3-. This study focuses on a zone of significant NO3- attenuation occurring at underground dam catchment area in the karstic Ryukyu limestone aquifer, which is located southern part of Okinawa, Japan. As a result of microbial analysis, the bacteria were detected at all observation points which have been reported to have denitrification ability. And it has been confirmed that the bacteria has a gene nirS which is related to denitrification. In addition, many bacteria related to denitrification have been extracted from suspended solids more than from groundwater in the aquifer. And, the correlation was high between nirK /nirS gene dosage that has been detected by RT-PCR and the value of the δ15N and δ18O; therefore, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of using Real-Time PCR analysis for providing insights into the processes affecting nitrate attenuation in ground water.

  9. Vibrio ishigakensis sp. nov., in Halioticoli clade isolated from seawater in Okinawa coral reef area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Rohul Amin, A K M; Sato, Kazumichi; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hargreaves, Paulo Iiboshi; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2016-07-01

    Five novel strains showing non-motile, alginolytic, halophilic and fermentative features were isolated from seawater samples off Okinawa in coral reef areas. These strains were characterized by an advanced polyphasic taxonomy including genome based taxonomy using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and in silico DNA-DNA similarity (in silico DDH). Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates could be assigned to the genus Vibrio, however they were not allocated into any distinct cluster with known Vibrionaceae species. MLSA based on eight protein-coding genes (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) showed the vibrios formed an outskirt branch of Halioticoli clade. The experimental DNA-DNA hybridization data revealed that the five strains were in the range of being defined as conspecific but separate from nine Halioticoli clade species. The G+C contents of the Vibrio ishigakensis strains were 47.3-49.1mol%. Both Amino Acid Identity and Average Nucleotide Identity of the strain C1(T) against Vibrio ezurae HDS1-1(T), Vibrio gallicus HT2-1(T), Vibrio halioticoli IAM 14596(T), Vibrio neonatus HDD3-1(T) and Vibrio superstes G3-29(T) showed less than 95% similarity. The genome-based taxonomic approach by means of in silico DDH values also supports the V. ishigakensis strains being distinct from the other known Halioticoli clade species. Sixteen traits (growth temperature range, DNase and lipase production, indole production, and assimilation of 10 carbon compounds) distinguished these strains from Halioticoli clade species. The names V. ishigakensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species of Halioticoli clade, with C1(T) as the type strain (JCM 19231(T)=LMG 28703(T)).

  10. Double troughs in broad absorption line quasars and Ly-alpha-N V line-locking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korista, Kirk T.; Voit, G. M.; Morris, Simon L.; Weymann, Ray J.

    1993-01-01

    It was investigated whether the double trough (DT) structure in the mean C IV BAL trough reported by Weymann et al. (1991) is real or due to statistical fluctuations of BAL troughs over random outflow velocities in a limited sample. A sample of 72 BAL QSOs with C IV BAL troughs was analyzed. It is found that only 22 percent of the sample explicitly exhibits the DT feature; when present the DTs are deep. A Monte Carlo simulation of the mean C IV BAL suggests that the DT feature is real at only the 95-98 percent level.

  11. Automated Quantitative Rare Earth Elements Mineralogy by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindern, Sven; Meyer, F. Michael

    2016-09-01

    Increasing industrial demand of rare earth elements (REEs) stems from the central role they play for advanced technologies and the accelerating move away from carbon-based fuels. However, REE production is often hampered by the chemical, mineralogical as well as textural complexity of the ores with a need for better understanding of their salient properties. This is not only essential for in-depth genetic interpretations but also for a robust assessment of ore quality and economic viability. The design of energy and cost-efficient processing of REE ores depends heavily on information about REE element deportment that can be made available employing automated quantitative process mineralogy. Quantitative mineralogy assigns numeric values to compositional and textural properties of mineral matter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with a suitable software package for acquisition of backscatter electron and X-ray signals, phase assignment and image analysis is one of the most efficient tools for quantitative mineralogy. The four different SEM-based automated quantitative mineralogy systems, i.e. FEI QEMSCAN and MLA, Tescan TIMA and Zeiss Mineralogic Mining, which are commercially available, are briefly characterized. Using examples of quantitative REE mineralogy, this chapter illustrates capabilities and limitations of automated SEM-based systems. Chemical variability of REE minerals and analytical uncertainty can reduce performance of phase assignment. This is shown for the REE phases parisite and synchysite. In another example from a monazite REE deposit, the quantitative mineralogical parameters surface roughness and mineral association derived from image analysis are applied for automated discrimination of apatite formed in a breakdown reaction of monazite and apatite formed by metamorphism prior to monazite breakdown. SEM-based automated mineralogy fulfils all requirements for characterization of complex unconventional REE ores that will become

  12. Organic tracers of primary biological aerosol particles at subtropical Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kunwar, Bhagawati

    2015-06-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) play an important role in affecting atmospheric physical and chemical properties. Aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa Island, Japan, from October 2009 to February 2012 and analyzed for five primary saccharides and four sugar alcohols as PBAP tracers. We detected high levels of sucrose in spring when blossoming of plants happens and prolifically emits pollen to the air. Concentrations of glucose, fructose, and trehalose showed levels higher than the other saccharides in spring in 2010. In comparison, primary saccharide levels were mutually comparable in spring, summer, and autumn in 2011, indicating the interannual variability of their local production in subtropical forests, which is driven by local temperature and radiation. High trehalose events were found to be associated with Asian dust outflows, indicating that Asian dust also contributes to PBAPs at Okinawa. Sugar alcohols peaked in summer and correlated with local precipitation and temperature, indicating high microbial activities. Positive matrix factorization analysis confirmed that the PBAPs are mainly derived from local vegetation, pollen, and fungal spores. A higher contribution of PBAP tracers to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was found in summer (14.9%). The annual mean ambient loadings of fungal spores and PBAPs were estimated as 0.49 µg m-3 and 4.12 µg m-3, respectively, using the tracer method. We report, for the first time, year-round biomarkers of PBAP and soil dust and their contributions to WSOC in the subtropical outflow region of the Asian continent.

  13. Proposal for Japanese encephalitis surveillance using captured invasive mongooses under an eradication project on Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mika; Nakata, Katsushi; Nishijima, Taku; Yamashita, Katsuhiro; Saito, Anna; Ogura, Go

    2009-06-01

    A project to eradicate invasive small Asian mongooses (Herpestes javanicus) is underway to conserve the unique ecosystem of Okinawa Island, Japan. In the present study, we tried to elucidate whether the mongoose is a host of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and to evaluate the reliability of surveillance of Japanese encephalitis (JE) using this species. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, the main vector mosquito of JEV, feeds on the mongoose. Eighty-five (35.4%) of 240 wild small Asian mongooses captured between 2001 and 2005 had neutralizing antibodies against more than one of four JEV strains. Prevalence rates of JEV antibodies tended to increase with body weight and length of the animals. One of three sentinel mongooses showed a temporal change in antibody titer. These results indicate that the small Asian mongooses on Okinawa Island are sensitive to JEV. From the antibody titers and the locations of capture, the JEV active area was clarified. We propose that surveillance of JE using mongooses captured under the eradication program is reliable.

  14. Trends in the prevalence of cerebral palsy in children born between 1988 and 2007 in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Touyama, Mayumi; Touyama, Jun; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to describe trends in CP prevalence among children born between 1988 and 2007 in Okinawa, Japan. This study was conducted during two time periods, Period I (from 1988 to 1997) and Period II (from 1998 to 2007), using data from the local CP registration system. We assessed cerebral palsy gestational age and birth weight specific trends in prevalence and analyzed these with Poisson regression analysis. Overall crude CP prevalence was 1.88 per 1000 live births. Approximately 70% of children with CP were born preterm or with low birth weight (LBW). Overall CP prevalence increased in Period I and decreased significantly in Period II (P<0.05). Additionally, CP prevalence among children born with a birth weight between 1000 and 1999g increased in Period I and decreased significantly in Period II (P<0.05). A significant decrease was found among the children born between 1995 and 2007 with a gestational age between 28 and 31weeks (P<0.01). There was a decrease in CP prevalence from 1998 to 2007, especially among LBW children and preterm infants. The high CP proportions among LBW and preterm infants are unique features of the population of Okinawa, Japan. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Water quality comparison of secondary effluent and reclaimed water to ambient river water of southern Okinawa Island via biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mano, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Fumihiko; Kitamura, Tomokazu; Okamoto, Seiichiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Park, Chang-Beom; Yasui, Nobuhito; Kobayashi, Kentarou; Tanaka, Yuji; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Minamiyama, Mizuhiko

    2017-08-08

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological effect of the secondary effluent (SE) of a wastewater treatment plant and reclaimed water treated via ultrafiltration (UF) followed by either reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration or nanofiltration (NF) to be used for environmental use by comparing the results of algal growth inhibition tests of concentrated samples of the SE and permeates of RO and NF with those of six rivers in southern Okinawa Island. Although the SE water had no adverse effects on the growth of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, it could lead to water quality degradation of rivers in terms of its toxic unit value, whereas the use of RO and NF permeates would not lead to such degradation. The recharge of rivers, into which domestic wastewater and livestock effluents might be discharged in southern Okinawa Island, with reclaimed water subjected to advanced treatment could dilute the concentrations of chemicals that cause biological effects and improve the water quality of the rivers, based on the results of the bioassay using P. subcapitata. Comparing the results of bioassays of reclaimed water with those of the ambient water at a site might be effective in assessing the water quality of reclaimed water for environmental use at the site.

  16. Survey of the antibody against japanese encephalitis virus in Ryukyu wild boars (Sus scrofa riukiuanus) in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nidaira, Minoru; Taira, Katsuya; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Kudaka, Jun; Nakamura, Masaji; Ohno, Atsusi; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2007-09-01

    Serum specimens were collected from 99 wild boars in the Northern area of the main Okinawa Island and from 27 wild boars on Iriomote Island in Okinawa Prefecture from 1997 to 2005. Sera were tested for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antibody by hemagglutination inhibition assay and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sixty-four samples (64.6%) in the Northern area and 1 sample (3.7%) from Iriomote Island were positive for the JEV antibody. The difference in seroprevalence between the Northern area and Iriomote Island was statistically significant (P < 0.01, chi2 test). This difference may be due to the lack of a pig farm on Iriomote Island, whereas wild boars in the Northern area may be infected with JEV, amplified on pig farms. It is likely that there has recently been an increase in the number of wild boars living close to humans in certain areas of Japan. This in turn increases the possibility that wild boars are infected with JEV, which is amplified on pig farms, and these infected animals may play a role in carrying JEV to other regions of the country.

  17. Meteorite falls in Bulgaria: Reappraisal of mineralogy, chemistry, and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekov, Vesselin; Rochette, Pierre; Gattacceca, JéRôMe

    2017-08-01

    We present a summary of the mineralogy, mineral chemistry, and magnetic characteristics of all the five Bulgarian meteorite falls. We report the first mineralogical descriptions, chemical analyses, and magnetic measurements of the Konevo (1931) and Silistra (1917) meteorites. We classify Konevo as LL5, and Silistra as an ungrouped achondrite with HED affinities. Pavel (1966; previously classified as an H5) is reclassified as H3-anomalous. We also provide precise mineralogy and mineral chemistry of the Virba meteorite (1873, L6), and more details on the mineral chemistry of Gumoschnik (1904, H5).

  18. Sulfur Mineralogy at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, R.V.; Golden, D.C.; Sutter, B.; Clark, B.C.; Boynton, W.V.; Hecht, M.H.; Kounaves, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Scout mission landed at the northernmost location (approx.68deg N) of any lander or rover on the martian surface. This paper compares the S mineralogy at the Phoenix landing site with S mineralogy of soils studied by previous Mars landers. S-bearing phases were not directly detected by the payload onboard the Phoenix spacecraft. Our objective is to derive the possible mineralogy of S-bearing phases at the Phoenix landing site based upon Phoenix measurements in combination with orbital measurements, terrestrial analog and Martian meteorite studies, and telescopic observations.

