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Sample records for oklahoma city area

  1. Oklahoma City Revitalization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Since the beginning of their Brownfields Program in 2003, Oklahoma City has been the recipient of nine EPA Brownfields Grants, creating a new city from the inside out. So far, 45 properties have been assessed and/or remediated.

  2. 78 FR 78318 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma AGENCY: Federal...), channel 51, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, requesting the substitution of channel 23 for channel 51 at Oklahoma City. While the Commission instituted a freeze on the acceptance of full power television...

  3. Urban flood analysis in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.; Huntzinger, T.L.; Bergman, D.L.; Patneaude, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    Flood insurance study information from the Federal Emergency Management Agency is utilized to estimate future flood hazard in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Techniques are described for estimating future urban runoff estimates. A method of developing stream cross section rating curves is explained. Future runoff estimates are used in conjuction with the rating curves to develop an estimate of 50- and 100- year flood profiles that would result from future urban development.

  4. Child and Family Resource Program (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma). Program Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report describes the Oklahoma City, Oklahoma site of the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP), a Head Start-affiliated program designed to elicit community and family involvement in fostering optimum development of preschool children and their families. The Oklahoma City site, serving a rural black community, is one of 11 demonstration…

  5. Service Networks and Patterns of Utilization: Mental Health Programs, Indian Health Service (IHS). Volume 7: Oklahoma City Area, 1969-1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attneave, Carolyn L.; Beiser, Morton

    The seventh volume in a 10-volume report on the historical development (1966-1973) of the 8 administrative Area Offices of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Mental Health Programs, this report presents information on the Oklahoma City Area Office. Included in this document are: (1) General Description: Geography and Demography (population;…

  6. 75 FR 5015 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications... Griffin Licensing, L.L.C. (``Griffin''), the licensee of KWTV-DT, channel 9, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Griffin requests the substitution of channel 39 for channel 9 at Oklahoma City. DATES: Comments must...

  7. 75 FR 13236 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications... Licensing, L.L.C., the licensee of KWTV-DT, channel 9, Oklahoma City, requesting the substitution of channel 39 for channel 9 at Oklahoma City. DATES: This rule is effective March 19, 2010. FOR...

  8. Summary of Sonic Boom Rise Times Observed During FAA Community Response Studies over a 6-Month Period in the Oklahoma City Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Sothcott, Victor E.

    1990-01-01

    The sonic boom signature data acquired from about 1225 supersonic flights, over a 6-month period in 1964 in the Oklahoma City area, was enhanced with the addition of data relating to rise times and total signature duration. These later parameters, not available at the time of publication of the original report on the Oklahoma City sonic boom exposures, are listed in tabular form along with overpressure, positive impulse, positive duration, and waveform category. Airplane operating information along with the surface weather observations are also included. Sonic boom rise times include readings to the 1/2, 3/4, and maximum overpressure values. Rise time relative probabilities for various lateral locations from the ground track of 0, 5, and 10 miles are presented along with the variation of rise times with flight altitude. The tabulated signature data, along with corresponding airplane operating conditions and surface and upper level atmospheric information, are also available on electronic files to provide it in the format for more efficient and effective utilization.

  9. Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for selected dams in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and near Atoka, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivers, Molly J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Grout, Trevor S.; Lewis, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Digital-elevation models, field survey measurements, hydraulic data, and hydrologic data (U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations North Canadian River below Lake Overholser near Oklahoma City, Okla. [07241000], and North Canadian River at Britton Road at Oklahoma City, Okla. [07241520]), were used as inputs for the one-dimensional dynamic (unsteady-flow) models using Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) software. The modeled flood elevations were exported to a geographic information system to produce flood-inundation maps. Water-surface profiles were developed for a 75-percent probable maximum flood dam-breach scenario and a sunny-day dam-breach scenario, as well as for maximum flood-inundation elevations and flood-wave arrival times at selected bridge crossings. Points of interest such as community-services offices, recreational areas, water-treatment plants, and wastewater-treatment plants were identified on the flood-inundation maps.

  10. Regional Conference on Libraries (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, November 3, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capshaw, Ron, Ed.

    On November 3, 1975, a Regional Conference on Libraries was convened by the Association of Central Oklahoma Governments to make recommendations for library improvement based on perceived local needs. Four workshops had been held before the Conference in Logan, Canadian, Cleveland, and Oklahoma Counties. Recommendations from those workshops were…

  11. RadNet Air Data From Oklahoma City, OK

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Oklahoma City, OK from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  12. Oklahoma's Ouachita area beginning to stir

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.

    1991-02-18

    This paper reports on exploration of Ouachita rocks of southeastern Oklahoma. Wells are completed or planned in the Potato Hills, Moyers, and Atoka areas of the Ouachita Province. Deep and shallow drilling will start soon in a 9 sq mile area in the Potato Hills area of southern Latimer County. The shallow drilling program will consist of eight wells to about 6,000 ft to assess potential in Ordovician Big Fork, Womble, and Mississippian-Devonian Arkansas Novaculite.

  13. Image crustal structure of eastern Oklahoma City with TOMODD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Holland, A. A.; Keller, R. G.

    2012-12-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in earthquake activity in Oklahoma since 2009. This dramatic increase was also matched by a marked increase in the number of operating seismic stations within the region. The additional stations include the Earthscope Transportable Arrays and temporary stations provided by the U. S. Geological Survey. The additional seismic stations and earthquakes provide the ability to do local travel time tomography of the crust within the region. For this study we are focusing on the area near the Jones earthquake swarm, that occurred just east of Oklahoma City, and the M5.6, November 2011 Prague earthquake. Major structures are already known in the area, but little is known about crustal structure below the top of the Precambrian basement. We used regionally available and temporary seismic stations along with more than 2000 earthquakes within the region to develop a 3D tomographic model of the crust using TOMODD. The major structures within the area are the Nemaha Ridge, Wilzetta Fault, and Seminole Uplift, and they and other structures as well are expressed within the tomographic model. We are working on determining the resolution and interpretation of the tomographic images.

  14. 78 FR 32007 - Environmental Impact Statement for Tulsa-Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Geographic Information System (GIS) data, field investigations and site visits/sampling where necessary. The... information can be found online at www.TulsaOKCRailCorridor.com . ADDRESSES: Written comments on the scope of.... 21st Street, Oklahoma City, OK 73105-3204. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Catherine...

  15. Evaluation of the 1982-83 Oklahoma City Public Schools Indiana Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, John

    1983-01-01

    The Oklahoma City Public School 1982-83 Indian Education Program served students in two major areas: academic assistance and supplemental guidance and counseling. Specific program objectives included the following: under academic assistance (1) students receiving tutoring will show achievement gains in reading and mathematics; (2) the Title IV-A…

  16. Personal Touches Warm up Oklahoma City U.'s Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Oklahoma City University prides itself on treating its faculty and staff members like family. It is the kind of place where new employees are welcomed in the president's house, staff members kick in to raise money when a colleague faces hard times, and promising young workers are offered flexible work schedules and free tuition to help them…

  17. How a School Coped with the Oklahoma City Bombing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, David N.; Aspy, Cheryl B.

    1996-01-01

    Following the Oklahoma City bombing, fifth graders at a nearby elementary school coped with ensuing uncertainty, pain, and loss. They wrote appreciative letters to fire and rescue workers; shared personal stories with classmates; compiled an anthology of poems, prayers, and stories; attended an assembly to honor parents participating in rescue…

  18. 75 FR 65524 - United Auto Workers Local 1999, Oklahoma City, OK; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Employment and Training Administration United Auto Workers Local 1999, Oklahoma City, OK; Notice of Negative... Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA), applicable to workers and former workers of United Auto Workers Local... petition filed on behalf of workers at United Auto Workers Local 1999, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, was...

  19. Turbulent Kinetic Energy in the Oklahoma City Urban Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, J; Leach, M; Gouveia, F

    2004-06-24

    A major field experiment, Joint URBAN 2003 (JU2003), was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect meteorological and tracer data sets for evaluating dispersion models in urban areas. The Department of Homeland Security and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency were the primary sponsors of JU2003. Investigators from five Department of Energy national laboratories, several other government agencies, universities, private companies, and international agencies conducted the experiment. Observations to characterize the meteorology in and around the urban area complemented the observation of the dispersion of SF6, an inert tracer gas. Over one hundred threedimensional sonic anemometers were deployed in and around the urban area to monitor wind speed, direction, and turbulence fluxes during releases of SF6. Sonic deployment locations included a profile of eight sonic anemometers mounted on a crane less than 1 km north of the central business district (CBD). Using data from these and other sonic anemometers deployed in the urban area, we can quantify the effect of the urban area on atmospheric turbulence and compare results seen in OKC to those in other urban areas to assess the parameters typically used in parameterizations of urban turbulence.

  20. Review of Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center’s Dekitting Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    RD-A157 110 REVIEW OF OKLAHOMA CITY RIR LOGISTICS CENTER’S i/i DEKITTING POLICY(U) GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC NATIONAL SECURITY AND...REKIRT BY THE U. S. General Accounting Office ( AD-A157 110 Review Of Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center’s Dekitting Policy The Oklahoma City Air...Glenn United States Senate Dear Senator Glenn: This letter is in response to your request that we review the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center’s

  1. Finding of No Significant Impact: Replacement of Chemical Cleaning Line Tinker Air Force Base Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    economy , and there would be no long-term impacts on local socioeconomic conditions. Page 4-13 February 2012 Environmental Assessment FINAL...FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT : REPLACEMENT OF CHEMICAL CLEANING LINE TINKER AIR FORCE BASE OKLAHOMA CITY, OKLAHOMA An Environmental Assessment...entitled Environmental Impact Analysis Process (EIAP) and codified at 32 CFR 989. The EA is incorporated by reference into this finding. DESCRIPTION

  2. City of Faith Medical and Research Center, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The gold towers of the City of Faith command the viewer's attention as they soar into the Tulsa sky. Built by Evangelist Oral Roberts, the City of Faith combines a 60-story clinic and diagnostic center, a 30-story full-service hospital and a 20-story research center on one 80-acre site adjacent to the Oral Roberts University campus. Due in part to their futuristic architectural features, the campus and the City of Faith are one of the top tourist attractions in Oklahoma. Construction began in early 1978. The clinic, first opened in June 1981 with nine physicians, is now staffed with more than 80, all with faculty appointments to the Oral Roberts School of Medicine. The hospital accepted its first patient in November, 1981 and is currently certified for 294 beds (final plans call for a total of 777). The research center began operations last June and focuses on cancer, heart disease, arthritis, diabetes and geriatrics. Built entirely through contributions from followers of the Oral Roberts Ministries, the debt-free City of Faith is expected to cost more than $500 million when completed in 1988.

  3. Never Again Would We Be the Same: The Oklahoma City Bombing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Kent

    1996-01-01

    A high school principal describes the day of the terrorist attack on the federal building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. After meeting with assistant principals and the school nurse to make plans for dealing with possible repercussions, he told students what had happened, monitored TV broadcasts, evacuated the building during bomb scares, and…

  4. Estimated flood peak discharges on Twin, Brock, and Lightning creeks, Southwest Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, May 8, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The flash flood in southwestern Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, May 8, 1993, was the result of an intense 3-hour rainfall on saturated ground or impervious surfaces. The total precipitation of 5.28 inches was close to the 3-hour, 100-year frequency and produced extensive flooding. The most serious flooding was on Twin, Brock, and Lightning Creeks. Four people died in this flood. Over 1,900 structures were damaged along the 3 creeks. There were about $3 million in damages to Oklahoma City public facilities, the majority of which were in the three basins. A study was conducted to determine the magnitude of the May 8, 1993, flood peak discharge in these three creeks in southwestern Oklahoma City and compare these peaks with published flood estimates. Flood peak-discharge estimates for these creeks were determined at 11 study sites using a step-backwater analysis to match the flood water-surface profiles defined by high-water marks. The unit discharges during peak runoff ranged from 881 cubic feet per second per square mile for Lightning Creek at SW 44th Street to 3,570 cubic feet per second per square mile for Brock Creek at SW 59th Street. The ratios of the 1993 flood peak discharges to the Federal Emergency Management Agency 100-year flood peak discharges ranged from 1.25 to 3.29. The water-surface elevations ranged from 0.2 foot to 5.9 feet above the Federal Emergency Management Agency 500-year flood water-surface elevations. The very large flood peaks in these 3 small urban basins were the result of very intense rainfall in a short period of time, close to 100 percent runoff due to ground surfaces being essentially impervious, and the city streets acting as efficient conveyances to the main channels. The unit discharges compare in magnitude to other extraordinary Oklahoma urban floods.

  5. Rose State College in Oklahoma City Receives EPA Job-Training Grant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (May 27, 2015) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced that Rose State College in Oklahoma City, Okla., received one of 19 grants for Environmental Workforce Development and Job Training (EWDJT) grants. Rose State College

  6. Proceedings: Oklahoma School Plant Manager's Workshop (4th, Oklahoma City, OK, April 20-21, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Nineteen addresses given at the 1982 Oklahoma School Plant Manager's Workshop are presented in this document. Following a welcoming speech, an overview of the issues currently facing school plant managers in Oklahoma, and a general address by a representative of the Arkansas Department of Education, the speakers focused on a number of specific…

  7. Forensic Seismology and the 1995 Oklahoma City Terrorist Bombing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, T. L.

    2002-05-01

    The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on April 19, 1995, was recorded on 2 permanent seismographs, 7 and 26 km away. The more distant seismograph recorded 2 low-frequency wave trains separated by about 10 s. Militia groups speculated that the 2 wave trains were caused by separate explosions and hinted at a government cover up. Preliminary statements by the scientific community also contributed to the uncertainty. A public science organization issued a press release that stated "the location and source of the second surface wave-recording is unknown. Detailed investigations at the building site may offer an explanation as to the cause and origin of the second event." A prominent professional newsletter reported that the "first event was caused by energy from the explosion and the second from the fall of the building." To understand the seismic phases in the April 19 seismograms, the USGS monitored the demolition of the damaged building on May 23, 1995, with a portable seismic array. The array recorded the same 2 wave trains during the demolition and indicated the wave trains were a propagation effect and not the result of multiple sources. Modeling of the waveforms indicated that the 2 wave trains probably resulted from propagation of seismic energy in a near-surface zone with a strong velocity gradient. The first phase appeared to be a packet of scattered body waves and the second was the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave. Timely resolution of the ambiguity of the seismogram and publication of results in a refereed publication, EOS, discouraged a conspiracy defense by the terrorists.

  8. Hydrogeology of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Murray County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Ronald L.; Cates, Steven W.

    1994-01-01

    The Travertine District (Park) of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, operated and maintained by the National Park Service, is near the City of Sulphur in south-central Oklahoma. The Park was established in 1902 because of its unique hydrologic setting, which includes Rock Creek, Travertine Creek, numerous mineralized and freshwater springs, and a dense cover of riparian vegetation. Since the turn of the century several flowing artesian wells have been drilled within and adjacent to the Park. Discharge from many of these springs and the numbers of flowing wells have declined substantially during the past 86 years. To determine the cause of these declines, a better understanding of the hydrologic system must be obtained. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, has appraised hydrologic information obtained for the Park from several studies conducted during 1902-87. The principal geologic units referred to in this report are the Arbuckle Group and the overlying Simpson Group. These rocks are of Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age and are composed of dolomitic limestone, with some sandstones and shales in the Simpson Group. Surface geologic maps give a general understanding of the regional subsurface geology, but information about the subsurface geology within the Park is poor. The Simpson and Arbuckle aquifers are the principal aquifers in the study area. The two aquifers are not differentiated readily in some parts of the study area because of the similarity of the Simpson and Arbuckle rocks; thus, both water-bearing units are referred to frequently as the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The aquifers are confined under the Park, but are unconfined east and south of the Park. Precipitation on the outcrop area of the Arbuckle aquifer northeast and east of the Park recharges the freshwater springs (Antelope and Buffalo Springs) near the east boundary of the Park. The source of water from mineralized springs located in the central

  9. Annotated bibliography of the Anardarko basin area; Kansas - Oklahoma - Texas

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography contains 2888 records related to the geology of the Anadarko basin area of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: coal, petroleum, and natural gas deposits; mineralogy; lithology; paleontology; petrology; stratigraphy; tectonics; geologic correlations; drilling; exploration; fossils; geochemistry; geophysics; seismic surveys; geologic structures; uranium deposits; and water resources. The subject index provides listings of records related to each county and the geologic ages covered by this area. Some of the items (19) are themselves bibliographies.

  10. Variability of wind power near Oklahoma City and implications for siting of wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, E.; Eyster, R.

    1987-09-01

    Data from five sites near Oklahoma City were examined to assess wind power availability. Wind turbines of identical manufacture were operated at three of the sites, one of which was also equipped with anemometers on a 100-ft tower. Comprehensive anemometric data were available from the other two sites. The study indicates that the average wind speed varies substantially over Oklahoma's rolling plains, which have often been nominally regarded as flat for purposes of wind power generation. Average wind differences may be as much as 5 mph at 20 ft above ground level, and 7 mph at 100 ft above ground level for elevation differences of about 200 ft above mean sea level, even in the absence of substantial features of local terrain. Local altitude above mean sea level seems to be as influential as the shape of local terrain in determining the average wind speed. The wind turbine used at a meteorologically instrumented site in the study produced the power expected from it for the wind regime in which it was situated. The observed variations of local wind imply variations in annual kWh of as much as a factor of four between identical turbines located at similar heights above ground level in shallow valleys and on hilltops or elevated extended flat areas. 17 refs., 39 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Elk City Aquifer in western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma. The aquifer covers an area of approximately 193,000 acres and supplies ground water for irrigation, domestic, and industrial purposes in Beckham, Custer, Roger Mills, and Washita Counties along the divide between the Washita and Red River basins. The Elk City aquifer consists of the Elk City Sandstone and overlying terrace deposits, made up of clay, silt, sand and gravel, and dune sands in the eastern part and sand and gravel of the Ogallala Formation (or High Plains aquifer) in the western part of the aquifer. The Elk City aquifer is unconfined and composed of very friable sandstone, lightly cemented with clay, calcite, gypsum, or iron oxide. Most of the grains are fine-sized quartz but the grain size ranges from clay to cobble in the aquifer. The Doxey Shale underlies the Elk City aquifer and acts as a confining unit, restricting the downward movement of ground water. All of the data sets were digitized and created from information and maps in a ground-water modeling thesis and report of the Elk City aquifer. The maps digitized were published at a scale of 1:63,360. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  12. Oklahoma City FILM Even Start Family Literacy Program Evaluation, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Donna Castle; Shove, Joanie; Brickman, Sharon; Terrell, Sherry; Shields, Jane

    This report presents findings from the evaluation of the Oklahoma City Public Schools Even Start Program, also called the Family Intergenerational Literacy Model (FILM), now in its twelfth full year of operation. The evaluation focuses on the total population of adult students, preschoolers, adult graduates, and preschool graduates. The…

  13. Literacy Patterns of Production Workers in Small Manufacturing Companies in the Oklahoma City Metroplex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary; Sloan, Bobby R.

    1994-01-01

    The Screening Battery of the Adult Basic Learning Examination and a demographic questionnaire were completed by 65 employees in small manufacturing firms in Oklahoma City. Despite overall educational attainment of 11.5 years, grade equivalents of scores were 7.6 for reading comprehension, 8.9 for problem solving; 21.5% were classified as…

  14. Geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits of the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake, central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to describe the geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River between Lake Overholser and Eufaula Lake, an area of about 1,835 square miles, and to determine the maximum annual yield of ground water. A 1982 water-level map of the alluvial and terrace aquifer was prepared using field data and published records. Data from test holes and other data from the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board were used to establish the approximate thickness of the alluvial and terrace deposits. The North Canadian River from Lake Overholser, near Oklahoma City, to Eufaula Lake is paralleled by a 2- to 3-mile wide band of alluvium. Scattered terrace deposits on either side of the alluvium reach an extreme width of 8 miles. Rocks of Permian age bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from the west to the midpoint of the study area; Pennsylvanian rocks bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from that point eastward. Three major aquifers are present in the study area: the alluvial and terrace aquifer, consisting of alluvium and terrace deposits of Quaternary age in a narrow band on either side of the North Canadian River; the Garber-Wellington aquifer of Permian age, consisting of an upper unconfined zone and a lower confined zone separated by relatively impermeable shales; and the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer of Pennsylvanian age. At locations were the alluvial and terrace aquifer overlies either of the other aquifers, there is hydraulic continuity between the alluvial and terrace aquifer and the other aquifers, and water levels are the same. Most large-scale municipal and industrial pumping from the Garber-Wellington aquifer is from the lower zone and has little discernible effect upon the alluvial and terrace aquifer. The total estimated base flow of the North Canadian River for the studied reach is 264 cubic feet per second. Evapotranspiration from the basin in August is about 60 cubic

  15. Promoting Student Engagement and Creativity by Infusing Art across the Curriculum: The Arts Integration Initiative at Oklahoma City University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Christopher E.

    2013-01-01

    Christopher E. Garrett describes a faculty learning community program at Oklahoma City University that focused on improving teaching and learning through integrating the arts in a variety of disciplines, some of which may surprise you. (Contains 9 notes.)

  16. Uncertainty Quantification of RANS dispersion modeling in Oklahoma City during the Joint Urban 2003 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Clara; Gorle, Catherine; van Beeck, Jeroen; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2014-11-01

    The high expansion rate of urban areas makes realistic predictions of dispersion within cities an important research topic. The transport of pollutants is influenced by wind flows that are affected by the large scale variability of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In order to improve the predictive capabilities of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations (CFD) of the ABL, this atmospheric variability should be included. This work focuses on representing this variability in the inflow boundary conditions using an uncertainty quantification framework for the Joint Urban 2003 experiment. The simulations focus on the Intensive Observation Period number 9, where a continuous release of SF6 took place in downtown Oklahoma. The RANS simulations with the k-epsilon turbulence model were performed with the code OpenFOAM, and an equation for passive scalar transport is solved, using a standard gradient diffusion model for the turbulent dispersion, to obtain the SF6 concentration. To define the inflow boundary conditions three uncertain parameters are used: wind speed, wind direction, and ABL roughness height. To propagate these uncertainties a tensor grid Clenshaw-Curtis Stochastic Collocation approach was used, and a polynomial chaos representation of the velocity and concentration at different field measurement locations was constructed to extract the mean and standard deviations.

  17. Groundwater quality and water-well characteristics in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 1948--2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, compiled historical groundwater-quality data collected from 1948 to 2011 and water-well completion information in parts of Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties in central Oklahoma to support the development of a comprehensive water-management plan for the Tribe’s jurisdictional area. In this study, water-quality data from 155 water wells, collected from 1948 to 2011, were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database; these data include measurements of pH, specific conductance, and hardness and concentrations of the major ions, trace elements, and radionuclides that have Maximum Contaminant Levels or Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels in public drinking-water supplies. Information about well characteristics includes ranges of well yield and well depth of private water wells in the study area and was compiled from the Oklahoma Water Resources Board Multi-Purpose Well Completion Report database. This report also shows depth to water from land surface by using shaded 30-foot contours that were created by using a geographic information system and spatial layers of a 2009 potentiometric surface (groundwater elevation) and land-surface elevation. Wells in the study area produce water from the North Canadian River alluvial and terrace aquifers, the underlying Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation that compose the Garber–Wellington aquifer, and the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups. Water quality varies substantially between the alluvial and terrace aquifers and bedrock aquifers in the study area. Water from the alluvial aquifer has relatively high concentrations of dissolved solids and generally is used for livestock only, whereas water from the terrace aquifer has low concentrations of dissolved solids and is used extensively by households in the study area. Water from the bedrock aquifer also is used extensively by

  18. View of northeast Oklahoma and metropolitan Tulsa area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of northeast Oklahoma and the metropolitan Tulsa area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Arkansas River meanders across the southern (lower portion) of the photograph passing through Tulsa as it flows southeastward. Oologah Reservoir, the long body of water, is located northeast of Tulsa. Lake Hudson is the body of water in the right corner of the picture. Keystone Reservoir is to the west and upstream from Tulsa. Westward from Tulsa U.S. 64 makes a 45 degree bend as it turns northwest to cross the Keystone Reservoir. The thin white line over the Oologah Reservoir is a highway bridge. Bartlesville is on U.S. 75 near the north (top) corner of the picture. The Tulsa International Airport is immediately northeast of downtown Tulsa. Several smaller airfields are visible in the surrounding area. Toll roads and other major highways are clearly v

  19. THE OKLAHOMA MESONET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Oklahoma Mesonet, operated and maintained by the Oklahoma Climatological Survey, is Oklahoma's premier climatological data collection system. For the area covered, which includes the entire state, no other system within the United States or internationally has the degree of ...

  20. Installation Restoration Program. Preliminary Assessment: 137th Tactical Airlift Wing, Oklahoma Air National Guard, Will Rogers World Airport, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    INSTALLATION RESTORATION PROGRAM 00 PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENTcc U 137th Tactical Airlift Wing Oklahoma Aih National Guard I’~~C Will Rogers World...TRUST PROPERTY LINE 3 :40w OKLAHOV A ANG I,LL R G[R ORLD AIRPORT -1 I LU Copies of the final report may be purchased from: National Technical Information...Preliminary Assessment 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Preliminary Assessment S. FUNDING NUMBERS 137th Tactical Airlift Wing Oklahoma Air National Guard Will Rogers

  1. Libraries in Oklahoma: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1308 Norman, OK 73070 405-307-1426 Oklahoma City INTEGRIS BAPTIST MEDICAL CENTER OF OKLAHOMA WANN LANGSTON ... NORTHWEST EXPRESSWAY Bldg D, Suite C-80 OKLAHOMA CITY, OK 73112 405-949-3766 http://integrisok.com ...

  2. Baseline ambient gaseous ammonia concentrations in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma, USA.

    PubMed

    Sather, Mark E; Mathew, Johnson; Nguyen, Nghia; Lay, John; Golod, George; Vet, Robert; Cotie, Joseph; Hertel, Terry; Aaboe, Erik; Callison, Ryan; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Freise, Jeremy; Hathcoat, April; Sakizzie, Brenda; King, Michael; Lee, Chris; Oliva, Sylvia; San Miguel, George; Crow, Leon; Geasland, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Ambient ammonia monitoring using Ogawa passive samplers was conducted in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma, USA during 2007. The resulting data will be useful in the multipollutant management of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and visibility (atmospheric regional haze) in the Four Corners area, an area with growing oil/gas production and increasing coal-based power plant construction. The passive monitoring data also add new ambient ammonia concentration information for the U.S. and will be useful to scientists involved in present and future visibility modeling exercises. Three week integrated passive ammonia samples were taken at five sites in the Four Corners area and two sites in eastern Oklahoma from December, 2006 through December, 2007 (January, 2008 for two sites). Results show significantly higher regional background ammonia concentrations in eastern Oklahoma (1.8 parts per billion (ppb) arithmetic mean) compared to the Four Corners area (0.2 ppb arithmetic mean). Annual mean ammonia concentrations for all Four Corners area sites for the 2007 study ranged from 0.2 ppb to 1.5 ppb. Peak ambient ammonia concentrations occurred in the spring and summer in both areas. The passive samplers deployed at the Stilwell, Oklahoma site compared favorably with other passive samplers and a continuous ammonia monitoring instrument.

  3. DOT/FAA Human Factors Workshop on Aviation (5th). Transcript Held at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma on 7-8 July 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    1111" 1.0-2 Au11 I 12.0 NATIONAL BUREAU Of STANDARDS-1963-A -, b. e" • -O’-.."..’,o"- *-.. -,b -. ! . . ... .. ... °... tq . .,M ,..-o...TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION-’ Accession For NTTS GRA& I . . DTIC TAB Dv il~ ’ t .inn .. yCodes . and/or Dist !Special-’ Presented at the Mike...Fifth City, Oklahoma, on July 7-9, 1981. The Sixth Human Factors Workshop was held at the same facility on July 7 and 8, 1981./ I TABLE OF CONTENTS

  4. Evaluation and trends of land cover, streamflow, and water quality in the North Canadian River Basin near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1968–2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Andrews, William J.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Oklahoma City, collected water-quality samples from the North Canadian River at the streamflow-gaging station near Harrah, Oklahoma (Harrah station), since 1968, and at an upstream streamflow-gaging station at Britton Road at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (Britton Road station), since 1988. Statistical summaries and frequencies of detection of water-quality constituent data from water samples, and summaries of water-quality constituent data from continuous water-quality monitors are described from the start of monitoring at those stations through 2009. Differences in concentrations between stations and time trends for selected constituents were evaluated to determine the effects of: (1) wastewater effluent discharges, (2) changes in land-cover, (3) changes in streamflow, (4) increases in urban development, and (5) other anthropogenic sources of contamination on water quality in the North Canadian River downstream from Oklahoma City. Land-cover changes between 1992 and 2001 in the basin between the Harrah station and Lake Overholser upstream included an increase in developed/barren land-cover and a decrease in pasture/hay land cover. There were no significant trends in median and greater streamflows at either streamflow-gaging station, but there were significant downward trends in lesser streamflows, especially after 1999, which may have been associated with decreases in precipitation between 1999 and 2009 or construction of low-water dams on the river upstream from Oklahoma City in 1999. Concentrations of dissolved chloride, lead, cadmium, and chlordane most frequently exceeded the Criterion Continuous Concentration (a water-quality standard for protection of aquatic life) in water-quality samples collected at both streamflow-gaging stations. Visual trends in annual frequencies of detection were investigated for selected pesticides with frequencies of detection greater than 10 percent in all water samples

  5. Gravity investigations of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheirer, Daniel S.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford

    2006-01-01

    The geological configuration of the Arbuckle Uplift in the vicinity of Chickasaw National Recreation Area in south-central Oklahoma plays a governing role in the distribution of fresh and mineral springs within the park and in the existence of artesian wells in and around the park. A confining layer of well-cemented conglomerate lies immediately below the surface of the recreation area, and groundwater migrates from an area of meteoric recharge where rocks of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer crop out as close as two kilometers to the east of the park. Prominent, Pennsylvanian-aged faults are exposed in the aquifer outcrop, and two of the fault traces project beneath the conglomerate cover toward two groups of springs within the northern section of the park. We conducted gravity fieldwork and analysis to investigate the subsurface extensions of these major faults beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area. By defining gravity signatures of the faults where they are exposed, we infer that the Sulphur and Mill Creek Faults bend to the south-west where they are buried. The South Sulphur Fault may project westward linearly if it juxtaposes rocks that have a density contrast opposite that of that fault's density configuration in the Sulphur Syncline area. The Sulphur Syncline, whose eastern extent is exposed in the outcrop area of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, does not appear to extend beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area nor the adjacent City of Sulphur. The South Sulphur Fault dips steeply northward, and its normal sense of offset suggests that the Sulphur Syncline is part of a graben. The Mill Creek Fault dips vertically, and the Reagan Fault dips southward, consistent with its being mapped as a thrust fault. The Sulphur and Mill Creek Synclines may have formed as pull-apart basins in a left-lateral, left-stepping strike-slip environment. The character of the gravity field of Chickasaw National Recreation Area is different from the lineated gravity field in the area

  6. Final Report for the Joint Urban 2003 Atmospheric Dispersion Study in Oklahoma City: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory participation

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, M J

    2005-10-12

    The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was designed to collect meteorological and tracer data resolving atmospheric dispersion at scales-of-motion ranging from flows in and around a single city block, in and around several blocks in the downtown Central Business District (CBD), and into the suburban Oklahoma City area a few km from the CBD. Indoor tracer and flow measurements within four downtown study buildings were also made in conjunction with detailed outdoor measurements investigating the outdoor-indoor exchange rates and mechanisms. The movement of tracer within the study buildings was also studied. The data from the field experiment is being used to evaluate models that are being developed for predicting dispersion of contaminants in urban areas. These models may be fast-response models based on semi-empirical algorithms that are used in real-time emergencies, or highly sophisticated computational fluid dynamics models that resolve individual building faces and crevices. The data from the field experiment, together with the models, can then be used to develop other advanced tools that are especially valuable in the efforts to thwart terrorists. These include tools for finding location and characteristics of a contaminant source; tools that can be used for real-time response or for forensic investigation. The tools will make use of monitoring networks for biological agents that are being established in several sensitive cities throughout the nation. This major urban study was conducted beginning June 28 and ending July 31, 2003. It included several integrated scientific components necessary to describe and understand the physical processes governing dispersion within and surrounding an urban area and into and within building environments. The components included characterizing: (1) the urban boundary layer and the development of the urban boundary layer within the atmospheric boundary layer, (2) the flows within and downwind of the tall-building core, (3

  7. Mineral resources of the Trinity River tributary area in Texas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weissenborn, A. E.

    1946-01-01

    In March 1945 Colonel George R. Goethels, Chief of the Civil Works Division of the Corps of Engineers, requested the Director of the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, to prepare a report on the mineral resource of the area that, according to economic studies made by the Corps of Engineers, would be affected by the canalization of the Trinity River to Fort Worth. As a consequence, the staff of the Geological Survey's Regional Office in Rolla, Mo., was assigned the task of preparing the desired information. A. E. Weissenborn, acting Regional Geologist, called on Major H. R. Norman, Division Engineer of the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, and discussed with him the purpose, scope, and form of the proposed report. Following this discussion, Dr. John T. Lonsdale, Director of the Bureau of Economic Geology of the University of Texas, at Mr. Weissenborn's request, agreed that the Bureau of Economic Geology should participate in the preparation of the report. My. Weissenborn also called on Robert H. Dott, Director of the Oklahoma State Geological Survey at Norman, Oklahoma. The Oklahoma Geological Survey was unable to participate in writing the report, but was very helpful in supplying published and unpublished or out-of-print information on the mineral resources of Oklahoma.

  8. Autonomic reactivity and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis dysregulation in spouses of Oklahoma City bombing survivors 7 years after the attack

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Tucker, Phebe; North, Carol S.; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objective of this exploratory pilot study was to examine autonomic reactivity and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis dysregulation in spouses of highly exposed survivors of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. Methods This study compared psychiatric diagnoses and biological stress markers (physiological reactivity and cortisol measures) in spouses of bombing survivors and matched community participants. Spouses were recruited through bombing survivors who participated in prior studies. Individuals with medical illnesses and those taking psychotropic medications that would confound biological stress measures were excluded. The final sample included 15 spouses and 15 community participants. The primary outcome measures were psychiatric diagnoses assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV (DIS-IV). Biological stress markers were physiological reactivity and recovery in heart rate and blood pressure responses to a trauma interview and cortisol (morning, afternoon, and diurnal variation). Results Compared to the community participants, spouses evidenced greater reactivity in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure; delayed recovery in systolic blood pressure; and higher afternoon salivary cortisol. Conclusions The results support the need for further research in this area to clarify post-disaster effects on biological stress measures in the spouses of survivors and the potential significance of these effects and to address the needs of this important population which may be overlooked in recovery efforts. PMID:22520087

  9. Ground water investigations in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Leon V.

    1955-01-01

    Prior to 1937, ground-water work in Oklahoma consisted of broad scale early-day reconnaissance and a few brief investigations of local areas. The reconnaissance is distinguished by C. N. Gould's "Geology and Water Resources of Oklahoma" (Water-Supply Paper 148, 1905), which covers about half of the present State of Oklahoma. Among the shorter reports are two by Schwennesen for areas near Enid and Oklahoma City, one by Renick for Enid, and one by Thompson on irrigation possibilities near Gage. These reports are now inadequate by modern standards. Cooperative ground-water work in Oklahoma by the United States Geological Survey began in 1937, with the Oklahoma Geological Survey as cooperating agency. With the passage of the new ground-water law by the State Legislature in 1949, the need for more information on available ground waters and the safe yield of the various aquifers became very pressing. Accordingly, the Division of Water Resources of the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board, to which was delegated the responsibility of administering the Ground-Water Law, entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey, providing for an expansion of ground-water investigations. Both cooperators have consistently given full and enthusiastic cooperation, often beyond the requirements of the cooperative program. The first cooperative investigation was an evaluation of ground-water supplies available for irrigation in the Panhandle. In 1937 the Panhandle was still very much in the dust bowl, and it was hoped that irrigation would alleviate the drought. A bulletin on Texas County was published in 1939, and one on Cimarron County in 1943. Ground-water investigations during the World War II were restricted to the demands of Army and Navy installations, and to defense industries. Ground-water investigations since 1945 have included both country-wide and aquifer-type investigations. In Oklahoma it has been the policy for the State cooperator to publish the

  10. Incident-related television viewing and psychiatric disorders in Oklahoma City bombing survivors.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Houston, J Brian; Regens, James L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine terrorism media coverage and psychiatric outcomes in directly-exposed terrorism survivors. The study used (1) self-report questionnaires to retrospectively assess event-related media behaviors and reactions in a cross sectional design and (2) longitudinal structured diagnostic interviews to assess psychopathologic outcomes. The participants were 99 directly-exposed Oklahoma City bombing survivors who were initially studied six months after the 1995 incident. Though a fear reaction to bombing-related television coverage and fear-driven discontinuation of bombing-related media contact were associated with diagnostic outcomes, the number of hours viewing bombing-related television coverage in the first week after the event was not associated with the prevalence of bombing-related posttraumatic stress disorder or post-bombing major depressive disorder during the seven years post event. The results raise doubt about the effects of quantified incident-related television viewing on clinically-significant emotional outcomes in directly-exposed terrorism survivors.

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulations of Plume Dispersion in Urban Oklahoma City

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, Julia E.; Stock, David E.; Lamb, Brian K.

    2007-12-01

    A 3D computational fluid dynamics study using Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes modeling was conducted and validated with field data from the Joint Urban 2003 dispersion study in Oklahoma City. The modeled flow field indicated that the many short buildings in this domain had a relatively small effect on the flow field, while the few tall buildings drove the transport and dispersion of tracer gas through the domain. Modeled concentrations and wind speeds were compared to observations along a vertical profile located about 500 meters downwind of the source. The isothermal base case using the k-epsilon closure model was within 50% of the field measurements, while a convective case with ground and building surfaces 10 degrees C hotter than ambient temperatures improved the modeled profile to within 30% of observations. Varying wind direction and source location had a significant effect on the plume dispersion due to the irregularity of the urban landscape. The location of the tallest obstacle in this domain with respect to the source position defined the size and shape of tracer plumes in this study. Model results based upon a Reynolds stress closure scheme were also compared to the vertical concentration profiles. For this location, the isothermal case underestimated concentrations; however, the case with thermal buoyancy resulted in concentrations within 25% of the observations.

  12. Geologic map of Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Murray County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, Charles D.; Lidke, David J.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Golab, James A.

    2013-01-01

    This 1:24,000-scale geologic map is a compilation of previous geologic maps and new geologic mapping of areas in and around Chickasaw National Recreation Area. The geologic map includes revisions of numerous unit contacts and faults and a number of previously “undifferentiated” rock units were subdivided in some areas. Numerous circular-shaped hills in and around Chickasaw National Recreation Area are probably the result of karst-related collapse and may represent the erosional remnants of large, exhumed sinkholes. Geospatial registration of existing, smaller scale (1:72,000- and 1:100,000-scale) geologic maps of the area and construction of an accurate Geographic Information System (GIS) database preceded 2 years of fieldwork wherein previously mapped geology (unit contacts and faults) was verified and new geologic mapping was carried out. The geologic map of Chickasaw National Recreation Area and this pamphlet include information pertaining to how the geologic units and structural features in the map area relate to the formation of the northern Arbuckle Mountains and its Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The development of an accurate geospatial GIS database and the use of a handheld computer in the field greatly increased both the accuracy and efficiency in producing the 1:24,000-scale geologic map.

  13. Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountain area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, R.W.; Hanson, R.L.; Davis, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Water in the aquifer is confined in some parts of the area, while in other parts it is unconfined. The average saturated thickness of the aquifer is about 3,500 feet in the outcrop area. Water levels measured in wells fluctuated from 8 to 53 feet each year, primarily in response to recharge from rainfall. Recharge to the aquifer is estimated at about 4.7 inches per year. The average storage coefficient of the aquifer is estimated at 0.008, and the average transmissivity is estimated at 15,000 feet squared per day. Based on an average saturated thickness of about 3,500 feet and a storage coefficient of 0.008, the volume of ground water contained in the 500-square-mile outcrop area is about 9 million acre-feet. An undetermined amount of fresh water probably exists in the aquifer around the periphery of the aquifer outcrop. Base flow of streams that drain the aquifer accounts for about 60 percent of the total annual runoff from the outcrop area and is maintained by numerous springs. The close hydraulic connection between streams in the outcrop area and the aquifer is shown by a close correlation between base flow in Blue River and the fluctuation of ground-water levels in five wells in the Blue River basin. This correlation also exists between the discharge by Byrds Mill Spring and the fluctuation in water level in a nearby observation well; increase and decrease in spring discharge correspond to rise and fall of the water level in the well. The chemical quality of water from the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer is suitable for most industrial and municipal uses. The water is hard and of the bicarbonate type; the average hardness is about 340 milligrams per liter, and the average dissolved-solids concentration is about 360 milligrams per liter. Because springs issue from the aquifer and discharge to streams in the area, the quality of water from springs and base flow in streams is similar to that of ground water. The average dissolved-solids concentration of stream water is

  14. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) Aquifer, Oklahoma, 1987 to 2009, and simulation of available water in storage, 2010-2059

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Ryter, Derek; Neel, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Magers, Jessica S.

    2014-01-01

    The Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma. The study area for this investigation was the extent of the Central Oklahoma aquifer. Water from the Central Oklahoma aquifer is used for public, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supply. With the exception of Oklahoma City, all of the major communities in central Oklahoma rely either solely or partly on groundwater from this aquifer. The Oklahoma City metropolitan area, incorporating parts of Canadian, Cleveland, Grady, Lincoln, Logan, McClain, and Oklahoma Counties, has a population of approximately 1.2 million people. As areas are developed for groundwater supply, increased groundwater withdrawals may result in decreases in long-term aquifer storage. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, investigated the hydrogeology and simulated groundwater flow in the aquifer using a numerical groundwater-flow model. The purpose of this report is to describe an investigation of the Central Oklahoma aquifer that included analyses of the hydrogeology, hydrogeologic framework of the aquifer, and construction of a numerical groundwater-flow model. The groundwater-flow model was used to simulate groundwater levels and for water-budget analysis. A calibrated transient model was used to evaluate changes in groundwater storage associated with increased future water demands.

  15. Growth of Cities and Loss of Streams: Land Cover Change Impacts on Stream Channel Loss in Central Oklahoma from 1874 to 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Central Oklahoma has undergone substantial land cover changes since the 1800’s. Accordingly, regional watersheds have been covered by impervious surfaces, peripheral agricultural areas have been subdivided or intensified, and large reservoirs have been constructed. Here, we...

  16. Statistical analysis of stream water-quality data and sampling network design near Oklahoma City, central Oklahoma, 1977-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brigham, Mark E.; Payne, Gregory A.; Andrews, William J.; Abbott, Marvin M.

    2002-01-01

    The sampling network was evaluated with respect to areal coverage, sampling frequency, and analytical schedules. Areal coverage could be expanded to include one additional watershed that is not part of the current network. A new sampling site on the North Canadian River might be useful because of expanding urbanization west of the city, but sampling at some other sites could be discontinued or reduced based on comparisons of data between the sites. Additional real-time or periodic monitoring for dissolved oxygen may be useful to prevent anoxic conditions in pools behind new low-water dams. The sampling schedules, both monthly and quarterly, are adequate to evaluate trends, but additional sampling during flow extremes may be needed to quantify loads and evaluate water-quality during flow extremes. Emerging water-quality issues may require sampling for volatile organic compounds, sulfide, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, Esherichia coli, and enterococci, as well as use of more sensitive laboratory analytical methods for determination of cadmium, mercury, lead, and silver.

  17. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the FourCorners Area and Eastern Oklahoma, U.S.A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma from August, 2009–August, 2011. Using data from a six site area network, a characterization of the magnitude and spatia...

  18. Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes under oxidation-reduction conditions and potentiometric surfaces in two trichloroethene-contaminated zones at the Double Eagle and Fourth Street Superfund sites in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.

    2004-01-01

    The Double Eagle Refining Superfund site and the Fourth Street Abandoned Refinery Superfund site are in northeast Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, adjacent to one another. The Double Eagle facility became a Superfund site on the basis of contamination from lead and volatile organic compounds; the Fourth Street facility on the basis of volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and acid-base neutral compounds. The study documented in this report was done to investigate whether reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes under oxidation-reduction conditions is occurring in two zones of the Garber-Wellington aquifer (shallow zone 30–60 to 75 feet below land surface, deep zone 75 to 160 feet below land surface) at the sites; and to construct potentiometric surfaces of the two water-yielding zones to determine the directions of groundwater flow at the sites. The presence in some wells of intermediate products of reductive dechlorination, dichloroethene and vinyl chloride, is an indication that reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene is occurring. Dissolved oxygen concentrations (less than 0.5 milligram per liter) indicate that consumption of dissolved oxygen likely had occurred in the oxygen-reducing microbial process associated with reductive dechlorination. Concentrations of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen (generally less than 2.0 and 0.06 milligrams per liter, respectively) indicate that nitrate reduction probably is not a key process in either aquifer zone. Concentrations of ferrous iron greater than 1.00 milligram per liter in the majority of wells sampled indicate that iron reduction is probable. Concentrations of sulfide less than 0.05 milligram per liter in all wells indicate that sulfate reduction probably is not a key process in either zone. The presence of methane in ground water is an indication of strongly reducing conditions that facilitate reductive dechlorination. Methane was detected in all but one well. In the shallow zone in the eastern part of the study

  19. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cherokee Platform Province area of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake II, Ronald M.; Hatch, Joseph R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Potter, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-09-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 463 million barrels of oil, 11.2 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 35 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Cherokee Platform Province area of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri.

  20. Assessment of Local Recharge Area Characteristics of Four Caves in Northern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2004-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hart, Rheannon M.

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted from 2004 to 2007 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess the characteristics of the local recharge areas of four caves in northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma that provide habitat for a number of unique organisms. Characterization of the local recharge areas are important because the caves occur in a predominately karst system and because land use proximal to the caves, including areas suspected to lie within the local recharge areas, may include activities with potentially deleterious effects to cave water quality. An integrated approach was used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of Civil War Cave, January-Stansbury Cave, Nesbitt Spring Cave, and Wasson's Mud Cave. This approach incorporated methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, and geochemistry. Continuous water-level and water-temperature data were collected at each cave for various periods to determine recharge characteristics. Field investigations were conducted to determine surficial controls affecting the groundwater flow and connections of the groundwater system to land-surface processes in each study area. Qualitative groundwater tracing also was conducted at each cave to help define the local recharge areas. These independent methods of investigation provided multiple lines of evidence for effectively describing the behavior of these complex hydrologic systems. Civil War Cave is located near the city of Bentonville in Benton County, Arkansas, and provides habitat for the Ozark cavefish. Civil War Cave is developed entirely within the epikarst of the upper Boone Formation, and recharge to Civil War Cave occurs from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 0.59 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.19 to 2.8 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Civil War Cave was 14

  1. Incidence of Legionella pneumophila infections among Oklahoma pulmonary disease patients.

    PubMed Central

    Flournoy, D. J.; Guthrie, P. J.; Lawrence, C. H.; Silberg, S. L.; Beaver, S.

    1990-01-01

    Prior studies by the authors suggested high levels of Legionella pneumophila in the recreational and water supply reservoirs in central Oklahoma. This high exposure potential was supported by a relatively high prevalence of seropositive, asymptomatic infections among healthy blood donors in the area. In contrast, the present 9-month laboratory-based study confirmed only one clinical Legionella infection among 117 unidentified pulmonary disease patients admitted to the Oklahoma City Veterans Administration Medical Center. Comparison with the reports of others and with reported legionellosis in Oklahoma indicates that differences in cohort definition and variations in utilization and interpretation of clinical analyses leads to wide variations in the reported incidence of legionellosis. PMID:2304095

  2. New Records of Aedes aegypti In Southern Oklahoma, 2016.

    PubMed

    Bradt, David L; Bradley, Kristy K; Hoback, W Wyatt; Noden, Bruce H

    2017-03-01

    Aedes aegypti is an important subtropical vector species and is predicted to have a limited year-round distribution in the southern United States. Collection of the species has not been officially verified in Oklahoma since 1940. Adult mosquitoes were collected in 42 sites across 7 different cities in Oklahoma using 3 different mosquito traps between May and September 2016. Between July and September 2016, 88 Ae. aegypti adults were collected at 18 different sites in 4 different cities across southern Oklahoma. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention mini light traps baited with CO2 attracted the highest numbers of Ae. aegypti individuals compared to Biogents (BG)-Sentinel(®) traps baited with Biogents (BG)-lure and octenol and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention gravid traps baited with Bermuda grass-infused water. The discovery of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes within urban/exurban areas in Oklahoma is important from an ecological as well as a public health perspective.

  3. Proceedings of Annual Oklahoma Conference on Education, "Public Education: Time to Speak Up!" (3rd, Oklahoma City, OK, September 8-9, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Diane, Ed.; And Others

    Speeches, panel discussions, and a debate from the 1981 Oklahoma Conference on Education are presented. The topics of the speeches are: (1) administrative decision making in institutions of higher education and the effects of state legislation (Barbara Uehling); (2) experiences of an American hostage in Iran and subsequent feelings about the…

  4. Earthquake history of Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The strongest and most widely felt earthquake in Oklahoma occured on April 9, 1952. The intensity VII (Modified Mercalli Scale) tremor was felt over 362,000 sqaure kilometres. A second intensity VII earthquake, felt over a very small area, occurred in October 1956. In addition, 15 other shocks, intensity V or VI, have originated within Oklahoma

  5. Continued decrease of open surface water body area in Oklahoma during 1984-2015.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhenhua; Dong, Jinwei; Menarguez, Michael A; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Doughty, Russell B; Hooker, Katherine V; David Hambright, K

    2017-04-07

    Oklahoma contains the largest number of manmade lakes and reservoirs in the United States. Despite the importance of these open surface water bodies to public water supply, agriculture, thermoelectric power, tourism and recreation, it is unclear how these water bodies have responded to climate change and anthropogenic water exploitation in past decades. In this study, we used all available Landsat 5 and 7 images (16,000 scenes) from 1984 through 2015 and a water index- and pixel-based approach to analyze the spatial-temporal variability of open surface water bodies and its relationship with climate and water exploitation. Specifically, the areas and numbers of four water body extents (the maximum, year-long, seasonal, and average extents) were analyzed to capture variations in water body area and number. Statistically significant downward trends were found in the maximum, year-long, and annual average water body areas from 1984 through 2015. Furthermore, these decreases were mainly attributed to the continued shrinking of large water bodies (>1km(2)). There were also significant decreases in maximum and year-long water body numbers, which suggested that some of the water bodies were vanishing year by year. However, remarkable inter-annual variations of water body area and number were also found. Both water body area and number were positively related to precipitation, and negatively related to temperature. Surface water withdrawals mainly influenced the year-long water bodies. The smaller water bodies have a higher risk of drying under a drier climate, which suggests that small water bodies are more vulnerable under climate-warming senarios.

