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Sample records for oklahoma ground water

  1. Ground water in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  2. Ground water investigations in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Leon V.

    1955-01-01

    Prior to 1937, ground-water work in Oklahoma consisted of broad scale early-day reconnaissance and a few brief investigations of local areas. The reconnaissance is distinguished by C. N. Gould's "Geology and Water Resources of Oklahoma" (Water-Supply Paper 148, 1905), which covers about half of the present State of Oklahoma. Among the shorter reports are two by Schwennesen for areas near Enid and Oklahoma City, one by Renick for Enid, and one by Thompson on irrigation possibilities near Gage. These reports are now inadequate by modern standards. Cooperative ground-water work in Oklahoma by the United States Geological Survey began in 1937, with the Oklahoma Geological Survey as cooperating agency. With the passage of the new ground-water law by the State Legislature in 1949, the need for more information on available ground waters and the safe yield of the various aquifers became very pressing. Accordingly, the Division of Water Resources of the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board, to which was delegated the responsibility of administering the Ground-Water Law, entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey, providing for an expansion of ground-water investigations. Both cooperators have consistently given full and enthusiastic cooperation, often beyond the requirements of the cooperative program. The first cooperative investigation was an evaluation of ground-water supplies available for irrigation in the Panhandle. In 1937 the Panhandle was still very much in the dust bowl, and it was hoped that irrigation would alleviate the drought. A bulletin on Texas County was published in 1939, and one on Cimarron County in 1943. Ground-water investigations during the World War II were restricted to the demands of Army and Navy installations, and to defense industries. Ground-water investigations since 1945 have included both country-wide and aquifer-type investigations. In Oklahoma it has been the policy for the State cooperator to publish the

  3. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

    1991-03-30

    Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

  4. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. The program, known as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, is designed to acquire and interpret information about a variety of water-quality issues. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project is one of three ground-water pilot projects that have been started. The NAWQA program also incudes four surface-water pilot projects. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project, as part of the pilot NAWQA program, will develop and test methods for performing assessments of ground-water quality. The objectives of the Central Oklahoma aquifer assessment are: (1) To investigate regional ground-water quality throughout the aquifer in the manner consistent with the other pilot ground-water projects, emphasizing the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic substances in ground water, including trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive constituents; (2) to describe relations between ground-water quality, land use, hydrogeology, and other pertinent factors; and (3) to provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected prevalent water-quality problems within the study unit; and (4) to describe the potential for water-quality degradation of ground-water zones within the study unit. The Central Oklahoma aquifer, which includes in descending order the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, the Chase Group, the Council Grove Group, the Admire Group, and overlying alluvium and terrace deposits, underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma and is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. The aquifer was selected for study by the NAWQA program because it is a major source for water supplies in central Oklahoma and because it has several known or suspected water-quality problems. Known problems include concentrations of arsenic, chromium

  5. Ground water in Creek County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cady, Richard Carlysle

    1937-01-01

    Creek County has been designated as a problem area by the Land Use Planning Section of the Resettlement Administration. Some of the earliest oil fields to brought into production were situated in and near this county, and new fields have been opened from time to time during the ensuing years. The production of the newer fields, however, has not kept pace with the exhaustion of the older fields, and the county now presents an excellent picture of the problems involved in adjusting a population to lands that are nearly depleted of their mineral wealth. Values of land have been greatly depressed; tax collection is far in arrears; tenancy is widespread; and in addition more people will apparently be forced to depend on the income from agriculture than the land seems capable of supporting. The county as a whole is at best indifferently suitable for general farming. The Land Use planning Section proposes to study the present and seemingly immanent maladjustments of population to the resources of the land, and make recommendations for their correction. The writer was detailed to the Land Use Planning Section of Region VIII for the purposes of making studies of ground water problems in the region. In Creek County two investigations were made. In September, 1936, the writer spent about ten days investigating the availability of ground water for the irrigation of garden crops during drouths. If it proved feasible to do this generally throughout the county, the Land Use Planning Section might be able to encourage this practice. The second investigation made by the writer was in regard to the extent to which ground water supplies have been damaged by oil well brines. He was in county for four days late in January 1937, and again in March, 1937. During part of the second field trip he was accompanied by R.M. Dixon, sanitary engineer of the Water Utilization Unit of the Resettlement Administration. (available as photostat copy only)

  6. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; geochemical and geohydrologic investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, D.L.; Christenson, S.C.; Breit, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment pilot project for the Central Oklahoma aquifer examined the chemical and isotopic composition of ground water, the abundances and textures of minerals in core samples, and water levels and hydraulic properties in the flow system to identify geochemical reactions occurring in the aquifer and rates and directions of ground-water flow. The aquifer underlies 3,000\\x11square miles of central Oklahoma and consists of Permian red beds, including parts of the Permian Garber Sandstone, Wellington Formation, and Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, and Quaternary alluvium and terrace deposits. In the part of the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation that is not confined by the Permian Hennessey Group, calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are the dominant ions in ground water; in the confined part of the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation and in the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, sodium and bicarbonate are the dominant ions in ground water. Nearly all of the Central Oklahoma aquifer has an oxic or post-oxic environment as indicated by the large dissolved concentrations of oxygen, nitrate, arsenic (V), chromium (VI), selenium (VI), vanadium, and uranium. Sulfidic and methanic environments are virtually absent. Petrographic textures indicate dolomite, calcite, sodic plagioclase, potassium feldspars, chlorite, rock fragments, and micas are dissolving, and iron oxides, manganese oxides, kaolinite, and quartz are precipitating. Variations in the quantity of exchangeable sodium in clays indicate that cation exchange is occurring within the aquifer. Gypsum may dissolve locally within the aquifer, as indicated by ground water with large concentrations of sulfate, but gypsum was not observed in core samples. Rainwater is not a major source for most elements in ground water, but evapotranspiration could cause rainwater to be a significant source of potassium, sulfate, phosphate and nitrogen species. Brines derived from

  7. Ground-water levels in observation wells in Oklahoma, 1982-83 climatic years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goemaat, R.L.; Mize, L.D.; Spiser, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    In the 1982-83 climatic years, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources, collected ground-water level data in Oklahoma from 1,087 sites in 77 counties. This report presents those data points.

  8. Ground-water levels in observation wells in Oklahoma, 1983-84 climatic year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goemaat, R.L.; Mize, L.D.; Spiser, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    During the 1983-84 climatic years, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, collected ground-water level data in Oklahoma from 1,083 sites in 77 counties. This report presents those data points.

  9. Ground water in the alluvium of Beaver Creek basin, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, D.L.

    1961-01-01

    Beaver Creek is an 857 square-mile area in south-central Oklahoma. The tributaries head at an altitude as high as 1,400 feet and the mouth of Beaver Creek is at an altitude of 804 feet. Alluvial material has been deposited along all the major streams in the basin. The alluvium contains a high percentage of clay and fine sand and ranges in thickness from a few inches to 50 feet. Replenishment of water in the alluvium is from precipitation, lateral seepage and runoff from adjoining areas, and infiltration from the streams during high flows. The town of Ryan and Waurika have constructed municipal water-supply wells topping the alluvium and residents of the town of Sugden have private wells topping the alluvium. The other major use of ground water is transpiration by trees, which are very dense where the alluvial plain is wide. In the northern part of the basin the alluvium is thin and only domestic water supplies are available. (available as photostat copy only)

  10. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil. Quarterly report No. 6

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

    1991-03-30

    Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

  11. Reconnaissance of ground water in vicinity of Wichita Mountains southwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1983-01-01

    Urbanization and industrial growth have increased demands on water supplies in the vicinity of the Wichita Mountains in southwestern Oklahoma. The principal city, Lawton, uses surface water, supplemented by small quantities of ground water from the Arbuckle Group (Cambrian-Ordovician), for industrial and recreational use. During periods of drought, surface-water supplies in the Wichita Mountains area are not adequate to meet fully the increased water demands. An alternative source of water may be ground water from the Arbuckle Group. Other urban and rural consumers use ground water from Quaternary alluvium, the Rush Springs Formation (Permian), or the Arbuckle Group.

  12. Ground water in the Verdigris River basin, Kansas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fader, Stuart Wesley; Morton, Robert B.

    1975-01-01

    Ground water in the Verdigris River basin occurs in consolidated rocks and unconsolidated deposits ranging in age from Mississippian to Quaternary. Water for municipal, industrial, and irrigation supplies generally can be obtained in limited quantities from the alluvial deposits in the stream valleys. Except for water in the alluvial deposits in the stream valleys and in the outcrop areas of the bedrock aquifers, the groundwater is generally of poor chemical quality. Owing to the generally poor chemical quality of water and low yields to wells, an increase in the use of ground water from the consolidated rocks is improbable. The unconsolidated rocks in the Verdigris River basin receive about 166,000 acre-feet of recharge annually, and about 1 million acre-fee of water is in temporary storage in the deposits. In 1968 about 4,200 acre-feet of ground was withdrawn for all uses. About 800 acre-feet of ground and 5,000 acre-feet of surface water were pumped for irrigation of 5,300 acres of cropland. The total annual withdrawal of ground water for irrigation may be 2,000 acre-feet by the year 2000.

  13. Water resources data, Oklahoma, water year 2003; Volume 2. Red River basin and ground-water wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazs, R.L.; Walters, D.M.; Coffey, T.E.; Boyle, D.L.; Wellman, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Volumes 1 and 2 of the water resources data for the 2003 water year for Oklahoma consists of record of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes or reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains discharge records for 139 gaging stations; stage and contents for 17 lakes or reservoirs and 2 gage height stations; water quality for 46 gaging stations; 32 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations and 5 ground-water sites. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge and water-quality sites. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Oklahoma.

  14. Naturally Occurring Arsenic in Ground Water, Norman, Oklahoma, 2004, and Remediation Options for Produced Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Christenson, Scott

    2005-01-01

    can be used to bring some of Norman?s high-arsenic wells into compliance with the new arsenic standard, the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) initiated a three-year research project in 2003 with participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Oklahoma State University, and the City of Norman. The primary objectives of the project are to: (1) determine where naturally occurring arsenic is entering wells by collecting water samples at different depths, (2) investigate the utility of new methods for collecting water-quality data in a pumping well, (3) better understand the stratigraphy and composition of aquifer rocks, (4) assess 10 wells for the possibility of arsenic remediation by well modification, and (5) evaluate the effectiveness of well modification in bringing marginal wells into compliance with the new arsenic MCL. The purpose of this report is to describe the occurrence of arsenic in ground water near Norman, Oklahoma, and available options for reducing arsenic concentrations in produced ground water.

  15. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 4, Oklahoma, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Paul D.

    1996-01-01

    The two States, Oklahoma and Texas, that compose Segment 4 of this Atlas are located in the south-central part of the Nation. These States are drained by numerous rivers and streams, the largest being the Arkansas, the Canadian, the Red, the Sabine, the Trinity, the Brazos, the Colorado, and the Pecos Rivers and the Rio Grande. Many of these rivers and their tributaries supply large amounts of water for human use, mostly in the eastern parts of the two States. The large perennial streams in the east with their many associated impoundments coincide with areas that have dense populations. Large metropolitan areas such as Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Okla., and Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, and Austin, Tex., are supplied largely or entirely by surface water. However, in 1985 more than 7.5 million people, or about 42 percent of the population of the two States, depended on ground water as a source of water supply. The metropolitan areas of San Antonio and El Paso, Tex., and numerous smaller communities depend largely or entirely on ground water for their source of supply. The ground water is contained in aquifers that consist of unconsolidated deposits and consolidated sedimentary rocks. This chapter describes the geology and hydrology of each of the principal aquifers throughout the two-State area. Precipitation is the source of all the water in Oklahoma and Texas. Average annual precipitation ranges from about 8 inches per year in southwestern Texas to about 56 inches per year in southeastern Texas (fig. 1). In general, precipitation increases rather uniformly from west to east in the two States. Much of the precipitation either flows directly into rivers and streams as overland runoff or indirectly as base flow that discharges from aquifers where the water has been stored for some time. Accordingly, the areal distribution of average annual runoff from 1951 to 1980 (fig. 2) reflects that of average annual precipitation. Average annual runoff in the two-State area ranges

  16. Ground water in the alluvial deposits of the Canadian River valley near Norman, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacy, Bill L.

    1961-01-01

    Unconsolidated water-bearing alluvial deposits border the Canadian River in the vicinity of Norman, Oklahoma. These Quaternary materials are divided on the basis of topgraphic position into 'high terrace deposits' and 'alluvium.' The high terrace lies at an elevation of 50 to 60 feet above the alluvium, which in turn lies 7 to 15 feet above the channel of the Canadian River. Southwest of Norman a relatively thick section of these deposits occur as a hydrologic unit and overlie impermeable Permian shale. The high terrace deposits contain thick beds of clay, silt, and fine sand, whereas the alluvium contains a higher percentage of coarse sand and gravel. Ground-water recharge is estimated to be 23 percent of the normal annual precipitation of 33.22 inches; the specific yield is about 15 percent, and the coefficient of permeability is about 1,000 gpd/ft2. Using these figures 17,000 acre-feet of water is computed to be in storage within the area acting as a hydrologic unit. About 3.6 million gallons of water is discharged daily from the high terrace deposits through a 16,000-foot section of alluvium having a saturated thickness of 40 feet along the river. The quality of water in the high terrace deposits meets the standards of the U.S. Public Health Service for domestic water used by Interstate carriers but nitrate content of one well is higher than recommended by the Oklahoma Department of Public Health. Water in the alluvium is of poorer quality because the water is concentrated by evapotranspiration. (available as photostat copy only)

  17. Land-use and ground-water data, Cheyenne-Arapaho Tribes, Concho Reserve, Canadian County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergman, DeRoy L.; Savoca, Mark E.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes, conducted the present study to determine the vulnerability to contamination of ground water beneath tribal lands within the 3,991-acre Concho Reserve in Canadian County, Oklahoma (map A).

  18. Effects of municipal ground-water withdrawals on the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, Pontotoc County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoca, M.E.; Bergman, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma consists of a thick sequence of folded and faulted carbonate and clastic rocks of Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age. Fractures and karst features locally increase the aquifer's capacity to transmit and store ground water. The aquifer is a principal source of water for municipal and rural users. A hydrologic study was conducted to evaluate the effects of municipal ground-water withdrawal from the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer on local ground-water levels and discharge from nearby springs and streams in south-central Pontotoc County. A municipal well was pumped for 63 hours at an average rate of 1,170 gallons per minute. A maximum observed drawdown of 0.3 feet was recorded half a mile from the pumping well. Drawdown was observed as far as 1.2 miles from the pumping well. No measurable response was observed at any of the surface-water-discharge measurement sites; however, recharge from precipitation may have masked any decreases in discharge caused by the pumping. Simultaneous pumping of two municipal wells for 241 hours at average rates of 1,170 and 2,730 gallons per minute resulted in a maximum observed drawdown of 1.3 feet recorded at an average distance of 0.80 miles from the pumping wells. The most distant drawdown observed was at an average distance 1.1 miles from the pumped wells. Less that 2 days after pumping stopped, increases in springflow were recorded at two springs; it is unknown whether these discharge responses reflect the effects of recharge from precipitation, or the combined effects of precipitation and the cessation of ground-water withdrawal. The effects of the stress tests on the hydrologic system were offset by recharge from concurrent precipitation. The maximum observed drawdown represents about 6 percent of the median natural water-level fluctuation during the study period. The effect of drawdown could become critical during extended periods of low precipitation, if water levels are

  19. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma and northeastern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Antlers Sandstone of Early Cretaceous age occurs in all or parts of Atoka, Bryan, Carter, Choctaw, Johnston, Love, Marshall, McCurtain, and Pushmataha Counties, a 4,400-square-mile area in southeastern Oklahoma parallel to the Red River. The sandstone comprising the Antlers aquifer is exposed in the northern one-third of the area, and ground water in the outcrop area is unconfined. Younger Cretaceous rocks overlie the Antlers in the southern two thirds of the study area where the aquifer is confined. The Antlers extends in the subsurface south into Texas where it underlies all or parts of Bowie, Cooke, Fannin, Grayson, Lamar, and Red River Counties. An area of approximately 5,400 square miles in Texas is included in the study. The Antlers Sandstone consists of sand, clay, conglomerate, and limestone deposited on an erosional surface of Paleozoic rocks. Saturated thickness in the Antlers ranges from 0 feet at the updip limit to probably more than 2,000 feet, 25 to 30 miles south of the Red River. Simulated recharge to the Antlers based on model calibration ranges from 0.32 to about 0.96 inch per year. Base flow increases where streams cross the Antlers outcrop, indicating that the aquifer supplies much of the base flow. Pumpage rates for 1980 in excess of 35 million gallons per year per grid cell for public supply, irrigation, and industrial uses total 872 million gallons in the Oklahoma part of the Antlers and 5,228 million gallons in the Texas part of the Antlers. Ground-water flow in the Antlers aquifer was simulated using one active layer in a three-dimensional finite-difference mathematical model. Simulated aquifer hydraulic conductivity values range from 0.87 to 3.75 feet per day. A vertical hydraulic conductivity of 1.5x10-4 foot per day was specified for the younger confining unit at the start of the simulation. An average storage coefficient of 0.0005 was specified for the confined part of the aquifer; a specific yield of 0.17 was specified for the

  20. Ground water in the alluvial deposits of Cottonwood Creek Basin, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacy, B.L.

    1960-01-01

    Cottonwood Creek basin is a 377 square mile area in central Oklahoma. The rim of the basin has altitudes as high as 1,300 feet, and the mouth is at an altitude of 910. Deposits of Quaternary age consist of alluvium along the stream courses and high terrace deposits along the southern rim of the basin. The alluvium contains a high percentage of clay and silt, ranges in thickness from a few inches to 40 feet, and underlies about 36 square miles of the basin. Sandstone, siltstone, and shale of Permian age, which form the bedrock, consist of the Garber sandstone along the eastern edge, the Hennessey shale through the central part, and Flowerpot shale along the western edge. Replenishment of water in the alluvium is from precipitation, lateral seepage and runoff from adjoining areas, and infiltration from the stream channels during high flows. The major use of ground water in the alluvium is transpiration by cottonwood and willow trees. Virtually no water is withdrawn from the alluvium by wells. (available as photostat copy only)

  1. Ground-water records for southeastern Oklahoma : Part 1, records of wells, test-holes, and springs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.; Bergman, DeRoy L.

    1976-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has collected data on Oklahoma's ground-water resources since 1934. Most of these data were collected as part of specific ground-water studies conducted in cooperation with various Federal, State, and local agencies. Although a large amount of ground-water data have been published, they are scattered through a variety of reports and are not readily available on a regional basis. Furthermore, a considerable amount of data have never been published and can be obtained only from the files of the Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to make available both published and unpublished records for approximately 1,780 wells, test-holes, and springs in 16 counties in northeastern Oklahoma. In addition, selected references to pertinent ground-water reports covering parts of the 16-county area are included for those requiring more specific information. The stratigraphic nomenclature and age determinations used in the report are those accepted by the Oklahoma Geological Survey and do not necessarily agree with those of the U.S. Geological Survey. Acknowledgment is extended to the many hundreds of individuals who have provided the data compiled in this report.

  2. Ground-water records for northeastern Oklahoma : Part 1, records of wells, test-holes, and springs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.; Bergman, DeRoy L.

    1976-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has collected data on Oklahoma's ground-water resources since 1934. Most of these data were collected as part of specific ground-water studies conducted in cooperation with various Federal, State, and local agencies. Although a large amount of ground-water data have been published, they are scattered through a variety of reports and are not readily available on a regional basis. Furthermore, a considerable amount of data have never been published and can be obtained only from the files of the Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to make available both published and unpublished records for approximately 3,360 wells, test-holes, and springs in 23 counties in northeastern Oklahoma. In addition, selected references to pertinent ground-water reports covering parts of the 23-county area are included for those requiring more specific information. The stratigraphic nomenclature and age determinations used in the report are those accepted by the Oklahoma Geological Survey and do not necessarily agree with those of the U.S. Geological Survey. Acknowledgment is extended to the many hundreds of individuals who have provided the data compiled in this report.

  3. Chloride in ground water and surface water in the vicinity of selected surface-water sampling sites of the beneficial use monitoring program of Oklahoma, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Sughru, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The Oklahoma Water Resources Board Beneficial Use Monitoring Program reported exceedances of beneficial-use standards for chloride at 11 surface-water sampling sites from January to October 2002. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, conducted a study to determine the chloride concentrations in ground water in the vicinity of Beneficial Use Monitoring Program surface-water sampling sites not meeting beneficial use standards for chloride and compare chloride concentrations in ground water and surface water. The chloride-impaired Beneficial Use Monitoring Program surface-water sampling sites are located in the western and southern regions of Oklahoma. The ground-water sampling sites were placed in proximity to the 11 surface-water sampling sites designated impaired by chloride by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Two surface-water sampling sites were located on the Beaver River (headwaters of the North Canadian River), three sites on the Cimarron River, one site on Sandy Creek, one site on North Fork Red River, and four sites on the Red River. Six ground-water samples were collected, when possible, from two test holes located upstream from each of the 11 Beneficial Use Monitoring Program surface-water sampling sites. One test hole was placed on the left bank and right bank, when possible, of each Beneficial Use Monitoring Program surfacewater sampling site. All test holes were located on alluvial deposits adjacent to the Beneficial Use Monitoring Program surface-water sampling sites within 0.5 mile of the stream. Top, middle, and bottom ground-water samples were collected from the alluvium at each test hole, when possible. Water properties of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen were recorded in the field before sampling for chloride. The ground-water median chloride concentrations at 8 of the 11 Beneficial Use Monitoring Program sites were less than the surface-water median

  4. Uranium content of ground and surface waters in western Kansas, eastern Colorado, and the Oklahoma Panhande

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landis, E.R.

    1956-01-01

    and in some parts of the report area, such as the Cimarron River area of westernmost Oklahoma and northeastern New Mexico, and the Rule Creek area in Bent and Las Animas Counties, Colo. , most, or all, of the water samples collected contain relatively large amounts of uranium. Further exploration to determine the source of the uranium in the water from these rock units and areas may be worthwhile.

  5. Ground-water quality, levels, and flow direction near Fort Cobb Reservoir, Caddo County, Oklahoma, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2001-01-01

    Fort Cobb Reservoir in northwest Caddo County Oklahoma is managed by the Bureau of Reclamation for water supply, recreation, flood control, and wildlife. Excessive amounts of nitrogen in the watershed have the potential to cause long-term eutrophication of the reservoir and increase already elevated concentrations of nitrogen in the Rush Springs aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation studied ground water in the area surrounding a swine feeding operation located less than 2 miles upgradient from Fort Cobb Reservoir in Caddo County, Oklahoma. Objectives of the study were to (1) determine if the operation was contributing nitrogen to the ground water and (2) measure changes in ground-water levels and determine the local ground-water flow direction in the area surrounding the swine feeding operation. Nitrate concentrations (28.1 and 31.5 milligrams per liter) were largest in two ground-water samples from a well upgradient of the wastewater lagoon. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 4.30 to 8.20 milligrams per liter in samples from downgradient wells. Traces of ammonia and nitrite were detected in a downgradient well, but not in upgradient wells. d15N values indicate atmospheric nitrogen, synthetic fertilizer, or plants were the predominate sources of nitrate in ground water from the downgradient wells. The d15N values in these samples are depleted in nitrogen-15, indicating that animal waste was not a significant contributor of nitrate. Manganese concentrations (1,150 and 965 micrograms per liter) in samples from a downgradient well were substantially larger than concentrations in samples from other wells, exceeding the secondary drinking-water standard of 50 micrograms per liter. Larger concentrations of bicarbonate, magnesium, fluoride, and iron and a higher pH were also measured in water from a downgradient well. Ground-water levels in an observation well were higher from April to mid-July and lower during the late summer

  6. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Central Oklahoma aquifer, Oklahoma; hydrologic, water-quality, and quality-assurance data 1987-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferree, D.M.; Christenson, S.C.; Rea, A.H.; Mesander, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents data collected from 202 wells between June 1987 and September 1990 as part of the Central Oklahoma aquifer pilot study of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The report describes the sampling networks, the sampling procedures, and the results of the ground-water quality and quality-assurance sample analyses. The data tables consist of information about the wells sampled and the results of the chemical analyses of ground water and quality-assurance sampling. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples in four sampling networks are presented: A geochemical network, a low-density survey bedrock network, a low-density survey alluvium and terrace deposits network, and a targeted urban network. The analyses generally included physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace substances, radionuclides, and organic constituents. The chemical analyses of the ground-water samples are presented in five tables: (1) Physical properties and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, and trace substances; (2) concentrations of radionuclides and radioactivities; (3) carbon isotope ratios and delta values (d-values) of selected isotopes; (4) concentrations of organic constituents; and (5) organic constituents not reported in ground-water samples. The quality of the ground water sampled varied substantially. The sum of constituents (dissolved solids) concentrations ranged from 71 to 5,610 milligrams per liter, with 38 percent of the wells sampled exceeding the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level of 500 milligrams per liter established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Values of pH ranged from 5.7 to 9.2 units with 20 percent of the wells outside the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level of 6.5 to 8.5 units. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations ranged from less than 0.1 to 85 milligrams per liter with 8 percent of the wells exceeding the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of trace substances were highly variable

  7. Listings of model values for the simulation of ground-water flow in the Cimarron River alluvium and terrace deposits from Freedom to Guthrie, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains MODFLOW input and output listings for the simulation of ground-water flow in alluvium and terrace deposits associated with the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie, Oklahoma. These values are to be used in conjuction with the report, 'Geohydrology of alluvium and terrace deposits of the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie, Oklahoma,' by G.P. Adams and D.L. Bergman, published as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigatons Report 95-4066. The simulation used a digital ground-water flow model and was evaluated by a management and statistical program.

  8. Hydrology and Ground-Water Quality in the Mine Workings within the Picher Mining District, Northeastern Oklahoma, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeHay, Kelli L.; Andrews, William J.; Sughru, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The Picher mining district of northeastern Ottawa County, Oklahoma, was a major site of mining for lead and zinc ores in the first half of the 20th century. The primary source of lead and zinc were sulfide minerals disseminated in the cherty limestones and dolomites of the Boone Formation of Mississippian age, which comprises the Boone aquifer. Ground water in the aquifer and seeping to surface water in the district has been contaminated by sulfate, iron, lead, zinc, and several other metals. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, investigated hydrology and ground-water quality in the mine workings in the mining district, as part of the process to aid water managers and planners in designing remediation measures that may restore the environmental quality of the district to pre-mining conditions. Most ground-water levels underlying the mining district had similar altitudes, indicating a large degree of hydraulic connection in the mine workings and overlying aquifer materials. Recharge-age dates derived from concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons and other dissolved gases indicated that water in the Boone aquifer may flow slowly from the northeast and southeast portions of the mining district. However, recharge-age dates may have been affected by the types of sites sampled, with more recent recharge-age dates being associated with mine-shafts, which are more prone to atmospheric interactions and surface runoff than the sampled airshafts. Water levels in streams upstream from the confluence of Tar and Lytle Creeks were several feet higher than those in adjacent portions of the Boone aquifer, perhaps due to low-permeability streambed sediments and indicating the streams may be losing water to the aquifer in this area. From just upstream to downstream from the confluence of Tar and Lytle Creeks, surface-water elevations in these streams were less than those in the surrounding Boone aquifer, indicating that

  9. A Compilation of Spatial Datasets and Surface-Water and Ground-Water Data from the U.S. Geological Survey and Other Federal and Oklahoma State Agencies for the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana Lichelle

    2010-01-01

    This report contains spatial datasets of natural and anthropogenic features and spatial datasets detailing surface-water, ground-water, and other types of environmental information collected in and surrounding Kickapoo Tribal Lands. Spatial datasets were compiled from Federal and Oklahoma State agencies. Surface-water, ground-water, and other types of environmental information of natural and anthropogenic features were compiled from USGS National Water Information System database, Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality online Geographic Information System data viewer, Oklahoma Water Resources Board online Water Information Mapping System, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency online Modernized STORET database. These spatial datasets were compiled from many different sources with varying quality. Because of the different sources, features common to multiple layers may not overlay exactly. Users should check the metadata to determine proper use of these data. These data were not checked for accuracy or completeness. Should a question of accuracy or completeness arise, the user should contact the originator cited in the metadata.