  19. Military Emergency Medical Service System Assessment: Application of the National Park Service Needs Assessment and Program Audit to Objectively Evaluate the Military EMS System of Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ross, Elliot M; Harper, Stephen A; Cunningham, Cord; Walrath, Benjamin D; DeMers, Gerard; Kharod, Chetan U

    2017-03-01

    As part of a Military Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system process improvement initiative, the authors sought to objectively evaluate the U.S. military EMS system for the island of Okinawa. They applied a program evaluation tool currently utilized by the U.S. National Park Service (NPS). A comprehensive needs assessment was conducted to evaluate the current Military EMS system in Okinawa, Japan. The NPS EMS Program Audit Worksheet was used to get an overall "score" of our assessment. After all the data had been collected, a joint committee of Military EMS physicians reviewed the findings and made formal recommendations. From 2011 to 2014, U.S. military EMS on Okinawa averaged 1,345 ± 137 patient transports annually. An advanced life support (ALS) provider would have been dispatched on 558 EMS runs (38%) based on chief complaint in 2014 had they been available. Over 36,000 man-hours were expended during this period to provide National Registry Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-accredited instruction to certify 141 Navy Corpsman as EMT Basics. The NPS EMS Program Audit Worksheet was used and the program scored a total of 31, suggesting the program is well planned and operating within standards. This evaluation of the Military EMS system on Okinawa using the NPS program assessment and audit worksheet demonstrates the NPS evaluation instruments may offer a useful assessment tool for the evaluation of Military EMS systems. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  20. Mineralogy of the Northern Llowlands on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomo Carrozzo, Filippo; Altieri, Francesca; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Poulet, Francois; D'Aversa, Emiliano; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2013-04-01

    We analyzed the spectral properties of the 1 µm band to constrain the composition of the lowland terrains of Mars and compared them with the global mineralogy of the planet. The analysis has been carry out with the data of OMEGA instrument on board of Mars Express using the method of Carrozzo et al. [1]. The spectral behavior in the right shoulder at 1 µm together with that of other spectral indices such as the 1 µm band integral and width confirm the peculiar nature of these terrains. They are characterized by a well known negative slope in the NIR range, but they show a spectral behavior in the visible domain typical of the mafic terrains located on the southern cratered and older regions of Mars. Similar NIR negative is also present in spectra taken from the northern circumpolar dark sand dunes, characterized moreover by the typical hydration bands. Recently, Horgan and Bell III [2] proposed that the northern dark plains are consistent with both high abundances of iron-bearing glass and silica-enriched leached rind on glass. Our results, together with the recent ones from CRISM [3], seems to confirm that the mineralogy of these peculiar areas is likely linked to a weathered basaltic component. The spectral similarity in the NIR range with the northern circumpolar dark sand dunes, undergoing every Martian year the deposition of the ices and their sublimation, can put some constrains in the weathering processes that took place on the northern lowlands. Unlike the southern and older mafic terrains, they may have interacted with the ices, as also suggested by the morphological structures present in these areas [4]. Reference: [1] Carrozzo F. G. et al. (2012) JGR, 117(E00J17), doi: 10.1029/2012JE004091[2] Horgan and Bell III (2012) Geology, doi:10.1130/G32755.1 [3] Salvatore M. R. et al. (2010) JGR, 115(E07005) [4] Zealey W. J. (2009)Planetary and Space Science, 57(5-6) 699-710.

  1. Mineralogical characterization of asteroid (1951) Lick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leon, J.; Duffard, R.; Licandro, J.; Lazzaro, D.

    A-type asteroids are usually found in the main asteroid belt and their spectra are very similar to spectra of the silicate mineral olivine (Cruikshank and Hartmann 1984). The existence of olivine-rich asteroids is a result of differentiation, those being the pieces of the mantle of a larger parent body. Extraterrestrial sources of such material must exist because we have meteorites that are nearly pure olivine (dunites). There is a limited number of observed asteroids classified as A-type, all of them belonging to the Main Belt and the study of such objects is crucial to better understand their origin and formation and their relation with dunites. We have obtained visible and near infrared reflectance spectra of asteroid (1951) Lick using the telescopes located at Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (Canary Islands, Spain). According to its spectral characteristics in the visible region, this object has been classified as an A-type asteroid by Bus and Binzel (2002). Although considered an Amor object by several authors, according to its orbital parameters (a = 1.390 AU, e = 0.061, i = 39.093 deg, q = 1.304) this object is just in the limit that separates Amors from Mars Crossers (q = 1.3). Whether it is classified as an Amor or a Mars Crosser, (1951) Lick is the first object with such orbital characteristics classified as an A-type asteroid. Here we present a mineralogical analysis of the reflectance spectra obtained for (1951) Lick. We calculate several parameters that are extracted from the spectrum of the asteroid and that give relevant information about its mineralogical composition, using the method defined by Gaffey et al. (1993). We also present results obtained by a preliminary fit to the absorption band associated to the presence of the olivine mineral using the Modified Gaussian Model method (MGM) developed by Sunshine et al.(1990). References Bus, J. S. and Binzel, R. P. 2002. Icarus, 158, 146 Cuikshank, D. P. and Hartmann, W. K. 1984. Science, 223

  2. Geochemistry and mineralogy of mafic Icelandic hyaloclastites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; Eyer, C.; Bindeman, I. N.; Sigmarsson, O.

    2016-12-01

    Hyaloclastite in the crust may be a cryptic contaminant contributing to some volatile-rich Icelandic basalts and in some places reach 2.5 km1. Hyaloclastites are highly fragmented composites of lithics, glass, and crystals in a palagonite matrix that form as a result of magma-ice or magma-water interactions. These rocks have high water content and porosity and a high initial glass content, which makes them susceptible to rapid alteration by ambient or hydrothermal waters and potentially fast digestion by magmas. Due to low density and ductility, they have the potential to stall ascending mantle-derived magmas to form sills, and in the process may contribute exotic volatile or fluid-mobile components. We have characterized the geochemistry and mineralogy of 18 hyaloclastite samples from the Reykjanes Peninsula (RP), Vestmannajyar, and the southern coast of Iceland. Major and trace elements were obtained using ICP-AES and ICP-MS, respectively, and mineralogy was determined by XRD. Loss on ignition is highly variable (0.44 - 15.7 wt.%) and positively correlated with alkali loss reflected in the Chemical Index of Alteration [34.8 - 51.3; CIA = Al2O3/(Al2O3+CaO+Na2O+K2O)]. Primitive mantle normalized multi-element plots for RP hyaloclastites are broadly similar to those for unaltered RP Holocene basalts. Two samples have trace element profiles resembling those of picrites in the region. The samples from the south coast and Vestmannaeyjar have OIB-like enrichments similar to local Holocene basalts. Five well-sorted hyaloclastite samples have broad humps in their XRD patterns from 20-50° 2q. These samples contain only primary magmatic mineral phases (plagioclase, olivine, and pyroxene), if any, while other hyaloclastites contain both primary phases and secondary alteration phases including halite, calcite, clays, chlorite, and zeolites. Preliminary O and H isotope investigation demonstrates large ranges in both parameters. Future work will include oxygen isotope analyses

  3. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, V.E.; Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  4. Air-borne shape measurement of parabolic trough collector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl, Christoph; Röger, Marc; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    The optical and thermal efficiency of parabolic trough collector solar fields is dependent on the performance and assembly accuracy of its components such as the concentrator and absorber. For the purpose of optical inspection/approval, yield analysis, localization of low performing areas, and optimization of the solar field, it is essential to create a complete view of the optical properties of the field. Existing optical measurement tools are based on ground based cameras, facing restriction concerning speed, volume and automation. QFly is an airborne qualification system which provides holistic and accurate information on geometrical, optical, and thermal properties of the entire solar field. It consists of an unmanned aerial vehicle, cameras and related software for flight path planning, data acquisition and evaluation. This article presents recent advances of the QFly measurement system and proposes a methodology on holistic qualification of the complete solar field with minimum impact on plant operation.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Flow trough a Mechanical Heart Valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji-Esmaeili, Farida; Oshkai, Peter

    2006-11-01

    Turbulent flow trough a model of a mechanical heart valve is investigated using digital particle image velocimetry. The valve leaflets are represented by flat plates mounted in a duct. The emphasis is on the effect of the valve design on the platelet activation state associated with the resulting flow field. Global quantitative images corresponding to multiple planes of data acquisition provide insight into the three-dimensional nature of the flow. Turbulent flow structures including jet-like regions and shed vortices are characterized in terms of patterns of instantaneous and time-averaged velocity, vorticity, and streamline topology. Potential of bileaflet heart valves for being thrombogenic is assessed by quantitative comparison of the associated flow fields in terms of maximum values of turbulent stresses and platelet activation states.

  6. Novel second-stage solar concentrator for parabolic troughs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collares-Pereira, Manuel; Mendes, Joao F.

    1995-08-01

    Conventional parabolic troughs can be combined with second stage concentrators (SSC), to increase temperature and pressure inside the absorber, making possible the direct production of steam, improving substantially the overall system efficiency and leading to a new generation of distributed solar power plants. To attain this objective, research is needed at the optical, thermodynamic, system control, and engineering levels. In what concerns the receiver of such a system, different practical solutions have been proposed recently and in the past for the geometry of the second stage concentrator: CPC type and others. In this work we discuss these solutions and we propose a new one, 100% efficient in energy collection while reaching a total concentration ratio which is almost 65% of the thermodynamic limit. This SSC has an asymmetric elliptical geometry, rendering possible a smooth solution for the reflectors while maintaining a reasonable size for the receiver.

  7. The magnetisation of Rosemary Bank Seamount, Rockall Trough, northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, P. R.; Roberts, D. G.

    1981-08-01

    Rosemary Bank is a non-uniformly magnetised seamount in the northern Rockall Trough. The reversely magnetised major component of the anomaly field was simulated by a numerical method and modelled using the Talwani three-dimensional magnetics program. The results suggest a higher Koenigsberger ratio than earlier reported for Rosemary Bank and a remanent magnetisation vector compatible with post-Jurassic formation and probably of a Late Cretaceous to Tertiary age. The limited depth to the base of the model implies that Rosemary Bank post-dates the underlying basement in agreement with a volcanic origin. The residual of the observed anomaly field is interpreted as being caused by normally magnetised bodies within and on top of the bank. This suggests subsequent volcanic activity during an interval of normal polarity.

  8. Forearc sedimentation in Terraba Trough, Costa Rica, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, P.B.; Lowe, D.R.

    1987-05-01

    Sedimentary rocks of Terraba Trough, Costa Rica, were deposited in a forearc basin developed at an ocean-ocean convergent boundary. The basin developed in the middle to late Eocene when the Farallon plate began its subduction beneath the Caribbean plate. Shallow-water carbonates of the Brito Formation were deposited on shoals of basement blocks. These were surrounded by deeper marine areas in which volcaniclastics and carbonate debris accumulated. The Brito Formation consists of algal-foraminiferal packstone to grainstone, rudstone, and rare wackestone formed in fore-slope, carbonate buildup, and open platform environments in a warm, tropical sea. The Eocene Brito Formation is overlain by rocks of the upper Oligocene Rio Claro Member of the Terraba Formation. It is composed of rhodolite and bioclastic grainstone deposited in shallow water. A combination of little subsidence, mild volcanism, and possible erosion at about 30 Ma during a global drop of sea level may be responsible for the absence of lower Oligocene rocks in the study area. After the deposition of the Rio Claro Member, the area subsided rapidly to become a trough possibly deeper than 2000 m. Sedimentation took place in deep water from sediment gravity flows. In the early to early middle Miocene, coarser sediments and thicker sand units containing coal fragments became more abundant, suggesting that the basin was gradually filled. This study indicates that the timing and degree of subsidence of the fore-arc basin and the vertical variation in lithology are closely related to the variation in convergence rate between lithospheric plates in this part of Central America and the eastern Pacific.

  9. Early to middle Jurassic salt in Baltimore Canyon trough

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, B. Ann; Lee, Myung W.; Agena, Warren F.; Poag, C. Wylie

    2005-01-01

    A pervasive, moderately deep (5-6 s two-way traveltime), high-amplitude reflection is traced on multichannel seismic sections over an approximately 7500 km² area of Baltimore Canyon Trough. The layer associated with the reflection is about 25 km wide, about 60 m thick in the center, and thins monotonically laterally, though asymmetrically, at the edges. Geophysical characteristics are compatible with an interpretation of this negative-polarity reflector as a salt lens deposited on the top of a synrift evaporite sequence. However, alternative interpretations of the layer as gas-saturated sediments, an overpressured shale, or a weathered igneous intrusion are also worthy of consideration.Geophysical analyses were made on three wavelet- and true-amplitude processed multichannel seismic dip lines. The lens-shaped layer demarked by the reflection has a velocity of 4.4 km/s; the lens lies within strata having velocities of 5.3 to 5.7 km/s. A trough marking the onset of the lens has an amplitude that is 10 to 20 db greater than reflections from the encasing layers and an apparent reflection coefficient of -0.24. Using amplitude versus offset analysis methods, we determined that observed reflection coefficients, though variable, decrease consistently with respect to increasing offset. Linear inversion yields a low density, about 2.2 g/cc. Integration of one of the true-amplitude-processed lines and one-dimensional modeling of the layer provide data on the impedance contrast and interference patterns that further reinforce the salt lens interpretation.The thin, horizontal salt lens was probably deposited or precipitated during the Jurassic in a shallow, narrow (peripheral) rift basin, as rifting progressed down the North Atlantic margin. Unlike thicker deposits in other areas that deformed and flowed, often into diapir structures, this thin lens has remained relatively undisturbed since deposition.