  6. Hydrologic and climatologic data for the Lehigh area, southeastern Oklahoma, May 1977 and January 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blumer, S.P.; Scott, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrologic and climatologic data were collected in the Lehigh area in southeastern Oklahoma during an investigation of the hydrologic effects of coal strip-mining. The purpose of the study was to assess the probable effects of surface mining for coal and subsequent reclamation on the hydrologic characteristics of the basin. This report presents all the data collected between 1977 and 1982. The data include: (1) greater than four years of daily and selected unit streamflow, daily suspended-sediment discharge, analyses of periodic samples for chemical quality, and daily temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen at the Coal Creek near Lehigh gaging stations; (2) partial record discharge data and analyses of periodic samples for chemical quality and sediment for two tributaries of Coal Creek; (3) climatologic data for four sites; (4) soil moisture at 13 measurements sites; (5) continuous record of the water level in one well; (6) periodic record of water level in a second well; (7) water-level records for 43 wells and springs including on-site measurement of physical parameters; and (8) complete chemical analyses of water samples from eleven wells and one spring.

  7. Preliminary appraisal of the hydrology of the Stigler area, Haskell County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcher, M.V.; Huntzinger, T.L.; Stoner, J.D.; Blumer, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Bed rock in the Stigler area of southeastern Oklahoma consists principally of shale, siltstone, and sandstone of the McAlester, Savanna, and Boggy Formations of Pennsylvanian age. These rocks have been folded to form the Stigler syncline on the north and the Antioch anticline on the south. An area of several square miles is underlain by terrace deposits, mostly sandy silt, as much as 25 feet thick. Alluvium along the streams is 5 to 10 feet thick and consists mainly of sandy silt. Neither the terrace deposits nor the alluvium are hydrologically significant. Water in the bedrock is under artesian conditions. Well depths range from 34 to 235 feet and average 95 feet. The water level in most wells is less than 30 feet below the land surface. Because the rocks have minimal permeability, well yields probably are less than 5 gallons per minute. Much of the area is provided with water by a rural water district. Based on specific-conductance measurements, dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water are estimated to range from 200 to 2,500 milligrams per liter. Nor relationship between variations in specific conductance and well depth, geographic distribution, or geologic formation is apparent. Streams in the area are ephemeral and extended periods of no flow can be expected. During much of the period of record, streamflow in Taloka Creek was maintained by water pumped from an active coal mine. Water upstream from the mine area had a mean dissolved-solids concentration of 72 milligrams per liter whereas water downstream from the mine area had a mean concentration of 1,323 milligrams per liter. At times, downstream concentrations of some toxic metals exceeded the standards for drinking water set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Samples of water collected from Taloka Creek since mining ceased did not have excessive concentrations of toxic metals. Maximum suspended-sediment discharge of Taloka Creek was about 1,660 tons per day. Silt-clay particles (diameters

  8. Devitrification of the Carlton Rhyolite in the Blue Creek Canyon area, Wichita Mountains, southwestern Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bigger, S.E. . Dept. of Geology); Hanson, R.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    The Cambrian Carlton Rhyolite is a sequence of lava flows and ignimbrites extruded in association with rifting in the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. Rhyolite exposed in the Blue Creek Canyon area consists of a single, originally glassy, porphyritic lava flow > 300 m thick. Abundant flow banding is deformed by variably oriented flow folds present on both outcrop and thin-section scales. A variety of complex texture record the cooling, degassing, and devitrification history of the flow. Acicular Fe, Ti-oxide crystallites aligned in the flow banding document nucleation and limited crystal growth during flow. Spherical microvesicles and larger lithophysal cavities up to 10 cm long crosscut flow banding, showing that degassing continued after flow had ceased. Pseudomorphs of quartz after cristobalite and tridymite are present on cavity walls and are products of high-T vapor-phase crystallization. Devitrification textures overprint the flow banding and developed in two stages. Primary devitrification occurred during initial cooling and formed spherulitic intergrowths in distinct areas bound by sharp devitrification fronts. Spherulites nucleated on phenocrysts, vesicles, and flow bands and show evidence of multiple episodes of growth. Rhyolite outside of the devitrification fronts initially remained glassy but underwent later, low-T hydration to form perlitic texture, which was followed by prolonged secondary devitrification to form extremely fine-grained, equigranular quartzofeldspathic mosaics. Snowflake texture (micropoikilitic quartz surrounding randomly oriented alkali feldspar) developed during both primary and secondary devitrification. Spherical bodies up to 30 cm across are present in discrete horizons within the flow and weather out preferentially from the host rhyolite.

  9. Preliminary appraisal of the hydrology of the Blocker area, Pittsburg County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcher, Melvin V.; Bergman, D.L.; Stoner, J.D.; Blumer, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Bedrock in the Blocker area of southeastern Oklahoma consists principally of shale, siltstone, and sandstone of the Boggy and Savanna Formations of Pennsylvanian age. These rocks have been folded to form the Panther Mountain syncline on the south and the Kinta anticline on the north. Alluvium along streams is less than 15 feet thick and consists mainly of sandy silt. Water in bedrock is under artesian conditions. Well depths range from 11 to 213 feet and average 75 feet. In 86% of the wells measured, the water level was less than 30 feet below the land surface. Because the rocks have minimal permeability, well yields probably are less than 5 gallons per minute. Ground water is commonly a mixed cation bicarbonate type with dissolved solids ranging from about 300 to 2,000 milligrams per liter. No relationship between water chemistry and well depth or geographic distribution is apparent. Streams in the area are ephemeral and there are extended periods of no flow. Blue Creek was dry 30% of the time during 1976-80 and had flows of less than 0.1 cubic foot per second for at least 80 consecutive days. Stream water is generally a mixed cation sulfate type. The maximum dissolved-solids concentration determined in stream water was 3670 milligrams per liter. Maximum suspended sediment discharge, in tons per day, was about 235 for Blue Creek, 40 for Blue Creek tributary, and 630 for Mathuldy Creek. Silt-clay particles (diameters less than 0.062 millimeter) are the dominant sediment size. Surface mining for coal undoubtedly will have some effect on the environment. The most likely deleterious effects are increased sediment loads in streams and increased mineralization of stream waters. However, these effects should be of only limited extent and duration if appropriate mining and reclamation practices are followed. (USGS)

  10. Ground water in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    estimated that about one-third of the water used in the State in 1956, or 400,000 acre-feet, came from ground-water sources. In 1957, 71 percent of the irrigation water used in the State came from underground sources, and ground water was used for irrigation in 57 of the State's 77 counties. More than 300 of the towns and cities of the State obtain all their municipal water supplies from ground water. The major ground-water reservoirs, or aquifers, of Oklahoma may be classed in four general groups: (1) semiconsolidated sand and gravel underlying the High Plains, (2) unconsolidated alluvial deposits of sand and gravel along streams and adjacent to valleys, (3) sandstone aquifers, and (4) limestone aquifers, including, for the purpose of this generalized breakdown, dolomite and gypsum. The locations of these major aquifers are shown on figure 1. Areas on that map do not correspond exactly to outcrops, but are the areas where the formations contain significant quantities of potable water. Near their edges rock formations may be cut through by streams or they may be too thin to contain much water. On the other hand, some formations contain fresh ground water for many miles downdip from their outcrop areas, where wells must first penetrate overlying rocks to reach them. (available as photostat copy only)

  11. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, G.P.; Runkle, Donna; Rea, Alan; Becker, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma. Ground water in 710 square miles of Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The aquifer, composed of alluvial and terrace deposits, consists of sand, silt, clay, and gravel. The aquifer is underlain and in hydraulic connection with the upper zone of the Permian-age Garber-Wellington aquifer and the Pennsylvanian-age Ada-Vamoosa aquifer. Most of the lines in the four digital data sets were digitized from a published ground-water modeling report but portions of the aquifer boundary data set was extracted from published digital geologic data sets. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  12. Earthquake activity in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. )

    1989-08-01

    Oklahoma is one of the most seismically active areas in the southern Mid-Continent. From 1897 to 1988, over 700 earthquakes are known to have occurred in Oklahoma. The earliest documented Oklahoma earthquake took place on December 2, 1897, near Jefferson, in Grant County. The largest known Oklahoma earthquake happened near El Reno on April 9, 1952. This magnitude 5.5 (mb) earthquake was felt from Austin, Texas, to Des Moines, Iowa, and covered a felt area of approximately 362,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to 1962, all earthquakes in Oklahoma (59) were either known from historical accounts or from seismograph stations outside the state. Over half of these events were located in Canadian County. In late 1961, the first seismographs were installed in Oklahoma. From 1962 through 1976, 70 additional earthquakes were added to the earthquake database. In 1977, a statewide network of seven semipermanent and three radio-telemetry seismograph stations were installed. The additional stations have improved earthquake detection and location in the state of Oklahoma. From 1977 to 1988, over 570 additional earthquakes were located in Oklahoma, mostly of magnitudes less than 2.5. Most of these events occurred on the eastern margin of the Anadarko basin along a zone 135 km long by 40 km wide that extends from Canadian County to the southern edge of Garvin County. Another general area of earthquake activity lies along and north of the Ouachita Mountains in the Arkoma basin. A few earthquakes have occurred in the shelves that border the Arkoma and Anadarko basins.

  13. Oklahoma NASA EPSCoR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, Victoria Duca

    2002-01-01

    The mission of Oklahoma EPSCoR is to make Oklahoma researchers more successful in competing for research funding. Specific goals, objectives, and strategies were developed for each federal EPSCoR program, based on federal and state needs. A theme of stimulating collaboration among campuses and building on common research strengths is a strong component of the Oklahoma EPSCoR strategic plan. It extends also to our relationships with the federal agencies, and wherever possible, Oklahoma EPSCoR projects are developed collaboratively with federal research laboratories and program offices. Overall, Oklahoma EPSCoR seeks to capitalize on unique research capabilities and opportunities. The NASA EPSCoR Program in Oklahoma was developed through this grant as a joint effort between Oklahoma EPSCoR and the NASA Oklahoma Space Grant Consortium (OSGC). The major goal of the Oklahoma NASA EPSCoR Plan established in 1996 is to develop an academic research enterprise directed towards a long-term, self-sustaining, nationally competitive capability in areas of mutual self-interest to NASA and Oklahoma. Our final technical summary pie chart demonstrates the strong successes we have achieved during this period as a result of the award.

  14. Title IX Self-Study Report of the Oklahoma City Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Jesse B.

    Under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, institutions affected must engage in appraisal and evaluation of current policies, practices, and procedures to determine possible discriminatory effects in five areas--athletics, counseling, curriculum and physical education, employment, and extracurricular activities. This report contains the…

  15. Relation of lower morrow sandstone and porosity trends to chester paleogeomorphology, Persimmon Creek field area, Northwestern Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, R.E.

    1983-11-01

    Thickness and porosity trends of several lower Morrow sandstone units were strongly influenced by the paleogeomorphology of the subjacent Mississippian Chester limestone in a study area near Persimmon Creek field in T20N, R22W, southwestern Woodward County, Oklahoma. PrePennsylvanian streams flowing south-southwest across the Anadarko basin shelf had created a dendritic drainage pattern with paleogradients of about 40 ft/mi(7.5 m/km), and intervening stream divides were 50 to 100 ft (15 to 30 m) above the valley floors. As the sea transgressed the area in the Early Pennsylvanian, cyclic transgressions and regressions led to deposition of four prominent lower Morrow sandstone members separated by shale units which are approximately parallel lithologic time markers.

  16. Chemical analyses of stream sediment in the Tar Creek basin of the Picher mining area, northeast Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, David L.; Doughten, Michael; Hearn,, Paul P.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical analyses are presented for 47 sediment samples from the Tar Creek drainage in the Picher mining area of northeast Oklahoma. The samples were taken in December 1983, June 1984, and June 1985. All of the samples were taken downstream from mine-water discharge points of abandoned lead and zinc mines. The 34 samples taken in December 1983 and June 1984 were analyzed semiquantitatively by emission spectrography for 64 elements and quantitatively for cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, sulfur, zinc, and organic carbon. The 13 samples taken in June 1985 were analyzed quantitatively for aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, lead, sulfur, silicon, titanium, vanadium, zinc, and organic carbon.

  17. Gaseous oxidized mercury dry deposition measurements in the southwestern USA: a comparison between Texas, eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners area.

    PubMed

    Sather, Mark E; Mukerjee, Shaibal; Allen, Kara L; Smith, Luther; Mathew, Johnson; Jackson, Clarence; Callison, Ryan; Scrapper, Larry; Hathcoat, April; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Ketcher, Philip; Brunette, Robert; Karlstrom, Jason; Van der Jagt, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 ng/m(2)h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2 ng/m(2)h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area.

  18. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the Southwestern USA: A Comparison between Texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area

    PubMed Central

    Sather, Mark E.; Allen, Kara L.; Smith, Luther; Mathew, Johnson; Jackson, Clarence; Callison, Ryan; Scrapper, Larry; Hathcoat, April; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Brunette, Robert; Karlstrom, Jason; Van der Jagt, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 ng/m2h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2 ng/m2h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area. PMID:24955412

  19. Environmental Assessment: Building 3001 Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    located in the Oklahoma City region (40 CFR 81.424). TABLE 3 -2 Air Pollutant Emissions by Source Pollutant Mobile Sources ( tpy ) Area Sources...does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE SEP 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3 . DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4...Assessment Contract No.: FA8101-08-D-0002; Delivery Order: 0001 ES- 3 TABLE ES-1 Comparative Impact Summary Resource Area Preferred Alternative

  20. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the...

  1. 75 FR 9895 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Oklahoma

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Environmental Quality, Water Quality Division, 707 N. Robinson, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73101-1677; and the EPA... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Oklahoma AGENCY: United States... the State of Oklahoma is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program adopting...

  2. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in Southwestern USA: Comparison between texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012.The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characteriza...

  3. 12 CFR 1282.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other... HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.13 Central Cities... purchase by each Enterprise of mortgages on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and...

  4. Development of a Data Management System for Assistance in Conducting Area of Reviews (AORS) on Class II Injection Wells in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Battles, Michael S.

    2002-06-17

    The purpose of this project was to provide the resources and capabilities necessary to permit the State of Oklahoma to conduct Area of Review (AOR) variance analysis on a statewide level. The project allows for the analysis and identification of areas which may qualify for AOR variances, the correlation of information from various databases and automated systems to conduct AORs in area which do not qualify for variances, the evaluation of the risk of pollution, during permitting and monitoring, using risk-based data analysis, and the ability to conduct spatial analysis of injection well data in conjunction with other geographically referenced information.

  5. Geothermal resource assessment of Canon City, Colorado Area

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard

    1982-01-01

    In 1979 a program was initiated to fully define the geothermal conditions of an area east of Canon City, bounded by the mountains on the north and west, the Arkansas River on the south and Colorado Highway 115 on the east. Within this area are a number of thermal springs and wells in two distinct groups. The eastern group consists of 5 thermal artesian wells located within one mile of Colorado Highway 115 from Penrose on the north to the Arkansas river on the south. The western group, located in and adjacent to Canon City, consists of one thermal spring on the south bank of the Arkansas River on the west side of Canon City, a thermal well in the northeast corner of Canon City, another well along the banks of Four Mile Creek east of Canon City and a well north of Canon City on Four Mile Creek. All the thermal waters in the Canon City Embayment, of which the study area is part of, are found in the study area. The thermal waters unlike the cold ground waters of the Canon City Embayment, are a calcium-bicarbonate type and range in temperature from 79 F (26 C) to a high of 108 F (42 C). The total combined surface discharge o fall the thermal water in the study area is in excess of 532 acre feet (A.F.) per year.

  6. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, José; Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Ortman, Scott G.; Smith, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step—to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics—has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations), our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured urban spaces. PMID

  7. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    PubMed

    Cesaretti, Rudolf; Lobo, José; Bettencourt, Luís M A; Ortman, Scott G; Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations), our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured urban spaces.

  8. Preliminary appraisal of the hydrology of the Red Oak area, Latimer County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcher, M.V.; Bergman, D.L.; Stoner, J.D.; Blumer, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Bed rock in the Red Oak area consists of shale, siltstone, and sandstone of the McAlester and Savanna Formations of Pennsylvanian age. Water in bedrock occurs in bedding planes, joints, and fractures and is confined. The potentiometric surface generally is less than 20 feet below the land surface. Wells yield enough water for domestic and stock use, but larger amounts of ground water are not available. Ground water commonly is a sodium or mixed cation carbonate/bicarbonate type with dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 321 to 714 milligrams per liter. Although variable in quality, ground water generally is suitable for domestic use. No relationship between water chemistry and well depth or location is apparent. Brazil Creek, the principal stream in the area, has no flow 15 percent of the time, and flow is less than 1 cubic foot per second about 25 percent of the time. Water in Brazil Creek is a mixed cation carbonate/bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations in Brazil Creek upstream from areas of old and recent mining ranged from 31 to 99 milligrams per liter with a mean of 58 milligrams per liter, whereas concentrations downstream from the mine areas ranged from 49 to 596 milligrams per liter with a mean of 132 milligrams per liter. Water in Brazil and Rock Creeks had concentrations of cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury that exceeded maximum contaminant levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at least once during the 1979-81 water years. Maximum suspended-sediment discharge, in tons per day, was 2,500 for Brazil Creek and 3,318 for Rock Creek. Silt-clay particles (diameters less than 0.062 millimeter) were the dominant sediment size. A significant hydrologic effect of surface mining is creation of additional water storage in mine ponds; one such pond supplies water for the town of Red Oak. Other effects or potential effects of surface mining include changes in rock permeability and ground-water storage, changes in drainage

  9. Constraints on recent earthquake source parameters, fault geometry and aftershock characteristics in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Benz, H.; Herrmann, R. B.; Bergman, E. A.; McMahon, N. D.; Aster, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    In late 2009, the seismicity of Oklahoma increased dramatically. The largest of these earthquakes was a series of three damaging events (Mw 4.8, 5.6, 4.8) that occurred over a span of four days in November 2011 near the town of Prague in central Oklahoma. Studies suggest that these earthquakes were induced by reactivation of the Wilzetta fault due to the disposal of waste water from hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") and other oil and gas activities. The Wilzetta fault is a northeast trending vertical strike-slip fault that is a well known structural trap for oil and gas. Since the November 2011 Prague sequence, thousands of small to moderate (M2-M4) earthquakes have occurred throughout central Oklahoma. The most active regions are located near the towns of Stillwater and Medford in north-central Oklahoma, and Guthrie, Langston and Jones near Oklahoma City. The USGS, in collaboration with the Oklahoma Geological Survey and the University of Oklahoma, has responded by deploying numerous temporary seismic stations in the region in order to record the vigorous aftershock sequences. In this study we use data from the temporary seismic stations to re-locate all Oklahoma earthquakes in the USGS National Earthquake Information Center catalog using a multiple-event approach known as hypo-centroidal decomposition that locates earthquakes with decreased uncertainty relative to one another. Modeling from this study allows us to constrain the detailed geometry of the reactivated faults, as well as source parameters (focal mechanisms, stress drop, rupture length) for the larger earthquakes. Preliminary results from the November 2011 Prague sequence suggest that subsurface rupture lengths of the largest earthquakes are anomalously long with very low stress drop. We also observe very high Q (~1000 at 1 Hz) that explains the large felt areas and we find relatively low b-value and a rapid decay of aftershocks.

  10. Hydrology and Water Quality near Bromide Pavilion in Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Murray County, Oklahoma, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Burrough, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    The Bromide Pavilion in Chickasaw National Recreation Area drew many thousands of people annually to drink the mineral-rich waters piped from nearby Bromide and Medicine Springs. Periodic detection of fecal coliform bacteria in water piped to the pavilion from the springs, low yields of the springs, or flooding by adjacent Rock Creek prompted National Park Service officials to discontinue piping of the springs to the pavilion in the 1970s. Park officials would like to resume piping mineralized spring water to the pavilion to restore it as a visitor attraction, but they are concerned about the ability of the springs to provide sufficient quantities of potable water. Pumping and sampling of Bromide and Medicine Springs and Rock Creek six times during 2000 indicate that these springs may not provide sufficient water for Bromide Pavilion to supply large numbers of visitors. A potential problem with piping water from Medicine Spring is the presence of an undercut, overhanging cliff composed of conglomerate, which may collapse. Evidence of intermittent inundation of the springs by Rock Creek and seepage of surface water into the spring vaults from the adjoining creek pose a threat of contamination of the springs. Escherichia coli, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcal bacteria were detected in some samples from the springs, indicating possible fecal contamination. Cysts of Giardia lamblia and oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum protozoa were not detected in the creek or the springs. Total culturable enteric viruses were detected in only one water sample taken from Rock Creek.

  11. Record Rainfall and Flooding in Texas and Oklahoma, May 2015; Extent and Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Heavy rains began in Texas and Oklahoma in early May 2015 and continued through the end of the month. Both states set all-time records for mean statewide precipitation; Texas - 227mm (8.93 in), Oklahoma - 357mm (14.06 in) -- for the period of record (1895-2015). These new statewide records were set despite the fact that the western portions of both Texas and Oklahoma received only modest rainfall. Parameters used in this study to evaluate the magnitude and historical perspective of the May 2015 rainfall included daily and total storm precipitation, stream flow, changes in the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and changes in reservoir water levels. Although the Dallas-Fort Worth area and the cities of Austin, Houston and Oklahoma City sustained the most serious flood events, more than 100 localities in the two states reported some flooding. The region with the largest amounts of precipitation extended from north-central Texas northeastward into eastern Oklahoma. Cumulative May rainfall in this region exceeded 508 mm (20 in). Provisional stream flow data for the river basins most affected -- Red River, Brazos, Colorado, and Trinity rivers -- reveal significant peaks, but the peaks generally are within the ranges of the historical record. With the exception of the Red River the most significant flooding relative to historic flood peaks, occurred on tributaries to the major rivers. Comparison of the PDSI for the months of April and June reveals the dramatic impact of the precipitation during May. By the first week of June both states are classified as moderately moist - with the exception of the extreme northeastern corner of Oklahoma. Changes in Reservoir levels (as a percent of capacity) between April and June was greatest for the Rolling Plains region (+ 15.5%), with lesser, but significant gains in South and Central Texas and the Central Oklahoma region.

  12. Analysis of environmental setting, surface-water and groundwater data, and data gaps for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Oklahoma, through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Harich, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Lewis, Jason M.; Shivers, Molly J.; Seger, Christian H.; Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    The Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, consisting of approximately 960 square miles in parts of three counties in central Oklahoma, has an abundance of water resources, being underlain by three principal aquifers (alluvial/terrace, Central Oklahoma, and Vamoosa-Ada), bordered by two major rivers (North Canadian and Canadian), and has several smaller drainages. The Central Oklahoma aquifer (also referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer) underlies approximately 3,000 square miles in central Oklahoma in parts of Cleveland, Logan, Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties and much of the tribal jurisdictional area. Water from these aquifers is used for municipal, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supplies. The approximately 115,000 people living in this area used an estimated 4.41 million gallons of fresh groundwater, 12.12 million gallons of fresh surface water, and 8.15 million gallons of saline groundwater per day in 2005. Approximately 8.48, 2.65, 2.24, 1.55, 0.83, and 0.81 million gallons per day of that water were used for domestic, livestock, commercial, industrial, crop irrigation, and thermoelectric purposes, respectively. Approximately one-third of the water used in 2005 was saline water produced during petroleum production. Future changes in use of freshwater in this area will be affected primarily by changes in population and agricultural practices. Future changes in saline water use will be affected substantially by changes in petroleum production. Parts of the area periodically are subject to flooding and severe droughts that can limit available water resources, particularly during summers, when water use increases and streamflows substantially decrease. Most of the area is characterized by rural types of land cover such as grassland, pasture/hay fields, and deciduous forest, which may limit negative effects on water quality by human activities because of lesser emissions of man-made chemicals on such areas than

  13. Remote sensor application studies report, July 1, 1968 to June 30, 1969: Remote sensing reconnaissance, Mill creek area, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Offield, T.W.; Watson, Kenneth; Cannon, P.J.; Watson, R.D.

    1970-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Remote Sensor Application Studies program, infrared images and several kinds of photographs were obtained on reconnaissance flights over two areas in the Arbuckle Mountains near Mill Creek, Oklahoma. These data were used in a preliminary investigation (1) to determine the diagnostic reflection and emission characteristics of various rock types, and (2) io evaluate the perturbing influence of atmospheric conditions, surface coatings, rock texture, and topography on the observed reflected and emitted energy in the thermal infrared (8-14μ) part of the spectrum

  14. 40 CFR 81.424 - Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oklahoma. 81.424 Section 81.424 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.424 Oklahoma. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  15. Onion transplant production system for Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions are a valuable specialty crop. Unfortunately, commercially available transplants in Oklahoma are often produced in a different area of the country and shipped into Oklahoma, resulting in a limited cultivar selection, non-adapted cultivars, poor crop stands, high bolting incidence, and low pro...

  16. Reactivated faulting near Cushing, Oklahoma: Increased potential for a triggered earthquake in an area of United States strategic infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, Daniel E.; Hayes, Gavin; Benz, Harley M.; Williams, Robert; McMahon, Nicole D; Aster, R.C.; Holland, Austin F.; Sickbert, T; Herrmann, Robert B.; Briggs, Richard; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Bergman, Eric; Earle, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2014 two moderate-sized earthquakes (Mw 4.0 and 4.3) struck south of Cushing, Oklahoma, below the largest crude oil storage facility in the world. Combined analysis of the spatial distribution of earthquakes and regional moment tensor focal mechanisms indicate reactivation of a subsurface unnamed and unmapped left-lateral strike-slip fault. Coulomb failure stress change calculations using the relocated seismicity and slip distribution determined from regional moment tensors, allow for the possibility that the Wilzetta-Whitetail fault zone south of Cushing, Oklahoma, could produce a large, damaging earthquake comparable to the 2011 Prague event. Resultant very strong shaking levels (MMI VII) in the epicentral region present the possibility of this potential earthquake causing moderate to heavy damage to national strategic infrastructure and local communities.

  17. Reactivated faulting near Cushing, Oklahoma: Increased potential for a triggered earthquake in an area of United States strategic infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Hayes, G. P.; Benz, H. M.; Williams, R. A.; McMahon, N. D.; Aster, R. C.; Holland, A.; Sickbert, T.; Herrmann, R.; Briggs, R.; Smoczyk, G.; Bergman, E.; Earle, P.

    2015-10-01

    In October 2014 two moderate-sized earthquakes (Mw 4.0 and 4.3) struck south of Cushing, Oklahoma, below the largest crude oil storage facility in the world. Combined analysis of the spatial distribution of earthquakes and regional moment tensor focal mechanisms indicate reactivation of a subsurface unnamed and unmapped left-lateral strike-slip fault. Coulomb failure stress change calculations using the relocated seismicity and slip distribution determined from regional moment tensors, allow for the possibility that the Wilzetta-Whitetail fault zone south of Cushing, Oklahoma, could produce a large, damaging earthquake comparable to the 2011 Prague event. Resultant very strong shaking levels (MMI VII) in the epicentral region present the possibility of this potential earthquake causing moderate to heavy damage to national strategic infrastructure and local communities.

  18. View of the Salt Lake City, Utah area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An oblique view of the Salt Lake City, Utah area as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. Approximately two-thirds of the Great Salt Lake is in view. The smaller body of water south of Salt Lake City is Utah Lake. The Wasatch Range is on the east side of the Great Salt Lake.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Flow, Resource Optimization, and Potential Effects of Prolonged Drought for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryter, Derek W.; Kunkel, Christopher D.; Peterson, Steven M.; Traylor, Jonathan P.

    2015-08-13

    The hypothetical decrease in recharge during the simulated drought caused groundwater in storage over the entire model in the study area to decrease by 361,500 acre-feet (14,100 acre-feet in the North Canadian River alluvial aquifer and 347,400 acre-feet in the Central Oklahoma aquifer), or approximately 0.2 percent of the total groundwater in storage over the drought period. This small percentage of groundwater loss showed that the Central Oklahoma aquifer as a bedrock aquifer has relatively low rates of recharge from the surface relative to the approximate storage. The budget for base flow to the North Canadian River indicated that the change in groundwater flow to the North Canadian River decreased during the 10-year drought by 386,500 acre-feet, or 37 percent. In all other parts of the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, base flow decreased by 292,000 acre-feet, or 28 percent. Streamflow in the North Canadian River at the streamflow-gaging station at Shawnee, Okla., decreased during the hypothetical drought by as much as 28 percent, and the mean change in streamflow decreased as much as 16 percent. Streamflow at the Shawnee streamflow-gaging station did not recover to nondrought conditions until about 3 years after the simulated drought ended, during the relatively wet year of 2007.

  20. A Comparison of the Speech Patterns and Dialect Attitudes of Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakos, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The lexical dialect usage of Oklahoma has been well-studied in the past by the Survey of Oklahoma Dialects, but the acoustic speech production of the state has received little attention. Apart from two people from Tulsa and two people from Oklahoma City that were interviewed for the Atlas of North American English, no other acoustic work has been…

  1. New York City area as seen from STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The recent heavy snowfalls help to accentuate the major transportation networks (railroads, highways and airports) throughout the New York City metropolitan area. This particular scene also highlights the land-water boundaries the lighter open spaces, such as parks, cemeteries and recreational areas. The snows have produced a white blanket effect on these areas. Even some of the snow-covered lakes can be discerned. The boroughs of Staten Island, Brooklyn, Queens, The Bronx and Manhattan are also recognizable on the photograph.

  2. Playing the City: Public Participation in a Contested Suburban Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauwaert, Maaike

    2009-01-01

    This article presents one case study of public participation in urban planning: the "Face Your World" project that took place in 2005 in the suburban area of Slotervaart, close to the Dutch city of Amsterdam. "Face Your World" was a participation project that aimed at engaging both younger and immigrant inhabitants of…

  3. Not-so-inactive fault in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, Henry

    1986-01-01

    In connection with a search for geologically quiet areas for sitting large engineering ventures such as dams and nuclear power plants, geologists have recently started looking at the Meers fault in southwestern Oklahoma with an intense interest.

  4. Groundwater quality and the relation between pH values and occurrence of trace elements and radionuclides in water samples collected from private wells in part of the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    From 1999 to 2007, the Indian Health Service reported that gross alpha-particle activities and concentrations of uranium exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Levels for public drinking-water supplies in water samples from six private wells and two test wells in a rural residential neighborhood in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, in central Oklahoma. Residents in this rural area use groundwater from Quaternary-aged terrace deposits and the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington aquifer for domestic purposes. Uranium and other trace elements, specifically arsenic, chromium, and selenium, occur naturally in rocks composing the Garber-Wellington aquifer and in low concentrations in groundwater throughout its extent. Previous studies have shown that pH values above 8.0 from cation-exchange processes in the aquifer cause selected metals such as arsenic, chromium, selenium, and uranium to desorb (if present) from mineral surfaces and become mobile in water. On the basis of this information, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, conducted a study in 2011 to describe the occurrence of selected trace elements and radionuclides in groundwater and to determine if pH could be used as a surrogate for laboratory analysis to quickly and inexpensively identify wells that might contain high concentrations of uranium and other trace elements. The pH and specific conductance of groundwater from 59 private wells were measured in the field in an area of about 18 square miles in Lincoln and Pottawatomie Counties. Twenty of the 59 wells also were sampled for dissolved concentrations of major ions, trace elements, gross alpha-particle and gross beta-particle activities, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, and radon-222 gas. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 24.7 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50

  5. Digital atlas of Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, A.H.; Becker, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    This compact disc contains 25 digital map data sets covering the State of Oklahoma that may be of interest to the general public, private industry, schools, and government agencies. Fourteen data sets are statewide. These data sets include: administrative boundaries; 104th U.S. Congressional district boundaries; county boundaries; latitudinal lines; longitudinal lines; geographic names; indexes of U.S. Geological Survey 1:100,000, and 1:250,000-scale topographic quadrangles; a shaded-relief image; Oklahoma State House of Representatives district boundaries; Oklahoma State Senate district boundaries; locations of U.S. Geological Survey stream gages; watershed boundaries and hydrologic cataloging unit numbers; and locations of weather stations. Eleven data sets are divided by county and are located in 77 county subdirectories. These data sets include: census block group boundaries with selected demographic data; city and major highways text; geographic names; land surface elevation contours; elevation points; an index of U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000-scale topographic quadrangles; roads, streets and address ranges; highway text; school district boundaries; streams, river and lakes; and the public land survey system. All data sets are provided in a readily accessible format. Most data sets are provided in Digital Line Graph (DLG) format. The attributes for many of the DLG files are stored in related dBASE(R)-format files and may be joined to the data set polygon attribute or arc attribute tables using dBASE(R)-compatible software. (Any use of trade names in this publication is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.) Point attribute tables are provided in dBASE(R) format only, and include the X and Y map coordinates of each point. Annotation (text plotted in map coordinates) are provided in AutoCAD Drawing Exchange format (DXF) files. The shaded-relief image is provided in TIFF format. All data sets except the shaded

  6. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area is... enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  7. Development of a data management system for assistance in conducting Area of Reviews (AORs) on Class II injection wells in Oklahoma. Quarterly report, July--September, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, M.W.

    1995-10-25

    Project objectives are to provide the resources and capabilities to permit the State of Oklahoma to conduct Area of Review (AOR) variance analysis on a statewide level including: (1) the analysis and identification of areas which may qualify for AOR variances; (2) the correlation of information from various databases and automation systems to conduct AORs in areas that do not qualify for variances; (3) the evaluation of the risk of pollution, during permitting and monitoring, using risk based data analysis; and (4) the ability to conduct spatial analysis of injection well data in conjunction with other geographically referenced information. The division successfully converted its mainframe computer surety system to the new client server network and implemented it on September 29, 1995. The division currently lacks sufficient storage space to bring the existing oil and gas spatially referenced data systems in-house and fully integrate the systems for use in the determination of AORs or AOR variances. The second installment of the awarded grant allows for the purchase of the developmental server that will provide the minimum computer storage space to convert the remainder of the mainframe computer systems.

  8. Four Possible Steps to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Ada, Oklahoma

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of federal, state, and city initiatives on climate change are presented. Specific steps for the City of Ada, Oklahoma, are presented. This is an abstract of a proposed presentation and does not necessarily reflect EPA policy.

  9. Geothermal resource assessment in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.E.; Luza, K.V.; Prater, M.L.; Cheung, P.K.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    The procedures and methods used to develop a geothermal gradient map of Oklahoma are discussed. Two areas, Haskell and Pittsburg Counties, in the Arkoma Basin, are discussed in detail. Three sandstone units, the Spiro, Cromwell, and Hartshorne were selected as potential low-temperature geothermal water sources. The average temperature ranged from 103/sup 0/F at Hartshorne to 158/sup 0/F at Cromwell. (MJF)

  10. Oklahoma's Advanced School Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary

    A new means of funding school operations known as advanced school funding allows Oklahoma schools financing during the temporary cash shortfalls. The program consists of the Oklahoma Development Authority issuing revenue bonds purchased by E. F. Hutton and Company, Inc., which then sells the tax free bonds to investors throughout the country. A…

  11. Pride in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gordon; Blackburn, Bob L.

    This booklet is intended to be used as background material by social studies and history classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs on Oklahoma's heritage. It includes background information on the land and people of Oklahoma (geology, climate, topography, vegetation, animals, prehistoric peoples, French explorers,…

  12. Oklahoma Tribes: A History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, Kevin

    1977-01-01

    Oklahoma is a microcosm of American Indian country. Water rights, tribal government impotence, jurisdiction, tribal membership, treaty rights, taxation, sovereignty, racism, and poor housing, education, and health are all vital issues facing the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. In order to understand the complexity of these issues, a review of the…

  13. Heat flow in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cranganu, C.; Deming, D.

    1996-12-31

    Oklahoma is one area in which terrestrial heat flow data are sparse. The thermal state of the southern mid-continent, however, is a key to understanding several important geologic problems. These include thermal anomalies associated with Paleozoic fluid migrations and the formation of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits, the thermal evolution of the Arkoma and Anadarko sedimentary basins, and the history of hydrocarbon generation and overpressuring in the Anadarko Basin. In the late 1920s, the American Petroleum Institute made a set of equilibrium temperature logs in idle oil wells. These temperature data are generally regarded as being high quality, accurate estimates of rock temperature and they cover the entire central part of Oklahoma. Average thermal gradients in the API survey range from 14 to 43 {sup 0}C/km (average 31.2 {sup 0}C/km) over depth intervals that extend from the surface to a an average depth of 961 m. Geothermal gradients decrease from NNE to SSW. The observed change in thermal gradients could be due to a number of factors. The change in thermal gradients could simply reflect changes in lithology and thermal conductivity. Alternatively, the variation in thermal gradients could be indicative of a change in heat flow related perhaps to variations in the concentration of radioactive heat-producing elements in the crust or heat transport by one or more regional groundwater flow systems. We are proceeding to reduce ambiguity in interpretation by estimating heat flow from thermal conductivity measurements on drill cuttings and heat production from available gamma-ray logs which penetrate basement rocks.

  14. Heat flow in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cranganu, C.; Deming, D. )

    1996-01-01

    Oklahoma is one area in which terrestrial heat flow data are sparse. The thermal state of the southern mid-continent, however, is a key to understanding several important geologic problems. These include thermal anomalies associated with Paleozoic fluid migrations and the formation of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits, the thermal evolution of the Arkoma and Anadarko sedimentary basins, and the history of hydrocarbon generation and overpressuring in the Anadarko Basin. In the late 1920s, the American Petroleum Institute made a set of equilibrium temperature logs in idle oil wells. These temperature data are generally regarded as being high quality, accurate estimates of rock temperature and they cover the entire central part of Oklahoma. Average thermal gradients in the API survey range from 14 to 43 [sup 0]C/km (average 31.2 [sup 0]C/km) over depth intervals that extend from the surface to a an average depth of 961 m. Geothermal gradients decrease from NNE to SSW. The observed change in thermal gradients could be due to a number of factors. The change in thermal gradients could simply reflect changes in lithology and thermal conductivity. Alternatively, the variation in thermal gradients could be indicative of a change in heat flow related perhaps to variations in the concentration of radioactive heat-producing elements in the crust or heat transport by one or more regional groundwater flow systems. We are proceeding to reduce ambiguity in interpretation by estimating heat flow from thermal conductivity measurements on drill cuttings and heat production from available gamma-ray logs which penetrate basement rocks.

  15. Bathymetry and capacity of Shawnee Reservoir, Oklahoma, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Smith, Kevin A.

    2017-02-13

    Shawnee Reservoir (locally known as Shawnee Twin Lakes) is a man-made reservoir on South Deer Creek with a drainage area of 32.7 square miles in Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma. The reservoir consists of two lakes connected by an equilibrium channel. The southern lake (Shawnee City Lake Number 1) was impounded in 1935, and the northern lake (Shawnee City Lake Number 2) was impounded in 1960. Shawnee Reservoir serves as a municipal water supply, and water is transferred about 9 miles by gravity to a water treatment plant in Shawnee, Oklahoma. Secondary uses of the reservoir are for recreation, fish and wildlife habitat, and flood control. Shawnee Reservoir has a normal-pool elevation of 1,069.0 feet (ft) above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). The auxiliary spillway, which defines the flood-pool elevation, is at an elevation of 1,075.0 ft.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Shawnee, has operated a real-time stage (water-surface elevation) gage (USGS station 07241600) at Shawnee Reservoir since 2006. For the period of record ending in 2016, this gage recorded a maximum stage of 1,078.1 ft on May 24, 2015, and a minimum stage of 1,059.1 ft on April 10–11, 2007. This gage did not report reservoir storage prior to this report (2016) because a sufficiently detailed and thoroughly documented bathymetric (reservoir-bottom elevation) survey and corresponding stage-storage relation had not been published. A 2011 bathymetric survey with contours delineated at 5-foot intervals was published in Oklahoma Water Resources Board (2016), but that publication did not include a stage-storage relation table. The USGS, in cooperation with the City of Shawnee, performed a bathymetric survey of Shawnee Reservoir in 2016 and released the bathymetric-survey data in 2017. The purposes of the bathymetric survey were to (1) develop a detailed bathymetric map of the reservoir and (2) determine the relations between stage and reservoir storage

  16. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  17. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  18. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott; Osborn, Noel I.; Neel, Christopher R.; Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Puckette, James; Pantea, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater in the aquifer moves from areas of high head (altitude) to areas of low head along streams and springs. The potentiometric surface in the eastern Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer generally slopes from a topographic high from northwest to the southeast, indicating that regional groundwater flow is predominantly toward the southeast. Freshwater is known to extend beyond the aquifer outcrop near the City of Sulphur, Oklahoma, and Chickasaw National Recreation Area, where groundwater flows west from the outcrop of the eastern Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer and becomes confin

  19. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  20. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  1. 40 CFR 81.126 - Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.126 Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate...

  2. 40 CFR 81.125 - Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.125 Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate...

  3. A STUDY OF MIGRANT WORKERS IN SOUTHWEST OKLAHOMA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TINNEY, MILTON W.

    A STUDY OF MIGRANT WORKERS IN THE 5 SOUTHWESTERN OKLAHOMA COUNTIES OF GREER, HARMON, JACKSON, KIOWA, AND TILLMAN WAS CONDUCTED IN 1964 BY THE OKLAHOMA STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE. APPROXIMATELY 15,000 AGRICULTURAL MIGRANTS COME INTO THE AREA EACH YEAR. THE SURVEY FOUND THAT THESE PEOPLE WERE PREDOMINATELY SPANISH-SPEAKING FROM TEXAS, EARNED LESS THAN…

  4. 76 FR 37166 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00050

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... OKLAHOMA, dated 06/06/2011 is hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely affected by...

  5. Hydrogeological properties of bank storage area in Changwon city, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Kim, H.-S.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Kim, M. J.

    2003-04-01

    Bank filtrated water has been used in developed countries such as United States, France, Germany, Austria, Nederland and so on. In Korea, most of the drinking water is provided from the surface water. However, drinking water acquisition is becoming difficult due to the degradation of surface water quality. In special, the quality of drinking water source is much lower in downstream area than in upstream area. Thus, the use of bank filtrated water is getting attracted by central and local governments in Korea. The bank filtrated water was surveyed in the areas of Yeongsan river, Nakdong river, Geum river and Han river. Up to present, however, the downstream areas of Nakdong river are most suitable places to apply the bank filtration system. This study investigates hydrogeological characteristics of bank-storage area located in Daesan- Myeon, Changwon city, adjacent the downstream of Nakdong river. Changwon city is the capital city of Gyeongsangnam-Do province. Changwon city uses water derived from Nakdong river as municipal water. However, the quantity and quality of the river water are gradually decreased. Thus, Changwon city developed two sites of bank filtration system in Daesan-myeon and Buk-myeon. Pumping rate is 2,000m3/day at present and will be increased to 60,000m3/day in Daesan-myeon site at the end of the first stage of the project. For the study, we conducted pumping tests four times on seven pumping wells (PW1, PW2, PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6, and PW7) and twelve drill holes (BH-2, OW2-OW12) in the area of 370 m x 100 m. Pumping wells PW1 and PW2 were drilled in 1999 by Samjung Engineering Co. and pumping wells PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6 and PW7 were drilled in 2000 by Donga Construction Co. and Daeduk Gongyeong Co. The pumping wells are located at 45-110 meters from Nakdong riverside. The geology of the study area is composed of volcanic rocks (Palryeongsan tuff and Jusasan andesitic rock) and alluvium. Palryeongsan tuff consists of mostly green tuff with partly

  6. State summaries: Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krukowski, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, Oklahoma mines produced both industrial minerals and coal. No metals were mined in the state. Based on value, leading industrial minerals include crushed stone followed by cement, construction sand and gravel, industrial sand and gravel, iodine and gypsum. The Oklahoma Department of Mines (ODOM) reported that more than 343 mine operators produced nonfuel minerals from 405 mines in the state. However, 530 mining permitted sites were on file. The Oklahoma Miner Training Institute (OMTI) held 239 classes for 33,768 classroom hours of instruction, in which 84 coal miners and 4,587 metal/nonmetal miners were trained.

  7. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  8. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  9. Urban Groundwater Mapping - Bucharest City Area Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Bica, Ioan; Anghel, Leonard; Amine Boukhemacha, Mohamed; Ionita, Angela

    2013-04-01

    Urban Groundwater Mapping (UGM) is a generic term for a collection of procedures and techniques used to create targeted cartographic representation of the groundwater related aspects in urban areas. The urban environment alters the physical and chemical characteristics of the underneath aquifers. The scale of the pressure is controlled by the urban development in time and space. To have a clear image on the spatial and temporal distribution of different groundwater- urban structures interaction we need a set of thematic maps is needed. In the present study it is described the methodological approach used to obtain a reliable cartographic product for Bucharest City area. The first step in the current study was to identify the groundwater related problems and aspects (changes in the groundwater table, infiltration and seepage from and to the city sewer network, contamination spread to all three aquifers systems located in quaternary sedimentary formations, dewatering impact for large underground structures, management and political drawbacks). The second step was data collection and validation. In urban areas there is a big spectrum of data providers related to groundwater. Due to the fact that data is produced and distributed by different types of organizations (national agencies, private companies, municipal water regulator, etc) the validation and cross check process is mandatory. The data is stored and managed by a geospatial database. The design of the database follows an object-orientated paradigm and is easily extensible. The third step consists of a set of procedures based on a multi criteria assessment that creates the specific setup for the thematic maps. The assessment is based on the following criteria: (1) scale effect area - how the groundwater is interacting with urban structures >, (2) time , (3) vertical distribution and (4) type of the groundwater related problem. The final

  10. Flood of May 26-27, 1984 in Tulsa, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergman, DeRoy L.; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The greatest flood disaster in the history of Tulsa, Oklahoma occurred during 8 hours from 2030 hours May 26 to 0430 hours May 27, 1984, as a result of intense rainfall centered over the metropolitan area. Storms of the magnitude that caused this flood are not uncommon to the southern great plains. Such storms are seldom documented in large urban areas. Total rainfall depth and rainfall distribution in the Tulsa metropolitan area during the May 26-27 storm were recorded by 16 recording rain gages. This report presents location of recording rain gages with corresponding rainfall histograms and mass curves, lines of equal rainfall depth (map A), and flood magnitudes and inundated areas of selected streams within the city (map B). The limits of the study areas (fig. 1) are the corporate boundaries of Tulsa, an area of about 185 square miles. Streams draining the city are: Dirty Butter, Coal, and Mingo Creeks which drain northward into Bird Creek along the northern boundary of the city; and Cherry, Crow, Harlow, Joe Haikey, Fry, Vensel, Fred, and Mooser Creeks which flow into the Arkansas River along the southern part of the city. Flooding along Haikey, Fry, Fred, Vensel, and Mooser Creeks was not documented for this report. The Arkansas River is regulated by Keystone Dam upstream from Tulsa (fig. 1). The Arkansas River remained below flood stage during the storm. Flooded areas in Tulsa (map B) were delineated on the topographic maps using flood profiles based on surveys of high-water marks identified immediately after the flood. The flood boundaries show the limits of stream flooding. Additional areas flooded because of overfilled storm drains or by sheet runoff are not shown in this report. Data presented in this report, including rainfall duration and frequency, and flood discharges and elevations, provide city officials and consultants a technical basis for making flood-plain management decisions.

  11. Karst collapse in cities and mining areas, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian

    1988-08-01

    Karst collapse is a dynamic geological phenomenon, in which the rock mass or deposits overlying the karstified zone subsides down along the karst cavity, resulting in a collapse pit or sinkhole. After discussing the typical examples of collapse emerging in the karst cities and mines in provinces and regions of South China, such as Guangdong. Guangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Zhejiang, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Jiangxi, it is considered that human activities of economy and production have become a major effect in causing karst collapse. Man-made collapses make 66.4 percent of the total, whereas natural ones 33.6 percent. Most of the collapses occurred to the area with soil overburden (96.7 percent), only a few in areas of bedrock overburden (3.3 percent). The karst collapses have a close relationship with the extent of karst development, the character and the thickness of overburden, and the dynamic condition of underground water. Collapse usually occurs in those parts of an area that are more intensely karstified, with soil thickness less than 5 m and a high amplitude of water table fluctuation. Many kinds of mechanical effects are caused by pumping or draining on the overburden and destroying its equilibrium, leading to the collapse. These effects included the support loss and loadadded effect, penetrating suffusion, gas explesion, water-hammer, suction pressure erosion, and liquatienal effects. The collapses are the result of varied comprehensive effects, particularly the support loss and load-added, and penetrating suffusion.

  12. Karst collapse in cities and mining areas, China

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Chen )

    1988-08-01

    Karst collapse is a dynamic geological phenomenon, in which the rock mass or deposits overlying the karstified zone subsides down along the karst cavity, resulting in a collapse pit or sinkhole. After discussing the typical examples of collapse emerging in the karst cities and mines in provinces and regions of South China, such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Zhejiang, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Jiangxi, it is considered that human activities of economy and production have become a major effect in causing karst collapse. Man-made collapses make 66.4 percent of the total, whereas natural ones 33.6 percent. Most of the collapses occurred to the area with soil overburden (96.7 percent), only a few in areas of bedrock overburden (3.3 percent). The karst collapses have a close relationship with the extent of karst development, the character and the thickness of overburden, and the dynamic condition of underground water. Collapse usually occurs in those parts of an area that are more intensely karstified, with soil thickness less than 5 m and a high amplitude of water table fluctuation. Many kinds of mechanical effects are caused by pumping or draining on the over-burden and destroying its equilibrium, leading to the collapse. These effects included the support loss and load-added effect, penetrating suffusion, gas explosion, water-hammer, suction pressure erosion, and liquefaction effects. The collapses are the result of varied comprehensive effects, particularly the support loss and load-added, and penetrating suffusion.