  10. An Integrated Approach to Determine Ground-water Surface Water Flux in a Contaminated Aquifer-Wetland System at the Norman Landfill Research Site, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Sanchez, I.; Phanikumar, M.; McGuire, J. T.; Masoner, J.; Cozzarelli, I.

    2008-12-01

    An area of research in progress at the Norman Landfill Research Site in Oklahoma involves a small wetland that overlies a landfill leachate plume. The wetland-aquifer system actively exchanges contaminants and nutrients. These chemicals move from the wetland to the aquifer and vice versa depending on the ground- water/surface-water exchange rate and flow direction. The ground-water/surface-water flow has to be quantified in order to better understand the influence of contaminants and nutrients on the transport and fate of landfill leachates. Different types of data have been collected at the site over a period of ten years including isotopic composition of water samples, ion concentrations, water levels, evaporative and seepage fluxes and meteorological variables. After identifying key processes influencing the water exchange between the wetland and ground-water based on time series analysis, we used process-based modeling to determine the ground-water/surface-water flow rates in the system using an integrated water balance model. Other methods used to constrain processes and parameters in the study include: (a) ground-water inflow calculation with stable environmental isotopes mass balance (b) ground-water input to the wetland with solute mass balance, and (c) Darcy's flow calculation of ground-water/surface-water exchange based on measurements from a network of piezometers. Preliminary results show that it is possible to differentiate between regional and local ground-water influences, as well as precipitation and evapotranspiration contributions in the exchange behavior.

  11. Ground-water data of selected test holes and wells along the Verdigris River in Wagoner and Rogers Counties, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, H.H.; Hart, D.L.; Knott, R.K.

    1965-01-01

    The data in this report were collected during the period 1958-64 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, as part of a comprehensive study of the ground-water resources of the alluvium along the Arkansas and Verdigris Rivers between Moffett and Catoosa, Oklahoma (fig. 1). The purpose of this report is to make the hydrologic data obtained during the study of ground water in the alluvium along the Verdigris River in Wagoner and Rogers Counties readily available to the public. The data in this report should be useful in predicting geologic and hydrologic conditions when drilling new wells. Table 1 gives information on the sizes, depths, yields, and other characteristics of wells in the area. The table also provides a key to the additional information for each well site given in tables 2 through 6. Table 2 gives logs for the materials penetrated at test holes and wells in the report area; table 3 gives depths to water measured in wells; table 4 includes chemical analyses of water from wells; table 5 gives laboratory determinations of particle-size distribution of earth samples collected from test holes and wells; and table 6 gives coefficients of permeability and other hydrologic properties of earth samples from the selected test holes. Similar data for Sequoyah County, LeFlore-Haskell Counties, and Muskogee County are available in other open-file reports. An interpretive report, 'Hydrology of the alluvium of the Arkansas River, Muskogee, Oklahoma, to Fort Smith, Arkansas,' by Harry H. Tanaka and Jerrald R. Hollowell will be published as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1809-T.

  12. Ground-water data of selected test holes and wells along the Arkansas River in Sequoyah County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, H.H.; Hart, D.L.; Knott, R.K.

    1965-01-01

    The data in this report were collected during the period 1958-64 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, as part of a comprehensive study of the ground-water resources of the alluvium along the Arkansas and Verdigris Rivers between Moffett and Catoosa, Oklahoma (fig. 1). The purpose of this report is to make the hydrologic data obtained during the study of ground water in the alluvium along the Arkansas River in Sequoyah County readily available to the public. The data in this report should be useful in predicting geologic and hydrologic conditions when drilling new wells. Table 1 gives information on the sizes, depths, yields, and other characteristics of wells in the area. The table also provides a key to the additional information for each well site given in tables 2 through 6. Table 2 gives logs for the materials penetrated at test holes and wells in the report area; table 3 gives depths to water measured in wells; table 4 includes chemical analyses of water from wells; table 5 gives laboratory determinations of particle-size distribution of earth samples collected from test holes and wells; and table 6 gives coefficients of permeability and other hydrologic properties of earth samples from the selected test holes. Similar data for LeFlore-Haskell Counties, Muskogee County, and Wagoner-Rogers Counties are available in other open-file reports. An interpretive report, 'Hydrology of the alluvium of the Arkansas River, Muskogee, Oklahoma, to Fort Smith, Arkansas,' by Harry H. Tanaka and Jerrald R. Hollowell will be published as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1809-T.

  13. Ground-water data of selected test holes and wells along the Arkansas river in Muskogee County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, H.H.; Hart, D.L.; Knott, R.K.

    1965-01-01

    The data in this report were collected during the period 1958-64 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, as part of a comprehensive study of the ground-water resources of the alluvium along the Arkansas and Verdigris Rivers between Moffett and Catoosa, Oklahoma (fig. 1). The purpose of this report is to make the hydrologic data obtained during the study of ground water in the alluvium along the Arkansas River in Muskogee County readily available to the public. The data in this report should be useful in predicting geologic and hydrologic conditions when drilling new wells. Table 1 gives information on the sizes, depths, yields, and other characteristics of wells in the area. The table also provides a key to the additional information for each well site given in tables 2 through 6. Table 2 gives logs for the materials penetrated at test holes and wells in the report area; table 3 gives depths to water measured in wells; table 4 includes chemical analyses of water from wells; table 5 gives laboratory determinations of particle-size distribution of earth samples collected from test holes and wells; and table 6 gives coefficients of permeability and other hydrologic properties of earth samples from the selected test holes. Similar data for Sequoyah County, LeFlore-Haskell Counties, and Wagoner-Rogers Counties are available in other open-file reports. An interpretive report, 'Hydrology of the alluvium of the Arkansas River, Muskogee, Oklahoma, to Fort Smith, Arkansas,' by Harry H. Tanaka and Jerrald R. Hollowell will be published as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1809-T.

  14. Possible sources of nitrate in ground water at swine licensed-managed feeding operations in Oklahoma, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Mark F.; Peter, Kathy D.; Masoner, Jason

    2002-01-01

    Samples collected and analyzed by the Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry from 1999 to 2001 determined that nitrate exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level for public drinking-water supplies of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 79 monitoring wells at 35 swine licensed-managed feeding operations (LMFO) in Oklahoma. The LMFOs are located in rural agricultural settings where long-term agriculture has potentially affected the ground-water quality in some areas. Land use prior to the construction of the LMFOs was assessed to evaluate the types of agricultural land use within a 500-meter radius of the sampled wells. Chemical and microbiological techniques were used to determine the possible sources of nitrate in water sampled from 10 wastewater lagoons and 79 wells. Samples were analyzed for dissolved major ions, dissolved trace elements, dissolved nutrients, nitrogen isotope ratios of nitrate and ammonia, wastewater organic compounds, and fecal coliform bacteria. Bacteria ribotyping analysis was done on selected samples to identify possible specific animal sources. A decision process was developed to identify the possible sources of nitrate. First, nitrogen isotope ratios were used to define sources as animal, mixed animal and fertilizer, or fertilizer. Second, wastewater organic compound detections, nitrogen-isotope ratios, fecal coliform bacteria detections, and ribotyping were used to refine the identification of possible sources as LFMO waste, fertilizer, or unidentified animal or mixtures of these sources. Additional evidence provided by ribotyping and wastewater organic compound data can, in some cases, specifically indicate the animal source. Detections of three or more wastewater organic compounds that are indicators of animal sources and detections of fecal coliform bacteria provided additional evidence of an animal source. LMFO waste was designated as a possible source of nitrate in water from 10

  15. Comparison of ground-water quality in samples from selected shallow and deep wells in the central Oklahoma aquifer, 2003-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    water from shallow and deep wells. Water from 9 shallow wells had nitrate nitrogen concentrations greater than 2 milligrams per liter, suggesting nitrogen sources at land surface have had an effect on water from these wells. Water from three shallow wells (13 percent) exceeded the nitrate nitrogen maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in drinking water. Water from shallow wells had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic, chromium, iron, and selenium than water from deep wells, whereas, concentrations of barium, copper, manganese, and zinc were similar. Water-quality data indicate that arsenic frequently occurs in shallow ground water from the Central Oklahoma aquifer, but at low concentrations (<10 micrograms per liter). The occurrence of chromium and selenium in water from shallow wells was infrequent and at low concentrations in this study. It does not appear that the quality of water from a shallow well can be predicted based on the quality of water from a nearby deep well. The results show that in general terms, shallow ground water has significantly higher concentrations of most major ions and significantly lower concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and selenium than water from deep wells.

  16. Nutrients and pesticides in ground water of the Ozark Plateaus in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, James C.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 229 ground-water samples were collected from 215 sites as part of the Ozark Plateaus study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These samples were collected from 1993 through 1995 using a network of springs and wells with three scale-dependent components. The first component, the study-unit survey, consisted of 99 randomly selected springs and domestic wells in the Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers. The second component, two land-use studies, consisted of 42 springs and domestic wells in a poultry-dominated agricultural area and 40 springs and domestic wells in a cattle-dominated agricultural area overlying the Springfield Plateau aquifer. The third component, the small-watershed study, consisted of 4 springs, 18 domestic wells, and 11 monitoring wells in a small basin within the poultry land-use study area. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, methylene blue active substances, tritium, and 88 pesticides and metabolites.The water-quality data from these samples were analyzed with descriptive and statistical methods. Nitrite plus nitrate, which was detected more often and in greater concentrations than any of the other nutrients, ranged from less than 0.05 to 25 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations positively correlated to percent agricultural land use around each site. Median nitrite plus nitrate concentrations generally were greater in samples from springs than in samples from wells. Concentrations of nitrite, ammonia, and ammonia plus organic nitrogen were also affected by land use and also by concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the ground water. Concentrations of phosphorus and orthophosphate probably were affected by land use and also by phosphorus solubility. Pesticides were detected in 80 of 229 samples from 73 of 215 sites. A total of 20 pesticides were detected with a maximum of 5 pesticides detected in any 1 sample. The most commonly detected

  17. Reconnaissance of Soil, Ground Water, and Plant Contamination at an Abandoned Oilfield-Service Site near Shawnee, Oklahoma, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, began a reconnaissance study of a site in Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma, in 2005 by testing soil, shallow ground water, and plant material for the presence of trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Chemical analysis of plant material at the site was investigated as a preliminary tool to determine the extent of contamination at the site. Thirty soil samples were collected from 15 soil cores during October 2005 and analyzed for trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Five small-diameter, polyvinyl-chloride-cased wells were installed and ground-water samples were collected during December 2005 and May 2006 and analyzed for trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Thirty Johnsongrass samples and 16 Coralberry samples were collected during September 2005 and analyzed for 53 constituents, including trace elements. Results of the soil, ground-water, and plant data indicate that the areas of trace element and semivolatile organic compound contamination are located in the shallow (A-horizon) soils near the threading barn. Most of the trace-element concentrations in the soils on the study site were either similar to or less than trace-element concentrations in background soils. Several trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, Human Health Medium-Specific Screening Levels 2007 for Tap Water, Residential Soils, Industrial Indoor Soils, and Industrial Outdoor Soils. There was little or no correlation between the plant and soil sample concentrations and the plant and ground-water concentrations based on the current sample size and study design. The lack of correlation between trace-element concentrations in plants and soils, and plants and ground water indicate that plant sampling was not useful as a preliminary tool to assess contamination at the study site.

  18. Ground-water data of selected test holes and wells along the Arkansas River in LeFlore and Haskell Counties, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, H.H.; Hart, D.L.; Knott, R.K.

    1965-01-01

    The data in this report were collected during the period 1958-64 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, as part of a comprehensive study of the ground-water resources of the alluvium along the Arkansas and Verdigris Rivers between Moffett and Catoosa, Oklahoma (fig. 1). The purpose of this report is to make the hydrologic data obtained during the study of ground water in the alluvium along the Arkansas River in Le Flore and Haskell Counties readily available to the public. The data in this report should be useful in predicting geologic and hydrologic conditions when drilling new wells. Table 1 gives information on the sizes, depths, yields, and other characteristics of wells in the area. The table also provides a key to the additional information for each well site given in tables 2 through 6. Table 2 gives logs for the materials penetrated at test holes and wells in the report area; table 3 gives depths to water measured in wells; table 4 includes chemical analyses of water from wells; table 5 gives laboratory determinations of particle-size distribution of earth samples collected from test holes and wells; and table 6 gives coefficients of permeability and other hydrologic properties of earth samples from the selected test holes. Similar data for Sequoyah County, Muskogee County, and Wagoner-Rogers Counties are available in other open-file reports. An interpretive report, 'Hydrology of the alluvium of the Arkansas River, Muskogee, Oklahoma, to Fort Smith, Arkansas,' by Harry H. Tanaka and Jerrald R. Hollowell will be published as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1809-T.

  19. Quality Characteristics of Ground Water in the Ozark Aquifer of Northwestern Arkansas, Southeastern Kansas, Southwestern Missouri, and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, L.M.; Mehl, H.E.; Coiner, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Because of water quantity and quality concerns within the Ozark aquifer, the State of Kansas in 2004 issued a moratorium on most new appropriations from the aquifer until results were made available from a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kansas Water Office. The purposes of the study were to develop a regional ground-water flow model and a water-quality assessment of the Ozark aquifer in northwestern Arkansas, southeastern Kansas, southwestern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma (study area). In 2006 and 2007, water-quality samples were collected from 40 water-supply wells completed in the Ozark aquifer and spatially distributed throughout the study area. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, dissolved solids and major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and selected isotopes. This report presents the results of the water-quality assessment part of the cooperative study. Water-quality characteristics were evaluated relative to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. Secondary Drinking-Water Regulations were exceeded for dissolved solids (11 wells), sulfate and chloride (2 wells each), fluoride (3 wells), iron (4 wells), and manganese (2 wells). Maximum Contaminant Levels were exceeded for turbidity (3 wells) and fluoride (1 well). The Maximum Contaminant Level Goal for lead (0 milligrams per liter) was exceeded in water from 12 wells. Analyses of isotopes in water from wells along two 60-mile long ground-water flow paths indicated that water in the Ozark aquifer was at least 60 years old but the upper age limit is uncertain. The source of recharge water for the wells along the flow paths appeared to be of meteoric origin because of isotopic similarity to the established Global Meteoric Water Line and a global precipitation relation. Additionally, analysis of hydrogen-3 (3H) and carbon-14 (14C) indicated that there was possible leakage of younger ground water into the lower part of the Ozark aquifer. This may

  20. Ground-water flow model of the Boone formation at the Tar Creek superfund site, Oklahoma and Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, T.B.; Czarnecki, John B.

    2006-01-01

    Extensive mining activities conducted at the Tar Creek Superfund site, one of the largest Superfund sites in the United States, pose substantial health and safety risks. Mining activities removed a total of about 6,000,000 tons of lead and zinc by 1949. To evaluate the effect of this mining on the ground-water flow, a MODFLOW 2000 digital model has been developed to simulate ground-water flow in the carbonate formations of Mississippian age underlying the Tar Creek Superfund site. The model consists of three layers of variable thickness and a grid of 580 rows by 680 columns of cells 164 feet (50 meters) on a side. Model flux boundary conditions are specified for rivers and general head boundaries along the northern boundary of the Boone Formation. Selected cells in layer 1 are simulated as drain cells. Model calibration has been performed to minimize the difference between simulated and observed water levels in the Boone Formation. Hydraulic conductivity values specified during calibration range from 1.3 to 35 feet per day for the Boone Formation with the larger values occurring along the axis of the Miami Syncline where horizontal anisotropy is specified as 10 to 1. Hydraulic conductivity associated with the mine void is set at 50,000 feet per day and a specific yield of 1.0 is specified to represent that the mine void is filled completely with water. Residuals (the difference between measured and simulated ground-water altitudes) has a root-mean-squared value of 8.53 feet and an absolute mean value of 7.29 feet for 17 observed values of water levels in the Boone Formation. The utility of the model for simulating and evaluating the possible consequences of remediation activities has been demonstrated. The model was used to simulate the emplacement of chat (mine waste consisting of fines and fragments of chert) back into the mine. Scenarios using 1,800,000 and 6,500,000 tons of chat were run. Hydraulic conductivity was reduced from 50,000 feet per day to 35 feet

  1. Ground-water quality in the Central High Plains Aquifer, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Mark F.; Bruce, Breton W.; Pope, Larry M.; Andrews, William J.

    2002-01-01

    A network of 74 randomly distributed domestic water-supply wells completed in the central High Plains aquifer was sampled and analyzed from April to August 1999 as part of the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program to provide a broad-scale assessment of the ground-water-quality in this part of the High Plains aquifer. Water properties were relatively consistent across the aquifer, with water being alkaline and well oxidized. Water was mostly of the calcium and magnesium-bicarbonate type and very hard. Sulfate concentrations in water from three wells and chloride concentration in water from one well exceeded Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels. Fluoride concentration was equal to the Maximum Contaminant Level in one sample. Nitrate concentrations was relatively small in most samples, with the median concentration of 2.3 milligrams per liter. Dissolved organic carbon concentration was relatively low, with a median concentration of 0.5 milligram per liter. The Maximum Contaminant Level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for nitrate as nitrogen of 10 milligrams per liter was exceeded by water samples from three wells. Most samples contained detectable concentrations of the trace elements aluminum, arsenic, barium, chromium, molybdenum, selenium, zinc, and uranium. Only a few samples had trace element concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels. Fifty-five of the samples had radon concentrations exceeding the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level of 300 picocuries per liter. The greatest radon concentrations were detected where the Ogallala Formation overlies sandstones, shales and limestones of Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous age. Volatile organic compounds were detected in 9 of 74 samples. Toluene was detected in eight of those nine samples. All volatile organic compound concentrations were substantially less than Maximum Contaminant Levels. Detections of toluene

  2. Water Flow in the High Plains Aquifer in Northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luckey, Richard R.; Osborn, Noel I.; Becker, Mark F.; Andrews, William J.

    2000-01-01

    The High Plains is a major agricultural area, supported primarily by water from the High Plains aquifer, which is used to irrigate wheat and corn and to raise cattle and swine. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) began a study of the High Plains aquifer in 1996. One purpose of the study was to develop a ground-water flow model that the OWRB could use to allocate the amount of water withdrawn from the a aquifer. The study area in Oklahoma covers all or parts of Beaver, Cimarron, Dewey, Ellis, Harper, Texas, and Woodward Counties. To provide appropriate hydrologic boundaries for the ground-water flow model, the study area was expanded to include parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas.

  3. Water Use in Oklahoma 1950-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive planning for water resources development and use in Oklahoma requires a historical perspective on water resources. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, summarized the 1950-2005 water-use information for Oklahoma. This report presents 1950-2005 estimates of freshwater withdrawal for water use in Oklahoma by source and category in 5-year intervals. Withdrawal source was either surface water or groundwater. Withdrawal categories include: public supply, irrigation, livestock and aquaculture, thermoelectric-power generation (cooling water), domestic and commercial, and industrial and mining. Withdrawal data were aggregated and tabulated by county, major river basin, and principal aquifer. The purpose of this report is to summarize water-use data in Oklahoma through: (1) presentation of detailed information on freshwater withdrawals by source, county, major river basin, and principal aquifer for 2005; (2) comparison of water use by source, category, major river basin, and principal aquifer at 5-year intervals from 1990-2005; and (3) comparison of water use on a statewide basis by source and category at 5-year intervals from 1950-2005. Total withdrawals from surface-water and groundwater sources during 2005 were 1,559 million gallons per day-989 million gallons a day or 63 percent from surface-water sources and 570 million gallons per day or 37 percent from groundwater sources. The three largest water use categories were: public supply, 646 million gallons per day or 41 percent of total withdrawals; irrigation, 495 million gallons per day or 32 percent of total withdrawals; and livestock and aquaculture, 181 million gallons per day or 12 percent of total withdrawals. All other categories were 237 million gallons per day or 15 percent of total withdrawals. The influence of public supply on the total withdrawals can be seen in the eastern two-thirds of Oklahoma; whereas, the influence of irrigation on total

  4. Water resources data, Oklahoma, water year 2004; Volume 2. Red River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazs, R.L.; Walters, D.M.; Coffey, T.E.; Boyle, D.L.; Wellman, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Volumes 1 and 2 of the water resources data for the 2004 water year for Oklahoma consists of record of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes or reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains discharge records for 138 gaging stations; stage and contents for 18 lakes or reservoirs and 2 gage height stations; water quality for 55 gaging stations; 38 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations and 4 ground-water sites. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge and water-quality sites. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Oklahoma.

  5. Water resources data, Oklahoma, water year 2003; Volume 1. Arkansas River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazs, R.L.; Walters, D.M.; Coffey, T.E.; Boyle, D.L.; Wellman, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Volumes 1 and 2 of the water resources data for the 2003 water year for Oklahoma consists of record of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes or reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains discharge records for 139 gaging stations; stage and contents for 17 lakes or reservoirs and 2 gage height stations; water quality for 46 gaging stations; 32 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations and 5 ground-water sites. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge and water-quality sites. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Oklahoma.

  6. Water resources data, Oklahoma, water year 2004;Volume 1. Arkansas River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazs, R.L.; Walters, D.M.; Coffey, T.E.; Boyle, D.L.; Wellman, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Volumes 1 and 2 of the water resources data for the 2004 water year for Oklahoma consists of record of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes or reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains discharge records for 138 gaging stations; stage and contents for 18 lakes or reservoirs and 2 gage height stations; water quality for 55 gaging stations; 38 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations and 4 ground-water sites. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge and water-quality sites. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Oklahoma.

  7. Geohydrology and water quality of the Roubidoux Aquifer, northeastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.; Fairchild, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    The Roubidoux aquifer is an important source of freshwater for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts in northeastern Oklahoma. Ground-water withdrawals from the aquifer in 1981 were estimated to be 4.8 million gallons per day, of which about 90 percent was withdrawn in Ottawa County. Wells drilled at the beginning of the 20th century originally flowed at the land surface, but in 1981 water levels ranged from 22 to 471 feet below land surface. A large cone of depression has formed as a result of ground water withdrawals near Miami. Wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer have yields that range from about 100 to more than 1,000 gallons per minute. An aquifer test and a digital ground-water flow model were used to estimate aquifer and confining-layer hydraulic characteristics. Using these methods, the transmissivity of the aquifer was estimated to be within a range of 400 to 700 square feet per day. The leakance of the confining layer was determined to be within a range from 0 to 0.13 per day, with a best estimate value in a range from 4.3 x 10-8 to 7.7 x 10-8 per day. Analyses of water samples collected as part of this study and of water-quality data from earlier work indicate that a large areal change in major-ion chemistry occurs in ground water in the Roubidoux aquifer in northeastern Oklahoma. The ground water in the easternmost part of the study unit has relatively small dissolved-solids concentrations (less than 200 milligrams per liter) with calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as the major ions. Ground water in the westernmost part of the study unit has relatively large dissolved-solids concentrations (greater than 800 milligrams per liter) with sodium and chloride as the major ions. A transition zone of intermediate sodium, chloride, and dissolved-solids concentrations exists between the easternmost and westernmost parts of the study unit. Three water-quality problems are apparent in the Roubidoux aquifer in northeast Oklahoma: (1

  8. Impacts of petroleum production on ground and surface waters: Results from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research A site, Osage County Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Thordsen, J.J.; Kakouros, E.; Herkelrath, W.N.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary group of about 20 scientists, we are investigating the transport, fate, natural attenuation, and ecosystem impacts of inorganic salts and organic compounds present in releases of produced water and associated hydrocarbons at the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research (OSPER) sites, located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Geochemical data collected from nearby oil wells show that the produced water source is a Na-Ca-Cl brine (???150,000 mg/L total dissolved solids [TDS]), with relatively high concentrations of Mg, Sr, and NH4, but low SO4 and H2S. Results from the depleted OSPER A site show that the salts continue to be removed from the soil and surficial rocks, but degraded oil persists on the contaminated surface. Eventually, the bulk of inorganic salts and dissolved organics in the brine will reach the adjacent Skiatook Lake, a 4250-ha (10,501-ac) potable water reservoir. Repeated sampling of 44 wells show a plume of high-salinity water (2000-30,000 mg/L TDS) at intermediate depths that intersects Skiatook Lake and extends beyond the visibly impacted areas. No liquid petroleum was observed in this plume, but organic acid anions, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), and other volatile organic carbon (VOC) are present. The chemical composition of released brine is modified by sorption, mineral precipitation and dissolution, evapotranspiration, volatilization, and bacterially mediated oxidation-reduction reactions, in addition to mixing with percolating precipitation water, lake water, and pristine groundwater. Results show that only minor amounts of salt are removed by runoff, supporting the conclusion that significant amounts of salts from produced water and petroleum releases still remain in the soils and rocks of the impacted area after more than 65 yr of natural attenuation. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  9. Radioactivity in Oklahoma's public water supplies, 1977-80

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, R.L.; Bateman, M.; Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    The average concentrations of radioactivity found in drinking water samples collected in Oklahoma between 1977 and 1980 are tabulated by county. Only those water supplies for which at least three samples were analyzed are listed. Water supplies with radioactivity that exceeded the standards are that supplied by the town of Afton in Ottawa County and that supplied by Deek Creek Water Corporation in Oklahoma. Work has begun on locating new sources of water with acceptable levels of radioactivity. (JGB)

  10. IMPLICATIONS OF NEW ARSENIC STANDARDS ON OKLAHOMA WATER RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The new national standard for arsenic in drinking water supplies, slated to take effect in 2006, is having an unexpected impact on a number of Oklahoma communities. Currently, several municipalities in north central Oklahoma are in compliance with existing arsenic standards (50 ...

  11. Results of the Chemical and Isotopic Analyses of Sediment and Ground Water from Alluvium of the Canadian River Near a Closed Municipal Landfill, Norman, Oklahoma, Part 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, George N.; Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Christenson, Scott C.; Jaeschke, Jeanne B.