  10. A rotational scarf osteotomy decreases troughing when treating hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Murawski, Christopher D; Egan, Christopher J; Kennedy, John G

    2011-03-01

    The traditional scarf osteotomy has been associated with complication rates between 1.1% and 45%. We have modified the traditional technique with a rotational osteotomy to reduce these complications. We determined whether a modified rotational scarf osteotomy improves functional outcome scores, allows correction of a wide degree of an intermetatarsal (IM) angle deformity, has a low incidence of troughing, and maintains normal ROM postoperatively in the treatment of symptomatic hallux valgus (HV). We retrospectively reviewed 140 patients: 38 men and 102 women with a mean age of 54 years (range, 35-66 years) who underwent surgery for HV and had a minimum followup of 24 months (mean, 41 months; range, 24-68 months). All patients had preoperative and postoperative American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) forefoot and Short Form (SF)-36 V2 outcome scores recorded. The mean AOFAS score improved from 52 points preoperatively to 92 points (range, 71-96 points) at followup. The mean SF-36 V2 score improved from 69 points preoperatively to 94 points (range, 67-98 points) at followup. The IM angle improved from a preoperative mean of 18° (range, 9°-23°) to a mean of 8° (range, 6°-12°). Eleven patients experienced a complication. The modified rotational scarf osteotomy has a low complication rate (9%) and apparently reduces the risk of troughing. This procedure can reduce a high degree of IM angle deformity while restoring function to the forefoot. Level IV, case series. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. Oil and gas potential of the west Kamchatka trough

    SciTech Connect

    Savostin, L.; Kusnetsov, N. )

    1993-09-01

    The west Kamchatka trough (WKT) is a region with a two-stage structural pattern (i.e., Cenozoic cover and pre-Cenozoic basement). The composition of hydrocarbons in local accumulations in the trough, and the present-day and paleotemperature distributions suggest that the hydrocarbons have a complex history. The WKT basement complexes, which have been penetrated by wells, are exposed in uplifts in the southern Median-Kamchatka ridge (MKR), where it is possible to study their composition and structure. The nappe structure of the MKR comprises various sedimentary and volcanoclastic complexes, including some highly carbonaceous Mesozoic clastics. Geodynamic analysis of the MKR rocks shows that during the Mesozoic, two separate island-arc terrances evolved in this part of the northwest Pacific, behind which a back-arc basin developed. In the Paleogene, rocks of this basin were overridden by nappes and metamorphosed. New understanding of the structure and evolution of the older complexes suggest that hydrocarbon accumulations may exist in underthrust zones in the WKT basement, which contains both reservoirs and source rocks. Subsequent evolution of the region was accompanied by the formation of zones of anomalously high formation pressure. Hydrocarbons drained upwards along faults and accumulated in structures in the cover, in places reaching the surface. Existing drilling and seismic data do not help with the interpretation of the basement structure because these operations were aimed at discovering local structural traps in the Cenozoic cover. Future oil exploration surveys in the region will require remote sensing methods that have much deeper penetration.

  12. The Daytime F Layer Trough and Its Relation to Ionospheric-Magnetospheric Convection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    intervals throughout the mum. The trough, the equatorward boundary of which wasstabe i soar gomanetc cordi t fo man horswas array. continuously throughout...of the trough is limited neither to the locale the quiet day and the curve plus points that of the moderate notohecdiosofFgr2.awllbilurtdfr day. The

  13. Magnetic anomaly map of the central Cayman Trough, northwestern Caribbean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Edgar, N. Terence; Parson, Lindsay M.; Scanlon, Kathryn M.; Driscoll, George R.; Jacobs, Colin L.

    1993-01-01

    This is the first large-scale published map of magnetic anomalies in the central Cayman Trough area. Two previously published very small scale maps based on much less data are a regional map (Gough and Heirtzler, 1969) and a map compiled from several tracklines running parallel to the axis of the Cayman Trough (MacDonald and Holcombe, 1978).

  14. Monitoring of seafloor crustal deformation using GPS/Acoustic technique along the Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, K.; Tadokoro, K.; Ikuta, R.; Watanabe, T.; Fujii, C.; Matsuhiro, K.; Sayanagi, K.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor crustal deformation is crucial for estimating the interplate locking at the shallow subduction zone and has been carried out at subduction margins in Japan, e.g., Japan Trench and Nankai Trough [Sato et al., 2011; Tadokoro et al., 2012]. Iinuma et al. [2012] derived slip distributions during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake using GPS/Acoustic data and on-land GPS data. The result showed that maximum slip is more than 85 m near the trench axis. The focal area along the Nankai trough extended to the trough axis affected this earthquake by cabinet office, government of Japan.  We monitored seafloor crustal deformation along the Nankai trough, Japan. Observation regions are at the eastern end of Nankai trough (named Suruga trough) and at the central Nankai trough. We established and monitored by two sites across the trough at each region. In the Suruga trough region, we repeatedly observed from 2005 to 2013. We observed 13 and 14 times at a foot wall side (SNE) and at a hanging wall side (SNW), respectively. We estimated the displacement velocities with relative to the Amurian plate from the result of repeated observation. The estimated displacement velocity vectors at SNE and SNW are 42±8 mm/y to N94±3˚W direction and 39±11 mm/y to N84±9˚W direction, respectively. The directions are the same as those measured at the on-land GPS stations. The magnitudes of velocity vector indicate significant shortening by approximately 4 mm/y between SNW and on-land GPS stations at hanging wall side of the Suruga Trough. This result shows that the plate interface at the northernmost Suruga trough is strongly locked. In the central Nankai trough region, we established new two stations across the central Nankai trough (Both stations are about 15km distance from trough) and observed only three times, August 2013, January 2014, and June 2014. We report the results of monitoring performed in this year.

  15. Geochemical and Mineralogical Proxies for characterizing Tsunami and Paleotsunami Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwhagen, L.; Jankaew, K.; Kylander, M. E.; Skelton, A.; Wohlfarth, B.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we show how geochemistry and mineralogy can be used to correlate between previously dated tsunami and paleotsunami deposits in western Thailand. We do this based on cores from three parallel swales along a transect from the shoreline inland. Stratigraphy, together with geochemical and mineralogical analyses was used to correlate between tsunami and paleotsunami layers at these sites. Using element biplots (Ti-Zr, Ti-Y and Zr-Y) and mineralogical constraints, source signatures of each of the tsunami and paleotsunami layers were used to correlate between sand layers representing the 2004 tsunami and sand layers representing at least three paleotsunamis. Based on our correlations between these swales, we predict different inundation distances and directions for these paleotsunamis. Our study shows that a combination of geochemical and mineralogical analysis provides a powerful tool for correlation between tsunami and paleotsunami layers.

  16. Investigation of anthropogenic-origin-metals in the atmospheric aerosols collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, H.; Azechi, S.; Tsuhako, A.; Miyagi, Y.; Kasaba, T.; Arakaki, T.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are important to atmospheric chemistry, and affect our lives. Aerosols include fine particles, which consist of inorganic compounds, organic substances, heavy metals, etc. Aerosols can be roughly separated into natural and anthropogenic origins. For example, natural origins include wind-blown sea-salt, Asian dust (called Kosa in Japan), etc. Anthropogenic origins include burning of fossil fuel and agricultural biomass, automobiles, industrial activities, etc. In Japan, Kosa is the most well-known aerosol. This study investigated anthropogenic-origin-metals present in the aerosols. Aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) in Okinawa Island, Japan with a high volume air sampler. Samples analyzed for this study were collected between January 2008 and August 2014. A 1/8 of aerosol filter was digested by the mixture of acids and oxidant (nitric acid/hydrogen fluoride/hydrogen peroxide). The sample was filtered by 0.45 μm membrane filter before analyses. Metal ion concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Na, Mg, K) and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti, Mn, V, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb). Air mass movement was analyzed by NOAA's HYSPRIT model. Results showed that concentrations of heavy metals were high during winter and spring, and the lowest in summer. V/Mn ratios were used as an indicator for heavy oil burning. High V/Mn ratios were observed during maritime air mass periods. On the other hand, Pb/Zn ratio was used as an indicator for leaded gasoline usage, which was high when air mass was coming from Asian continent during winter and spring. Average Pb/Zn ratio was 0.65. Non-sea-salt K (nss-K) was used as an indicator for biomass burning, and showed good correlation with total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations. However, nss-K and crustal-origin-metals also showed good correlation. Thus, we have to be careful when considering whether nss-K is from

  17. Emergency installation of an air-cooled trough at Dofasco`s No. 2 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharewicz, T.; Sharp, R.

    1995-07-01

    No. 2 blast furnace was put back into service on May 5, 1994, three years after it was shut down for an interim repair. Improvements had to be made to the casthouse floor to attain production rates required. The east trough was cast with low-moisture castable to allow holding iron for 10 days before a drain. After six months of operation, severe damage to the east trough sidewalls indicated that a major repair was required. Dofasco`s iron production business unit initiated the emergency east trough replacement project. The mandate was to engineer, fabricate and install a forced air-cooled trough to replace the existing conventional buried box and maintain operation and delivery of iron for steelmaking. The scope of the emergency repair from identification of the problem to first cast and performance of the trough will be reviewed.

  18. 3-D supersonic combustion experiments with hydrogen in V-trough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedberg, R. A.; Ahmed, A.

    1982-01-01

    Both supersonic blowdown and free jet wind tunnels were used in oil flow visualization and hydrogen gas burning tests of 60- and 90-deg V-shaped trough combustion characteristics. Oil dots showed that mass outflow from the reattachment region at the bottom of the V-trough dominated flow behavior, and occupied the trough's entire length and 10% of its cross-section. Intermingled vortex pairs were also found to superimpose themselves upon the outflow, and hydrogen burning within troughs reduced missile base drag by 25%. The troughs were aligned so that their long dimensions were parallel to the airflow, and the two top edges of the V section were mounted flush with respect to the upstream flat surfaces. Step heights tested ranged from 3.4 mm to 6.25 cm.

  19. Seasonal Variations of Mid-Latitude Ionospheric Trough Structure Observed with DEMETER and COSMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyjasiak, Barbara; Przepiórka, Dorota; Rothkaehl, Hanna

    2016-12-01

    The mid-latitude ionospheric trough is a depleted region of ionospheric plasma observed in the topside ionosphere. Its behavior can provide useful information about the magnetospheric dynamics, since its existence is sensitive to magnetospherically induced motions. Mid-latitude trough is mainly a night-time phenomenon. Both, its general features and detailed characteristics strongly depend on the level of geomagnetic disturbances, time of the day, season, and the solar cycle, among others. Although many studies provide basic information about general characteristics of the main ionospheric trough structure, an accurate prediction of the trough behavior in specific events is still understood poorly. The paper presents the mid-latitude trough characteristics with regard to the geomagnetic longitude and season during a solar activity minimum, as based on the DEMETER in situ satellite measurements and the data retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation measurements.

  20. 3-D supersonic combustion experiments with hydrogen in V-trough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedberg, R. A.; Ahmed, A.

    1982-01-01

    Both supersonic blowdown and free jet wind tunnels were used in oil flow visualization and hydrogen gas burning tests of 60- and 90-deg V-shaped trough combustion characteristics. Oil dots showed that mass outflow from the reattachment region at the bottom of the V-trough dominated flow behavior, and occupied the trough's entire length and 10% of its cross-section. Intermingled vortex pairs were also found to superimpose themselves upon the outflow, and hydrogen burning within troughs reduced missile base drag by 25%. The troughs were aligned so that their long dimensions were parallel to the airflow, and the two top edges of the V section were mounted flush with respect to the upstream flat surfaces. Step heights tested ranged from 3.4 mm to 6.25 cm.

  1. Mineralogy of the Almahata Sitta Ureilite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Herrin, J.; Friedrich, J.; Rumble, D.; Steele, A.; Jenniskens, P.; Shaddad, M.; Le, L.; Robinson, G.

    2009-09-01

    Mineralogy & Petrography: Almahata Sitta, deriving from the asteroid 2008 TC3, is a coarse-grained- to porous fine-grained, fragmental breccia with subrounded mineral fragments and olivine aggregates embedded in a cataclastic matrix of ureilitic material [1]. Mineral fragments include polycrystalline olivine, low-calcium, pigeonite, and augite. Abundant carbonaceous aggregates containing graphite, microdiamonds and aliphatics. Kamacite, Cr-rich troilite, silica and schreibersite are abundant. The compositional range of the silicates is characteristic of the ureilites as a group, but unusually broad for an individual ureilite [2&3]. The dense lithology is typical for ureilites, but the porous lithology is anomalous. In the porous lithology pore walls are largely coated by crystals of olivine. Classification: Almahata Sitta is an anomalous, polymict eucrite [1]. Anomalous features include large compositional range of silicates, high abundance and large size of pores, crystalline pore wall linings, and fine-grained texture. Tomography reveals that the pores define thin, discontinuous "sheets” connected in three dimensions, suggesting that they outline grains that have been incompletely welded together. The crystals lining the pore walls are probably vapor phase deposits. Therefore Almahata Sitta may represent an agglomeration of coarse- to fine-grained, incompletely reduced pellets formed during impact, and subsequently welded together at high temperature [4]. References [1] Jenniskens et al. (2009) Nature 458, 485-488; [2] Goodrich (1992) Meteoritics 27, 327-352; [3] Mittlefehldt et al. (1998) RiM 36, ch. 4; [4] Herrin et al. (2009) MAPS in press.