  13. Dynamics in urban water quality: monitoring the Amsterdam city area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vlugt, Corné; Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris; Ouboter, Maarten; Stuurman, Roelof; Broers, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    Urban water quality is influenced by a large number of heterogeneous sources. We aimed to identify solute pathways from different sources in the urban area of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The city is situated in the Dutch delta, and largely below mean sea level. The water system of the centre of the city is connected to the large fresh water lake Ijsselmeer, but suburbs are mainly located within reclaimed lake and polder areas where water is pumped out in order to maintain the water levels, which are generally 1 tot 4 m. below sea level. Sources of water include: urban storm runoff, inlet water from the Ijsselmeer and surrounding areas, groundwater seepage and possibly also leaking sewage systems. The temporal dynamics and spatial patterns related to these flow routes and sources were largely unknown to date. Water quality is measured at those pumping stations systematically each month. We analysed the pumping discharge data and the concentration data to calculate daily water balances and annual load estimates for HCO3,Ca, Cl, Na, SO4, Ptot, Ntot ,NH4, NH3 and NO3. Chloride appears to be a good tracer to identify inlet water and bicarbonate and DIC were effective to estimate the groundwater contribution to the surface water outflow to the regional system. We were able to improve the solute balances by calibrating the measured temporal patterns of chloride and DIC using known concentrations from the individual sources. Subsequently the water balances where used to identify periods where one of the sources was dominant and by doing so we improved our understanding of the dynamics of N, P and S fluxes and the relations with dry and wet meteorological conditions. It appeared that N and P were largely related to groundwater outflow , whereas S was mainly related to dry periods and shallow flow routes influenced by sewage, urban storm runoff and shallow groundwater flow . The results are used to optimize urban water management which benefits from the improved insight in

  14. Cancer mortality inequalities in urban areas: a Bayesian small area analysis in Spanish cities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-urban inequalities in mortality have been infrequently analysed in European contexts. The aim of the present study was to analyse patterns of cancer mortality and their relationship with socioeconomic deprivation in small areas in 11 Spanish cities. Methods It is a cross-sectional ecological design using mortality data (years 1996-2003). Units of analysis were the census tracts. A deprivation index was calculated for each census tract. In order to control the variability in estimating the risk of dying we used Bayesian models. We present the RR of the census tract with the highest deprivation vs. the census tract with the lowest deprivation. Results In the case of men, socioeconomic inequalities are observed in total cancer mortality in all cities, except in Castellon, Cordoba and Vigo, while Barcelona (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.42-1.67), Madrid (RR = 1.57 95%CI 1.49-1.65) and Seville (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.36-1.74) present the greatest inequalities. In general Barcelona and Madrid, present inequalities for most types of cancer. Among women for total cancer mortality, inequalities have only been found in Barcelona and Zaragoza. The excess number of cancer deaths due to socioeconomic deprivation was 16,413 for men and 1,142 for women. Conclusion This study has analysed inequalities in cancer mortality in small areas of cities in Spain, not only relating this mortality with socioeconomic deprivation, but also calculating the excess mortality which may be attributed to such deprivation. This knowledge is particularly useful to determine which geographical areas in each city need intersectorial policies in order to promote a healthy environment. PMID:21232096

  15. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The...

  16. Hydrogeologic information on the Glorieta Sandstone and the Ogallala Formation in the Oklahoma Panhandle and adjoining areas as related to underground waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, James Haskell; Morton, Robert B.

    1969-01-01

    The Oklahoma Panhandle and adjacent areas in Texas, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico have prospered because of the development of supplies of fresh water and of oil and gas. The Ogallala and, in places, Cretaceous rocks produce fresh water for irrigation, public supply, and domestic and stock use through approximately 9,000 irrigation and public supply wells and a large but undetermined number of other wells. Disposal of oil-field brine and other wastes into the Glorieta Sandstone is of concern to many local residents because of the possibility of pollution of the overlying fresh-water aquifers, particularly the Ogallala Formation. Permits for 147 disposal wells into the Glorieta have been issued in this area. This report summarizes the data on geology, hydrology, and water development currently available to the U.S. Geological Survey. Geologic information indicates that, in the report area, the Glorieta Sandstone lies at depths ranging from about 500 to 1,600 feet below the base of the Ogallala Fox, nation. The rocks between those two formations are of relatively impermeable types, but solution and removal of salt has resulted in collapse of the rocks in some places. Collapse and fracturing of the rocks could result in increased vertical permeability. This might result in movement of brine under hydrostatic head from the Glorieta Sandstone into overlying fresh-water aquifers, in places where an upward hydraulic gradient exists or is created by an increase in pressure within the Glorieta. Abandoned or inadequately sealed boreholes also are possible conduits for such fluids. The mixing of water in the fresh-water aquifers with brines injected into the Glorieta is not known to have occurred anywhere in the report area, but the information available is not adequate to show positively whether or not this may have occurred locally. Much additional information on the stratigraphy and hydrology--particularly, data on the potentiometric surface of water in the Glorieta

  17. Environmental Assessment for the Joint Advanced Weapons Scoring System Installation in the Oklahoma Range, Donnelly West Training Area, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    area and fire breaks. These wetlands provide habitat for some species of birds and small mammals. However, the overall quality of the black spruce...eliminate some nesting perches for some bird species . 4.2.1.2 No Action Alternative The JAWSS system would not be installed, therefore, no...minimize impacts to trumpeter swans and other springtime migratory bird and waterfowl and to nesting species that generally occurs during June

  18. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma Aquifer in central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, D.L.; Christenson, S.C.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export files The data sets in this report include digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of Cleveland, Lincoln, Logan, Oklahoma, Payne, and Pottawatomie Counties. The Central Oklahoma aquifer includes the alluvial and terrace deposits along major streams, the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations, and the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups. The Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits consist of unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The Permian-age Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations consist of sandstone with interbedded siltstone and mudstone. The Permian-age Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups consist of sandstone, shale, and thin limestone. The Central Oklahoma aquifer underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma where the aquifer is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. Most of the usable ground water within the aquifer is from the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations. Substantial quantities of usable ground water also are present in the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, and in alluvial and terrace deposits associated with the major streams. The aquifer boundaries, hydraulic conductivity and recharge values, and ground-water level elevation contours are from previously published reports.

  19. 76 FR 81838 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Oklahoma; Interstate Transport of Pollution

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... of Pollution AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is... Quality, 707 North Robinson, P.O. Box 1677, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73101-1677. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...)(2).) List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Air pollution control, Environmental...

  20. Regional correlations and reservoir characterization studies of the Morrow group in the Anadarko basin area of Western Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.M.; Henderickson, W.J.; Smith, P.W.

    1995-09-01

    Reservoir characterization studies of numerous fields within the Anadarko Basin area have demonstrated nomenclature problems regarding Morrowan Aged reservoirs. The Morrow can be overlaid by strata as young as basal Des Moinesian and underlaid by strata that is Springeran to Chesterian in Age. This problem has led to Morrow production being erroneously called as young as Red Fork (Des Moinesian) and as old as Chester. To further complicate nomenclature, a correlative and equivalent formation may be called various names from one region of the basin to another and/or may be known by local names from one field to another. Misallocated Morrow production is carried incorrectly throughout the production is then used by various State and Federal agencies to model reserves and to create energy policies. To date, few detailed regional cross-sections have been available (or even exist outside proprietary studies) showing the most up-to-date logs correlated throughout the basin. By using regional cross-section grids have established that all log correlations tie intra-field as well as interfield. Production was allocated by comparing the perforated interval to the log which was correlated to the correct reservoir. Characterization of the reservoirs was conducted to include geologic and engineering data such as depths, thicknesses, porosities, permeabilities, pressures, water saturations, area, spacings, and heterogeneities along with a correlated reservoir specific type log. The results of those studies are presented.

  1. Emissions inventory for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, V.H.P.; Renteria, J.S.; Hernandez, C.G.

    1996-12-31

    The emissions inventory bears a broad relationship to the energy balance, reflecting the dependence of the emissions with reference to the use of energy. Actually the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel in the transport sector represents collectively, the greatest comparative expense of energy and the major contributor of the ozone precursor pollutants HC, NO{sub x} and CO, relative to the total volume of emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Also, the industrial sector introduces significant emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} due to its energy consumption of fuel oils and natural gas. In contrast, the great majority of suspended particulate in the MCMA emanate from degradation processes of surface soil along the periphery of the urban zone. To the federal and local authorities charged with the design of strategies for prevention and control of atmospheric pollution, the emissions inventory is a strategic tool that reflects the relative intensity of the various emitters to the load capacity of the atmosphere. A comprehensive inventory was compiled for 1995, categorizing the emissions generated by four sectors: industry, services, transport and surface soils and vegetation, considering the following pollutants: TSP, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, HC and CO. The combined pollutant emissions are 4,009,628 tons/year of which 3% are generated by the industry, 10% by the services sector, 75% by the transport sector, and 12% by surface soils and vegetation.

  2. Regional correlations and reservoir characterization studies of the Springer group in the Anadarko basin area of western Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.W.; Hendrickson, W.J.; Williams, C.M.

    1995-09-01

    The nomenclature used within the Anadarko Basin and encompassing shelf areas is typically erratic. A productive horizon may be incorrectly called several various names within the same field. The Springer Group, Upper Mississippian and Lower Pennsylvanian, is often misnamed as the abovelying Pennsylvanian Morrow or the underlying Mississippian Chester. Generally, the Springer Group consists of the Boatwright, Britt, and Cunningham in ascending order. A correlative and equivalent formation may be called by various names by geologists familiar with the nomenclature of one region of the basin. Further complicating the understanding of the Anadarko Basin`s geology, few detailed regional cross-sections are available (or even exist outside proprietary studies) showing the most up-to-date logs correlated throughout the basin. By using regional cross-sections, the stratigraphic relationships existing within the Springer Group are demonstrated as well as the contacts of the Springer/Chester and the Springer/Morrow identified. The lateral facies change of the Springer Group from a clastic facies into a carbonate dominated facies is illustrated by the log cross-sections. Wells accounting for approximately twenty-five percent (25%) of the production attributed to the Springer Group in the Anadarko Basin have been evaluated. The perforated interval was compared to the logs and the correct (Springer) reservoir was identified. Detailed reservoir characterization of the reservoirs was conducted to include geologic and engineering data such as depths, thicknesses, porosities, permeabilities, pressures, water saturations, area, spacings, and heterogeneities along with a correlated {open_quotes}field-specific{close_quotes} reservoir type log. Log analysis was conducted on the producing interval, saturated interval, and gross interval. The results of the studies are presented.

  3. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... in this section shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama...

  4. The City of Saskatoon's Local Area Planning Program: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellett, Livia; Peter, Lyla; Moore, Kelley

    2008-01-01

    The City of Saskatoon's Local Area Planning (LAP) Program is a community-based approach to developing comprehensive neighbourhood plans. In order to achieve sustainable and implementable Local Area Plans (LAPs), the City of Saskatoon has been using innovative methods of collaborative decision-making to engage citizens. The program has been…

  5. Geologic provinces of Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Northcutt, R.A.; Campbell, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    The geologic provinces of Oklahoma are mainly the product of tectonics and attendant sedimentation of Pennsylvanian age. Most boundaries are structural; thus, the provinces map is a generalized tectonic map. Permian and post-Paleozoic strata tend to mask those structures, but most of those strata have been removed by erosion, except in the Anadarko Basin and the Wichita Uplift provinces. The location of most of Oklahoma`s oil and gas resources are either influenced by, or are the direct result of Pennsylvanian tectonics and sedimentation patterns. Therefore, the present study also defines provinces in the subsurface on the basis of geological criteria. The authors have attempted to use the originally published names for the recognized provinces. However, we have also used the most geologically correct names, i.e., Nemaha Uplift, Nemaha Fault Zone, and Central Oklahoma Fault, in lieu of Nemaha {open_quotes}Ridge.{close_quotes} Oklahoma is separated into five major uplifts and five major basins. The Gulf Coastal Plain is not included in this study because it is a veneer of Cretaceous cover that masks significant structures. Faults are the most common boundary element. Although their precise age commonly is known only approximately, their geographic location is less controversial, except in detail. Stratigraphic/structural boundaries are based on less precise geological information. The major example of a surface stratigraphic/structural boundary is the southwestern limit of the Ozark Uplift in eastern Oklahoma. Stratigraphic/structural boundaries in the subsurface are commonly based on structural or isopachous contours from well or geophysical data, or on a structural trend, as well as the experience of the authors. Basement structure is preferred. An example is the boundary that separates the Marietta Basin from adjacent geologic elements.

  6. Reconnaissance of ground water in vicinity of Wichita Mountains southwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1983-01-01

    Urbanization and industrial growth have increased demands on water supplies in the vicinity of the Wichita Mountains in southwestern Oklahoma. The principal city, Lawton, uses surface water, supplemented by small quantities of ground water from the Arbuckle Group (Cambrian-Ordovician), for industrial and recreational use. During periods of drought, surface-water supplies in the Wichita Mountains area are not adequate to meet fully the increased water demands. An alternative source of water may be ground water from the Arbuckle Group. Other urban and rural consumers use ground water from Quaternary alluvium, the Rush Springs Formation (Permian), or the Arbuckle Group.

  7. 77 FR 13073 - Designation for the Jamestown, ND; Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration... October 20, 2011. In the Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA areas, Lincoln, Midsouth, and Sioux... (901) 942-3216 4/1/2012 3/31/2015 Sioux City Sioux City, IA......... (712) 255-8073 4/1/2012...

  8. Federal Aviation Administration Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  9. Martin Van Buren Elementary School, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Describes the title building, including educational context and design goals. Includes a general description; information on the architect, construction team, and manufacturers and suppliers; and a case study of costs and specifications. (EV)

  10. Texas-Oklahoma

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... major geographic features. The south bank of the Red River marks the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma. Traversing brush-covered ... flow eastward, their waters eventually discharging into the Mississippi River. A smoke plume to the north of the Ouachita Mountains and ...

  11. Oklahoma and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with Oklahoma and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to…

  12. 76 FR 42723 - Land Acquisitions; Osage Nation of Oklahoma

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Land Acquisitions; Osage Nation of Oklahoma AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... made a final agency determination to acquire approximately 15 acres of land, known as ``OMDE Ponca City...) that notice be given to the public of the Secretary's decision to acquire land in trust at least...

  13. FGD gypsum application: Impacts on soil P from city parks in the Tampa area

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling excessive P loss from agricultural fields has become a major issue in recent years. However, managed city parks may also contribute to P loss. Thus, a study was conducted at three different city parks located in the Tampa Area to evaluate the use of FGD gypsum as an amendment to reduce w...

  14. EPA Brownfields Grant Will Aid City of Spokane with Plans to Revitalize Hillyard Industrial Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - March 17, 2015) The City of Spokane, Washington has been selected to receive a $200,000 Brownfields Area-Wide Planning (AWP) grant from EPA to help move towards the goal of revitalizing a former industrial property in their city.

  15. Nature in cities. Renaturalization of riverbanks in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, Anna Marta; Mascarenhas, Jorge Morarji R. Dias

    2016-12-01

    Most of the rehabilitations of river sections with their banks in cities has often been inappropriate. The reason for this is that designers do not understand the natural functioning of a river and they are synthesizing and sterilizing these urban spaces, distorting its natural functioning. Besides, there are clear proofs that these rehabilitations are useless, contributing to the devaluation of the river ecosystem without improving its relationships with the city. The other effect of the water lines destructions are the educational terms, broadcasting a wrong idea of the functioning of the river. This article tries to show briefly, how a river works, what arethe natural characteristicswhich should be valued by a rehabilitation and what has gone wrong in recent rehabilitation works. Using the theoretical drawings, based on examples from real life, and supported by photographs, the authors present also the possible negative consequences of the urban mistakes for the sake of operating of cities. The paper shows some techniques of natural engineering, using natural materials and vegetation that may be employed. This may become a green intervention, making these techniques much more economic and educational, improving life quality thanks to public access to attractive parks and squares by rivers.

  16. Heat flow in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranganu, Constantin

    Twenty new heat flow values are incorporated, along with 40 previously published data, into a heat flow map of Oklahoma. The new heat flow data were estimated using previous temperature measurements in boreholes made by American Petroleum Institute researchers and 1,498 thermal conductivity measurements on drill cuttings. The mean of 20 average thermal gradients is 30.50sp°C/km. In general, thermal gradients increase from SW (14.11sp°C/km) to NE (42.24sp°C/km). The range of 1,498 in situ thermal conductivity measurements (after corrections for anisotropy, in situ temperature, and porosity) is 0.90-6.1 W/m-K; the average is 1.68 W/m-K. Estimated near-surface heat flow (±20%) at 20 new sites in Oklahoma varies between 22 ± 4 mW/msp2 and 86 ± 17 mW/msp2; the average is 50 mW/msp2. Twenty-seven new heat-generation estimates, along with 22 previously published data, are used to create a heat generation map of Oklahoma. The range of heat production estimates is 1.1-3.5 muW/msp3, with an average of 2.5 muW/msp3. The heat flow regime in Oklahoma is primarily conductive in nature, except for a zone in northeast. Transient effects due to sedimentary processes and metamorphic/igneous activity, as well as past climatic changes, do not significantly influence the thermal state of the Oklahoma crust. Heat flow near the margins of the Arkoma and Anadarko Basins may be depressed or elevated by 5-13 mW/msp2 by refraction of heat from sedimentary rocks of relatively low thermal conductivity (1-2 W/m-K) into crystalline basement rocks of relatively high thermal conductivity (˜3-4 W/m-K). The heat generation-heat flow relationship shows a modest correlation. The relatively high heat flow (˜70-80 mW/msp2) in part of northeastern Oklahoma suggests that the thermal regime there may be perturbed by regional groundwater flow originating in the fractured outcrops of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in the Arbuckle Mountains.

  17. Evaluation of groundwater and surface-water interactions in the Caddo Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Caddo County, Oklahoma, 2010-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2014-01-01

    Streamflows, springs, and wetlands are important natural and cultural resources to the Caddo Nation. Consequently, the Caddo Nation is concerned about the vulnerability of the Rush Springs aquifer to overdrafting and whether the aquifer will continue to be a viable source of water to tribal members and other local residents in the future. Interest in the long-term viability of local water resources has resulted in ongoing development of a comprehensive water plan by the Caddo Nation. As part of a multiyear project with the Caddo Nation to provide information and tools to better manage and protect water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey studied the hydraulic connection between the Rush Springs aquifer and springs and streams overlying the aquifer. The Caddo Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area is located in southwestern Oklahoma, primarily in Caddo County. Underlying the Caddo Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area is the Permian-age Rush Springs aquifer. Water from the Rush Springs aquifer is used for irrigation, public, livestock and aquaculture, and other supply purposes. Groundwater from the Rush Springs aquifer also is withdrawn by domestic (self-supplied) wells, although domestic use was not included in the water-use summary in this report. Perennial streamflow in many streams and creeks overlying the Rush Springs aquifer, such as Cobb Creek, Lake Creek, and Willow Creek, originates from springs and seeps discharging from the aquifer. This report provides information on the evaluation of groundwater and surface-water resources in the Caddo Nation Jurisdictional Area, and in particular, information that describes the hydraulic connection between the Rush Springs aquifer and springs and streams overlying the aquifer. This report also includes data and analyses of base flow, evidence for groundwater and surface-water interactions, locations of springs and wetland areas, groundwater flows interpreted from potentiometric-surface maps, and hydrographs of water levels

  18. Seismicity and tectonic relationships of the Nemaha Uplift in Oklahoma. Part V. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr.

    1983-02-01

    The Nemaha Ridge is composed of a number of crustal blocks typically 3 to 5 miles (5 to 8 km) wide and 5 to 20 miles (8 to 32 km) long. Structure-contour maps prepared of the top of the Viola Formation (Ordovician), the base of the Pennsylvanian, and the top of the Oswego Formation (Middle Pennsylvanian) reveal a complex fault pattern associated with the Nemaha Uplift. This fault pattern is dominated by several discontinuous uplifts, such as the Oklahoma City, Lovell, Garber, and Crescent Uplifts. A detailed study of the Oklahoma City Uplift suggests that a number of the Nemaha-related faults were developed in pre-Mississippian time. Many of these faults exhibit both increasing and decreasing displacements from early to late Paleozoic time. However, the displacement for most of the Oklahoma City faults took place between the end of Oswego time and the end of Hunton time. A lineament map was prepared for north-central Oklahoma. A detailed gravity map was prepared for the Kingfisher and Medford maxima. A total-intensity aeromagnetic map for the Enid and Oklahoma City 1/sup 0/ by 2/sup 0/ Quadrangles was prepared. A regional seismograph network was established to supplement existing seismological capability. A local earthquake-location program, named HYPERCUBE, was developed. From 1897 through 1976, Oklahoma has had approximately 128 known earthquakes. After the network became operational in late 1977, 255 additional earthquakes were detected in Oklahoma (through 1981). A study of earthquake distribution and intensity values in Oklahoma led to the development of a seismic-source map for Oklahoma and parts of the adjacent states. Six seismic-source zones were identified. For each zone except one, a magnitude-frequency relationship was determined.

  19. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in big cities of the European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    PubMed

    de Vries, G; Aldridge, R W; Cayla, J A; Haas, W H; Sandgren, A; van Hest, N A; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared.

  20. Oklahoma seismic network. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. |

    1993-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established rigorous guidelines that must be adhered to before a permit to construct a nuclear-power plant is granted to an applicant. Local as well as regional seismicity and structural relationships play an integral role in the final design criteria for nuclear power plants. The existing historical record of seismicity is inadequate in a number of areas of the Midcontinent region because of the lack of instrumentation and (or) the sensitivity of the instruments deployed to monitor earthquake events. The Nemaha Uplift/Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly is one of five principal areas east of the Rocky Mountain front that has a moderately high seismic-risk classification. The Nemaha uplift, which is common to the states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, is approximately 415 miles long and 12-14 miles wide. The Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly extends southward from Minnesota across Iowa and the southeastern corner of Nebraska and probably terminates in central Kansas. A number of moderate-sized earthquakes--magnitude 5 or greater--have occurred along or west of the Nemaha uplift. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, in cooperation with the geological surveys of Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, conducted a 5-year investigation of the seismicity and tectonic relationships of the Nemaha uplift and associated geologic features in the Midcontinent. This investigation was intended to provide data to be used to design nuclear-power plants. However, the information is also being used to design better large-scale structures, such as dams and high-use buildings, and to provide the necessary data to evaluate earthquake-insurance rates in the Midcontinent.

  1. Social differences in avoidable mortality between small areas of 15 European cities: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health and inequalities in health among inhabitants of European cities are of major importance for European public health and there is great interest in how different health care systems in Europe perform in the reduction of health inequalities. However, evidence on the spatial distribution of cause-specific mortality across neighbourhoods of European cities is scarce. This study presents maps of avoidable mortality in European cities and analyses differences in avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods with different levels of deprivation. Methods We determined the level of mortality from 14 avoidable causes of death for each neighbourhood of 15 large cities in different European regions. To address the problems associated with Standardised Mortality Ratios for small areas we smooth them using the Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Ecological regression analysis was used to assess the association between social deprivation and mortality. Results Mortality from avoidable causes of death is higher in deprived neighbourhoods and mortality rate ratios between areas with different levels of deprivation differ between gender and cities. In most cases rate ratios are lower among women. While Eastern and Southern European cities show higher levels of avoidable mortality, the association of mortality with social deprivation tends to be higher in Northern and lower in Southern Europe. Conclusions There are marked differences in the level of avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods of European cities and the level of avoidable mortality is associated with social deprivation. There is no systematic difference in the magnitude of this association between European cities or regions. Spatial patterns of avoidable mortality across small city areas can point to possible local problems and specific strategies to reduce health inequality which is important for the development of urban areas and the well-being of their inhabitants. PMID:24618273

  2. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  3. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  4. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  5. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  6. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  7. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  8. Report on water supply for the proposed Southwestern Reformatory at El Reno, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, S.F.

    1931-01-01

    The investigation on which this report is based was made in response to a request from the Bureau of Prisons, United States Department of Justice, for advice in regard to the development of a water supply for the proposed Southwestern Reformatory on the Fort Reno Military Reservation, 2 miles west of El Reno, Oklahoma. The tract set aside for the reformatory includes sec. 12 and the eastern half of sec. 11, T. 12 N, R. 8 W., and is about 1,000 acres in area. The proposed building site is in the north-central part of sec. 12, on a flat-topped hill just north of well No. 69. (See Plate 1.) It is understood that a maximum of 1,200 inmates is contemplated for this reformatory and that a water supply of about 120,000 gallons a day, or 85 gallons a minute, will be required in the summer. However, the potential capacity of the wells should be somewhat greater than 85 gallons a minute to allow for decline in yield. The author, who was assigned to this work by the United States Geological Survey, arrived in Oklahoma City April 21, 1931, and spent one week in field work in the area. After a conference with Dr. C.N. Gould, State Geologist of Oklahoma, it was decided that the possible sources of ground water to be investigated were the 'Red Beds' underlying the whole area, the Tertiary sands capping the hills north of the North Canadian River, and the river alluvium in the North Canadian River Valley. The area in which field work was done is shown on Plate 1 and includes approximately 105 square miles, lying chiefly north and west of El Reno, the county seat of Canadian County. (available as photostat copy only)

  9. Definition of the Catchment Area for a Small Rural Hospital Near a Large City

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Practicing physicians, hospital directors, members of the hospital's board of directors and government health care planners can benefit from an accurate description of a hospital catchment area. The sociodemographic and geographic characteristics of the catchment area of Wakefield, PQ.'s 31-bed Gatineau Memorial Hospital (GMH) were studied. A randomized, door-to-door survey was conducted among permanent residents in the catchment area. The response rate was 96.1%. We found language to be an important and complex determinant of hospital utilization patterns. Orientation towards the city also affected the pattern of hospital use; those who lived between Wakefield and Ottawa-Hull were more likely to use a city hospital, as were those who had recently moved to the area, or who commuted to work in the city. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:21279011

  10. Pseudocholinesterase Enzyme Deficiency in Adıyaman City Area

    PubMed Central

    Abdullayev, Ruslan; Küçükebe, Ömer Burak; Kaya, Recai; Çelik, Bülent; Kuşderci, Hatice; Duran, Mehmet; Uludağ, Öznur; Öterkuş, Mesut; Buyrukcan, Aysel; Sabuncu, Ülkü; Arpacı, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pseudocholinesterase (PChE) is an enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of succinylcholine. In case of its deficiency, the effect of succinylcholine that is approximately 5–10 min is prolonged up to few hours. The use of succinylcholine has been declined recently. However, it is still actively used in some special conditions and in developing countries. In this study, incidence of PChE enzyme deficiency around Adiyaman city was investigated and presented with the literature review. Methods After obtaining an approval from the investigational board of our hospital (Adiyaman University Medical School, Biomedical Research Ethics Board, 30.12.2012, Nr: B.30.2.ADY.0.20.00-600/51), patients undergoing any elective operation under general anaesthesia in the Adiyaman University Medical School Hospital between March and December 2013 were recruited for the study. After obtaining the patients’ written consents, blood PChE, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea, creatinine, international normalisation ratio (INR) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) values of the patients were analysed. Possible association of the PChE deficiency with other values was also investigated. The normal value of PChE was taken as 4260–11250 for females aged 16–40 years and 5320–12920 U L−1 for other patients. Results The study was completed with 964 patients, 702 (72.8%) of whom were females. PChE enzyme levels were under the normal in 7.2% of the patients. There were no correlation between patient group, ALT, INR, aPTT and creatinine elevation with PChE deficiency (p>0.05), whereas AST and urea level elevation was significantly associated with PChE deficiency (p<0.05). The risk of PChE deficiency was 4.5 and 9 times higher in the patients with the elevation of AST and urea levels, respectively. Conclusion Pathological elevations of AST and urea that are a part of normal pre-operative biochemical analysis of blood will indicate the

  11. Naturally Occurring Arsenic in Ground Water, Norman, Oklahoma, 2004, and Remediation Options for Produced Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Christenson, Scott

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reviewed the arsenic drinking water standard for public water supplies. Considering the available research and statistics on the health effects of arsenic ingestion, the EPA reduced the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for public drinking water from 50 micrograms per liter (?g/L) to 10 ?g/L (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001a). As a result of the more stringent standard, the EPA estimates that about 3,000 public water providers across the United States must take action to meet the new standard before it becomes effective on January 23, 2006 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001b). The City of Norman (City) is one of several Oklahoma municipalities affected by the new arsenic standard. About 20 percent of Norman?s water is supplied by wells completed in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer; the rest is supplied by Lake Thunderbird (fig. 1) or purchased from Oklahoma City. The Norman well field is composed of 24 active wells, and water produced from about half of the wells will not be in compliance with the new MCL (figs. 2 and 3). Chemical treatment of water with elevated arsenic is possible, but it is generally cost prohibitive. Another costly solution is simply to abandon the high-arsenic wells and replace them with new wells in low-arsenic areas. In the next phase of well construction beginning in 2005, the City plans to construct as many as 30 new wells in northeast Norman (Bryan Mitchell, City of Norman, oral commun., 2005). The new wells will replace production lost to the new arsenic standard and add new production to keep pace with rapidly growing consumer demand. Well modification to exclude arsenic-bearing water from existing wells is a more cost-effective solution, but it requires a great deal of knowledge about local aquifer properties and individual well dynamics to decide which wells are good candidates for modification. With the goal of determining if well modification

  12. 40 CFR 81.123 - Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.123 Section 81.123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.123 Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  13. 40 CFR 81.123 - Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.123 Section 81.123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.123 Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  14. 40 CFR 81.125 - Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.125 Section 81.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.125 Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  15. Techniques for estimating flood discharges for Oklahoma streams; techniques for calculating magnitude and frequency of floods in Oklahoma from rural and urban areas under 2500 square miles, with compilations of flood data through 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, W.O.; Corley, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    Statewide regression equations are defined for estimating peak discharges of floods having recurrence intervals ranging from 2 to 500 years. Contributing drainage area, main-channel slope and mean annual precipitation are the independent variables required for estimating flood discharges for rural streams. For urban streams the percentage of the basin that is impervious and served by storm sewers also is required. The regression equations are applicable for watersheds draining less than 2,500 square miles (6,500 square kilometers) that are not significantly affected by regulation. For the rural streams, the regression equations are presented in graphical form for easy application. Calibration of the U.S. Geological Survey rainfall-runoff model and synthesis of long-term annual peak data for 60 small watersheds is discussed. Synthetic frequency curves, generated using six long-term rainfall stations, are combined into one frequency curve and weighted with the observed frequency curve at each site. Use of the rainfall-runoff model parameters to estimate flood discharges reduces the standard error for selected frequencies by 9-12 percent. However, collection of the necessary rainfall-runoff data to determine the model parameters is time consuming and expensive. Annual peak data, basin and climatic characteristics, log-Pearson Type III statistics, and the flood-frequency relations are presented for 188 gaging stations. (PHOTOSTATIC COPIES ONLY ARE AVAILABLE OF THIS REPORT)

  16. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in amenable mortality in urban areas of Spanish cities, 1996–2007

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While research continues into indicators such as preventable and amenable mortality in order to evaluate quality, access, and equity in the healthcare, it is also necessary to continue identifying the areas of greatest risk owing to these causes of death in urban areas of large cities, where a large part of the population is concentrated, in order to carry out specific actions and reduce inequalities in mortality. This study describes inequalities in amenable mortality in relation to socioeconomic status in small urban areas, and analyses their evolution over the course of the periods 1996–99, 2000–2003 and 2004–2007 in three major cities in the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Alicante, Castellón, and Valencia). Methods All deaths attributed to amenable causes were analysed among non-institutionalised residents in the three cities studied over the course of the study periods. Census tracts for the cities were grouped into 3 socioeconomic status levels, from higher to lower levels of deprivation, using 5 indicators obtained from the 2001 Spanish Population Census. For each city, the relative risks of death were estimated between socioeconomic status levels using Poisson’s Regression models, adjusted for age and study period, and distinguishing between genders. Results Amenable mortality contributes significantly to general mortality (around 10%, higher among men), having decreased over time in the three cities studied for men and women. In the three cities studied, with a high degree of consistency, it has been seen that the risks of mortality are greater in areas of higher deprivation, and that these excesses have not significantly modified over time. Conclusions Although amenable mortality decreases over the time period studied, the socioeconomic inequalities observed are maintained in the three cities. Areas have been identified that display excesses in amenable mortality, potentially attributable to differences in the healthcare system

  17. Relation of Shallow Water Quality in the Central Oklahoma Aquifer to Geology, Soils, and Land Use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, Alan H.; Christenson, Scott C.; Andrews, William J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify, describe, and explain relations between natural and land-use factors and ground-water quality in the Central Oklahoma aquifer NAWQA study unit. Natural factors compared to water quality included the geologic unit in which the sampled wells were completed and the properties of soils in the areas surrounding the wells. Land-use factors included types of land use and population densities surrounding sampled wells. Ground-water quality was characterized by concentrations of inorganic constituents, and by frequencies of detection of volatile organic compounds and pesticides. Water-quality data were from samples collected from wells 91 meters (300 feet) or less in depth as part of Permian and Quaternary geologic unit survey networks and from an urban survey network. Concentrations of many inorganic constituents were significantly related to geology. In addition, concentrations of many inorganic constituents were greater in water from wells from the Oklahoma City urban sampling network than in water from wells from low-density survey networks designed to evaluate ambient water quality in the Central Oklahoma aquifer study unit. However, sampling bias may have been induced by differences in hydrogeologic factors between sampling networks, limiting the ability to determine land-use effects on concentrations of inorganic constituents. Frequencies of detection of pesticide and volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in ground-water samples were related to land use and population density, with these compounds being more frequently detected in densely-populated areas. Geology and soil properties were not significantly correlated to pesticide or VOC occurrence in ground water. Lesser frequencies of detection of pesticides in water from wells in rural areas may be due to low to moderate use of those compounds on agricultural lands in the study unit, with livestock production being the primary agricultural activity. There are many possible

  18. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 4, Oklahoma, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Paul D.

    1996-01-01

    The two States, Oklahoma and Texas, that compose Segment 4 of this Atlas are located in the south-central part of the Nation. These States are drained by numerous rivers and streams, the largest being the Arkansas, the Canadian, the Red, the Sabine, the Trinity, the Brazos, the Colorado, and the Pecos Rivers and the Rio Grande. Many of these rivers and their tributaries supply large amounts of water for human use, mostly in the eastern parts of the two States. The large perennial streams in the east with their many associated impoundments coincide with areas that have dense populations. Large metropolitan areas such as Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Okla., and Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, and Austin, Tex., are supplied largely or entirely by surface water. However, in 1985 more than 7.5 million people, or about 42 percent of the population of the two States, depended on ground water as a source of water supply. The metropolitan areas of San Antonio and El Paso, Tex., and numerous smaller communities depend largely or entirely on ground water for their source of supply. The ground water is contained in aquifers that consist of unconsolidated deposits and consolidated sedimentary rocks. This chapter describes the geology and hydrology of each of the principal aquifers throughout the two-State area. Precipitation is the source of all the water in Oklahoma and Texas. Average annual precipitation ranges from about 8 inches per year in southwestern Texas to about 56 inches per year in southeastern Texas (fig. 1). In general, precipitation increases rather uniformly from west to east in the two States. Much of the precipitation either flows directly into rivers and streams as overland runoff or indirectly as base flow that discharges from aquifers where the water has been stored for some time. Accordingly, the areal distribution of average annual runoff from 1951 to 1980 (fig. 2) reflects that of average annual precipitation. Average annual runoff in the two-State area ranges

  19. Water resources of the Park City area, Utah, with emphasis on ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Walter F.; Thompson, Kendall R.; Enright, Michael

    1986-01-01

    The Park City area is a rapidly growing residential and recreational area about 30 miles east of Sal t Lake City (fig. 1). The area of study is about 140 square miles in which the principle industries are agriculture, skiing, and other recreational activities. The area once was a major lead- and silver-mining district, but no mines were active in 1984. A resumption in mining activity, however, could take place with an increase in the price of metals.The population of the Park City area is expected to increase rapidly in the near future; and the provision of an adequate water supply for the growing population, while avoiding harmful affects of development, is a major concern for local municipalities, developers, and the Utah Division of Water Rights. In addition, agricultural interests in and below the area are concerned about the effects of increased ground-water withdrawals on streamflow, which is fully appropriated by downstream users. The area also contains the proposed site for the Jordanelle dam, a part of the Bonneville unit of the central Utah Project. The damsite is near an historic mining area; and mining companies are concerned that if mining is resumed, the reservoir may create some additional dewatering problems in the mines.

  20. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a)...

  1. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a)...

  2. Oklahoma Downbursts and Their Asymmetry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    DTIC ELECTE 0 D Michael D. Elits Richard J. Dovtak National Severe Storms Laboratory 1313 Halley Circle Norman, OK 73096 November 1986 Final Report This...Name and Address 10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) National Severe Storms Laboratory 1313 Halley Circle 11. Contract or Grant No. Norman, OK 73069 DTFAO1-80...Oklahoma thunderstorm environment. Sounding is for 27 May 1984 at 1330 CST from Edmond , Oklahoma. Downburst case 1 occurred on this day. Vi LIST OF

  3. 77 FR 56608 - Designation for the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... Designation for the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection....... 10/1/2012 9/30/2015 Ohio Valley Evansville, IN (812) 423-9010... 10/1/2012 9/30/2015 Utah Salt...

  4. SITE CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA AT THE USCG SUPPORT CENTER, ELIZABETH CITY, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chrome source area is located beneath an old electroplating shop at the United States Coast Guard Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC . This electroplating shop was in
    use for approximately 30 years until 1984 and was the source of discharges of chromic and sulfuric...

  5. Business Use of Small Computers in the Salt Lake City, Utah Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homer, Michael M.

    In July 1981, Utah Technical College (UTC) conducted a survey of businesses in the Salt Lake City area to gather information for the development of a curriculum integrating computer applications with business course instruction. The survey sought to determine the status and usage of current micro/mini computer equipment, future data processing…

  6. EPA Brownfields Grant Will Aid City of St. Helens with Plans to Revitalize Waterfront Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - March 17, 2015) The City of St. Helens, Oregon has been selected to receive a $200,000 Brownfields Area-Wide Planning (AWP) grant from EPA to help move towards the goal of revitalizing a former industrial property along the Columbia River waterf

  7. Road Climate in Cities: A Study of the Stockholm Area, South-East Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Torbjörn; Bogren, Jörgen; Green, Cecilia

    2001-12-01

    The difference between air and road surface temperature in urban and rural areas is an important consideration when modelling the road climate. In this study the effect of the urban heat island in the Stockholm area on road climate is examined. Factors such as distance from the city centre, traffic and topography are analysed in order to assess their impact on the spatial variation of road and air temperature.

  8. Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP)

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, S; Strauss, M J; Snow, J; Rizatdinova, F; Abbott, B; Babu, K; Gutierrez, P; Kao, C; Khanov, A; Milton, K A; Neaman, H; H Severini, P Skubic

    2012-02-29

    The DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, with the support from the State of Oklahoma and from the three universities, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma and Langston University, resulted in establishing of the Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP) in 2004. Currently, OCHEP continues to flourish as a vibrant hub for research in experimental and theoretical particle physics and an educational center in the State of Oklahoma. All goals of the original proposal were successfully accomplished. These include foun- dation of a new experimental particle physics group at OSU, the establishment of a Tier 2 computing facility for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Tevatron data analysis at OU and organization of a vital particle physics research center in Oklahoma based on resources of the three universities. OSU has hired two tenure-track faculty members with initial support from the grant funds. Now both positions are supported through OSU budget. This new HEP Experimental Group at OSU has established itself as a full member of the Fermilab D0 Collaboration and LHC ATLAS Experiment and has secured external funds from the DOE and the NSF. These funds currently support 2 graduate students, 1 postdoctoral fellow, and 1 part-time engineer. The grant initiated creation of a Tier 2 computing facility at OU as part of the Southwest Tier 2 facility, and a permanent Research Scientist was hired at OU to maintain and run the facility. Permanent support for this position has now been provided through the OU university budget. OCHEP represents a successful model of cooperation of several universities, providing the establishment of critical mass of manpower, computing and hardware resources. This led to increasing Oklahoma's impact in all areas of HEP, theory, experiment, and computation. The Center personnel are involved in cutting edge research in experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of High Energy Physics with the research areas ranging from the

  9. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. 165.556 Section 165.556 Navigation and..., Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. (a) Location. The following area is a regulated navigation area: All waters of the Chesapeake and Delaware (C & D) Canal within the anchorage basin at Chesapeake...

  10. 40 CFR 81.337 - Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Washington County AQCR 187 Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Alfalfa County Beaver... AQCR 187 Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Alfalfa County Beaver County Blaine... Unclassifiable/Attainment. Atoka County Unclassifiable/Attainment. Beaver County...

  11. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? 102... is not a central city in a metropolitan area? If an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area, then the agency must give first consideration...

  12. Damage costs produced by electric power plants: an externality valuation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Macías, P; Islas, J

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents an estimate of the externalities produced in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) through the impacts on health caused by secondary pollutants attributed to seven electric power plants located outside this area. An original method was developed to make possible a simplified application of the impact pathway approach to estimate the damage costs in the specified area. Our estimate shows that the annual costs attributed to secondary pollutants total 71 million USD (min/max 20/258 million USD). Finally, this paper discusses basic ideas on the implications for energy policy arising from this exercise in externality valuation.

  13. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    J. Ford Brett; Robert V. Westermark

    2000-09-30

    This Technical Quarterly Report is for the reporting period July 1, 2000 to September 30, 2000. The report provides details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma''. The project is divided into nine separate tasks. Since this is the first Quarterly report, much of the work done is of a preliminary nature. Several of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, while other tasks are dependent on earlier tasks being completed. The selection of the pilot test area has been completed. The drilling of the test well is waiting on rig availability. Phillips has begun sonic core testing of offset cores, waiting on the core from the well to be drilled. Design work is progressing for the tool, which will be built to fit the test well. Installation of monitoring equipment and the downhole vibration tool will occur after the well is drilled. Technical transfer efforts have begun with the submission of an abstract for a technical paper for the Oklahoma City Society of Petroleum Engineers meeting in March 2001.

  14. Oklahoma's Federally-Recognized Indian Tribes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City. Indian Education Section.

    This document compiles lesson plans, classroom activities, and facts from previous Oklahoma state publications about Oklahoma's American Indian peoples. "Oklahoma's Indian People: Images of Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow" contains brief presentations and related class activities and writing assignments about the histories of…

  15. Oklahoma Higher Education: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denhart, Matthew; Matgouranis, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A major headline in recent years has been that cash-strapped state governments are cutting back support for many services, including public higher education. Oklahoma is no different. Indeed, in the most recent state budget crafted by Oklahoma policymakers, Oklahoma's public colleges and universities received a 5.8 percent cut in state…

  16. [Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Barbosa Prieto, A

    1991-12-01

    Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion

  17. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the State of Oklahoma. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater,…

  18. 78 FR 45282 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00073

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00073 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely affected by the disaster. Primary...

  19. Residential moves by elderly persons to U.S. central cities, suburbs, and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Golant, S M

    1987-09-01

    The 1975-1980 migration stream and net migration patterns of persons younger than 65 and 65 + were examined using data from the 1980 U.S. Census. Central cities and suburbs of metropolitan areas (SMSAs) and nonmetropolitan areas (NonSMSAs) were distinguished as origins and destinations. Most elderly movers relocated within a fairly limited geographic context and revealed strong preferences for metropolitan living. Suburban locations were more favored than central city locations. Net migration findings may provide misleading interpretations of older movers' locational choices. The migration patterns of the 65 + population were similar to those of the 45- to 64-year-old population but differed from those of the more youthful U.S. populations. These findings highlight migration streams of elderly movers who likely have experienced changed in their life styles or personal resources.

  20. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... considered the factors in 12 U.S.C. 4564(b). A statement documenting HUD's considerations and findings with... of mortgages financing housing in areas that are underserved in terms of mortgage credit. (b)...

  1. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... considered the factors in 12 U.S.C. 4564(b). A statement documenting HUD's considerations and findings with... of mortgages financing housing in areas that are underserved in terms of mortgage credit. (b)...

  2. Deterioration of marble. A retrospective analysis of tombstone measurements in the New York City area

    SciTech Connect

    Husar, R.B.; Patterson, D.E.; Baer, N.S.

    1985-03-01

    A data base of tombstone thickness and depth of emblem inscription at Veterans Administration cemeteries has been compiled by New York University. A subset of measurements for two cemeteries in the vicinity of New York City was selected for analysis in this study. For comparable meteorological conditions, different weathering rates of fine grain marble tombstones were observed for the two cemeteries. Tombstones in the Cypress Hills cemetery, which is located within an industrial area, were observed to have higher rates than similar stones in the semi-rural area of the Long Island cemetery. By using a retrospective air-quality model, which is described in another publication, to predict SO/sub 2/ concentrations in New York City from 1880 to 1980, concentration trends of SO/sub 2/ were estimated for both cemeteries. A linear relationship was found to exist between the weathering rates and estimated SO/sub 2/ concentrations. A value of 10 mm per century per ppm of SO/sub 2/ was derived as the best estimate for the weathering coefficient of fine grain marble for the New York City area.

  3. The influence of urban reconstruction in urban heat island effect: Cangxia area of Fuzhou City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fei; Xu, Hanqiu

    2010-09-01

    The urban development is usually accompanied with the re-planning and reconstruction of the old urban area, which is one of the key issues of the urban development program. Over the past decade, Fuzhou City of Fujian province, SE China, has speeded up its reconstruction progress. The Cangxia area, located in the southwestern of the city, was replaned and reconstructed to improve people's living conditions because the area was full of intensively-built squatter settlements. In order to study the thermal environmental changes of the Cangxia area before and after the reconstruction, three Landsat TM images of 1986, 1996 and 2006 were utilized to perform feature extractions of the thermal-related information of the area, such as the land surface temperature (LST), impervious surface area (ISA) and vegetation coverage. The quantitative analysis on the relationship between ISA and LST suggested a positive exponential relationship between the two factors. With the assistance of the Urban-Heat-Island Ratio Index (URI), the digital image processing on the three multi-temporal images revealed the spatial and temporal variations of the urban heat island (UHI) effect in the investigated area from 1986 to 2006. The results showed that after the launch of the reconstruction project of this squatter settlement-dominated area, the UHI effect in the area had been greatly mitigated in the past 20 years, since the URI value had been decreased from 0.648 in 1986 to 0.245 in 2006. This owes greatly to the significant decrease in high-density ISAs and the notable increase in vegetation covers. The reconstruction is of benefit to the UHI mitigation of the Cangxia area.

  4. Applications of ERTS imagery to mappings sediments of the Twin Cities Metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppe, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    ERTS images were compared to surficial geologic maps, prepared through traditional field studies. Lithologic boundaries, bedrock outcrops, bedrock structures, and geomorphologic features were examined. An area southeast of the Twin Cities, located chiefly in northern Dakota County was studied, as well as the New Brighton 15-minute quadrangle located in portions of Ramsey and Anoka Counties. Visual comparison of geologic maps and ERTS imagery demonstrated the limitations of this approach to geological investigations. Bedrock outcrops and bedrock structure in the metropolitan area do not appear on ERTS imagery. However, certain glacial sediments can be identified and are potentially mappable. Certain geomorphological features were also discernable.

  5. Geologic and hydrologic aspects of tunneling in the Twin Cities area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norvitch, Ralph F.; Walton, Matt S.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the results of a pilot study of geologic and hydrologic aspects of tunneling in part of the Minneapolis-St. Paul (Twin Cities) metropolitan area, Minnesota. The Minnesota Geological Survey collected, compiled and interpreted geologic and engineering-test data and the U.S. Geological Survey complies and interpreted hydrologic data. The report was prepared on behalf of the U.S. Department of Transportation and funding was provided by that agency. A similar pilot study was recently made in the Los Angeles area, California (Yerkes and others, 1977).

  6. Storm surge modeling of Superstorm Sandy in the New York City Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benimoff, A. I.; Blanton, B. O.; Dzedzits, E.; Fritz, W. J.; Kress, M.; Muzio, P.; Sela, L.

    2013-12-01

    Even though the New York/New Jersey area does not lie within the typical 'hurricane belt', recent events and the historical record indicate that large infrequent tropical storms have had direct hits on the region, with impacts being amplified due to the nearly right angle bend in the coastline. The recent plan unveiled by New York City's Mayor Bloomberg lays out mitigation strategies to protect the region's communities, infrastructure, and assets from future storms, and numerical simulation of storm surge and wave hazards driven by potential hurricanes plays a central role in developing and evaluating these strategies. To assist in local planning, recovery, and decision-making, we have used the tide, storm surge, and wind wave model ADCIRC+SWAN to simulate storm surge in one of the most populated areas of the United States: the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. We have generated a new high-resolution triangular finite-element model grid for the region from recent USGS data as well as recent city topographic maps at 2-foot (0.6m) contour intervals, nautical charts, and details of shipping channels. Our hindcast simulations are compared against Superstorm Sandy. We used the City University of New York High Performance Computing Center's Cray XE6tm at the College of Staten Island for these simulations. Hindcasting and analysis of the Superstorm Sandy storm surge and waves indicates that our simulations produce a reasonable representation of actual events. The grid will be used in an ADCIRC-based forecasting system implementation for the region.

  7. Roles of surface water areas for water and solute cycle in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Kuroda, Keisuke; Do Thuan, An; Tran Thi Viet, Nga; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2013-04-01

    Hanoi city, the capital of Viet Nam, has developed beside the Red river. Recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced a large number of natural water areas such as lakes, ponds and canals not only in the central area but the suburban area. Contrary, the urbanization has increased artificial water areas such as pond for fish cultivation and landscaping. On the other hand, the urbanization has induced the inflow of waste water from households and various kinds of factories to these water areas because of delay of sewerage system development. Inflow of the waste water has induced eutrophication and pollution of these water areas. Also, there is a possibility of groundwater pollution by infiltration of polluted surface water. However, the role of these water areas for water cycle and solute transport is not clarified. Therefore, this study focuses on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city to evaluate appropriate land development and groundwater resource management. We are carrying out three approaches: a) understanding of geochemical characteristics of surface water and groundwater, b) monitoring of water levels of pond and groundwater, c) sampling of soil and pond sediment. Correlation between d18O and dD of precipitation (after GNIP), the Red River (after GNIR) and the water samples of this study showed that the groundwater is composed of precipitation, the Red River and surface water that has evaporation process. Contribution of the surface water with evaporation process was widely found in the study area. As for groundwater monitoring, the Holocene aquifers at two sites were in unconfined condition in dry season and the groundwater levels in the aquifer continued to increase through rainy season. The results of isotopic analysis and groundwater level monitoring showed that the surface water areas are one of the major groundwater sources. On the other hand, concentrations of dissolved Arsenic (filtered by 0.45um) in the pore

  8. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibrations Stimulation in Osage County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    J. Ford Brett; Robert V. Westermark

    2001-09-30

    This Technical Quarterly Report is for the reporting period July 1, 2001 to September 30, 2001. The report provides details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma''. The project is divided into nine separate tasks. Several of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, while other tasks are dependent on earlier tasks being completed. The vibration stimulation well is permitted as Well 111-W-27, section 8 T26N R6E Osage County Oklahoma. It was spud July 28, 2001 with Goober Drilling Rig No. 3. The well was drilled to 3090-feet cored, logged, cased and cemented. The Rig No.3 moved off August 6, 2001. Phillips Petroleum Co. has begun analyzing the cores recovered from the test well. Standard porosity, permeability and saturation measurements will be conducted. They will then begin the sonic stimulation core tests Calumet Oil Company, the operator of the NBU, has begun to collect both production and injection wells information to establish a baseline for the project in the pilot field test area. Green Country Submersible Pump Company, a subsidiary of Calumet Oil Company, will provide both the surface equipment and downhole tools to allow the Downhole Vibration Tool to be operated by a surface rod rotating system. The 7-inch Downhole Vibration Tool (DHVT) has been built and is ready for initial shallow testing. The shallow testing will be done in a temporarily abandoned well operated by Calumet Oil Co. in the Wynona waterflood unit. The data acquisition doghouse and rod rotating equipment have been placed on location in anticipation of the shallow test in Well No.20-12 Wynona Waterflood Unit. A notice of invention disclosure was submitted to the DOE Chicago Operations Office. DOE Case No.S-98,124 has been assigned to follow the documentation following the invention disclosure. A paper covering the material presented to the Oklahoma Geologic Survey (OGS)/DOE Annual Workshop in

  9. Contribution of natural and anthropogenic emissions to acid precipitation formation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, L.; Barrera, G.; Castellanos, L.; Moreno, D.