    2008-01-01

    Analytical results on sediment and associated ground water from the Canadian River alluvium collected subsequent to those described in Breit and others (2005) are presented in this report. The data presented herein were collected primarily to evaluate the iron and sulfur species within the sediment at well sites IC 36, IC 54, and IC South located at the USGS Norman Landfill study site. Cored sediment and water samples were collected during October 2004 and April 2005. The 52 sediment samples collected by coring were analyzed to determine grain size, the abundance of extractable iron species, and the abundance of sulfur forms and their isotopic compositions. Ground water was collected from cluster wells that sampled ground water from 11 to 15 screened intervals at each of the three sites. The depth range of the wells overlapped the interval of cored sediment. Concentrations of major ions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ammonium, and iron are reported with pH, specific conductance, and the isotopic composition of the water for the 75 water samples analyzed. Dissolved sulfate in selected water samples was analyzed to determine its sulfur and oxygen isotope composition.

  12. Estimating 1980 ground-water pumpage for irrigation on the High Plains in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimes, F.J.; Luckey, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Current ground-water use is required for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis. In response to this need, a sampling approach was developed to estimate water pumped for irrigation on the High Plains during 1980. Pumpage was computed by combining application estimates with mapped irrigated-acreage information. Irrigation application (inches of water applied) was measured at 480 sites in 15 counties in the High Plains during the 1980 growing season. The relationship between calculated Blaney-Criddle irrigation demand and measured application was used to estimate application for unsampled areas of the High Plains. Application estimates multiplied by irrigated-acreate estimates, compiled from Landsat-satellite imagery, yielded the volume of ground water pumped for irrigation. The estimate of ground water pumped for irrigation in the High Plains during 1980 and 18,902,000 acre-feet for 13 ,715,000 irrigated areas. The sampled application data were evaluated for significant trends. The application was greater for crops requiring more water such as corn and hay and less for crops such as sorghum, grain, and cotton. The data showed greater application for flood-irrigated systems than for sprinkler-irrigation systems. Areas of the High Plains with thin saturated thickness tended to have a smaller average discharge per well, fewer irrigated acres per well, and a predominance of crops requiring less water crops. (USGS).

  13. 75 FR 9895 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Oklahoma

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Environmental Quality, Water Quality Division, 707 N. Robinson, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73101-1677; and the EPA... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Oklahoma AGENCY: United States... the State of Oklahoma is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program adopting...

  14. Methods and applications of electrical simulation in ground-water studies in the lower Arkansas and Verdigris River Valleys, Arkansas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, M.S.; Reed, J.E.; Wells, C.J.; Swafford, B.F.

    1970-01-01

    The Arkansas River Multiple-Purpose Plan will provide year-round navigation on the Arkansas River from near its mouth to Muskogee, Okla., and on the Verdigris River from Muskogee to Catoosa, Okla. The altered regimen in the Arkansas and Verdigris Rivers will affect ground-water conditions in the adjacent alluvial aquifers. In 1957 the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers entered into a cooperative agreement for a comprehensive ground-water study of the lower Arkansas and Verdigris River valleys. At the request of the Corps of Engineers, the Geological Survey agreed to provide (1) basic ground-water data before, during, and after construction of the Multiple-Purpose Plan and (2) interpretation and projections of postconstruction ground-water conditions. The data collected were used by the Corps of Engineers in preliminary foundation and excavation estimates and by the Geological Survey as the basis for defining the hydrologic properties of, and the ground-water conditions in, the aquifer. The projections of postconstruction ground-water conditions were used by the Corps of Engineers in the planning, design, construction, and operation of the Multiple-Purpose Plan. Analysis and projections of ground-water conditions were made by use of electrical analog models. These models use the analogy between the flow of electricity in a resistance-capacitance circuit and the flow of a liquid in a porous and permeable medium. Verification provides a test of the validity of the analog to perform as the aquifer would, within the range of historic forces. The verification process consists of simulating the action of historic forces which have acted upon the aquifer and of duplicating the aquifer response with the analog. The areal distribution of accretion can be treated as an unknown and can be determined by analog simulation of the piezometric surface in an aquifer. Comparison of accretion with depth to piezometric surface below land surface shows that

  15. Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1986-01-01

    Some water underlies the Earth's surface almost everywhere, beneath hills, mountains,plains, and deserts. It's not always accessible, or fresh enough for use without treatment, and it's sometimes difficult to locate or to measure and descri be. This water may occur close to the land surface, as in a marsh, or it may lie many hundreds of feet below the surface, as in some arid areas of the West. Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old ; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years old . Water under the Earth's surface is called ground water.

  16. Water-level changes in the high plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma, predevelopment to 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The predevelopment to 1980 water-level changes in the High Plains regional aquifer in Oklahoma are shown for Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties, on the east, and for the Oklahoma Panhandle, consist- ing of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver Counties, on the west. About 1,470 water-level measurements in the Panhandle were used in compiling the predevelopment water-table map (Havens, 1982c). In the remaining area to the east about 150 water-level measurements from the 1950's to the 1970's are representative of predevelopment water levels. For the 1980 water-table map, about 330 measurements were made in the Panhandle and about 350 measurements in the eastern area by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (Havens, 1982b).

  17. Private Water Well Education for Adult Residents of Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this study involved an investigation into the education of the adult residents of Oklahoma regarding private water wells. The groundwater supply for the private resident is directly connected to a shared water source. This source of water can become contaminated by simple lack of education and proper maintenance of the well. Without…

  18. Ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Ground water contamination and basic concepts of water law; Federal law governing water contamination and remediation; Ground water flow and contaminant migration; Ground water cleanup under CERCLA; Technical methods of remediation and prevention of contamination; Liability for ground water contamination; State constraints on contamination of ground water; Water quantity versus water quality; Prevention of use of contaminated ground water as an alternative to remediation; Economic considerations in liability for ground water contamination; and Contamination, extraction, and injection issues.

  19. 78 FR 73858 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Oklahoma

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Oklahoma AGENCY: United States... that the State of Oklahoma is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Oklahoma has adopted three EPA drinking water rules, namely the: (1) Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface...

  20. Geology and ground-water features of salt springs, seeps, and plains in the Arkansas and Red River basins of western Oklahoma and adjacent parts of Kansas and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, P.E.

    1963-01-01

    The salt springs, seeps, and plains described in this report are in the Arkansas and Red River basins in western Oklahoma and adjacent areas in Kansas and Texas. The springs and seeps contribute significantly to the generally poor water quality of the rivers by bringing salt (HaCI) to the surface at an estimated daily rate of more than 8,000 tons. The region investigated is characterized by low hills and rolling plains. Many of the rivers are eroded 100 feet or more below the .surrounding upland surface and in places the valleys are bordered by steep bluffs. The alluvial plains of the major rivers are wide and the river channels are shallow and unstable. The flow of many surface streams is intermittent, especially in the western part of the area. All the natural salt-contributing areas studied are within the outcrop area of rocks of Permian age. The Permian rocks, commonly termed red beds, are composed principally of red and gray gypsiferous shale, siltstone, sandstone, gypsum, anhydrite, and dolomite. Many of the formations contain halite in the subsurface. The halite occurs mostly as discontinuous lenses in shale, although some of the thicker, more massive beds are extensive. It underlies the entire region studied at depths ranging from about 30 feet to more than 2,000 feet. The salt and associated strata show evidence of extensive removal of salt through solution by ground water. Although the salt generally occurs in relatively impervious shale small joints and fractures ,allow the passage of small quantities of water which dissolves the salt. Salt water occurs in the report area at depths ranging from less than 100 feet to more than 1,000 feet. Salt water occurs both as meteoric and connate, but the water emerging as salt springs is meteoric. Tritium analyses show that the age of the water from several springs is less than 20 years. The salt springs, seeps, and plains are confined to 13 local areas. The flow of the springs and seeps is small, but the chloride

  1. Altitude and configuration of the 1980 water table in the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1982-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The altitude and configuration of the water table are shown for the eastern area, consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties (sheet 1), and for the Panhandle area, consisting of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver Counties (sheet 2). Water levels were measured in January, February, and March 1980 by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board.

  2. Relation of Shallow Water Quality in the Central Oklahoma Aquifer to Geology, Soils, and Land Use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, Alan H.; Christenson, Scott C.; Andrews, William J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify, describe, and explain relations between natural and land-use factors and ground-water quality in the Central Oklahoma aquifer NAWQA study unit. Natural factors compared to water quality included the geologic unit in which the sampled wells were completed and the properties of soils in the areas surrounding the wells. Land-use factors included types of land use and population densities surrounding sampled wells. Ground-water quality was characterized by concentrations of inorganic constituents, and by frequencies of detection of volatile organic compounds and pesticides. Water-quality data were from samples collected from wells 91 meters (300 feet) or less in depth as part of Permian and Quaternary geologic unit survey networks and from an urban survey network. Concentrations of many inorganic constituents were significantly related to geology. In addition, concentrations of many inorganic constituents were greater in water from wells from the Oklahoma City urban sampling network than in water from wells from low-density survey networks designed to evaluate ambient water quality in the Central Oklahoma aquifer study unit. However, sampling bias may have been induced by differences in hydrogeologic factors between sampling networks, limiting the ability to determine land-use effects on concentrations of inorganic constituents. Frequencies of detection of pesticide and volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in ground-water samples were related to land use and population density, with these compounds being more frequently detected in densely-populated areas. Geology and soil properties were not significantly correlated to pesticide or VOC occurrence in ground water. Lesser frequencies of detection of pesticides in water from wells in rural areas may be due to low to moderate use of those compounds on agricultural lands in the study unit, with livestock production being the primary agricultural activity. There are many possible

  3. Ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    Some water underlies the Earth's surface almost everywhere, beneath hills, mountains, plains, and deserts. It is not always accessible, or fresh enough for use without treatment, and it's sometimes difficult to locate or to measure and describe. This water may occur close to the land surface, as in a marsh, or it may lie many hundreds of feet below the surface, as in some arid areas of the West. Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years old.

  4. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  5. Ground Water Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  6. Chemical analyses of surface waters in Oklahoma, September - December, 1944

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1945-01-01

    Red River at Denison Dam, Texas Sport samples were collected at the remainder of the stations. The analyses of the spot samples were made largely in a laboratory provided by the Oklahoma A. & M. College, under the supervision of Dr. O.M. Smith, Head, Department of Chemistry; Dr. S.R. Wood, Associate Professor of Chemistry; and W.W. Hastings, U.S. Geological Survey. The daily samples were analyzed in the water resources laboratory of the Geological Survey at Austin, Texas. These data have been summarized in a report to the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, March 1, 1945. The streams of Oklahoma are classified into two major drainage basins: the Arkansas River and the Red River and their tributaries. The attached analyses are arranged in geographical order for their respective drainage basins, with records listed in downstream order for stations on the main stem first, followed by the analyses for the tributaries. When available, the mean daily discharge is given for the analyses.

  7. Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) Annual ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). The GWTSC is one of an interlinked group of specialized Technical Support Centersthat were established under the Technical Support Project (TSP). The GWTSC provides technical support on issues related to groundwater. Specifically, the GWTSC provides technical support to U.S. EPA and State regulators for issues and problems related to:1. subsurface contamination (contaminants in ground water, soils and sediments),2. cross-media transfer (movement of contaminants from the subsurface to other media such as surface water or air), and3. restoration of impacted ecosystems.The GWTSC works with Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) and other decision makers to solve specific problems at Superfund, RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act), Brownfields sites, and ecosystem restoration sites. The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). The GWTSC is one of an interlinked group of specialized Technical Suppo

  8. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) Aquifer, Oklahoma, 1987 to 2009, and simulation of available water in storage, 2010-2059

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Ryter, Derek; Neel, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Magers, Jessica S.

    2014-01-01

    The Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma. The study area for this investigation was the extent of the Central Oklahoma aquifer. Water from the Central Oklahoma aquifer is used for public, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supply. With the exception of Oklahoma City, all of the major communities in central Oklahoma rely either solely or partly on groundwater from this aquifer. The Oklahoma City metropolitan area, incorporating parts of Canadian, Cleveland, Grady, Lincoln, Logan, McClain, and Oklahoma Counties, has a population of approximately 1.2 million people. As areas are developed for groundwater supply, increased groundwater withdrawals may result in decreases in long-term aquifer storage. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, investigated the hydrogeology and simulated groundwater flow in the aquifer using a numerical groundwater-flow model. The purpose of this report is to describe an investigation of the Central Oklahoma aquifer that included analyses of the hydrogeology, hydrogeologic framework of the aquifer, and construction of a numerical groundwater-flow model. The groundwater-flow model was used to simulate groundwater levels and for water-budget analysis. A calibrated transient model was used to evaluate changes in groundwater storage associated with increased future water demands.

  9. GROUND WATER SAMPLING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and
    remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  10. 76 FR 25322 - Oklahoma Rose Water LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Oklahoma Rose Water LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... 30, 2010, Oklahoma Rose Water LLC filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal...

  11. Ground water: a review.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    There is growing documentation that a significant portion of the Nation's fresh ground water in the densely populated areas of the USA is contaminated. Because of the slow rates of ground-water movement, ground water once contaminated will remain so for decades, often longer. Cleanup of contaminated ground water is almost always expensive and often technically unfeasible; the expense is often prohibitive. -from Author

  12. Monitoring eastern Oklahoma lake water quality using Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Clay

    The monitoring of public waters for recreational, industrial, agricultural, and drinking purposes is a difficult task assigned to many state water agencies. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) is only physically monitoring a quarter of the lakes it is charged with monitoring in any given year. The minimal sample scheme adopted by the OWRB is utilized to determine long-term trends and basic impairment but is insufficient to monitor the water quality shifts that occur following influx from rains or to detect algal blooms, which may be highly localized and temporally brief. Recent work in remote sensing calibrates reflectance coefficients between extant water quality data and Landsat imagery reflectance to estimate water quality parameters on a regional basis. Remotely-sensed water quality monitoring benefits include reduced cost, more frequent sampling, inclusion of all lakes visible each satellite pass, and better spatial resolution results. The study area for this research is the Ozark foothills region in eastern Oklahoma including the many lakes impacted by phosphorus flowing in from the Arkansas border region. The result of this research was a moderate r2 regression value for turbidity during winter (0.52) and summer (0.65), which indicates that there is a seasonal bias to turbidity estimation using this methodology and the potential to further develop an estimation equation for this water quality parameter. Refinements that improve this methodology could provide state-wide estimations of turbidity allowing more frequent observation of water quality and allow better response times by the OWRB to developing water impairments.

  13. Historical water-quality data for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study Area in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1930-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litke, David W.

    2001-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States and includes eight primary hydrogeologic units, including the well-known Ogallala Formation. The High Plains aquifer is an important resource, providing water for 27 percent of the Nation?s irrigated agricultural lands in an otherwise dry landscape. Since the 1980?s there has been concern over the sustainability of the aquifer due to water-level declines caused by substantial pumping. Water quality of the aquifer is a more recent concern. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program, historical water-quality data have been gathered for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study Area into a retrospective data base, which can be used to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of water-quality constituents of concern.Data from the retrospective data base verify that nitrate, pesticides, and dissolved solids (salinity) are important water-quality concerns in the High Plains study area. Sixteen percent of all measured nitrate concentrations were larger than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter. In about 70 percent of the counties within the High Plains study area, nitrate concentrations for 1980-98 were significantly larger than for 1930-69. While nitrate concentrations are largest where depth to water is shallow, concentrations also have increased in the Ogallala Formation where depth to water is large. Pesticide data primarily are available only in the northern half of the study area. About 50 pesticides were detected in the High Plains study area, but only four pesticides (atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, and simazine) had concentrations exceeding a drinking-water standard. The occasional detection of pesticides in deeper parts of the Ogallala Formation indicates that contamination pathways exist. Dissolved solids, which are a direct measure of salinity, had 29 percent of measured concentrations in

  14. Hydrogeology and water quality of the North Canadian River alluvium, Concho Reserve, Canadian County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    A growing user population within the Concho Reserve in Canadian County, Oklahoma, has increased the need for drinking water. The North Canadian River alluvium is a reliable source of ground water for agriculture, industry, and cities in Canadian County and is the only ground-water source capable of meeting large demands. This study was undertaken to collect and analyze data to describe the hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the North Canadian River alluvium within the Concho Reserve. The alluvium forms a band about 2 miles long and 0.5 mile wide along the southern edge of the Concho Reserve. Thickness of the alluvium ranges from 19 to 75 feet thick and averages about 45 feet in the study area. Well cuttings and natural gamma-ray logs indicate the alluvium consists of interfingering lenses of clay, silt, and sand. The increase of coarse-grained sand and the decrease of clay and silt with depth suggests that the water-bearing properties of the aquifer within the study area improve with depth. A clay layer in the upper part of the aquifer may be partially responsible for surface water ponding in low areas after above normal precipitation and may delay the infiltration of potentially contaminated water from land surface. Specific conductance measurements indicate the ground-water quality improves in a northern direction towards the terrace. Water-quality properties, bacteria counts, major ion and nutrient concentrations, trace-element and radionuclide concentrations, and organic compound concentrations were measured in one ground-water sample at the southern edge of the Concho Reserve and comply with the primary drinking-water standards. Measured concentrations of iron, manganese, sulfate, and total dissolved solids exceed the secondary maximum contaminant levels set for drinking water. The ground water is a calcium sulfate bicarbonate type and is considered very hard, with a hardness of 570 milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate.

  15. Proceedings of ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Lennon, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of Ground Water. Topics covered include: Practical use and pitfalls of numerical models; Reliability of predictions; Strengths and limitations of coupled flow/transport/geochemical models; Ground water management/water resources; The macrodispersion experiment (made-scale tracer test; Partially saturated models; Use of ground water flow/transport modeling for aquifer evaluation; Aquifer tests and tracer tests; Risk assessment for groundwater pollution control; and Groundwater quality management.

  16. Groundwater quality and water-well characteristics in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 1948--2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, compiled historical groundwater-quality data collected from 1948 to 2011 and water-well completion information in parts of Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties in central Oklahoma to support the development of a comprehensive water-management plan for the Tribe’s jurisdictional area. In this study, water-quality data from 155 water wells, collected from 1948 to 2011, were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database; these data include measurements of pH, specific conductance, and hardness and concentrations of the major ions, trace elements, and radionuclides that have Maximum Contaminant Levels or Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels in public drinking-water supplies. Information about well characteristics includes ranges of well yield and well depth of private water wells in the study area and was compiled from the Oklahoma Water Resources Board Multi-Purpose Well Completion Report database. This report also shows depth to water from land surface by using shaded 30-foot contours that were created by using a geographic information system and spatial layers of a 2009 potentiometric surface (groundwater elevation) and land-surface elevation. Wells in the study area produce water from the North Canadian River alluvial and terrace aquifers, the underlying Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation that compose the Garber–Wellington aquifer, and the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups. Water quality varies substantially between the alluvial and terrace aquifers and bedrock aquifers in the study area. Water from the alluvial aquifer has relatively high concentrations of dissolved solids and generally is used for livestock only, whereas water from the terrace aquifer has low concentrations of dissolved solids and is used extensively by households in the study area. Water from the bedrock aquifer also is used extensively by

  17. Ground Water Modeling Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is supporting region, state, and tribal partners at Superfund sites and brownfields to develop new methods to better characterize, monitor, and treat ground water contamination; in order to protect drinking water, surface water, and indoor air.

  18. Contamination of Lake Wewoka and fresh-water sands by disposal of oil-well brines near Wewoka, Seminole County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoff, Stuart L.; Dott, Robert H.; Lalicker, Cecil Gordon

    1941-01-01

    This reports deals with ground-water conditions in an area about 5 miles wide from east to west and 8 miles long from north to south, in Tps. 8 and 9 N., Rs. 7 and 8 E., in Seminole County, Oklahoma, including the town of Wewoka and Lake Wewoka. The possible contamination of the lake waters from oil-well brines disposed through a well 3.75 miles north of the lake, and other effects of brine disposal, are considered. The investigation was made at the request of Frank Raab, member of the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board, and Don McBride, Chief Engineer of the Division of Water Resources who has the responsibility of preventing contamination of water supplies in Oklahoma. Field work was done July 5 and 6, 1941, by Robert H. Dott, Director of the Oklahoma Geological Survey; C.G. Lalicker, Department of Geology, University of Oklahoma; and S.L. Schoff, Assistant Geologist in the Ground Water Division, Water Resources Branch, of the U.S. Geological Survey. Lalicker spent both days studying the rocks exposed in the vicinity and measuring their thickness. A copy of the composite section measured by him is attached. Dott and Schoff spent one day collecting the well information summarized in Table 1, and one day with Lalicker on the stratigraphy. (available as photostat copy only)

  19. Report on water supply for the proposed Southwestern Reformatory at El Reno, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, S.F.

    1931-01-01

    The investigation on which this report is based was made in response to a request from the Bureau of Prisons, United States Department of Justice, for advice in regard to the development of a water supply for the proposed Southwestern Reformatory on the Fort Reno Military Reservation, 2 miles west of El Reno, Oklahoma. The tract set aside for the reformatory includes sec. 12 and the eastern half of sec. 11, T. 12 N, R. 8 W., and is about 1,000 acres in area. The proposed building site is in the north-central part of sec. 12, on a flat-topped hill just north of well No. 69. (See Plate 1.) It is understood that a maximum of 1,200 inmates is contemplated for this reformatory and that a water supply of about 120,000 gallons a day, or 85 gallons a minute, will be required in the summer. However, the potential capacity of the wells should be somewhat greater than 85 gallons a minute to allow for decline in yield. The author, who was assigned to this work by the United States Geological Survey, arrived in Oklahoma City April 21, 1931, and spent one week in field work in the area. After a conference with Dr. C.N. Gould, State Geologist of Oklahoma, it was decided that the possible sources of ground water to be investigated were the 'Red Beds' underlying the whole area, the Tertiary sands capping the hills north of the North Canadian River, and the river alluvium in the North Canadian River Valley. The area in which field work was done is shown on Plate 1 and includes approximately 105 square miles, lying chiefly north and west of El Reno, the county seat of Canadian County. (available as photostat copy only)

  20. Ground water in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, Gerald F.; Norvitch, Ralph F.

    1976-01-01

    Although Minnesota is generally rich in ground-water resources, it is not without associated problems. In the western part of the State, ground-water quality is often a problem, especially in deep aquifers. Throughout the State, few buried outwash aquifers have been delineated or evaluated as to their water-yielding capabilities. Some aquifers are highly susceptible to pollution. Planned development and monitoring of water levels and water quality would be beneficial.

  1. Ground Water in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is one of Hawaii's most important natural resources. It is used for drinking water, irrigation, and domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Ground water provides about 99 percent of Hawaii's domestic water and about 50 percent of all freshwater used in the State. Total ground water pumped in Hawaii was about 500 million gallons per day during 1995, which is less than 3 percent of the average total rainfall (about 21 billion gallons per day) in Hawaii. From this perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ocean in streams or returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, ground-water resources can be limited because of water-quality, environmental, or economic concerns. Water beneath the ground surface occurs in two principal zones: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the pore spaces in rocks contain both air and water, whereas in the saturated zone, the pore spaces are filled with water. The upper surface of the saturated zone is referred to as the water table. Water below the water table is referred to as ground water. Ground-water salinity can range from freshwater to that of seawater. Freshwater is commonly considered to be water with a chloride concentration less than 250 mg/L, and this concentration represents about 1.3 percent of the chloride concentration of seawater (19,500 mg/L). Brackish water has a chloride concentration between that of freshwater (250 mg/L) and saltwater (19,500 mg/L).

  2. Sulfur isotopic composition and water chemistry in water from the High Plains aquifer, Oklahoma Panhandle and southwestern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krothe, Noel C.; Oliver, Joseph W.

    1982-01-01

    The Ogallala Formation comprises the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma and southwestern Kansas. Regional ground-water flow is from west to east in the Ogallala Formation, and the concentration of dissolved solids in ground water increases in the direction of flow. This increase may be influenced by residence time, but underlying bedrock appears to control ground-water chemistry. The Ogallala Formation is underlain by Mesozoic rocks in the west and Permian rocks in the east. Mean concentration of dissolved solids in ground water from the Mesozoic rocks is 552 milligrams per liter and Permian rocks is 4,720 milligrams per liter. Mean concentration of dissolved solids for water in the Ogallala Formation is 396 milligrams per liter where it overlies Mesozoic rocks and 569 milligrams per liter where it overlies Permian rocks. Del sulfur-34 sulfate values range from a high of +6.9 parts per thousand to a low of -25.1 parts per thousand. Sulfate increases from about 20 milligrams per liter to more than 350 milligrams per liter from west to east. Increasing concentration of dissolved solids, lighter Del sulfur-34 values, and increasing sulfate concentration in the east implies that ground water or hydrogen sulfide from Permian rocks may be moving upward into the Ogallala Formation. (USGS)

  3. Oil extraction linked to Oklahoma earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Marcus

    2014-08-01

    Pumping waste water into the ground - a by-product of new oil and gas extraction processes - was the likely cause of a recent surge of earthquakes in the US state of Oklahoma, according to researchers in the US.

  4. Chemical analysis of water samples and geophysical logs from cored test holes drilled in the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Funkhouser, Ron A.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water from eight test holes and geophysical logs for nine test holes drilled in the Central Oklahoma aquifer are presented. The test holes were drilled to investigate local occurrences of potentially toxic, naturally occurring trace substances in ground water. These trace substances include arsenic, chromium, selenium, residual alpha-particle activities, and uranium. Eight of the nine test holes were drilled near wells known to contain large concentrations of one or more of the naturally occurring trace substances. One test hole was drilled in an area known to have only small concentrations of any of the naturally occurring trace substances. Water samples were collected from one to eight individual sandstone layers within each test hole. A total of 28 water samples, including four duplicate samples, were collected. The temperature, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured at the sample site. Laboratory determinations included major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and trace elements (aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, vanadium, and zinc). Radionuclide activities and stable isotope d values also were determined, including: gross-alpha-particle activity, gross-beta-particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, uranium-234, uranium-235, uranium-238, total uranium, carbon-13/carbon-12, deuterium/hydrogen-1, oxygen-18/oxygen-16, and sulfur-34/sulfur-32. Additional analyses of arsenic and selenium species are presented for selected samples as well as analyses of density and iodine for two samples, tritium for three samples, and carbon-14 for one sample. Geophysical logs for most test holes include caliper, neutron, gamma-gamma, natural-gamma logs, spontaneous potential, long- and short-normal resistivity, and single-point resistance

  5. Geological report on water conditions at Platt National Park, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, Charles Newton; Schoff, Stuart Leeson

    1939-01-01

    Platt National Park, located in southern Oklahoma, containing 842 acres, was established by Acts of Congress in 1902, 1904, and 1906. The reason for the setting aside of this area was the presence in the area of some 30 'mineral' springs, the water from which contains sulphur, bromide, salt, and other minerals, which are believed to possess medicinal qualities. For many generations the sulphur springs of the Chickasaw Nation had been known for their reputed healing qualities. It had long been the custom for families to come from considerable distances on horseback and in wagons and camp near the springs, in order to drink the water. In course of time a primitive town, known as Sulphur Springs, grew up near a group of springs known since as Pavilion Springs at the mouth of Sulphur Creek, now known as Travertine Creek. This town was still in existence at the time of my first visit to the locality in July, 1901. At this time, in company with Joseph A. Taff, of the United States Geological Survey, I spent a week riding over the country making a preliminary survey looking toward the setting aside of the area for a National Park. After the establishment of the National Park, the old town of Sulphur Springs was abandoned, and when the present boundaries of the park had been established the present town of Sulphur, now county seat of Murray County, grew up. In July 1906, on request of Superintendent Joseph F. Swords, I visited the park and made an examination of the various springs and submitted a report, dated August 15, 1906, to Secretary of the Interior E.A. Hitchcock. Copies of this report are on file in the Regional Office and at Platt National Park. In this report I set forth the approximate amount of flow of the various springs, the character of the water in each, and the conditions of the springs as of that date. I also made certain recommendations regarding proposed improvements of each spring. In this report I say: 'In the town of Sulphur, four wells have been

  6. Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) Annual Report Fiscal Year 2014 (FY14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA's National Risk Management...