  2. New Thermochemical Adventures in Modern Mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrotsky, A.

    2001-12-01

    Much current interest in mineralogy involves complex, hydrated, and often poorly crystalline materials found in the low temperature environment found as products of both natural processes and human activity. Examples of such materials include zeolites, clays, hydrotalcites, manganese oxides, iron-aluminum oxyhydroxides, and sulfate minerals. Such materials are active as catalysts, ion exchangers, and transport agents for contaminants. Both structural and thermodynamic characterization of such materials has been difficult in the past, but advances in spectroscopy, diffraction, and oxide melt solution calorimetry make much more definitive studies possible at present. Systematic energetic trends have been recently observed for the formation and hydration of framework-structured zeolites and manganese oxides. Similar trends are being sought for the layered materials, clays, and hydrotalcites. The role of water in the stabilization of low temperature phases reflects a close balance between energetically favorable bonding and loss of entropy during hydration. Detailed compositional, structural, and thermochemical analysis of the same samples is required to properly interpret calorimetric data.

  3. Mineralogy of the Almahata Sitta Ureilite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Herrin, J.; Friedrich, J. M.; Rumble, D.; Steele, A.; Jenniskens, P.; Shaddad, M. H.; Le, L.; Robinson, G. A.

    2009-01-01

    Mineralogy & Petrography: Almahata Sitta, deriving from the asteroid 2008 TC3, is a coarse-grained- to porous, fine-grained, fragmental breccia with subrounded mineral fragments and olivine aggregates embedded in a cataclastic matrix of ureilitic material. Mineral fragments include polycrystalline olivine, low-calcium, pigeonite, and augite. Abundant carbonaceous aggregates containing graphite, microdiamonds and aliphatics. Kamacite, Cr-rich troilite, silica and schreibersite are abundant. The compositional range of the silicates is characteristic of the ureilites as a group, but unusually broad for an individual ureilite. The dense lithology is typical for ureilites, but the porous lithology is anomalous. In the porous lithology pore walls are largely coated by crystals of olivine. Classification: Almahata Sitta is an anomalous, polymict eucrite. Anomalous features include large compositional range of silicates, high abundance and large size of pores, crystalline pore wall linings, and fine-grained texture. Tomography reveals that the pores define thin, discontinuous "sheets" connected in three dimensions, suggesting that they outline grains that have been incompletely welded together. The crystals lining the pore walls are probably vapor phase deposits. Therefore Almahata Sitta may represent an agglomeration of coarse- to fine-grained, incompletely reduced pellets formed during impact, and subsequently welded together at high temperature.

  4. Mineralogical microanalysis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Monso, E.; Tura, J.M.; Marsal, M.; Morell, F.; Pujadas, J.; Morera, J. )

    1990-05-01

    A mineralogical analysis of lung tissue was conducted on 25 samples from patients who had been diagnosed as having idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at low magnification and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) was used. In all samples, the surface silicon/sulfur (Si/S) ratio was calculated. The Si/S ratio for 25 samples of normal lung and 6 samples of pneumoconiotic lung was also determined (upper limit of normal Si/S ratio = 0.3). The difference between the Si/S ratio in the group with IPF and group with normal lung tissue was significantly significant (p less than .007, Wilcoxon test). Six of 12 patients with a previous diagnosis of IPF and a Si/S ratio greater than 0.3 had an exposure history that could imply inhalation of silica/silicates, and the correct diagnosis for these patients is most probably pneumoconiosis. The silica/silicate deposits detected in patients with IPF, and who had a ratio and no past exposure to dusts, could be either a cause or an effect of the disease.

  5. COMPAS: Compositional mineralogy with a photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. Hayden

    1992-01-01

    There is an important need for an in situ method of mineral and rock identification and quantification that provides true absorption spectra for a wide spectral range for lunar lander/rover missions. Many common minerals such as feldspars, magnetite, ilmenite, and amorphous fine solids or glasses, can exhibit flat spectral reflectances in the 400-2500 nm spectral region that render inaccurate or difficult their spectral detection and quantitative analysis. Ideal rock and mineral spectra are, of course, pure absorption spectra that are independent of the spectral effects of scattering, particle size, and distribution that can result in a suppression or distortion of their spectral features. This ideal seldom pertains to real samples. Since sample preparation is difficult and may fundamentally alter the observed diffuse spectral reflectance, an in situ spectral measurement method for rocks and minerals on the Moon, insensitive to the sample morphology, would be invaluable. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is a well-established technique appropriate for this task that has been widely applied in condensed-phase spectral studies of complex, highly light scattering, unprepared samples of everything from coal to whole blood, including rock and mineral characterization. A Compositional Mineralogy Photoacoustic Spectrometer, or COMPAS, can enable in situ spectral measurement of rocks and minerals, bypassing the major limitations of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. COMPAS spectral capabilities for rock and mineral samples will be incorporated into an instrument prototype specifically for lunar measurements, compatible with rover capabilities.

  6. The lunar regolith - Chemistry, mineralogy, and petrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.; Laul, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The data base on the lunar regolith is surveyed to form a synthesis of the lunar regolith chemistry, mineralogy, and petrology. The data were derived from samples collected by the Apollo missions 11-17 and the Luna 16, 20, and 24 probes. The missions were sent to sample formations and areas which typified the common observed features of the lunar surface. Drive tubes were used to extract samples from beneath the surface in order to study the relationship between the regolith and the bedrock, as well as to identify the processes that formed the regolith, which is regarded as the prime source of raw materials for early lunar industrial activities. Regolith origins are now understood to be destructive processes of comminution and constructional processes of agglutinate formation. Mixing occurs on the local scale, although lateral transport is inefficient on the moon. The usual contents of the fraction of regolith less than 10 microns in diameter are Al2O3, CaO, Na2O, K2O, light REE, and Th.

  7. Magnetic mineralogy of the Mercurian lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, B. E.; Feinberg, J. M.; Johnson, C. L.

    2016-11-01

    Mercury and Earth are the only inner solar system planets with active, internally generated dynamo magnetic fields. The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission recently detected magnetic fields on Mercury that are consistent with lithospheric magnetization. We investigate the physical and chemical environment of Mercury's lithosphere, past and present, to establish the conditions under which magnetization may have been acquired and modified. Three factors are particularly crucial to the determination of crustal composition and iron mineralogy: redox conditions in the planet's crust and mantle, the iron content of the lithosphere, and, for any remanent magnetization, the temperature profile of the lithosphere and its evolution over time. We explore potential mechanisms for remanence acquisition and alteration on Mercury, whose surface environment is both hot and highly reducing. The long-term thermal history of Mercury's crust plays an important role in the longevity of any remanent crustal magnetization, which may be subject to remagnetization through thermal, viscous, and shock mechanisms. This thermal and compositional framework is used both to constrain plausible candidate minerals that could carry magnetic remanence on Mercury and to evaluate their capacity to acquire and retain sufficient magnetization to be detectable from satellite orbit. We propose that iron metal and its alloys are likely to be the dominant contributors to induced and remanent magnetization in Mercury's lithosphere, with additional contributions from iron silicides, sulfides, and carbides.

  8. Possible space experiment "Mineralogical mapping of the Moon's surface"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozhenko, O. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2017-08-01

    We proposed a spectropolarimetric method for mineralogical mapping of Moon's surface. It based on measurements of the real part of refractive index from analysis of the empirical relation between maximum value of degree of linear polarization and normal albedo, obtained from the orbital polar spacecraft. Processing of the obtained observation material will allow the global mineralogical mapping of the Moon's surface with a sufficiently high accuracy.

  9. The mineralogy of ordinary chondrites and implications for asteroid spectrophotometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Bennett, Marvin E., III; Jarosewich, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Published data from bulk chemical analyses of 94 ordinary chondrites are compiled in a table of normative mineralogy and discussed in detail. Significant variations in olivine, pyroxene, and metal abundance ratios are found within each chondrite class and attributed to redox processes superimposed on initial differences in metal/silicate ratios. The use of the diagrams constructed here to predict the mineralogic characteristics of asteroids on the basis of spectrophotometric observations is suggested.

  10. The O(+) Density Trough at 5000 km Altitude in the Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, W.; Horwitz, J. L.; Craven, P. D.; Rich, F. J.; Moore, T. E.

    2004-01-01

    At altitudes near 5000 km over the southern polar cap region of the terrestrial magnetosphere/ionosphere, the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) on board the Polar satellite has observed O(+) ion density trough regions, in which the densities were at least one order of magnitude lower than the surrounding O(+) densities. In the 0" density trough regions, the estimated O+ densities were generally lower than 0.01 per cc. The boundaries between normal density level regions and the trough density regions were usually abrupt transitions. From 1 December 1997 to 30 November 1998, polar cap O(+) troughs in Polar/TIDE observations occurred at a frequency of about 48%. Statistical examination of the Polar perigee observations from 1 December 1997 to 30 November 1998 shows that the Polar perigee passes evenly covered the southern polar cap region, while the O(+) density trough was always located on the nightside portion of the polar cap magnetosphere/ionosphere, and that invariant latitude spans of such troughs could be as large as 23 deg. in extent. The trough occurrence displayed a strong seasonal dependence; in the winter season (e.g., for July in the Southern Hemisphere) the O(+) ion density trough occurrence frequency ranged up to 92%, while in the summer season (e.g., for January in the Southern Hemisphere) it decreased to as low as 15%. Our statistical results show that the trough occurrence was generally anticorrelated with solar wind dynamic pressure in the solar wind dynamic pressure range 0.8 - 2.6 nanopascal. The O(+) ion density trough occurrence appeared relatively independent of the geomagnetic Kp index, IMF Bz, and By conditions. However, as suggested by the seasonal dependence, the O(+) ion density trough occurrence was strongly related to the solar zenith angle (SZA). In the SZA range 50 deg. to 125 deg., the trough occurrence increased monotonically with SZA. In addition, we sought to determine consistent density and velocity signatures at lower

  11. Jarosite dissolution rates and nanoscale mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwood Madden, M. E.; Madden, A. S.; Rimstidt, J. D.; Zahrai, S.; Kendall, M. R.; Miller, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    , forming hematite over time, likely as a result of kinetic effects following the Ostwald step rule. However, in MES buffered pH 7.5 experiments, ferrihydrite remains the dominant reaction products following weeks of reaction. Goethite was notably absent from the reaction products, except as a minor phase after 10 days of dissolution at pH 4.4. These variations in mineralogy combined with textures of the reaction products indicate that sulfate adsorption may play a significant role in determining the mineralogy and texture of the iron oxides produced in the system. While goethite is commonly found as the dominant iron oxide associated with jarosite deposits on Earth, jarosite dissolution under water-limited conditions on Mars may have produced nanoscale maghemite and hematite which later aggregated to form coarser grained "specular" particles or were distributed globally as dust. Based on these reaction products and dissolution rates, abundant iron oxides observed at Meridiani Planum may have formed as secondary reaction products of jarosite dissolution at pH > 3.5 over timescales less than tens to thousands of years.

  12. The Nakhlite Secondary Mineralogy and Fluid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, J.; Schwenzer, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    The nakhlite olivine clinopyroxenite meteorites preserve a detailed record of water-rock interaction on Mars. Detailed knowledge of the mineralogy of the secondary assemblages [1,2,3] now allow us to accurately model the fluid from which it was deposited [4]. This combined mineralogical and fluid characterisation provides constraints on the near surface conditions associated with the similar assemblages identified e.g. with CRISM on the surface of Mars [5]. Brittle fractures in the olivine grains of the Lafayette nakhlite are filled with a zoned assemblage of siderite at the margins of veins, then phyllosilicate, and finally silicate gel in the centre of the veins [2,3]. The mesostasis also contains parts of this alteration assemblage. The silicate gel is the most abundant secondary phase within the nakhlites. The phyllosilicate in Lafayette is a complex mixture of 2:1 and 1:1 phyllosilicate: Fe smectite and Fe serpentine. Soluble salts are also present although some of these e.g. in Y000749 are terrestrial contamination. The gel has a similar composition to the Lafayette phyllosilicate, with its amorphous nature shown by HRTEM [3]. The carbonate and gel compositions vary between in respect to their position in the nakhlite cumulate pile [2,3]. For instance, Lafayette and NWA998, which sample the bottom of the nakhlite cumulate pile [6] near the fluid source have a high gel Mg#, and the nakhlites which sample levels closer to the martian surface, a lower Mg#. We have used CHILLER [7] to model the hydrothermal brine from which the secondary minerals were deposited. The starting materials are derived from a mixture of Lafayette bulk, Lafayette olivine and mesostasis. The early parts of the fluid's history with formation of the siderite are associated with dissolution of the olivine. The carbonate compositions in the nakhlites suggest water/rock (W/R) ratios ~10, 100oC, pH 5.5. As the fluid evolved the bulk and mesostasis become components of the dissolved rock

  13. Current and Future Economics of Parabolic Trough Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.; Mehos, M.; Kutscher, C.; Blair, N.