    1996-12-31

    The emissions of precursor compounds that contribute significantly the formation of acid precipitation in urban areas are associated with the burning of fossils fuels from mobile, area and point sources. In Mexico City, these include services, institutions and residences aggregated as area sources, as well as industrial point sources, including smelting, refinement of petroleum and power generation. In addition, dusts from soil erosion and lack of vegetation in the urban landscape contribute to modification of natural rain water. It is common knowledge that acid precipitation characterizes a large variety of compounds, as much related to precursor emissions as to prevailing environmental factors. This study attempts to establish the contribution of natural and anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions during the rainy season by analysis of spatial and temporal distributions, as of different ions in solution with rain water, as well as the modeling of wind patterns, as represented by using the arc/info software. This study`s results also show the geographic areas impacted by the acid rain phenomenon and the acidification rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the past 3 years.

  10. Determinants, Health Problems, and Food Insecurity in Urban Areas of the Largest City in Cape Verde

    PubMed Central

    Craveiro, Isabel; Alves, Daniela; Amado, Miguel; Santos, Zélia; Fortes, Argentina Tomar; Delgado, António Pedro; Correia, Artur; Gonçalves, Luzia

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization processes are intertwined with nutritional transition because there is easier access to food of low nutritional quality at reduced prices, changing dietary patterns and leading to an increase of non-communicable chronic diseases. This study aims to understand the perceptions for high blood pressure, obesity, and alcoholism, describing some interactions of these dimensions in the problem of food security in the city of Praia. A qualitative study was carried out under the framework of the research project “UPHI-STAT: Urban Planning and Health Inequalities—moving from macro to micro statistics”. Ten focus groups were conducted in three urban areas with distinct characteristics in the city of Praia, with a total of 48 participants. Participants reported frequent consumption of foods with poor nutritional quality, understanding the potential danger in terms of food security in the city of Praia. Easy access to and high levels of alcohol consumption, and poor quality of traditional drinks were mentioned by participants in the study areas. The impact of the economic situation on the possibility of access to safe and healthy options emerged as a differentiating factor. PMID:27879689

  11. Gasoline distribution cycle and vapor emissions in Mexico City metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, M.M.; Secora, I.S.; Gallegos, J.R.M.; Grapain, V.M.G.; Villegas, F.M.R.; Flores, L.A.M.

    1997-12-31

    Ozone in the main air pollutant in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). This kind of pollution is induced by the emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. According to Official Statistics National Air Pollution Quality Standard is exceeded over 300 days a year. Volatile hydrocarbons are generated in the cycle of storage transport and distribution of fuel (Gasoline Distribution Cycle). Above 17 millions of liters are handled daily in MCMA. Evaporative emission control is a complex task involving: floating roof tanks and vapor recovery units installation at bulk terminals and implementation of Phase 1 and Phase 2 vapor recovery systems at service stations. Since 1990, IMP has been involved in researching vapor emissions associated to gasoline storage and distribution cycle. Besides, the authors evaluate several technologies for bulk terminals and service stations. In this job, the authors present the results of an evaluation according to Mexican Official Standard of 500 vehicles. The gasoline vapors are trapped during refueling of cars and they are conduced to an equipment that includes an activated charcoal canister in order to adsorb them. Another Activated charcoal canister adsorbs ambient air as a reference. Experimental results showed that refueling hydrocarbon emissions are between 0.4 and 1.2 grams per liter with averages of 0.79 and 0.88 grams per liter according with two different gasoline types. These results were applied to Mexico City Vehicular fleet for the gasoline distribution cycle in order to obtain a total volatile hydrocarbon emission in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

  12. Determinants, Health Problems, and Food Insecurity in Urban Areas of the Largest City in Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Craveiro, Isabel; Alves, Daniela; Amado, Miguel; Santos, Zélia; Fortes, Argentina Tomar; Delgado, António Pedro; Correia, Artur; Gonçalves, Luzia

    2016-11-22

    Urbanization processes are intertwined with nutritional transition because there is easier access to food of low nutritional quality at reduced prices, changing dietary patterns and leading to an increase of non-communicable chronic diseases. This study aims to understand the perceptions for high blood pressure, obesity, and alcoholism, describing some interactions of these dimensions in the problem of food security in the city of Praia. A qualitative study was carried out under the framework of the research project "UPHI-STAT: Urban Planning and Health Inequalities-moving from macro to micro statistics". Ten focus groups were conducted in three urban areas with distinct characteristics in the city of Praia, with a total of 48 participants. Participants reported frequent consumption of foods with poor nutritional quality, understanding the potential danger in terms of food security in the city of Praia. Easy access to and high levels of alcohol consumption, and poor quality of traditional drinks were mentioned by participants in the study areas. The impact of the economic situation on the possibility of access to safe and healthy options emerged as a differentiating factor.

  13. 75 FR 73983 - Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B... information from airspace users and others concerning a proposal to revise the Class B airspace area at Salt... Terminal, 397 North 2370 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116. (3) The meeting on Thursday, February 3,...

  14. The Economic Impact of Higher Education on the Kansas City Metropolitan Area 1988-1989. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas City Regional Council for Higher Education, MO.

    A study was formally requested by the Kansas City Regional Council for Higher Education Institutional Research Directors' Group in the spring of 1990, to examine the economic impact of higher education on the Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, metropolitan area. An economic impact model was used which includes the four major components of direct…

  15. Continuous measurement of carbon black in a densely populated area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, O.; Ortinez, A.; Castro, T.; Espinoza, M. D. L. L.; Saavedra, I.; Carabali-Sandoval, G. A., Sr.; Páramo, V. H.; Gavilán, A.; Martínez-Arroyo, A.

    2014-12-01

    The black carbon (BC) is a byproduct of burning fossil fuels and is an important short-lived climate forcer because it absorbs solar radiation altering the Earth's radiative budget and climate. It is also an atmospheric pollutant that promotes reactions of other compounds in the atmosphere. Despite its importance for health and climate, in Mexico there are very few studies on ambient concentrations of BC in urban areas and virtually no information of continuous measurements over long periods (more than a month of measurements). So, in order to develop more efficient local and regional mitigation strategies and policies that allow reducing ambient concentrations of BC, it is necessary to know BC seasonal evolution, contribution to radiative budget and impacts on health. This study shows continuous measurements (from July 2013 to July 2014) of BC to perform an analysis of seasonal variations. The selected monitoring site is located at Iztapalapa, a densely populated area with high traffic on the southeastern part of Mexico City. BC concentrations were obtained by two aethalometers (Magee Scientific Company, models AET31 and AET42) placed 15 meters above the ground. The aethalometers operate in the wavelength range of 370-950 nm and use a standard value of mass absorption coefficient MAC = 10.8 m2/g to calculate BC environmental concentration. To correct the aethalometers readings to the conditions of Mexico City, it was employed MAC = to 6.7 m2/g, which was determined for PM2.5 with a carbon analyzer (UIC, Inc.) and represents the mass absorption coefficient of soot emitted in Mexico City. The average value of the corrected concentration of BC in Mexico City during the period from July 2013 to July 2014 was 5.39 ± 1.89 μg/m3 (1.6 higher than readings recorded by aethalometers), which is greater than that measured in Shanghai in 2014 (annual average 2.33 μg/m3) and those reported for some U.S. cities; the value implies a potential danger to the health of

  16. Continuous measurement of carbon black in a densely populated area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, Oscar; Ortinez, Abraham; Castro, Telma; Espinosa, Maria; Saavedra, Isabel; Alvarez, Harry; Basaldud, Roberto; Paramo, Víctor; Martínez, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The black carbon (BC) is a byproduct of burning fossil fuels and is an important short-lived climate forcer because it absorbs solar radiation altering the Earth's radiative budget and climate. It is also an atmospheric pollutant that promotes reactions of other compounds in the atmosphere. Despite its importance for health and climate, in Mexico there are very few studies on ambient concentrations of BC in urban areas and virtually no information of continuous measurements over long periods (more than a month of measurements). So, in order to develop more efficient local and regional mitigation strategies and policies that allow reducing ambient concentrations of BC, it is necessary to know BC seasonal evolution, contribution to radiative budget and impacts on health. This study shows continuous measurements (from July 2013 to July 2014) of BC to perform an analysis of seasonal variations. The selected monitoring site is located at Iztapalapa, a densely populated area with high traffic on the southeastern part of Mexico City. BC concentrations were obtained by two aethalometers (Magee Scientific Company, models AET31 and AET42) placed 15 meters above the ground. The aethalometers operate in the wavelength range of 370-950 nm and use a standard value of mass absorption coefficient MAC = 10.8 m2/g to calculate BC environmental concentration. To correct the aethalometers readings to the conditions of Mexico City, it was employed MAC = to 6.7 m2/g, which was determined for PM2.5 with a carbon analyzer (UIC, Inc.) and represents the mass absorption coefficient of soot emitted in Mexico City. The average value of the corrected concentration of BC in Mexico City during the period from July 2013 to July 2014 was 5.39 ± 1.89 μg/m3 (1.6 higher than readings recorded by aethalometers), which is greater than that measured in Shanghai in 2014 (annual average 2.33 μg/m3) and those reported for some U.S. cities; the value implies a potential danger to the health of

  17. Integrating UAV Flight outputs in Esri's CityEngine for semi-urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anca, Paula; Vasile, Alexandru; Sandric, Ionut

    2016-04-01

    One of the most pervasive technologies of recent years, which has crossed over into consumer products due to its lowering prince, is the UAV, commonly known as drones. Besides its ever-more accessible prices and growing functionality, what is truly impressive is the drastic reduction in processing time, from days to ours: from the initial flight preparation to the final output. This paper presents such a workflow and goes further by integrating the outputs into another growing technology: 3D. The software used for this purpose is Esri's CityEngine, which was developed for modeling 3D urban environments using existing 2D GIS data and computer generated architecture (CGA) rules, instead of modeling each feature individually. A semi-urban areas was selected for this study and captured using the E-Bee from Parrot. The output point cloud elevation from the E-Bee flight was transformed into a raster in order to be used as an elevation surface in CityEngine, and the mosaic raster dataset was draped over this surface. In order to model the buildings in this area CGA rules were written using the building footprints, as inputs, in the form of Feature Classes. The extrusion heights for the buildings were also extracted from the point cloud, and realistic textures were draped over the 3D building models. Finally the scene was shared as a 3D web-scene which can be accessed by anyone through a link, without any software besides an internet browser. This can serve as input for Smart City development through further analysis for urban ecology Keywords: 3D, drone, CityEngine, E-Bee, Esri, scene, web-scene

  18. Oklahoma's recent earthquakes and saltwater disposal.

    PubMed

    Walsh, F Rall; Zoback, Mark D

    2015-06-01

    Over the past 5 years, parts of Oklahoma have experienced marked increases in the number of small- to moderate-sized earthquakes. In three study areas that encompass the vast majority of the recent seismicity, we show that the increases in seismicity follow 5- to 10-fold increases in the rates of saltwater disposal. Adjacent areas where there has been relatively little saltwater disposal have had comparatively few recent earthquakes. In the areas of seismic activity, the saltwater disposal principally comes from "produced" water, saline pore water that is coproduced with oil and then injected into deeper sedimentary formations. These formations appear to be in hydraulic communication with potentially active faults in crystalline basement, where nearly all the earthquakes are occurring. Although most of the recent earthquakes have posed little danger to the public, the possibility of triggering damaging earthquakes on potentially active basement faults cannot be discounted.

  19. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

  20. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Oklahoma Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Oklahoma state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  1. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of the City of North Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2008-06-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of the city of North Las Vegas for the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. Survey areas were selected in collaboration with the City Manager's office and included four separate areas: (1) Las Vegas Motor Speedway (10.6 square miles); (2) North Las Vegas Downtown Area (9.2 square miles); (3) I-15 Industrial Corridor (7.4 square miles); and (4) Future site of University of Nevada Las Vegas campus (17.4 square miles). The survey was conducted in three phases: Phase 1 on December 11-12, 2007 (Areas 1 and 2), Phase 2 on February 28, 2008 (Area 3), and Phase 3 on March 19, 2008 (Area 4). The total completed survey covered a total of 44.6 square miles. The flight lines (without the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. A total of eight 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 feet of flight-line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service, with

  2. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region (Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma)

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-08-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility/constraints of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers a select area of the United States. The Midcontinent (Kansas, Nssouri, Oklahoma) has produced significant oil, but contrary to early reports, the area does not contain the huge volumes of heavy oil that, along with the development of steam and in situ combustion as oil production technologies, sparked the area`s oil boom of the 1960s. Recovery of this heavy oil has proven economically unfeasible for most operators due to the geology of the formations rather than the technology applied to recover the oil. The geology of the southern Midcontinent, as well as results of field projects using thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) methods to produce the heavy oil, was examined based on analysis of data from secondary sources. Analysis of the performance of these projects showed that the technology recovered additional heavy oil above what was produced from primary production from the consolidated, compartmentalized, fluvial dominated deltaic sandstone formations in the Cherokee and Forest City basins. The only projects producing significant economic and environmentally acceptable heavy oil in the Midcontinent are in higher permeability, unconsolidated or friable, thick sands such as those found in south-central Oklahoma. There are domestic heavy oil reservoirs in other sedimentary basins that are in younger formations, are less consolidated, have higher permeability and can be economically produced with current TEOR technology. Heavy oil production from the carbonates of central and wester Kansas has not been adequately tested, but oil production is anticipated to remain low. Significant expansion of Midcontinent heavy oil production is not anticipated because the economics of oil production and processing are not favorable.

  3. [Application of niche theory in evaluation of main tourism scenic areas in Zhangjiajie City].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yan-ping; Xiang, Chang-guo; Chen, You-lian

    2010-05-01

    Five tourism scenic areas in Zhangjiajie City were selected as research objects, and fifty kinds of resource conditions affecting the development of tourism scenic area were taken as evaluation indices. Through disposing and consolidating the indices level by level, an analysis was made on the niche breadth and niche overlap of the five tourism scenic areas at three levels (I, II, and III). In the five scenic areas, index level had significant effects on the niche breadth (F = 10.278, P = 0.006), but less effects on the relative niche breadth, suggesting that in the evaluation of the development potential of tourism scenic area, relative niche breadth was more reasonable than absolute niche breadth. From level III to level I, the niche overlap of the five scenic areas was increasing, indicating that level choice would affect the evaluation of the actual niche overlap of the scenic areas. With the progressive refinement of the indices to certain level, and when the difference between observed and Monte Carlo-simulated Pianka indices achieved to significant level, this index level could be used as the minimum standard of the refinement, and the simulated niche overlap could be taken as an important reference in the competition evaluation of tourism scenic area.

  4. [Vertical distribution and source analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sewage irrigation area, Taiyuan city].

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Cai-Xiang; Zhao, Xu; Xiang, Qing-Qing; Li, Jia-Le

    2012-12-01

    Nine profile soil samples were collected from Xiaodian sewage irrigation area in Taiyuan city, and the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) to analyze the vertical distribution. The results showed that the OCPs were mainly accumulated in the surface soil layer (0-30 cm) with the maximum concentration of 98.56 ng x g(-1), and HCHs, DDTs, endosulfans and methoxychlor were the predominant contaminants compared with other pesticides in the surface soil, which accounted for 85.1% in total OCPs. The concentrations of OCPs were clearly decreased with the increasing of the depth to the top layer in the most profile soils. Beta-HCH and DDE (sum of o,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDE) were the main contaminants in HCH pesticides and DDT pesticides, respectively. Composition analysis indicated that new DDT sources might be introduced into the groundwater irrigation and swamp area recently, and the main source of HCHs and DDTs was the residual of history use in other areas. Most profile soils were defined silt loam in study area. The correlations between the concentration of sigma OCPs and the total organic carbon (TOC) were positively significant in sewage irrigation area and groundwater irrigation area, but they were not significantly correlated in swamp area and background area.

  5. Odonata Diversity and Synanthropy in Urban Areas: A Case Study in Avellaneda City, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ramos, L S; Lozano, F; Muzón, J

    2017-04-01

    The increase of human population, especially in urban areas, correlates with an alarming destruction of green spaces. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which urbanization processes affect biodiversity is crucial in integrating the environment in a proper urban planning. The main urban center of Argentina is known as the Greater Buenos Aires (GBA), and it includes the autonomous city of Buenos Aires and 24 surrounding districts. Avellaneda, one of the districts of the GBA, is an important urban and industrial center with green areas and low level of urbanization on the coastal area of the Río de la Plata. This paper provides the first Odonata inventory for Avellaneda, determines the species' level of synanthropy with the Nuorteva index, and assess the Odonata species replacement along a latitudinal gradient on the occidental margin of the Río de la Plata.

  6. Environmental implications on the oxygenation of gasoline with ethanol in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Vera, M; Díaz, L; Guzmán, E; Ramos, F; López-Salinas, E

    2001-05-15

    Motor vehicle emission tests were performed on 12 in-use light duty vehicles, made up of the most representative emission control technologies in Mexico City: no catalyst, oxidative catalyst, and three way catalyst. Exhaust regulated (CO, NOx, and hydrocarbons) and toxic (benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and 1,3-butadiene) emissions were evaluated for MTBE (5 vol %)- and ethanol (3, 6, and 10 vol %)-gasoline blends. The most significant overall emissions variations derived from the use of 6 vol % ethanol (relative to a 5% MTBE base gasoline) were 16% decrease in CO, 28% reduction in formaldehyde, and 80% increase in acetaldehyde emissions. A 26% reduction in CO emissions from the oldest fleet (< MY 1991, without catalytic converter), which represents about 44% of the in-use light duty vehicles in Mexico city, can be attained when using 6 vol% ethanol-gasoline, without significant variation in hydrocarbons and NOx emissions, when compared with a 5% vol MTBE-gasoline. On the basis of the emissions results, an estimation of the change in the motor vehicle emissions of the metropolitan area of Mexico city was calculated for the year 2010 if ethanol were to be used instead of MTBE, and the outcome was a considerable decrease in all regulated and toxic emissions, despite the growing motor vehicle population.

  7. Quantifying the Benefits of Transportation Controls in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Bracho, L.; Fernández-Bremauntz, A.; Zuk, M.; Garibay, V.; Iniestra, R.; Franco, P.

    2004-12-01

    Similar to most large cities, the transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) constitutes the largest source of air pollution emissions, which result in significant impacts on human health. Although the majority of MCMA residents use public transportation, the share of trips in private vehicles is rising and these vehicles have become the largest contributor to mobile emissions. To reduce these emissions, there is an urgent need to improve the current fleet, improve the quality of fuels, and modify the paradigm of private car use, by providing clean, safe, efficient and comfortable public transportation options. Here we present the potential human health benefits of a set of five mobile source control measures that span public and private transportation options: Taxi fleet renovation, Hybrid buses, Metro Expansion, and the introduction of low sulfur gasoline and Tier II vehicles. We also discuss the methodology and preliminary results of the analysis of the implementation of the project for a Bus Rapid Transit system in Mexico City, in terms of its impacts on personal exposures, emissions, and public health.

  8. 40 CFR 272.1851 - Oklahoma State-administered program: Final authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Office of Administrative Rules, Secretary of State, P.O. Box 53390, Oklahoma City, OK 73152-3390; Phone...; Phone: 1-800-328-4880; Web site: http://west.thomson.com. You may inspect a copy at EPA Region 6, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, Texas 75202 (Phone number (214) 665-8533), or at the National Archives and...

  9. Building the Future: From Stone Age to Space Age in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, Joe

    2000-01-01

    Fourth-graders in Oklahoma City used the Internet to find an expert to identify a 75-pound Pleistocene-Era mammoth femur they found in a nearby river. A superintendent explains how his technologically backward district wired its schools for Internet learning and facilitated genuine instructional improvement. (MLH)

  10. A Practical Approach to Accountability in an Oklahoma School. Project SEEK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Oklahoma Region 14 Service Center, Elk City.

    This booklet presents the accountability program developed by the Elk City (Oklahoma) Public Schools. During the first year of the program ten broad educational goals were formulated through a series of administrator workshops, accountability committee meetings, informal surveys of the community, and questionnaires for teachers and students.…

  11. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  12. Optimizing hourly hydro operations at the Salt Lake City Area integrated projects

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Hamilton, S.; McCoy, J.

    1995-06-01

    The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) is responsible for marketing the capacity and energy generated by the Colorado Storage, Collbran, and Rio Grande hydropower projects. These federal resources are collectively called the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). In recent years, stringent operational limitations have been placed on several of these hydropower plants including the Glen Canyon Dam, which accounts for approximately 80% of the SLCA/IP resources. Operational limitations on SLCA/IP hydropower plants continue to evolve as a result of decisions currently being made in the Glen Canyon Dam Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the Power Marketing EIS. To analyze a broad range of issues associated with many possible future operational restrictions, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with technical assistance from Western has developed the Hydro LP (Linear Program) Model. This model simulates hourly operations at SLCA/IP hydropower plants for weekly periods with the objective of maximizing Western`s net revenues. The model considers hydropower operations for the purpose of serving SLCA firm loads, loads for special projects, Inland Power Pool (IPP) spinning reserve requirements, and Western`s purchasing programs. The model estimates hourly SLCA/IP generation and spot market activities. For this paper, hourly SLCA/IP hydropower plant generation is simulated under three operational scenarios and three hydropower conditions. For each scenario an estimate of Western`s net revenue is computed.

  13. Heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetation in urban areas of Quezon City, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Ian A; Gabiana, Christella C; Dumo, Joan Ruby E; Salmo, Severino G; Guzman, Maria Aileen Leah G; Valera, Nestor S; Espiritu, Emilyn Q

    2017-04-01

    Limited data have been published on the chemistry of urban soils and vegetation in the Philippines. The aim of this study is to quantify the concentrations of heavy metals (i.e., Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in soils and vegetation in the urban landscape of Quezon City, Philippines, and to elucidate the relationships between soil properties and the concentration of heavy metals pertaining to different land uses [i.e., protected forest (LM), park and wildlife area (PA), landfill (PL), urban poor residential and industrial areas (RA), and commercial areas (CA)]. Soil (0-15 cm) and senescent plant leaves were collected and were analyzed for soil properties and heavy metal concentrations. Results revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals (i.e., Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in urban soils were higher in areas where anthropogenic activities or disturbance (PL, RA, and CA) were dominant as compared to the less disturbed areas (LM and PA). Organic matter and available phosphorous were strongly correlated with heavy metal concentrations, suggesting that heavy metal concentrations were primarily controlled by these soil properties. The average foliar heavy metal concentrations varied, ranging from 0 to 0.4 mg/kg for Cd, 0-10 mg/kg for Cr, 2-22 mg/kg for Cu, 0-5 mg/kg for Pb, and 11-250 mg/kg for Zn. The concentrations of Cd and Cr exceeded the critical threshold concentrations in some plants. Leaves of plants growing in PL (i.e., landfill) showed the highest levels of heavy metal contamination. Our results revealed that anthropogenic activities and disturbance caused by the rapid urbanization of the city are major contributors to the heavy metal accumulation and persistence in the soils in these areas.

  14. Measurements of Criteria Pollutants in Suburban Locations in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fentanes, O.; Sanchez, A.; Garcia, A.; Martinez, A.

    2004-12-01

    In the town of Santa Ana in the southern part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) at an approximate height of 370 meters above the Valley of Mexico, a series of criteria pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide) and meteorological parameters (wind speed and direction, temperature and relative humidity) were measured during the MCMA-2003 field campaign during April 2003. Santa Ana is considered a border site, agriculture being the predominant activity. The generated data in Santa Ana was compared with those from two representative atmospheric monitoring stations from the southeast zone (CENICA Supersite) and southwest (Revolucion Station) of Mexico City. The carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations measured in Santa Ana are atypical for a rural area. The sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are characteristic of the local activity. The average obtained during the measurement time for carbon monoxide was 0.86 ppm, the presence of the contaminant was within a 0.3 to 1.5 ppm range, 5 to 95 percentile, and does not follow the observed behavior of the monitoring stations that are located inside the urban area, although during the night (10 pm to 6 am) the carbon monoxide in Santa Ana was preset in levels from 0.4 to 1.5 ppm, 5 to 95 percentiles, average 0.92 ppm, above the reported concentrations at Revolucion Station, levels from 0.1 to 1.7 ppm, 5 to 95 percentiles; average 0.72 ppm. The presence of this contaminant can be attributed to transportation and accumulation phenomena. The ozone daytime behavior is similar to the one observed in the CENICA and Revolucion stations, but with a lower magnitude, the daily maximum generally occuring 2 or 3 hours after the urban stations. The one-hour average maximum values were 133 ppb in Santa Ana area and 188 ppb in the city. During the night the average concentrations were 37 ppb in Santa Ana and 17 ppb in the urban area. Nevertheless, the ozone average value in Santa Ana

  15. Interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, T.; Kuroda, K.; Do Thuan, A.; Tran Thi Viet, N.; Takizawa, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hanoi is the capital of Viet Nam and the second largest city in this country (population: 6.45 million in 2009). Hanoi city has developed along the Red River and has many lakes, ponds and canals. However, recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced number of natural water areas such as ponds and lakes by reclamation not only in the central area but the suburban area. Canals also have been reclaimed or cut into pieces. Contrary, number of artificial water areas such as fish cultivation pond has rapidly increased. On the other hand, various kind of waste water flows into these natural and artificial water areas and induces pollution and eutrophication. These waste waters also have possibility of pollution of groundwater that is one of major water resources in this city. In addition, groundwater in this area has high concentrations of Arsenic, Fe and NH4. Thus, groundwater use may causes re-circulation of Arsenic. However, studies on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater and on the role of surface water areas for solute transport with water cycle are a few. Therefore, we focused on these points and took water samples of river, pond and groundwater from four communities in suburban areas: two communities are located near the Red River and other two are far from the River. Also, columnar sediment samples of these ponds were taken and pore water was abstracted. Major dissolved ions, metals and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were analyzed. As for water cycle, from the correlation between δ18O and δD, the Red River water (after GNIR) were distributed along the LMWL (δD=8.2δ18O+14.1, calculated from precipitation (after GNIP)). On the other hand, although the pond waters in rainy season were distributed along the LMWL, that in dry season were distributed along the local evaporation line (LEL, slope=5.6). The LEL crossed with the LMWL at around the point of weighted mean values of precipitation in rainy season and of

  16. Fuel-based motor vehicle emission inventory for the metropolitan area of Mexico city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schifter, I.; Díaz, L.; Múgica, V.; López-Salinas, E.

    The level and nature of air pollution varies substantially from city to city. Hence, the first requirement is the creation of an adequate knowledge base on local air quality on which to develop an air quality policy. Because the availability of data used in traditional on-road mobile source estimation methodologies is limited in Mexico, an alternative methodology was implemented to estimate motor vehicle emissions. In the year 2000, on-road gasoline powered vehicle emissions in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC), were characterized using fuel sales as a measure of vehicle activity, and exhaust emissions factors from remote sensing measurements. In a similar way, remote sensing data obtained by researchers of the University of Denver back in 1991 and 1994 were used to estimate a fuel-based emission inventory for those years. Average emissions factors were estimated in 113.5±13, 13.1±1.9 and 9.84±2.3 g l -1 for CO, hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NO x), respectively, based on remote sensing measurements of 42,800 vehicles. For year 2000 light and medium gasoline vehicles exhaust emissions contributed with 2065, 238, and 179 metric ton day-1 of CO, HC and NO x, respectively. The inventory is 48% and 26% lower in CO and NO x, respectively, than official inventory estimates for the year 1998 using travel-based models. Calculated CO reduction from 1991 to 1994 is approximately 46% while the atmospheric CO measurements, as indicator of mobile activity, in the same period decrease 51%. For the period 1994-2000 the reductions were 36% and 31%, respectively. The calculations indicate a continually decreasing inventory over the study period, and represents and ideal alternative for locations such as Mexican cities lacking the resources to develop an emissions model.

  17. Oklahoma DOE EPSCoR Trainees. Final Report for the Period September 30, 1991 to March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, R.C.

    2000-11-01

    This report presents the results of the State of Oklahoma DOE EPSCOR Traineeship program. The program was carried out at the three major research universities in the state: the University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma State University, and the University of Tulsa. Each of the three universities selected a central thrust area for the DOE EPSCOR traineeships that was in keeping with research strengths of the institution. These thrust areas are related closely enough to be mutually supportive, but are sufficiently distinct to minimize duplication of effort among the institutions. The University of Tulsa emphasized its programs in petroleum exploration, development and processing. The University of Oklahoma is emphasized research related to the supply and applications of natural gas and environmental concerns. Oklahoma State University focused on advanced materials and manufacturing, particularly as they relate to the oil and gas industries.

  18. Stream-water and groundwater quality in and near the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of the radionuclide uranium ranged from 0.03 to 79.5 µg/L, with a median concentration of 1.9 µg/L in the 30 groundwater samples collected. Two of the groundwater samples collected for this study had uranium concentrations exceeding the MCL of 30 µg/L, with concentrations of 79.5 and 31.1 µg/L. Generally, uranium concentrations were highest in water samples collected from wells completed in the Wellington Formation and the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups in the southern and eastern parts of the study area.

  19. Hydrology and snowmelt simulation of Snyderville Basin, Park City, and adjacent areas, Summit County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Lynette E.; Mason, James L.; Susong, David D.

    1998-01-01

    Increasing residential and commercial development is placing increased demands on the ground- and surface-water resources of Snyderville Basin, Park City, and adjacent areas in the southwestern corner of Summit County, Utah. Data collected during 1993-95 were used to assess the quantity and quality of the water resources in the study area.Ground water within the study area is present in consolidated rocks and unconsolidated valley fill. The complex geology makes it difficult to determine the degree of hydraulic connection between different blocks of consolidated rocks. Increased ground-water withdrawal during 1983- 95 generally has not affected ground-water levels. Ground-water withdrawal in some areas, however, caused seasonal fluctuations and a decline in ground-water levels from 1994 to 1995, despite greater-than-normal recharge in the spring of 1995.Ground water generally has a dissolved-solids concentration that ranges from 200 to 600 mg/L. Higher sulfate concentrations in water from wells and springs near Park City and in McLeod Creek and East Canyon Creek than in other parts of the study area are the result of mixing with water that discharges from the Spiro Tunnel. The presence of chloride in water from wells and springs near Park City and in streams and wells near Interstate Highway 80 is probably caused by the dissolution of applied road salt. Chlorofluorocarbon analyses indicate that even though water levels rise within a few weeks of snowmelt, the water took 15 to 40 years to move from areas of recharge to areas of discharge.Water budgets for the entire study area and for six subbasins were developed to better understand the hydrologic system. Ground-water recharge from precipitation made up about 80 percent of the ground-water recharge in the study area. Ground-water discharge to streams made up about 40 percent of the surface water in the study area and ground-water discharge to springs and mine tunnels made up about 25 percent. Increasing use of

  20. Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Nagafuchi, Osamu; Kawakami, Tomonori; Inoue, Takanobu; Yokota, Kuriko; Serikawa, Yuka; Cyio, Basir; Elvince, Rosana

    2016-02-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury, Hg(0), from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities accounted for 37% of total global Hg(0) emissions in 2010. People who live near gold-mining areas may be exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). Here, we assessed the human health risk due to Hg(0) exposure among residents of Palu city (Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia). The area around the city has more than 60t of gold reserves, and the nearby Poboya area is the most active gold-mining site in Indonesia. Owing to its geography, the city experiences alternating land and sea breezes. Sampling was done over a period of 3 years (from 2010 Aug. to 2012 Dec.) intermittently with a passive sampler for Hg(0), a portable handheld mercury analyzer, and a mercury analyzer in four areas of the city and in the Poboya gold-processing area, as well as wind speeds and directions in one area of the city. The 24-h average concentration, wind speed, and wind direction data show that the ambient air in both the gold-processing area and the city was always covered by high concentration of mercury vapor. The Hg(0) concentration in the city was higher at night than in the daytime, owing to the effect of land breezes. These results indicate that the inhabitants of the city were always exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). The average daytime point-sample Hg(0) concentrations in the city, as measured with a handheld mercury analyzer over 3 days in July 2011, ranged from 2096 to 3299ngm(-3). In comparison, the average daytime Hg(0) concentration in the Poboya gold-processing area was 12,782ngm(-3). All of these concentrations are substantially higher than the World Health Organization air-quality guideline for annual average Hg exposure (1000ngm(-3)). We used the point-sample concentrations to calculate hazard quotient ratios by means of a probabilistic risk assessment method. The results indicated that 93% of the sample population overall was at risk (hazard quotient ratio ≥1 and cut off at

  1. Urban forests sustain diverse carrion beetle assemblages in the New York City metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Nicole A; Zhao, Anthony; Munshi-South, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly pervasive form of land transformation that reduces biodiversity of many taxonomic groups. Beetles exhibit a broad range of responses to urbanization, likely due to the high functional diversity in this order. Carrion beetles (Order: Coleoptera, Family: Silphidae) provide an important ecosystem service by promoting decomposition of small-bodied carcasses, and have previously been found to decline due to forest fragmentation caused by urbanization. However, New York City (NYC) and many other cities have fairly large continuous forest patches that support dense populations of small mammals, and thus may harbor relatively robust carrion beetle communities in city parks. In this study, we investigated carrion beetle community composition, abundance and diversity in forest patches along an urban-to-rural gradient spanning the urban core (Central Park, NYC) to outlying rural areas. We conducted an additional study comparing the current carrion beetle community at a single suburban site in Westchester County, NY that was intensively surveyed in the early 1970's. We collected a total of 2,170 carrion beetles from eight species at 13 sites along this gradient. We report little to no effect of urbanization on carrion beetle diversity, although two species were not detected in any urban parks. Nicrophorus tomentosus was the most abundant species at all sites and seemed to dominate the urban communities, potentially due to its generalist habits and shallower burying depth compared to the other beetles surveyed. Variation between species body size, habitat specialization, and % forest area surrounding the surveyed sites also did not influence carrion beetle communities. Lastly, we found few significant differences in relative abundance of 10 different carrion beetle species between 1974 and 2015 at a single site in Westchester County, NY, although two of the rare species in the early 1970's were not detected in 2015. These results indicate that

  2. DISTRIBUTION OF DERMATOPHYTES FROM SOILS OF URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF CITIES OF PARAIBA STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; de Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; dos Santos, Jozemar Pereira

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (ρ = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH. PMID:24213189

  3. Urban forests sustain diverse carrion beetle assemblages in the New York City metropolitan area

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Nicole A.; Zhao, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly pervasive form of land transformation that reduces biodiversity of many taxonomic groups. Beetles exhibit a broad range of responses to urbanization, likely due to the high functional diversity in this order. Carrion beetles (Order: Coleoptera, Family: Silphidae) provide an important ecosystem service by promoting decomposition of small-bodied carcasses, and have previously been found to decline due to forest fragmentation caused by urbanization. However, New York City (NYC) and many other cities have fairly large continuous forest patches that support dense populations of small mammals, and thus may harbor relatively robust carrion beetle communities in city parks. In this study, we investigated carrion beetle community composition, abundance and diversity in forest patches along an urban-to-rural gradient spanning the urban core (Central Park, NYC) to outlying rural areas. We conducted an additional study comparing the current carrion beetle community at a single suburban site in Westchester County, NY that was intensively surveyed in the early 1970’s. We collected a total of 2,170 carrion beetles from eight species at 13 sites along this gradient. We report little to no effect of urbanization on carrion beetle diversity, although two species were not detected in any urban parks. Nicrophorus tomentosus was the most abundant species at all sites and seemed to dominate the urban communities, potentially due to its generalist habits and shallower burying depth compared to the other beetles surveyed. Variation between species body size, habitat specialization, and % forest area surrounding the surveyed sites also did not influence carrion beetle communities. Lastly, we found few significant differences in relative abundance of 10 different carrion beetle species between 1974 and 2015 at a single site in Westchester County, NY, although two of the rare species in the early 1970’s were not detected in 2015. These results indicate

  4. Distribution of dermatophytes from soils of urban and rural areas of cities of Paraiba State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos de; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; Santos, Jozemar Pereira dos

    2013-01-01

    The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (ρ = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH.

  5. Chemical contamination of soils in the New York City area following Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Mandigo, Amy C; DiScenza, Dana J; Keimowitz, Alison R; Fitzgerald, Neil

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a unique data set of lead, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in soil samples collected from the metropolitan New York City area in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Initial samples were collected by citizen scientists recruited via social media, a relatively unusual approach for a sample collection project. Participants in the affected areas collected 63 usable samples from basements, gardens, roads, and beaches. Results indicate high levels of arsenic, lead, PCBs, and PAHs in an area approximately 800 feet south of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Superfund site at Newtown Creek. A location adjacent to the Gowanus Canal, another Superfund site, was found to have high PCB concentrations. Areas of high PAH contamination tended to be near high traffic areas or next to sites of known contamination. While contamination as a direct result of Hurricane Sandy cannot be demonstrated conclusively, the presence of high levels of contamination close to known contamination sites, evidence for co-contamination, and decrease in number of samples containing measureable amounts of semi-volatile compounds from samples collected at similar locations 9 months after the storm suggest that contaminated particles may have migrated to residential areas as a result of flooding.

  6. Aerobiology of Juniperus Pollen in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levetin, Estelle; Bunderson, Landon; VandeWater, Pete; Luvall, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from members of the Cupressaceae are major aeroallergens in many parts of the world. In the south central and southwest United States, Juniperus pollen is the most important member of this family with J. ashei (JA) responsible for severe winter allergy symptoms in Texas and Oklahoma. In New Mexico, pollen from J. monosperma (JM) and other Juniperus species are important contributors to spring allergies, while J. pinchotii (JP) pollinates in the fall affecting sensitive individuals in west Texas, southwest Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico. Throughout this region, JA, JM, and JP occur in dense woodland populations. Generally monitoring for airborne allergens is conducted in urban areas, although the source for tree pollen may be forested areas distant from the sampling sites. Improved pollen forecasts require a better understanding of pollen production at the source. The current study was undertaken to examine the aerobiology of several Juniperus species at their source areas for the development of new pollen forecasting initiatives.

  7. Water Flow in the High Plains Aquifer in Northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luckey, Richard R.; Osborn, Noel I.; Becker, Mark F.; Andrews, William J.

    2000-01-01

    The High Plains is a major agricultural area, supported primarily by water from the High Plains aquifer, which is used to irrigate wheat and corn and to raise cattle and swine. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) began a study of the High Plains aquifer in 1996. One purpose of the study was to develop a ground-water flow model that the OWRB could use to allocate the amount of water withdrawn from the a aquifer. The study area in Oklahoma covers all or parts of Beaver, Cimarron, Dewey, Ellis, Harper, Texas, and Woodward Counties. To provide appropriate hydrologic boundaries for the ground-water flow model, the study area was expanded to include parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas.

  8. New Magnetic and Geochemical Results on Topsoils of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pichar, E.; Soler-Arechalde, A. M.; Morton, O.; Hernandez, E.; Lozano-Santa-Cruz, R.; Gonzalez, G.; Beramendi, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J. H.

    2008-05-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico city is a region well known for intense industrial and commercial activity. The potential sources of the heavy metal pollutants are assumed to be petroleum processing, production of iron material, manufacturing, coal combustion, commercial and automobile exhaust. New samples were collected from industrial, roadside, residential and public parks in the urban areas around the city and added to two previous field campaigns (2003 and 2005). Localities selected for the study represent, presumably, different heavy metal pollution levels and sources. At each sampling point, the top 2 cm layer of the soil profile was collected with a stainless steel trowel and stored in a plastic bag. The elements Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were determined by EDXRF (Philips PW1400 apparatus) on bulk- sample pressed, boric-acid backed pellets. Metal concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cr, and V were analyzed by ICP-MS with a VG Elemental PQ3 instrument. Magnetic mineralogy in bulk soil samples was investigated by low-field susceptibility using a Kappabridge KLY2. Remanent magnetizations (ARM and IRM) and Hysteresis loops of micro samples had been carried out at room temperature. Bivariate analysis on different ratios of magnetic parameters was employed to characterize the pollution sources.

  9. Water-level data for the industrial area northwest of Delaware City, Delaware, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly, C.A.; Hinaman, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    Water-level data for 171 wells and one surface-water site on Red Lion Creek in the industrial area northwest of Delaware City, Delaware, are presented for 1993 and 1994. Eight sets of synoptic ground- water-level measurements collected between April 1993 and September 1994, and locations and field notes for the 171 wells are presented. A hydrograph from December 19, 1993 through November 8, 1994 is presented for one surface-water site on Red Lion Creek in the industrial area. Hydrographs from October 15, 1993 through November 8, 1994 are presented for eight wells screened in the water- table aquifer. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers collected the synoptic ground-water-level measurements. The U.S. Geological Survey collected the continuously recorded water-level data.

  10. Bathymetry and capacity of Shawnee Reservoir, Oklahoma, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Ashworth, Chad; Smith, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Shawnee, performed a detailed bathymetric survey of Shawnee Reservoir in 2016. Shawnee Reservoir (locally known as Shawnee Twin Lakes) is a man-made reservoir on South Deer Creek in Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma. The reservoir consists of two lakes connected by an equilibrium channel. The southern lake (Shawnee City Lake Number 1) was impounded in 1935 and the northern lake (Shawnee City Lake Number 2) was impounded in 1960. Shawnee Reservoir has a normal pool elevation of 1,069.0 feet above North American Vertical Datum of 1988. The auxiliary spillway, which defines the flood pool, is at an elevation of 1,075.0 feet above North American Vertical Datum of 1988.

  11. Facies architecture of the Bluejacket Sandstone in the Eufaula Lake area, Oklahoma: Implications for the reservoir characterization of the Bartlesville Sandstone

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Liangmiao; Yang, Kexian

    1997-08-01

    Outcrop studies of the Bluejacket Sandstone (Middle Pennsylvanian) provide significant insights to reservoir architecture of the subsurface equivalent Bartlesville Sandstone. Quarry walls and road cuts in the Lake Eufaula area offer excellent exposures for detailed facies architectural investigations using high-precision surveying, photo mosaics. Directional minipermeameter measurements are being conducted. Subsurface studies include conventional logs, borehole image log, and core data. Reservoir architectures are reconstructed in four hierarchical levels: multi-storey sandstone, i.e. discrete genetic intervals; individual discrete genetic interval; facies within a discrete genetic interval; and lateral accretion bar deposits. In both outcrop and subsurface, the Bluejacket (Bartlesville) Sandstone comprises two distinctive architectures: a lower braided fluvial and an upper meandering fluvial. Braided fluvial deposits are typically 30 to 80 ft thick, and are laterally persistent filling an incised valley wider than the largest producing fields. The lower contact is irregular with local relief of 50 ft. The braided-fluvial deposits consist of 100-400-ft wide, 5-15-ft thick channel-fill elements. Each channel-fill interval is limited laterally by an erosional contact or overbank deposits, and is separated vertically by discontinuous mudstones or highly concentrated mudstone interclast lag conglomerates. Low-angle parallel-stratified or trough cross-stratified medium- to coarse-grained sandstones volumetrically dominate. This section has a blocky well log profile. Meandering fluvial deposits are typically 100 to 150 ft thick and comprise multiple discrete genetic intervals.

  12. Platinum in PM2.5 of the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Morton-Bermea, Ofelia; Amador-Muñoz, Omar; Martínez-Trejo, Lida; Hernández-Álvarez, Elizabeth; Beramendi-Orosco, Laura; García-Arreola, María Elena

    2014-10-01

    The increase in platinum (Pt) in the airborne particulate matter with size ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) in urban environments may be interpreted as result of the abrasion and deterioration of automobile catalyst. Nowadays, about four million vehicles in Mexico City use catalytic converters, which means that their impact should be considered. In order to evaluate the contribution of Pt to environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC), airborne PM2.5 was collected at five different sites in the urban area (NW, NE, C, SW, SE) in 2011 during April (dry-warm season), August (rainy season) and December (dry-cold season). Analytical determinations were carried out using a ICP-MS with a collision cell and kinetic energy discrimination. The analytical and instrument performance was evaluated with standard road dust reference material (BCR-723). Median Pt concentration in the analyzed particulate was is 38.4 pg m(-3) (minimal value 1 pg m(-3) maximal value 79 pg m(-3)). Obtained Pt concentrations are higher than those reported for other urban areas. Spatial variation shows that SW had Pt concentration significantly higher than NW and C only. Seasonal variation shows that Pt median was higher in rainy season than in both dry seasons. A comparison of these results with previously reported data of PM10 from 1991 and 2003 in the same studied area shows a worrying increase in the concentration of Pt in the air environment of MAMC.

  13. Mapping the Sea Floor of the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS) Offshore of New York City

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford

    2002-01-01

    The area offshore of New York City has been used for the disposal of dredged material for over a century. The area has also been used for the disposal of other materials such as acid waste, industrial waste, municipal sewage sludge, cellar dirt, and wood. Between 1976 and 1995, the New York Bight Dredged Material Disposal Site, also known as the Mud Dump Site (MDS), received on average about 6 million cubic yards of dredged material annually. In September 1997 the MDS was closed as a disposal site, and it and the surrounding area were designated as the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS). The sea floor of the HARS, approximately 9 square nautical miles in area, currently is being remediated by placing a minimum 1-m-thick cap of clean dredged material on top of the surficial sediments that are contaminated from previous disposal of dredged and other materials. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working cooperatively with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to map the sea floor geology of the HARS and changes in the characteristics of the surficial sediments over time.

  14. Natural radioactivity in surface soil samples from dwelling areas in Tehran city, Iran.

    PubMed

    Asgharizadeh, F; Ghannadi, M; Samani, A B; Meftahi, M; Shalibayk, M; Sahafipour, S A; Gooya, E S

    2013-09-01

    The study was carried out to determine radioactivity concentrations in surface soil samples of the city of Tehran and associated potential radiological hazards. The natural radionuclide ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) contents were determined for 50 locations throughout the geological surface formations in a representative area in the city of Tehran, Iran, using high-resolution gamma-spectrometric analysis. The range of activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil from the studied areas varies from 30.5±0.6 to 45.4±0.9, 27.3±0.5 to 57.1±1.1 and 328.0±4.6 to 768.5±13.4 Bq kg(-1) with overall mean values of 38.8±0.7, 43.4±0.8 and 555.1±8.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The mean radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, internal hazard index to quantify the internal exposure to radon and its daughter products, as well as the gamma activity concentration index for each sample are 143.6±4.6 Bq kg(-1), 0.39, 0.49 and 0.53, respectively. The average estimated radium equivalent is comparable with reported values for many countries in the world. Therefore, these areas may not pose radiological risks to the inhabitants due to harmful effects of the ionising radiation from the natural radioactivity in soil. The calculated average external and internal hazard indexes were found to be less than unity, as a recommended safe level. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for calculating the absorbed dose rate in the outdoor air at 1 m above the ground level. The absorbed dose rates resulting from those concentrations ranged from 48.1 to 88.7 nGy h(-1). Assuming a 20 % occupancy factor proposed by UNSCEAR, 2000, the corresponding effective dose rates in outdoor air equivalent to the population were calculated to be between 0.06 and 0.11 mSv y(-1). The measurement results and calculated values obtained from this study indicate that the dwelling areas in Tehran city, Iran, have background radioactivity levels within natural

  15. On the intensification of precipitation over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magaña Rueda, V.

    2013-05-01

    Precipitation over the western part of Mexico during the twentieth century has shown a sustained trend towards more intense precipitation events. The number of intense storms over this part of the city has increased from less than ten per year at the beginning of the twentieth century to more than twenty in recent decades. This appears to be the case of precipitation over most of the urban area of the Mexico Valley. The change in the local hydrological cycle appears to be related to the rapid expansion of the urban area during the last century that has more than doubled in fifty years. The Heat Island effect has various effects that affect the atmospheric stability in the boundary layer, the capacity to contain more moisture. On the other hand, the summer moisture flux into the Mexico Valley has increased in recent decades. These various factors contribute to more intense storms forming at the northeastern part of the Valley. As they travel across the urban area, they intensify, particularly at the foothills of the western mountains of the Metropolitan area. Therefore, the dynamical analysis and prediction of these storms need more than just higher spatial resolution models.

  16. Processing of soot in an urban environment: case study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. S.; Zuberi, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Iedema, M. J.; Cowin, J. P.; Gaspar, D. J.; Wang, C.; Laskin, A.

    2005-08-01

    Chemical composition, size, and mixing state of atmospheric particles are critical in determining their effects on the environment. There is growing evidence that soot aerosols play a particularly important role in both climate and human health, but still relatively little is known of their physical and chemical nature. In addition, the atmospheric residence times and removal mechanisms for soot are neither well understood nor adequately represented in regional and global climate models. To investigate the effect of locality and residence time on properties of soot and mixing state in a polluted urban environment, particles of diameter 0.2-2.0 µm were collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MCMA-2003 field campaign from various sites within the city. Individual particle analysis by different electron microscopy methods coupled with energy dispersed X-ray spectroscopy, and secondary ionization mass spectrometry show that freshly-emitted soot particles become rapidly processed in the MCMA. Whereas fresh particulate emissions from mixed-traffic are almost entirely carbonaceous, consisting of soot aggregates with liquid coatings suggestive of unburned lubricating oil and water, ambient soot particles which have been processed for less than a few hours are heavily internally mixed, primarily with ammonium sulfate. Single particle analysis suggests that this mixing occurs through several mechanisms that require further investigation. In light of previously published results, the internally-mixed nature of processed soot particles is expected to affect heterogeneous chemistry on the soot

  17. Processing of soot in an urban environment: case study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. S.; Zuberi, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Iedema, M. J.; Cowin, J. P.; Gaspar, D. J.; Wang, C.; Laskin, A.

    2005-11-01

    Chemical composition, size, and mixing state of atmospheric particles are critical in determining their effects on the environment. There is growing evidence that soot aerosols play a particularly important role in both climate and human health, but still relatively little is known of their physical and chemical nature. In addition, the atmospheric residence times and removal mechanisms for soot are neither well understood nor adequately represented in regional and global climate models. To investigate the effect of locality and residence time on properties of soot and mixing state in a polluted urban environment, particles of diameter 0.2-2.0 μm were collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign from various sites within the city. Individual particle analysis by different electron microscopy methods coupled with energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy, and secondary ionization mass spectrometry show that freshly-emitted soot particles become rapidly processed in the MCMA. Whereas fresh particulate emissions from mixed-traffic are almost entirely carbonaceous, consisting of soot aggregates with liquid coatings suggestive of unburned lubricating oil and water, ambient soot particles which have been processed for less than a few hours are heavily internally mixed, primarily with ammonium sulfate. Single particle analysis suggests that this mixing occurs through several mechanisms that require further investigation. In light of previously published results, the internally-mixed nature of processed soot particles is expected to affect heterogeneous chemistry on the soot surface, including interaction with water during wet-removal.