  7. Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) Annual Report FY 2012: October 2011 – September 2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA's National Risk Management...

  8. Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) Annual Report Fiscal Year 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA’s National Risk Manag...

  9. Estimated Freshwater Withdrawals in Oklahoma, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents 1990 freshwater withdrawal estimates for Oklahoma by source and category. Withdrawal source is either ground water or surface water. Withdrawal categories include: irrigation, water supply, livestock, thermoelectric-power generation, domestic and commercial, and industrial and mining. Withdrawal data are aggregated by county, major aquifer, and principal river basin. Only the four major categories of irrigation, water supply, livestock, and thermoelectric-power generation are illustrated in this report, although data for all categories are tabulated. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established the National Water-Use Information Program in 1977 to collect uniform, current, and reliable information on water use. The Oklahoma District of the USGS and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board participate in a cooperative program to collect and publish water-use information for Oklahoma. Data contained in this report were made available through the cooperative program.

  10. Water used by grazed pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan(L) Millsp] in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water use by the warm-season annual pulse pigeon pea must be described to effectively use this legume as forage to support late-summer grazing by stocker cattle in the southern Great Plains (SGP). This study was conducted in central Oklahoma during 2008 to 2010 to quantify water and water use effici...

  11. Overview of water resources in and near Wichita and Affiliated Tribes treaty lands in western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Marvin M.; Tortorelli, R.L.; Becker, M.F.; Trombley, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    This report is an overview of water resources in and near the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes treaty lands in western Oklahoma. The tribal treaty lands are about 1,140 square miles and are bordered by the Canadian River on the north, the Washita River on the south, 98? west longitude on the east, and 98? 40' west longitude on the west. Seventy percent of the study area lies within the Washita River drainage basin and 30 percent of the area lies within the Canadian River drainage basin. March through June are months of greatest average streamflow, with 49 to 57 percent of the annual streamflow occurring in these four months. November through February, July, and August have the least average streamflow with only 26 to 36 percent of the annual streamflow occurring in these six months. Two streamflow-gaging stations, Canadian River at Bridgeport and Cobb Creek near Fort Cobb, indicated peak streamflows generally decrease with regulation. Two other streamflow-gaging stations, Washita River at Carnegie and Washita River at Anadarko, indicated a decrease in peak streamflows after regulation at less than the 100-year recurrence and an increase in peak streamflows greater than the 100-year recurrence. Canadian River at Bridgeport and Washita River at Carnegie had estimated annual low flows that generally increased with regulation. Cobb Creek near Fort Cobb had a decrease of estimated annual low flows after regulation. There are greater than 900 ground-water wells in the tribal treaty lands. Eighty percent of the wells are in Caddo County.The major aquifers in the study area are the Rush Springs Aquifer and portions of the Canadian River and Washita River valley alluvial aquifers. The Rush Springs Aquifer is used extensively for irrigation as well as industrial and municipal purposes, especially near population centers.The Canadian River and Washita River valley alluvial aquifers are not used extensively in the study area. Well yields from the Rush Springs Aquifer ranged from

  12. Altitude and configuration of the predevelopment water table in the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1982-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The altitude and configuration of the water table are shown for the eastern area (sheet 1) and for the Panhandle area (sheet 2). In the eastern area, consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties, water levels measured from the 1950's to the 1970's represent predevelopment conditions and were obtained from published and unpublished data in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the Panhandle, predevelopment contours were based on measurements made from 1937 to 1940. Some water levels in Beaver County were measured as late as 1959 in areas where significant development had not occurred previously.

  13. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-09-01

    As required by the terms of the above referenced grant, the following summary serves as the Final Report for that grant. The grant relates to work performed at two separate sites, the Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site south of Gillette, Wyoming, and the Rock Springs In-Situ Oil Shale Retort Site near Rock Springs, Wyoming. The primary concern to the State of Wyoming at each site is ground water contamination (the primary contaminants of concern are benzene and related compounds), and the purpose of the grant has been to provide tiding for a Geohydrologist at the appropriate State agency, specifically the Land Quality Division (LQD) of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality. The LQD Geohydrologist has been responsible for providing technical and regulatory support to DOE for ground water remediation and subsequent surface reclamation. Substantial progress has been made toward remediation of the sites, and continuation of LQD involvement in the remediation and reclamation efforts is addressed.

  14. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma Aquifer in central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, D.L.; Christenson, S.C.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export files The data sets in this report include digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of Cleveland, Lincoln, Logan, Oklahoma, Payne, and Pottawatomie Counties. The Central Oklahoma aquifer includes the alluvial and terrace deposits along major streams, the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations, and the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups. The Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits consist of unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The Permian-age Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations consist of sandstone with interbedded siltstone and mudstone. The Permian-age Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups consist of sandstone, shale, and thin limestone. The Central Oklahoma aquifer underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma where the aquifer is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. Most of the usable ground water within the aquifer is from the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations. Substantial quantities of usable ground water also are present in the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, and in alluvial and terrace deposits associated with the major streams. The aquifer boundaries, hydraulic conductivity and recharge values, and ground-water level elevation contours are from previously published reports.

  15. Water quality and possible sources of nitrate in the Cimarron Terrace Aquifer, Oklahoma, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, Jason R.; Mashburn, Shana L.

    2004-01-01

    Water from the Cimarron terrace aquifer in northwest Oklahoma commonly has nitrate concentrations that exceed the maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (referred to as nitrate) set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for public drinking water supplies. Starting in July 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, conducted a study in the Cimarron terrace aquifer to assess the water quality and possible sources of nitrate. A qualitative and quantitative approach based on multiple lines of evidence from chemical analysis of nitrate, nitrogen isotopes in nitrate, pesticides (indicative of cropland fertilizer application), and wastewater compounds (indicative of animal or human wastewater) were used to indicate possible sources of nitrate in the Cimarron terrace aquifer. Nitrate was detected in 44 of 45 ground-water samples and had the greatest median concentration (8.03 milligrams per liter) of any nutrient analyzed. Nitrate concentrations ranged from <0.06 to 31.8 milligrams per liter. Seventeen samples had nitrate concentrations exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter. Nitrate concentrations in agricultural areas were significantly greater than nitrate concentrations in grassland areas. Pesticides were detected in 15 of 45 ground-water samples. Atrazine and deethylatrazine, a metabolite of atrazine, were detected most frequently. Deethylatrazine was detected in water samples from 9 wells and atrazine was detected in samples from 8 wells. Tebuthiuron was detected in water samples from 5 wells; metolachlor was detected in samples from 4 wells; prometon was detected in samples from 4 wells; and alachlor was detected in 1 well. None of the detected pesticide concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant level or health advisory level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Wastewater compounds were detected in 28 of

  16. Chemical quality of water in abandoned zinc mines in northeastern Oklahoma and southeastern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Playton, Stephen J.; Davis, Robert E.; McClaflin, Roger G.

    1980-01-01

    Onsite measurements of pH, specific conductance, and water temperature show that water in seven mine shafts in northeastern Oklahoma and southeastern Kansas is stratified. With increasing sampling depth, specific conductance and water temperature tend to increase, and pH tends to decrease. Concentrations of dissolved solids and chemical constituents in mine-shaft water, such as total and dissolved metals and dissolved sulfate also increase with depth. The apparently unstable condition created by cooler, denser water overlying warmer, less dense water is offset by the greater density of the lower water strata due to higher dissolved solids content.

  17. Ground water and climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food secu¬rity will probably intensify under climate chan...

  18. Ground water: the hidden resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Ground water is water underground in saturated zones beneath the land surface. Contrary to popular belief, ground water does not form underground "rivers." It fills the pores and fractures in underground materials such as sand, gravel, and other rock. If ground water flows from rock materials or can be removed by pumping from the saturated rock materials In useful amounts, the rock materials are called aquifers. Ground water moves slowly, typically at rates of 7 to 60 centimeters per day in an aquifer. As a result, water could remain in an aquifer for hundreds or thousands of years. Ground water is the source of about 40 percent of water used for public supplies and about 38 percent of water used for agriculture in the United States.

  19. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE: GROUND WATER SAMPLING FOR METALS ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Filtration of ground-water samples for metals analysis is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers. Inconsistency in EPA Syperfund cleanup pracices occurs where one EPA Region implements a remedial action based on unfiltered ground-water samples,...

  20. Results of chemical and isotopic analyses of sediment and water from alluvium of the Canadian River near a closed municipal landfill, Norman, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, George N.; Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Christenson, Scott C.; Jaeschke, Jeanne B.; Fey, David L.; Berry, Cyrus J.

    2005-01-01

    Results of physical and chemical analyses of sediment and water collected near a closed municipal landfill at Norman, Oklahoma are presented in this report. Sediment analyses are from 40 samples obtained by freeze-shoe coring at 5 sites, and 14 shallow (depth <1.3 m) sediment samples. The sediment was analyzed to determine grain size, the abundance of extractable iron species and the abundances and isotopic compositions of forms of sulfur. Water samples included pore water from the freeze-shoe core, ground water, and surface water. Pore water from 23 intervals of the core was collected and analyzed for major and trace dissolved species. Thirteen ground-water samples obtained from wells within a few meters of the freeze-shoe core sites and one from the landfill were analyzed for major and trace elements as well as the sulfur and oxygen isotope composition of dissolved sulfate. Samples of surface water were collected at 10 sites along the Canadian River from New Mexico to central Oklahoma. These river-water samples were analyzed for major elements, trace elements, and the isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate.

  1. Ground water and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  2. Ground Water and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  3. Evaluation and trends of land cover, streamflow, and water quality in the North Canadian River Basin near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1968–2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Andrews, William J.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Oklahoma City, collected water-quality samples from the North Canadian River at the streamflow-gaging station near Harrah, Oklahoma (Harrah station), since 1968, and at an upstream streamflow-gaging station at Britton Road at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (Britton Road station), since 1988. Statistical summaries and frequencies of detection of water-quality constituent data from water samples, and summaries of water-quality constituent data from continuous water-quality monitors are described from the start of monitoring at those stations through 2009. Differences in concentrations between stations and time trends for selected constituents were evaluated to determine the effects of: (1) wastewater effluent discharges, (2) changes in land-cover, (3) changes in streamflow, (4) increases in urban development, and (5) other anthropogenic sources of contamination on water quality in the North Canadian River downstream from Oklahoma City. Land-cover changes between 1992 and 2001 in the basin between the Harrah station and Lake Overholser upstream included an increase in developed/barren land-cover and a decrease in pasture/hay land cover. There were no significant trends in median and greater streamflows at either streamflow-gaging station, but there were significant downward trends in lesser streamflows, especially after 1999, which may have been associated with decreases in precipitation between 1999 and 2009 or construction of low-water dams on the river upstream from Oklahoma City in 1999. Concentrations of dissolved chloride, lead, cadmium, and chlordane most frequently exceeded the Criterion Continuous Concentration (a water-quality standard for protection of aquatic life) in water-quality samples collected at both streamflow-gaging stations. Visual trends in annual frequencies of detection were investigated for selected pesticides with frequencies of detection greater than 10 percent in all water samples

  4. Carbon and water vapor fluxes of different ecosystems in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on exchange of energy, carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) for major terrestrial ecosystems is vital to quantify carbon and water balances on a large-scale. It is also necessary to develop, test, and improve crop models and satellite-based production efficiency and evapotranspira...

  5. Vertical gradients in water chemistry in the central High Plains aquifer, southwestern Kansas and Oklahoma panhandle, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.

    2001-01-01

    The central High Plains aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic, industrial, and irrigation uses in parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Water-level declines of more than 100 feet in some areas of the aquifer have increased the demand for water deeper in the aquifer. The maximum saturated thickness of the aquifer ranged from 500 to 600 feet in 1999. As the demand for deeper water increases, it becomes increasingly important for resource managers to understand how the quality of water in the aquifer changes with depth. In 1998?99, 18 monitoring wells at nine sites in southwestern Kansas and the Oklahoma Panhandle were completed at various depths in the central High Plains aquifer, and one monitoring well was completed in sediments of Permian age underlying the aquifer. Water samples were collected once from each well in 1999 to measure vertical gradients in water chemistry in the aquifer. Tritium concentrations measured in ground water indicate that water samples collected in the upper 30 feet of the aquifer were generally recharged within the last 50 years, whereas all of the water samples collected at depths more than 30 feet below the water table were recharged more than 50 years ago. Dissolved oxygen was present throughout the aquifer, with concentrations ranging from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/L. Water in the central High Plains aquifer was predominantly a calcium-bicarbonate type that exhibited little variability in concentrations of dissolved solids with depth (290 to 642 mg/L). Exceptions occurred in some areas where there had been upward movement of mineralized water from underlying sediments of Permian age and areas where there had been downward movement of mineralized Arkansas River water to the aquifer. Calcium-sulfate and sodium-chloride waters dominated and concentrations of dissolved solids were elevated (862 to 4,030 mg/L) near the base of the aquifer in the areas of upward leakage. Dissolution of gypsum or anhydrite and halite

  6. Natural Radionuclides in Ground Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stanley N.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the natural trace radionuclides in ground water. Indicates the geologic origin of these radionuclides. Discusses the importance of these radionuclides. Suggests future uses of a number of additional radionuclides. (CW)

  7. Modeled ground water age distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  8. Modeled ground water age distributions.

    PubMed

    Woolfenden, Linda R; Ginn, Timothy R

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  9. Comparison of Ground-Based 3-Dimensional Lightning Mapping Observation with Satellite-Based LIS Observations in Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Hamlin, Timothy; Boccippio, Dennis J.; Goodman, Steven J.; Christian, Hugh J.

    1999-01-01

    3-dimensional lightning mapping observations were obtained in central Oklahoma during June 1998, using New Mexico Tech's Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). The results have been compared with observations of the discharges from space obtained by NASA's Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. Excellent spatial and temporal correlations were obtained between the two sets of observations. All discharges seen by LIS were mapped by the LMA. Most of the detected optical events were associated with lightning channels that extended into the upper part of the storm. Cloud-to-ground discharges that were confined to mid- and lower-altitudes tended to be detected by LIS at the time of late-stage return strokes. Extensive illumination tended to occur in impulsive bursts toward the end or part way through intracloud discharges and appeared to be produced by energetic K-changes that typically occur at these times.

  10. Hydrologic Drought of Water Year 2006 Compared with Four Major Drought Periods of the 20th Century in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Water Year 2006 (October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2006) was a year of extreme hydrologic drought and the driest year in the recent 2002-2006 drought in Oklahoma. The severity of this recent drought can be evaluated by comparing it with four previous major hydrologic droughts, water years 1929-41, 1952-56, 1961-72, and 1976-81. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, completed an investigation to summarize the Water Year 2006 hydrologic drought and compare it to the four previous major hydrologic droughts in the 20th century. The period of water years 1925-2006 was selected as the period of record because before 1925 few continuous record streamflow-gaging sites existed and gaps existed where no streamflow-gaging sites were operated. Statewide annual precipitation in Water Year 2006 was second driest and statewide annual runoff in Water Year 2006 was sixth driest in the 82 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service Climate Divisions from Water Year 2006 are compared to those during four previous major hydrologic droughts to show how rainfall deficits in Oklahoma varied by region. Only two of the nine climate divisions, Climate Division 1 Panhandle and Climate Division 4 West Central, had minor rainfall deficits, while the rest of the climate divisions had severe rainfall deficits in Water Year 2006 ranging from only 65 to 73 percent of normal annual precipitation. Regional streamflow patterns for Water Year 2006 indicate that Oklahoma was part of the regionwide below-normal streamflow conditions for Arkansas-White-Red River Basin, the sixth driest since 1930. The percentage of long-term stations in Oklahoma (with at least 30 years of record) having below-normal streamflow reached 80 to 85 percent for some days in August and November 2006. Twelve long-term streamflow-gaging sites with periods of record ranging from 62 to 78 years were selected to show how streamflow

  11. Surface-water resources of Polecat Creek basin, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laine, L.L.

    1956-01-01

    A compilation of basic data on surface waters in Polecat Creek basin is presented on a monthly basis for Heyburn Reservoir and for Polecat Creek at Heyburn, Okla. Chemical analyses are shown for five sites in the basin. Correlation of runoff records with those for nearby basins indicates that the average annual runoff of the basin above gaging station at Heyburn is 325 acre-feet per square mile. Estimated duration curves of daily flow indicate that under natural conditions there would be no flow in Polecat Creek at Heyburn (drainage area, 129 square miles) about 16 percent of the time on an average, and that the flow would be less than 3 cubic feet per second half of the time. As there is no significant base flow in the basin, comparable low flows during dry-weather periods may be expected in other parts of the basin. During drought periods Heyburn Reservoir does not sustain a dependable low-water flow in Polecat Creek. Except for possible re-use of the small sewage effluent from city of Sapulpa, dependable supplies for additional water needs on the main stem will require development of supplemental storage. There has been no regular program for collection of chemical quality data in the basin, but miscellaneous analyses indicate a water of suitable quality for municipal and agricultural uses in Heyburn Reservoir and Polecat Creek near Heyburn. One recent chemical analysis indicates the possibility of a salt pollution problem in the Creek near Sapulpa. (available as photostat copy only)

  12. Bibliography of Ground-Water References for All 254 Counties in Texas, 1886-2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    REPORT 21, 1966. GROUND WATER IN THE OGALLALA FORMATION IN THE SOUTH- ERN HIGH PLAINS OF TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO : USGS HYDRO- LOGIC INVESTIGATIONS ATLAS HA... NEW MEXICO , OKLAHOMA, SOUTH DAKOTA, TEXAS, AND WYOMING: USGS HYDROLOGIC INVESTI- GATIONS ATLAS HA–648, 1981. WATER LEVEL AND SATURATED THICKNESS...CHANGES, PREDE- VELOPMENT TO 1980, IN THE HIGH PLAINS AQUIFER IN PARTS OF COLORADO, KANSAS, NEBRASKA, NEW MEXICO , OKLA- HOMA, SOUTH DAKOTA, TEXAS, AND

  13. Oklahoma Tribes: A History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, Kevin

    1977-01-01

    Oklahoma is a microcosm of American Indian country. Water rights, tribal government impotence, jurisdiction, tribal membership, treaty rights, taxation, sovereignty, racism, and poor housing, education, and health are all vital issues facing the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. In order to understand the complexity of these issues, a review of the…

  14. Assessing agricultural drought in summer over Oklahoma Mesonet sites using the water-related vegetation index from MODIS.

    PubMed

    Bajgain, Rajen; Xiao, Xiangming; Basara, Jeffrey; Wagle, Pradeep; Zhou, Yuting; Zhang, Yao; Mahan, Hayden

    2017-02-01

    Agricultural drought, a common phenomenon in most parts of the world, is one of the most challenging natural hazards to monitor effectively. Land surface water index (LSWI), calculated as a normalized ratio between near infrared (NIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR), is sensitive to vegetation and soil water content. This study examined the potential of a LSWI-based, drought-monitoring algorithm to assess summer drought over 113 Oklahoma Mesonet stations comprising various land cover and soil types in Oklahoma. Drought duration in a year was determined by the number of days with LSWI <0 (DNLSWI) during summer months (June-August). Summer rainfall anomalies and LSWI anomalies followed a similar seasonal dynamics and showed strong correlations (r (2) = 0.62-0.73) during drought years (2001, 2006, 2011, and 2012). The DNLSWI tracked the east-west gradient of summer rainfall in Oklahoma. Drought intensity increased with increasing duration of DNLSWI, and the intensity increased rapidly when DNLSWI was more than 48 days. The comparison between LSWI and the US Drought Monitor (USDM) showed a strong linear negative relationship; i.e., higher drought intensity tends to have lower LSWI values and vice versa. However, the agreement between LSWI-based algorithm and USDM indicators varied substantially from 32 % (D 2 class, moderate drought) to 77 % (0 and D 0 class, no drought) for different drought intensity classes and varied from ∼30 % (western Oklahoma) to >80 % (eastern Oklahoma) across regions. Our results illustrated that drought intensity thresholds can be established by counting DNLSWI (in days) and used as a simple complementary tool in several drought applications for semi-arid and semi-humid regions of Oklahoma. However, larger discrepancies between USDM and the LSWI-based algorithm in arid regions of western Oklahoma suggest the requirement of further adjustment in the algorithm for its application in arid regions.

  15. Assessing agricultural drought in summer over Oklahoma Mesonet sites using the water-related vegetation index from MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajgain, Rajen; Xiao, Xiangming; Basara, Jeffrey; Wagle, Pradeep; Zhou, Yuting; Zhang, Yao; Mahan, Hayden

    2017-02-01

    Agricultural drought, a common phenomenon in most parts of the world, is one of the most challenging natural hazards to monitor effectively. Land surface water index (LSWI), calculated as a normalized ratio between near infrared (NIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR), is sensitive to vegetation and soil water content. This study examined the potential of a LSWI-based, drought-monitoring algorithm to assess summer drought over 113 Oklahoma Mesonet stations comprising various land cover and soil types in Oklahoma. Drought duration in a year was determined by the number of days with LSWI <0 (DNLSWI) during summer months (June-August). Summer rainfall anomalies and LSWI anomalies followed a similar seasonal dynamics and showed strong correlations ( r 2 = 0.62-0.73) during drought years (2001, 2006, 2011, and 2012). The DNLSWI tracked the east-west gradient of summer rainfall in Oklahoma. Drought intensity increased with increasing duration of DNLSWI, and the intensity increased rapidly when DNLSWI was more than 48 days. The comparison between LSWI and the US Drought Monitor (USDM) showed a strong linear negative relationship; i.e., higher drought intensity tends to have lower LSWI values and vice versa. However, the agreement between LSWI-based algorithm and USDM indicators varied substantially from 32 % ( D 2 class, moderate drought) to 77 % (0 and D 0 class, no drought) for different drought intensity classes and varied from ˜30 % (western Oklahoma) to >80 % (eastern Oklahoma) across regions. Our results illustrated that drought intensity thresholds can be established by counting DNLSWI (in days) and used as a simple complementary tool in several drought applications for semi-arid and semi-humid regions of Oklahoma. However, larger discrepancies between USDM and the LSWI-based algorithm in arid regions of western Oklahoma suggest the requirement of further adjustment in the algorithm for its application in arid regions.

  16. Ground water in Pavant Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennis, P. E.; Maxey, G.B.; Thomas, H.E.

    1946-01-01

    The users of wells for irrigation in Pavant Valley, particularly in the Flowell district, have long been cognizant of their utter dependency upon ground water for livelihood, and were among the first in the State to make an organized effort to conserve supplies by prevention of waste. Since passage of the State ground-water law in 1935, the State Engineer has not approved applications for new wells in the areas of most concentrated development, and has deferred adjudication of existing water rights until adequate data concerning the ground-water resources become available. The investigation of ground-water resources in Pavant Valley was suggested by the State Engineer and constitutes one of a series that are being made in the important groundwater basins of Utah by the Federal Geological Survey in cooperation with the State Engineer. The investigation was under the general supervision of Oscar E. Meinzer, geologist in charge of the ground-water division of the Federal Geological Survey. H. E. Thomas, in charge of groundwater investigations in Utah, returned from military service overseas in time to assist in the completion of the manuscript, and edited the report.

  17. GROUND WATER TECHNICAL SUPPORT CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development operates a Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC). The Center provides support on issues regarding subsurface contamination, contaminant fluxes to other media (e.g., surface water or air), and ecosystem restoration. The GWTSC creat...

  18. Surface waters of Illinois River basin in Arkansas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laine, L.L.

    1959-01-01

    The estimated runoff from the Illinois River basin of 1,660 square miles has averaged 1,160,000 acre-feet per year during the water years 1938-56, equivalent to an average annual runoff depth of 13.1 inches. About 47 percent of the streamflow is contributed from drainage in Arkansas, where an average of 550,000 acre-ft per year runs off from 755 square miles, 45.5 percent of the total drainage area. The streamflow is highly variable. Twenty-two years of record for Illinois River near Tahlequah, Okla., shows a variation in runoff for the water year 1945 in comparison with 1954 in a ratio of almost 10 to 1. Runoff in 1927 may have exceeded that of 1945, according to records for White River at Beaver, Ark., the drainage basin just east of the Illinois River basin. Variation in daily discharge is suggested by a frequency analysis of low flows at the gaging station near Tahlequah, Okla. The mean flow at that site is 901 cfs (cubic feet per second), the median daily flow is 350 cfs, and the lowest 30-day mean flow in a year probably will be less than 130 cfs half of the time and less than 20 cfs every 10 years on the average. The higher runoff tends to occur in the spring months, March to May, a 3-month period that, on the average, accounts for almost half of the annual flow. High runoff may occur during any month in the year, but in general, the streamflow is the lowest in the summer. The mean monthly flow of Illinois River near Tahlequah, Okla., for September is about 11 percent of that for May. Records show that there is flow throughout the year in Illinois River and its principal tributaries Osage Creek, Flint Creek and Barren Fork. The high variability in streamflow in this region requires the development of storage by impoundment if maximum utilization of the available water supplies is to be attained. For example, a 120-day average low flow of 22 cfs occurred in 1954 at Illinois River near Tahlequah, Okla. To have maintained the flow at 350 cfs, the median daily

  19. Ground water quality protection

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, L.W.; Fairchild, D.; Knox, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Considered by the EPA to be one of the ''major Environmental Issues of the 1980s'' groundwater supplies a large majority of the water we use. Here is a book that deals with this problem. It is necessary that this problem be studied and action taken to prevent despoliation of the aquifers where this water is now found, because once contaminated an aquifer is difficult to decontaminate. CONTENTS-Groundwater: An Important Resource; Groundwater Hydrology; Groundwater Information Sources; Groundwater Pollution Sources; Pollutant Transport and Fate in the Subsurface Environment: Abiotic and Biotic Processes; Pollutant Transport and Fate in the Subsurface Environment: Hydrodynamic Processes and Flow and Solute Modeling; Pollution Source Evaluation; Empirical Assessment Methods; Groundwater Monitoring Planning; Groundwater Sampling and Analysis; Groundwater Quality Management; Groundwater Clean-up. References. Index.

  20. Correlation of satellite lightning observations with ground-based lightning experiments in Florida, Texas and Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgar, B. C.; Turman, B. N.

    1982-01-01

    Satellite observations of lightning were correlated with ground-based measurements of lightning from data bases obtained at three separate sites. The percentage of ground-based observations of lightning that would be seen by an orbiting satellite was determined.