    2007-01-01

    Solar energy is the largest energy resource on the planet. Unfortunately, it is largely untapped at present, in part because sunlight is a very diffuse energy source. Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use low cost reflectors to concentrate the sun's energy to allow it to be used more effectively. Concentrating solar power systems are also well suited for large solar power plants that can be connected into the existing utility infrastructure. These two facts mean that CSP systems can be used to make a meaningful difference in energy supply in a relatively short period. CSP plants are best suited for the arid climates in the Southwestern United States, Northern Mexico, and many desert regions around the globe. A recent Western Governors' Association siting study [1] found that the solar potential in the U.S. Southwest is at least 4 times the total U.S. electric demand even after eliminating urban areas, environmentally sensitive areas, and all regions with a ground slope greater than 1%.While it is currently not practical to power the whole county from the desert southwest, only a small portion of this area is needed to make a substantial contribution to future U.S. electric needs. Many of the best sites are near existing high-voltage transmission lines and close to major power load centers in the Southwest (Los Angeles, Las Vegas, and Phoenix). In addition, the power provided by CSP technologies has strong coincidence with peak electric demand, especially in the Southwest where peak demand corresponds in large part to air conditioning loads. Parabolic troughs currently represent the most cost-effective CSP technology for developing large utility-scale solar electric power systems. These systems are also one of the most mature solar technologies, with commercial utility-scale plants that have been operating for over 20 years. In addition, substantial improvements have been made to the technology in recent years including improved efficiency and the addition of

  14. The Tethys Rifting of the Valencia Trough Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viñas, Marina; Ranero, César R.; Cameselle, Alejandra L.

    2017-04-01

    The western Mediterranean submarine realm is composed of several basin inferred to be formed by a common geodynamic process: upper plate extension during slab rollback of a retreating subduction zone. Although the time evolution of the geometry of the trenches is debated, all models assume that basins opened sequentially from NW (Gulf of Lions) towards the SE (Ligurian-Provençal and later Tyrrhenian basins) and SW (Valencia Trough and later Algerian-South Balearic and Alboran Basin) as trenches migrated. Basin opening history is key to reconstruct kinematics of slab retreat preferred in each model. However, the deep structure of basins is inadequately known due to the paucity of modern wide-angle and multichannel reflection seismic studies across entire systems, and absence of deep drilling in the deep-water regions of the basins, as a result, much of the opening evolution is inferred from indirect evidence. In the Valencia Trough Basin (VTB), drilling and vintage seismic data provide good knowledge of the shallow geology of the basin. However, crustal-scale information across the entire VTB has been limited to two studies (Figure 1): One in the late 80's (Valsis experiment) with three Expanded Spread Profiles that yielded local 1D velocity/depth models used to constrain 2D gravity modeling, and a few multichannel seismic profiles along the Iberian shelf and across segments of the basin. A second study in the early 90's (ESCI experiment) collected a low-resolution deep-penetration multichannel seismic reflection profile across the basin and a coincident wide-angle seismic line with numerous land stations in Iberia but a handful of widely-spaced Ocean Bottom Seismometers. In the absence of modern detailed crustal structure, the origin and evolution of the VTB is still debated. Industry multichannel seismic reflection profiles cover the SW segment of the VTB. This is a region where the basin sea floor is comparatively shallower and has numerous industry wells

  15. Revised mineralogic summary of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1989-03-01

    We have evaluated three-dimensional mineral distribution at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, using quantitative x-ray powder diffraction analysis. All data were obtained on core cuttings, or sidewall samples obtained from drill holes at and around Yucca Mountain. Previously published data are included with corrections, together with new data for several drill holes. The new data presented in this report used the internal standard method of quantitative analysis, which yields results of high precision for the phases commonly found in Yucca Mountain tuffs including opal-CT and glass. Mineralogical trends with depth previously noted are clearly shown by these new data. Glass occurrence is restricted almost without exception to above the present-day static water level (SWL), although glass has been identified below the SWL in partially zeolitized tuffs. Silica phases undergo well-defined transitions with depth, with tridymite and cristobalite occurring only above the SWL, opal-CT occurring with clinoptilolite-mordenite tuffs, and quartz most abundant below the SWL. Smectite occurs in small amounts in most samples but is enriched in two distinct zones. These zones are at the top of the vitric nonwelded base of the Tiva Canyon Member and at the top of the basal vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Member. Our data support the presence of several zones of mordenite and clinoptilolite-heulandite as shown previously. New data on several deep clinoptililite-heulandite samples coexisting with analcime show that they are heulandite. Phillipsite has not been found in any Yucca Mountain samples, but erionite and chabazite have been found once in fractures. 21 refs., 17 figs.

  16. Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Peretyazhko, Tetyana; Zachara, John M.; Boily, Jean F.; Xia, Yuanxian; Gassman, Paul L.; Arey, Bruce W.; Burgos, William D.

    2009-05-30

    The role of Fe(III) minerals in controlling acid mine drainage (AMD) chemistry was studied using samples from two AMD sites [Gum Boot (GB) and Fridays-2 (FR)] located in northern Pennsylvania. Chemical extractions, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to identify and characterize Fe(III) phases. The mineralogical analysis revealed that schwertmannite and goethite were the principal Fe(III) phases in the sediments. Schwertmannite transformation occurred at the GB site where poorly-crystallized goethite rich in surface-bound sulfate was initially formed. In contrast, no schwertmannite transformation occurred at the FR site. The goethite in GB sediments had spherical morphology due to preservation of schwertmannite structure by adsorbed sulfate. Results of chemical extractions showed that poorly-crystallized goethite was subject to further crystallization accompanied by sulfate desorption. Changes in sulfate speciation preceded its desorption, with a conversion of bidentate- to monodentate-bound sulfate surface complexes. Laboratory sediment incubation experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of mineral transformation on water chemistry. Incubation experiments were carried out with schwertmannite-containing sediments and AMD waters with different pH and chemical composition. The pH decreased to 1.9-2.2 in all suspensions and the concentrations of dissolved Fe and S increased significantly. Regardless of differences in the initial water composition, pH, Fe and S were similar in suspensions of the same sediment. XRD measurements revealed that schwertmannite transformed into goethite in GB and FR sediments during laboratory incubation. The incubation experiment demonstrated that schwertmannite transformation controlled AMD water chemistry during “closed system” laboratory contact.

  17. Investigations on SYNROC mineralogy. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ringwood, A.E.

    1982-01-21

    Progress reports are presented for the following projects: (1) factors influencing the leaching performance of hollandiate; (2) incorporation of uranium and rare earths into zirconolite; (3) reconnaissance studies of the stability relations of Ca-Ti-Al phases in SYNROC C formulations; (4) immobilization of highly aluminous sludges; (5) SYNROC D formulations produced by sintering in air; (6) crystallization behavior of interstitial glass in SYNROC D formulations. Some of the highlights are: (1) leaching performance of all hollandites irrespective of preparation technique, can be improved by hot-pressing under specific controlled redox conditions, below Ni-NiO; (2) there is no satisfactory crystal-chemical reason why the leaching performance of Ti/sup 3 +/-bearing hollandite should be superior to that of Al/sup 3 +/ hollandite; (3) experiments have shown that the zirconolite lattice can accept up to 30% rare earths (Sm/sub 2/O/sub 3/) before becoming destabilized in favor of pyrochlore or a related f.c.c. structure; (4) SYNROC zirconolites will therefore be well below their saturation limits in rare earths and trivalent actinides; (5) experiments have established that the Ca-Ti-Al phase (CTA) is compatible with perovskite, hollandite and zirconolite; (6) magnetoplumbite-type phases coexists with hollandite, perovskite, zirconolite and Fe-bearing pseudobrookite, but do not coexist with the CTA phase CaTi/sub 3/Al/sub 8/O/sub 19/; (7) experiments demonstrated that it is not possible to convert highly aluminous sludges to a waste form comprising zirconolite, perovskite, spinel and nepheline plus corundum, by adding appropriate minimum amounts of the inert SYNROC additives (CaO, TiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, SiO/sub 2/); (8) sintering of SYNROC D in air at temperatures just above the solidus (1200 to 1250/sup 0/C) produced a dense compact ceramic, but the optimum SYNROC-D mineralogy was not produced. (ATT)

  18. The recurrence interval of great earthquakes along the Sagami trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, M.

    2003-12-01

    Along the Sagami trough, an oblique subuduction zone between the Philippine Sea and North American plates, great earthquakes occurred in 1923 (M7.9) and1703 (M8.6), about 50 km southwest of the Tokyo. Both events generated strong ground motions and tsunamis. Strong ground motions equivalent to seismic intensities 6 to 7 in JMA scale and 10 to 12 in MM scale struck over southern Kanto. The two earthquakes are similar more or less in the extent of the damage and the crustal deformation, possibly occurring very near each other. The extent of the damage and the crustal deformation on the southern area was greater in the 1703 event, whose tsunami reached and damaged the coast of the Kii peninsula, 300 to 400 km away from the source. The source region of the 1703 earthquake, therefore, is considered to have extended towards the ocean and much larger than that of the 1923 event. Several studies of uplift coastal terraces suggest the events like the 1703 one have occurred possibly every 1,000-2,000 years, while those like the 1923 Kanto earthquake more frequently without leaving geomorphic evidence on the terraces. Before 1703, a possible candidate for a subduction event is the M7.0-7.5 1257 or M7.0 1293 earthquake that caused serious damage to southern Kanto region. However, no other earthquakes have been found in historical documents. Historically, the Kanto area was not well civilized until 13th century and earthquakes are not well documented. In addition most historical documents recorded between 14th and 16th centuries were lost during the age of civil wars. If an average recurrence interval is 200 years, at least 4 to 5 events should have occurred before 1703,since the 9th century when the first earthquake was reported in this area. The incomplete earthquake history may contain at least two recurrence intervals, 200 and 400 years. However, the 400 year interval can be shortened by inserting additional earthquakes. For the purposes of hazard mitigation and study of

  19. Hydrothermal Tar Mounds in Escanaba Trough, Southern Gorda Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Rosenbauer, R. A.; Hostettler, F. D.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Lamothe, P. J.

    2002-12-01

    Mounds of asphaltic petroleum were located and sampled by the submersible ROV Tiburon at two sites on the 3300-m-deep, sediment-covered floor of Escanaba Trough, southern Gorda Ridge. The northern site (41.01°N) consists of several individual mounds up to 1 m across and 25 cm high that occur within 100 m of active hydrothermal vents and polymetallic sulfide deposits. These mounds are not covered by sediment and serve as solid substrates for anemones and sponges. Fragments of a partly-buried tar mound at the southern site (40.69°N) were recovered near a field of inactive sulfide deposits. The mounds have a lobate morphology in which younger lobes with lustrous surfaces drape over older lobes encrusted by mud and faunal debris. In cross section, individual lobes have dense rinds, softer inner walls, and hollow cores. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of tar samples show the presence of a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The aliphatic fractions have homologous n-alkane distributions from n-C12 to n-C36 with Cmax = n-C28, and a distinctive even-over-odd C-number predominance. Epimer ratios for hopanes and steranes indicate hydrocarbons that are relatively immature. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are dominated by high-molecular-weight parent molecules such as pyrene and phenanthrene; alkylated derivatives are minor constituents. The aromatic fractions also contain a large unresolved complex mixture (UCM). The presence of high-molecular-weight PAH (e.g., benzo-pyrene, indeno-pyrene) reflects formation at high temperatures compared to conventional petroleum. Microwave digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analyses of the soluble organic fraction from three tar samples reveal the following concentrations: 0.1 to 0.2 wt% S, 1 to 10 ppm Mg, Al, P, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Ba, 1 to 100 ppb Pd and Pt, and 1 to 10 ppb Au. The insoluble residues separated from these samples, analyzed by scanning

  20. Paleocene Pacific Plate reorganization mirrored in formation of the Suvarov Trough, Manihiki Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, Ricarda; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    The Suvarov Trough is a graben structure that deviates from the Danger Islands Troughs within the Manihiki Plateau, a Large Igneous Province (LIP) located in the Central Pacific. New high-resolution seismic reflection data provide evidence that the graben formed in two phases during the Paleocene (65-45 Ma). In a first phase extension occurred in southwestward direction, pulling apart the northern part of the Suvarov Trough and a parallel trending unnamed trough. In a second phase a change of extensional force direction occurred from southwest to west-northwest, forming the southern part of the Suvarov Trough that extends onto the High Plateau. The formation of the Suvarov Trough is accompanied by a series of normal fault systems that apparently formed simultaneously. Comparing the seismic results to existing Pacific paleo strain reconstructions, the timing of increased strain and local deformation direction fits well to our findings. We thus suggest that the multiple strike directions of the Suvarov Trough represent an extensional structure that was caused by the major, stepwise Pacific Plate reorganization during the Paleocene.