  18. 40 CFR 81.126 - Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of...

  19. 40 CFR 81.123 - Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of...

  20. 40 CFR 81.125 - Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of...

  1. The English Education in Primary Schools in Minor Ethnic Areas in Western China--Taking Leshan City as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    As we all know, China is a country with many ethnic minorities mainly living in the northeastern and southwestern China. The English education in the primary schools in these areas is an important issue. The article analyzes the status quo of English education in primary schools in minor ethnic areas, taking the Leshan city, a western one as an…

  2. A comparison of the speech patterns and dialect attitudes of Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakos, Jon

    The lexical dialect usage of Oklahoma has been well-studied in the past by the Survey of Oklahoma Dialects, but the acoustic speech production of the state has received little attention. Apart from two people from Tulsa and two people from Oklahoma City that were interviewed for the Atlas of North American English, no other acoustic work has been performed within the state. This dissertation begins to fill in these gaps by presenting twelve respondents interviewed by the Research on Dialects of English in Oklahoma (RODEO) project. For each speaker, a brief biography is given, including some of their regional and speech attitudes of Oklahoma. Then acoustic data from a wordlist and reading task are presented and compared. Analysis will consider plots of each speaker's vowel system as a whole, and will also examine many environments in isolation. These environments were chosen for their likely presence in Oklahoma, and include such dialect features as the Southern Shift, the pin/pen merger, the caught/cot merger, monophthongization of the PRICE vowel, and neutralization of tense vowels before /l./ After considering each respondent separately, some of their results will be pooled together to give a preliminary sense of the state of dialect within Oklahoma. Demographic variables such as age, gender, and urban/rural upbringing will be related to speakers' attitudes and acoustic production. This will serve two goals - first, to compare modern-day production to the findings of previous scholars, and second, to suggest a dialect trajectory for the state that could be studied further in additional research.

  3. Hydrologists in the City: Re-envisioning How We Manage Water in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhillips, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    As the footprint of our urban areas expands, so does our manipulation of the hydrology. For decades we have channeled runoff into storm sewers, wreaking havoc on downstream water bodies with pulses of polluted stormwater. Recently, there has been a push for 'green infrastructure' to replace this hard, grey infrastructure, where green infrastructure- from rain gardens to green roofs to restored riparian areas- would detain stormwater and promote pollutant removal, in addition to a plethora of other ecosystem services. Primarily, it has been landscape architects, engineers, and urban planners who have jumped on the green infrastructure bandwagon. I believe there is also a niche for hydrologists and biogeochemists in re-envisioning how we manage stormwater in urban areas. Developed areas may not be as enticing as a remote mountain field site and their hydrology may be a lot more complicated to model than that of a forest hillslope, but these areas are where the majority of people live and where we could have a great impact on informing better water management practices. In collaboration with more applied fields like landscape architecture and engineering, we can provide crucial insight on existing hydrology as well as how certain green infrastructure or other alternative considerations could support a more sustainable and resilient city, particularly in the face of climate change. Our knowledge on landscape hydrological processes and biogeochemical cycling- combined with the expertise of these other fields- can inform design of truly multi-functional green infrastructure that can effectively manage storm runoff in addition to providing wildlife habitat, carbon sequestration, improved aesthetics, and even an opportunity to engage with citizens. While there are certainly some hydrologists that have recognized this opportunity, I hope to see many more pursuing research and seeking solutions for better management of water in urbanized areas.

  4. Annual ground-water use in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1970-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horn, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Annual ground-water use in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area from 1970-79 is presented by aquifer and type of use. The data show that most ground water is withdrawn from wells in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer and that major uses of the water are for self-supplied industry and public supplies. Annual ground-water-use data are presented by county for each of the five major aquifers; Prairie du Chien-Jordan, Mount Simon-Hinckley, Ironton-Galesville, St. Peter, and drift. The data also are presented by county for each major use type, including public supply, self-supplied industry, commercial air-conditioning, irrigation, lake-level maintenance, and dewatering. The data were collected initially by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and were supplemented by data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  5. Living in the city: resource availability, predation, and bird population dynamics in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Anderies, John M; Katti, Madhusudan; Shochat, Eyal

    2007-07-07

    This article explores factors that shape population structure in novel environments that have received scant theoretical attention: cities. Urban bird populations exhibit higher densities and lower diversity. Some work suggests this may result from lower predation pressure and more predictable and abundant resources. These factors may lead to populations with few winners and many losers regarding access to food, body condition, and reproductive success. We explore these hypotheses with an individual-energy-based competition model with two phenotypes of differing foraging ability. We show that low frequency resource fluctuations favor strong competitors and vice versa. We show that low predation skews equilibrium populations in favor of weak competitors and vice versa. Increasing the time between resource pulses can thus shift population structure from weak to strong competitor dominance. Given recent evidence for more constant resource input and lower predation in urban areas, the model helps understand observed urban bird population structure.

  6. Levels and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in southwestern area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Rodolfo Sosa, E; Humberto Bravo, A; Violeta Mugica, A; Pablo Sanchez, A; Emma Bueno, L; Krupa, Sagar

    2009-03-01

    Thirteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified at three sites in southwestern Mexico City from July 2000 to February 2001. High concentrations of different VOCs were found at a Gasoline refueling station (GS), a Condominium area (CA), and at the University Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS). The most abundant VOCs at CA and CAS were propane, n-butane, toluene, acetylene and pentane. In comparison, at GS the most abundant were toluene, pentane, propane, n-butane, and acetylene. Benzene, a known carcinogenic compound had average levels of 28, 35 and 250ppbC at CAS, CA, and GS respectively. The main contributing sources of the measured VOCs at CA and CAS were the handling and management of LP (Liquid Propane) gas, vehicle exhaust, asphalt works, and use of solvents. At GS almost all of the VOCs came from vehicle exhaust and fuel evaporation, although components of LP gas were also present. Based on the overall results possible abatement strategies are discussed.

  7. Multiple scattering of waves in random media: Application to the study of the city-site effect in Mexico City area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, O. A.; Clouteau, D.

    2007-12-01

    Long-duration, amplifications and spatial response's variability of the seismic records registered in Mexico City during the September 1985 earthquake cannot only be explained by the soil velocity model. We will try to explain these phenomena by studying the extent of the effect of buildings' diffracted wave fields during an earthquake. The main question is whether the presence of a large number of buildings can significantly modify the seismic wave field. We are interested in the interaction between the incident wave field propagating in a stratified half- space and a large number of structures at the free surface, i.e., the coupled city-site effect. We study and characterize the seismic wave propagation regimes in a city using the theory of wave propagation in random media. In the coupled city-site system, the buildings are modeled as resonant scatterers uniformly distributed at the surface of a deterministic, horizontally layered elastic half-space representing the soil. Based on the mean-field and the field correlation equations, we build a theoretical model which takes into account the multiple scattering of seismic waves and allows us to describe the coupled city-site system behavior in a simple and rapid way. The results obtained for the configurationally averaged field quantities are validated by means of 3D results for the seismic response of a deterministic model. The numerical simulations of this model are computed with MISS3D code based on classical Soil-Structure Interaction techniques and on a variational coupling between Boundary Integral Equations for a layered soil and a modal Finite Element approach for the buildings. This work proposes a detailed numerical and a theoretical analysis of the city-site interaction (CSI) in Mexico City area. The principal parameters in the study of the CSI are the buildings resonant frequency distribution, the soil characteristics of the site, the urban density and position of the buildings in the city, as well as

  8. Area-level socioeconomic deprivation, nitrogen dioxide exposure, and term birth weight in New York City.

    PubMed

    Shmool, Jessie L C; Bobb, Jennifer F; Ito, Kazuhiko; Elston, Beth; Savitz, David A; Ross, Zev; Matte, Thomas D; Johnson, Sarah; Dominici, Francesca; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-10-01

    Numerous studies have linked air pollution with adverse birth outcomes, but relatively few have examined differential associations across the socioeconomic gradient. To evaluate interaction effects of gestational nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and area-level socioeconomic deprivation on fetal growth, we used: (1) highly spatially-resolved air pollution data from the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS); and (2) spatially-stratified principle component analysis of census variables previously associated with birth outcomes to define area-level deprivation. New York City (NYC) hospital birth records for years 2008-2010 were restricted to full-term, singleton births to non-smoking mothers (n=243,853). We used generalized additive mixed models to examine the potentially non-linear interaction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and deprivation categories on birth weight (and estimated linear associations, for comparison), adjusting for individual-level socio-demographic characteristics and sensitivity testing adjustment for co-pollutant exposures. Estimated NO2 exposures were highest, and most varying, among mothers residing in the most-affluent census tracts, and lowest among mothers residing in mid-range deprivation tracts. In non-linear models, we found an inverse association between NO2 and birth weight in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas (p-values<0.001 and 0.05, respectively) but no association in the mid-range of deprivation (p=0.8). Likewise, in linear models, a 10 ppb increase in NO2 was associated with a decrease in birth weight among mothers in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas of -16.2g (95% CI: -21.9 to -10.5) and -11.0 g (95% CI: -22.8 to 0.9), respectively, and a non-significant change in the mid-range areas [β=0.5 g (95% CI: -7.7 to 8.7)]. Linear slopes in the most- and least-deprived quartiles differed from the mid-range (reference group) (p-values<0.001 and 0.09, respectively). The complex patterning in air pollution exposure and deprivation

  9. 78 FR 57838 - Foreign-Trade Zone 15-Kansas City, Missouri, Area; Site Renumbering Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... City; Site 3 (9,667 acres total)--within the 10,000-acre Kansas City International Airport facility...,000 acres)--CARMAR Underground Business Park/CARMAR Industrial Park, No. 1 Civil War Road,...

  10. Oklahoma, EPA study rivers, lakes and streams

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (July 29, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Oklahoma Office of the Secretary of Energy and Environment (OSEE) are continuing to work on analyzing the condition of wetlands in Oklahoma, as part of a national initia

  11. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

    1991-03-30

    Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

  12. Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Housing Areas: Lessons from Oaxaca City, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Arthur D.

    The anthropological study of the city's role in the evolution of human systems requires the use of both macro and micro levels of analysis. From the macro perspective, the city is viewed as part of a wider complex society, while from the micro point of view, the city provides the context for understanding specific human institutions or processes…

  13. Nonfatal injuries 1 week after hurricane sandy--New York city metropolitan area, October 2012.

    PubMed

    Brackbill, Robert M; Caramanica, Kimberly; Maliniak, Maret; Stellman, Steven D; Fairclough, Monique A; Farfel, Mark R; Turner, Lennon; Maslow, Carey B; Moy, Amanda J; Wu, David; Yu, Shengchao; Welch, Alice E; Cone, James E; Walker, Deborah J

    2014-10-24

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy (Sandy) made landfall in densely populated areas of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Flooding affected 51 square miles (132 square kilometers) of New York City (NYC) and resulted in 43 deaths, many caused by drowning in the home, along with numerous storm-related injuries. Thousands of those affected were survivors of the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of September 11, 2001 (9/11) who had previously enrolled in the WTC Health Registry (Registry) cohort study. To assess Sandy-related injuries and associated risk factors among those who lived in Hurricane Sandy-flooded areas and elsewhere, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene surveyed 8,870 WTC survivors, who had provided physical and mental health updates 8 to 16 months before Sandy. Approximately 10% of the respondents in flooded areas reported injuries in the first week after Sandy; nearly 75% of those had more than one injury. Injuries occurred during evacuation and clean-up/repair of damaged or destroyed homes. Hurricane preparation and precautionary messages emphasizing potential for injury hazards during both evacuation and clean-up or repair of damaged residences might help mitigate the occurrence and severity of injury after a hurricane.

  14. Measurement and evaluation of the environmental noise levels in the urban areas of the city of Nis (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Prascevic, Momir R; Mihajlov, Darko I; Cvetkovic, Dragan S

    2014-02-01

    The environmental noise level represents one of the key factors of life quality in urban areas of modern cities. A continuous monitoring of the noise levels and the analysis of results have become a necessity when we discuss a possible recovery of those areas with high levels of noise pollution, and particularly, those zones which were designed for specific activities, e.g., areas around hospitals and schools. The city of Nis, Serbia, owing to the permanent long-term noise monitoring, possesses a database containing figures related to the noise levels at relevant locations in the city, which can serve as a basis for an analysis of the change of conditions, their tendencies in the future, and recognizing factors which influence the danger of noise pollution. The paper involves an analysis of the environmental noise level collected during the previous years.

  15. Floods in central, Southwest Oklahoma, October 17-23, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauth, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Storms of October 17-23, 1983, produced as much as 17 inches of rain as a result of Hurricane Tico. Rainfall amounts exceeded the 100-year, 24-hour storm frequency in some areas of the central and southwest parts of Oklahoma. An 11-county area experienced flooding with damages exceeding $12 million. Peak discharges were determined during and after the flood at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations and one miscellaneous location. Streamflow in some areas exceeded the estimated 100-year flood. Flood hydrographs and rainfall mass curves are presented for gaging stations located in areas of greater precipitation.

  16. MISR Scans the Texas-Oklahoma Border

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These MISR images of Oklahoma and north Texas were acquired on March 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 1243. The three images on the left, from top to bottom, are from the 70-degree forward viewing camera, the vertical-viewing (nadir) camera, and the 70-degree aftward viewing camera. The higher brightness, bluer tinge, and reduced contrast of the oblique views result primarily from scattering of sunlight in the Earth's atmosphere, though some color and brightness variations are also due to differences in surface reflection at the different angles. The longer slant path through the atmosphere at the oblique angles also accentuates the appearance of thin, high-altitude cirrus clouds.

    On the right, two areas from the nadir camera image are shown in more detail, along with notations highlighting major geographic features. The south bank of the Red River marks the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma. Traversing brush-covered and grassy plains, rolling hills, and prairies, the Red River and the Canadian River are important resources for farming, ranching, public drinking water, hydroelectric power, and recreation. Both originate in New Mexico and flow eastward, their waters eventually discharging into the Mississippi River.

    A smoke plume to the north of the Ouachita Mountains and east of Lake Eufaula is visible in the detailed nadir imagery. The plume is also very obvious at the 70-degree forward view angle, to the right of center and about one-fourth of the way down from the top of the image.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  17. The land-use of Bandung, its density, overcrowded area and public facility toward a compact city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramita, B.

    2016-04-01

    The concept of a compact city has been introduced since 1973. It is a utopian vision largely driven by a desire to see more efficient uses of resources. In 1980s, the reconfiguration of the physical urban form of metropolitan areas was increasingly debated by both theorists and practitioners. Recently, the concept of a compact city has been more focused on developed countries in which the population tends to decrease. However, in Asia, except Japan which contains many dense cities, it has become a concept which promotes relatively high residential density with mixed land uses, though rather only in population and density. This paper addresses the land-use of Bandung that having the density over 14,000 people/km2, which has been so much potential toward a compact city. Somehow, unprepared ness of urban planning and regulation, the city seemed overwrought to serve its inhabitants. This condition is shown from the demographic condition, especially population density in Bandung based on its sub areas of the city (SWK). The stack of public facilities in a certain district has led the concentration of density and activity, which finally raising the slum and overcrowded settlement. Finally, this paper explores the implications of land use management and describes challenges faced and possible approaches, especially in land-use management strategies to be implemented in Bandung.

  18. How green are the streets? An analysis for central areas of Chinese cities using Tencent Street View

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Extensive evidence has revealed that street greenery, as a quality-of-life component, is important for oxygen production, pollutant absorption, and urban heat island effect mitigation. Determining how green our streets are has always been difficult given the time and money consumed using conventional methods. This study proposes an automatic method using an emerging online street-view service to address this issue. This method was used to analyze street greenery in the central areas (28.3 km2 each) of 245 major Chinese cities; this differs from previous studies, which have investigated small areas in a given city. Such a city-system-level study enabled us to detect potential universal laws governing street greenery as well as the impact factors. We collected over one million Tencent Street View pictures and calculated the green view index for each picture. We found the following rules: (1) longer streets in more economically developed and highly administrated cities tended to be greener; (2) cities in western China tend to have greener streets; and (3) the aggregated green view indices at the municipal level match with the approved National Garden Cities of China. These findings can prove useful for drafting more appropriate policies regarding planning and engineering practices for street greenery. PMID:28196071

  19. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the mexico city metropolitan area during the milagro campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-08-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3) in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m-3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m-3) in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m-3) as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m-3 potassium, 1 μg m-3 magnesium, 2 μg m-3 sodium, and 3 μg m-3 calcium) from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m-3 over these areas. PM1-10 chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m-3 in Texcoco Lake. PM ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m-3) and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m-3). The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) is encouraging. At T0, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.6 μg m-3, 3.6 μg m-3, 2.1 μg m-3, and 0.35 μg m-3 respectively. The corresponding predicted values are 3.7 μg m-3, 2.8 μg m-3, 1.7 μg m-3, and 0.25 μg m-3. Additional improvements are possible by (i) using a day-dependent emission inventory, (ii) improving the performance of

  20. Cerulean Warbler occurrence and habitat use of Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leslie,, David M.; O'Connell, Timothy J.; Cavalieri, Vincent S.

    2011-01-01

    Dendroica cerulea (Cerulean Warbler) is a migrant songbird that has declined rangewide in recent decades. We surveyed 150 sites in 2006–2007 to determine if this species still occupied its former breeding range in Oklahoma. We located Cerulean Warblers at 5 sites and confirmed breeding on north slopes of two heavily forested ridges in the Ouachita Mountains. We did not encounter Cerulean Warblers in any bottomland hardwoods, despite the former widespread distribution and abundance of the species in such habitats. While habitat loss and degradation may limit occurrence of Cerulean Warbler in some areas, the pattern of decline for this species at the edge of its range in Oklahoma is also consistent with abandonment of peripheral range as the range-wide population declines.

  1. Levels, Composition and Sources of PM in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area During the MILAGRO Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Pey, J.; Minguillon, M. C.; Perez, N.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Bernabe, R.; Blanco, S.; Cardenas, B.

    2007-05-01

    Particle air pollution in urban agglomerations comes mostly from anthropogenic sources, mainly traffic, industrial processes, energy production, domestic and residential emissions, construction, but also a minor contribution from natural sources may be expected (bioaerosols, soil dust, marine aerosol). Once emitted into the atmosphere, this complex mixture of pollutants may be transformed as a function of the ambient conditions and the interaction among the different PM components, and also between PM components and gaseous pollutants. This system is especially complex in mega-cities due to the large emission volumes of PM components and gaseous precursors, the high variability and broad distribution of emission sources, and the possible long range transport of the polluted air masses. Speciation studies help to identify major sources of PM components with the end objective of applying plans and programs for PM pollution abatement. In this framework, concentration levels and compositions of particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) have been measured simultaneously at two sites in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (T0 and CENICA) and at one site 50 km away from Mexico City (T1) during the MILAGRO campaign (1st to 31st March 2006). Spatial and time (day and night) variations have been analysed. Coarse fraction levels were higher at T1 than at CENICA and T0, contrary to what was expected. This was due to the important soil re-suspension at T1, contributing significantly to the crustal load. Moreover, crustal levels were higher during daytime than during nights at all sites, while some secondary compounds (sulphate and ammonium) presented an opposite trend. Regarding trace elements, levels of Pb, Zn and Cd were higher at T0 than at CENICA and T1, probably due to traffic contribution. Arsenic levels did not show a clear pattern, being alternatively higher at CENICA and T0. Two intense episodes of Hg particulate have been recorded, more noticeable at T1 than at the urban

  2. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH

  3. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH

  4. Uranium deposits in the Eureka Gulch area, Central City district, Gilpin County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, P.K.; Osterwald, F.W.; Tooker, E.W.

    1954-01-01

    The Eureka Gulch area of the Central City district, Gilpin County, Colo., was mined for ores of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc; but there has been little mining activity in the area since World War I. Between 1951 and 1953 nine radioactive mine dumps were discovered in the area by the U.S. Geological Survey and by prospectors. the importance of the discoveries has not been determined as all but one of the mines are inaccessible, but the distribution, quantity, and grade of the radioactive materials found on the mine dumps indicate that the area is worth of additional exploration as a possible source of uranium ore. The uranium ans other metals are in and near steeply dipping mesothermal veins of Laramide age intrusive rocks. Pitchblende is present in at least four veins, and metatorbernite, associated at places with kosolite, is found along two veins for a linear distance of about 700 feet. The pitchblends and metatorbernite appear to be mutually exclusive and seem to occur in different veins. Colloform grains of pitchblende were deposited in the vein essentially contemporaneously with pyrite. The pitchblende is earlier in the sequence of deposition than galena and sphalerite. The metatorbernite replaces altered biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss and altered amphibolite, and to a lesser extent forms coatings on fractures in these rocks adjacent to the veins; the kasolite fills vugs in highly altered material and in altered wall rocks. Much of the pitchblende found on the dumps has been partly leached subsequent to mining and is out of equilibrium. Selected samples of metatorbernite-bearing rock from one mine dump contain as much as 6.11 percent uranium. The pitchblende is a primary vein mineral deposited from uranium-bearing hydrothermal solutions. The metatorbernite probably formed by oxidation, solution, and transportation of uranium from primary pitchblende, but it may be a primary mineral deposited directly from fluids of different composition from these

  5. Climate services for an urban area (Baia Mare City, Romania) with a focus on climate extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Mihaela; Micu, Dana; Dragota, Carmen-Sofia; Mihalache, Sorin

    2013-04-01

    The Baia Mare Urban System is located in the north-western part of Romania, with around 200,000 inhabitants and represents one of the most important former mining areas in the country, whose socioeconomic profile and environmental conditions have greatly changed over the last 20 years during the transition and post-transition period. Currently the mining is closed in the area, but the historical legacy of this activity has implications in terms of economic growth, social and cultural developments and environmental quality. Baia Mare city lies in an extended depression, particularly sheltered by the mountain and hilly regions located in the north and respectively, in the south-south-eastern part of it, which explains the high frequency of calm conditions and low airstream channeling occurrences. This urban system has a typically moderate temperate-continental climate, subject to frequent westerly airflows (moist), which moderate the thermal regime (without depicting severe extremes, both positive and negative) and enhance the precipitation one (entailing a greater frequency of wet extremes). During the reference period (1971-2000), the climate change signal in the area is rather weak and not statistically significant. However, since the mid 1980s, the warming signal became more evident from the observational data (Baia Mare station), showing a higher frequency of dry spells and positive extremes. The modelling experiments covering the 2021-2050 time horizon using regional (RM5.1/HadRM3Q0/RCA3) and global (ARPEGE/HadCM3Q0/BCM/ECHAM5) circulation models carried out within the ECLISE FP7 project suggest an ongoing temperature rise, associated to an intensification of temperature and precipitation extremes. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate how the local authorities consider and include climate change in their activity, as well as in the development plans (e.g. territorial, economic and social development plans). Individual interviews have been

  6. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial...

  7. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial...

  8. A driving cycle for vehicle emissions estimation in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R; López-Salinas, E

    2005-02-01

    A driving cycle derived from driving behavior and real traffic conditions in Mexico City (MC) is proposed. Data acquisition was carried out over diverse MC routes, representing travel under congested and uncongested conditions, using the chase-car approach. Thirteen different on-road patterns, including the four main access roads to MC, trips in both directions and different timetables, a total of 108 trips spanning 1044 km were evaluated in this study. The MC cycle lasts 1360 seconds with a distance of 8.8 km and average speed of 23.4 km h(-1). Both maximum speed (73.6 km h(-1)) and maximum acceleration (2.22 km h(-1)s(-1)) are lower than those of the new vehicles certification employed in Mexico ,FTP-75 cycle., that is, the MC cycle exhibits less cruising time and more transient events than the FTP cycle. A total of 30 light duty gasoline vehicles were classified into different technological groups and tested in an FTP-75 and MC driving cycles in order to compare their emission factors A potential concern is that in Mexico manufacturers design vehicles to meet the emission standards in the FTP, but emission levels increase significantly in a more representative cycle of present driving patterns in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). The use of a more representative cycle during certification testing, would provide an incentive for vehicle manufacturers to design emissions control systems to remain effective during operation modes that are not currently represented in the official test procedures used in the certification process. Based on the results of the study, the use of MC cycle, which better represents current day driving patterns during testing of vehicle fleets in emissions laboratories, would improve the accuracy of emissions factors used in the MAMC emissions inventories.

  9. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, W.; Zavala, M.; de Foy, B.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, M. J.; Molina, L. T.

    2009-04-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO (primary HCHO), which together with photochemical production of HCHO from hydrocarbon oxidation (secondary HCHO), lead to high ambient HCHO levels. The CAMx chemical transport model was employed to evaluate the impact of primary HCHO on its ambient concentration, on the ROx radical budget, and on ozone (O3) formation in the MCMA. Important radical sources, including HCHO, HONO, and O3-olefin reactions, were constrained by measurements from routine observations of the local ambient air monitoring network and the MCMA-2003 field campaign. Primary HCHO was found not only to contribute significantly to the ambient HCHO concentration, but also to enhance the radical budget and O3 production in the urban atmosphere of the MCMA. Overall in the urban area, total daytime radical production is enhanced by up to 10% and peak O3 concentration by up to 8%; moreover primary HCHO tends to make O3 both production rates and ambient concentration peak half an hour earlier. While primary HCHO contributes predominantly to the ambient HCHO concentration between nighttime and morning rush hours, significant influence on the radical budget and O3 production starts early in the morning, peaks at mid-morning and is sustained until early afternoon.

  10. Hydrochemical profile for assessing the groundwater quality of Sambhar lake city and its adjoining area.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anita; Seth, Gita

    2011-03-01

    Quality assessment of water is essential to ensure sustainable safe use of it for drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes. For the same purpose the study was conducted for the samples of water of Sambhar lake city and its adjoining areas. The standard methods of APHA were used to analysis 15 samples collected from hand pumps and tube wells of the specified area. The analytical results show higher concentration of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity sodium, nitrate, sulfate, and fluoride, which indicate signs of deterioration but values of pH, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, and carbonate are within permissible limits as per WHO standards. From the Hill-piper trilinear diagram, it is observed that the majority of groundwater from sampling stations are sodium-potassium-chloride-sulfate type water. The values of sodium absorption ratio and electrical conductivity of the groundwater were plotted in the US salinity laboratory diagram for irrigation water. Only the one sample fall in C(3)S(1) quality with high salinity hazard and low sodium hazard. Other samples fall in high salinity hazard and high sodium hazard. Chemical analysis of groundwater shows that mean concentration of cation is in order sodium > magnesium > calcium > potassium while for the anion it is chloride > bicarbonate > nitrate > sulfate.

  11. Heavy metals in seawater, sediments, and biota from the coastal area of Yancheng City, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jie; Wang, Hui; Billah, Shah M Reduwan; Yu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2014-08-01

    A systematic investigation was carried out to analyze the concentration levels of heavy metals in sample seawater, sediments, and biota collected from the coastal area of Yancheng City in Jiangsu Province, China. The authors assessed the impact of these heavy metals in different environmental samples in terms of potential risks to ecology and also to the human population exposed to this area. In addition, a further investigation was carried out to test the toxicity to early-life-stage zebrafish (Danio rerio) of selected samples that were considered to pose higher levels of potential risks to ecology or human health. Chemical analysis showed relatively higher concentrations of heavy metals in the seawater and biota samples collected from Xiangshui County and Binhai County, China. The heavy metal concentrations in different samples collected from the close vicinity of Dafeng Port, China, were also considerable. In all seawater and sediment samples, heavy metals showed a relatively moderate level of risk to ecological species; for consumption of marine organisms, heavy metals had adverse impacts on human health. Toxicity assessment indicated that the selected environmental samples or their extracts had significant toxicity to zebrafish early-life stages, including lethality, teratogenicity, and hatching delay (or advance). Thus the present study provides highly useful and important information on heavy metal pollution in Jiangsu Province.

  12. Refined estimation of solar energy potential on roof areas using decision trees on CityGML-data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumanns, K.; Löwner, M.-O.

    2009-04-01

    We present a decision tree for a refined solar energy plant potential estimation on roof areas using the exchange format CityGML. Compared to raster datasets CityGML-data holds geometric and semantic information of buildings and roof areas in more detail. In addition to shadowing effects ownership structures and lifetime of roof areas can be incorporated into the valuation. Since the Renewable Energy Sources Act came into force in Germany in 2000, private house owners and municipals raise attention to the production of green electricity. At this the return on invest depends on the statutory price per Watt, the initial costs of the solar energy plant, its lifetime, and the real production of this installation. The latter depends on the radiation that is obtained from and the size of the solar energy plant. In this context the exposition and slope of the roof area is as important as building parts like chimneys or dormers that might shadow parts of the roof. Knowing the controlling factors a decision tree can be created to support a beneficial deployment of a solar energy plant. Also sufficient data has to be available. Airborne raster datasets can only support a coarse estimation of the solar energy potential of roof areas. While they carry no semantically information, even roof installations are hardly to identify. CityGML as an Open Geospatial Consortium standard is an interoperable exchange data format for virtual 3-dimensional Cities. Based on international standards it holds the aforementioned geometric properties as well as semantically information. In Germany many Cities are on the way to provide CityGML dataset, e. g. Berlin. Here we present a decision tree that incorporates geometrically as well as semantically demands for a refined estimation of the solar energy potential on roof areas. Based on CityGML's attribute lists we consider geometries of roofs and roof installations as well as global radiation which can be derived e. g. from the European Solar

  13. Delineation of flood-prone areas and the identification of residential hotspots for two African cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Risi, Raffaele; Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Yeshitela, Kumelachew; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Renner, Florian; Printz, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    This work employs two GIS-based frameworks for identifying the urban residential hot spots. This is done by overlaying a map of potentially flood prone areas (the topographic wetness index, TWI) and a map of urban morphology types (UMT) classified as residential. The topographic wetness index (TWI, Qin et al. 2011) allows for the delineation of a portion of a hydrographic basin potentially exposed to flood inundation by identifying all the areas characterized by a topographic index that exceeds a given threshold. The urban morphological types (Pauleit and Duhme 2000, Gill et al. 2008, Cavan et al. 2012) form the foundation of a classification scheme which brings together facets of urban form and function. The application of the UMTs allows the delineation of geographical units. The distinction of UMTs at a 'meso'-scale (i.e. between the city level and that of the individual units) makes a suitable basis for the spatial analysis of cities. The TWI threshold value depends on the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM), topology of the hydrographic basin (i.e. urban, peri-urban or rural) and the constructed infrastructure (Manfreda et al. 2011). This threshold value is usually calibrated based on the results of detailed delineation of the inundation profile for selected zones. In this study, the TWI threshold is calibrated based on the calculated inundation profiles for various return periods for selected zones within the basin through a Bayesian framework. The Bayesian framework enables the probabilistic characterization of the threshold value by calculating the complementary probability of false delineation of flood prone zones as a function of various threshold values. For a given return period, the probability of false delineation is calculated as the sum of the probability of indicating a zone flood prone which is not indicated as such by the inundation profile and the probability that a zone is indicated as not flood prone but indicated as flood prone by

  14. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm) sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3) in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m-3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m-3) in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m-3) as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m-3 potassium, 1 μg m-3 magnesium, 2 μg m-3 sodium, and 3 μg m-3 calcium) from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m-3 over these areas. PM1-10 (particulate matter with diameter between 1 and 10 μm) chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m-3 in Texcoco Lake. PM1 ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m-3) and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m-3). The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) is encouraging. At the T0 measurement site, located in the Mexico City urban center, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.5 μg m-3, 3.5 μg m-3, 2.1 μg m-3, and 0.36 μg m-3, respectively. The corresponding predicted values are 3.7

  15. Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka near Lawton, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rendon, Samuel H.; Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2012-01-01

    Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and reliable water supplies, but they also entail risk: dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or misoperation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning the emergency response if a dam breach occurs. Accurate topographic data are vital for developing flood-inundation maps. This report presents results of a cooperative study by the city of Lawton, Oklahoma, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to model dam-breach scenarios at Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka near Lawton and to map the potential flood-inundation areas of such dam breaches. To assist the city of Lawton with completion of the emergency action plans for Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka Dams, the USGS collected light detection and ranging (lidar) data that were used to develop a high-resolution digital elevation model and a 1-foot contour elevation map for the flood plains downstream from Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka. This digital elevation model and field measurements, streamflow-gaging station data (USGS streamflow-gaging station 07311000, East Cache Creek near Walters, Okla.), and hydraulic values were used as inputs for the dynamic (unsteady-flow) model, Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System (HEC-RAS). The modeled flood elevations were exported to a geographic information system to produce flood-inundation maps. Water-surface profiles were developed for a 75-percent probable maximum

  16. 47 CFR 24.102 - Service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: Honolulu, Los Angeles-San Diego, Phoenix, Portland, Salt Lake City, San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, Seattle... Cities, Detroit, Indianapolis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis-St. Paul, and Omaha. (4) Region 4 (Central): The..., Houston, Kansas City, Little Rock, Memphis-Jackson, New Orleans-Baton Rouge, Oklahoma City, San...

  17. 47 CFR 24.102 - Service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: Honolulu, Los Angeles-San Diego, Phoenix, Portland, Salt Lake City, San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, Seattle... Cities, Detroit, Indianapolis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis-St. Paul, and Omaha. (4) Region 4 (Central): The..., Houston, Kansas City, Little Rock, Memphis-Jackson, New Orleans-Baton Rouge, Oklahoma City, San...

  18. 47 CFR 24.102 - Service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: Honolulu, Los Angeles-San Diego, Phoenix, Portland, Salt Lake City, San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, Seattle... Cities, Detroit, Indianapolis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis-St. Paul, and Omaha. (4) Region 4 (Central): The..., Houston, Kansas City, Little Rock, Memphis-Jackson, New Orleans-Baton Rouge, Oklahoma City, San...

  19. 47 CFR 24.102 - Service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: Honolulu, Los Angeles-San Diego, Phoenix, Portland, Salt Lake City, San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, Seattle... Cities, Detroit, Indianapolis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis-St. Paul, and Omaha. (4) Region 4 (Central): The..., Houston, Kansas City, Little Rock, Memphis-Jackson, New Orleans-Baton Rouge, Oklahoma City, San...

  20. 77 FR 13074 - Opportunity for Designation in the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Opportunity for Designation in the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas; Request for Comments on the Official Agencies Servicing...

  1. Mississippian facies relationships, eastern Anadarko basin, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, H.W. ); Forgotson, J.M. )

    1991-08-01

    Mississippian strata in the eastern Anadarko basin record a gradual deepening of the basin. Late and post-Mississippian tectonism (Wichita and Arbuckle orogenies) fragmented the single large basin into the series of paired basins and uplifts recognized in the southern half of Oklahoma today. Lower Mississippian isopach and facies trends (Sycamore and Caney Formations) indicate that basinal strike in the study area (southeastern Anadarko basin) was predominantly east-west. Depositional environment interpretations made for Lower Mississippian strata suggest that the basin was partially sediment starved and exhibited a low shelf-to-basin gradient. Upper Mississippian isopach and facies trends suggest that basinal strike within the study area shifted from dominantly east-west to dominantly northwest-southeast due to Late Mississippian and Early Pennsylvanian uplift along the Nemaha ridge. Within the study area, the Chester Formation, composed of gray to dove-gray shales with interbedded limestones deposited on a carbonate shelf, thins depositionally into the basin and is thinnest at its facies boundary with the Springer Group and the upper portion of the Caney Formation. As basin subsidence rates accelerated, the southern edge of the Chester carbonate shelf was progressively drowned, causing a backstepping of the Chester Formation calcareous shale and carbonate facies. Springer Group sands and black shales transgressed northward over the drowned Chester Formation shelf.

  2. Design of anti-slide piles for slope stabilization in Wanzhou city, Three Gorges Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunmei; van Westen, Cees

    2013-04-01

    This study is related to the design of anti-slide piles for several landslides in Wanzhou city located in the Three Gorges area. Due to the construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir the hydro-geological conditions in this area have deteriorated significantly, leading to larger instability problems. China has invested a lot of money in slope stabilization measures for the treatment of landslides in the Three Gorges area. One of the methods for the stabilization of large landslides is the design of anti-sliding piles. This paper focuses on extensive slope stability analysis and modeling of the mechanical behavior of the landslide masses, and the parameters required for designing the number, size and dimensions of reinforced concrete stabilization piles. The study focuses on determining the rock parameters, anchor depth, and the pile and soil interaction coefficient. The study aims to provide guidelines for anti-slide pile stabilization works for landslides in the Wanzhou area. The research work contains a number of aspects. First a study is carried out on the distribution of pressures expected on the piles, using two different methods that take into account the expected pore water pressure and seismic acceleration. For the Ercengyan landslide , the Limit Equilibrium Method and Strength Reduction Method of FEM are compared through the results of the landslide pressure distributions on the piles and stress fields in the piles. The second component is the study of the required anchor depth of antislide piles, which is carried out using a statistical analysis with data from 20 landslides that have been controlled with anti-sliding piles. The rock characteristics of the anchor locations were obtained using laboratory tests, and a classification of rock mass quality is made for the anchors of antislide piles. The relationship between the critical anchor height and the angle of the landslide slip surface is determined. Two different methods are presented for the length

  3. The effect of urban-area unemployment on the mental health of citizens differs between Slovak and Dutch cities.

    PubMed

    Behanova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Katreniakova, Zuzana; van Ameijden, Erik J C; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2013-11-01

    Conclusive evidence on the association of mental health problems (MHP) with area unemployment is lacking in regard to Central European cities. We obtained data on residents aged 19-64 from Slovak and Dutch cities from the FP7 EURO-URHIS 2 project. Multilevel logistic regression showed that the association between MHP (GHQ-12-total score ≥2) and area unemployment was strong in the Netherlands, but absent in Slovakia. Slovak citizens from the most favourable neighbourhoods had nearly double the risk of MHP than their Dutch counterparts. Individual-level socioeconomic characteristics did not explain area differences. The effect of urban-area unemployment seems to differ between Central European and Western European countries.

  4. The status and distribution of woodcock in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barclay, J.S.; Smith, R.W.; Edited by Keppie, Daniel M.; Owen, Ray B.

    1977-01-01

    The seasonal and spatial distributions of the American woodcock (Philohela minor) in Oklahoma were determined through field surveys and the collection of all known reports of woodcock sightings. Woodcock were reported in Oklahoma in all seasons and were most Jrequently sighted from 11 October to 10 January. The peak in fall migration occurred between 11 November and 10 December. Woodcock were found in 5 major areas across the eastern two-thirds of the state but 57 percent of the birds reported during the study were in the eastern one-third. A total of 148 displaying males were encountered on 25 sites in 15 of 29 counties included roadside singing ground surveys in 1975 and 1976. The peak number of displaying birds (58) was observed during the second IO-day period in February; displays occurred from January through late March. Personal observations plus data reported via volunteer survey cards, indicated that the typical site used for diurnal cover by woodcock in Oklahoma is a brushy bottomland with moist loamy soils, vegetated by oaks (Quercus spp.), elms (Ulmus spp,), bluestem grasses (Andropogon spp.), dogwoods (Cornus spp.) and green briars (Smilax spp.).

  5. Field trip guide to selected outcrops, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    1991-11-17

    The Arbuckle Mountains, named for Brigadier General Matthew Arbuckle, are located in south-central Oklahoma. The formations that comprise the Arbuckle Mountains have been extensively studied for hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir rock characteristics that can be applied to the subsurface in the adjacent Anadarko and Ardmore basins. Numerous reports and guidebooks have been written concerning the Arbuckle Mountains. A few important general publications are provided in the list of selected references. The purpose of this handout is to provide general information on the geology of the Arbuckle Mountains and specific information on the four field trip stops, adapted from the literature. The four stops were at: (1) Sooner Rock and Sand Quarry; (2) Woodford Shale; (3) Hunton Anticline and Hunton Quarry; and (4) Tar Sands of Sulfur Area. As part of this report, two papers are included for more detail: Paleomagnetic dating of basinal fluid migration, base-metal mineralization, and hydrocarbon maturation in the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma and Laminated black shale-bedded chert cyclicity in the Woodford Formation, southern Oklahoma.

  6. Variable seismic response to fluid injection in central Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keranen, K. M.; Hogan, C.; Savage, H. M.; Abers, G. A.; van der Elst, N.

    2013-12-01

    Seismicity in Oklahoma since 2009 has been concentrated in the central portion of the state, in the areas of Jones, Prague, and Luther. These three regions account for ~75% of earthquakes in the 2009-2013 Oklahoma Geological Survey catalog. A swarm in the Jones region began in late 2008, with a maximum magnitude of 4.0, and activity continuing to the present. After relocation, the initially diffuse earthquakes in the Jones swarm delineate multiple subparallel faults. The Wilzetta fault zone ruptured in the Prague region in 2010 and again in 2011, with magnitudes up to Mw5.7, and the Luther region experienced two earthquakes of M4.4 and M4.2, with related aftershocks, in 2013. The earthquakes near Prague have previously been linked to wastewater disposal; here we show that the earthquakes near Jones and Luther may also be induced by deep disposal based on the upsurge in seismicity in central Oklahoma coupled with local relationships to pumping and reservoir structure. The timing of each sequence with respect to injection and the distribution of seismic activity differs, highlighting the variability in seismic response to fluid injection related to local permeability structure.

  7. The Meers Fault: Tectonic activity in southwestern Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ramelli, A.R.; Slemmons, D.B.; Brocoum, S.J.

    1987-03-01

    The Meers Fault in Southwestern Oklahoma is capable of producing large, damaging earthquakes. By comparison to historical events, a minimum of M = 6-3/4 to 7-1/4 could be expected. The most recent surface rupturing event occurred in the late Holocene, and it appears that one or more pre-Holocene events preceded it. Surface rupture length is at least 37 km. Displacements comprising the present-day scarp have left-lateral and high-angle reverse components. Vertical separation of the ground surface reaches 5 m, while lateral separation exceeds the vertical by a ratio of about 3:1 to 5:1, reaching about 20 m. Individual events apparently had maximum displacements of several meters. The Meers Fault may be part of a larger active zone. Based on surface expressions, the Washita Valley, Oklahoma and Potter County, Texas Faults may also have ruptures during the late Quaternary, although not as recently as the Meers Fault. Low sun angle photography in Southwestern Oklahoma revealed no evidence of fault activity, other than that of the Meers Fault, although activity may be concealed by poor preservation or ductile surface deformation. This suggests that additional areas of activity may be sparse and rupture infrequently.

  8. Characterizing Earthquake Clusters in Oklahoma Using Subspace Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, N. D.; Benz, H.; Aster, R. C.; McNamara, D. E.; Myers, E. K.

    2014-12-01

    Subspace detection is a powerful and adaptive tool for continuously detecting low signal to noise seismic signals. Subspace detectors improve upon simple cross-correlation/matched filtering techniques by moving beyond the use of a single waveform template to the use of multiple orthogonal waveform templates that effectively span the signals from all previously identified events within a data set. Subspace detectors are particularly useful in event scenarios where a spatially limited source distribution produces earthquakes with highly similar waveforms. In this context, the methodology has been successfully deployed to identify low-frequency earthquakes within non-volcanic tremor, to characterize earthquakes swarms above magma bodies, and for detailed characterization of aftershock sequences. Here we apply a subspace detection methodology to characterize recent earthquakes clusters in Oklahoma. Since 2009, the state has experienced an unprecedented increase in seismicity, which has been attributed by others to recent expansion in deep wastewater injection well activity. Within the last few years, 99% of increased Oklahoma earthquake activity has occurred within 15 km of a Class II injection well. We analyze areas of dense seismic activity in central Oklahoma and construct more complete catalogues for analysis. For a typical cluster, we are able to achieve catalog completeness to near or below magnitude 1 and to continuously document seismic activity for periods of 6 months or more. Our catalog can more completely characterize these clusters in time and space with event numbers, magnitudes, b-values, energy, locations, etc. This detailed examination of swarm events should lead to a better understanding of time varying earthquake processes and hazards in the state of Oklahoma.

  9. Investigation of OxProduction Rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MILAGRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusanter, S.; Molina, L. T.; Stevens, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants are important issues in atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) is of particular interest due to its detrimental effects on both human health and agricultural ecosystems. A detailed characterization of tropospheric O3 production rates will help in the development of effective control strategies. The 2006 Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2006) was one of four components of MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) intended to collect information on the impact of megacity emissions on local, regional and global scales. In this presentation, rates of production of Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) species during MCMA-2006 at the supersite T0 (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo) will be presented using different approaches based on measured and modeled concentrations of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals. In addition, we will examine both the reactivity of OH and the contribution of specific peroxy radicals to the oxidation rate of NO to estimate the contribution of groups of VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, oxygenated and biogenic VOCs) to the total production rate of Ox species.

  10. Dust pollution of snow cover in the industrial areas of Tomsk city (Western Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talovskaya, A. V.; Filimonenko, E. A.; Osipova, N. A.; Yazikov, E. G.; Nadeina, L. V.

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the results of long-term monitoring (2007-2014) of snow cover pollution in the territory of Tomsk city. Snow samples were collected in the territory of Tomsk. Determination of dust load level was carried out by comparing with the background and reference values. It has been determined that the north-east and central parts of Tomsk are the most contaminated areas, where brickworks, coal and gas-fired thermal power plant are located. The analysis of long-term dynamics showed a dust load decrease in the vicinity of coal and gas-fired thermal power plant due to upgrading of the existing dust collecting systems. During the monitoring period the high dust load in the vicinity of brickworks did not change. The lowest value of the dust load on snow cover was detected in the vicinity of the petrochemical plant and concrete product plants. The near and far zones of dust load on snow cover were determined with the reference to the location of the studied plants.

  11. Evaluation of the vehicle inspection/maintenance program in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Vera, M; Guzmán, E; Durán, J; Ramos, F; López-Salinas, E

    2003-01-01

    The Inspection/Maintenance Program in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) mandates a test every 6 months for all gasoline motor vehicles as one of the strategies to decrease emissions of vehicular pollutants. FTP-75 and ASM procedures were performed in our facilities to a fleet of 108 in-use motor vehicles before and after the approval of the I/M mandatory test When our laboratory-simulated ASM data were compared with those of the official certificate, a large difference was observed between them. On the other hand, audits at the test-only centers indicate poor maintenance of the analytical instruments and dynamometers. On the basis of our FTP results, an estimation of the emissions change for the MAMC fleet shows a net 4% decrease in CO emissions, while total hydrocarbons and NOx increased 9 and 8%, respectively. Our results indicate that the I/M system in the MAMC lacks the technical capability and investment to ensure that software and hardware are properly maintained, calibrated, and upgraded. Sometimes limited attention is paid to ensure adequate training of inspectors, auditors, and quality control staff.

  12. Assessment of new vehicles emissions certification standards in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; López-Salinas, E

    2006-03-01

    Light duty gasoline vehicles account for most of CO hydrocarbons and NOx emissions at the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). In order to ameliorate air pollution from the beginning of 2001, Tier 1 emission standards became mandatory for all new model year sold in the country. Car manufacturers in Mexico do not guarantee the performance of their exhaust emissions systems for a given mileage. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the Tier 1 vehicles will stand the certification values for at least 162000 km with the regular fuel available at the MAMC. Mileage accumulation and deterioration show that certified carbon monoxide emissions will stand for the useful life of the vehicles but in the case of non-methane hydrocarbons will be shorter by 40%, and nitrogen oxides emissions above the standard will be reached at one third of the accumulated kilometers. The effect of gasoline sulfur content, on the current in use Tier 1 vehicles of the MAMC and the impact on the emissions inventory in year 2010 showed that 31000 extra tons of NOx could be added to the inventory caused by the failure of the vehicles to control this pollutant at the useful life of vehicles.

  13. Flash floods along the Italian coastal areas: examples from Pozzuoli city, Campania, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Giuseppe; Matano, Fabio; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sacchi, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Italian western coastal areas are the most exposed in the country to low-pressure systems coming from the central-western Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. In the last years, many Italian coastal villages were struck by floods and flow processes triggered by high-intensity and short-duration rainfall, typical of flash flood events. In the Campania region (SW Italy) a series of events has caused several fatalities and heavy damages in the last decades, i.e. the flash floods of Casamicciola - Ischia Island (10/11/2009 - 1 fatality) and Atrani (9/9/2010 - 1 fatality). In this work we describe the rainfall properties and the ground effects of the 2009, 2010 and 2011 flash floods which involved the city of Pozzuoli, along the Campi Flegrei coast, where a catastrophic flood event (13 fatalities) is reported in 1918 in the AVI Project database. Rainfall data were measured at a sampling rate of 10 minutes by a regional Civil Protection rain gauge located in the city of Pozzuoli near the areas struck by the flash flood effects. In order to analyze the extreme features of the rainstorms and compare them, we have considered the 1-hour maximum rainfall amount and the 10-min peak storm intensity value for each event. The first rainstorm occurred on 14 September 2009; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 34.4 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 57.6 mm/h. The second rainstorm occurred on 30 July 2010; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 40.6 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 126 mm/h. The third rainstorm occurred on 06 November 2011; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 44.2 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 67.2 mm/h. The three described rainstorms all triggered erosional processes and shallow landslides in the upper part of the Pozzuoli drainage basin that supplied sheet flows and hyperconcentrated flows downstream, with severe damage to the human structures built near or inside the

  14. Pollen allergy related to the area of residence in the city of Córdoba, south-west Spain.

    PubMed

    Cariñanos, Paloma; Sánchez-Mesa, Juan Antonio; Prieto-Baena, Jose Carlos; Lopez, Angeles; Guerra, Francisco; Moreno, Carmen; Dominguez, Eugenio; Galan, Carmen

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between the distribution of hay-fever patients in the city of Córdoba, south-western Iberian Peninsula, and the specific atmospheric biological content originating from local sources. Four different districts were established in the metropolitan area of the city, according to vegetational and urbanistic characteristics. Air samples were taken in each area using portable Hirst-type samplers (Lanzoni VPPS 1000) and the spectrum of biological content was defined. Patients attending the Allergy Unit at Córdoba Teaching Hospital in 2000 with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma, and displaying a positive reaction to aeroallergen extracts, were distributed within the areas as a function of their district of residence. Aerobiological results revealed differences in pollen content between areas, in terms of both quantity and number of pollen types recorded. These differences were largely due to proximity to rural areas, prevalence of pollen from typically urban species and the possible effect of urban architecture as a barrier to the dispersal/ concentration of particles and other pollutants. Patients were not uniformly distributed within the city. The majority lived in districts in which pollen from rural species was mixed with pollen from ornamentals. Patients living in typically urban districts displayed a higher prevalence of allergy to pollen from ornamentals. It is concluded that a high degree of exposure to the same environment may influence the development of sensitisation to the particular pollen load associated with that area.