  1. Radon in ground water supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.L.; Lee, R.G.

    1989-06-01

    In September 1986, the System Water Quality Department of the American Water Works Service Co. began conducting a radon survey that was designed to determine the levels of radon in American ground water supplies, and to assess the radon removal efficiency of existing treatment processes such as filtration through granular activated carbon (GAC) and various forms of aeration. The survey found that companies in the northeastern part of the country experienced the highest levels of radon in ground water supplies. The highest concentrations were in individual wells in New Hampshire, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and California. The analytical results from the occurrence phase of the survey seemed to correlate well with the known geology of the aquifer materials from which samples of ground water were drawn. The highest levels were associated with formations of uranium-bearing granitic rocks. GAC can effectively reduce radon concentrations in drinking water supplies to very low levels. However, the amount of contact time within the carbon bed required to do so would be prohibitive to many water utilities from an operational and economic standpoint. Further, disposal of the spent GAC as a low-level radioactive waste may be required. Aeration is very effective in the removal of radon from drinking water. Packed tower aerators achieved > 95% reduction in radon concentrations and conventional cascading tray aerators achieved > 75% reduction in radon concentrations. 7 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. Microbiology of potable water and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with the microbiology of potable water and ground water is presented. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of granular activated carbon (GAC) and alternate disinfection practices to reduce trihalomethane. Results of studies utilizing GAC columns are reported as well as studies evaluating ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloromines. Virus removal efficiencies were compared with several disinfectants. Ground water studies demonstrate that biological contaminants can travel large distances underground without substantial attenuation by aquifer material.(KRM)

  3. Ground Motion Attenuation and Shear-Wave Splitting Analyses for the November 2011 M5.7 Prague, Oklahoma Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumy, D. F.; Cochran, E. S.; Keranen, K. M.; Neighbors, C.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    During November 2011, three M≥5.0 earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks occurred on and near the Wilzetta fault, a structurally complex ~200 km long, Pennsylvanian-aged fault near Prague, Oklahoma, in close proximity to several active wastewater injection wells. All three M≥5.0 earthquakes had strike-slip mechanisms consistent with rupture on three independent focal planes, suggesting activation of three different strands of the Wilzetta fault. Wastewater injection can cause a buildup of pore fluid pressure along the fault, which decreases the fault strength and may induce earthquakes. Based on the proximity of earthquakes to active fluid injection wells, the unilateral progression of aftershocks away from the initial M5.0 event, and shallow earthquake depths, Keranen et al. [2013] concluded that fluid injection was responsible for inducing the first M5.0 event. Furthermore, Sumy et al. [2014] found that the initial M5.0 event increased the Coulomb stress in the region of the M5.7 mainshock, triggering a cascade of earthquakes along the Wilzetta fault. Thus, while nearby wastewater injection directly induced the initial M5.0 event, this earthquake triggered successive failure along the Wilzetta fault; however, it remains unclear if the additional ruptured fault strands are also influenced by fluid injection. In this study, we explore instrumental ground motions and shear-wave splitting of the November 2011 Prague, Oklahoma sequence, in order to construct ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and understand the local stress regime, respectively. We examine ~1,000 earthquakes recorded by a total of 47 seismometers, located within ~150 km of the Wilzetta fault. With respect to GMPEs, initial results suggest that the ground motions are smaller than similar magnitude earthquakes of natural/tectonic origins, and these lower intensities may be a result of lower stress drops [e.g. Hough, 2014]. With respect to shear-wave splitting, we examine quality graded

  4. Hydrologic drought of water year 2011 compared to four major drought periods of the 20th century in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivers, Molly J.; Andrews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Water year 2011 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011) was a year of hydrologic drought (based on streamflow) in Oklahoma and the second-driest year to date (based on precipitation) since 1925. Drought conditions worsened substantially in the summer, with the highest monthly average temperature record for all States being broken by Oklahoma in July (89.1 degrees Fahrenheit), June being the second hottest and August being the hottest on record for those months for the State since 1895. Drought conditions continued into the fall, with all of the State continuing to be in severe to exceptional drought through the end of September. In addition to effects on streamflow and reservoirs, the 2011 drought increased damage from wildfires, led to declarations of states of emergency, water-use restrictions, and outdoor burning bans; caused at least $2 billion of losses in the agricultural sector and higher prices for food and other agricultural products; caused losses of tourism and wildlife; reduced hydropower generation; and lowered groundwater levels in State aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, conducted an investigation to compare the severity of the 2011 drought with four previous major hydrologic drought periods during the 20th century – water years 1929–41, 1952–56, 1961–72, and 1976–81. The period of water years 1925–2011 was selected as the period of record because few continuous record streamflow-gaging stations existed before 1925, and gaps in time existed where no streamflow-gaging stations were operated before 1925. In water year 2011, statewide annual precipitation was the 2d lowest, statewide annual streamflow was 16th lowest, and statewide annual runoff was 42d lowest of those 87 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service climate divisions from water year 2011 were compared to those during four previous major hydrologic drought

  5. Continued decrease of open surface water body area in Oklahoma during 1984-2015.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhenhua; Dong, Jinwei; Menarguez, Michael A; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Doughty, Russell B; Hooker, Katherine V; David Hambright, K

    2017-04-07

    Oklahoma contains the largest number of manmade lakes and reservoirs in the United States. Despite the importance of these open surface water bodies to public water supply, agriculture, thermoelectric power, tourism and recreation, it is unclear how these water bodies have responded to climate change and anthropogenic water exploitation in past decades. In this study, we used all available Landsat 5 and 7 images (16,000 scenes) from 1984 through 2015 and a water index- and pixel-based approach to analyze the spatial-temporal variability of open surface water bodies and its relationship with climate and water exploitation. Specifically, the areas and numbers of four water body extents (the maximum, year-long, seasonal, and average extents) were analyzed to capture variations in water body area and number. Statistically significant downward trends were found in the maximum, year-long, and annual average water body areas from 1984 through 2015. Furthermore, these decreases were mainly attributed to the continued shrinking of large water bodies (>1km(2)). There were also significant decreases in maximum and year-long water body numbers, which suggested that some of the water bodies were vanishing year by year. However, remarkable inter-annual variations of water body area and number were also found. Both water body area and number were positively related to precipitation, and negatively related to temperature. Surface water withdrawals mainly influenced the year-long water bodies. The smaller water bodies have a higher risk of drying under a drier climate, which suggests that small water bodies are more vulnerable under climate-warming senarios.

  6. COMPILATION OF GROUND WATER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The full report presents an overview of currently available computer-based simulation models for ground-water flow, solute and heat transport, and hydrogeochemistry in both porous media and fractured rock. Separate sections address multiphase flow and related chemical species tra...

  7. History of the USDA-ARS Watershed, Water Resources and Climate Research at Chickasha, Durant, and El Reno, Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The watershed, water resources and climate research conducted at the Great Plains Agroclimate and Natural Resources Research Unit at the USDA, ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory in El Reno, Oklahoma, is rooted in events reaching as far back as the Dust Bowl and the Great Depression. In this narrat...

  8. Freshwater resources and saline water near the Sac and Fox Nation tribal lands, eastern Lincoln County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Marvin M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the freshwater resources and possible sources of high-chloride and high-sulfate concentrations in parts of the aquifer near the Sac and Fox Nation tribal land in eastern Lincoln County, Oklahoma. Water-quality sampling and borehole geophysical data indicate the potential for fresh ground water on tribal land generally is greatest in the Vanoss Formation, in the SE1/4 sec. 21, T. 14 N., R. 06 E. and in the NE1/4 sec. 22, T. 14 N., R. 06 E. These locations avoid the flood-prone areas and borehole geophysical resistivity logs indicate the altitude of the base of fresh ground water is below 650 ft. The altitude of the base of fresh ground water is indicated to be generally near the surface under the W1/2 sec. 22, T. 14 N., R. 06 E., the SE1/4 sec. 22, SE1/4 SE1/4 NE1/4 sec. 21, and NE1/4 NW1/4 NW1/4 sec. 27. Conditions are more favorable for placement of fresh ground-water wells in sec. 34, T. 14 N., R. 06 E., where the tribe has leased water rights, than on tribal land in secs. 15, 16, 21, and 22, T. 14 N., R. 06 E. Sandstones overlain by or enclosed in thick clay and shale sequences are likely to be somewhat isolated from the flow system and retain some of the residual brine. Borehole geophysical logs suggest that sandstones near CH1, CM1, and WT1 have more clay and shale content than the sandstones near L2. Greater amounts of clay in the sandstones will retard the flushing of residual brines from the sandstones and could result in a shallow base of fresh water near CH1, CM1, and WT1. For these reasons and because circulation of fresh ground water is limited by discharge to the Deep Fork, general water quality under tribal land would probably be poorer than in the area where the tribe has leased water rights. Samples have chloride or sulfate concentrations greater than 250 milligrams per liter in the W1/2 sec. 22, T. 14 N., R. 06 E. Six cluster well samples from tribal land have chloride or sulfate concentrations above the

  9. Hydrogeology, water use, and simulation of flow in the High Plains aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, northeastern New Mexico, and northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luckey, Richard L.; Becker, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, began a three-year study of the High Plains aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma in 1996. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a ground-water flow model to provide the Water Board with the information it needs to manage the quantity of water withdrawn from the aquifer. The study area consists of about 7,100 square miles in Oklahoma and about 20,800 square miles in adjacent states to provide appropriate hydrologic boundaries for the flow model. The High Plains aquifer includes all sediments from the base of the Ogallala Formation to the potentiometric surface. The saturated thickness in Oklahoma ranges from more than 400 feet to less than 50 feet. Natural recharge to the aquifer from precipitation occurs throughout the area but is extremely variable. Dryland agricultural practices appear to enhance recharge from precipitation, and part of the water pumped for irrigation also recharges the aquifer. Natural discharge occurs as discharge to streams, evapotranspiration where the depth to water is shallow, and diffuse ground-water flow across the eastern boundary. Artificial discharge occurs as discharge to wells. Irrigation accounted for 96 percent of all use of water from the High Plains aquifer in the Oklahoma portion of the study area in 1992 and 93 percent in 1997. Total estimated water use in 1992 for the Oklahoma portion of the study area was 396,000 acre-feet and was about 3.2 million acre-feet for the entire study area. Since development of the aquifer, water levels have declined more than 100 feet in small areas of Texas County, Oklahoma, and more than 50 feet in areas of Cimarron County. Only a small area of Beaver County had declines of more than 10 feet, and Ellis County had rises of more than 10 feet. A flow model constructed using the MODFLOW computer code had 21,073 active cells in one layer and had a 6,000- foot grid in both the north-south and east

  10. High Plains Regional Ground-water Study web site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.

    2000-01-01

    Now available on the Internet is a web site for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program- High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study. The purpose of the web site is to provide public access to a wide variety of information on the USGS investigation of the ground-water resources within the High Plains aquifer system. Typical pages on the web site include the following: descriptions of the High Plains NAWQA, the National NAWQA Program, the study-area setting, current and past activities, significant findings, chemical and ancillary data (which can be downloaded), listing and access to publications, links to other sites about the High Plains area, and links to other web sites studying High Plains ground-water resources. The High Plains aquifer is a regional aquifer system that underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States (Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming). Because the study area is so large, the Internet is an ideal way to provide project data and information on a near real-time basis. The web site will be a collection of living documents where project data and information are updated as it becomes available throughout the life of the project. If you have an interest in the High Plains area, you can check this site periodically to learn how the High Plains NAWQA activities are progressing over time and access new data and publications as they become available.

  11. The Discrepancy Between Measured and Modeled Downwelling Solar Irradiance at the Ground: Dependence on Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilewski, P.; Rabbette, M.; Bergstrom, R.; Marquez, J.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.

    2000-01-01

    Moderate resolution spectra of the downwelling solar irradiance at the ground in north central Oklahoma were measured during the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Intensive Observation Period in the fall of 1997. Spectra obtained under-cloud-free conditions were compared with calculations using a coarse resolution radiative transfer model to examine the dependency of model-measurement bias on water vapor. It was found that the bias was highly correlated with water vapor and increased at a rate of 9 Wm per cm of water. The source of the discrepancy remains undetermined because of the complex dependencies of other variables, most notably aerosol optical depth, on water vapor.

  12. Summary of annual records of chemical quality of water of the Arkansas River in Oklahoma and Arkansas, 1945-1952

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1953-01-01

    This report summarizes information collected to date in the Arkansas River Basin in Oklahoma and Arkansas, and shows, within the limitations of present information, the chemical quality of water in the Arkansas River downstream from the Oklahoma-Kansas State line to its junction with the Mississippi River, and the influence of tributary in-flows. Additional data are being collected and further studies are planned. Hence, conclusions reached herein may be modified by more complete information at a later date. The Arkansas River is subject to many types of pollution downstream from the Oklahoma-Kansas State line, and its inferior quality along with an erratic flow pattern has caused it to be largely abandoned as a source of municipal and industrial water supply. Currently, the Arkansas River is not directly used as a source of public supply in any part of the basin in either Oklahoma or Arkansas. In general, the river water increases in chemical concentration downstream from the Oklahoma-Kansas State line to Tulsa due mainly to tributary inflow from the Salt Fork Arkansas River and the Cimarron River, both streams being sources of large amounts of both natural salts and industrial wastes. A decrease in chemical concentration is noted downstream from Tulsa due to tributary inflow from the Verdigris, Neosho, and Illinois rivers, with an increase in chemical concentration then noted due to tributary inflow from the Canadian River which is largely oil field wastes. A steady decrease in concentrations is then noted as the river progresses through Arkansas to the Mississippi River, as all major tributaries below the Canadian River have a dilution effect upon the chemical concentration of the Arkansas River water. Proposals for storage and regulating reservoirs on the Arkansas River in both Oklahoma and Arkansas have been made by the Corps of Engineers and others. Additional proposals are bing considered in the present Arkansas-White-Red River Basin Inter-Agency Sub

  13. Preliminary report on the quality of water in abandoned zinc mines in northeastern Oklahoma and southeastern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Playton, Stephen J.; Davis, Robert Ellis

    1977-01-01

    On-site measurements of pH, specific conductance, and water temperature show that water in seven mine shafts in northeastern Oklahoma and southeastern Kansas is stratified, with pH decreasing and specific conductance and water temperature increasing as sampling depth increases. Concentrations of chemical constituents in mine-shaft water, such as dissolved solids, total and dissolved metals, and dissolved sulfate also increase as sampling depth increases. The water in the mine shafts was unsuited for most uses without treatment. The relative inability of current treatment practices to effectively remove high concentrations of toxic metals, such as Bcadmium and lead, precludes use of the water for public supply.

  14. ADVANCES IN GROUND WATER SAMPLING PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  15. Water chemistry near the closed Norman Landfill, Cleveland County, Oklahoma 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.

    2001-01-01

    The Norman Landfill was selected for study as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program in 1994. The landfill is located south of the City of Norman on alluvial deposits of the Canadian River. Type of waste deposited in the landfill from 1922 to 1973 was largely unrestricted and may include substances now recognized as hazardous. Dissolved and suspended substances leached from wastes in the closed and capped landfill are now in ground water extending toward the Canadian River as a plume of leachate. Water samples were collected from two stock wells, one domestic well, temporary drive-point wells, the Canadian River, and a small intermittent stream hydraulically downgradient of the capped landfill known as the slough. Most constituent concentrations were greater in ground water downgradient from the capped landfill than in background ground water and were greater in the slough than in the Canadian River. Concentrations of most constituents in the Canadian River, other than sulfate, manganese, and iron, were similar to concentrations in background ground water. Some constituents measured in ground-water for this investigation are potential indicators of leachate contamination. Potential indicators that could be used to differentiate leachate contaminated water from uncontaminated ground water of the alluvial aquifer include specific conductance, chloride, alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon, boron, and dD. Specific conductance and chloride were greater in water from wells downgradient of the landfill than water from background wells. Dissolved organic carbon and boron also were greater in the leachate contaminated ground water than in background ground water.

  16. Human interactions with ground-water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-Water could be considered as an immense reservoir, from which only a certain amount of water can be withdrawn without affecting the quantity and quality of water. This amount is determined by the characteristics of the environment in which ground-water occurs and by the interactions of ground-water with precipitation, surface water, and people. It should be recognized that quantity and quality of ground-water are intimately related and should be considered accordingly. Quantity refers to usable water and water is usable for any specific purpose only so long as its quality has not deteriorated beyond acceptable limits. Thus an overall quantitative and qualitative management of ground water is inevitable, and its should also involve the uses of ground-water reservoirs for purposes other than water supply. The main objective of ground-water management is to ensure that ground-water resources will be available in appropriate time and in appropriate quantity and quality to meet the most important demands of our society. Traditional, and obvious uses of ground-water are the extraction of water for water supplies (domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial) and the natural discharge feeding lakes and maintaining base flow of streams. Not so obvious are the uses of ground-water reservoirs, the very framework within which ground-water occurs and moves, and in which other fluids or materials can be stored. In the last two decades, ground-water reservoirs have been intensively considered for many other purposes than water supplies. Diversified and very often conflicting uses need to be evaluated and dealt with in the most efficient way in order to determine the importance of each possible use, and to assign priorities of these uses. With rising competition for the use of ground-water reservoirs, we will also need to increase the potential for effective planning of ground-water development and protection. Man's development and use of ground-water necessarily

  17. Sustainability of ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Franke, O. Lehn

    1999-01-01

    The pumpage of fresh ground water in the United States in 1995 was estimated to be approximately 77 billion gallons per day (Solley and others, 1998), which is about 8 percent of the estimated 1 trillion gallons per day of natural recharge to the Nation's ground-water systems (Nace, 1960). From an overall national perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample. Locally, however, the availability of ground water varies widely. Moreover, only a part of the ground water stored in the subsurface can be recovered by wells in an economic manner and without adverse consequences.

  18. Ground Water Rule - Boil Water Advisory - Public Notification Template

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ground Water Rule - Boil Water Advisory - Public Notification Template can be use to issue a Tier 1 Public Notification when it has been determined that source ground water is contaminated with E. Coli bacteria.

  19. Annual yield and selected hydrologic data for the Arkansas River Basin compact, Arkansas-Oklahoma, 1985 water year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.A.; Lamb, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    The computed annual yield and deficiency of the subbasins as defined in the Arkansas River Compact, Arkansas-Oklahoma, are given in tables. Actual runoff from the subbasins and depletion caused by major reservoirs in the compact area are also given in tabular form. Monthly, maximum, minimum, and mean discharges are shown for the 14 streamflow stations used in computing annual yield. Water-quality data are shown for four sites in the compact area. (USGS)

  20. An Integrated Approach to Quantify Groundwater - Surface Water Interactions: the Norman Research Site, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Sanchez, I.; Phanikumar, M. S.; Masoner, J.; Cozzarelli, I.; McGuire, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    An intensive investigation of hydrogeologic and biogeochemical processes controlling contaminant migration and attenuation is in progress at the Norman Landfill Research Site in Oklahoma. The site involves a wetland that overlies a landfill leachate plume. The wetland-aquifer system actively exchanges contaminants and nutrients. These chemicals move from the wetland to the aquifer and vice versa depending on the groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) exchange rate and flow direction. The GW-SW flux has to be quantified to better understand the fate and transport of contaminants and nutrients. Different types of data have been collected at the site over a period of ten years including meteorological data, isotopic composition of water samples, water levels, pan evaporation rates, and seepage fluxes. This paper reports the development and application of a process-based water balance model based on long-term climate, soil, vegetation and hydrological dynamics of the system to determine the GW-SW flow rates. Our integrated approach involved model evaluation by means of the following independent measurements: (a) groundwater inflow calculation using stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen ( ) (b) seepage flux measurements in the wetland hyporheic sediment and c) pan evaporation measurements on land and in the wetland. The approach was found to be useful for identifying the dominant hydrological processes at the site, including recharge and subsurface flows. Recharge results from the model compared well with estimates obtained using isotope methods from previous studies and allowed us to identify specific annual signatures of this important process during the period of study. Results indicate that subsurface flow components in the system are seasonal and readily respond to rainfall events. The wetland water balance is dominated by local groundwater inputs and regional groundwater flow contributes little to the overall water balance.

  1. EPA Awards Oklahoma over $1.2 million to Reduce Water Contamination Risk in Underground Tanks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (June 30, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently awarded the Oklahoma Corporation Conservation Commission $459,000 to respond to petroleum leaks from underground storage tanks (UST). The agency will also receive $

  2. Arsenic-related water quality with depth and water quality of well-head samples from production wells, Oklahoma, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Greer, James R.; Smith, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey well profiler was used to describe arsenic-related water quality with well depth and identify zones yielding water with high arsenic concentrations in two production wells in central and western Oklahoma that yield water from the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington and Rush Springs aquifers, respectively. In addition, well-head samples were collected from 12 production wells yielding water with historically large concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) from the Garber-Wellington aquifer, Rush Springs aquifer, and two minor aquifers: the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer in southern Oklahoma and a Permian-aged undefined aquifer in north-central Oklahoma. Three depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Rush Springs aquifer had similar water-quality characteristics to the well-head sample and did not show any substantial changes with depth. However, slightly larger arsenic concentrations in the two deepest depth-dependent samples indicate the zones yielding noncompliant arsenic concentrations are below the shallowest sampled depth. Five depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer showed increases in arsenic concentrations with depth. Well-bore travel-time information and water-quality data from depth-dependent and well-head samples showed that most arsenic contaminated water (about 63 percent) was entering the borehole from perforations adjacent to or below the shroud that overlaid the pump. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 10.4 to 124 micrograms per liter in 11 of the 12 production wells sampled at the well head, exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter for drinking water. pH values of the 12 well-head samples ranged from 6.9 to 9. Seven production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer had the largest arsenic concentrations ranging from 18.5 to 124 micrograms per liter. Large arsenic concentrations (10.4-18.5) and near neutral to slightly alkaline

  3. Summary of Surface-Water Quality Data from the Illinois River Basin in Northeast Oklahoma, 1970-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Becker, Mark F.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of streams in the Illinois River Basin of northeastern Oklahoma is potentially threatened by increased quantities of wastes discharged from increasing human populations, grazing of about 160,000 cattle, and confined animal feeding operations raising about 20 million chickens. Increasing numbers of humans and livestock in the basin contribute nutrients and bacteria to surface water and groundwater, causing greater than the typical concentrations of those constituents for this region. Consequences of increasing contributions of these substances can include increased algal growth (eutrophication) in streams and lakes; impairment of habitat for native aquatic animals, including desirable game fish species; impairment of drinking-water quality by sediments, turbidity, taste-and-odor causing chemicals, toxic algal compounds, and bacteria; and reduction in the aesthetic quality of the streams. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Scenic Rivers Commission, prepared this report to summarize the surface-water-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at five long-term surface-water-quality monitoring sites. The data summarized include major ions, nutrients, sediment, and fecal-indicator bacteria from the Illinois River Basin in Oklahoma for 1970 through 2007. General water chemistry, concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, chlorophyll-a (an indicator of algal biomass), fecal-indicator bacteria counts, and sediment concentrations were similar among the five long-term monitoring sites in the Illinois River Basin in northeast Oklahoma. Most water samples were phosphorus-limited, meaning that they contained a smaller proportion of phosphorus, relative to nitrogen, than typically occurs in algal tissues. Greater degrees of nitrogen limitation occurred at three of the five sites which were sampled back to the 1970s, probably due to use of detergents containing greater concentrations of phosphorus than in subsequent

  4. Risk across disciplines: An interdisciplinary examination of water and drought risk in South-Central Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazrus, H.; Paimazumder, D.; Towler, E.; McPherson, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Drought is a challenge faced by communities across the United States, exacerbated by growing demands on water resources and climate variability and change. The Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer (ASA) in south-central Oklahoma, situated in the heart of the Chickasaw Nation, is the state's only sole-source groundwater basin and sustains the Blue River, the state's only free-flowing river. The recent comprehensive hydrological studies of the aquifer indicate the need for sustainable management of the amount of water extracted. However, the question of how to deal with that management in the face of increasing drought vulnerability, diverse demands, and climate variability and change remains. Water management carries a further imperative to be inclusive of tribal and non-tribal interests. To examine this question, we are conducting an investigation of drought risk from multiple disciplines. Anthropological data comes from stakeholder interviews that were designed to investigate conflict over water management by understanding how people perceive risk differently based on different opinions about the structure of the resource, varying levels of trust in authorities, and unequal access to resources. . The Cultural Theory of Risk is used to explain how people view risks as part of their worldviews and why people who hold different worldviews disagree about risks associated with water availability. Meteorological analyses of longitudinal data indicate periods of drought that are noted in stakeholder interviews. Analysis of stream gauge data investigates the influence of climate variability on local hydrologic impacts, such as changing groundwater levels and streamflows, that are relevant to planning and management decisions in the ASA. Quantitative assessment of future drought risk and associated uncertainty and their effect on type and scale of future economic and social impacts are achieved by combining elements of statistical and dynamical downscaling to improve predictions of

  5. Chemical contamination of ground water in India

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, S.P.; Agnihoiri, N.P.

    1996-10-01

    Ground water is the main source of drinking water in rural areas and many urban areas in India. In addition, it has been increasingly used for irrigation in farmland. Contamination of ground water by persistent inorganic and organic chemicals has emerged as a major environmental concern in recent years. Nitrate, fluoride, heavy metals and organochlorine compounds are found to be major contaminants of ground water in different parts of the country. At many places the concentrations of these chemicals exceed national and international guideline values for drinking water. While large concentrations of heavy metals come from industrial sources, agricultural activities are responsible for ground water contamination by nitrate and organochlorine insecticides.

  6. Understanding Surface water Ground water Interactions in Arkansas-Red River Basin using Coupled Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, C.; Mohanty, B. P.

    2006-12-01

    Subsurface water exists primarily as groundwater and also in small quantity as soil water in the unsaturated zone. This soil water plays a vital role in the hydrologic cycle by supporting plant growth, regulating the amount of water lost to evapo-transpiration and affecting the surface water groundwater interaction to a certain extent. As such, the interaction between surface water and groundwater is complex and little understood. This study aims at investigating the surface water groundwater interaction in the Arkansas-Red river basin, using a coupled modeling platform. For this purpose, an ecohydrological model (SWAP) has been coupled with the groundwater model (MODFLOW). Inputs to this coupled model are collected from NEXRAD precipitation data at a resolution of ~4 km, meteorological forcings from Oklahoma mesonet and NCDC sites, STATSGO soil property data, LAI (Leaf Area Index) data from MODIS at a resolution of ~1 km, and DEM (Digital Elevation Model). For numerical modeling, a spatial resolution of ~1 km and a temporal resolution of one day is used. The modeled base flow and total groundwater storage change would be tested using ground water table observation data. The modeled ground water storage is further improved using GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite data at a resolution of ~400 km, with the help of appropriate data assimilation technique.