  1. A new genus and species of octocoral with aragonite calcium-carbonate skeleton (Octocorallia, Helioporacea) from Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yu; Reimer, James Davis

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of octocoral with a calcium-carbonate skeleton, Naniporakamurai sp. n., is described from a shallow coral reef in Okinawa, Japan. Contrary to most octocorals, the skeleton is composed of crystalline aragonite as in blue coral Heliopora. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of sequences of mtMutS, COI, and ITS1-5.8s-ITS2-28S region suggest Nanipora gen. n. specimens should be included in order Helioporacea. Based on morphological results compared with other Helioporacea including the genus Epiphaxum (family Lithotelestidae), we establish the new genus Nanipora within Lithotelestidae. This is the first time that a close molecular phylogenetic relationship between Heliopora and a related genus within Helioporacea has been revealed.

  2. Sesquiterpene Hydroquinones with Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitory Activities from a Dysidea sp. Marine Sponge Collected in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Abdjul, Delfly B; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-07-22

    Three new sesquiterpene hydroquinones, avapyran (1), 17-O-acetylavarol (2), and 17-O-acetylneoavarol (3), were isolated from a Dysidea sp. marine sponge collected in Okinawa together with five known congeners: avarol (4), neoavarol (5), 20-O-acetylavarol (6), 20-O-acetylneoavarol (7), and 3'-aminoavarone (8). The structures of 1-3 were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 inhibited the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B with IC50 values of 11, 9.5, and 6.5 μM, respectively, while known compounds 4-8 gave IC50 values of 12, >32, 10, 8.6, and 18 μM, respectively. In a preliminary investigation on structure-activity relationships, six ester and methoxy derivatives (9-14) were prepared from 4 and 5.

  3. Photochemical Formation of Hydroxyl Radical in Red-Soil-Polluted Seawater in Okinawa, Japan -Potential Impacts on Marine Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, T.; Hamdun, A. M.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Ikota, H.; Fujimura, H.; Oomori, T.

    2004-12-01

    Development of pineapple farmlands and construction of recreational facilities caused runoff of red soil into coastal ocean (locally termed as red-soil-pollution) in the north of Okinawa Island, Japan. In an attempt to understand the impacts of red soil on oxidizing power of the seawater, we studied formation of hydroxyl radical (OH radical), the most potent oxidant in the environment, in red-soil-polluted seawaters, using 313 nm monochromatic light. Photo-formation rates of OH radical showed a good correlation with dissolved iron concentrations (R = 0.98). The major source of OH radical was found to be the Fenton reaction (a reaction between Fe(II) and HOOH). The un-filtered red-soil-polluted seawater samples exhibited faster OH radical formation rates than the filtered samples, suggesting that iron-bearing red soil particles enhanced formation of OH radical.

  4. A new species of the palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Yusuke

    2015-06-03

    The palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 is currently represented by 21 formally described species worldwide, of which 17 species are known from the Indo-West Pacific. In this study, a new species, P. okunoi, is described and illustrated on the basis of two ovigerous female specimens collected from coastal waters in Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, at depths of 5-30 m. The new species closely resembles P. hachijo Okuno, 1999, but the shorter rostrum, more anteriorly located postrostral teeth on the carapace, the presence of a pair of submedian teeth on the fourth thoracic sternite and the less slender pereopods distinguish P. okunoi n. sp. from P. hachijo. The discovery of the present new species raises the number of Japanese species of Palaemonella to eight. An updated key to the Indo-West Pacific species of the genus is presented.

  5. Screening results of anaemia among infants in a village in Okinawa, Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Quek, K F; Hokama, T; Yogi, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to highlight the baseline characteristics of the results of a screening test for anaemia among infants in a village in Okinawa, Japan. The groups were classified into two; infants with and without anaemia. A total of 201 infants were screened at 3-4 months, 9-10 months and 18 months. The study showed that gestational age and BMI were predictive of anaemia at 3-4 months of age. At 9-10 months, types of feeding and weight ratio were the only factors that were found to be significantly predictive of anaemia. However, no factor was found to be predictive of anaemia at 18 months. Anaemia cases were found to occur at 3-4 months and 9-10 months. Most of the anaemia cases have successfully undergone treatment.

  6. A new genus and species of octocoral with aragonite calcium-carbonate skeleton (Octocorallia, Helioporacea) from Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Yu; Reimer, James Davis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of octocoral with a calcium-carbonate skeleton, Nanipora kamurai sp. n., is described from a shallow coral reef in Okinawa, Japan. Contrary to most octocorals, the skeleton is composed of crystalline aragonite as in blue coral Heliopora. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of sequences of mtMutS, COI, and ITS1-5.8s-ITS2-28S region suggest Nanipora gen. n. specimens should be included in order Helioporacea. Based on morphological results compared with other Helioporacea including the genus Epiphaxum (family Lithotelestidae), we establish the new genus Nanipora within Lithotelestidae. This is the first time that a close molecular phylogenetic relationship between Heliopora and a related genus within Helioporacea has been revealed. PMID:26257549

  7. Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurup, Parthiv; Turchi, Craig S.

    2015-11-01

    This report updates the baseline cost for parabolic trough solar fields in the United States within NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). SAM, available at no cost at https://sam.nrel.gov/, is a performance and financial model designed to facilitate decision making for people involved in the renewable energy industry. SAM is the primary tool used by NREL and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for estimating the performance and cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies and projects. The study performed a bottom-up build and cost estimate for two state-of-the-art parabolic trough designs -- the SkyTrough and the Ultimate Trough. The SkyTrough analysis estimated the potential installed cost for a solar field of 1500 SCAs as $170/m2 +/- $6/m2. The investigation found that SkyTrough installed costs were sensitive to factors such as raw aluminum alloy cost and production volume. For example, in the case of the SkyTrough, the installed cost would rise to nearly $210/m2 if the aluminum alloy cost was $1.70/lb instead of $1.03/lb. Accordingly, one must be aware of fluctuations in the relevant commodities markets to track system cost over time. The estimated installed cost for the Ultimate Trough was only slightly higher at $178/m2, which includes an assembly facility of $11.6 million amortized over the required production volume. Considering the size and overall cost of a 700 SCA Ultimate Trough solar field, two parallel production lines in a fully covered assembly facility, each with the specific torque box, module and mirror jigs, would be justified for a full CSP plant.

  8. Mineralogy of Ahuna Mons on Ceres surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambon, Francesca; Raponi, Andrea; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Tosi, Federico; Palomba, Ernesto; Longobardo, Andrea; Giacomo Carrozzo, Filippo; McFadden, Lucy-Ann A.; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Ciarniello, Mauro; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, Maria Teresa; Krohn, Katrin; Stephan, Katrin; Pieters, Carle; Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol; Dawn/VIR Team

    2016-10-01

    Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt, and second target of the NASA Dawn mission, was mapped by VIR at different spatial resolutions. Visible and InfraRed (VIR) spectrometer onboard Dawn shed light on the overall surface composition of Ceres. The thermally-corrected average spectrum of Ceres as observed by VIR reveals the presence of several absorption bands in the 2.5 to 4 µm region (located at 2.7 µm, 3.1 µm, 3.3-3.4 µm, and 4 µm). The 2.7 µm band is diagnostic of hydrous minerals, the 3.1 µm band is associated with NH4-phyllosilicates, while both the 3.3-3.4 and the 4 µm bands are typical of the carbonates signature (De Sanctis et al., 2015). The first spatial resolved map of Ceres obtained on the basis of Dawn optical imagery revealed an overall dark surface with widespread albedo variations (Nathues et al., 2015). Ahuna Mons is an isolated elliptical mountain (21x13 km) located at 10.48°S, 316.2°E, and it has peculiar morphological characteristics. It is surrounded by a smooth-textured unit, less cratered than nearby terrains, and it can divided in two units: a summit with sub-radial arcuate structures (ridges and troughs) and a steep flanks formed by talus material (Ruesch et al., 2016). Ahuna Mons was formed by a volcanic process involving ascent of cryomagma and extrusion onto the surface followed by dome development (ibid). Spectroscopic analysis carried out in the Ahuna Mons region on the basis of VIR data indicates that this geological unit stands out as being distinct from the surrounding regions with respect to a series of diagnostic spectral indicators. Although the overall composition is not dissimilar from what is found elsewhere on Ceres, at the local scale Ahuna Mons emerges to have a lower abundance of hydrous mineral phases and a greater abundance of Na-carbonates than the surrounding areas observed at the same spatial resolution. The presence of a large amount of Na-carbonates is also consistent with the composition of

  9. Macrogenomic Evidence for the Origin of the Black Fly Simulium suzukii (Diptera: Simuliidae) on Okinawa Island, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Peter H.; Huang, Yao-Te; Reeves, Will K.; Kim, Sam Kyu; Otsuka, Yasushi; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    To determine the geographic origin of the black fly Simulium suzukii on Okinawa Island, Japan, macrogenomic profiles derived from its polytene chromosomes were compared with those of mainland and other insular populations of S. suzukii and of the isomorphic Simulium tani species complex. The Okinawan population is a chromosomally unique cytoform, designated ‘D,’ which is essentially monomorphic and differs by about 27 fixed rearrangements from the chromosomal standard sequence for the subgenus Simulium and by two fixed differences from its nearest known relative, representing the type of S. suzukii, on the main islands of Japan. Chromosomal band sequences revealed two additional, sympatric cytoforms of S. suzukii, designated ‘A’ and ‘B,’ each with species status, in Korea, and a third cytoform, designated ‘C,’ on Hokkaido, Japan. A new cytoform, ‘K,’ of S. tani from Malaysia, representing the type of S. tani, is more closely related to cytoforms in Thailand, as are populations from Taiwan previously treated as S. suzukii but more closely aligned with S. tani and newly recognized as cytoform ‘L’ of the latter nominal species. Rooting of chromosomal band sequences by outgroup comparisons allowed directionality of chromosomal rearrangements to be established, enabling phylogenetic inference of cytoforms. Of 41 macrogenomic rearrangements discovered in the five new cytoforms, four provide evidence for a stepwise origin of the Okinawan population from populations characteristic of the main islands of Japan. The macrogenomic approach applied to black flies on Okinawa Island illustrates its potential utility in defining source areas for other species of flies including those that might pose medical and veterinary risks. PMID:23951001

  10. Spatial and temporal variation in the soil CO2 efflux in a subtropical broadleaved forest in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuho; Terasawa, Kei; Taniguchi, Shingo; Takashima, Atsushi; Katayama, Ayumi; Ohashi, Mizue

    2016-04-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (Rs) is a major component of the carbon emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. The spatiotemporal variation in Rs and its dependency on biotic and abiotic factors have been clarified in various ecosystems. It is thought that subtropical ecosystem RS values are slightly higher than those of temperate ecosystems, but much smaller than those of tropical ecosystems (Bond-Lamberty & Thomson, 2010), but compared with temperate and tropical ecosystems there are limited relevant data. This study examined spatial (within stand-scale) and temporal (hourly to seasonal) variation in Rs in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest on Okinawa Island, Japan. We measured Rs using a closed dynamic chamber at 60 locations within a 0.15-ha plot once a month in 2013 and 2014. In addition, Rs was measured continuously using automated chambers at two locations within the same plot in 2015. The annual average Rs value (5.5 μmol m-2 s-1) obtained from the monthly manual measurements was comparable with values reported for tropical rainforests and larger than those for temperate forests. At our site, Rs showed clear seasonal variation depending on soil temperature, unlike in tropical rainforests, which lack seasonality. The spatial variation in Rs was positively correlated with the ratio of litter cover area per unit soil area, which was larger on the ridge and smaller on the slope. We propose that the amount of litter, as a material for heterotrophic respiration, largely characterises the spatial variation in Rs at this site, with a relatively small contribution from autotrophic respiration by plant roots. The results clarify that Rs values in subtropical forests in Okinawa have characteristics between those of temperate forests (seasonality) and tropical rainforests (large Rs).

  11. Springtime variations of organic and inorganic constituents in submicron aerosols (PM1.0) from Cape Hedo, Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Bhagawati; Torii, K.; Zhu, Chunmao; Fu, Pingqing; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2016-04-01

    During the spring season with enhanced Asian outflow, we collected submicron aerosol (PM1.0) samples at Cape Hedo, Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim. We analyzed the filter samples for diacids, oxoacids, pyruvic acid, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids to better understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow regions of Asian pollutants. Molecular distributions of diacids show a predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Total diacids strongly correlated with secondary source tracers such as SO42- (r = 0.87), NH4+ (0.90) and methanesulfonate (MSA-) (0.84), suggesting that diacids are secondarily formed from their precursor compounds. We also found good correlations among C2, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in the Okinawa aerosols, suggesting that diacids are mainly derived from anthropogenic sources. However, a weak correlation of diacids with levoglucosan, a biomass burning tracer, suggests that biomass buring is not the main source of diacids, rather diacids are secondarily formed by photochemical oxidation of organic precursors derived from fossil fuel combustion. We found a strong correlation (r = 0.98) between inorganic nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N) and total nitrogen (TN), to which organic nitrogen (ON) contributed 23%. Fatty acids were characterized by even carbon number predominance, suggesting that they are derived from biogenic sources. The higher abundances of short chain fatty acids (C20) further suggest that fatty acids are largely derived from marine phytoplankton during spring bloom.