  15. Environmental Assessment for the Construction of a Three-Bay Multi-Aircraft Hangar Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Non-road sources are aircraft, locomotives , diesel and gasoline boats and ships, personal watercraft, lawn and garden equipment, agricultural and...Terri Davis, Manager Oklahoma City Publicly Owned Treatment Works (North Canadian Plant) Cynthia Garrett , Environmental Engineer Tinker AFB; 72 CEG

  16. Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Chemical Transport Model (PMCAMx) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2007-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have adverse effects on human health, contribute to the visibility reduction and influence the energy balance of the planet. A three-dimensional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) (Gaydos et al., 2007) is used to simulate the particular matter (PM) mass composition distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). PMCAMx uses the framework of CAMx (ENVIRON, 2002) modelling the processes of horizontal and vertical advection, horizontal and vertical dispersion, wet and dry deposition, and gas-phase chemistry. In addition to the above, PMCAMx includes three detailed aerosol modules: inorganic aerosol growth (Gaydos et al., 2003; Koo et al., 2003a), aqueous-phase chemistry (Fahey and Pandis, 2001), and secondary organic aerosol formation and growth (Koo et al., 2004). The aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA has been improved as it now simulates explicitly the chemistry of Ca, Mg, and K salts and is linked to PMCAMx. The hybrid approach (Koo et al., 2003b) for modelling aerosol dynamics is applied in order to accurately simulate the inorganic components in coarse mode. This approach assumes that the smallest particles are in equilibrium while the condensation/evaporation equation is solved for the larger ones. The new CMU organic aerosol model, which is based on the splitting of the organic aerosol volatility range in discrete bins, is also used. The model predictions are evaluated against the PM and vapour concentration measurements from the MCMA-2003 Campaign (Molina et al., 2007). References Gaydos, T., Pinder, R., Koo, B., Fahey, Κ., Yarwood, G., and Pandis, S. N., (2007). Development and application of a three-dimensional Chemical Transport Model, PMCAMx. Atmospheric Environment, in press. ENVIRON (2002). User's guide to the comprehensive air quality model with extensions (CAMx). Version 3.10. Report prepared by ENVIRON International corporation, Novato, CA Gaydos, T., Koo, B., and Pandis, S. N., (2003). Development and application of

  17. Small-area estimation of the probability of toxocariasis in New York City based on sociodemographic neighborhood composition.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael G; Haseeb, M A

    2014-01-01

    Toxocariasis is increasingly recognized as an important neglected infection of poverty (NIP) in developed countries, and may constitute the most important NIP in the United States (US) given its association with chronic sequelae such as asthma and poor cognitive development. Its potential public health burden notwithstanding, toxocariasis surveillance is minimal throughout the US and so the true burden of disease remains uncertain in many areas. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted a representative serologic survey of toxocariasis to estimate the prevalence of infection in diverse US subpopulations across different regions of the country. Using the NHANES III surveillance data, the current study applied the predicted probabilities of toxocariasis to the sociodemographic composition of New York census tracts to estimate the local probability of infection across the city. The predicted probability of toxocariasis ranged from 6% among US-born Latino women with a university education to 57% among immigrant men with less than a high school education. The predicted probability of toxocariasis exhibited marked spatial variation across the city, with particularly high infection probabilities in large sections of Queens, and smaller, more concentrated areas of Brooklyn and northern Manhattan. This investigation is the first attempt at small-area estimation of the probability surface of toxocariasis in a major US city. While this study does not define toxocariasis risk directly, it does provide a much needed tool to aid the development of toxocariasis surveillance in New York City.

  18. Quartz Mountain/Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frates, Mary Y.; Madeja, Stanley S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Quartz Mountain Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute program. It is designed to nurture artistic talent and to provide intensive arts experiences in music, dance, theater, and the visual arts for talented students aged 14-18. (AM)

  19. 78 FR 23622 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00070

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster OK-00070 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and...

  20. Estimated Freshwater Withdrawals in Oklahoma, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents 1990 freshwater withdrawal estimates for Oklahoma by source and category. Withdrawal source is either ground water or surface water. Withdrawal categories include: irrigation, water supply, livestock, thermoelectric-power generation, domestic and commercial, and industrial and mining. Withdrawal data are aggregated by county, major aquifer, and principal river basin. Only the four major categories of irrigation, water supply, livestock, and thermoelectric-power generation are illustrated in this report, although data for all categories are tabulated. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established the National Water-Use Information Program in 1977 to collect uniform, current, and reliable information on water use. The Oklahoma District of the USGS and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board participate in a cooperative program to collect and publish water-use information for Oklahoma. Data contained in this report were made available through the cooperative program.

  1. Oil extraction linked to Oklahoma earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Marcus

    2014-08-01

    Pumping waste water into the ground - a by-product of new oil and gas extraction processes - was the likely cause of a recent surge of earthquakes in the US state of Oklahoma, according to researchers in the US.

  2. Oklahoma Space Industry Development Authority

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to increase the awareness of students of space sciences and commerce through experimentation. This objective was carried out through the award and administration, by OSIDA, the Oklahoma Space Industry Development Authority, of eleven smaller grants to fund thirteen projects at schools determined by competitive application. Applications were graded on potential outreach, experimentation objectives and impact on students' awareness of space sciences. We chose projects from elementary, middle and high schools as well as colleges that would encourage students through research and experimentation to consider education and careers in related disciplines. Each organization did not receive an equal share of the grant; instead, OSIDA distributed the money to each project based on the organization's need. A copy of the dispersement record is enclosed with this final grant report. The projects covered topics such as: space colonization, space stations, constellations, model rocketry, and space commerce.

  3. Confirmation of Aedes taeniorhynchus in Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-01-01

    Richardson 3 and Joseph E. Farlow ABSTRACT. A single female collected in 1971 confirms the presence of Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) in Oklahoma. This...from Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas (Eldridge et al. 1972). Although most of these specimens were pooled for virus isolation attempts...infrequent specimens were pinned and retained for further study. Included among the latter was a single female of Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) from

  4. Testing a Mahalanobis distance model of black bear habitat use in the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hellgren, E.C.; Bales, S.L.; Gregory, M.S.; Leslie, David M.; Clark, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Regional wildlife–habitat models are commonly developed but rarely tested with truly independent data. We tested a published habitat model for black bears (Ursus americanus) with new data collected in a different site in the same ecological region (i.e., Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma, USA). We used a Mahalanobis distance model developed from relocations of black bears in Arkansas to produce a map layer of Mahalanobis distances on a study area in neighboring Oklahoma. We tested this modeled map layer with relocations of black bears on the Oklahoma area. The distributions of relocations of female black bears were consistent with model predictions. We conclude that this modeling approach can be used to predict regional suitability for a species of interest.

  5. Violence-related firearm deaths among residents of metropolitan areas and cities---United States, 2006--2007.

    PubMed

    2011-05-13

    Violence-related firearm deaths remain an important public health concern in the United States. During 2006--2007, a total of 25,423 firearm homicides and 34,235 firearm suicides occurred among U.S. residents. These national totals include 4,166 firearm homicides and 1,446 firearm suicides among youths aged 10--19 years; the rate of firearm homicides among youths slightly exceeded the rate among persons of all ages. This report presents statistics on firearm homicides and firearm suicides for major metropolitan areas and cities, with an emphasis on youths aged 10--19 years in recognition of the importance of early prevention efforts. It integrates analyses conducted by CDC in response to requests for detailed information, arising from a heightened focus on urban violence by the media, the public, and policymakers over the past year. Firearm homicides and suicides and annual rates were tabulated for the 50 largest U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and their central cities for 2006--2007, using data from the National Vital Statistics System and the U.S. Census Bureau. Firearm homicide rates in approximately two thirds of the MSAs exceeded the national rate, and 86% of cities had rates higher than those of their MSAs. The youth firearm homicide rate exceeded the all-ages rate in 80% of the MSAs and in 88% of the cities. Firearm suicide rates in just over half of the MSAs were below the national rate, and 55% of cities had rates below those of their MSAs. Youth firearm suicide rates in the MSAs and cities were collectively low compared with all-ages rates. Such variations in firearm homicide and firearm suicide rates, with respect to both urbanization and age, should be considered in the continuing development of prevention programs directed at reducing firearm violence.

  6. Environmental Assessment: Construction of Air Traffic Control Tower Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    built with limited equipment space and designed to accommodate only air traffic control (A TC) operations. Although multiple upgrades and repairs to...delay flying operations. Further, demands placed on the existing tower make it unsuitable for further expansion and degrade the adequacy of the work...would not require changes to land use designations or be considered incompatible with the Tinker AFB General Plan and Oklahoma City Southea<>t Sector

  7. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  8. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  9. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  10. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  11. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds in Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2005- 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, E.; Reyes, E.; Blanco, S.; Perez, J.; Gonzalez, S.; Retama, A.; Muñoz, R.; Ramos, R.; Paramo, V. H.; Gutiérrez, V.; Cárdenas, B.

    2007-05-01

    One of the main air quality problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are the high ozone levels, resulting from the photochemical reactions among precursors such as nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. The MCMA air quality monitoring network includes 19 NOx and 19 O3 monitoring sites. However, no routine VOC monitoring is carried out. This work presents results of a field campaign done from September 2005 to September 2006 in the MCMA. 24 hours integrated samples were obtained every six days in five different sites, considered representative of the northwest, northeast, southeast, southwest, and center of the MCMA. Samples were obtained in stainless steel canisters adapted with a programmable flow controller. Analyses were done using a GC-FID to identify 57 VOCs following USEPA-TO-14A. A total of 354 samples were obtained corresponding to 62 sampling days. On the average, highest concentrations were found in the center, whereas lowest concentrations were found at the southwest. However, the overall maximum concentration (741 ppbV) was determined at the northeast site, and the overall minimum concentration (27 ppbV) was determined at the southwest site. At all sites, propane, butane, acetylene and toluene were the compounds found at highest concentrations. The main source for propane and butane is LPG, whereas for acetylene and toluene are combustion and evaporation of gasoline. It was found that southwest site is significantively different from the rest of all sites. A short field campaign was also done during 5 days in November-December 2005 with 3 periods of 3hrs integrated samples.

  12. Longitudinal Study of Microbial Diversity and Seasonality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area Water Supply System

    PubMed Central

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Ponce-de-León, Sergio; Calva, Juan José; Rojo-Callejas, Francisco; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    In the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA), 70% of the water for 18 million inhabitants is derived from the Basin of Mexico regional aquifer. To provide an overview of the quality of the groundwater, a longitudinal study was conducted, in which 30 sites were randomly selected from 1,575 registered extraction wells. Samples were taken before and after chlorine disinfection during both the rainy and dry seasons (2000-2001). Microbiological parameters (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, streptococci, and Vibrio spp.), the presence of Helicobacter pylori, and physicochemical parameters, including the amount of trihalomethanes (THMs), were determined. Although microorganisms and inorganic and organic compounds were evident, they did not exceed current permissible limits. Chlorine levels were low, and the bacterial counts were not affected by chlorine disinfection. Eighty-four bacterial species from nine genera normally associated with fecal contamination were identified in water samples. H. pylori was detected in at least 10% of the studied samples. About 40% of the samples surpassed the THM concentration allowed by Mexican and U.S. regulations, with levels of chloroform being high. The quality of the water distributed to the MCMA varied between the rainy and dry seasons, with higher levels of pH, nitrates, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, total organic carbon, and fecal streptococci during the dry season. This study showed that the groundwater distribution system is susceptible to contamination and that there is a need for a strict, year-round disinfection strategy to ensure adequate drinking-water quality. This situation in one of the world's megacities may reflect what is happening in large urban centers in developing countries which rely on a groundwater supply. PMID:16151096

  13. Aerosol Simulation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MCMA2003 using CMAQ/Models3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L.

    2007-12-01

    CMAQ/Models3 has been employed to simulate the aerosol distribution and variation during the period from 13 to 16 April 2003 over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area as part of MCMA-2003 campaign. The meteorological fields are simulated using MM5, with three one-way nested grids with horizontal resolutions of 36, 12 and 3 km and 23 sigma levels in the vertical. MM5 3DVAR system has also been incorporated into the meteorological simulations. Chemical initial and boundary conditions are interpolated from the MOZART output. The SAPRC emission inventory is developed based on the official emission inventory for MCMA in 2004. The simulated mass concentrations of different aerosol compositions, such as elemental carbon (EC), primary organic aerosol (POA), secondary organic aerosol (SOA), nitrate, ammonium, and sulfate have been compared to the measurements taken at the National Center for Environmental Research and Training (Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, CENICA) super-site. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) are used as observations of POA and SOA, respectively in this study. The preliminary model results show that the temporal evolutions of EC and POA are reasonable compared with measurements. The peak time of EC and POA are basically reproduced, thus validating the emission inventory and its processing through CMAQ/Models3. But the magnitude of EC and POA are underestimated over the entire episode. The modeled nitrate and ammonium concentrations are overestimated on most of the days. There is 1-2 hour difference between the simulated peak time of nitrate and ammonium aerosols compared to observations at CENICA. The simulated mass concentrations of SOA and sulfate are significantly underestimated. The reasons of the discrepancy between simulations and measurements are due to the uncertainties existing in the emission inventory, meteorological fields, and as well as aerosol formation mechanism in the case

  14. A Reconnaissance of selected organic compounds in streams in tribal lands in Central Oklahoma, January-February 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey worked in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma on two separate reconnaissance projects carried out concurrently. Both projects entailed the use of passive samplers as a sampling methodology to investigate the detection of selected organic compounds at stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes in central Oklahoma during January-February 2009. The focus of the project with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was the detection of pesticides and pesticide metabolites using Semipermeable Membrane Devices at five stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes. The project with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma focused on the detection of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and synthetic organic compounds using Semipermeable Membrane Devices and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers at two stream sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The seven stream sites were located in central Oklahoma on the Cimarron River, Little River, North Canadian River, Deep Fork, and Washita River. Extracts from SPMDs submerged at five stream sites, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, were analyzed for 46 pesticides and 6 pesticide metabolites. Dacthal, a pre-emergent herbicide, was detected at all five sites. Pendimethalin, also a pre-emergent, was detected at one site. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and dieldrin were detected at three sites and p,p'-DDE, a metabolite of the insecticide DDT, also was detected at three sites. SPMDs and POCIS were submerged at the upstream edge and downstream edge of the Kickapoo tribal boundaries. Both sites are downstream from the Oklahoma City metropolitan area and multiple municipal wastewater treatment plants. Extracts from the passive samplers were analyzed for 62 pesticides, 10 pesticide metabolites, 3 polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, 35

  15. Vehicle traffic as a source of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in the Mexico City metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Marr, Linsey C; Grogan, Lisa A; Wöhrnschimmel, Henry; Molina, Luisa T; Molina, Mario J; Smith, Thomas J; Garshick, Eric

    2004-05-01

    Surface properties of aerosols in the Mexico City metropolitan area have been measured in a variety of exposure scenarios related to vehicle emissions in 2002, using continuous, real-time instruments. The objective of these experiments is to describe ambient and occupational particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations associated with vehicular traffic and facilities using diesel vehicles. Median total particulate PAH concentrations along Mexico City's roadways range from 60 to 910 ng m(-3), averaged over a minimum of 1 h. These levels are approximately 5 times higher than concentrations measured in the United States and among the highest measured ambient values reported in the literature. The ratio of particulate PAH concentration to aerosol active surface area is much higher along roadways and in other areas of fresh vehicle emissions, compared to ratios measured at sites influenced more by aged emissions or noncombustion sources. For particles freshly emitted by vehicles, PAH and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations are correlated because they both originate during the combustion process. Comparison of PAH versus EC and active surface area concentrations at different locations suggests that surface PAH concentrations may diminish with particle aging. These results indicate that exposure to vehicle-related PAH emissions on Mexico City's roadways may present an important public health risk.

  16. Methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of peak streamflows at ungaged sites in and near the Oklahoma Panhandle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Lewis, Jason M.; Graves, Grant M.

    2015-09-28

    Generalized-least-squares multiple-linear regression analysis was used to formulate regression relations between peak-streamflow frequency statistics and basin characteristics. Contributing drainage area was the only basin characteristic determined to be statistically significant for all percentage of annual exceedance probabilities and was the only basin characteristic used in regional regression equations for estimating peak-streamflow frequency statistics on unregulated streams in and near the Oklahoma Panhandle. The regression model pseudo-coefficient of determination, converted to percent, for the Oklahoma Panhandle regional regression equations ranged from about 38 to 63 percent. The standard errors of prediction and the standard model errors for the Oklahoma Panhandle regional regression equations ranged from about 84 to 148 percent and from about 76 to 138 percent, respectively. These errors were comparable to those reported for regional peak-streamflow frequency regression equations for the High Plains areas of Texas and Colorado. The root mean square errors for the Oklahoma Panhandle regional regression equations (ranging from 3,170 to 92,000 cubic feet per second) were less than the root mean square errors for the Oklahoma statewide regression equations (ranging from 18,900 to 412,000 cubic feet per second); therefore, the Oklahoma Panhandle regional regression equations produce more accurate peak-streamflow statistic estimates for the irrigated period of record in the Oklahoma Panhandle than do the Oklahoma statewide regression equations. The regression equations developed in this report are applicable to streams that are not substantially affected by regulation, impoundment, or surface-water withdrawals. These regression equations are intended for use for stream sites with contributing drainage areas less than or equal to about 2,060 square miles, the maximum value for the independent variable used in the regression analysis.

  17. A Total Lightning Perspective of the 20 May 2013 Moore, Oklahoma Supercell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; MacGorman, Don R.; Calhoun, Kristin M.

    2014-01-01

    In the early afternoon of 20 May 2013, a storm initiated to the west-southwest of Newcastle, Oklahoma. This storm would rapidly intensify into the parent supercell of the tornado that struck the city of Moore, Oklahoma. This article describes what contributions total lightning observations from the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array could provide to operational forecasters had these observations been available in real-time. This effort includes a focus on the GOES-R pseudo-geostationary lightning mapper demonstration product as well as the NASA SPoRT / Meteorological Development Laboratory's total lightning tracking tool. These observations and tools identified several contributions. Two distinct lightning jumps at 1908 and 1928 UTC provided a lead time of 19 minutes ahead of severe hail and 26 minutes ahead of the Moore, Oklahoma tornado's touchdown. These observations provide strong situational awareness to forecasters, as the lightning jumps are related to the rapid strengthening of the storm's updraft and mesocyclone and serve as a precursor to the stretching of the storm vortex ahead severe weather.

  18. Culture and self: are there within-culture differences in self between metropolitan areas and regional cities?

    PubMed

    Kashima, Yoshihisa; Kokubo, Teruyoshi; Kashima, Emiko S; Boxall, Dianne; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Macrae, Kristina

    2004-07-01

    Although differences in self-conception across cultures have been well researched, regional differences within a culture have escaped attention. The present study examined individual, relational, and collective selves, which capture people's conceptions of themselves in relation to their goals, significant others, and in groups, comparing Australians and Japanese participants living in regional cities and metropolitan areas. Culture, gender, and urbanism were found to be related to individual, relational, and collective selves, respectively. Australians emphasized individual self more than Japanese, women stressed relational self more than men, and residents in regional cities regarded collective self as more important than their counterparts in metropolitan areas. These findings provide support for the tripartite division of the self and suggest a need to construct a culture theory that links self and societal processes.

  19. Examining the Reasons Black Male Youths Give for Committing Crime with Reference to Inner City Areas of London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achinewhu-Nworgu, Elizabeth; Nworgu, Chioma; Azaiki, Steve; Nworgu, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a mini research carried out by the Focus Learning Support (FLS) team on reasons why young black males in the community commit crime. Knife and gun crime is seen as a serious problem in the black community involving black males in the inner London city areas--many of whom are both victims and offenders of knife and gun crime.…

  20. Exposure of children to air pollution in the industrial zone of Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Quintanilla-Vega, Betsabé; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    An air quality monitoring in three schools located in the most important industrial zone at the Northeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) was conducted in order to determine the exposure of children to toxics contained in PM10. Particles were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic and elemental carbon by ICP-AES, GC-MS and TOT (Sunset lab) respectively. Average concentration of PM10 was 108.4±11.6 μg/m3. Most abundant metals were Fe, Zn and Pb with concentrations ranged by 1.1-5.4 μg/m3, 0.3-2 μg/m3, and 0.18-0.63 μg/m3 respectively; the sum of the seventeen PAHs varied from 1.4 to 3.3 ng/m3 where most abundant PAH were indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sum of the seven carcinogenic PAH contributed in average with the 48% of the total mixture. Carcinogenic potential of PAH were obtained using toxic equivalent factors determined by Nisbet and La Goy which varied from 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ m3 of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BAPeq), this value is lower than the standard proposed for the European Community of 1 ng/ m3, but higher than the standard from the United Kingdom of 0.25 ng/ m3. Principal component analysis for source apportionment showed that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main sources of PM in the zone. In general, the concentrations of particles as well as concentration of metals and PAHs are lower than concentrations measured six year before, showing that the established measures have improved the air quality. Nevertheless these PM10 concentrations exceeded frequently the Mexican Standard and children are especially susceptible due to the higher risk to develop diseases if the exposure occurs at early age.

  1. Assessing coastal flood risk and sea level rise impacts at New York City area airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohman, K. A.; Kimball, N.; Osler, M.; Eberbach, S.

    2014-12-01

    Flood risk and sea level rise impacts were assessed for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) at four airports in the New York City area. These airports included John F. Kennedy International, LaGuardia, Newark International, and Teterboro Airports. Quantifying both present day and future flood risk due to climate change and developing flood mitigation alternatives is crucial for the continued operation of these airports. During Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 all four airports were forced to shut down, in part due to coastal flooding. Future climate change and sea level rise effects may result in more frequent shutdowns and disruptions in travel to and from these busy airports. The study examined the effects of the 1%-annual-chance coastal flooding event for present day existing conditions and six different sea level rise scenarios at each airport. Storm surge model outputs from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided the present day storm surge conditions. 50th and 90thpercentile sea level rise projections from the New York Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2013 report were incorporated into storm surge results using linear superposition methods. These projections were evaluated for future years 2025, 2035, and 2055. In addition to the linear superposition approach for storm surge at airports where waves are a potential hazard, one dimensional wave modeling was performed to get the total water level results. Flood hazard and flood depth maps were created based on these results. In addition to assessing overall flooding at each airport, major at-risk infrastructure critical to the continued operation of the airport was identified and a detailed flood vulnerability assessment was performed. This assessment quantified flood impacts in terms of potential critical infrastructure inundation and developed mitigation alternatives to adapt to coastal flooding and future sea level changes. Results from this project are advancing the PANYNJ

  2. Risk of Giardia intestinalis infection in children from an artificially recharged groundwater area in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Suárez, Leticia; Espinosa, Martha; Juárez-Figueroa, Luis; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the risk of infection with Giardia intestinalis in children living in an area with artificial groundwater recharge and potable water reuse in Mexico City. Eligible wells and surrounding homesteads were defined by using a geographic information system. Five wells were tested for G. intestinalis cysts per 400 liters of water. A total of 750 eligible households were visited during two cross-sectional surveys. Stool samples were provided by 986 children in the rainy season study and 928 children during the dry season survey for parasitologic tests. Their guardians provided information on water, sanitation, hygiene, and socioeconomic variables. The prevalence rates of G. intestinalis infection were 9.4% in the rainy season and 4.4% in the dry season. Higher rates of infection were observed in older individuals (9.5% and 10.6%) and girls had a lower risk of infection than boys (odds ratio [OR] =0.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.34, 0.88 in the rainy season and OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.25, 0.90 in the dry season). During the wet season survey, a health risk was detected among those storing water in unprotected receptacles (OR = 4.00, 4.69, and 5.34 for those using uncovered jars, cisterns or tanks, and buckets, respectively), and bathing outside the dwelling, i.e., using a tap (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.39). A health risk was also detected among children from households with unsafe food hygiene practices (OR =2.41, 95% CI =1.10, 5.30) and those with no hand-washing habits (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.00, 5.20). Groundwater reserves are at risk of fecal pollution, as indicated by the presence of G. intestinalis cysts. However, the endemic pattern of intestinal infection reflects low standards of personal hygiene and unsafe drinking water storage and food-related practices at household level. Prevention activities must address health education and environmental protection policies.

  3. Bathymetric surveys and area/capacity tables of water-supply reservoirs for the city of Cameron, Missouri, July 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Years of sediment accumulation and dry conditions in recent years have led to the decline of water levels and capacities for many water-supply reservoirs in Missouri, and have caused renewed interest in modernizing outdated area/capacity tables for these reservoirs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, surveyed the bathymetry of the four water-supply reservoirs used by the city of Cameron, Missouri, in July 2013. The data were used to provide water managers with area/capacity tables and bathymetric maps of the reservoirs at the time of the surveys.

  4. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Railroads in Oklahoma. 169.24 Section 169.24 Indians....24 Railroads in Oklahoma. (a) The Act of February 28, 1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way.... Except when otherwise determined by the Secretary, railroad rights-of-way in Oklahoma granted under...

  5. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Railroads in Oklahoma. 169.24 Section 169.24 Indians....24 Railroads in Oklahoma. (a) The Act of February 28, 1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way.... Except when otherwise determined by the Secretary, railroad rights-of-way in Oklahoma granted under...

  6. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroads in Oklahoma. 169.24 Section 169.24 Indians....24 Railroads in Oklahoma. (a) The Act of February 28, 1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way.... Except when otherwise determined by the Secretary, railroad rights-of-way in Oklahoma granted under...

  7. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railroads in Oklahoma. 169.24 Section 169.24 Indians....24 Railroads in Oklahoma. (a) The Act of February 28, 1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way.... Except when otherwise determined by the Secretary, railroad rights-of-way in Oklahoma granted under...

  8. Drought and grazing effects on Oklahoma phlox (Polemoniaceae, Phlox oklahomensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oklahoma phlox (Phlox oklahomensis Wherry) is endemic to Butler, Chautauqua, Comanche, Cowley, and Elk Counties of Kansas and Woods and Woodward Counties of Oklahoma. The species comprises populations of a few scattered individuals to several hundred in mixed-grass prairie sites in Oklahoma where co...

  9. Muriel Wright: Telling the Story of Oklahoma Indian Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesar, Dana; Smith, Joan K.; Noley, Grayson

    2004-01-01

    The Wright family, descended from the patriarch Allen Wright, who arrived in the new Choctaw Nation after surviving the "Trail of Tears," played an important role in Oklahoma politics and society. Following removal to Oklahoma, Allen went on to become Principal Chief of the Choctaw Nation and gave the name, Oklahoma, to the southwest territory. He…

  10. Social and Economic Consequences of Indian Gaming in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kenneth W., II; Spilde, Katherine A.; Taylor, Jonathan B.

    2004-01-01

    The balancing framework of Indian gaming as it operates in Oklahoma constrains Oklahoma Indian nations from operating facilities according to the dictates of the marketplace on a large-scale Class III basis. Indian gaming actually brings substantial net economic benefits to the state, contrary to claims that Oklahoma Indian gaming benefits come at…

  11. Uranium content of ground and surface waters in western Kansas, eastern Colorado, and the Oklahoma Panhande

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landis, E.R.

    1956-01-01

    and in some parts of the report area, such as the Cimarron River area of westernmost Oklahoma and northeastern New Mexico, and the Rule Creek area in Bent and Las Animas Counties, Colo. , most, or all, of the water samples collected contain relatively large amounts of uranium. Further exploration to determine the source of the uranium in the water from these rock units and areas may be worthwhile.

  12. SITE CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA AT THE USGS SUPPORT CENTER, ELIZABETH CITY, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromic and sulfuric acid wastes had discharged through a hole in the concrete floor of a chrome-plating shop located within a hangar at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center near Elizabeth City, North Carolina and infiltrated the soils and groundwater beneath the shop. Following i...

  13. The Psychosocial Needs of Young Offenders and Adolescents from an Inner City Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carswell, Kenneth; Maughan, Barbara; Davis, Hilton; Davenport, Franscesca; Goddard, Nick

    2004-01-01

    To date, assessments of the prevalence of mental health problems in young offenders have largely focused on incarcerated samples. This paper describes a quantitative study of a sample of 47 male young offenders under the supervision of an inner city Youth Offending Team. A semi-structured interview, modified from previous studies, was used to…

  14. PARTICULATE ORGANIC SOURCE MARKERS IN THE NEW YORK CITY METROPOLITAN AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sampling network of four sites was established for the Speciation of Organics for Apportionment of PM2.5 (SOAP) project during 2002-2003 to investigate composition, seasonal and spatial variability, and source contributions to particulate organic matter in the New York City met...

  15. Implementing GLOBE in the New York City Metropolitan Area: Trials, Errors, and Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludman, A.; Schmidt, P.; Borman, G.

    2003-12-01

    systems. To stimulate data entry, one half-day during the 3-day workshop is devoted to exploring the GLOBE website, and another to generating student research problems using the site's advanced capabilities. Three "carrots" have also improved data submission: (1)a vendor gives a probe and software to the first school in each workshop that submits 250 data items, (2)individual competitiveness (the record is 22 hours from end of training to first submission of data), and (3)congratulatory emails to teachers when they submit their first data. The "stick": a threat to repossess the instruments if no data are submitted within 6 months. We also offer training in GLOBE-related skills, such as acquiring free satellite images and digital elevation data, and workshops on the geological and environmental settings of the NYC area. Suggestions from our teachers for the future include: urbanize protocols to better welcome inner city schools to GLOBE; add protocols involving flora and fauna to fit GLOBE better into Biology classes; develop more links with researchers so GLOBE participants feel they are making a real contribution; create a NYC area listserve so teachers can discuss common issues and concerns; and develop correlations between GLOBE protocols and NYS Curricula in Earth Science, Living Environment, Chemistry, and Physics. The last would vastly improve integration of GLOBE into these Regents-level courses. Our teacher trainees are vehement in their appreciation of GLOBE for its high standards and scientific rigor.

  16. Exploratory Investigation of Concentrations of Total Gaseous Mercury in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, S.; de La Rosa, D. A.; Márquez, C.; Solórzano, G.; Martínez, A.

    2004-12-01

    Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) in ambient air at several locations within Mexico Valley Metropolitan Area (Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México, ZMVM, in Spanish) was measured during the Fall of 2002 and the first quarter of 2003. Among these locations were Tecamachalco (19°26'N; 99°13'W), San Agustín (19°31'N; 99°01'W), Xalostoc (19°31'N; 99°04'W) and Iztapalapa (19°21'N; 99°04'W). San Agustín and Xalostoc border the State of Mexico. Iztapalapa contains CENICA's monitoring station, and Mercury was one of the parameters measured here during the MCMA-2003 field campaign of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in ZMVM in April of 2003. This last site was used to monitor Mercury during three different seasons. The reported concentrations of Mercury vapor were measured continuously using cold vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Tekran 2537A analyzer), with a detection limit of 0.10 ng·m-3 and a monitoring frequency of five minutes. The average TGM concentrations reported were 13.42, 10.22, 8.46 and 34.2 ng·m-3 for Iztapalapa in the months of September, October and November of 2002 and April of 2003 during the MCMA-2003 field campaign, respectively. For Tecamachalco, a concentration of 49.67 ng·m-3 was reported in January, 11.3 ng·m-3, for San Agustín in February and 31.99 ng·m-3 for Xalostoc in March of 2003.The daily maximums, 24 hourly average, for the same periods are 223.5, 78.2, 31.4 and 503.75 ng·m-3 for Iztapalapa, 118.62 ng·m-3 for Tecamachalco, 83.4 ng·m-3 for San Agustín and 261.2 ng·m-3 for Xalostoc. According to Ontario's air quality standards, the threshold value for mercury vapor in ambient air is 2 mg·m-3 on a 30 day average (Mercury situation in Canada, Report # 2, Environment Canada, May 2002). According to these criteria, then, the data reported for Mexico City are within the allowed limits for ambient air, but still 22 times higher than those reported as background concentrations at pristine locations (de la Rosa D

  17. [Multi-gradients of land surface temperature in mountainous cities with rapid urbanization: a case study in central area of Chongqing City].

    PubMed

    Han, Gui-Feng; Zhao, Ke; Yan, Wen-Tao; Ye, Lin

    2012-06-01

    By using TM/ETM+ and MODIS images, the land surface temperature (LST) and relative heat island intensity (RHII) of the central area of Chongqing City were extracted to analyze the distribution patterns of the LST and RHII along the multi-gradients of topography, population, and gross domestic product (GDP) as well as the potential quantitative relationships. The LST and RHII manifested a non-monotonically decreasing trend along the gradients of elevation and relief degree, respectively, both with a significant quadratic polynomial relationship. The maximum RHII appeared at 200-350 m elevation section due to the massive urban construction activities, and had significant linear relationships with the population density and the GDP per square kilometer. The RHII rose about 0.10 degrees C when the population density increased 1000 people per square kilometer, and rose about 0.08 degrees C when the GDP per square kilometer increased 10 million RMB Yuan.

  18. Quantification of metal loading to Silver Creek through the Silver Maple Claims area, Park City, Utah, May 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Briant A.; Johnson, Kevin K.; Runkel, Robert L.; Steiger, Judy I.

    2004-01-01

    The Silver Maple Claims area along Silver Creek, near Park City, Utah, is administered by the Bureau of Land Management. To quantify possible sources of elevated zinc concentrations in Silver Creek that exceed water-quality standards, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a mass-loading study in May 2002 along a 1,400-meter reach of Silver Creek that included the Silver Maple Claims area. Additional samples were collected upstream and downstream from the injection reach to investigate other possible sources of zinc and other metals to the stream. Many metals were investigated in the study, but zinc is of particular concern for water-quality standards. The total loading of zinc along the study reach from Park City to Wanship, Utah, was about 49 kilograms per day. The Silver Maple Claims area contributed about 38 percent of this load. The Silver Creek tailings discharge pipe, which empties just inside the Silver Maple Claims area, contributed more than half the load of the Silver Maple Claims area. Substantial zinc loads also were added to Silver Creek downstream from the Silver Maple Claims area. Ground-water discharge upstream from the waste-water treatment plant contributed 20 percent of the total zinc load, and another 17 percent was contributed near the waste-water treatment plant. By identifying the specific areas where zinc and other metal loads are contributed to Silver Creek, it is possible to assess the needs of a remediation plan. For example, removing the tailings from the Silver Maple Claims area could contribute to lowering the zinc concentration in Silver Creek, but without also addressing the loading from the Silver Creek tailings discharge pipe and the ground-water discharge farther downstream, the zinc concentration could not be lowered enough to meet water-quality standards. Additional existing sources of zinc loading downstream from the Silver Maple Claims area could complicate the process of lowering zinc concentration to meet water

  19. A Legal Analysis of Litigation against Oklahoma Educators and School Districts under the Oklahoma Governmental Tort Claims Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacefield, Kevin Lee

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation analyzed public court decisions in cases against Oklahoma school districts and their employees involving sovereign immunity claims filed under Oklahoma's Governmental Tort Claims Act. The questions addressed were: (1) How have the Oklahoma courts interpreted the Governmental Tort Claims Act, (Okla. Stat. tit. 51 Section 151 et…

  20. Estimation of diarrhoea incidence through flooding simulation in low-income community areas in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Suetsugi, T.; Sunada, K.; Ichikawa, Y.; Kondo, N.; Nishida, K.

    2012-12-01

    An increase in waterborne illnesses related to floodings has been reported all over the world, especially in developing countries. In Dhaka City, floodings occur almost every year due to severe rainfall compounded by inadequate sewerage systems. Waterborne illnesses spread easily in an unhygienic environment. This study develops a method to estimate the incidences of diarrhoea associated with floodings using a flooding analysis. We performed a flooding analysis using a numerical flooding simulation model and investigated the relationship between floodwater depth and diarrhoea incidence. The incidence of diarrhoea was assessed through a mortality and morbidity survey conducted in 10 low-income communities in flood-prone areas of Dhaka City. The results revealed that there is a positive correlation between floodwater depth and indices of diarrhoea incidence. This indicates that a flooding analysis method can be used to estimate diarrhoea incidence.

  1. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Area AP-1. The area is bounded by a line connecting the following coordinates (listed by latitude, then... Mariners and Broadcast Notice to Mariners. (3) Area AP-1. All persons, vessels, and other craft...

  2. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Area AP-1. The area is bounded by a line connecting the following coordinates (listed by latitude, then... Mariners and Broadcast Notice to Mariners. (3) Area AP-1. All persons, vessels, and other craft...

  3. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Area AP-1. The area is bounded by a line connecting the following coordinates (listed by latitude, then... Mariners and Broadcast Notice to Mariners. (3) Area AP-1. All persons, vessels, and other craft...

  4. Potential health impacts of heavy-metal exposure at the Tar Creek Superfund site, Ottawa County, Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, John S; Hu, Stephen C; Drake, K David; Jim, Rebecca

    2009-02-01

    The potential impact of exposure to heavy metals and health problems was evaluated at the Tar Creek Superfund site, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, USA. Observed versus expected mortality was calculated for selected conditions in the County and exposed cities. Excess mortality was found for stroke and heart disease when comparing the exposed County to the state but not when comparing the exposed cities to the nonexposed rest of the County. However, sample sizes in the exposed area were small, population emigration has been ongoing, and geographic coding of mortality data was incomplete. In an exposed community, 62.5% of children under the age of 6 years had blood lead levels exceeding 10 microg/dl. The relationships between heavy-metal exposure and children's health and chronic disease in adults are suggestive that a more thorough investigation might be warranted. A number of possible environmental and health studies are suggested, including those focusing on possible central nervous system impacts. Unfortunately, the exposed population is dispersing. One lesson learned at this site is that health studies need to be conducted as soon as possible after an environmental problem is identified to both study the impact of the most acute exposures and to maximize study sample size-including those exposed to higher doses-and minimize the loss of individuals to follow-up.

  5. Asymmetric correlations in the ozone concentration dynamics of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meraz, M.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Echeverria, J. C.

    2017-04-01

    Mexico City is a megalopolis with severe pollution problems caused by vehicles and industrial activity. This condition imposes important risks to human health and economic activity. Based on hourly-sampled data during the last decade, in a recent work (Meraz et al., 2015) we showed that the pollutant dynamics in Mexico City exhibits long-term and scale-dependent persistence effects resulting from the combination of pollutants generation by vehicles and removal by advection mechanisms. In this work, we analyzed the dynamics of ozone, a key component reflecting the degree of atmospheric contamination, to determine if its long-term correlations are asymmetric in relation to the actual concentration trend (increasing or decreasing). The analysis is conducted with detrended fluctuation analysis. The results showed that the average ozone dynamics is uncorrelated when the concentration is increasing. In contrast, the ozone dynamics shows long-term anti-persistence effects when the concentration is decreasing.

  6. Ground-water-use trends in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1880-1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horn, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-water use was analyzed by use category and aquifer and several trends were observed. Eighty percent of ground water currently withdrawn is from wells in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer. Ground-water use increased from 1880 until the early 1970's, and then declined slightly in the late 1970's. Industrial use in particular declined during the 1970's as a result of conservation that was prompted by increased sewagetreatment and energy costs. The intensity of pumping has decreased within the St. Paul and Minneapolis city limits and increased outside the city limits. The seasonal variability of ground-water use became more pronounced as the percentage of water used for irrigation and air conditioning increased.

  7. Relationships between Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing program and hydropower operations at Salt Lake City area integrated projects

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Folga, S.; Poch, L.A.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum provides background information on the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the physical characteristics of the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) hydropower plants, which include the Colorado River Storage Project, the Rio Grande Project, and the Collbran Project. In addition, the history, electrical capacity, storage capacity, and flow restrictions at each dam are presented. An overview of Western`s current programs and services, including a review of statutory authorities, agency discretion, and obligations, is also provided. The variability of SLCA/IP hourly generation under various alternative marketing strategies and purchasing programs is discussed. The effects of Western`s services, such as area load control, outage assistance, and transmission, on SLCA/IP power plant operations are analyzed.

  8. Book review: Oklahoma Breeding Bird Atlas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterjohn, Bruce G.

    2004-01-01

    The first North American breeding bird atlases were initiated during the 1970s. With atlases completed or ongoing in more than 40 U.S. states and most Canadian provinces, these projects are now familiar to professional ornithologists and amateur birders. This book provides the results of the Oklahoma Breeding Bird Atlas, the data for which were collected during 1997–2001. Its appearance less than 3 years after completing fieldwork is remarkable and everyone associated with its timely publication should be congratulated for their efforts.Review info: Oklahoma Breeding Bird Atlas. By Dan L. Reinking, 2004. ISBN: 0806136146, 528 pp.

  9. Environmental Assessment for Proposed General Purpose Warehouse Construction at Defense Distribution Officer Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (DDOO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Alternative (A3), the Tinker AFB Defense Reutilization and Marketing Service (DRMS) site; and Alternative (A4), a soil remediation site located 0.3 mile...Defense DRMS Defense Reutilization and Marketing Service EA Environmental Assessment EIAP Environmental Impact Analysis Process EPA U.S...General Purpose Warehouse HAZMAT hazardous material HMMP Hazardous Materials Management Program HRMA Housing Requirements and Market Analysis HWSF

  10. Tinker AFB, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-11

    temperature; Mean and Standard Deviations of Temperatures: Dry bulb, Wet bulb and Dew point; Relative Humidity (F) Station (atmospheric) pressure; sea...WSJSH 0SOI0 n0A d ( 0 -Z0 1 0’ - No-t Mtn -’-- %t -7 1-f 0 -’ ln m wo, ,4 V; 0-4.4 - -4 4,--4 N -4 -- 4-,4 I- M -40 ’ota-4 wU Ocr ’ 4 O -4 4 4 -4 NN4

  11. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  12. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  13. Municipal energy planning: the Oklahoma experience. [Communities of Altus and Edmond

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, M.

    1980-01-01

    Leadership demonstrated in the Oklahoma communities of Altus and Edmond illustrates the importance of municipal planning for energy crises. A natural gas generating plant in Altus had been closed down because wholesale rates from the Public Service Company of Oklahoma (PSO) were more attractive. Legal challenges to PSO's efforts to raise rates after 1973 led to a comprehensive management study aimed at reducing system costs without jeopardizing service. The city set a goal of reducing consumption by 30 percent and an action program which included load-scheduling changes, pricing signals to users, plans for a low-head hydroelectric facility to reduce peak loads, and management reorganization. Edmond's officials took the broad, community-wide approach of appointing a citizen advisory committee to make recommendations. The community problem-solving approach has spread to small municipal systems able to draw on local energy and personnel resources. A state-wide program involves utilities in an ad hoc planning committee. (DCK)

  14. POLICY EVALUATION FOR THE EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION MEASURES OF EXTENSIVE USED SPACES IN THE CENTRAL AREA OF KUMAMOTO CITY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizokami, Shoshi; Egawa, Taichi

    Recently, The Open-air Parkin g increases in city center. Therefore, the decline of th e central area is caused as a results and the number of those who visit th e town has decreased. Purposes of research are as follows. It clarifies that landowners and leaseholders that have the Open-air Parking in the central area think land use. It examines that support plan that the administration should do to straighten out that problem. Various support plans are examined from the cost benefit analysis, revenue, and value of support plan. The composition is as follows. In Chapte r 2, it clarifies that landowners and leaseholders that have the Open-air Parking in the central area think land use from "Land use intention investigation". In Chapter 3, the effective profit use usage selection model is presumed. In Chapter 4, the simulation analysis that measures the effect and the value of the support plan is done.

  15. Assessment of atmospheric metal pollution in the urban area of Mexico City, using Ficus benjamina as biomonitor.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Morales, Janin; Morton-Bermea, Ofelia; Hernández-Álvarez, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Salazar, María Teresa; García-Arreola, María Elena; Tapia-Cruz, Víctor

    2011-05-01

    Concentrations of vanadium, chromium, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, antimony, and lead were measured in Ficus benjamina leaves from the Mexico City urban area in order to assess their enrichment against background values. The instrumental analysis was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and the analytical method was tested using two certified reference materials from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (1547 Peach Leaves and 1573a Tomato Leaves). Enrichment factors were calculated, i.e., total to background concentration ratio, for each metal. Low enrichments of vanadium, cobalt, nickel, and copper (≈2), and mild enrichments of chromium and zinc (4.4, 4.5 respectively) were found in the entire area; oppositely, high enrichments were assessed for antimony (28.6) and lead (17.2). However, results indicate that metal concentrations strongly depend on the specific urban sub-area. Increments of metals were attributed to natural, vehicular, and industrial sources.

  16. Thermal conditions in the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, S.A.; Gallardo, J.D.; Carter, L.C.; Blackwell, D.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Heat flow, bottom-hole temperature (BHT), and thermal conductivity data are used to evaluate the present thermal conditions in the Anadarko basin. Heat flow values decrease from 54-62 mWm{sup {minus}2} in the northern part of the basin to 39-53 mWm{sup {minus}2} in the southern portion of the basin. The variation in the regional conductive heat flow is controlled by basin geometry and by the distribution of radiogenic elements in the basement. The heat flow, thermal conductivity, and lithologic information were combined to construct a 3-D model of the temperature structure of the Anadarko basin. The highest temperatures sedimentary rocks older than Pennsylvanian are offset 35 km north-northwest of the deepest part of the basin. This offset is related to the regional increase in heat flow to the north and to the presence of high thermal conductivity granite wash adjacent to the Wichita Mountains. A plot of the temperature difference between the equilibrium temperatures estimated from the model and the measured BHTs as a function of depth is remarkably similar to the published correction curve for BHTs for wells in Oklahoma. Vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission-track (FT) data are used to estimate the paleogeothermal conditions in the basin. Published vitrinite reflectance values are consistent with a past geographic temperature distribution comparable to the observed distribution with the maximum values offset from the basin axis. FT analysis of sandstones from wells in the southeastern portion of the basin indicates that subsurface temperatures were at least 30C higher than at present, suggest the possibility of substantial erosion in this area.

  17. Geoscience Education Opportunities: Partnerships to Advance TeacHing and Scholarship (GEOPATHS) in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, T. M.; Adegoke, J.; Stoddard, E.; Odom, L.; Ketchum, D.

    2007-12-01

    The GEOPATHS project is a partnership between the University of Missouri Kansas City (UMKC) and the Kansas City Missouri School District (KCMSD). The goal of GEOPATHS is to raise enrollment in the Geosciences, especially among populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the discipline. We are addressing this goal by expanding dual-credit and Advanced Placement (AP) opportunities for high school students and also by serving teachers through enhancing their understanding of geoscience content and inquiry teaching methods using GLOBE resources and protocols. Our focus in the first two years of the project is to increase the number of teachers that are certified to teach AP Environmental Science by offering specially designed professional development workshops for high school teachers in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area. The structure of the workshop for each year is divided into two weeks of content knowledge exploration using the learning cycle and concept mapping, and one week of inquiry-based experiments, field projects, and exercises. We are also supporting teachers in their use of these best-practice methods by providing materials and supplies along with lesson plans for inquiry investigations for their classes. The lesson plans include activities and experiments that are inquiry-based. The last two years of the project will include direct engagement/recruiting of promising minority high school students via paid summer research internships and scholarship offers.

  18. Area Estimation and Distribution Analysis of Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands at Regional Scale--Take Guangzhou City for Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, S. X.; Tang, G. L.; Xiong, H. X.; Chen, J.; Yin, X. L.; Huang, G. Q.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, Area of Constructed Wetlands (CWs) required for treatment of domestic sewage generated by 13 million people was calculated in accordance with the distribution of existing population in Guangzhou City and mathematical model of CWs. By comparing this with land use data, the distribution of constructed wetlands at construction regional scale was simulated with GIS. The results show that, Guangzhou generate about 3.88 million m3 domestic sewage per day, which shall be treated with 59.37 km2 CWs. Assuming that a single wetland bed is 300 m2, total 197,905 wetland beds shall be required in the city. Based on the analysis and statistics on data of second national land survey of Guangzhou City with GIS, there are enough ponds, bare lands, other grasslands and other garden plots in Guangzhou that can be used for construction of regional scale CWs, but the distribution of available lands in different regions is uneven. Constructed wetlands at regional scale are mainly distributed around Baini Channel, Tianma River, Xinjie River, Liuxi River Valley, Zengjiang River Valley and on both sides of the Pearl River through Panyu and Nansha.

  19. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  20. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  1. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 4, Appendixes B-D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  2. Aerosol Composition and Source Apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and Multivariate Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Kirsten S.; de Foy, B.; Zuberi, Bilal M.; Molina, Luisa; Molina, Mario J.; Xie, YuLong; Laskin, Alexander; Shutthanandan, V.

    2006-10-12

    Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish ef- 5 fective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter _2.5 µm (PM2.5) were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) techniques were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and 10 total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during 15 dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion V and Ni correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfates determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  3. Issues of scale, location and geologic terrain related to Salt Lake City and Baltimore-Washington metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleaves, E.T.; Godfrey, A.E.; ,

    2004-01-01

    Planning and development of expanding metropolitan regions require consideration of earth science issues related to issues involving scale, space (location), geologic terrain and physiographic units, and information transfer. This paper explores these matters with examples from the Salt Lake City, Utah area and Mid-Atlantic region of Baltimore-Washington that include water supply and natural hazards (earthquakes, landslides, and sinkholes.) Information transfer methods using physiographic units at national, regional, local and site scales serve to communicate relevant geologic constraint and natural resource information.

  4. In situ measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury and the identification of source regions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, A. P.; Snyder, D. C.; Stone, E. A.; Schauer, J. J.; Gonzalez-Abraham, R.; Molina, L. T.; Márquez, C.; Cárdenas, B.; de Foy, B.

    2009-01-01

    In order to expand the currently limited understanding of atmospheric mercury source-receptor relationships in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, real time measurements of atmospheric mercury were made at a downtown urban site, and a rural site on the outskirts of Mexico City, during March 2006. Numerous short-lived increases in particulate mercury (PHg) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) concentrations were observed at the urban site during the 17 day study, and less frequent increases in gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations were measured at both the urban and rural sites. The episodic increases observed were attributed to plume impacts from industrial point source emissions in and around Mexico City. Average concentrations and standard deviations measured during the study were as follows: i) urban site; PHg=187±300 pg m-3, RGM=62±64 pg m-3, GEM=7.2±4.8 ng m-3, and; ii) rural site; GEM=5.0±2.8 ng m-3. Several source regions of atmospheric mercury to the urban and rural sites were determined using Concentration Field Analysis, in which atmospheric mercury measurements were combined with back trajectory data to determine source regions. Only some source regions correlated to mercury emission sources listed in the Federal Pollutant Release and Transfer Register, leaving the rest unaccounted for. Contributions of anthropogenic mercury point sources in and around Mexico City to concentration averages measured at the urban site during the study were estimated to be: 93±3% of reactive mercury (PHg and RGM), and; 81±0.4% of GEM. Point source contributions to GEM measured at the rural site were 72±1%. GEM and reactive mercury (PHg+RGM) were not found to correlate with biomass burning at either of the measurement sites.

  5. In situ measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury and the identification of source regions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, A. P.; Snyder, D. C.; Stone, E. A.; Schauer, J. J.; Gonzalez-Abraham, R.; Molina, L. T.; Márquez, C.; Cárdenas, B.; de Foy, B.