  7. Effects of produced waters at oilfield production sites on the Osage Indian Reservation, northeastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, James K.; Asher-Bolinder, Sigrid; Owen, Douglass E.; Hall, Laurel

    1997-01-01

    The authors conducted limited site surveys in the Wildhorse and Burbank oilfields on the Osage Indian Reservation, northeastern Oklahoma. The purpose was to document salt scarring, erosion, and soil and water salinization, to survey for radioactivity in oilfield equipment, and to determine if trace elements and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) were present in soils affected by oilfield solid waste and produced waters. These surveys were also designed to see if field gamma spectrometry and field soil conductivity measurements were useful in screening for NORM contamination and soil salinity at these sites. Visits to oilfield production sites in the Wildhorse field in June of 1995 and 1996 confirmed the presence of substantial salt scarring, soil salinization, and slight to locally severe erosion. Levels of radioactivity on some oil field equipment, soils, and road surfaces exceed proposed state standards. Radium activities in soils affected by tank sludge and produced waters also locally exceed proposed state standards. Laboratory analyses of samples from two sites show moderate levels of copper, lead, and zinc in brine-affected soils and pipe scale. Several sites showed detectable levels of bromine and iodine, suggesting that these trace elements may be present in sufficient quantity to inhibit plant growth. Surface waters in streams at two sampled sites exceed total dissolved solid limits for drinking waters. At one site in the Wildhorse field, an EM survey showed that saline soils in the upper 6m extend from a surface salt scar downvalley about 150 m. (Photo [95k]: Dead oak trees and partly revegetated salt scar at Site OS95-2 in the Wildhorse field, Osage County, Oklahoma.) In the Burbank field, limited salt scarring and slight erosion occurs in soils at some sites and low to moderate levels of radioactivity were observed in oil field equipment at some sites. The levels of radioactivity and radium observed in some soils and equipment at these

  8. Composition of pore water in lake sediments, research site "B", Osage County, Oklahoma: Implications for lake water quality and benthic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Otton, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Shallow ground water at US Geological Survey research site B in northeastern Oklahoma is contaminated with NaCl-rich brine from past and present oil production operations. Contaminated ground water provides a potential source of salts, metals, and hydrocarbons to sediment and water of adjacent Skiatook Lake. A former brine storage pit 10 m in diameter that is now submerged just offshore from site B provides an additional source of contamination. Cores of the upper 16-40 cm of lake sediment were taken at the submerged brine pit, near an offshore saline seep, and at a location containing relatively uncontaminated lake sediment. Pore waters from each 2-cm interval were separated by centrifugation and analyzed for dissolved anions, cations, and trace elements. High concentrations of dissolved Cl- in pore waters (200-5000 mg/L) provide the most direct evidence of contamination, and contrast sharply with an average value of only about 37 mg/L in Skiatook Lake. Chloride/Br- mass ratios of 220-240 in contaminated pore waters are comparable to values in contaminated well waters collected onshore. Dissolved concentrations of Se, Pb, Cu and Ni in Cl--rich pore waters exceed current US Environmental Protection Agency criteria for probable toxicity to aquatic life. At the submerged brine storage pit, the increase of Cl- concentration with depth is consistent with diffusion-dominant transport from deeper contaminated sediments. Near the offshore saline seep, pore water Cl- concentrations are consistently high and vary irregularly with depth, indicating probable Cl- transport by layer-directed advective flow. Estimated annual contributions of Cl- to the lake from the brine storage pit (???20 kg) and the offshore seep (???9 kg) can be applied to any number of similar sources. Generous estimates of the number of such sources at site B indicate minimal impact on water quality in the local inlet of Skiatook Lake. Similar methodologies can be applied at other sites of Na

  9. Statistical analysis of stream water-quality data and sampling network design near Oklahoma City, central Oklahoma, 1977-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brigham, Mark E.; Payne, Gregory A.; Andrews, William J.; Abbott, Marvin M.

    2002-01-01

    The sampling network was evaluated with respect to areal coverage, sampling frequency, and analytical schedules. Areal coverage could be expanded to include one additional watershed that is not part of the current network. A new sampling site on the North Canadian River might be useful because of expanding urbanization west of the city, but sampling at some other sites could be discontinued or reduced based on comparisons of data between the sites. Additional real-time or periodic monitoring for dissolved oxygen may be useful to prevent anoxic conditions in pools behind new low-water dams. The sampling schedules, both monthly and quarterly, are adequate to evaluate trends, but additional sampling during flow extremes may be needed to quantify loads and evaluate water-quality during flow extremes. Emerging water-quality issues may require sampling for volatile organic compounds, sulfide, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, Esherichia coli, and enterococci, as well as use of more sensitive laboratory analytical methods for determination of cadmium, mercury, lead, and silver.

  10. Mississippi Embayment Regional Ground Water Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased water usage in the southeastern United States in the tri-state area of Tennessee, Mississippi and Arkansas poses a dilemma to ensuring long-term sustainability of the quantity and quality of ground-water resources that underlie the region. Demand for ground water by ag...

  11. Ground water near Newton, Jasper County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    The water quality in the South Skunk River and the alluvial aquifer was similar, except most ground-water samples contained low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in ground water resulted in high concentrations of iron and manganese in some locations and reduced forms of nitrogen.

  12. Ground water resources of Lee County

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Donivan L.

    1980-01-01

    In terms of these factors, there are few locations in Lee County where the availability of ground water is not limited to some degree. The most common limitation is poor water quality, that is, highly mineralized ground water. Secondary limitations are generally related to poor distribution, small yields from some sources, and poor accessibility due to the great depths to adequate sources.

  13. Guide to Louisiana's ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, C.G.; Knochenmus, D.D.; McGee, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most valuable and abundant natural resources of Louisiana. Of the 4-.4 million people who live in the State, 61 percent use ground water as a source for drinking water. Most industrial and rural users and half of the irrigation users in the State rely on ground water. Quantity, however, is not the only aspect that makes ground water so valuable; quality also is important for its use. In most areas, little or no water treatment is required for drinking water and industrial purposes. Knowledge of Louisiana's ground-water resources is needed to ensure proper development and protection of this valuable resource. This report is designed to inform citizens about the availability and quality of ground water in Louisiana. It is not intended as a technical reference; rather, it is a guide to ground water and the significant role this resource plays in the state. Most of the ground water that is used in the State is withdrawn from 13 aquifers and aquifer systems: the Cockfield, Sparta, and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifersin northern Louisiana; Chicot aquifer system, Evangeline aquifer, Jasper aquifer system, and Catahoula aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana; the Chicot equivalent, Evangeline equivalent, and Jasper equivalent aquifer systems in southeastern Louisiana; and the MississippiRiver alluvial, Red River alluvial, and upland terrace aquifers that are statewide. Ground water is affected by man's activities on the land surface, and the major ground-water concerns in Louisiana are: (1) contamination from surface disposal of hazardous waste, agricultural chemicals, and petroleum products; (2) contamination from surface wastes and saltwater through abandoned wells; (3) saltwater encroachment; and (4) local overdevelopment. Information about ground water in Louisiana is extensive and available to the public. Several State and Federal agencies provide published and unpublished material upon request.

  14. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  15. State-scale perspective on water use and production associated with oil and gas operations, Oklahoma, U.S.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kyle E

    2013-05-07

    A common goal of water and energy management is to maximize the supply of one while minimizing the use of the other, so it is important to understand the relationship between water use and energy production. A larger proportion of horizontal wells and an increasing number of hydraulically fractured well bores are being completed in the United States, and consequently increasing water demand by oil and gas operations. Management, planning, and regulatory decisions for water, oil, and gas are largely made at the state-level; therefore, it is necessary to aggregate water use and energy production data at the state-scale. The purpose of this paper is to quantify annual volumes of water used for completion of oil and gas wells, coproduced during oil and gas production, injected via underground injection program wells, and used in water flooding operations. Data from well completion reports, and tax commission records were synthesized to arrive at these estimates for Oklahoma. Hydraulic fracturing required a median fluid volume of 11,350 m(3) per horizontal well in Oklahoma. Median fluid volume (~15,774 m(3)) and volume per perforated interval (15.73 m(3) m(-1)) were highest for Woodford Shale horizontal wells. State-scale annual water use for oil and gas well completions was estimated to be up to 16.3 Mm(3) in 2011 or less than 1% of statewide freshwater use. Statewide annual produced water volumes ranged from 128.5 to 146.6 Mm(3), with gas wells yielding an estimated 72.4% of the total coproduced water. Volumes of water injected into underground injection control program wells ranged from 206.8 to 305.4 Mm(3), which indicates that water flooding operations may use up to 167.0 Mm(3) per year. State-scale water use estimates for Oklahoma could be improved by requiring oil and gas operators to supplement well completion reports with water use and water production data. Reporting of oil and gas production data by well using a unique identifier (i.e., API number) would also

  16. Fate and groundwater impacts of produced water releases at OSPER "B" site, Osage County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Kakouros, E.; Thordsen, J.J.; Ambats, G.; Abbott, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    For the last 5 a, the authors have been investigating the transport, fate, natural attenuation and ecosystem impacts of inorganic and organic compounds in releases of produced water and associated hydrocarbons at the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research (OSPER) "A" and "B" sites, located in NE Oklahoma. Approximately 1.0 ha of land at OSPER "B", located within the active Branstetter lease, is visibly affected by salt scarring, tree kills, soil salinization, and brine and petroleum contamination. Site "B" includes an active production tank battery and adjacent large brine pit, two injection well sites, one with an adjacent small pit, and an abandoned brine pit and tank battery site. Oil production in this lease started in 1938, and currently there are 10 wells that produce 0.2-0.5 m3/d (1-3 bbl/d) oil, and 8-16 m3/d (50-100 bbl/d) brine. Geochemical data from nearby oil wells show that the produced water source is a Na-Ca-Cl brine (???150,000 mg/L TDS), with high Mg, but low SO4 and dissolved organic concentrations. Groundwater impacts are being investigated by detailed chemical analyses of water from repeated sampling of 41 boreholes, 1-71 m deep. The most important results at OSPER "B" are: (1) significant amounts of produced water from the two active brine pits percolate into the surficial rocks and flow towards the adjacent Skiatook reservoir, but only minor amounts of liquid petroleum leave the brine pits; (2) produced-water brine and minor dissolved organics have penetrated the thick (3-7 m) shale and siltstone units resulting in the formation of three interconnected plumes of high-salinity water (5000-30,000 mg/L TDS) that extend towards the Skiatook reservoir from the two active and one abandoned brine pits; and (3) groundwater from the deep section of only one well, BR-01 located 330 m upslope and west of the site, appear not to be impacted by petroleum operations. ?? 2007.

  17. Ground water currents: Developments in innovative ground water treatment, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    ;Contents: Low-level uranium removed from ground water; Promising ion exchange technology seeks site for demonstration; Pervaporation membrane removes volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and Ground water sampling information available.

  18. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  19. Ground-water quality in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    This report graphically summarizes ground-water quality from selected chemical-quality data for about 2,300 ground-water sites in Wyoming. Dissolved-solids, nitrate, fluoride, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, iron, and manganese concentrations are summarized on a statewide basis. The major chemical-quality problem that limits the use of Wyoming ground-water is excessive dissolved-solids concentrations. The aquifers with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentration of water in aquifers with 20 or more sampled sites, are Holocene lacustrine deposits, the upper Testiary Ogallala Formation and Arikaree Formation, and the Mississippian Madison Limestone. The counties with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentrations are Teton County and Laramie County. Hot Springs County and Natrona County have the highest median dissolved-solids concentrations. About 3 percent of the nitrate concentrations of ground-water samples exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard in 14 percent of the ground-water samples. Except for selenium, toxic trace elements generally have not been found in concentrations in excess of the drinking-water standards. About 19 percent of the iron and about 30 percent of the manganese concentrations in ground-water samples exceeded the national secondary drinking-water standards. (USGS)

  20. Physical and chemical characteristics of water in coal-mine ponds, eastern Oklahoma, June to November 1977-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, L.J.; Blumer, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    Water at 102 sites in 59 coal-mine ponds in eastern Oklahoma was sampled at lease twice during June to November 1977-81 to determine temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, and dissolved sulfate, chloride, iron, and manganese--as part of a study of the hydrology of the Oklahoma coalfield. These determinations show that during June to October water in ponds deeper than ~10 ft was stratified; ponds which had little or not change of temperature with depth generally were shallow or were sampled in early November. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH usually decreased with depth, whereas specific conductance usually increased with depth. Concentrations of dissolved sulfate, chloride, iron, and manganese varied from site to site. Specific conductance, which is a measure of dissolved solids in the water, ranged from 93 to 4,800 mmho/cm at 25oC. Some physical and chemical characteristics of the mine-pond water are related to the coal bed adjacent to the pond. Mean specific-conductance values and dissolved-sulfate concentrations were greatest in ponds associated with mining of Dawson, Weir-Pittsburg, and Secor coals. Mean dissolved-iron concentrations were greatest in ponds associated with mining of the Dawson, Secor, and Hartshorne coals. Mean dissolved-manganese concentrations were greatest in ponds associated with mining of the Dawson, Weir-Pittsburg, and Secor coals, but greatly exceeded secondary drinking-water limits regardless of coal bed mined.

  1. Geochemical Data from Produced Water Contamination Investigations: Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research (OSPER) Sites, Osage County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thordsen, James J.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Ambats, Gil; Kakouros, Evangelos; Abbott, Marvin M.

    2007-01-01

    We report chemical and isotopic analyses of 345 water samples collected from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research (OSPER) project. Water samples were collected as part of an ongoing multi-year USGS investigation to study the transport, fate, natural attenuation, and ecosystem impacts of inorganic salts and organic compounds present in produced water releases at two oil and gas production sites from an aging petroleum field located in Osage County, in northeast Oklahoma. The water samples were collected primarily from monitoring wells and surface waters at the two research sites, OSPER A (legacy site) and OSPER B (active site), during the period March, 2001 to February, 2005. The data include produced water samples taken from seven active oil wells, one coal-bed methane well and two domestic groundwater wells in the vicinity of the OSPER sites.

  2. FUNDAMENTALS OF GROUND-WATER MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground-water flow and contaminant transport modeling has been used at many hazardous waste sites with varying degrees of success. odels may be used throughout all phases of the site investigation and remediation processes. eveloping a better understanding of ground-water modeling...

  3. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  4. COMPILATION OF GROUND-WATER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground-water modeling is a computer-based methodology for mathematical analysis of the mechanisms and controls of ground-water systems for the evaluation of policies, action, and designs that may affect such systems. n addition to satisfying scientific interest in the workings of...

  5. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressler, Alan M.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water conditions in Georgia during 1999 and for the period of record were evaluated using data from U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level and ground-water-quality monitoring networks. Data for 1999 included in this report are from continuous water-level records from 130 wells and chloride analyses from 14 wells. Data from one well is incomplete because data collection was discontinued. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was within drinking-water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking-water standards. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality data are essential for water assessment and management. Ground-water-level fluctuations and trends can be used to estimate changes in aquifer storage resulting from the effects of ground-water withdrawal and recharge from precipitation. These data can be used to address water-management needs and to evaluate the effects of management and conservation programs. As part of the ground-water investigations conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the State of Georgia and city and county governments, a Statewide water-level-measurement program was started in 1938. Initially, this program consisted of an observation-well network in the coastal area of Georgia to monitor variations in ground-water storage and quality. Additional wells were later included in areas where data could be used to aid in water resources development and management. During 1999, periodic water-level measurements were made in 46 wells, and continuous water-level measurements were obtained from 165 wells. Continuous water-level records were obtained using analog (pen and chart

  6. Digital-model projection of saturated thickness and recoverable water in the Ogallala Aquifer, Texas County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert B.

    1980-01-01

    A digital model was used to provide a quantitative description of the Ogallala aquifer in Texas County, Oklahoma, and to predict saturated thickness and water in storage from the aquifer at specified future times. The Ogallala aquifer, which consists of unconsolidated sand, gravel, and clay, is the principal source of ground water in Texas County. Saturated thickness ranged from 0 feet to over 600 feet. The estimated value used for specific yield in most of the areas was 0.15 but 0.05 was used in some places. Hydraulic conductivity ranged from 0 to more than 200 feet per day, and recharge from 0.2 to 2.2 inches per year. Irrigation pumpage was estimated using crop acreage and estimate of irrigation requirements. For projection simulations with large stress, a reasonable maximum stress using a minimum of 4 wells per square mile and 1972 pumping rate per well, if saturated thickness was more than 38 feet, was used. Four types of boundaries were used in the model. They are (1) a zero-flux (impermeable) boundary on the perimeter of the modeled area,(2) a constant-head boundary for a reach of the Cimarron River, (3) a boundary which is a constant-head boundary initially but converts to an impermeable boundary (depending on the potentiometric gradient at the boundary) for a reach of Beaver River, Palo Duro Creek, and south of Palo Duro Creek, and (4) a boundary which is a partially penetrating stream with leaky-stream bed for parts of Beaver River and Coldwater Creek. The base period for calibration was 1966. The model was calibrated by a simulation from 1966 to 1968 in which pumpage was modified until the 1968 calculated heads matched closely the 1968 observed heads. The model was verified by a simulation from 1966 to 1972, using the 1966 to 1972 pumpage stress, in order to determine the degree of conformity between 1972 calculated heads and 1972 observed heads. The agreement was acceptable.

  7. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  8. Ground-water program in Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaMoreaux, P.E.

    1955-01-01

    Several recent years of drought have emphasized the importance of Alabama's ground-water supplies, a matter of concern to us all.  So far we have been blessed in Alabama with ample ground-water, although a combination of increased use, waste, pollution, and drought has brought about critical local water shortages.  These problems serve as a fair warning of what lies ahead if we do not take the necessary steps to obtan adequate knowledge of our ground-water resources.

  9. Magnificent Ground Water Connection. [Sample Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Water conservation and usage is an important concept in science. This document, geared specifically to New England, provides many activities for protecting and discussing ground water situations. Sample activities for grades K-6 include: (1) All the Water in the World; (2) The Case of the Disappearing Water; (3) Deep Subjects--Wells and Ground…

  10. Pollution of ground water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, S.; Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of ground water in 20 countries of the European region, giving for each an account of the geology and hydrogeology, water supplies, the extent and nature of ground water pollution, and the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling that pollution. For the countries not considered in the preceding article on surface water pollution, an account is also given of the superficial physical features, rainfall, population, and industries. A general discussion follows of such questions as the ways in which ground water pollution may occur, the factors mitigating or aggravating pollution, and ways of protection against pollution. The authors consider that the problem of ground water pollution in Europe may well be more serious than it would appear to be on the evidence so far obtained. PMID:13374533

  11. Where this occurs: Ground Water and Drinking Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As ground water works its way through the soil, it can pick up excess nutrients and transport them to the water table. When polluted groundwater reaches drinking water systems it can pose serious public health threats.

  12. STATE WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE PROGRAM: GROUND WATER RESEARCH.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, James S.; ,

    1985-01-01

    This paper updates a review of the accomplishments of the State Water Resources Research Program in ground water contamination research. The aim is to assess the progress made towards understanding the mechanisms of ground water contamination and based on this understanding, to suggest procedures for the prevention and control of ground water contamination. The following research areas are covered: (1) mechanisms of organic contaminant transport in the subsurface environment; (2) bacterial and viral contamination of ground water from landfills and septic tank systems; (3) fate and persistence of pesticides in the subsurface; (4) leachability and transport of ground water pollutants from coal production and utilization; and (5) pollution of ground water from mineral mining activities.

  13. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressler, Alan M.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water conditions in Georgia during 1998 and for the period of record were evaluated using data from U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level and ground-water-quality monitoring networks. Data for 1998 included in this report are from continuous water-level records from 130 wells and chloride analyses from 14 wells. Data from one well is incomplete because data collection was discontinued. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was within drinking-water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking-water standards.

  14. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressler, A.M.; Blackburn, D.K.; McSwain, K.B.

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water conditions in Georgia during 1999 and for the period of record were evaluated using data from U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level and ground-water-quality monitoring networks. Data for 1999 included in this report are from continuous water-level records from 130 wells and chloride analyses from 14 wells. Data from one well is incomplete because data collection was discontinued. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was within drinking-water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking-water standards.

  15. Ground-water resources of Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.C.; Lohman, S.W.; Frye, J.C.; Waite, H.A.; McLaughlin, Thad G.; Latta, Bruce

    1940-01-01

    Importance of ground-water resources.—The importance of Kansas' ground-water resources may be emphasized from various viewpoints and in different ways. More than three-fourths of the public water supplies of Kansas are obtained from wells. In 1939, only 60 out of 375 municipal water supplies in Kansas, which is 16 percent, utilized surface waters. If the water wells of the cities and those located on all privately owned land in the state were suddenly destroyed, making it necessary to go to streams, springs, lakes (which are almost all artificial), and ponds for water supply domestic, stock, and industrial use, there would be almost incalculable difficulty and expense. If one could not go to springs, or dig new wells, or use any surface water derived from underground flow, much of Kansas would become uninhabitable.  These suggested conditions seem absurd, but they emphasize our dependence on ground-water resources. Fromm a quantitative standpoint, ground-water supplies existent in Kansas far outweigh surface waters that are present in the state at any one time. No exact figures for such comparison can be given, but, taking 384 square miles as the total surface water area of the state and estimating an average water depth of five feet, the computed volume of surface waters is found to be 1/100th of that of the conservatively estimated ground-water storage in Kansas. The latter takes account only of potable fresh water and is based on an assumed mean thickness of ten feet of reservoir having an effective porosity of twenty percent. It is to be remembered, however, that most of the surface water is run-off, which soon leaves the state, stream valleys being replenished from rainfall and flow from ground-water reservoirs. Most of the ground-water supplies, on the other hand, have existed for many years with almost no appreciable movement--in fact, it is reasonably certain that some well water drawn from beneath the surface of Kansas in 1940 represents rainfall in

  16. Texas-Oklahoma

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... major geographic features. The south bank of the Red River marks the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma. Traversing brush-covered ... flow eastward, their waters eventually discharging into the Mississippi River. A smoke plume to the north of the Ouachita Mountains and ...

  17. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  18. Reconnaissance of Surface-Water Quality and Possible Sources of Nutrients and Bacteria in the Turkey Creek Watershed, Northwest Oklahoma, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency investigated the distribution of surface-water quality and possible sources of nutrients and Escherichia coli bacteria to surface water in Turkey Creek, which flows about 70 miles through mostly rural agricultural areas in northwest Oklahoma. Results show that discharge on the main stem of Turkey Creek increased during low-flow conditions from an average of 5.4 cubic feet per second at the upper most site to 39 cubic feet per second at the lower most site in the watershed, indicating that Turkey Creek gains water from ground-water discharge. A portion of the increase in stream discharge may be from discharges of treated effluent from city sewage lagoons. However, the volume and frequency of discharges are unknown. Surface-water-quality samples show that specific conductance ranged from 1,180 to 1,740 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius during low-flow conditions and in general, decreased downstream with site 1 or site 2 having the largest measurement and site 5 having the lowest. The pH values were slightly alkaline and ranged from 6.8 to 8.5 with a median of 8.2. Dissolved oxygen ranged from 9.3 to 15.9 milligrams per liter in samples collected in the months of November, February, and March and ranged from 5.3 to 13.9 milligrams per liter in samples collected in the months of June, July, and August. Surface-water-quality samples show that the median concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (1.16 milligrams per liter) and total phosphorus (0.275 milligram per liter) are larger than the average median concentrations of 0.35 and 0.083 milligram per liter, respectively, calculated from water-quality sites in Oklahoma and part of Arkansas (excluding sites in the Ozark Highland and the Ouachita Mountains ecoregions) having similar stream orders and stream slopes. Concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as

  19. Ground-Water Recharge in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Falteisek, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    'Ground-water recharge' broadly describes the addition of water to the ground-water system. Most water recharging the ground-water system moves relatively rapidly to surface-water bodies and sustains streamflow, lake levels, and wetlands. Over the long term, recharge is generally balanced by discharge to surface waters, to plants, and to deeper parts of the ground-water system. However, this balance can be altered locally as a result of pumping, impervious surfaces, land use, or climate changes that could result in increased or decreased recharge. * Recharge rates to unconfined aquifers in Minnesota typically are about 20-25 percent of precipitation. * Ground-water recharge is least (0-2 inches per year) in the western and northwestern parts of the State and increases to greater than 6 inches per year in the central and eastern parts of the State. * Water-level measurement frequency is important in estimating recharge. Measurements made less frequently than about once per week resulted in as much as a 48 percent underestimation of recharge compared with estimates based on an hourly measurement frequency. * High-quality, long-term, continuous hydrologic and climatic data are important in estimating recharge rates.

  20. Ground water in Tooele Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, J.S.; Keller, O.A.

    1970-01-01

    This short report was written by condensing parts of a technical report on the ground water in Tooele Valley, which was prepared as part of a cooperative program between the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and the U. S. Geological Survey to study water in Utah. If you would like to read the more detailed technical report, write for a copy of the Utah State Engineer Technical Publication 12, “Reevaluation of the ground-water resources of Tooele Valley, Utah” by J. S. Gates. Copies can be obtained free of charge from the Division of Water Rights, State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah 84114.

  1. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  2. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  3. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  4. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  5. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  6. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressler, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water conditions in Georgia during 1997 and for the period of record were evaluated using data from ground-water-level and ground-water-quality monitoring networks. Data for 1997 included in this report are from continuous water-level records from 71 wells and chloride analyses from 14 wells. In 1997, annual mean ground-water levels in Georgia ranged from 6.2 feet (ft) lower to 5.6 ft higher than in 1996. Of the 71 wells summarized in this report, 23 wells had annual mean water levels that were higher, 35 wells had annual mean water levels that were lower, and 11 wells had annual mean water levels that were about the same in 1997 as during 1996. Data for two wells are incomplete because data collection was discontinued at one well, and the equipment was vandalized at one well. Record-low daily mean water levels were recorded in six wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer, one well tapping the Caliborne aquifer, two wells tapping the Clayton aquifer, and three wells tapping Cretaceous aquifers. These record lows were from 0.2 to 5.6 ft lower than previous record lows. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was within drinking-water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking-water standard. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality data are essential for water assessment and management. Ground-water-level fluctuations and trends can be used to estimate changes in aquifer storage resulting from the effects of ground-water withdrawal and recharge from precipitation. These data can be used to address water-management needs and to evaluate the effects of management and conservation programs. As part of the ground-water

  7. Ground water geology of Edwards County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Archie T.

    1963-01-01

    About 150,000 acre-feet of water is recharged annually to and discharged from the Edwards and associated limestones in Edwards County. Most of this water is available for additional development inasmuch as only about 900 acre-feet per year is currently being used; however, additional development of ground water will result in a reduction in streamflow.

  8. Fundamentals of Ground-Water Modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This paper presents an overview of the essential components of ground-water flow and contaminant transport modeling in saturated porous media. While fractured rocks and fractured porous rocks may behave like porous media with respect to many flow and...

  9. Section 9: Ground Water - Likelihood of Release

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    HRS training. the ground water pathway likelihood of release factor category reflects the likelihood that there has been, or will be, a release of hazardous substances in any of the aquifers underlying the site.

  10. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  11. Ground-water models cannot be validated

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, L.F.; Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ground-water models are embodiments of scientific hypotheses. As such, the models cannot be proven or validated, but only tested and invalidated. However, model testing and the evaluation of predictive errors lead to improved models and a better understanding of the problem at hand. In applying ground-water models to field problems, errors arise from conceptual deficiencies, numerical errors, and inadequate parameter estimation. Case histories of model applications to the Dakota Aquifer, South Dakota, to bedded salts in New Mexico, and to the upper Coachella Valley, California, illustrate that calibration produces a nonunique solution and that validation, per se, is a futile objective. Although models are definitely valuable tools for analyzing ground-water systems, their predictive accuracy is limited. The terms validation and verification are misleading and their use in ground-water science should be abandoned in favor of more meaningful model-assessment descriptors. ?? 1992.