  12. Macrogenomic evidence for the origin of the black fly Simulium suzukii (Diptera: Simuliidae) on Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Adler, Peter H; Huang, Yao-Te; Reeves, Will K; Kim, Sam Kyu; Otsuka, Yasushi; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    To determine the geographic origin of the black fly Simulium suzukii on Okinawa Island, Japan, macrogenomic profiles derived from its polytene chromosomes were compared with those of mainland and other insular populations of S. suzukii and of the isomorphic Simulium tani species complex. The Okinawan population is a chromosomally unique cytoform, designated 'D,' which is essentially monomorphic and differs by about 27 fixed rearrangements from the chromosomal standard sequence for the subgenus Simulium and by two fixed differences from its nearest known relative, representing the type of S. suzukii, on the main islands of Japan. Chromosomal band sequences revealed two additional, sympatric cytoforms of S. suzukii, designated 'A' and 'B,' each with species status, in Korea, and a third cytoform, designated 'C,' on Hokkaido, Japan. A new cytoform, 'K,' of S. tani from Malaysia, representing the type of S. tani, is more closely related to cytoforms in Thailand, as are populations from Taiwan previously treated as S. suzukii but more closely aligned with S. tani and newly recognized as cytoform 'L' of the latter nominal species. Rooting of chromosomal band sequences by outgroup comparisons allowed directionality of chromosomal rearrangements to be established, enabling phylogenetic inference of cytoforms. Of 41 macrogenomic rearrangements discovered in the five new cytoforms, four provide evidence for a stepwise origin of the Okinawan population from populations characteristic of the main islands of Japan. The macrogenomic approach applied to black flies on Okinawa Island illustrates its potential utility in defining source areas for other species of flies including those that might pose medical and veterinary risks.

  13. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related oral squamous cell carcinoma in Okinawa, a subtropical island, in southern Japan--simultaneously infected with human papillomavirus (HPV).

    PubMed

    Higa, Mayumi; Kinjo, Takao; Kamiyama, Kazuya; Chinen, Katsuni; Iwamasa, Teruo; Arasaki, Akira; Sunakawa, Hajime

    2003-06-01

    Up to now, many authors have reported on the EBV infection and its carcinogenic importance in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (WHO classification, type III), but the infection of the virus in well differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma has not been well described. We introduce the EBV-related well differentiated oral squamous cell carcinomas in Okinawa, a subtropical island in the southernmost part of Japan. This study aimed to clarify the pathogenesis of this malignancy in this area by carrying out analysis of the histology and the Epstein-Barr (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In the Department of Oral Surgery, Ryukyu University Hospital Okinawa, 188 cases of oral malignant tumours were encountered from 1996 to 2000. The histopathological examination and the sequence analysis of LMP-1 carboxy terminal region and EBNA2 region of EBV were carried out, as were the analysis of virus subtypes, A and B, BamHI-F and f, and C and D. Additionally, HPV infection in the squamous cell carcinomas were demonstrated using E6 and E7 region primer sets by PCR method. In Okinawa, 94% (177/188) of the cases were squamous cell carcinomas. A surprisingly large number of EBV (72%) and HPV (78%) infections in the oral squamous cell carcinomas were demonstrated. EBV type B virus infection was found in 36% of EBV-related oral squamous cell carcinoma in Okinawa, but in only 2-5% of the mainland cases. In both regions the incidence of the BamHI- f variant infection was very low. The infected virus in 79 out of 80 (39 Okinawan and 41 mainland) cases was BamHI- F type. In Okinawa, the numbers of C and D variants were almost equal, whereas in the mainland the D variant was rare. Further, a 30 bp deletion in LMP-1 gene was frequently demonstrated in Okinawan and mainland cases of type A virus, but not in type B virus. Lastly, single nucleotide mutations in EBNA2 region of type A virus when compared with B95-8 strain were demonstrated in Okinawan cases. The

  14. Desired vancomycin trough serum concentration for treating invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Frymoyer, Adam; Guglielmo, B Joseph; Hersh, Adam L

    2013-10-01

    Vancomycin area under the curve/minimal inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) >400 best predicts the outcome when treating invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection; however, trough serum concentrations are used clinically to assess the appropriateness of dosing. We used pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation to examine the relationship between vancomycin trough values and AUC/MIC in children receiving vancomycin 15 mg/kg every 6 hours and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MIC of 1 μg/mL. A trough of 7-10 μg/mL predicted achievement of AUC/MIC >400 in >90% of children.

  15. Venus trough-and-ridge tessera - Analog to earth oceanic crust formed at spreading centers?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.

    1990-01-01

    The similarity between the morphologies of Venus trough-and-ridge tessera and the earth's ocean floor is discussed. The hypothesis that tessera texture might be related to a crustal fabric produced at spreading centers is examined. It is suggested that the proccesses that produce the ocean floor fabric on earth are good candidates for the origin and production of the trough-and-ridge tessera. To support this hypothesis, the characteristics of the trough-and-ridge terrain in Laima Tessera are described and compared to the seafloor at spreading centers.

  16. The O+ Density Trough at 5000 km Altitude in the Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, W.; Horowitz, J. L.; Cravens, P. D.; Rich, F. J.; Moore, T. E.

    2003-01-01

    At altitudes near 5000 km over the Southern polar cap region of the terrestrial magnetospherehonosphere, the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) onboard the Polar satellite has observed O+ ion density trough regions, in which the O+ densities were at least one order of magnitude lower than the surrounding O+ densities. In the O+ demify trough regions, the estimated O+ densities were generally lower than 0.01 per cc. The boundaries between normal density level regions and the trough density regions were usually abrupt transitions. From December 1, 1997 to November 30, 1998, polar cap O+ troughs in Polar/TIDE observations occurred at a frequency of about 48%. Statistical examination of the Polar perigee observations from December 1 , 1997 to November 30, 1998 shows that the Polar perigee passes evenly covered the southern polar cap region, while the O+ density trough was always located on the nightside portion of the polar cap magnetospherehonosphere, and that invariant latitude spans of such troughs could be as large as 230 in extent. The trough occurrence displayed strong seasonal dependence; in the winter season (e.g. for July in the southern hemisphere) the O+ ion density trough occurrence frequency ranged up to 92%, while in the summer season (e.g. for January in the southern hemisphere) it decreased to as infrequent as 15%. The O+ ion density trough occurrence appeared relatively independent of the geomagnetic Kp index, and IMF Bz, By conditions. However, as suggested by the seasonal dependence, the O+ ion density trough occurrence was strongly related to the solar zenith angle (SZA). In the SZA range 500 to 1250, the trough occurrence increased monotonically with SZA. Also, case-by-case examinations of near-simultaneous O+ densities and vertical velocities observed by the DMSP satellite group orbiting at 840 km altitude indicate that the O+ density troughs observed at 5000 km altitude exhibit moderate correlation or anti-correlation with topside ionosphere

  17. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs with modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreira, Alexandre; Bose, Sownak; Li, Baojiu; Llinares, Claudio

    2017-02-01

    We study the imprints that theories of gravity beyond GR can leave on the lensing signal around line of sight directions that are predominantly halo-underdense (called troughs) and halo-overdense. To carry out our investigations, we consider the normal branch of DGP gravity, as well as a phenomenological variant thereof that directly modifies the lensing potential. The predictions of these models are obtained with N-body simulation and ray-tracing methods using the ECOSMOG and Ray-Ramses codes. We analyse the stacked lensing convergence profiles around the underdense and overdense lines of sight, which exhibit, respectively, a suppression and a boost w.r.t. the mean in the field of view. The modifications to gravity in these models strengthen the signal w.r.t. ΛCDM in a scale-independent way. We find that the size of this effect is the same for both underdense and overdense lines of sight, which implies that the density field along the overdense directions on the sky is not sufficiently evolved to trigger the suppression effects of the screening mechanism. These results are robust to variations in the minimum halo mass and redshift ranges used to identify the lines of sight, as well as to different line of sight aperture sizes and criteria for their underdensity and overdensity thresholds.

  18. Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough, eastern Nevada: preliminary basin analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, D.L.; Snyder, W.S.; Spinosa, C.

    1987-08-01

    The Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough (DMT) is one of several basins that developed during the Late Pennsylvanian to Permian along the western edge of the North American continent. A tectonic mechanism has been suggested for the subsidence of the DMT, possibly due to reactivation of the Antler orogenic belt during the waning stages of Ancestral Rocky Mountain deformation. The DMT records marked subsidence with the appearance during the Artinskian (latest Wolfcampian) of a deeper water facies that consists of thin-bedded silty micrites and micritic mudstones rich in radiolarians and sponge spicules, characterized by a relative abundance of ammonoids, and rarer conodonts and Nereites ichnofacies trace fossils. Taxa recovered from a distinctive concretionary horizon at various locations provide an Artinskian datum on which to palinspastically reconstruct the DMT paleogeography. These taxa include ammonoids: Uraloceras, Medlicottia, Marathonites, Crimites, Metalegoceras, properrinitids; and conodonts: Neogondolella bisselli, Sweetognathus whitei, S. behnkeni, and Diplognathodus stevensi. The western margin facies of the DMT consists of Permian Carbon Ridge/Garden Valley Formations. Here, lowermost black Artinskianage euxinic micrites, considered a potential source rock for petroleum generation, are overlain by base-of-slope carbonate apron deposits, which, in turn, are overlain by base-of-slope carbonate apron deposits, which, in turn, are overlain by a thick, eastwardly prograding conglomerate wedge. Seismic profiles across Diamond Valley indicate a 3.0-4.6-km thick Tertiary sequence above the Paleozoic strata.

  19. Norwich Technologies' Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    SciTech Connect

    Stettenheim, Joel; McBride, Troy O.; Brambles, Oliver J.; Cashin, Emil A.

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes the successful results of our SunShot project, Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs. With a limited budget of $252K and in only 12 months, we have (1) developed validated optical and thermal models and completed rigorous optimization analysis to identify key performance characteristics as part of developing first-generation laboratory prototype designs, (2) built optical and thermal laboratory prototypes and test systems with associated innovative testing protocols, and (3) performed extensive statistically relevant testing. We have produced fully functioning optical and thermal prototypes and accurate, validated models shown to capture important underlying physical mechanisms. The test results from the first-generation prototype establish performance exceeding the FOA requirement of thermal efficiency >90% for a CSP receiver while delivering an exit fluid temperature of > 650 °C and a cost < $150/kWth. Our vacuum-free SunTrap receiver design provides improvements over conventional vacuum-tube collectors, allowing dramatic reductions in thermal losses at high operating temperature.

  20. Load on Trough Bellows Following an Argon Spill

    SciTech Connect

    Chess, K.; /Fermilab

    1988-07-12

    In the case of a gross argon spill from the DO detector, the liquid argon is caught in three plenums. These plenums are to be connected by bellows to make a horizontal trough open at one end for removing the argon. The design of these bellows is dependent on the maximum argon load they must carry. Bellows to connect the three argon-catching plenums in the DO detector must be able to carry at least 92 lbs of argon when closed and 231 lbs when open, plus the load due to argon in the convolutions. Examples of such loads and the method for their calculations are contained in the Discussion. It should be noted that a set of assumptions was used in these calculations. First, we considered a uniform channel and uniform flow. Second, we used a value for Manning's n meant for a similar, but not exactly the same, case. Finally, we were forced to define an average depth, d, to be used to state the hydraulic radius, R, and area of flow, A. These facts may warrant consideration in future calculations.

  1. A Process Heat Application Using Parabolic Trough Collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, İbrahim Halil; Söylemez, Mehmet Sait; Hayta, Hakan; Yumrutaş, Recep

    A pilot study has been performed based on a heat process application that is designed, installed and tested at Gaziantep University to establish the technical and economic feasibility of high temperature solar-assisted cooking process. The system has been designed to be satisfying the process conditions integrated with parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). It is primarily consists of the PTSC array, auxiliary heater, plate type heat exchanger, cooking system and water heating tanks. In the operation of the process heat application, the energy required to cook wheat (used as cooking material) has been supplied from solar energy which is transferred to heat transfer fluid (HTF) by heat exchanging units and finally discharged to water in order to produce bulgur. The performance parameters of the sub-systems and the process compatibility have been accomplished depending on the system operation. In addition that the system performance of the high temperature solar heat process has been presented and the recommendations on its improvement have been evaluated by performing an experimental study. As a result that the use of solar energy in process heat application has been projected and its contribution to economics view with respect to conventional cooking systems has been conducted.

  2. Heat and Chemical Exergy Analysis of Parabolic Trough Collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztürk, M.; Üçgül, I.; Özek, N.