    2008-07-01

    In order to expand the currently limited understanding of atmospheric mercury source-receptor relationships in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, real time measurements of atmospheric mercury were made at a downtown urban site, and a rural site on the outskirts of Mexico City, during March, 2006. Numerous short-lived increases in particulate mercury (PHg) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) concentrations were observed at the urban site during the 17 day study, and less frequent increases in gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations were measured at both the urban and rural sites. The episodic increases observed were attributed to plume impacts from industrial point source emissions in and around Mexico City. Average concentrations and standard deviations measured during the study were as follows: i) Urban site: PHg=187±300 pg m-3, RGM=62±64 pg m-3, GEM=7.2±4.8 ng m-3. ii) Rural site: GEM=5.0±2.8 ng m-3. Several source regions of atmospheric mercury to the urban and rural sites were determined using Concentration Field Analysis, in which atmospheric mercury measurements were combined with back trajectory data to determine source regions. Only some source regions correlated to mercury emission sources listed in the Federal Pollutant Release and Transfer Register, leaving the rest unaccounted for. Contributions of anthropogenic mercury point sources in and around Mexico City to concentration averages measured at the urban site during the study were estimated to be: 93±3% of reactive mercury (PHg and RGM), and; 81±0.4% of GEM. Point source contributions to GEM measured at the rural site were 72±1%. GEM and reactive mercury (PHg and RGM) were not found to correlate with biomass burning at either of the measurement sites.

  6. Numerical Groundwater-Flow Model of the Minnelusa and Madison Hydrogeologic Units in the Rapid City Area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The city of Rapid City and other water users in the Rapid City area obtain water supplies from the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers, which are contained in the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units. A numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units in the Rapid City area was developed to synthesize estimates of water-budget components and hydraulic properties, and to provide a tool to analyze the effect of additional stress on water-level altitudes within the aquifers and on discharge to springs. This report, prepared in cooperation with the city of Rapid City, documents a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units for the 1,000-square-mile study area that includes Rapid City and the surrounding area. Water-table conditions generally exist in outcrop areas of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units, which form generally concentric rings that surround the Precambrian core of the uplifted Black Hills. Confined conditions exist east of the water-table areas in the study area. The Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit is 375 to 800 feet (ft) thick in the study area with the more permeable upper part containing predominantly sandstone and the less permeable lower part containing more shale and limestone than the upper part. Shale units in the lower part generally impede flow between the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit and the underlying Madison hydrogeologic unit; however, fracturing and weathering may result in hydraulic connections in some areas. The Madison hydrogeologic unit is composed of limestone and dolomite that is about 250 to 610 ft thick in the study area, and the upper part contains substantial secondary permeability from solution openings and fractures. Recharge to the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units is from streamflow loss where streams cross the outcrop and from infiltration of precipitation on the outcrops (areal recharge). MODFLOW-2000, a finite-difference groundwater

  7. Water-level changes in the high plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma, predevelopment to 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The predevelopment to 1980 water-level changes in the High Plains regional aquifer in Oklahoma are shown for Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties, on the east, and for the Oklahoma Panhandle, consist- ing of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver Counties, on the west. About 1,470 water-level measurements in the Panhandle were used in compiling the predevelopment water-table map (Havens, 1982c). In the remaining area to the east about 150 water-level measurements from the 1950's to the 1970's are representative of predevelopment water levels. For the 1980 water-table map, about 330 measurements were made in the Panhandle and about 350 measurements in the eastern area by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (Havens, 1982b).

  8. Eliminating Barriers to Dual Enrollment in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Rick; Gamez Vargas, Juanita; David, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Policy, financial, and transportation barriers have limited participation in dual enrollment for marginalized (low-socioeconomic, first-generation, and ethnic minority) students in Oklahoma. This chapter presents a collaborative effort by education and community leaders that has successfully eliminated these barriers and increased the number of…

  9. Nutritional Risk among Oklahoma Congregate Meal Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Kimberly K.; Hermann, Janice R.; Warde, William D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine if there were differences by demographic variables in response rates to Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) Checklist statements reported by over 50% of Oklahoma Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP) congregate meal participants categorized at high nutritional risk based on cumulative NSI Checklist scores. Design:…

  10. 78 FR 66671 - Oklahoma Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ..., assignment, or sale of permit rights; certifying and updating existing permit application information... balance--siltation structures; cessation orders; alternative enforcement--general provisions; criminal... Rights Oklahoma proposes to revoke section 460:20-17-1. Scope and purpose; and replace it with...

  11. Oklahoma: A View of the Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ruthe Blalock; Depriest, Maria; Fowler, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a dialogue on twentieth-century Oklahoma artists and writers given at a conference titled "Working from Community: American Indian Art and Literature in a Historical and Cultural Context" and held in the summer of 2003 at Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington. Twenty-five educators converged for six weeks…

  12. A century of induced earthquakes in Oklahoma?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, Susan E.; Page, Morgan T.

    2015-01-01

    Seismicity rates have increased sharply since 2009 in the central and eastern United States, with especially high rates of activity in the state of Oklahoma. Growing evidence indicates that many of these events are induced, primarily by injection of wastewater in deep disposal wells. The upsurge in activity has raised two questions: What is the background rate of tectonic earthquakes in Oklahoma? How much has the rate varied throughout historical and early instrumental times? In this article, we show that (1) seismicity rates since 2009 surpass previously observed rates throughout the twentieth century; (2) several lines of evidence suggest that most of the significant earthquakes in Oklahoma during the twentieth century were likely induced by oil production activities, as they exhibit statistically significant temporal and spatial correspondence with disposal wells, and intensity measurements for the 1952 El Reno earthquake and possibly the 1956 Tulsa County earthquake follow the pattern observed in other induced earthquakes; and (3) there is evidence for a low level of tectonic seismicity in southeastern Oklahoma associated with the Ouachita structural belt. The 22 October 1882 Choctaw Nation earthquake, for which we estimate Mw 4.8, occurred in this zone.

  13. SIMULATION OF PEANUT GROWTH IN OKLAHOMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosz, Gerald D.; Elliott, Ronald L.; Young, James H.

    1986-01-01

    Two peanut growth models of varying complexity were calibrated for Oklahoma varieties and growing conditions. Both models predicted pod growth quite well. The models were then used to simulate the effects of various soil moisture levels on peanut growth. The more complex model has potential as a management tool.

  14. Oklahoma Handbook: Child Nutrition Programs. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Nutrition concepts, school food service guidelines, and related materials (such as nutrition charts, menu planning worksheets, and student survey forms) are provided in this nutrition handbook. Prepared by the Oklahoma State Department of Education's School Lunch Section, the handbook consists of nine sections that are organized in outline format.…

  15. Oklahoma Association of Teacher Educators Journal 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Malinda Hendricks, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The Oklahoma Association of Teacher Educators 2009 Journal includes the following four peer reviewed articles: (1) The Changing Role of Grandparents (Fred D. Hammond, III, Terry E. Spigner, Charolette Myles-Nixon, and Pauline Holloway); (2) Pedagogical Agent Instructional Design Challenges (Jon Martens); (3) Differences in Relatedness across…

  16. 77 FR 34890 - Oklahoma Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 936 Oklahoma Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; public comment... Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), are announcing receipt of a proposed amendment to the...

  17. 76 FR 59766 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00056

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    .../2011. Incident: Oklahoma County Wildfire. Incident Period: 08/30/2011 through 09/01/2011. Effective Date: 09/21/2011. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 11/21/2011. Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan... Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) Dated: September 21, 2011. Karen G. Mills, Administrator. BILLING...

  18. 40 CFR 81.337 - Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Alfalfa County Beaver County Blaine County Cimarron County Custer County.../Attainment Alfalfa County Beaver County Blaine County Cimarron County Custer County Dewey County Ellis County... 187Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Alfalfa County Beaver County Blaine County...

  19. Women of Oklahoma, 1890-1920.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Linda Williams

    This book examines the lives of representative White, Black, and American Indian women on the Oklahoma frontier after the abrupt opening of Indian Territory to non-Indian settlement in 1889. Drawing on primary sources, particularly diaries and letters, it focuses on the intersection of race, gender, class, and culture in the relationships among…

  20. Oklahoma Title I Migrant Education Handbook, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    In many respects, the United States itself is the school of the migrant child, and local, state and federal agencies must share the responsibility for educating such children. However, setting up a migrant education program on a local scale is both complicated and technical. The Oklahoma Department of Education designed a handbook that would…

  1. Ethnicity and Identity in Northeastern Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roark, Sue N.

    The origins of the Oklahoma Delaware reflect a complex history of migration, forced relocation, and punitive concentration. Though 36 tribal identities survive today, they are not of equal cultural coherence. Among the Delaware, there is no simple relation between socioeconomic status, level of acculturation, and factional membership. Rather, the…

  2. Oklahoma Curriculum Guide for Teaching Safety Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma Curriculum Improvement Commission, Oklahoma City.

    Developed by classroom teachers, university professors, and personnel from the Oklahoma State Department of Education, this guide is an effort to assist teachers in locating and utilizing safety materials as well as to assist them in developing well-balanced safety programs for the children and young people in the state. The preschool and…

  3. 77 FR 25872 - Oklahoma Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... requirements for bond calculation at permit renewal. Oklahoma revised its regulatory program at its own... requirements for bond calculation at renewal. We announced receipt of the proposed amendment in the April 27... bond calculation. III. OSM's Findings We are approving the amendment as described below. The...

  4. Oklahoma Pre-Kindergarten Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This document presents curriculum guidelines intended for use as a recommended curriculum for children attending early childhood programs in Oklahoma. The introductory section describes critical characteristics of quality early childhood programs, noting that early childhood programs should be appropriate for the age, developmental level, and…

  5. 76 FR 77578 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00057

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster OK-00057 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...: 09/07/2012. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  6. Hydrogeology and water quality of the North Canadian River alluvium, Concho Reserve, Canadian County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    A growing user population within the Concho Reserve in Canadian County, Oklahoma, has increased the need for drinking water. The North Canadian River alluvium is a reliable source of ground water for agriculture, industry, and cities in Canadian County and is the only ground-water source capable of meeting large demands. This study was undertaken to collect and analyze data to describe the hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the North Canadian River alluvium within the Concho Reserve. The alluvium forms a band about 2 miles long and 0.5 mile wide along the southern edge of the Concho Reserve. Thickness of the alluvium ranges from 19 to 75 feet thick and averages about 45 feet in the study area. Well cuttings and natural gamma-ray logs indicate the alluvium consists of interfingering lenses of clay, silt, and sand. The increase of coarse-grained sand and the decrease of clay and silt with depth suggests that the water-bearing properties of the aquifer within the study area improve with depth. A clay layer in the upper part of the aquifer may be partially responsible for surface water ponding in low areas after above normal precipitation and may delay the infiltration of potentially contaminated water from land surface. Specific conductance measurements indicate the ground-water quality improves in a northern direction towards the terrace. Water-quality properties, bacteria counts, major ion and nutrient concentrations, trace-element and radionuclide concentrations, and organic compound concentrations were measured in one ground-water sample at the southern edge of the Concho Reserve and comply with the primary drinking-water standards. Measured concentrations of iron, manganese, sulfate, and total dissolved solids exceed the secondary maximum contaminant levels set for drinking water. The ground water is a calcium sulfate bicarbonate type and is considered very hard, with a hardness of 570 milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate.

  7. Detecting areas disturbed by mining activities through Landsat images, San Luis Potosi City, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Vera, M.-A.

    2009-04-01

    Mining history in San Luis Potosí (Mexico) goes back to more than four centuries, and the accumulation of mining waste poses an important problem to ecological risk prevention. Epithermal deposits are the most common in this region and the impact of mining exploitation must be evaluated to propose sustainable development of the natural resources, which have a strong contribution of the national economy. The state San Luis Potosi is situated in the central part of Mexico between parallels 21°11' and 24°34' of north latitude and 98°23' and 102°14' of west longitude, 424 km northeast from Mexico City. Today is a sprawling city with more than half a million residents. The aim of this study was to analyse land cover and vegetation changes between 1972 and 2000 in San Luis Potosi Valley, using satellite image data. Since large changes in land cover and vegetation are taking place in the Valley and there is a lack of good data, such as maps, statistics and aerial photographs, it was appropriate to use satellite data for assessment of land cover and vegetation to estimate the environmental impact of the mining industry. Field data samples were used to evaluate the change results obtained with the multispectral satellite images. The results show that land cover change in the San Luis Potosi Valley has occurred in the past decade as a result of both natural forces and human activities, which have in turn impacted on the regional sustainable development of the mining resources.

  8. Water Use in Oklahoma 1950-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive planning for water resources development and use in Oklahoma requires a historical perspective on water resources. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, summarized the 1950-2005 water-use information for Oklahoma. This report presents 1950-2005 estimates of freshwater withdrawal for water use in Oklahoma by source and category in 5-year intervals. Withdrawal source was either surface water or groundwater. Withdrawal categories include: public supply, irrigation, livestock and aquaculture, thermoelectric-power generation (cooling water), domestic and commercial, and industrial and mining. Withdrawal data were aggregated and tabulated by county, major river basin, and principal aquifer. The purpose of this report is to summarize water-use data in Oklahoma through: (1) presentation of detailed information on freshwater withdrawals by source, county, major river basin, and principal aquifer for 2005; (2) comparison of water use by source, category, major river basin, and principal aquifer at 5-year intervals from 1990-2005; and (3) comparison of water use on a statewide basis by source and category at 5-year intervals from 1950-2005. Total withdrawals from surface-water and groundwater sources during 2005 were 1,559 million gallons per day-989 million gallons a day or 63 percent from surface-water sources and 570 million gallons per day or 37 percent from groundwater sources. The three largest water use categories were: public supply, 646 million gallons per day or 41 percent of total withdrawals; irrigation, 495 million gallons per day or 32 percent of total withdrawals; and livestock and aquaculture, 181 million gallons per day or 12 percent of total withdrawals. All other categories were 237 million gallons per day or 15 percent of total withdrawals. The influence of public supply on the total withdrawals can be seen in the eastern two-thirds of Oklahoma; whereas, the influence of irrigation on total

  9. Temporal variability in the sources and fluxes of CO2 in a residential area in an evergreen subtropical city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissert, L. F.; Salmond, J. A.; Turnbull, J. C.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of CO2 fluxes in temperate climates have shown that urban areas are a net source of CO2 and that photosynthetic CO2 uptake is generally not sufficient to offset local CO2 emissions. However, little is known about the role of vegetation in cities where biogenic CO2 uptake is not limited to a 2-8 months growing season. This study used the eddy covariance technique to quantify the atmospheric CO2 fluxes over a period of 12 months in a residential area in subtropical Auckland, New Zealand, where the vegetation cover (surface cover fraction: 47%) is dominated by evergreen vegetation. Radiocarbon isotope measurements of CO2 were conducted at three different times of the day (06:00-09:00, 12:00-15:00, 01:00-04:00) for four consecutive weekdays in summer and winter to differentiate anthropogenic sources of CO2 (fossil fuel combustion) from biogenic sources (ecosystem respiration, combustion of biofuel/biomass). The results reveal previously unreported patterns for CO2 fluxes, with no seasonal variability and negative (net uptake) CO2 midday fluxes throughout the year, demonstrating photosynthetic uptake by the evergreen vegetation all year-round. The winter radiocarbon measurements showed that 85% of the CO2 during the morning rush hour was attributed to fossil fuel emissions, when wind was from residential areas. However, for all other time periods radiocarbon measurements showed that fossil fuel combustion was not a large source of CO2, suggesting that biogenic processes likely dominate CO2 fluxes at this residential site. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of vegetation in residential areas to mitigate local CO2 emissions, particularly in cities with a climate that allows evergreen vegetation to maintain high photosynthetic rates over winter. As urban areas grow, urban planners need to consider the role of urban greenspace to mitigate urban CO2 emissions.

  10. Potentiometric surface in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer, Oklahoma, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Magers, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    A study of the hydrogeology of the Central Oklahoma aquifer was started in 2008 to provide the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) hydrogeologic data and a groundwater flow model that can be used as a tool to help manage the aquifer. The 1973 Oklahoma water law requires the OWRB to do hydrologic investigations of Oklahoma's aquifers (termed 'groundwater basins') and to determine amounts of water that may be withdrawn by permitted water users. 'Maximum annual yield' is a term used by OWRB to describe the total amount of water that can be withdrawn from a specific aquifer in any year while allowing a minimum 20-year life of the basin (Oklahoma Water Resources Board, 2010). Currently (2010), the maximum annual yield has not been determined for the Central Oklahoma aquifer. Until the maximum annual yield determination is made, water users are issued a temporary permit by the OWRB for 2 acre-feet/acre per year. The objective of the study, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, was to study the hydrogeology of the Central Oklahoma aquifer to provide information that will enable the OWRB to determine the maximum annual yield of the aquifer based on different proposed management plans. Groundwater flow models are typically used by the OWRB as a tool to help determine the maximum annual yield. This report presents the potentiometric surface of the Central Oklahoma aquifer based on water-level data collected in 2009 as part of the current (2010) hydrologic study. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-724 by Christenson and others (1992) presents the 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map. This 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map was made as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment pilot project for the Central Oklahoma aquifer that examined the geochemical and hydrogeological processes operating in the aquifer. An attempt was made to obtain water-level measurements for the 2009 potentiometric-surface map from the wells

  11. Integrating social media and remote sensing data in a model framework to identify vulnerable areas in coastal cities after disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.

    2013-12-01

    In the aftermath of man-made disasters such as oil spills or natural disasters such as hurricanes and floods, city planners and residents of affected areas are often concerned about future vulnerabilities and rebuilding the area to increase resilience. However, identifying locations in the affected area that are most impacted by the disaster, the associated human health risks and potential vulnerabilities often require a monitoring effort that is expensive, time-consuming and difficult to implement in disaster-hit areas using traditional monitoring techniques. This project presents a framework for identifying areas that are most likely to be impacted by disasters by integrating remote sensing data and information from social media networks, including Twitter streams. The framework was tested for New York, coastal New Jersey and Staten Island in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Vulnerable areas were identified using anomaly detection and the results were mapped against measurements collected on the ground. A correlation coefficient of 0.78 was obtained. Uncertainty in model predictions was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. The New Robotic Telescope at Oklahoma State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, Peter, Jr.

    2007-12-01

    A new, 0.6-m robotic telescope of Ritchey-Chrétien design was recently installed at the H. S. Mendenhall Observatory (HSMO) of Oklahoma State University (OSU), and is now undergoing operational tests. Funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research through the Defense University Research Instrumentation Program, it replaces HSMO's original 0.35-m Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope. Research programs will include the characterization of near-Earth objects and collaborative searches for transiting exoplanets, programs which will also open up new research opportunities for students in the Oklahoma-Arkansas region. Ideally, these opportunities will attract more undergraduate and graduate students to major in physics and astronomy, and foster the creation of degree programs in astronomy at OSU. Optical Guidance Systems was the contractor for both the telescope and dome automation. The telescope's ceramic 602-mm f/3 primary and 220-mm secondary mirrors yield an effective focal ratio of f/8 that can be changed to f/5.3 with a focal reducer / field flattener. Fields of view range from 0.75° at f/5.3 to 1.2° at f/8. The Strehl ratio is 0.954. The telescope's carbon-fiber Serrurier truss is supported by an equatorial fork mount equipped with friction drives. Telescope equipment includes a 35-mm-format CCD camera with UBVRI filters, field rotator, off-axis guider, and flip-mirror unit for quick switches to eyepiece observing. HSMO itself is conveniently located under reasonably dark skies at an elevation of 340 m about 15 km southwest of the city of Stillwater, whose population, including OSU, is approaching 50,000. HSMO's dome was completed in 2002, and funding is being raised for a control building near the dome. The observatory's URL is www.physics.okstate.edu/observatory.

  13. Prevalence of dry methods in granite countertop fabrication in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Margaret L; Johnson, Andrew C

    2012-01-01

    Granite countertop fabricators are at risk of exposure to respirable crystalline silica, which may cause silicosis and other lung conditions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of exposure control methods, especially wet methods, in granite countertop fabrication in Oklahoma to assess how many workers might be at risk of overexposure to crystalline silica in this industry. Granite fabrication shops in the three largest metropolitan areas in Oklahoma were enumerated, and 47 of the 52 shops participated in a survey on fabrication methods. Countertop shops were small businesses with average work forces of fewer than 10 employees. Ten shops (21%) reported using exclusively wet methods during all fabrication steps. Thirty-five shops (74%) employing a total of about 200 workers reported using dry methods all or most of the time in at least one fabrication step. The tasks most often performed dry were edge profiling (17% of shops), cutting of grooves for reinforcing rods (62% of shops), and cutting of sink openings (45% of shops). All shops reported providing either half-face or full-face respirators for use during fabrication, but none reported doing respirator fit testing. Few shops reported using any kind of dust collection system. These findings suggest that current consumer demand for granite countertops is giving rise to a new wave of workers at risk of silicosis due to potential overexposure to granite dust.

  14. Permian karst topography in the Wichita uplift, southwestern Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, R.N. Busbey, A.B. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-02-01

    The Wichita uplift in southwestern Oklahoma is one part of a record of Pennsylvania and early Permian deformation that affected the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. As a result of a partial inversion, the Lower Paleozoic section of this aulacogen was sequentially stripped off an uplift between the Wichita uplift and the Anadarko basin, resulting in the exposure of ultrabasic rocks deep in the Cambrian igneous fill of the aulacogen. Following the late Paleozoic tectonism, the topography of the uplift was entombed beneath Permian sediments and remained essentially undisturbed until exhumation during the present erosional cycle. Modern erosion is gradually exposing this topography, permitting morphometric analysis of the Permian hill forms. Because of the variation of lithology in the uplift, it is possible to isolate the effects of weathering processes such as intense hydrolysis of the igneous rocks (producing, among other features, or topography) and limestone dissolution, in the form of a surface and subsurface karst imprint. The latter process resulted in a network of small caves that are essentially fissures eroded along tectonic fractures. These small caves can be found in all the exposed areas of limestone. They are particularly noteworthy for three reasons: in at least five examples they contain a complex fauna of Permian vertebrates (mostly fragmentary), speleothems in some examples contain hydrocarbon inclusions, derived from the underlying Anadarko basin, some of the caves yield evidence of post burial evolution in the form of clay infiltration from the surface and brine flushing from the underlying Anadarko basin.

  15. Assessing Sedimentation Issues Within Aging Flood Control Reservoirs in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennet, Sean J.; Cooper, Charles M.; Ritchie, Jerry C.; Dunbar, John A.; Allen, Peter M.; Caldwell, Larry W.; McGee, Thomas M.

    2002-10-01

    Since 1948, the USDA-NRCS has constructed nearly 11,000 flood control dams across the United States, and many of the reservoirs are rapidly filling with sediment. To rehabilitate these structures, the impounded sediment must be assessed to determine the volume of accumulated sediment and the potential hazard this sediment may pose if reintroduced to the environment. An assessment of sedimentation issues within two reservoirs, Sugar Creek No. 12, Hinton, Oklahoma, and Sergeant Major No. 4, Cheyenne, Oklahoma, is presented. Sediment cores obtained using a vibracoring system were composed of alternating layers of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. Stratigraphic analysis coupled with 137Cs dating techniques enabled the discrimination of pre-construction sediment from post-construction deposition. An acoustic profiling system was unencumbered by the relatively shallow water depth at Sugar Creek No. 12 and the seismic horizons agreed well with the sediment core data. Total sediment volume determined from the acoustic survey and the sediment core data for comparable areas differed by only 1.4 percent. The seismic profiling system worked well in the relatively deeper lake of Sergeant Major No. 4 and showed good correspondence to the collected core data. Detailed chemical analyses showed that overall sediment quality was good at both locations and that chemical composition was spatially invariant. Implementation of these techniques will aid action agencies such as the USDA-NRCS in their assessment and effective management of aging flood control reservoirs.

  16. Final report for "Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area"

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez

    2009-05-18

    The objectives of this funded project were (a) to further analyze the data collected by our group and collaborators in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 field campaign, with the goal of further our understanding of aerosol sources and processes; and (b) to deploy several advanced instruments, including the newly developed high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and thermal-denuder (TD), during the MILAGRO/MAX-Mex/MCMA-2006 field campaign, and to analyze those data (together with the 2003 data) to provide additional insights on the formation and transformation of aerosols in the Mexico City area. These goals were addressed in collaboration with our project partners, MIT/Molina Center, and Aerodyne Research. Overall this project was very successful, resulting on 22+ journal papers including six “highly cited papers” and three papers that are the most cited in their respective journals (out of several thousand papers) since the year in which they were published. Multiple discoveries, such as the the underestimation of SOA in urban areas even for short photochemical ages, the demonstration that urban POA is of similar or higher volatility than urban SOA, and the first analysis of organic aerosol elemental composition in real-time have been recently published. Several dozen presentations at major US and international conferences and seminars also acknowledged this grant.

  17. Water quality, physical habitat, and fish community composition in streams in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talmage, Philip J.; Lee, Kathy E.; Goldstein, Robert M.; Anderson, Jesse P.; Fallon, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Water quality, physical habitat, and fish-community composition were characterized at 13 Twin Cities metropolitan area streams during low-flow conditions, September 1997. Fish communities were resampled during September 1998. Sites were selected based on a range of human population density. Nutrient concentrations were generally low, rarely exceeding concentrations found in agricultural streams or water-quality criteria. Seventeen pesticides and five pesticide metabolites were detected, with atrazine being the only pesticide detected at all 13 streams. Colony counts of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from 54 to greater than 11,000 colonies per 100 mL. Instream fish habitat was sparse with little woody debris and few boulders, cobble, or other suitable fish habitat. Thirty-eight species and one hybrid from 10 families were collected. Fish communities were characterized by high percentages of omnivores and tolerant species with few intolerant species. Index of Biotic Integrity scores were low, with most streams rating fair to very poor. Percent impervious surface was positively correlated with sodium and chloride concentrations and human population density, but was negatively correlated with fish species richness and diversity. Urban land use and human population density influence fish communities and water quality in Twin Cities metropolitan area streams. Other factors that may influence fish community composition include percent impervious cover, water chemistry, water temperature, geomorphology, substrate, instream habitat, and migration barriers.

  18. Responding to Terrorism Victims: Oklahoma City and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmore, Janet

    This report identifies the special measures needed to protect the rights and meet the needs of victims of a large-scale terrorist attack involving mass casualties. In particular, it demonstrates efforts required to ensure an effective response to victims' rights and their short- and long-term emotional and psychological needs as an integral part…

  19. Preliminary map showing limonitic areas in the Silver City 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Arizona and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Gary L.

    1984-01-01

    This map is a part of a folio of maps of the Silver City 1o x 2o quadrangle, Arizona and New Mexico, prepared under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program. As a part of this study Landstat images were used to map the anomalous areas of limonitic materials as a guide to hydrothermal alteration which, in turn, acts as a guide to mineralized systems. The term limonite, defined by Blanchard (1968) as a general term for undifferentiated ferric oxide percipitates, is here modified to include any mineral with the typical spectral reflectance properties of the ferric oxide minerals such as hematite and goethite, as defined by Hunt (1980). The nap shows anomalous areas of limonitic miaterials that might be associated with mineralization. 

  20. How will induced seismicity in Oklahoma respond to decreased saltwater injection rates?

    PubMed

    Langenbruch, Cornelius; Zoback, Mark D

    2016-11-01

    In response to the marked number of injection-induced earthquakes in north-central Oklahoma, regulators recently called for a 40% reduction in the volume of saltwater being injected in the seismically active areas. We present a calibrated statistical model that predicts that widely felt M ≥ 3 earthquakes in the affected areas, as well as the probability of potentially damaging larger events, should significantly decrease by the end of 2016 and approach historic levels within a few years. Aftershock sequences associated with relatively large magnitude earthquakes that occurred in the Fairview, Cherokee, and Pawnee areas in north-central Oklahoma in late 2015 and 2016 will delay the rate of seismicity decrease in those areas.

  1. How will induced seismicity in Oklahoma respond to decreased saltwater injection rates?

    PubMed Central

    Langenbruch, Cornelius; Zoback, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the marked number of injection-induced earthquakes in north-central Oklahoma, regulators recently called for a 40% reduction in the volume of saltwater being injected in the seismically active areas. We present a calibrated statistical model that predicts that widely felt M ≥ 3 earthquakes in the affected areas, as well as the probability of potentially damaging larger events, should significantly decrease by the end of 2016 and approach historic levels within a few years. Aftershock sequences associated with relatively large magnitude earthquakes that occurred in the Fairview, Cherokee, and Pawnee areas in north-central Oklahoma in late 2015 and 2016 will delay the rate of seismicity decrease in those areas. PMID:28138533

  2. Geophysical logs for selected wells in the Picher Field, northeast Oklahoma and southeast Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott C.; Thomas, Tom B.; Overton, Myles D.; Goemaat, Robert L.; Havens, John S.

    1991-01-01

    The Roubidoux aquifer in northeastern Oklahoma is used extensively as a source of water for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts. The Roubidoux aquifer may be subject to contamination from abandoned lead and zinc mines of the Picher field. Water in flooded underground mines contains large concentrations of iron, zinc, cadmium, and lead. The contaminated water may migrate from the mines to the Roubidoux aquifer through abandoned water wells in the Picher field. In late 1984, the Oklahoma Water Resources Board began to locate abandoned wells that might be serving as conduits for the migration of contaminants from the abandoned mines. These wells were cleared of debris and plugged. A total of 66 wells had been located, cleared, and plugged by July 1985. In cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, the U.S. Geological Survey took advantage of the opportunity to obtain geophysical data in the study area and provide the Oklahoma Water Resources Board with data that might be useful during the well-plugging operation. Geophysical logs obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey are presented in this report. The geophysical logs include hole diameter, normal, single-point resistance, fluid resistivity, natural-gamma, gamma-gamma, and neutron logs. Depths logged range from 145 to 1,344 feet.

  3. Dynamics of a recolonizing population of black bears in the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, S.L.; Hellgren, E.C.; Leslie, David M.; Hemphill, J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding how populations expand to recolonize former habitats is important to restoration efforts in wildlife management and conservation. Translocation of black bears (Ursus americanus) to Arkansas in the 1950s and 1960s has led to recolonization of former bear range in Oklahoma, with substantial increases in distribution and abundance of the species in Oklahoma over the last 15 years. We studied demographics of black bears in southeastern Oklahoma from May 2001 to November 2002 to provide insight into characteristics of recolonizing populations of large carnivores. We trapped 51 black bears (22 M, 29 F) 77 times and radiocollared 25 female bears. Sex ratios of adults and cubs were skewed toward females, and the age structure was younger than observed in other unharvested populations. Survival of adult females was estimated at 0.9??0.1, and fertility was estimated at 0.77 female young/female/year. Density on the study area was estimated at 0.21 bears/km2 and the current finite growth rate (??) of the study population was estimated to be 1.11/year. Demographic characteristics of the Oklahoma population of black bears were similar to those of other recolonizing populations of large carnivores.

  4. Review of the general geology and solid-phase geochemical studies in the vicinity of the Central Oklahoma aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosier, Elwin L.; Bullock, John H.

    1988-01-01

    The Central Oklahoma aquifer is the principal source of ground water for municipal, industrial, and rural use in central Oklahoma. Ground water in the aquifer is contained in consolidated sedimentary rocks consisting of the Admire, Council Grove, and Chase Groups, Wellington Formation, and Garber Sandstone and in the unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium and terrace deposits that occur along the major stream systems in the study area. The Garber Sandstone and the Wellington Formation comprise the main flow system and, as such, the aquifer is often referred to as the 'Garber-Wellington aquifer.' The consolidated sedimentary rocks consist of interbedded lenticular sandstone, shale, and siltstone beds deposited in similar deltaic environments in early Permian time. Arsenic, chromium, and selenium are found in the ground water of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in concentrations that, in places, exceed the primary drinking-water standards of the Environmental Protection Agency. Gross-alpha concentrations also exceed the primary standards in some wells, and uranium concentrations are uncommonly high in places. As a prerequisite to a surface and subsurface solid-phase geochemical study, this report summarizes the general geology of the Central Oklahoma study area. Summaries of results from certain previously reported solid-phase geochemical studies that relate to the vicinity of the Central Oklahoma aquifer are also given; including a summary of the analytical results and distribution plots for arsenic, selenium, chromium, thorium, uranium, copper, and barium from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program.

  5. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Two small brighter patches within the hazy area indicate low fog. In the left-hand panel, the city basin appears significantly clearer, but ... very high altitudes, in contrast to the low-lying haze and fog near Mexico City. When the stereo retrieval determines that a location is ...

  6. [Sandflies (Diptera, psychodidae) in a secondary forest area in the Paco do Lumiar city, Maranhao, Brazil: a leishmaniasis transmission area].

    PubMed

    Barros, V L; Rebêlo, J M; Silva, F S

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the wealth of species, relative abundance, seasonal fluctuation, and nocturnal activity of sandflies. The field survey was conducted in a "capoeira" (secondary forest) area in the county of Paço do Lumiar, Maranhão, where cutaneous and transmission of visceral leishmaniasis frequently occurs. Sandflies were captured by CDC-type light traps from 6:00 PM to 6:00 AM, once a month, from March 1997 to February 1998. A total of 489 specimens were collected (251 males and 238 females), distributed among 10 species: Lutzomyia antunesi (45.19%), Lutzomyia whitmani (29.4%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (7.56%), Lutzomyia sordelli (6.34%), Lutzomyia flaviscutellata (4.5%), Brumptomyia avellari (4.09%), Lutzomyia evandroi (1.85%), Lutzomyia umbratilis (0.61%), Lutzomyia corossoniensis (0.41%), and Lutzomyia trispinosa (0.41%). The sandflies were present year round, with higher abundance during the rainy season. They were present in all intervals studied, with the highest frequency between 12:00 PM and 1:00 AM (31%).

  7. Hydraulic properties of the Madison aquifer system in the western Rapid City area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, Earl A.

    1993-01-01

    Available information on hydrogeology, data from borehole geophysical logs, and aquifer tests were used to determine the hydraulic properties of the Madison aquifer. From aquifer-test analysis, transmissivity and storage coefficient were determined for the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers, and vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv') along with specific storage (Ss') for the Minnelusa confining bed. Borehole geophysical well logs were used to determine the thickness and location of the Minnelusa aquifer, the lower Minnelusa confining bed, and the Madison aquifer within the Madison Limestone. Porosity values determined from quantitative analysis of borehole geophysical well logs were used in analyzing the aquifer-test data. The average porosity at the two aquifer-test sites is about 10 percent in the Minnelusa aquifer, 5 percent in the lower Minnelusa confining bed, and 35 percent in the Madison aquifer. The first aquifer test, which was conducted at Rapid City production well #6, produced measured drawdown in the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers. Neuman and Witherspoon's method of determining the hydraulic properties of leaky two-aquifer systems was used to evaluate the aquifer-test data by assuming the fracture and solution-opening network is equivalent to a porous media. Analysis of the aquifer test for the Minnelusa aquifer yielded a transmissivity value of 12,000 feet squared per day and a storage coefficient of 3 x 10-3. The specific storage of the Minnelusa confining bed was 2 x 10-7 per foot, and its vertical hydraulic conductivity was 0.3 foot per day. The transmissivity of the Madison aquifer at this site was 17,000 feet squared per day, and the storage coefficient was 2 x 10-3. The second aquifer test, which was conducted at Rapid City production well #5 (RC-5) produced measured drawdown only in the Madison aquifer. Hantush and Jacob's method of determining the hydraulic properties of leaky confined aquifers with no storage in the confining bed was used to

  8. Water supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in low-income areas of Lilongwe City, Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidya, Russel C. G.; Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Banda, Sembeyawo C. T.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies in many developing countries have shown that Small Scale Independent Providers (SSIPs) in low-income areas (LIAs) are practical alternatives to water utilities. This study explored supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in four LIAs of Lilongwe City in Malawi using qualitative and quantitative methods. Household-level surveys (n = 120) and transect walks were employed to determine the socio-economic activities in the areas. One-on-one discussions were made with water source owners (SSIPs) (n = 24). Data on policy and institutional frameworks was collected through desktop study and Key Informant Interviews (n = 25). Quality of the water sources (shallow wells and boreholes) was determined by collecting grab samples (n = 24) in triplicate using 500 mL bottles. Selected physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were measured: pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, water temperature, salinity, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl-, F-, NO3-, alkalinity, water hardness, Fecal coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococci (FS) bacteria. Water quality data was compared with Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. Shallow wells were reported (65%, n = 120) to be the main source of water for household use in all areas. Some policies like prohibition of boreholes and shallow wells in City locations were in conflict with other provisions of water supply, sanitation and housing. High levels of FC (0-2100 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-1490 cfu/100 mL) at several sites (>90%, n = 24) suggest water contamination likely to impact on human health. This calls for upgrading and recognition of the water sources for improved water service delivery.

  9. The impact of water scarcity on environmental health in selected residential areas in Bulawayo City, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyemba, Anesu; Manzungu, Emmanuel; Masango, Sijabuliso; Musasiwa, Simon

    This paper assesses the extent of water scarcity at household level and the resultant environmental health impacts in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe’s second largest city. The paper is based on two separate surveys that were undertaken in low and high income suburbs between June 2007 and January 2008. The first survey investigated the extent and impacts of water scarcity at household level. Data was collected by means of a household questionnaire, key informant interviews, review of clinic records and physical observation. The second survey assessed microbial levels in the main water sources and was complemented by examining water-related disease profiles. Water scarcity was found to be more severe in low income than in high income suburbs. This was a consequence of the city’s skewed water distribution policy which favoured the former and failure by residents of the latter to invest in safer water alternatives. Per capita water consumption in both suburbs was below internationally recommended levels. Microbial assessment indicated presence of coliforms in water obtained from the tap and alternative sources at levels above WHO and Zimbabwean standards. Water scarcity resulted in an increase in the incidence of water-related diseases and environmental contamination. The evidence suggests that water scarcity in Bulawayo represents a huge cost to residents and the environment.

  10. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  11. Geo-hydrological hazard and urban development in the Mediterranean area: an example from Genoa City (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccini, F.; Luino, F.; Sacchini, A.; Turconi, L.; De Graff, J. V.

    2015-04-01

    The Ligurian area has always suffered from significant geo-hydrological events causing casualties and serious damage. The atmospheric circulation in autumn and winter coupled with landform peculiarities are the main causes this hazard becoming a risk to human life, structures, and infrastructures. Genoa city and the surrounding metropolitan area are commonly subject to heavy rainfall that induces violent flash floods and many shallow landslides. The most recent rainfall events occurred on 9-10 October and 15 November 2014, again causing loss of human lives and widespread damage. A troubling trend since the beginning of the new century, is the recurrence of such events with greater frequency than in the past. The city of Genoa serves as a very interesting case-study for geo-hydrological risks. Cloudbursts of few hours seem to have a rainfall intensity basically greater than in the past; that causes increase of hydrometric levels of the watercourses that quickly reach alarming values close to the overflowing. This meteorological factor, added to growing urbanization of the valley floors and slopes located north of Genoa, has inevitably produced a general trend of increasing risk for the city. Urbanization is particularly notable for the narrowing process in all cross-sections of Genoa's watercourses, both in the main ones and in the secondary streams that flow directly into the Gulf of Genoa. The narrowing of the sections resulted from the increasing demand for new spaces owing to both industrial development (which started initially at the coastal areas of Genoa), and the growth of the Genoa population. The number of inhabitants grew from fewer than 200 000 at the beginning of the 19th century tool a peak of over 800 000 in the 1970s modifying the water balance of the basins and increasing the geo-hydrological risk in an unacceptable way. Among the important topics analyzed in this paper are: (i) the meteorological characteristics of these events, (ii) the changes in

  12. Undernutrition and associated factors among 24–36-month-old children in slum areas of Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Demilew, Yeshalem Mulugeta; Abie, Dagninet Derebe

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess undernutrition and associated factors among 24–36-month-old children in the slum areas of Bahir Dar city. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 480 children from May 1 to 26, 2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select respondents. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 was used for analysis. The prevalence of undernutrition was computed. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were also carried out to identify the association between the independent and dependent variables and the predictors of undernutrition, respectively. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant in the final model. Result The prevalence of stunting, underweight, and wasting was 42%, 22.1%, and 6.4%, respectively. Independent predictors for stunting were illness in the preceding two weeks, having two children under three years old, taking prelacteal feeding, and early or late initiation of complementary feeding. Illness in the preceding two weeks, lack of latrine utilization, and lack of hand washing practice were independent predictors for underweight. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of undernutrition in this study. Thus, health extension workers and health professionals in Bahir Dar city should educate mothers/caretakers on the health impact of giving prelacteal feeding, hand washing practice, time of initiation of complementary feeding, and birth interval. PMID:28331353

  13. Effect of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Concentrations on Exhaust Emissions from Gasoline Used in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, Isaac; Dfaz, Luis; Avalos, Sergio; Vera, Mario; Barrera, Adrian; López-Salinas, Esteban

    2000-04-01

    In this work, the primary objective was to assess the impact of oxygenated fuel on the exhaust emissions from an important fraction of vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). The results aim to provide information on the actual effect of MTBE on a fleet that represents more than 60% of the in-use vehicles in the MAMC. Ten vehicles were tested with a low-octane base gasoline, and 10 more with a regular-grade unleaded base gasoline. Three MTBE concentrations, 5, 10, and 15 vol %, were tested following the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP). CO, total HC, and NOx from the exhaust gases were quantitatively evaluated and also characterized for FTP speciated organic emissions. From this data, the O3-forming potential of the fuels was calculated. Results show that for the fleet using low-octane gasoline, the addition of 10% MTBE substantially reduced CO emissions, but total HC concentration in the exhaust showed a modest decrease. For the regular gasoline, the 10% MTBE blend seemed to be the best choice, but there was not a significant decrease in emissions. The specific reactivity of each fuel, expressed in grams of O3 per gram of nonmethane organic gases, increased with MTBE concentration in both cases. This result is important to consider, especially for a region like Mexico City, which has high atmospheric O3 concentrations.

  14. Effect of methyl tertiary butyl ether concentrations on exhaust emissions from gasoline used in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Avalos, S; Vera, M; Barrera, A; López-Salinas, E

    2000-04-01

    In this work, the primary objective was to assess the impact of oxygenated fuel on the exhaust emissions from an important fraction of vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). The results aim to provide information on the actual effect of MTBE on a fleet that represents more than 60% of the in-use vehicles in the MAMC. Ten vehicles were tested with a low-octane base gasoline, and 10 more with a regular-grade unleaded base gasoline. Three MTBE concentrations, 5, 10, and 15 vol %, were tested following the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP). CO, total HC, and NOx from the exhaust gases were quantitatively evaluated and also characterized for FTP speciated organic emissions. From this data, the O3-forming potential of the fuels was calculated. Results show that for the fleet using low-octane gasoline, the addition of 10% MTBE substantially reduced CO emissions, but total HC concentration in the exhaust showed a modest decrease. For the regular gasoline, the 10% MTBE blend seemed to be the best choice, but there was not a significant decrease in emissions. The specific reactivity of each fuel, expressed in grams of O3 per gram of nonmethane organic gases, increased with MTBE concentration in both cases. This result is important to consider, especially for a region like Mexico City, which has high atmospheric O3 concentrations.

  15. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  16. Local level sustainability policies in the Baltic Sea area: Local Agenda 21 within the Union of the Baltic Cities network.

    PubMed

    Joas, M; Grönholm, B

    2001-08-01

    Local Agenda 21 (LA21) processes have 2 central goals. i) On the basis of some of the empirical evidence in this study, the primary goal is to improve democratic (environmental) policy-making processes in such a manner that a larger share of the population will be able to participate in planning and decision making and will also be able to understand the consequences of these decisions. ii) The LA21 processes seek to improve (at least indirectly) the broadly defined environmental situation locally in a manner that takes into account both the local and the global contexts. The first part of this article discusses the concept and methods of LA21 and sheds light on the different action areas that are central to the Baltic LA21 processes. In addition, the study will describe and display the LA21 situation within one network of cities, the Union of the Baltic Cities (UBC). Networking, including transfer of information, models and ideas, has been among the main tools for the diffusion of LA21 ideas especially into newly democratized societies. Finally, the article will conclude with an overall assessment of the LA21 situation on the Baltic rim.

  17. Sustainable sanitation systems for low income urban areas - A case of the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinyama, A.; Chipato, P. T.; Mangore, E.

    Lack of basic sanitation systems threaten environmental and human health in low income urban communities. In 2005, the Government of Zimbabwe carried out a cleanup exercise in urban areas involving the destruction of illegal structures which left many people homeless. As a solution to this problem, the government embarked on an extensive housing construction exercise on unserviced land; the ‘Garikai/Hlalani Kuhle’ development programme. The objective of this paper was to investigate the sanitation status in one such area (Cowdray Park Extension, Bulawayo) and determine a sustainable sanitation system for the improved collection of wastewater from the unserviced low income urban area. The study was carried out between October 2010 and February 2011. The sanitation status as well as the residents’ preferences for improved sanitation and the economic set up of the community for the study area was determined through use of questionnaires to the residents. The local authority was then consulted to recommend sanitation facilities and system for the area that met regulatory requirements. A literature study identified sanitation options that were applicable to low income and high density urban areas. The baseline survey found that 61% of the people in the study area lacked sanitation facilities and practiced open defecation. The majority of the residents (70%) preferred ‘flush and discharge’ system sanitation facilities, which was in line with the local council’s requirements. On-site sanitation options were found not to be feasible as per the council regulations and the findings of the literature study, for areas with a high density of houses. Therefore a sewerage system was designed using the conventional sewerage design approach as well as the simplified sewerage design approach in order to determine the collection system that would best meet the needs of the community. In conclusion, the community was in dire need of a sanitation system and a waterborne

  18. Ecoregions and stream morphology in eastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Splinter, D.K.; Dauwalter, D.C.; Marston, R.A.; Fisher, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Broad-scale variables (i.e., geology, topography, climate, land use, vegetation, and soils) influence channel morphology. How and to what extent the longitudinal pattern of channel morphology is influenced by broad-scale variables is important to fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In the last couple of decades, there has been an increase in the amount of interdisciplinary research between fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In a historical context, fluvial geomorphologists are more apt to use physiographic regions to distinguish broad-scale variables, while stream ecologists are more apt to use the concept of an ecosystem to address the broad-scale variables that influence stream habitat. For this reason, we designed a study using ecoregions, which uses physical and biological variables to understand how landscapes influence channel processes. Ecoregions are delineated by similarities in geology, climate, soils, land use, and potential natural vegetation. In the fluvial system, stream form and function are dictated by processes observed throughout the fluvial hierarchy. Recognizing that stream form and function should differ by ecoregion, a study was designed to evaluate how the characteristics of stream channels differed longitudinally among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma, USA: Boston Mountains, Ozark Highlands, and Ouachita Mountains. Channel morphology of 149 stream reaches was surveyed in 1st- through 4th-order streams, and effects of drainage area and ecoregion on channel morphology was evaluated using multiple regressions. Differences existed (?????0.05) among ecoregions for particle size, bankfull width, and width/depth ratio. No differences existed among ecoregions for gradient or sinuosity. Particle size was smallest in the Ozark Highlands and largest in the Ouachita Mountains. Bankfull width was larger in the Ozark Highlands than in the Boston Mountains and Ouachita Mountains in larger streams. Width/depth ratios of the

  19. University of Oklahoma - High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Skubic, Patrick L.

    2013-07-31

    The High Energy Physics program at the University of Oklahoma, Pat Skubic, Principal Investigator, is attempting to understand nature at the deepest level using the most advanced experimental and theoretical tools. The four experimental faculty, Brad Abbott, Phil Gutierrez, Pat Skubic, and Mike Strauss, together with post-doctoral associates and graduate students, are finishing their work as part of the D0 collaboration at Fermilab, and increasingly focusing their investigations at the Large Hadron Collidor (LHC) as part of the ATLAS Collaboration. Work at the LHC has become even more exciting with the recent discovery by ATLAS and the other collaboration, CMS, of the long-sought Higgs boson, which plays a key role in generating masses for the elementary constituents of matter. Work of the OUHEP group has been in the three areas of hardware, software, and analysis. Now that the Higgs boson has been discovered, completing the Standard Model of fundamental physics, new efforts will focus on finding hints of physics beyond the standard model, such as supersymmetry. The OUHEP theory group (Kim Milton, PI) also consists of four faculty members, Howie Baer, Chung Kao, Kim Milton, and Yun Wang, and associated students and postdocs. They are involved in understanding fundamental issues in formulating theories of the microworld, and in proposing models that carry us past the Standard Model, which is an incomplete description of nature. They therefore work in close concert with their experimental colleagues. One also can study fundamental physics by looking at the large scale structure of the universe; in particular the ``dark energy'' that seems to be causing the universe to expand at an accelerating rate, effectively makes up about 3/4 of the energy in the universe, and yet is totally unidentified. Dark energy and dark matter, which together account for nearly all of the energy in the universe, are an important probe of fundamental physics at the very shortest distances

  20. Towards an Area-Based Curriculum? Creating Space for the City in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facer, Keri; Thomas, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses Fraser's (1999) concept of social justice as comprising both redistribution and recognition as a frame to interrogate two "Area-Based Curriculum" projects running since 2008 in Manchester and Peterborough schools. It argues that historic concerns about working with "the local" in cross-curricular activities has…

  1. Smoking Control. Smoking Behavior among Adolescents in the City, Suburbs, and Rural Areas of Shanghai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Wei Yue; Ling, Tan

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated differences in predisposing factors, enabling factors, reinforcing factors, and smoking behavior among middle school students in rural, urban, and suburban areas of Shanghai (China). Surveys in 11 schools indicated that students' smoking behavior was affected strongly by enabling factors and reinforcing factors related to…

  2. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the New York City Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  3. Improving Distance Education for University Students: Issues and Experiences of Students in Cities and Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, Ken; Cuskelly, Eve; Danaher, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    This study examined issues related to improving the quality of distance education courses that were raised by university students in Australia. Focus group sessions were held in rural and urban areas in Queensland that discussed student interaction with lecturers, assessment tasks, flexibility, study materials, mentors, and educational technology.…

  4. A Century of Induced Earthquakes in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.; Page, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Seismicity rates have increased sharply since 2009 in the central and eastern United States, with especially high rates of activity in the state of Oklahoma. A growing body of evidence indicates that many of these events are induced, primarily by injection of wastewater in deep disposal wells. The upsurge in activity has raised the questions, what is the background rate of tectonic earthquakes in Oklahoma? And how much has the rate varied throughout historical and early instrumental times? We first review the historical catalog, including assessment of the completeness level of felt earthquakes, and show that seismicity rates since 2009 surpass previously observed rates throughout the 20th century. Furthermore, several lines of evidence suggest that most of the significant (Mw > 3.5) earthquakes in Oklahoma during the 20th century were likely induced by wastewater injection and/or enhanced oil recovery operations. We show that there is a statistically significant temporal and spatial correspondence between earthquakes and disposal wells permitted during the 1950s. The intensity distributions of the 1952 Mw5.7 El Reno earthquake and the 1956 Mw3.9 Tulsa county earthquake are similar to those from recent induced earthquakes, with significantly lower shaking than predicted given a regional intensity-prediction equation. The rate of tectonic earthquakes is thus inferred to be significantly lower than previously estimated throughout most of the state, but is difficult to estimate given scant incontrovertible evidence for significant tectonic earthquakes during the 20th century. We do find evidence for a low level of tectonic seismicity in southeastern Oklahoma associated with the Ouachita structural belt, and conclude that the 22 October 1882 Choctaw Nation earthquake, for which we estimate Mw4.8, occurred in this zone.