  12. MTBE concentrations in ground water in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, Steven D.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution, concentrations, and detection frequency of methyl tert-butyl-ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive used in reformulated gasoline to improve air quality, were characterized in Pennsylvania?s ground water. Two sources of MTBE in ground water, the atmosphere and storage-tank release sites, were examined. An analysis of atmospheric MTBE concentrations shows that MTBE detections (MTBE greater than or equal to 0.2 micrograms per liter) in ground water are more likely the result of storage-tank releases than atmospheric deposition. A comparison of 86 ground-water samples near storage-tank releases and 359 samples from ambient ground water (not thought to be affected by point-source releases of MTBE or BTEX compounds) shows that samples within about 0.5 mile downgradient of storagetank release sites have significantly greater MTBE detection frequency than ambient ground-water samples. Aquifer type, land use, and the use of Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) are associated with high rates of occurrence of MTBE in ground water in Pennsylvania. Ground-water samples from wells in crystalline-rock aquifers near storage- tank release sites have a significantly greater MTBE detection frequency (57 percent) compared to other aquifers. Samples from wells in urban areas have a significantly greater MTBE detection frequency compared to ambient samples in agricultural and forested areas. Samples from the RFG-use areas in the five southeastern counties of Pennsylvania have a significantly greater MTBE detection frequency than samples outside of the RFG-use area. MTBE detection frequency of samples near storage- tank release sites in the RFG-use area (45 percent) are significantly greater than ambient samples in the RFG-use area.

  13. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Metal Loads from Chat Leachate and Mine Outflow into Tar Creek, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, Caleb C.; Becker, Mark F.; Andrews, William J.; DeHay, Kelli

    2008-01-01

    Picher mining district is an abandoned lead and zinc mining area located in Ottawa County, northeastern Oklahoma. During the first half of the 20th century, the area was a primary producer of lead and zinc in the United States. Large accumulations of mine tailings, locally referred to as chat, produce leachate containing cadmium, iron, lead, and zinc that enter drainages within the mining area. Metals also seep to local ground water and streams from unplugged shafts, vent holes, seeps, and abandoned mine dewatering wells. Streamflow measurements were made and water-quality samples were collected and analyzed from two locations in Picher mining district from August 16 to August 29 following a rain event beginning on August 14, 2005, to determine likely concentrations and loads of metals from tailings and mine outflows in the part of Picher mining district near Tar Creek. Locations selected for sampling included a tailings pile with an adjacent mill pond, referred to as the Western location, and a segment of Tar Creek from above the confluence with Lytle Creek to below Douthat bridge, referred to as Tar Creek Study Segment. Measured streamflow was less than 0.01 cubic foot per second at the Western location, with streamflow only being measurable at that site on August 16, 2005. Measured streamflows ranged from <0.01 to 2.62 cubic feet per second at Tar Creek Study Segment. One water-quality sample was collected from runoff at the Western location. Total metals concentrations in that sample were 95.3 micrograms per liter cadmium, 182 micrograms per liter iron, 170 micrograms per liter lead, 1,760 micrograms per liter zinc. Total mean metals concentrations in 29 water-quality samples collected from Tar Creek Study Segment from August 16-29, 2005, were 21.8 micrograms per liter cadmium, 7,924 micrograms per liter iron, 7.68 micrograms per liter lead, and 14,548 micrograms per liter zinc. No metals loading values were calculated for the Western location. Metals loading

  14. Arsenic in ground water of the United States: occurrence and geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Westjohn, D.B.; Helsel, Dennis R.; Wanty, Richard B.

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic in ground water vary regionally due to a combination of climate and geology. Although slightly less than half of 30,000 arsenic analyses of ground water in the United States were 1 μg/L, about 10% exceeded 10 μg/L. At a broad regional scale, arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 μg/L appear to be more frequently observed in the western United States than in the eastern half. Arsenic concentrations in ground water of the Appalachian Highlands and the Atlantic Plain generally are very low ( 1 μg/L). Concentrations are somewhat greater in the Interior Plains and the Rocky Mountain System. Investigations of ground water in New England, Michigan, Minnesota, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin within the last decade suggest that arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 μg/L are more widespread and common than previously recognized.Arsenic release from iron oxide appears to be the most common cause of widespread arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 μg/L in ground water. This can occur in response to different geochemical conditions, including release of arsenic to ground water through reaction of iron oxide with either natural or anthropogenic (i.e., petroleum products) organic carbon. Iron oxide also can release arsenic to alkaline ground water, such as that found in some felsic volcanic rocks and alkaline aquifers of the western United States. Sulfide minerals are both a source and sink for arsenic. Geothermal water and high evaporation rates also are associated with arsenic concentrations 10g/L in ground and surface water, particularly in the west.Arsenic release from iron oxide appears to be the most common cause of widespread arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 µg/L a ground water. This can occur in response to different geochemical conditions, including release of arsenic to ground water through reaction of iron oxide with either natural or anthropogenic (i.e., petroleum products) organic carbon. Iron oxide also can

  15. Effects of brine on the chemical quality of water in parts of Creek, Lincoln, Okfuskee, Payne, Pottawatomie, and Seminole Counties, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert B.

    1986-01-01

    A study of water-quality degradation due to brine contamination was made in an area of ~1,700 mi2 in east-central Oklahoma. The study area coincides in part with the outcrop of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer of Pennsylvanian age.

  16. The Discrepancy Between Measured and Modeled Downwelling Solar Irradiance at the Ground: Dependence on Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilewskie, P.; Rabbette, M.; Bergstrom, R.; Marquez, J.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.

    2000-01-01

    Moderate resolution spectra of the downwelling solar irradiance at the ground in north central Oklahoma were measured during the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Intensive Observation Period in the fall of 1997. Spectra obtained under cloud-free conditions were compared with calculations using a coarse resolution radiative transfer model to examine the dependency of model-measurement bias on water vapor. It was found that the bias was highly correlated with water vapor and increased at a rate of 9 Wm(exp -2) per cm of water. The source of the discrepancy remains undetermined because of the complex dependencies of other variables, most notably aerosol optical depth, on water vapor.

  17. Ground-water data for Michigan, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to make available the records of water levels in principal aquifers of the State through 1976 and to compile related data, such as records of ground-water pumpage. Also included in the report are data on municipal, public, and industrial water-supply facilities. Records of water levels in areas of heavy pumpage and in areas where changes are principally due to natural influences are illustrated or tabulated to allow comparison between these types of water-level fluctuations. Water levels and related data provide a record for the evaluation of available ground-water supplies. The long-term records serve as a framework to which short-term records may be related. This report is written for persons, municipalities, industries, institutions, consultants, drillers, and hydrologists interested in the groundwater resources of the State.

  18. Ground-water control of evaporite deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, W.W.; Sanford, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    The ratio of ground-water outflow to inflow (flux ratio) in hydrologically open basins is as important in determining the mineralogy and thicknesses of evaporite deposits as the solute composition of the inflow water. Attainment of steady state flux ratios permits large thicknesses of two or three minerals to form rather than thin veneers of many minerals. -from Authors

  19. Ground Water Flow No Longer A Mystery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Jay H.; Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1976-01-01

    Examined are the physical characteristics of ground water movement. Some potential pollution problems are identified. Models are used to explain mathematical and hydraulic principles of flow toward a pumping well and an effluent stream, flow around and through lenticular beds, and effects of pumping on the water table. (Author/MR)

  20. Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-16

    Most ground water used for drinking occurs near the earth's surface and is easily contaminated. Of major concern is the potential contamination of underground sources of drinking water by any of the hundreds of thousands of subsurface wastewater disposal injection wells nationwide.

  1. Ground water and surface water; a single resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Thomas C.; Harvey, Judson W.; Franke, O. Lehn; Alley, William M.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of considering ground water and surface water as a single resource has become increasingly evident. Issues related to water supply, water quality, and degradation of aquatic environments are reported on frequently. The interaction of ground water and surface water has been shown to be a significant concern in many of these issues. Contaminated aquifers that discharge to streams can result in long-term contamination of surface water; conversely, streams can be a major source of contamination to aquifers. Surface water commonly is hydraulically connected to ground water, but the interactions are difficult to observe and measure. The purpose of this report is to present our current understanding of these processes and activities as well as limitations in our knowledge and ability to characterize them.

  2. Recharge estimation for transient ground water modeling.

    PubMed

    Jyrkama, Mikko I; Sykes, Jon F; Normani, Stefano D

    2002-01-01

    Reliable ground water models require both an accurate physical representation of the system and appropriate boundary conditions. While physical attributes are generally considered static, boundary conditions, such as ground water recharge rates, can be highly variable in both space and time. A practical methodology incorporating the hydrologic model HELP3 in conjunction with a geographic information system was developed to generate a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition for ground water modeling. The approach uses daily precipitation and temperature records in addition to land use/land cover and soils data. The importance of the method in transient ground water modeling is demonstrated by applying it to a MODFLOW modeling study in New Jersey. In addition to improved model calibration, the results from the study clearly indicate the importance of using a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition in ground water quality modeling, where the detailed knowledge of the evolution of the ground water flowpaths is imperative. The simulated water table is within 0.5 m of the observed values using the method, while the water levels can differ by as much as 2 m using uniform recharge conditions. The results also show that the combination of temperature and precipitation plays an important role in the amount and timing of recharge in cooler climates. A sensitivity analysis further reveals that increasing the leaf area index, the evaporative zone depth, or the curve number in the model will result in decreased recharge rates over time, with the curve number having the greatest impact.

  3. THE OKLAHOMA MESONET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Oklahoma Mesonet, operated and maintained by the Oklahoma Climatological Survey, is Oklahoma's premier climatological data collection system. For the area covered, which includes the entire state, no other system within the United States or internationally has the degree of ...

  4. Iowa ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, R.C.; Squillace, P.J.; Drustrup, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, and several counties in Iowa, currently (1986) is monitoring about 1,500 public and private wells for inorganic and organic constituents. The principal objective of this program, begun in 1982, is to collect water-quality data that will describe the long-term chemical quality of the surficial and major bedrock aquifer systems in Iowa (Detroy, 1985).

  5. Estimated flood peak discharges on Twin, Brock, and Lightning creeks, Southwest Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, May 8, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The flash flood in southwestern Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, May 8, 1993, was the result of an intense 3-hour rainfall on saturated ground or impervious surfaces. The total precipitation of 5.28 inches was close to the 3-hour, 100-year frequency and produced extensive flooding. The most serious flooding was on Twin, Brock, and Lightning Creeks. Four people died in this flood. Over 1,900 structures were damaged along the 3 creeks. There were about $3 million in damages to Oklahoma City public facilities, the majority of which were in the three basins. A study was conducted to determine the magnitude of the May 8, 1993, flood peak discharge in these three creeks in southwestern Oklahoma City and compare these peaks with published flood estimates. Flood peak-discharge estimates for these creeks were determined at 11 study sites using a step-backwater analysis to match the flood water-surface profiles defined by high-water marks. The unit discharges during peak runoff ranged from 881 cubic feet per second per square mile for Lightning Creek at SW 44th Street to 3,570 cubic feet per second per square mile for Brock Creek at SW 59th Street. The ratios of the 1993 flood peak discharges to the Federal Emergency Management Agency 100-year flood peak discharges ranged from 1.25 to 3.29. The water-surface elevations ranged from 0.2 foot to 5.9 feet above the Federal Emergency Management Agency 500-year flood water-surface elevations. The very large flood peaks in these 3 small urban basins were the result of very intense rainfall in a short period of time, close to 100 percent runoff due to ground surfaces being essentially impervious, and the city streets acting as efficient conveyances to the main channels. The unit discharges compare in magnitude to other extraordinary Oklahoma urban floods.

  6. High Plains regional ground-water study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, Kevin F.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, industry and government have made large financial investments aimed at improving water quality across the Nation. Significant progress has been made; however, many water-quality concerns remain. In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment Program to provide consistent and scientifically sound information for managing the Nation's water resources. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers, (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality. Assessing the quality of water in every location in the Nation would not be practical; therefore, NAWQA Program studies are conducted within a set of areas called study units (fig. 1). These study units are composed of more than 50 important river and aquifer systems that represent the diverse geography, water resources, and land and water uses of the Nation. The High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study is one such study area, designed to address issues relevant to the High Plains Aquifer system while supplementing water-quality information collected in other study units across the Nation. Implementation of the NAWQA Program for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study area began in 1998.

  7. Surface-water characteristics and quality on the Osage Reservation, Osage County, Oklahoma, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Marvin M.; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    quality monitoring had been conducted previously at two sites included in this study. Dissolved chloride concentrations for the two samples collected during 1999 were equaled or exceeded at both sites by the historical data. There is no statistically significant difference between the distribution of the dissolved chloride concentrations from the surface water and nearby ground-water samples. The surface-water quality samples had significantly lesser concentrations of dissolved solids, sulfate, and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen than the ground-water samples. Chloride yield, reported in tons per day per square mile, is the chloride load divided by the basin area upstream of the sample site. The mean of the chloride yields for all the samples was 0.07 ton per day per square mile. Many sample locations where yields were greater than 0.07 ton per day per square mile were areas where dissolved chloride concentrations from surface-water samples were greater than 250 milligrams per liter in an earlier water-quality investigation. An investigation of possible relations between the surface-water quality data and the oil-well construction data for the incremental basins and for 1-mile radial distance upstream in the incremental basins was conducted. The oil-well data also were grouped by the time periods of activity into pre-1930, 1930 to 1970, and post-1970. These groups attempt to account for differences in industry drilling and producing practices associated with various periods. No statistically significant correlations were found between the surface-water quality data and the oil-well construction data.

  8. Elements in cottonwood trees as an indicator of ground water contaminated by landfill leachate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdman, James A.; Christenson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Ground water at the Norman Landfill Research Site is contaminated by a leachate plume emanating from a closed, unlined landfill formerly operated by the city of Norman, Oklahoma, Ground water contaminated by the leachate plume is known to be elevated in the concentration of many, organic and inorganic constituents. Specific conductance, alkalinity, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, boron, sodium, strontium, and deuterium in ground water are considered to be indicators of the leachate plume at this site. Leaf samples of broad-leafed cottonwood, Populus deltoides, were collected from 57 sites around the closed landfill. Cottonwood, a phreatophyte or “well plant,” functions as a & surrogate well and serves as a ground water quality sampler. The leaf samples were combusted to ash and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation for 35 elements and by prompt-gamma instrumental neutron activation, for boron. A monitoring well was located within a few meters of a sampled cottonwood tree at 15 of the 57 sites, and ground water samples were collected from these monitoring wells simultaneously with a leaf sample. The chemical analyses of the ground water and leaf samples from these 15 sites indicated that boron, bromine, sodium, and strontium concentrations in leaves were significantly correlated with leachate indicator constituents in ground water. A point-plot map of selected percentiles indicated high concentrations of boron, bromine, and sodium in leaf ash from sites downgradient of the most recent landfill and from older landfills nearby. Data from leaf analysis greatly extended the known areal extent of the leachate plume previously determined from a network of monitoring wells and geophysical surveys. This phytosgeochemical study provided a cost-effective method for assessing the extent of a leachate plume from an old landfill. Such a method may be useful as a preliminary sampling tool to guide the design of hydrogeochemical and geophysical studies.

  9. EPA GROUND WATER ISSUE: Ground Water Sample Preservation at ISCO Sites – Recommended Guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) involves the introduction of a chemical oxidant into the subsurface for the purpose of transforming ground water contaminants into harmless byproducts. Due to oxidant persistence, ground water samples collected at hazardous waste sites may contai...

  10. Ground-water situation in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcomb, R.C.

    1951-01-01

    The water that occurs beneath the land surface follows definite and well-known rules of hydraulics, the same as water on the surface. However, ground water must be studied by methods, some of which are unique to that type of water occurrence, in order to evaluate the part it plays in the over-all water scheme.Water that falls on the land surface as rain or snow and water that rests upon the surface may in places pass laterally or downward through the pores of the earth materials. There it may take one or more of a variety of paths before again flowing out on the surface or being expelled to the atmosphere by evaporation and by the transpiration of plants. Water so diverted underground is delayed or diverted from its course toward the sea and that digression results in many services of prime importance to mankind. Underground, the water generally exceeds in total quantity the water present on the land surface at any one time.The discussion of ground water can be clarified somewhat by a description of the major parts or phases of the normal path of water underground.

  11. Ground-Water Data for Georgia, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joiner, Charles N.; Peck, Michael F.; Reynolds, Mark S.; Stayton, Welby L.

    1989-01-01

    Continuous water-level records from 144 wells and water-level measurements from an additional 617 wells in Georgia during 1988 provide the basic data for this report. Daily mean water-level hydrographs for selected wells illustrate the effects that changes ln recharge and discharge have had on the ground-water reservoirs in the State during 1988. Monthly mean water levels are shown for the 10-year period 1979-88. Maps showing the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer for Hay 1988 and the Claiborne and Clayton aquifers for October 1988 also are presented. Annual mean water levels in Georgia generally were below those measured in 1987; water levels ranged from 6.9 feet higher to 7.3 feet lower. Record-low water levels were measured during the last half of 1988 in 18 wells tapping the crystalline rock aquifer, the Cretaceous rock aquifer system, the Midville aquifer system, and the Clayton, Upper Floridan, and upper Brunswick aquifers. These record lows were from 0.1 to 1.4 feet lower than the previous record lows. A prolonged drought resulted in decreased recharge to the aquifers and increased ground-water pumping, which caused water levels to decline. Water-quality samples collected periodically throughout Georgia are analyzed as part of areal and regional ground-water studies. Maps showing chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer in October 1988 in coastal Georgia and in the Savannah and Brunswick areas are presented. Periodic monitoring of water quality in the Savannah and Brunswick areas indicates that chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan generally have remained stable.

  12. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zenone, Chester; Anderson, Gary S.

    1978-01-01

    Present deficiencies in the ground-water information base are obvious limiting factors to ground-water development in Alaska. There is a need to extend the ground-water data-collection network and to pursue special research into the quantitative aspects of ground-water hydrology in cold regions, particularly the continuous permafrost zone.

  13. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  14. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water monitoring systems. 258.51... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  15. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water monitoring systems. 257.22... Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number of...

  16. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  17. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  18. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  19. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  20. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  1. Quality of ground water in Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yee, Johnson J.; Souza, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The major aquifers in Idaho are categorized under two rock types, sedimentary and volcanic, and are grouped into six hydrologic basins. Areas with adequate, minimally adequate, or deficient data available for groundwater-quality evaluations are described. Wide variations in chemical concentrations in the water occur within individual aquifers, as well as among the aquifers. The existing data base is not sufficient to describe fully the ground-water quality throughout the State; however, it does indicate that the water is generally suitable for most uses. In some aquifers, concentrations of fluoride, cadmium, and iron in the water exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking-water standards. Dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate may cause problems in some local areas. Water-quality data are sparse in many areas, and only general statements can be made regarding the areal distribution of chemical constituents. Few data are available to describe temporal variations of water quality in the aquifers. Primary concerns related to special problem areas in Idaho include (1) protection of water quality in the Rathdrum Prairie aquifer, (2) potential degradation of water quality in the Boise-Nampa area, (3) effects of widespread use of drain wells overlying the eastern Snake River Plain basalt aquifer, and (4) disposal of low-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Shortcomings in the ground-water-quality data base are categorized as (1) multiaquifer sample inadequacy, (2) constituent coverage limitations, (3) baseline-data deficiencies, and (4) data-base nonuniformity.

  2. Ground-water models for water resource planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    In the past decade hydrogeologists have emphasized the development of computer-based mathematical models to aid in the understanding of flow, the transport of solutes, transport of heat, and deformation in the ground-water system. These models have been used to provide information and predictions for water managers. Too frequently, ground-water was neglected in water resource planning because managers believed that it could not be adequately evaluated in terms of availability, quality, and effect of development on surface-water supplies. Now, however, with newly developed digital ground-water models, effects of development can be predicted. Such models have been used to predict hydrologic and quality changes under different stresses. These models have grown in complexity over the last ten years from simple one-layer models to three-dimensional simulations of ground-water flow, which may include solute transport, heat transport, effects of land subsidence, and encroachment of saltwater. Case histories illustrate how predictive ground-water models have provided the information needed for the sound planning and management of water resources in the USA. ?? 1983 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  3. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  4. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) has developed a number of Issue Papers and Briefing Documents which are designed to exchange up-to-date information related to the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water at hazardous waste sites. n an attemp...

  5. EPA'S GROUND WATER TECHNICAL SUPPORT CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose and the services provided by EPA's Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) will be presented. In 1987 the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Regional Waste Management Offices, and ORD established the Technical Support Project (TSP)

    The purpos...

  6. PRIORITIZATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINANTS AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to identify chemical, physical, bacteriological, and viral contaminants, and their sources, which present the greatest health threat in public ground water supplies in the USA; and to classify (prioritize) such contaminants and relative to their...

  7. Trace metal concentrations in shallow ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelewski, L.M.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Armstrong, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    Trace metal clean sampling and analysis techniques were used to examine the temporal patterns or Hg, Cu, and Zn concentrations in shallow ground water, and the relationships between metal concentrations in ground water and in a hydrologically connected river. Hg, Cu, and Zn concentrations in ground water ranged from 0.07 to 4.6 ng L-1, 0.07 to 3.10 ??g L-1, and 0.17 to 2.18 ??g L-1, respectively. There was no apparent seasonal pattern in any of the metal concentrations. Filtrable Hg, Cu, and Zn concentrations in the North Branch of the Milwaukee River ranged from below the detection limit to 2.65 ng Hg L-1, 0.51 to 4.30 ??g Cu L-1, and 0.34 to 2.33 ??g Zn L-1. Thus, metal concentrations in ground water were sufficiently high to account for a substantial fraction of the filtrable trace metal concentration in the river. Metal concentrations in the soil ranged from 8 to 86 ng Hg g-1, 10 to 39 ??g Cu g-1, and 15 to 84 ??g Zn g-1. Distribution coefficients, KD, in the aquifer were 7900, 22,000, and 23,000 L kg-1 for Hg, Cu, and Zn, respectively. These values were three to 40 times smaller than KD values observed in the Milwaukee River for suspended particulate matter.

  8. Ground Water Sampling for Metal Analyses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Filtration of ground-water samples for metals analysis is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers. Inconsistency in EPA Superfund cleanup ractices occurs where one EPA Region implements a remedial action based on...

  9. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support.

  10. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER (GW-761)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of nitrate and related compounds in ground water is discussed from the perspectives of its natural as well as anthropogenic origins. A brief explanation of the nitrogen cycle touches on the production as well as utilization of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and nitrog...

  11. Ground Water in a Fish Tank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1992-01-01

    Describes creating a Model Aquatic/Terrestrial Ecosystem for use in helping students understand how water moves beneath the ground's surface. The model is constructed from a fish tank using rocks, soil, gravel, clay, and organic materials. Author describes possible cooperative-learning and problem-solving activities that can be done with this…

  12. Summary of annual records of chemical quality of water of the Arkansas River in Oklahoma and Arkansas; 1945-52, a progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dover, Tyrus B.; Geurin, James Walter

    1955-01-01

    The Arkansas River is subject to many types of pollution downstream from the Oklahoma-Kansas State line, and its inferior quality together with its erratic flow pattern has caused it to be largely abandoned as a source of municipal and industrial water supply. Currently, the Arkansas River is not directly used as a source of public supply in any part of the basin in either Oklahoma or Arkansas. In general, the chemical concentration of the river water increases downstream from the Oklahoma-Kansas State line to Tulsa because of tributary inflow from the Salt Fork Arkansas River and the Cimarron River, both streams being sources of large amounts of natural salts and industrial wastes. A decrease in concentration of dissolved solids is noted downstream from Tulsa due to tributary inflow from the Verdigris, Neosho, and Illinois Rivers; another increase in concentration occurs with tributary inflow from the Canadian River, which is largely oilfield wastes. A progressive decrease in concentration is noted as the river flows through Arkansas to the Mississippi River, because all major tributaries below the Canadian River have a dilution effect upon the chemical concentration of the Arkansas River water. Proposals for storage and regulating reservoirs on the Arkansas River in both Oklahoma and Arkansas have been made by the Corps of Engineers and others. Additional proposals are being considered in the present Arkansas-White-Red River Basin Inter-Agency Sub-Committee studies. If constructed, these reservoirs will provide an opportunity for control of flow and beneficial use of Arkansas River water both at and downstream from these sites. Impoundment alone will greatly reduce the extremes in water quality, and by reasonable control of municipal and industrial wastes, the water at some points on the river would be comparable in quality to many existing municipal and industrial supplies in the basin.

  13. Review of the general geology and solid-phase geochemical studies in the vicinity of the Central Oklahoma aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosier, Elwin L.; Bullock, John H.

    1988-01-01

    The Central Oklahoma aquifer is the principal source of ground water for municipal, industrial, and rural use in central Oklahoma. Ground water in the aquifer is contained in consolidated sedimentary rocks consisting of the Admire, Council Grove, and Chase Groups, Wellington Formation, and Garber Sandstone and in the unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium and terrace deposits that occur along the major stream systems in the study area. The Garber Sandstone and the Wellington Formation comprise the main flow system and, as such, the aquifer is often referred to as the 'Garber-Wellington aquifer.' The consolidated sedimentary rocks consist of interbedded lenticular sandstone, shale, and siltstone beds deposited in similar deltaic environments in early Permian time. Arsenic, chromium, and selenium are found in the ground water of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in concentrations that, in places, exceed the primary drinking-water standards of the Environmental Protection Agency. Gross-alpha concentrations also exceed the primary standards in some wells, and uranium concentrations are uncommonly high in places. As a prerequisite to a surface and subsurface solid-phase geochemical study, this report summarizes the general geology of the Central Oklahoma study area. Summaries of results from certain previously reported solid-phase geochemical studies that relate to the vicinity of the Central Oklahoma aquifer are also given; including a summary of the analytical results and distribution plots for arsenic, selenium, chromium, thorium, uranium, copper, and barium from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program.

  14. Ground water and the rural homeowner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Roger M.

    1988-01-01

    As the salesmen sang in the musical The Music Man, "You gotta know the territory." This saying is also true when planning to buy or build a house. Learn as much as possible about the land, the water supply, and the septic system of the house before buying or building. Do not just look at the construction aspects or the beauty of the home and surroundings. Be sure to consider the environmental conditions around and beneath the site as well. Try to visit the site under adverse conditions, such as during heavy rain or meltwater runoff, to observe the drainage characteristics, particularly the condition of the basement. Many of the conditions discussed in this book, such as lowered well-water levels, flooded basements, and contamination from septic systems, are so common that rural families often have to deal with one or more of them. The purpose of this book is to awaken an interest in ground water and an awareness of where it is available, how it moves, how people can adjust to its patterns to avoid problems, and how it can be protected and used wisely. This booklet provides both present and prospective rural homeowners, particularly those in the glaciated northern parts of the United States, with a basic but comprehensive description of ground water. It also presents problems one may expect to encounter with ground water and some solutions or suggestions for help with these problems.

  15. Ground water and the rural homeowner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Roger M.

    1994-01-01

    As the salesmen sang in the musical The Music Man, "You gotta know the territory." This saying is also true when planning to buy or build a house. Learn as much as possible about the land, the water supply, and the septic system of the house before buying or building. Do not just look at the construction aspects or the beauty of the home and surroundings. Be sure to consider the environmental conditions around and beneath the site as well. Try to visit the site under adverse conditions, such as during heavy rain or meltwater runoff, to observe the drainage characteristics, particularly the condition of the basement. Many of the conditions discussed in this book, such as lowered well-water levels, flooded basements, and contamination from septic systems, are so common that rural families often have to deal with one or more of them. The purpose of this book is to awaken an interest in ground water and an awareness of where it is available, how it moves, how people can adjust to its patterns to avoid problems, and how it can be protected and used wisely. This booklet provides both present and prospective rural homeowners, particularly those in the glaciated northern parts of the United States, with a basic but comprehensive description of ground water. It also presents problems one may expect to encounter with ground water and some solutions or suggestions for help with these problems.