    2007-04-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants, derived from the combustion of fossil fuels for heat and electricity generation, can be significantly reduced or even completely eliminated by substituting fossil fuels with a clean energy source, e.g. solar energy. However, solar radiation reaching the earth is diluted, intermittent, and, unequally distributed. These disadvantages can be overcome by converting solar energy into chemical energy carriers, i.e. solar fuels, such as solar hydrogen and solar methanol, which can be long-termed stored and long-ranged transported. Since the energy conversion efficiency of thermochemical processes is limited by the Carnot efficiency, the use of concentrated solar radiation as the source of high-temperature process heat provides a thermodynamically efficient path for the conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels. In this study, water-gas shift reaction in parabolic trough collector is evaluated with regarding the heat exergy and chemical exergy analyses and the results are given as tables and graphs.

  3. Mineralogical composition of African dust delivered by red rains over northeastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Anna; Queralt-Mitjans, Ignasi; Alarcón, Marta

    1997-09-01

    The African dust deposition, mineralogy, source regions, and influence on rain chemistry were analyzed for a site in the Montseny mountains (Catalonia, northeastern Spain) for the period August 1, 1983, through August 1, 1994. Dust deposition was highly variable: two events (collected on November 9-11, 1984, and March 22-25, 1991) accounted for 62% of the total dust input in the 38 red rain events recorded in the period. The average annual dust deposition was 5.3 g m-2 (SE 2.6). Three source regions in the African continent were identified with back trajectory analysis: (1) Western Sahara, (2) Moroccan Atlas, and (3) Central Algeria. Events from the Moroccan Atlas predominated in terms of number of events, amount of rainfall, and dust deposition. The meteorological situations during red rains were identified: Western Sahara events occurred principally with a depression at high latitudes (50°N) forming a trough in the North Atlantic, Moroccan Atlas events occurred with a depression in front of Portugal, and events from central Algeria were associated with a depression over Spain or North Africa. By order of abundance (median of n=13) the minerals identified in the dust by X ray diffraction were as follows: illite > quartz > smectite > palygorskite > kaolinite > calcite > dolomite > feldspars. Differences in mineralogy between source regions were significant for smectite, kaolinite, quartz, and dolomite. Smectite and kaolinite content was highest in the Algerian events, while quartz and dolomite content was lowest. Events from the Moroccan Atlas had the lowest smectite and kaolinite. The red rain soluble chemistry was clearly influenced by the dissolution of calcite (high alkalinity, calcium concentration and basic pH) and by marine components (high Na+, Cl- arid Mg+2 concentrations). Because of the very alkaline character of red rains they had a strong weight on the annual mean pH of rainwater. This was reflected by the significant relationship (r=0.71, p<0

  4. Mineralogical characterization of Mars Science Laboratory candidate landing sites from THEMIS and TES data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A. Deanne; Bandfield, Joshua L.

    2009-10-01

    Data from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instruments are used to assess the mineralogic and dust cover characteristics of landing regions proposed for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Candidate regions examined in this study are Eberswalde crater, Gale crater, Holden crater, Mawrth Vallis, Miyamoto crater, Nili Fossae Trough, and south Meridiani Planum. Compositional units identified in each region from TES and THEMIS data are distinguished by variations in hematite, olivine, pyroxene and high-silica phase abundance, whereas no units are distinguished by elevated phyllosilicate or sulfate abundance. Though phyllosilicate minerals have been identified in all sites using near-infrared observations, these minerals are not unambiguously detected using either TES spectral index or deconvolution analysis methods. For some of the sites, small phyllosilicate outcrop sizes relative to the TES field of view likely hinder phyllosilicate mineral detection. Porous texture and/or small particle size (<˜60 μm) associated with the phyllosilicate-bearing surfaces may also contribute to non-detections in the thermal infrared data sets, in some areas. However, in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, low phyllosilicate abundance (<10-20 areal %, depending on the phyllosilicate composition) is the most likely explanation for non-detection. TES data over Mawrth Vallis indicate that phyllosilicate-bearing surfaces also contain significant concentrations (>15%, possibly up to ˜40%) of a high-silica phase such as amorphous silica or zeolite. High-silica phase abundance over phyllosilicate-bearing surfaces in Mawrth Vallis is higher than that of surrounding surfaces by 10-15%. With the exception of these high-silica surfaces in Mawrth Vallis, regions examined in this study exhibit similar bulk mineralogical compositions to that of most low-albedo regions on Mars; the MSL scientific payload

  5. Sediment composition and texture of Pleistocene deep-sea turbidites in the eastern Nankai Trough gas hydrate field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egawa, K.; Nishimura, O.; Izumi, S.; Ito, T.; Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Jin, Y.; Kida, M.; Suzuki, K.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Nagao, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the 2012 JOGMEC/JAPEX pressure coring operation, we collected a totally 60-m-long core sample from the interval of gas hydrate concentration zone at the planned site of the world's first offshore production test of natural gas hydrates in the eastern Nankai Trough area. In this contribution, the cored sediments were sedimentologically, mineralogically, and paleontologically analyzed to know sediment composition and texture of reservoir formation, which are known to provide useful geological information to discuss sedimentation, diagenesis, and permeability. The targeted interval belongs to a Middle Pleistocene deep-sea turbidite sequence distributed around the Daini Atsumi Knoll, east of the Kumano forearc basin, and consists of the lower (thick sand-dominant), middle (thin-bedded sand-and-mud alteration), and upper (mud-dominant) formations in ascending order. X-ray powder diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that pore space in turbidite sands is commonly filled with clay fractions (mostly phyllosilicates) in the lower formation. Such a pore filling of clay fractions is reflected in particle size distribution showing high standard deviation and clay content, and thus is expected to have an impact on permeability. There is the older Pliocene to Early Pleistocene fossil coccolith record in the middle formation, indicating sediment reworking probably induced by submarine landslide. The coexistence of authigenic siderite and framboidal pyrite in the middle formation strongly suggests anoxic microbial activity under methane oxidation and sulfide reduction conditions at least before the hydrate cementation. This contribution was financially supported by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) planned by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  6. Novel Visualization Approaches in Environmental Mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C. D.; Lopano, C. L.; Hummer, D. R.; Heaney, P. J.; Post, J. E.; Kubicki, J. D.; Sofo, J. O.

    2006-05-01

    Communicating the complexities of atomic scale reactions between minerals and fluids is fraught with intrinsic challenges. For example, an increasing number of techniques are now available for the interrogation of dynamical processes at the mineral-fluid interface. However, the time-dependent behavior of atomic interactions between a solid and a liquid is often not adequately captured by two-dimensional line drawings or images. At the same time, the necessity for describing these reactions to general audiences is growing more urgent, as funding agencies are amplifying their encouragement to scientists to reach across disciplines and to justify their studies to public audiences. To overcome the shortcomings of traditional graphical representations, the Center for Environmental Kinetics Analysis is creating three-dimensional visualizations of experimental and simulated mineral reactions. These visualizations are then displayed on a stereo 3D projection system called the GeoWall. Made possible (and affordable) by recent improvements in computer and data projector technology, the GeoWall system uses a combination of computer software and hardware, polarizing filters and polarizing glasses, to present visualizations in true 3D. The three-dimensional views greatly improve comprehension of complex multidimensional data, and animations of time series foster better understanding of the underlying processes. The visualizations also offer an effective means to communicate the complexities of environmental mineralogy to colleagues, students and the public. Here we present three different kinds of datasets that demonstrate the effectiveness of the GeoWall in clarifying complex environmental reactions at the atomic scale. First, a time-resolved series of diffraction patterns obtained during the hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide phases from precursor solutions can be viewed as a surface with interactive controls for peak scaling and color mapping. Second, the results of

  7. Diagenetic Mineralogy at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, David; Blake, David; Bristow, Thomas F.; Chipera, Steve; Gellert, Ralf; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard; Rampe, E. B.; Rapin, William

    2015-01-01

    Three years into exploration of sediments in Gale crater on Mars, the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has provided data on several modes and episodes of diagenetic mineral formation. Curiosity determines mineralogy principally by X-ray diffraction (XRD), but with supporting data from thermal-release profiles of volatiles, bulk chemistry, passive spectroscopy, and laser-induced breakdown spectra of targeted spots. Mudstones at Yellowknife Bay, within the landing ellipse, contain approximately 20% phyllosilicate that we interpret as authigenic smectite formed by basalt weathering in relatively dilute water, with associated formation of authigenic magnetite as in experiments by Tosca and Hurowitz [Goldschmidt 2014]. Varied interlayer spacing of the smectite, collapsed at approximately 10 A or expanded at approximately 13.2 A, is evidence of localized diagenesis that may include partial intercalation of metal-hydroxyl groups in the approximately 13.2 A material. Subsequent sampling of stratigraphically higher Windjana sandstone revealed sediment with multiple sources, possible concentration of detrital magnetite, and minimal abundance of diagenetic minerals. Most recent sampling has been of lower strata at Mount Sharp, where diagenesis is widespread and varied. Here XRD shows that hematite first becomes abundant and products of diagenesis include jarosite and cristobalite. In addition, bulk chemistry identifies Mg-sulfate concretions that may be amorphous or crystalline. Throughout Curiosity's traverse, later diagenetic fractures (and rarer nodules) of mm to dm scale are common and surprisingly constant and simple in Ca-sulfate composition. Other sulfates (Mg,Fe) appear to be absent in this later diagenetic cycle, and circumneutral solutions are indicated. Equally surprising is the rarity of gypsum and common occurrence of bassanite and anhydrite. Bassanite, rare on Earth, plays a major role at this location on Mars. Dehydration of gypsum to bassanite in the

  8. Olivine-dominated asteroids: Mineralogy and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Juan A.; Reddy, Vishnu; Kelley, Michael S.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Bottke, William F.; Nesvorný, David; Lucas, Michael P.; Hardersen, Paul S.; Gaffey, Michael J.; Abell, Paul A.; Corre, Lucille Le

    2014-01-01

    Olivine-dominated asteroids are a rare type of objects formed either in nebular processes or through magmatic differentiation. The analysis of meteorite samples suggest that at least 100 parent bodies in the main belt experienced partial or complete melting and differentiation before being disrupted. However, only a few olivine-dominated asteroids, representative of the mantle of disrupted differentiated bodies, are known to exist. Due to the paucity of these objects in the main belt their origin and evolution have been a matter of great debate over the years. In this work we present a detailed mineralogical analysis of twelve olivine-dominated asteroids. We have obtained near-infrared (NIR) spectra (0.7-2.4 μm) of asteroids (246) Asporina, (289) Nenetta, (446) Aeternitas, (863) Benkoela, (4125) Lew Allen and (4490) Bamberry. Observations were conducted with the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i. This sample was complemented with spectra of six other olivine-dominated asteroids including (354) Eleonora, (984) Gretia, (1951) Lick, (2501) Lohja, (3819) Robinson and (5261) Eureka obtained by previous workers. Within our sample we distinguish two classes, one that we call monomineralic-olivine asteroids, which are those whose spectra only exhibit the 1 μm feature, and another referred to as olivine-rich asteroids, whose spectra exhibit the 1 μm feature and a weak (Band II depth ˜4%) 2 μm feature. For the monomineralic-olivine asteroids the olivine chemistry was found to range from ˜Fo49 to Fo70, consistent with the values measured for brachinites and R chondrites. In the case of the olivine-rich asteroids we determined their olivine and low-Ca pyroxene abundance using a new set of spectral calibrations derived from the analysis of R chondrites spectra. We found that the olivine abundance for these asteroids varies from 0.68 to 0.93, while the fraction of low-Ca pyroxene to total pyroxene ranges from 0.6 to 0.9. A search for dynamical

  9. Mineralogy and Microbial Survival During Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillan, E. U.; Gilbert, K.; Bennett, P.

    2010-12-01

    When CO2 is sequestered in deep saline aquifers, a region of high dissolved CO2 surrounds the supercritical CO2 plume. While microbial life will doubtless be perturbed as a result of the CO2 injection, survival may be possible in the region of high dissolved CO2. Mineralogy of the aquifer may influence which microorganisms survive by providing substrates for lithotrophic microbes and determining the competitiveness of microbes in the subsurface. Iron-rich minerals like hematite, for example, provide a terminal electron acceptor for dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB) that is essential for their respiration. Mineral dissolution may also provide toxicity for microbes providing increased concentration of toxic elements like Al in groundwater as a result of feldspar or clay dissolution. We investigated, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model DIRB, grown in the presence of representative minerals found in deep saline aquifers including carbonate minerals, silicate minerals, and clays. Cultures were subjected to 20 to 25 atm of CO2 at 30° C for 2 to 8 hours in modified Parr reactors. Cultures were plated to determine viability after CO2 stress and imaged using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Preliminary results show that MR-1 grown in the presence of dolomite and subjected to 20 atm of CO2 for 2 hours results in decreased viability in comparison to cells grown with hematite or no minerals present. This suggests there is selective toxicity with dolomite, possibly due to an increase in dissolved Mg. Additionally, ESEM imaging revealed a change in cell morphology from plump rods to thin, pointy cells after incubating in CO2 for 8 hours at 25 atm. This change in