  5. Groundwater Impacts on Urban Surface Water Quality in the Lowland Polder Catchments of the Amsterdam City Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Yu, L.; Van Breukelen, B. M.; Broers, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Surface water quality in the Amsterdam area is suffering from high nutrient levels. The sources and transport mechanisms of these nutrients are unclear due to the complex hydrology of the highly manipulated urban and sub-urban polder catchments. This study aimed at identifying the impact of groundwater on surface water quality in the polder catchments of the greater Amsterdam city area. Therefore, we exploited the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks to explain spatial patterns in surface water chemistry and their relations with landscape characteristics and groundwater impact. We selected and statistically analyzed 23 variables for 144 polders, covering a total area of 700 km2. Our dataset includes concentrations of total-N, total-P, ammonium, nitrate, bicarbonate, sulfate, calcium, and chloride in surface water and groundwater, seepage rate, elevation, paved area percentage, surface water area percentage, and soil type (calcite, humus and clay percentages). Our results show that nutrient levels in groundwater were generally much higher than in surface water and often exceeded the surface water Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs). This indicates that groundwater is a large potential source of nutrients in surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88) between solutes in both water compartments and close similarities in their spatial patterns confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water quality. Groundwater appeared to be a major source of chloride, bicarbonate and calcium in surface water and for N and P, leading to exceeding of EQSs in surface waters. In dry periods, the artificial redistribution of excess seepage water from deep polders to supply water to infiltrating polders further distributes the N and P loads delivered by groundwater over the area.

  6. This is your brain on sports. Measuring concussions in high school athletes in the Twin Cities metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Sarah; Seymour, Leslie; Roesler, Jon; Glover, Lori; Kinde, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Concussions can have a negative impact on students' ability to perform in the classroom as well as on their health and well-being. Therefore, timely treatment is especially important. To better understand the scope of the problem in Minnesota, the Minnesota Department of Health piloted an online sports-related concussion reporting system in 36 public high schools in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. In the 2013-2014 academic year, 730 concussions were reported to our system from certified athletic trainers working with those schools, with one out of every 100 athletes sustaining concussions. From this, we estimated that 2,974 sports-related concussions occurred among high school athletes statewide. This information is useful for evaluating and guiding prevention efforts and for informing clinicians on how to treat concussions.

  7. Particle Count and Black Carbon Measurements at Schools in Las Vegas and in the Greater Salt Lake City Area.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven G; Vaughn, David L; Roberts, Paul T

    2016-12-23

    As part of two separate studies aimed to characterize ambient pollutant concentrations at schools in urban areas, we compare black carbon and particle count measurements at Adcock Elementary in Las Vegas, Nevada (April-June 2013), and Hunter High School in the West Valley City area of Greater Salt Lake City, Utah (February 2012). Both schools are in urban environments, but Adcock Elementary is next to the U.S. 95 freeway. Black Carbon (BC) concentrations were 13% higher at Adcock compared to Hunter, while particle count concentrations were 60% higher. When wind speeds were low-less than 2 m/sec-both BC and particle count concentrations were significantly higher at Adcock, while concentrations at Hunter did not have as strong a variation with wind speed. When wind speeds were less than 2 m/s, emissions from the adjacent freeway greatly affected concentrations at Adcock, regardless of wind direction. At both sites, BC and particle count concentrations peaked in the morning during commute hours. At Adcock, particle count also peaked during midday or early afternoon, when BC was low and conditions were conducive to new particle formation. While this midday peak occurred at Adcock on roughly 45% of the measured days, it occurred on only about 25% of the days at Hunter, since conditions for particle formation (higher solar radiation, lower wind speeds, lower relative humidity) were more conducive at Adcock. Thus, children attending these schools are likely to be exposed to pollution peaks during school drop-off in the morning, when BC and particle count concentrations peak, and often again during lunchtime recess when particle count peaks again.

  8. Seasonal variation and principle of cyanobacterial biomass and forms in the water source area of Chaohu City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangen; Ke, Fan; Li, Wenchao; Feng, Muhua; Shang, Lixia; Fan, Fan; He, Yanzhao

    2016-01-01

    We investigated seasonal variations in cyanobacterial biomass and the forms of its dominant population ( M. aeruginosa) and their correlation with environmental factors in the water source area of Chaohu City, China from December 2011 to October 2012. The results show that species belonging to the phylum Cyanophyta occupied the maximum proportion of phytoplankton biomass, and that the dominant population in the water source area of Chaohu City was M. aeruginosa. The variation in cyanobacterial biomass from March to August 2012 was well fitted to the logistic growth model. The growth rate of cyanobacteria was the highest in June, and the biomass of cyanobacteria reached a maximum in August. From February to March 2012, the main form of M. aeruginosa was the single-cell form; M. aeruginosa colonies began to appear from April, and blooms appeared on the water surface in May. The maximum diameter of the colonies was recorded in July, and then gradually decreased from August. The diameter range of M. aeruginosa colonies was 18.37-237.77 μm, and most of the colonies were distributed in the range 20-200 μm, comprising 95.5% of the total number of samples. Temperature and photosynthetically active radiation may be the most important factors that influenced the annual variation in M. aeruginosa biomass and forms. The suitable temperature for cyanobacterial growth was in the range of 15-30°C. In natural water bodies, photosynthetically active radiation had a significant positive influence on the colonial diameter of M. aeruginosa ( P <0.01).

  9. Atmospheric aerosol and gaseous pollutant concentrations in Bucharest area using first datasets from the city AQ monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaceanu, Cristina; Iorga, Gabriela

    2010-05-01

    City of Bucharest is the largest and most populated (about 2.8 million inhabitants) city in the Romanian Plain and encounters environmental problems and meteorology typical for several cities in southeastern Europe. City environment includes intense emissions arising from traffic (about 1 million cars per day), five thermo-electrical power-generation stations, that use both natural gas and oil derivatives for power generation and domestic heating, and from industrial sources (more than 800 small and medium plants). In the present work we performed an extensive analysis of the air pollution state for the Bucharest area (inside and outside the city) using filter measurement aerosol data PM10 and PM2.5. Data spanning over first year of continuous sampling (2005) were taken from the city Air Quality Monitoring Network, which consists of eight sampling stations: three industrial and two traffic, one EPA urban background, one suburban and one regional station located outside of Bucharest. The objective was to assess the PM10 recorded levels and their degree of compliance with the EU-legislated air quality standards and to provide a statistical investigation of the factors controlling seasonal and spatial variations of PM levels. PM10 relationships with other measured air pollutants (SO2, CO, NOx) and meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and direction) were investigated by statistical analysis. Back trajectory modeling and wind direction frequency distributions were used to identify the origin of the polluted air masses. Contribution of combustion (slopes) and non-combustion (intercepts) sources to PM10 recorded levels was quantified by linear analysis, for two seasonal periods: cold (15 October-14 April) and warm (15 April-14 October). PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were compared with corresponding values in other European urban areas. Main conclusions are as follows: Traffic and industrial sites contribute to the

  10. 3D city models for CAAD-supported analysis and design of urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinning-Meister, M.; Gruen, A.; Dan, H.

    A joint research project was conducted at ETH Zurich to develop a user-friendly software environment for the representation, visual manipulation, analysis and design of urban areas. Three groups were involved in the project: (1) the 'Architecture and Planning' group defined the requirements and expectations for the system; (2) the 'Photogrammetry' group acquired and processed raster and 3D vector data to form a 3D model of the urban area; and (3) the 'CAAD' (Computer Aided Architectural Design) group embedded the data into AutoCAD and implemented database functionality. Results of the photogrammetry group are presented, including the implementation of a 'topology builder' which automatically fits roof planes to manually or semi-automatically measured roof points in order to create AutoCAD-compatible 3D building models. Digital orthoimages and derived products such as perspective views, and the geometric correction of house roofs in digital orthoimages also were generated for test sites in Switzerland.

  11. Effects of wetlands on quality of runoff entering lakes in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Four wetlands were compared with respect to their effectiveness in decreasing suspended solids and nutrient concentrations in runoff to lakes immediately downstream from the wetlands. An artificial impoundment in one of the wetlands increased settling of suspended solids. A decrease of nutrients in this wetland was probably the result of high assimilation rates associated with a dense stand of cattails. Two of the other three wetlands consist of open water and land areas, both of which contain abundant vegetation. Drainage from land areas within the wetlands may have lowered the overall effectiveness of the wetlands in decreasing sediment and nutrient concentrations. The third wetland was a constructed wetland that was ineffective in decreasing sediment or nutrient concentrations because its storage capacity was too small to prevent frequent flushing of accumulated sediment. Sediment concentrations in discharge from this wetland were as much as 22 times greater than the already high sediment concentrations in the inflow. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Quality of runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota - A project plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayers, M.A.; Payne, G.A.; Oberts, Gary L.

    1980-01-01

    Samples for analysis of 32 chemical, physical, and biological constituents will be collected at varying frequencies, with emphasis on storm sampling for suspended solids and nutrients. A data-management system being designed for the U.S. Geological Survey Urban Hydrology Studies Program will facilitate data processing. Data interpretation will be aimed at defining the quantity and quality characteristics of runoff from study watersheds. These findings will be extrapolated to unsampled watersheds in the metropolitan area.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of the ground-water-flow system in the Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guswa, John H.; Siegel, Donald I.; Gillies, Daniel C.

    1982-01-01

    Areal distribution of calcium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride concentrations were analyzed to provide information on the hydrologic and geochemical relationships between aquifers. Ground water is generally of the calcium magnesium bicarbonate type. Concentration of dissolved solids in water from the Jordan Sandstone and Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer generally decreases from southwest to northeast across the study area. This decrease probably reflects differences in the quality of recharge water and geochemical processes within the aquifers, such as ion exchange.

  14. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

  15. Pit Latrine Fecal Sludge Resistance Using a Dynamic Cone Penetrometer in Low Income Areas in Mzuzu City, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Chirwa, Charles F C; Hall, Ralph P; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Vance, Eric A; Edwards, Adam; Guan, Ting; Holm, Rochelle H

    2017-02-03

    Pit latrines can provide improved household sanitation, but without effective and inexpensive emptying options, they are often abandoned once full and may pose a public health threat. Emptying techniques can be difficult, as the sludge contents of each pit latrine are different. The design of effective emptying techniques (e.g., pumps) is limited by a lack of data characterizing typical in situ latrine sludge resistance. This investigation aimed to better understand the community education and technical engineering needs necessary to improve pit latrine management. In low income areas within Mzuzu city, Malawi, 300 pit latrines from three distinct areas were assessed using a dynamic cone penetrometer to quantify fecal sludge strength, and household members were surveyed to determine their knowledge of desludging procedures and practices likely to impact fecal sludge characteristics. The results demonstrate that there is a significant difference in sludge strength between lined and unlined pits within a defined area, though sludge hardened with depth, regardless of the pit type or region. There was only limited association between cone penetration depth and household survey data. To promote the adoption of pit emptying, it is recommended that households be provided with information that supports pit emptying, such as latrine construction designs, local pit emptying options, and cost. This study indicates that the use of a penetrometer test in the field prior to pit latrine emptying may facilitate the selection of appropriate pit emptying technology.

  16. Pit Latrine Fecal Sludge Resistance Using a Dynamic Cone Penetrometer in Low Income Areas in Mzuzu City, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Chirwa, Charles F. C.; Hall, Ralph P.; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H.; Vance, Eric A.; Edwards, Adam; Guan, Ting; Holm, Rochelle H.

    2017-01-01

    Pit latrines can provide improved household sanitation, but without effective and inexpensive emptying options, they are often abandoned once full and may pose a public health threat. Emptying techniques can be difficult, as the sludge contents of each pit latrine are different. The design of effective emptying techniques (e.g., pumps) is limited by a lack of data characterizing typical in situ latrine sludge resistance. This investigation aimed to better understand the community education and technical engineering needs necessary to improve pit latrine management. In low income areas within Mzuzu city, Malawi, 300 pit latrines from three distinct areas were assessed using a dynamic cone penetrometer to quantify fecal sludge strength, and household members were surveyed to determine their knowledge of desludging procedures and practices likely to impact fecal sludge characteristics. The results demonstrate that there is a significant difference in sludge strength between lined and unlined pits within a defined area, though sludge hardened with depth, regardless of the pit type or region. There was only limited association between cone penetration depth and household survey data. To promote the adoption of pit emptying, it is recommended that households be provided with information that supports pit emptying, such as latrine construction designs, local pit emptying options, and cost. This study indicates that the use of a penetrometer test in the field prior to pit latrine emptying may facilitate the selection of appropriate pit emptying technology. PMID:28165378

  17. Statistical Summaries of Streamflow in and near Oklahoma Through 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Jason M.; Esralew, Rachel A.

    2009-01-01

    Statistical summaries of streamflow records through 2007 for gaging stations in Oklahoma and parts of adjacent states are presented for 238 stations with at least 10 years of streamflow record. Streamflow at 120 of the stations is regulated for specific periods. Data for these periods were analyzed separately to account for changes in streamflow because of regulation by dams or other human modification of streamflow. A brief description of the location, drainage area, and period of record is given for each gaging station. A brief regulation history also is given for stations with a regulated streamflow record. This descriptive information is followed by tables of mean and median monthly and annual discharges, magnitude and probability of exceedance of annual instantaneous peak flows, durations of daily mean flow, magnitude and probability of nonexceedance of annual low flows, and magnitude and probability of nonexceedance of seasonal low flows.

  18. Comparing reactions to two severe tornadoes in one Oklahoma community.

    PubMed

    Comstock, R Dawn; Mallonee, Sue

    2005-09-01

    The authors compared the effect of the 3 May 1999 F5 and 8 May 2003 F3 tornadoes on the community of Moore, Oklahoma, by canvassing damaged areas after both tornadoes and surveying residents. Significantly more 1999 than 2003 residents reported property damage and injuries. Television and tornado sirens were the most common warnings each year, however, more 1999 residents received and responded to television warnings. Importantly, storm shelters were used more frequently in 2003. Fifty-one per cent of residents who experienced both tornadoes took the same amount of protective action in 2003 as they had in 1999; 22% took less; and 27% took more. Residents who took less action said that the reason for doing so was inadequate warning and shelter. First-hand experience of tornadoes prompts people to heed warnings when adequate notification is received and to take effective protective action when adequate shelter is available.

  19. Concentrations of benzene and toluene in the atmosphere of the southwestern area at the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, Humberto; Sosa, Rodolfo; Sánchez, Pablo; Bueno, Emma; González, Laura

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) presents important emissions of hazardous air pollutants. It is well documented that the MCMZ suffers a critical air pollution problem due to high ozone and particulate matter concentrations. However, toxic air pollutants such as benzene and toluene have not been considered. Benzene has accumulated sufficient evidence as a human carcinogen, and the ratio benzene/toluene is an excellent indicator to evaluate control strategies efficiency. In order to evaluate the levels of these two air toxic pollutants in the MCMZ, ambient air samples were collected in canisters and analyzed with a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector, according to procedures described in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method TO-15. Quality assurance was performed collecting duplicate samples which were analyzed in replicate to quantify the precision of air-quality measurements. Three different sites located in the Southwestern area in the MCMZ were selected for the sampling: the University campus, a gas station, and a vertical condominium area, in the same neighborhood, which presents different activities. At these sites, grab air samples were collected during the morning hours (7-8 a.m.), while for the University area, 24 h integrated air samples were collected simultaneously, with grab samples. Benzene concentrations (24 h sampling) in the atmosphere around the University campus have similar present levels as in other cities of North America. Mean values in this site were about 1.7 ppb. A significant variation exists between the benzene and toluene concentrations in the studied sites, being the more critical values than those registered at the gas station (an average of 25.8 ppb and a maximum of 141 ppb of benzene). There is a fuel regulation for gasoline in Mexico, which allows a maximum of 1 percent of benzene. However, since more than 60 percent of vehicles do not have catalytic converters (models before 1991

  20. What are people thinking about floods? A study in two Mediterranean areas: Costa Brava, Spain and Talcahuano City, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, A.; Ribas, A.; Cifuentes, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    Mediterranean areas are not immune to flood problems. The Spanish Mediterranean coast is a reflection of this, where flooding continues to be the greatest natural hazard with negative effects on the territory. The urbanization of coastal watersheds, very pronounced in the last 15 years, has led to the creation of authentic urban continuums in the seafront and the appearance of residential developments therein. The municipalities of Costa Brava, in the province of Girona, are an example of this dynamic of the increasing risk, exposure, and impact of floods. In Chile, floods are considered one of the main natural hazards, especially in the province of Concepcion. One of the most important cities of this area is Talcahuano, which has suffered continual flood episodes during recent years. Flood episodes could yet increase in the future due to the high frequency of extraordinary atmospheric events and a higher exposure to flood risk created by the development of intensive urbanization processes. However, after the February 27th 8.8 degrees earthquake (Richter scale) that affected the center-south of Chile and originated the tsunami which flooded a large percentage of the residential area and military base of the city of Talcahuano, the risk, vulnerability, resilience and copy capacity concepts changed. This research looks at the social perception and social knowledge of Mediterranean residents affected and unaffected by floods, emphasizing which is their risk, vulnerability, resilience and copy capacity concept and what kind of measures they proposed to reduce their flood vulnerability. The end objective of this research is to become a framework for future local flood policies and a tool that could be reviewed by specialists in other regions that might be affected by this hazard. This social assessment has been carried out through surveys of residents in Costa Brava and Talcahuano whose endogenous and exogenous characteristics have been significant in explaining their

  1. Estimated Nutrient Concentrations and Continuous Water-Quality Monitoring in the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin, Northwestern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2004-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Esralew, Rachel A.; Allen, Monica L.

    2008-01-01

    The Eucha-Spavinaw basin is the source of water for Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lake, which are part of the water supply for the City of Tulsa. The City of Tulsa has received complaints of taste and odor in the finished drinking water because of deteriorating water quality. The deterioration is largely because of algal growth from the input of nutrients from the Eucha-Spavinaw basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Tulsa, implemented a continuous, real-time water-quality monitoring program in the Eucha-Spavinaw basin to better understand the source of the nutrient loading. This program included the manual collection of samples analyzed for nutrients and the collection of continuous, in-stream data from water-quality monitors. Continuous water-quality monitors were installed at two existing continuous streamflow-gaging stations - Spavinaw Creek near Colcord, Oklahoma, and Beaty Creek near Jay, Oklahoma, from October 2004 through September 2007. Total nitrogen concentrations for manually collected water samples ranged from 2.08 to 9.66 milligrams per liter for the water samples collected from Spavinaw Creek near Colcord, Oklahoma, and from 0.67 to 5.12 milligrams per liter for manually collected water samples from Beaty Creek near Jay, Oklahoma. Total phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 1.5 milligrams per liter for the water samples collected from Spavinaw Creek near Colcord and from 0.028 to 1.0 milligram per liter for the water samples collected from Beaty Creek near Jay. Data from water samples and in-stream monitors at Spavinaw and Beaty Creeks (specific conductance and turbidity) were used to develop linear regression equations relating in-stream water properties to total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations. The equations developed for the Spavinaw and Beaty sites are site specific and only valid for the concentration ranges of the explanatory variables used in the analysis. The range in estimated and measured

  2. Altitude and configuration of the 1980 water table in the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1982-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The altitude and configuration of the water table are shown for the eastern area, consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties (sheet 1), and for the Panhandle area, consisting of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver Counties (sheet 2). Water levels were measured in January, February, and March 1980 by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board.

  3. Saturated thickness of the High Plains regional aquifer in 1980, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1982-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The 1980 saturated thickness of the High Plains regional aquifer in Oklahoma is shown for the eastern area (plate 1), consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties, and for the Panhandle area (plate 2), consisting of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver Counties.

  4. Assessing the Land Subsidence Governance in Ningbo City: By a Close Study of the Building Collapse at the Strictly Protected Land Subsidence Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Ningbo is a coastal city in East China, its land subsidence problem was noticed in the 1960s. However, scientific management was insufficient at that time, so with the fast city development from the 1980s, groundwater was used by a large amount of small factories, and tall buildings were built on the land. It was in 2008, scientists predicted that if without doing anything to prevent the land from subsiding, the city will be covered by the East Sea in 2030. From then on, the local government implied several policies, such as shut down most of the groundwater pumping wells, set up a new authority to enhance the cooperation among different administration departments, and also set up a land subsidence monitoring center for the city. Recently, it is declared that a Stereo regulatory system of land subsidence governance has been achieved. However, in 2012, a 23-years old building in the city center collapsed. According to the City Planning 2009, this building is located just in the strictly protected land subsidence area. The experts, however, think that land subsidence is not the main reason, since there are many illegal changes to the building during the past 23 years. The aim of my research is to assess the land subsidence governance in Ningbo city. I studied the collapsed building, how it was built, what has changed after building, how the environment changed in this area, and how this area became the strictly protected land subsidence area, and what kind of protections have been made. Actually, during the case study I discuss the land subsidence governance design of Ningbo, and to see what practices and lessons we can learn from this case.

  5. Average coherence image derived observations over an urban area: the case of Athens city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcharidis, I.; Foumelis, M.; Kourkouli, P.

    2007-10-01

    In the present study coherence observations, in relation to the land-cover type, obtained using 20 C-band ERS SAR Single Look Complex (SLC) VV-polarization images acquired in descending mode over the metropolitan area of Athens covering the period 1992-1999 are presented. A straightforward approach using a single master SAR image on which the other images are mapped was adopted ensuring perfect registration of the interferometric results. After generating single coherence images, with temporal separation varying between 138 and 1335 days, an averaging procedure followed leading to the average coherence image. In order to identify and statistically interpret the properties of selected land cover types in terms of average degree of coherence, very high resolution QuickBird imagery was downloaded from Google Earth environment. The final geocoding of the average coherence image has been improved using common features in the coherence image and the very high-resolution QuickBird image. Overlay of coherence product on the QuickBird image allows correlating the level of coherence with characteristics and properties of the urban shell. As urban areas are considered of high coherence, observations of this type permit to investigate and evaluate their phase stability in details.

  6. Landscape characteristics impacts on water quality of urban lowland catchments: monitoring the Amsterdam city area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liang; van der Vlugt, Corné; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Broers, Hans Peter; van Breukelen, Boris; Ouboter, Maarten; Stuyfzand, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    In Dutch lowland polder systems, groundwater quality significantly contributes to surface water quality. This process is influenced by landscape characteristics such as topography, geology, and land use types. In this study, 23 variables were selected for 144 polder catchments, including groundwater and surface water solute concentrations (TN, TP, NH4+, NO3-, HCO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, Cl-), seepage rate in mm per year, elevation, paved area percentage, surface water area percentage, and soil types (calcite, humus and lutum percentage). The spatial patters in groundwater and surface water quality can largely be explained by groundwater seepage rates in polders and partly by artificial redistribution of water via the regional surface water system. High correlations (R2 up to 0.66) between solutes in groundwater and surface water revealed their probable interaction. This was further supported by results from principal component analysis (PCA) and linear regression. The PCA distinguished four factors that were related to a fresh groundwater factor, seepage rate factor, brackish groundwater factor and clay soil factor. Nutrients (TP, TN, NH4+ and NO3-) and SO42- in surface water bodies are mainly determined by groundwater quality combined with seepage rate, which is negatively related to surface water area percentage and elevation of the catchment. This pattern is more obvious in deep urban lowland catchments. Relatively high NO3- loads more tend to appear in catchments with high humus, but low calcite percentage soil type on top, which was attributed to clay soil type that was expressed by calcite percentage in our regression. Different from nitrogen contained solutes, TP is more closely related to fresh groundwater quality than to seepage rate. Surface water Cl- concentration has a high relation with brackish groundwater. Due to the artificial regulation of flow direction, brackish inlet water from upstream highly influences the chloride load in surface water bodies

  7. Electric and kinematic structure of the Oklahoma mesoscale convective system of 7 June 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steven M.; Schur, Terry J.; Marshall, Thomas C.; Rust, W. D.

    1992-01-01

    Balloon soundings of electric field in Oklahoma mesoscale convective systems (MCS) were obtained by the National Severe Storms Laboratory in the spring of 1989. This study focuses on a sounding made in the rearward edge of an MCS stratiform rain area on 7 June 1989. Data from Doppler radars, a lightning ground-strike location system, satellite, and other sources is used to relate the mesoscale attributes of the MCS to the observed electric-field profile.

  8. The human health impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira eruptions on Goma city and its surrounding area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michellier, C.; Dramaix, M.; Arellano, S. R.; Kervyn, F.; Kahindo, J. B.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira are two of the most active volcanoes in Africa. Nyiragongo last erupted in January 2002 and Nyamulagira in November 2011. Even if only a small number of victims resulted directly from these eruptions (notably because they both happened in the day-time), the town of Goma (approx. 700 000 inhabitants) is directly threatened by the fluid lava flows, of which the speed can reach several tens of km/h. But this is not the only menace. Indeed, Nyiragongo hosts a permanent lava lake that produces a plume of gases rich in sulphur (SO2), carbon (CO2), and halogen compounds (HCl, HF). As for Nyamulagira, it makes a major contribution to these emissions during its frequent and regular periods of eruptive activity (approx. every two years). Although the region under study is densely populated (up to 250 inh/km2), and basic volcanic hazard mapping exists, an updated and long-term evaluation of the specific impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira semi-permanent volcanic plumes on the population health has not been done to date. It is the objective of this study. Michigan Technological University (MTU, USA) provides satellite data retrievals of volcanogenic SO2 gas columns. These remote sensing data provide insights about the spatial distribution of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira plumes, which are used to select the sampling areas for studying the human health impact of volcanic emissions. Based on the Congolese Health Information System (HIS) data provided by the CEMUBAC, our study is focused on the 1999-2010 time period. Scientific studies carried out on other active volcanoes suggest that certain pathologies could be linked to a high concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere. These include Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI), conjunctivitis, skin diseases, and ear-nose-throat infections. Using Poisson regression analysis, we determine a Relative Risk Index (IRR) that allows us to identify the years

  9. Hazardous air pollutants from mobile sources in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, Isaac; Díaz, Luis; López-Salinas, Esteban

    2005-09-01

    Environmental agencies are currently in the process of implementing a new air management program, which includes the improvement of fuel quality. In this work, exhaust emissions data and estimated relative risk for various fuels testing in-use vehicles, equipped with three different exhaust emission control technologies, are presented. Aromatics, sulfur, and olefins contents; type of oxygenated compound; and Reid vapor pressure were varied. The aim also includes calculating the ozone (O3) forming potential and a relative cancer risk of emissions from current and formulated gasoline blends in Mexico. The proposed gasoline decreases carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons (THC), and nitrogen oxides emissions by 18 and 14%, respectively, when compared with gasoline sold in the rest of the country and within ozone nonattainment metropolitan areas in Mexico, respectively.

  10. Urban Planetary Boundary Layer investigations in cold season and complex topography in IASI city area using ESYROLIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudose, O.-G.; Balanici, A.; Couach, O.; Balin, I.

    2012-04-01

    The up-gradable 2012 configuration of ESYROLIDAR system based on a multi -wavelengths (1064, 532 and 355 nm) powerful (200, 100 and 45 mJ/pulse) and relatively high variable repetition rate (up to 30 Hz) Nd: YAG pulsed laser, a large Newtonian telescope (40 cm diameter of collector mirror) and a new opto-mechanics detection module is used to evaluate the planetary boundary layer dynamics. The measurement site is located on the Science and Technology Park TehnopolIS (in a complex topography of Iasi city area situated in the north-eastern part of Romania - Moldavia region (47° 7'17.16"N, 27°34'15.35"E, ASL 60m). This paper will present both the advantages and performances of the 2012 lidar system configuration and the PBL related lidar profiles measured in cold season conditions. The correlation of PBL dynamics as observed by lidar with PM point monitor existing data in the area will be presented and interpreted. Finally the simulation of PBL height results at regional scale performed with the meteorological model MM5 included in the INOE2000 (National Institute for Research and Development for Opto-Electronics Magurele, Romania) Air Quality Forecast system will be compared with lidar data in daytime.

  11. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MCMA-2003 Field Measurement Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, M.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L.; Slott, R. S.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Shorter, J. H.; Worsnop, D.; Zahniser, M.; Onasch, T.; Kolb, C. E.; Rogers, T.; Knighton, B.

    2004-12-01

    On-road vehicle emissions were measured in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) as part of an intensive, five-week, field campaign held in the spring of 2003 (April 1 - May 5). Vehicle emissions measurements were made during vehicle chase experiments using the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory. The mobile lab was equipped with a large suite of state-of-the-art analytical instruments for measuring both gas and particle phase chemical components from vehicle emissions in real time. The experiment represents a real-world sample of more than 200 in-use vehicles. The results presented here focus on heavy-duty gasoline (HDGT) and heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT), although measurements included pick up trucks, colectivos (microbuses), and private automobiles as well. The use of covariance and fitting methods for individual species vs. CO2 allows the estimation of individual emission ratios in a real time plume-based analysis. The variability of emission ratios within a vehicle class and during different driving modes (acceleration, idling, etc.) are explored. Results are reported as molar emission ratios of emission gases with carbon dioxide. These and other vehicle-related emissions measured during the campaign will be presented and discussed. These types of studies are important for the development of emission inventories and their use in air quality modeling studies in urban areas.

  12. Contribution of the gasoline distribution cycle to volatile organic compound emissions in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Magdaleno, M; Díaz, L; Krüger, B; León, J; Palmerín, M E; Casas, R; Melgarejo, A; López-Salinas, E

    2002-05-01

    Gasoline distribution in the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC) represents an area of opportunity for the abatement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. The gasoline distribution in this huge urban center encompasses several operations: (1) storage in bulk and distribution plants, (2) transportation to gasoline service stations, (3) unloading at service stations' underground tanks, and (4) gasoline dispensing. In this study, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions resulting from breathing losses in closed reservoirs, leakage, and spillage from the operations just listed were calculated using both field measurements and reported emission factors. The results show that the contribution of volatile HC emissions due to storage, distribution, and sales of gasoline is 6651 t/year, approximately 13 times higher than previously reported values. Tank truck transportation results in 53.9% of the gasoline emissions, and 31.5% of emissions are generated when loading the tank trucks. The high concentration of emissions in the gasoline transportation and loading operations by tank trucks has been ascribed to (1) highly frequent trips from distribution plant to gasoline stations, and vice versa, to cope with excessive gasoline sales per gasoline station; (2) low leakproofness of tank trucks; and (3) poor training of employees. In addition, the contribution to HC evaporative and exhaust emissions from the vehicles of the MAMC was also evaluated.

  13. Heavy metals in brick kiln located area using atomic absorption spectrophotometer: a case study from the city of Peshawar, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, M; Khan, Murad Ali; Jan, F Akbar; Ahmad, I

    2010-07-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the burning issues of the world. In developed countries, there are lot of awareness about the environment and the impact of various industries on their life and surroundings. A little has been done in this direction in developing countries. In Pakistan, a big problem is the rapid conglomeration of the brick kilns in the outskirts of nearly all the urban centers to cope with the rapid construction work in big cities. A huge amount of low-grade coal or rubber tires is used as fuel in a very non-scientific manner. The purpose of the present study was to look into the impact of the brick kilns on the different aspects of environmental pollution caused by these kilns. Concentration of metals Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, and Mn were measured on 36 soil samples collected from the area and the same number of plant samples in order to establish the distribution of heavy metals in the area and to determine the effect of this distribution on the surrounding atmosphere and the possible effects on human life.

  14. Public policy performance for social development: solar energy approach to assess technological outcome in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Aquino, Angel Raúl; Matsumoto-Kuwabara, Y; Kleiche-Dray, M

    2017-01-11

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the most populated urban area in the country. In 2010, MCMA required 14.8% of total energy domestic demand, but greenhouse gas emissions accounted for 7.7% of domestic emissions. Mexico has massive renewable energy potential that could be harnessed through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The problem to explore is the relationship between local and federal public strategies in MCMA and their stance on energy transition concern, social empowerment, new technology appropriation, and the will to boost social development and urban sustainability. A public policy typology was conducted through instruments of State intervention approach, based on political agenda articulation and environmental local interactions. Social equality is encouraged by means of forthright funding and in-kind support and energy policies focus on non-renewable energy subsidies and electric transmission infrastructure investment. There is a lack of vision for using PV technology as a guiding axis for marginalized population development. It is essential to promote economic and political rearrangement in order to level and structure environmental governance. It is essential to understand people's representation about their own needs along with renewable energy.

  15. Evaluation of groundwater pollution potential of sewage-irrigated vegetable growing areas of the eastern fringe of Calcutta city.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A; Gupta, S K

    2000-01-01

    In recent years recycling in agriculture is a common method of disposal or utilisation of waste. However, recycling of wastes may cause contamination of groundwater by toxic elements like heavy metals, cationic and anionic contaminants and pathogens. Groundwater of shallow and deep tubewells was collected during 1991 to 1997 from raw sewage effluent irrigated garbage farming areas on the eastern fringe of Calcutta city. In general raw sewage effluents, sludges and sewage-irrigated soils contain very high amounts of cations, anions, organics and heavy metals. It is found that most of the groundwater contained undesirable pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, phenolic compounds, iron and manganese and the observed values or concentrations were much above the maximum desirable limits specified by World Health Organisation (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) for use as drinking water. Groundwater of that area may be used for irrigation. Dispersion by leaching of the metals, cationic and anionic contaminants from irrigated soil and from settled bottom sludge in unlined sewage channels are the principal causes of groundwater contamination. Some management plans have been suggested to control further deterioration of groundwater quality.

  16. [Health status and causes of mortality in feral cats in a delimited area of the inner city of Berlin].

    PubMed

    Kalz, B; Scheibe, K M; Wegner, I; Priemer, J

    2000-01-01

    Results of the veterinary examination of feral cats living in a delimited area of Berlin city are presented. Between 1996 and 1999 thirty nine cats were investigated, among them eleven individuals twice. All animals were positive for one or several pathologies, but only seven cats were in bad condition. Most common were periodontal and gingival diseases, followed by conjunctivitis. Five cats were positive for FIV, seven for FeLV, one tomcat for both. Twenty six cats vanished during the study period of 42 months, only one third of cats survived and remained in the study area throughout. Four cats were given to pet lovers, nine cats disappeared without trace, seven animals died in traffic accidents and six cats died of illnesses. Cats less than three years of age vanished more often than expected from their representation in the population. Dirty or large feeding places for cats constitute a source of infections. Feeding sites should be accessible to only few individuals and left-overs that may attract stray cats, rats or birds should not remain at feeding places.

  17. Identification of the prediction model for dengue incidence in Can Tho city, a Mekong Delta area in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung; Huang, Cunrui; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Wang, Xiaoming; Nguyen, Minh; Nguyen, Nga Huy; Manh, Cuong Do

    2015-01-01

    The Mekong Delta is highly vulnerable to climate change and a dengue endemic area in Vietnam. This study aims to examine the association between climate factors and dengue incidence and to identify the best climate prediction model for dengue incidence in Can Tho city, the Mekong Delta area in Vietnam. We used three different regression models comprising: standard multiple regression model (SMR), seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model (SARIMA), and Poisson distributed lag model (PDLM) to examine the association between climate factors and dengue incidence over the period 2003-2010. We validated the models by forecasting dengue cases for the period of January-December, 2011 using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Receiver operating characteristics curves were used to analyze the sensitivity of the forecast of a dengue outbreak. The results indicate that temperature and relative humidity are significantly associated with changes in dengue incidence consistently across the model methods used, but not cumulative rainfall. The Poisson distributed lag model (PDLM) performs the best prediction of dengue incidence for a 6, 9, and 12-month period and diagnosis of an outbreak however the SARIMA model performs a better prediction of dengue incidence for a 3-month period. The simple or standard multiple regression performed highly imprecise prediction of dengue incidence. We recommend a follow-up study to validate the model on a larger scale in the Mekong Delta region and to analyze the possibility of incorporating a climate-based dengue early warning method into the national dengue surveillance system.

  18. A new methodology for surcharge risk management in urban areas (case study: Gonbad-e-Kavus city).

    PubMed

    Hooshyaripor, Farhad; Yazdi, Jafar

    2017-02-01

    This research presents a simulation-optimization model for urban flood mitigation integrating Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) with Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) hydraulic model under a curve number-based hydrologic model of low impact development technologies in Gonbad-e-Kavus, a small city in the north of Iran. In the developed model, the best performance of the system relies on the optimal layout and capacity of retention ponds over the study area in order to reduce surcharge from the manholes underlying a set of storm event loads, while the available investment plays a restricting role. Thus, there is a multi-objective optimization problem with two conflicting objectives solved successfully by NSGA-II to find a set of optimal solutions known as the Pareto front. In order to analyze the results, a new factor, investment priority index (IPI), is defined which shows the risk of surcharging over the network and priority of the mitigation actions. The IPI is calculated using the probability of pond selection for candidate locations and average depth of the ponds in all Pareto front solutions. The IPI can help the decision makers to arrange a long-term progressive plan with the priority of high-risk areas when an optimal solution has been selected.

  19. Fluoride enrichment in groundwater of semi-arid urban area: Khan Younis City, southern Gaza Strip (Palestine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Jabal, Mohamed Shaban; Abustan, Ismail; Rozaimy, Mohd Remy; Al-Najar, Hussam

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine fluoride enhancement in the groundwater of semi-arid urban area of Khan Younis City, southern Gaza Strip. Physicochemical data for a total of 200 groundwater samples were analyzed. The fluoride concentrations were varied from 0.3 to 6.45 mg/L with average value of 2.87 mg/L. Correlations between fluorides with other measured ions were relatively observed, negative correlation with calcium and the positive correlation with pH, bicarbonate and sodium increase the dissolution/solubility of fluoride bearing minerals, leading to fluoride leaching into the groundwater. Fluoride enrichment in the groundwater of the area is due to water hydrochemistry, mineral-water interaction (mainly calcite and fluorite), fluorite resulted from fluorapatite dissolution. The saturation indexes evaluation indicated that 42% of the samples are over saturated with respect to calcite and 35.5% under saturated with respect to fluorite, while 40.5% approached equilibrium with respect to both calcite and fluorite. At fluoride concentrations of less than 2.2 mg/L fluorite saturation indexes show under-saturation condition for fluorite and at higher fluoride concentrations show near saturation condition.

  20. Need 3 Quick Credits to Play Ball? Call Western Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Western Oklahoma State College's name comes up whenever athletes get themselves in a jam: They've failed a class. They've dropped another. Maybe they're just short on credits. But they still want to play. Western Oklahoma gives them a chance, offering three credits in two weeks--and for less than $400. Almost as appealing: The community college…

  1. Literacy and Education among Adult Indians in Oklahoma. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Paul R.; And Others

    The U.S. Office of Education funded the Adult Indian Education Project (AIEP) for 15 months to identify literacy levels and educational needs of adult American Indians in Oklahoma. Using Native American field interviewers, the AIEP surveyed a 1.8% random sample of adults from 19 tribal groups representing 70% of the Indian population of Oklahoma.…

  2. Oklahoma's Indian People: Images of Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Anita, Ed.

    Designed to be combined with the social studies curriculum, this guide promotes awareness of American Indian contributions to Oklahoma's development and cultural heritage. Lessons help students in grades 6 through 9 strengthen powers of critical thinking, practice writing skills, and develop creative expression, while learning about Oklahoma's 34…

  3. The Oklahoma PN/ADN Articulation Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    In response to a critical nursing shortage in the state of Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Practical Nursing (PN)/Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Articulation Project Coordinating Committee was formed in spring 1990 to develop a proposal for program articulation. A curriculum matrix was designed and adopted for use by five regional subcommittees which…

  4. Certification Standards Adopted by the Oklahoma State Board of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This document presents the standards adopted by the Oklahoma State Board of Education for qualification and certification of persons for instructional, supervisory, and administrative positions and services in Oklahoma public schools. Included are rules and regulations governing the issuance and revocation of certificates for county…

  5. Sugarcane aphid in Oklahoma: Responding to a new pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane aphid (SCA) was first found in Oklahoma in 2013, and quickly became a major threat to grain sorghum production. Scientists at Oklahoma State University and the USDA's Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Lab in Stillwater, working with cooperators in other sorghum producing st...

  6. IMPLICATIONS OF NEW ARSENIC STANDARDS ON OKLAHOMA WATER RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The new national standard for arsenic in drinking water supplies, slated to take effect in 2006, is having an unexpected impact on a number of Oklahoma communities. Currently, several municipalities in north central Oklahoma are in compliance with existing arsenic standards (50 ...

  7. Parasitism of aphids in canola fields in central Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter canola, Brassica napus L., production in Oklahoma has increased from essentially 0 ha in 2001 to 40,500 ha in 2011, and acreage is expected to continue to increase. Three aphid species typically infest canola fields in central Oklahoma, the turnip aphid Lypaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), the cab...

  8. Needs Assessment for Oklahoma Academic Librarians: Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R.

    The Oklahoma Chapter of the Association of College and Research Libraries (OK-ACRL) and the Oklahoma Library Association, College and University Division (OLA-CUD) co-sponsored a survey of professional academic librarians to obtain institutional and background data on their characteristics, their preferences for academic professional association…

  9. Chemical characteristics of organic aerosols in Algiers city area: influence of a fat manufacture plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Meklati, Brahim Youcef; Cecinato, Angelo

    Total concentrations and homologue distributions of organic fraction constituents have been determined in particulate matter emitted from different units of a fat manufacturer (i.e. oils refining and conditioning plants, and production and conditioning units of a soap industry) located in Algiers area, as well as in atmospheric aerosols. In particular n-alkanes, n-alkanoic and n-alkenoic acids, n-alkan-2-ones and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated. Organic aerosol contents varied broadly among the plant units, depending upon nature of the manufactured products. The percent composition of all classes of compounds investigated in ambient atmosphere was similar to those observed indoor at industrial plant units. Organic acids, n-alkanoic as well as n-alkenoic, appeared by far the most abundant organic constituents of aerosols, both indoor and outdoor, ranging from 7.7 to 19.8 and from 12.7 to 17.1 μg m -3, respectively. The huge occurrence of acids and n-alkanes in ambient aerosols was consistent with their high levels present in oil and fat materials. Among minor components of aerosols, n-alkan-2-ones and PAH, seemed to be related to thermally induced ageing and direct combustion of raw organic material used for oil and soap production.

  10. Oklahoma Aerospace Intellectual Capital/Educational Recommendations: An Inquiry of Oklahoma Aerospace Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Erin M.

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this qualitative study was to conduct detailed personal interviews with aerospace industry executives/managers from both the private and military sectors from across Oklahoma to determine their perceptions of intellectual capital needs of the industry. Interviews with industry executives regarding…

  11. Goals for Oklahoma Higher Education. Self-Study of Higher Education in Oklahoma; Report 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffelt, John J.; And Others

    This report contains the findings, conclusions and recommendations that emerged from a study of "Functions and Goals of Oklahoma Higher Education." Many individuals and groups were involved in the process which culminated in this report, including a 600-member citizens' group, a special 140-member citizens' advisory committee, several…

  12. PHYSICAL FACILITIES FOR HIGHER EDUCATION IN OKLAHOMA. SELF-STUDY OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OKLAHOMA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COFFELT, JOHN J.; WALKER, CHARLES R.

    THE REPORT IS A SELF-STUDY OF THE PHYSICAL FACILITIES OF 21 INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OKLAHOMA. IT INVOLVED THE STUDY OF SUCH TOPICS AS--(1) THE INVENTORY AND EVALUATION OF EXISTING LAND AND BUILDINGS ACCORDING TO CURRENT AND REPLACEMENT VALUE, AGE, QUALITY AND FUTURE USE, (2) THE INVENTORY OF ASSIGNABLE SPACE BY SQUARE FOOTAGE,…

  13. DISABILITIES IN OKLAHOMA--ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS, REPORT OF THE OKLAHOMA SURVEY OF DISABILITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOHLEBER, MICHAEL E.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO PROVIDE REASONABLY ACCURATE ESTIMATES OF THE NUMBER AND TYPES OF DISABLED PERSONS AND THEIR NEEDS AS A BASIS FOR BOTH PRESENT AND FUTURE PLANNING. PERSONAL INTERVIEWS WERE CONDUCTED WITH ADULT RESPONDENTS IN 3,000 HOUSEHOLDS IN OKLAHOMA, A RANDOM SAMPLE STATIFIED ON THE RURAL-URBAN DIMENSION. DATA FROM 2,058…

  14. 75 FR 68398 - Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Texas, Oklahoma...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Railroad, LLC, Mississippi & Skuna Valley Railroad, LLC, Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC, and Texas, Oklahoma... No. FD 35431, Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Weyerhaeuser NR Company, Weyerhaeuser Woods Railroad Operating Division. The parties intend to consummate the...

  15. Assessing cardiovascular risk in regional areas: the Healthy Hearts – Beyond City Limits program

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more prevalent in regional and remote Australia compared to metropolitan areas. The aim of Healthy Hearts was to determine age and sex specific CVD risk factor levels and the potential value of national risk clinics. Methods Healthy Hearts was an observational research study conducted in four purposefully selected higher risk communities in regional Victoria, Australia. The main outcome measures were the proportion of participants with CVD risk factors with group comparisons to determine the adjusted likelihood of elevated risk factor levels. Trained personnel used a standardized protocol over four weeks per community to measure CVD risk factor levels, estimate absolute CVD risk and provide feedback and advice. Results A total of 2125 self-selected participants were assessed (mean age 58 ± 15 years, 57% women). Overall, CVD risk factors were highly prevalent. More men than women had ≥ 2 modifiable CVD risk factors (76% vs. 68%, p < .001), pre-existing CVD (20 vs. 15%, p < .01) and a major ECG abnormality requiring follow-up (15% vs. 7%, p < .001) . Less men reported depressive symptoms compared to women (28% vs. 22%, p < .01). A higher proportion of women were obese (adjusted OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.63), and physically inactive (adjusted OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.63). Conclusions High CVD risk factor levels were confirmed for regional Victoria. Close engagement with individuals and communities provides scope for the application of regional risk management clinics to reduce the burden of CVD risk in regional Australia. PMID:22943553

  16. Construction-employment opportunities of four oil-replacing space-heating alternatives for core areas of thirteen major northeastern and midwestern cities

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.; Wernette, D.R.

    1980-07-01

    Construction employment opportunities are compared for four oil-replacing technologies providing equivalent space-heating services to the core areas of 13 major northeastern and midwestern cities. The four technologies are: cogeneration district heating, coal gasification, coal liquefaction and electrification (coal-fired power plant). It is observed that the district-heating option places a higher percentage of its capital stock within the center city. It also requires lower occupational skills for its construction than the other three alternatives. In view of the lower average educational level of minorities and their concentration in urban areas, substantially more minority employment should occur if district heating is implemented. This alternative also will provide employment opportunities for unemployed nonminority construction laborers and contribute indirectly to the improvement of inner-city neighborhoods where many unemployed construction laborers live.

  17. Post-Subduction Pleistocene Volcanism in Tahoe City Area, Northern Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortemeier, W. T.; Farmer, G.; Schweickert, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    source rocks may be part of the Mesozoic Sierra Nevada lithosphere. Migration of Basin and Range extension into the Tahoe area within the last 3 Ma, possibly combined with removal of deep Sierran lithosphere ("delamination"), may have triggered lithospheric thinning and melting within the deep lithosphere.

  18. Petroleum production and exploration in Ouachita region of Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Suneson, N.H.; Campbell, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    Petroleum production in the Ouachita region of southeastern Oklahoma occurs in three geographic areas parallel to regional structure. The frontal gas, central oil, and central gas belts are distinguished by differences in structural setting, reservoir strata, and types of hydrocarbons. In the frontal belt, nearly 1 trillion ft/sup 3/ of dry gas has been produced from thrusted and subthrust Morrowan and Atokan sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Over 8000 bbl of oil have been produced in the central oil belt, southeast of the Ti Valley fault. Structures consist of imbricate thrusts and isoclinal to overturned folds. The fields are typically small, associated with asphaltite or tar sands, and produce from Carboniferous sandstone reservoirs. Farther southeast, small fields within the central gas belt have produced minor gas from Ordovician, Devonian, and Mississippian reservoirs. Six Ordovician through Mississippian Ouachita-facies shales are potential petroleum source rocks and occur in the middle to lower part of the oil window. However, Devonian and Mississippian strata are composed primarily of terrestrial organic matter and are probably gas prone. Oil in Carboniferous reservoirs probably migrated upward stratigraphically from older sources. Recent exploration has focused on extending production from Pennsylvanian reservoirs in the frontal gas belt. However, a significant Arbuckle discovery (ARCO 2 Yourman) and a Broken Bow uplift test (Sohio 1-22 Weyerhauser) in 1987 indicate that Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle Group carbonates may be prospective beneath all of the Oklahoma Ouachitas. Near-future rank-wildcat exploration will probably focus on subthrust, structurally and stratigraphically favorable Arbuckle plays.

  19. Monitoring eastern Oklahoma lake water quality using Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Clay

    The monitoring of public waters for recreational, industrial, agricultural, and drinking purposes is a difficult task assigned to many state water agencies. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) is only physically monitoring a quarter of the lakes it is charged with monitoring in any given year. The minimal sample scheme adopted by the OWRB is utilized to determine long-term trends and basic impairment but is insufficient to monitor the water quality shifts that occur following influx from rains or to detect algal blooms, which may be highly localized and temporally brief. Recent work in remote sensing calibrates reflectance coefficients between extant water quality data and Landsat imagery reflectance to estimate water quality parameters on a regional basis. Remotely-sensed water quality monitoring benefits include reduced cost, more frequent sampling, inclusion of all lakes visible each satellite pass, and better spatial resolution results. The study area for this research is the Ozark foothills region in eastern Oklahoma including the many lakes impacted by phosphorus flowing in from the Arkansas border region. The result of this research was a moderate r2 regression value for turbidity during winter (0.52) and summer (0.65), which indicates that there is a seasonal bias to turbidity estimation using this methodology and the potential to further develop an estimation equation for this water quality parameter. Refinements that improve this methodology could provide state-wide estimations of turbidity allowing more frequent observation of water quality and allow better response times by the OWRB to developing water impairments.

  20. 40 CFR 272.1851 - Oklahoma State-administered program: Final authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Oklahoma Statutes (O.S.), Sections 1230.1 et seq. (ii) Oklahoma Open Meetings Act, as amended through 2007...) Oklahoma Open Records Act, as amended through 2007, 51 Oklahoma Statutes (O.S.), Sections 24A.1 et seq. (v... FR 28556 5/26/98 Methods Innovation: SW-846 70 FR 3453870 FR 44150 6/14/058/1/05 (5) Memorandum...