  16. Simulation of ground-water flow and areas contributing ground water to production wells, Cadillac, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, Christopher J.; Westjohn, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water for domestic, municipal, and industrial use within the northwest section of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. Because of the importance of this resource, numerous communities including the city of Cadillac in Wexford County, Michigan, have begun local wellhead protection programs. In these programs, communities protect their ground-water resources by identifying the areas that contribute water to production wells, identifying potential sources of contamination, and developing methods to cooperatively manage and minimize threats to the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cadillac, simulated regional ground-water flow and estimated areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the production well field. Ground-water flow models for the Clam River watershed, in Wexford and Missaukee Counties, were developed using the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW 2000). Ground-water flow models were calibrated using the observation, sensitivity, and parameter estimation packages of MODFLOW 2000. Ground-water-head solutions from calibrated flow models were used in conjunction with MODPATH, a particle-tracking program, to simulate regional ground-water flow and estimate areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the Cadillac production-well field for a 10-year period. Model simulations match the conceptual model in that regional ground-water flow in the deep ground-water system is from southeast to northwest across the watershed. Areas contributing water were determined for the optimized parameter set and an alternate parameter set that included increased recharge and hydraulic conductivity values. Although substantially different hydrologic parameters (assumed to represent end-member ranges of realistic hydrologic parameters) were used in alternate numerical simulations, simulation results differ little in predictions of

  17. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Data report: Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, W M; Sargent, K A; Cook, J R

    1982-02-01

    This report presents the results of ground water, stream water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. The following samples were collected: Arkansas-3292 stream sediments, 5121 ground waters, 1711 stream waters; Louisiana-1017 stream sediments, 0 ground waters, 0 stream waters; Misissippi-0 stream sediments, 814 ground waters, 0 stream waters; Missouri-2162 stream sediments, 3423 ground waters 1340 stream waters; Oklahoma-2493 stream sediments, 2751 ground waters, 375 stream waters; and Texas-279 stream sediments, 0 ground waters, 0 stream waters. Neutron activation analyses are given for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, and Dy in ground water and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in sediments. The results of mass spectroscopic analysis for He are given for 563 ground water sites in Mississippi. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Oak Ridge National Laboratory analyzed sediment samples which were not analyzed by Savannah River Laboratory neutron activation.

  18. ERTS imagery for ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.; Deutsch, Morris

    1975-01-01

    ERTS imagery offers the first opportunity to apply moderately high-resolution satellite data to the nationwide study of water resources. This imagery is both a tool and a form of basic data. Like other tools and basic data, it should be considered for use in ground-water investigations. The main advantage of its use will be to reduce the need for field work. In addition, however, broad regional features may be seen easily on ERTS imagery, whereas they would be difficult or impossible to see on the ground or on low-altitude aerial photographs. Some present and potential uses of ERTS imagery are to locate new aquifers, to study aquifer recharge and discharge, to estimate ground-water pumpage for irrigation, to predict the location and type of aquifer management problems, and to locate and monitor strip mines which commonly are sources for acid mine drainage. In many cases, boundaries which are gradational on the ground appear to be sharp on ERTS imagery. Initial results indicate that the accuracy of maps produced from ERTS imagery is completely adequate for some purposes.

  19. Ground-water reconnaissance of American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Daniel Arthur

    1963-01-01

    The principal islands of American Samoa are Tutuila, Aunuu, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u, which have a total area of about 72 square miles and a population of about 20,000. The mean annual rainfall is 150 to 200 inches. The islands are volcanic in origin and are composed of lava flows, dikes, tuff. and breccia, and minor amounts of talus, alluvium, and calcareous sand and gravel. Tutuila is a complex island formed of rocks erupted from five volcanoes. Aunuu is a tuff cone. Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u are composed largely of thin-bedded lava flows. Much of the rock of Tutuila has low permeability, and most of the ground water is in high-level reservoirs that discharge at numerous small springs and seeps. The flow from a few springs and seeps is collected in short tunnels or in basins for village supply, but most villages obtain their water from streams. A large supply of basal ground water may underlie the Tafuna-Leone plain at about sea level in permeable lava flows. Small basal supplies may be in alluvial fill at the mouths of large valleys. Aunuu has small quantities of basal water in beach deposits of calcareous sand and gravel. Minor amounts of high-level ground-water flow from springs and seeps on Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u. The generally permeable lava flows in the three islands contain substantial amounts of basal ground water that can be developed in coastal areas in wells dug to about sea level.

  20. Characterization of Climax granite ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Isherwood, D.; Harrar, J.; Raber, E.

    1982-08-01

    The Climax ground water fails to match the commonly held views regarding the nature of deep granitic ground waters. It is neither dilute nor in equilibrium with the granite. Ground-water samples were taken for chemical analysis from five sites in the fractured Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The waters are high in total dissolved solids (1200 to 2160 mg/L) and rich in sodium (56 to 250 mg/L), calcium (114 to 283 mg/L) and sulfate (325 to 1060 mg/L). Two of the samples contained relatively high amounts of uranium (1.8 and 18.5 mg/L), whereas the other three contained uranium below the level of detection (< 0.1 mg/L). The pH is in the neutral range (7.3 to 8.2). The differences in composition between samples (as seen in the wide range of values for the major constituents and total dissolved solids) suggest the samples came from different, independent fracture systems. However, the apparent trend of increasing sodium with depth at the expense of calcium and magnesium suggests a common evolutionary chemical process, if not an interconnected system. The waters appear to be less oxidizing with depth (+ 410 mV at 420 m below the surface vs + 86 mV at 565 m). However, with Eh measurements on only two samples, this correlation is questionable. Isotopic analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and that the source of the sulfate is probably the pyrite in the fracture-fill material. Analysis of the measured water characteristics using the chemical equilibrium computer program EQ3 indicates that the waters are not in equilibrium with the local mineral assemblage. The solutions appear to be supersaturated with respect to the mineral calcite, quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, k-feldspar, and many others.

  1. Ground water exfiltration in a river oxbow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suck, M.; Nützmann, G.; Lewandowski, J.

    2009-04-01

    This paper deals with the quantification of the exchange between ground water and surface water in a river oxbow. Implementation and evaluation of the study site are based upon a conceptual model, in which exfiltration into the oxbow and mainly into the adjacent river Spree are supposed as major transport processes. A clogging mud layer in the oxbow with its low hydraulic conductivity controls exfiltration and is the highest hydraulic resistance in the considered aquatic system. The measurement of temperature depth profiles within that layer was one of the methods applied to measure groundwater exfiltration. Because of the different groundwater and surface water temperatures there are temperature differences between the upper and lower boundary of the mud layer. Depending on the extent of ground water exfiltration that depth profile is more or less curved. By adaptation of an analytical solution to the plotted temperature depth profiles the flux rates were calculated. A supplementary method to measure exfiltration, the seepage meter, is used for direct measurements of the flux rates. With that method the ground water flux which passes a defined cross section of the sediment-water boundary is collected. The evaluation of the results yields higher exfiltration rates for the temperature depth profiles than for the seepage meters. For the seepage meters the results show only a part of the actual flux rates because of several error sources. Despite those errors the comparison of the results from both methods shows a similar flux pattern with strong small-scale heterogeneities. At scales of few meters the measured flux rates fluctuate more than an order of magnitude. The flux rates near the bank are frequently higher than in the middle of the oxbow. However, the flux rates are controlled by the thickness of the clogging mud layer, its hydraulic conductivity, its heterogeneity and the water table differences between surface water and adjacent aquifer.

  2. Ground water currents: Developments in innovative ground water treatment, issue No. 13, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    ;Contents: Ground Water Remediation Center; A solution to bioremediation`s soil plugging; Bioremediation video; VISITT 4.0 update; Update on ZENON pervaporation; and Site search-NAPL contaminated site wanted.

  3. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE - ACCURACY OF DEPTH TO WATER MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accuracy of depth to water measurements is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers as they attempt to determine directions of ground-water flow, areas of recharge of discharge, the hydraulic characteristics of aquifers, or the effects of manmade...

  4. Digital map of water levels in 1980 for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for contours for 1980 water-level elevations for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the 1980 water-level elevation contours from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer Systems-Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

  5. Digital map of predevelopment water levels for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for aquifer boundaries of contours for predevelopment water-level elevations for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the contours for predevelopment water-level elevations from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data should not be used at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

  6. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  7. Water resources data, Idaho, 2004; Volume 3. Ground water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, A.M.; Conti, S.N.; O'Dell, I.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 209 stream-gaging stations and 8 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 39 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 18 lakes sites, and 395 groundwater wells; and water levels for 425 observation network wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  8. Water resources data, Idaho, 2003; Volume 3. Ground water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, A.M.; Conti, S.N.; O'Dell, I.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 208 stream-gaging stations and 14 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 50 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 398 groundwater wells; and water levels for 427 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  9. REGIONAL GROUND-WATER-QUALITY NETWORK DESIGN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, William E.; ,

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used in designing a regional network to monitor the complex ground-water-quality conditions in the San Joaquin Valley, California. The actual network approximates the ideal network with the constraint of primarily using wells that are already being monitored by someone for some purpose. Further inventories of monitoring networks and installation of some specialized monitoring wells will be needed. Use of statistical network analysis techniques is also needed to make network improvements. Following these actions, the actual network will more closely approximate the ideal network in providing information on ground-water-quality trends, contaminant sources, prevention of future sources of contamination, monitoring well distributions, sampling frequencies, and constituents to be monitored.

  10. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual.

  11. Coupled surface-water and ground-water model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Wexler, Eliezer J.

    1991-01-01

    In areas with dynamic and hydraulically well connected ground-water and surface-water systems, it is desirable that stream-aquifer interaction be simulated with models of equal sophistication and accuracy. Accordingly, a new, coupled ground-water and surface-water model was developed by combining the U.S. Geological Survey models MODFLOW and BRANCH. MODFLOW is the widely used modular three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water model and BRANCH is a one-dimensional numerical model commonly used to simulate flow in open-channel networks. Because time steps used in ground-water modeling commonly are much longer than those used in surface-water simulations, provision has been made for handling multiple BRANCH time steps within one MODFLOW time step. Verification testing of the coupled model was done using data from previous studies and by comparing results with output from a simpler four-point implicit open-channel flow model linked with MODFLOW.

  12. Karst in Permian evaporite rocks of western Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.S. )

    1993-02-01

    Bedded evaporites (gypsum and salt) of Permian age have been dissolved naturally by ground water to form a major evaporite-karst region in western Oklahoma. The Blaine Formation and associated evaporites comprise 100--800 ft of strata that dip gently into broad, structural basins. Outcropping gypsum, dolomite, and red-bed shales of the Blaine display typical karstic features, such as sinkholes, caves, disappearing streams, and springs. Large caves are developed in gypsum beds 10--30 ft thick at several places, and a major gypsum/dolomite karst aquifer provides irrigation water to a large region in southwestern Oklahoma, where salt layers above and below the Blaine Formation have been partly dissolved at depths of 30--800 ft below the land surface. Salt dissolution causes development of brine-filled cavities, into which overlying strata collapse, and the brine eventually is emitted at the land surface in large salt plains.

  13. Regional Analysis of Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling analysis of runoff and ground-water recharge for the arid and semiarid southwestern United States was performed to investigate the interactions of climate and other controlling factors and to place the eight study-site investigations into a regional context. A distributed-parameter water-balance model (the Basin Characterization Model, or BCM) was used in the analysis. Data requirements of the BCM included digital representations of topography, soils, geology, and vegetation, together with monthly time-series of precipitation and air-temperature data. Time-series of potential evapotranspiration were generated by using a submodel for solar radiation, taking into account topographic shading, cloudiness, and vegetation density. Snowpack accumulation and melting were modeled using precipitation and air-temperature data. Amounts of water available for runoff and ground-water recharge were calculated on the basis of water-budget considerations by using measured- and generated-meteorologic time series together with estimates of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of subsoil geologic units. Calculations were made on a computational grid with a horizontal resolution of about 270 meters for the entire 1,033,840 square-kilometer study area. The modeling analysis was composed of 194 basins, including the eight basins containing ground-water recharge-site investigations. For each grid cell, the BCM computed monthly values of potential evapotranspiration, soil-water storage, in-place ground-water recharge, and runoff (potential stream flow). A fixed percentage of runoff was assumed to become recharge beneath channels operating at a finer resolution than the computational grid of the BCM. Monthly precipitation and temperature data from 1941 to 2004 were used to explore climatic variability in runoff and ground-water recharge. The selected approach provided a framework for classifying study-site basins with respect to climate and dominant recharge

  14. Ground water in Myrtle Creek - Glendale area, Douglas County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe briefly the occurence of ground water and to present ground-water information that will help water users, public officials, and planners to determine the probability of obtaining adequate quanitities of good-quality ground water in the Myrtle Creek-Glendale area.

  15. Hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the Upper Wood River Ground-Water Reservoir, Rhode Island. Water resources investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, D.C.; Bell, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the upper Wood River ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island. The report includes discussion of (1) recharge to and hydraulic properties of the stratified-drift aquifer, (2) stream-aquifer interconnection, (3) assessment of the quality of ground water and surface water, (4) input to and calibration of a two-dimensional ground-water-flow model, and (5) results of simulations of the effect of alternative ground-water-development schemes on ground-water levels and streamflow.

  16. Ground water in the Cuyama Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Upson, J.E.; Worts, George Frank

    1951-01-01

    This is the fourth of a series of interpretive reports on the water resources of the major valleys of Santa Barbara County, Calif., prepared by the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, in cooperation with Santa Barbara County. The first three reports described the other major valleys in the county: the south-coast basins, Goleta and Carpinteria, and the Santa Maria and Santa Ynez River valleys. This report deals with the Cuyama Valley in the northeastern part of the county and adjoining parts of San Luis Obispo, Kern, and Ventura Counties. It includes estimates of natural discharge, pumpage, and yield of ground water, and all data on water levels, well records, and water quality that were available up to June 1946.

  17. Water type and concentration of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the Ozark aquifer in Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imes, Jeffrey L.; Davis, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    The Ozark aquifer is a thick sequence of water-bearing dolostone, limestone, and sandstone of latest Cambrian through Middle Devonian age that is widely used as a source of water throughout the Ozark Plateaus province (index map). The Ozark aquifer is the largest of three aquifers that form part of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. The aquifer was studied as part of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (CMRASA; Jorgensen and Signor, 1981), a study of regional aquifer systems in the midcontinent United States that includes parts of 10States. Because of its significance as a source of freshwater in parts of Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma, a subregional project was established to investigate the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in more detail than the regional study could provide.The geologic and hydrologic relation between the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and other regional aquifer systems of the Midwest is presented in Jorgensen and others (in press). The relation of the Ozark aquifer to the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system is explained in Imes [in press (a)]. A companion publication, Imes [1990 (b)], contains contour maps of the altitude of the top, thickness, and potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer. This report contains maps that show water type and concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the Ozark aquifer. Most of the data from which these maps are compiled is stored in the CMRASA hydrochemical data base (R.B. Leonard, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1986). Data for Oklahoma were also taken from data published by Havens (1978). The maps in this report on the Ozark subregion may contain small differences from maps in other CMRASA publications because the criteria for data selection may be different and the subregional maps may contain additional data. However, regional trends in these maps are consistent with other maps published as part of the regional project.

  18. Stability of salt in the Permian salt basin of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico, with a section on dissolved salts in surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachman, George Odell; Johnson, Ross Byron

    1973-01-01

    bedded salt from subsurface dissolution depends chiefly on the isolation of the salt from moving ground water that is not completely saturated with salt. Karst topography is a major criterion for recognizing areas where subsurface dissolution has been active in the past; therefore, the age of the karst development is needed to provide the most accurate estimate of the dissolution rate. The Ogallala Formation-of Pliocene age is probably the most widespread deposit in the Permian salt basin that can be used as a point of reference for dating the development of recent topography. It is estimated that salt has been dissolved laterally in the vicinity of Carlsbad, New Mexico, at an average rate of about 6-8 miles per million years. Estimates of future rates of salt dissolution and the resulting lateral retreat of the underground dissolution front can be projected with reasonable confidence for southeastern New Mexico on the assumption that the climatic changes there in the past 4 million years are representative of climatic changes that may be expected in the near future of geologic time. Large amounts of salt are carried by present-day rivers in the Permian salt basin; some of the salt is derived from subsurface salt beds, but dissolution is relatively slow. Ground-water movement through the Permian salt basin is also relatively slow.

  19. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GROUND WATER EXTRACTION SYSTEMS (JOURNAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most common process for remediating contaminated ground water is extraction and treatment. Data from 19 ongoing and completed ground water extraction systems were collected and analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this process in achieving cleanup concentration goals for...

  20. Worldwide occurrences of arsenic in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D Kirk

    2002-01-01

    Numerous aquifers worldwide carry soluble arsenic at concentrations greater than the World Health Organization--and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency--recommended drinking water standard of 10 mg per liter. Sources include both natural (black shales, young sediments with low flushing rates, gold mineralization, and geothermal environments) and anthropogenic (mining activities, livestock feed additives, pesticides, and arsenic trioxide wastes and stockpiles). Increased solubility and mobility of arsenic is promoted by high pH (>8.5), competing oxyanions, and reducing conditions. In this Policy Forum, Nordstrom argues that human health risks from arsenic in ground water can be minimized by incorporating hydrogeochemical knowledge into water management decisions and by more careful monitoring for arsenic in geologically high-risk areas.

  1. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  2. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  3. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  4. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  5. Quality of Ozark streams and ground water, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.; Adamski, James C.; Bell, Richard W.; Davis, Jerri V.; Femmer, Suzanne R.; Freiwald, David A.; Joseph, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a previous USGS publication, 'Water Quality in the Ozark Plateaus, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, 1992' (Circular 1158). The fact sheet describes the effects of some of the major land uses and human activities upon water quality in the Ozarks. Nutrients, bacteria, pesticides, and other organic compounds generally are found in high concentrations or more frequently in agricultural or urban areas than in forested areas. Several metals are found in higher concentrations in water, bed sediment, or biological tissue downstream from mining areas. Nutrient concentrations generally do not make water unsafe for drinking. Bacteria concentrations may be high enough to cause concern in some areas at some times. Pesticides and other organic compounds generally are not of concern. Metal concentrations in some mining areas are of concern to humans and wildlife. Biological communities are being altered by habitat and water-quality changes.

  6. Water resources data, New Jersey, water year 2005.Volume 2 - ground-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Walter D.

    2006-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2005 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams: stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 2 contains a summary of the hydrologic conditions for 2005 water year; a listing of current water resource projects in New Jersey; a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets completed by the Geological Survey in recent years; records of ground-water levels from 214 wells; and a table of discontinued observation wells for which ground-water-level data are available. The locations of the ground-water level sites are shown on figure 4. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  7. Water resources data, New Jersey, water year 2004--volume 2. ground-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Walter D.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams: stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 2 contains a summary of the hydrologic conditions for 2004 water year; a listing of current water resource projects in New Jersey; a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets completed by the Geological Survey in recent years; records of ground-water levels from 196 wells; and a table of discontinued observation wells for which ground-water-level data are available. The locations of the ground-water level sites are shown on figure 4. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, Sate, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  8. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2003 - Volume 2. Ground-Water Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Walter D.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams: stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 2 contains a summary of the hydrologic conditions for 2003 water year; a listing of current water resource projects in New Jersey; a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets completed by the Geological Survey in recent years; records of ground-water levels from 185 wells; and a table of discontinued observation wells for which ground-water-level data are available. The locations of the ground-water level sites are shown on figure 4. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, Sate, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  9. Analysis of environmental setting, surface-water and groundwater data, and data gaps for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Oklahoma, through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Harich, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Lewis, Jason M.; Shivers, Molly J.; Seger, Christian H.; Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    The Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, consisting of approximately 960 square miles in parts of three counties in central Oklahoma, has an abundance of water resources, being underlain by three principal aquifers (alluvial/terrace, Central Oklahoma, and Vamoosa-Ada), bordered by two major rivers (North Canadian and Canadian), and has several smaller drainages. The Central Oklahoma aquifer (also referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer) underlies approximately 3,000 square miles in central Oklahoma in parts of Cleveland, Logan, Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties and much of the tribal jurisdictional area. Water from these aquifers is used for municipal, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supplies. The approximately 115,000 people living in this area used an estimated 4.41 million gallons of fresh groundwater, 12.12 million gallons of fresh surface water, and 8.15 million gallons of saline groundwater per day in 2005. Approximately 8.48, 2.65, 2.24, 1.55, 0.83, and 0.81 million gallons per day of that water were used for domestic, livestock, commercial, industrial, crop irrigation, and thermoelectric purposes, respectively. Approximately one-third of the water used in 2005 was saline water produced during petroleum production. Future changes in use of freshwater in this area will be affected primarily by changes in population and agricultural practices. Future changes in saline water use will be affected substantially by changes in petroleum production. Parts of the area periodically are subject to flooding and severe droughts that can limit available water resources, particularly during summers, when water use increases and streamflows substantially decrease. Most of the area is characterized by rural types of land cover such as grassland, pasture/hay fields, and deciduous forest, which may limit negative effects on water quality by human activities because of lesser emissions of man-made chemicals on such areas than

  10. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  11. Shallow Alluvial Aquifer Ground Water System and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction, Boulder Creek, Boulder, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babcock, K. P.; Ge, S.; Crifasi, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Water chemistry in Boulder Creek, Colorado, shows significant variation as the Creek flows through the City of Boulder [Barber et al., 2006]. This variation is partially due to ground water inputs, which are not quantitatively understood. The purpose of this study is (1) to understand ground water movement in a shallow alluvial aquifer system and (2) to assess surface water/ground water interaction. The study area, encompassing an area of 1 mi2, is located at the Sawhill and Walden Ponds area in Boulder. This area was reclaimed by the City of Boulder and Boulder County after gravel mining operations ceased in the 1970's. Consequently, ground water has filled in the numerous gravel pits allowing riparian vegetation regrowth and replanting. An integrated approach is used to examine the shallow ground water and surface water of the study area through field measurements, water table mapping, graphical data analysis, and numerical modeling. Collected field data suggest that lateral heterogeneity exists throughout the unconsolidated sediment. Alluvial hydraulic conductivities range from 1 to 24 ft/day and flow rates range from 0.01 to 2 ft/day. Preliminary data analysis suggests that ground water movement parallels surface topography and does not noticeably vary with season. Recharge via infiltrating precipitation is dependent on evapotranspiration (ET) demands and is influenced by preferential flow paths. During the growing season when ET demand exceeds precipitation rates, there is little recharge; however recharge occurs during cooler months when ET demand is insignificant. Preliminary data suggest that the Boulder Creek is gaining ground water as it traverses the study area. Stream flow influences the water table for distances up to 400 feet. The influence of stream flow is reflected in the zones relatively low total dissolved solids concentration. A modeling study is being conducted to synthesize aquifer test data, ground water levels, and stream flow data. The

  12. The role of ground water in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Braune, Eberhard; Xu, Yongxin

    2010-01-01

    Although water resources managers speak of a water crisis in Africa, the management of ground water has to date not featured strongly in national and regional African water agendas. Examination of the physical environment of the continent and, in particular, the water resources in relation to the socioeconomic landscape and regional development challenges makes it clear that widely occurring, albeit largely low-yielding, ground water resources will be crucial in the achievement of water security and development. Ground water is important primarily in domestic water and sanitation services, but also for other local productive needs like community gardens, stock watering, and brick-making, all essential to secure a basic livelihood and thus to alleviate poverty. Despite the importance of small-scale farming in Africa, there is little information on the present and potential role of ground water in agriculture. In contrast to its socioeconomic and ecological importance, ground water has remained a poorly understood and managed resource. Widespread contamination of ground water resources is occurring, and the important environmental services of ground water are neglected. There appear to be critical shortcomings in the organizational framework and the building of institutional capacity for ground water. Addressing this challenge will require a much clearer understanding and articulation of ground water's role and contribution to national and regional development objectives and an integrated management framework, with top-down facilitation of local actions.

  13. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  14. Monitoring for pesticides in ground water in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Patricia A.; Moses, Charles W.; Bevans, Hugh E.

    1997-01-01

    Many pesticides designed to control weed encroachment, plant disease, and insect predation are used in agricultural and urban areas in the United States. Contamination of ground water by pesticides has increased over the last 20 years (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). In 1985, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) estimated the detection of at least 17 agricultural pesticides in the ground water of 23 states. By 1988, pesticides identified in ground water had increased to 46 in 26 states. To protect ground water from pesticide contamination, USEPA, through the Federal Fungicide Insecticide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), requires all states to institute a ground-water protection program.

  15. Heterogeneity and thermal modeling of ground water.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Grant

    2007-01-01

    Heat transport in aquifers is becoming an increasingly important topic due to recent growth in the use of ground water in thermal applications. However, the effect of heterogeneity on heat transport in aquifers has yet to be examined in the same detail as it has been for solute transport, and it is unclear what effect this may have on our ability to create accurate models. This study examines this issue through stochastic modeling using the geostatistics for two aquifers with low and high degrees of heterogeneity. The results indicate that there is considerable uncertainty in the distribution of heat associated with injection of warm water into an aquifer. Heterogeneity in the permeability field was also found to slightly reduce the ability to recover this introduced heat at a later time. These simulations also reveal that hydrodynamic macrodispersion is an important consideration in some heat flow problems.

  16. Animating ground water levels with Excel.

    PubMed

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2003-01-01

    This note describes the use of Microsoft Excel macros (programs written in Excel's internal language, Visual Basic for Applications) to create simple onscreen animations of transient ground water data within Excel. Compared to many specialized visualization software packages, the use of Excel macros is much cheaper, much simpler, and can rapidly be learned. The Excel macro can also be used to create individual GIF files for each animation frame. This series of frames can then be used to create an AVI video file using any of a number of graphics packages, such as Corel PhotoPaint. The technique is demonstrated through a macro that animates changes in the elevation of a water table along a transect over several years.

  17. Ground-water models: Validate or invalidate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Konikow, L.F.

    1993-01-01

    The word validation has a clear meaning to both the scientific community and the general public. Within the scientific community the validation of scientific theory has been the subject of philosophical debate. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, argued that scientific theory cannot be validated, only invalidated. Popper’s view is not the only opinion in this debate; however, many scientists today agree with Popper (including the authors). To the general public, proclaiming that a ground-water model is validated carries with it an aura of correctness that we do not believe many of us who model would claim. We can place all the caveats we wish, but the public has its own understanding of what the word implies. Using the word valid with respect to models misleads the public; verification carries with it similar connotations as far as the public is concerned. Our point is this: using the terms validation and verification are misleading, at best. These terms should be abandoned by the ground-water community.

  18. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003, Volume 3B: Southwest Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.; Fletcher, William L.; Lane, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 36 streams and peak discharge for 36 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,227 wells, and quality-of-water data for 133 surface-water sites and 308 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 128 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 31 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 405 wells; and water quality at 32 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  19. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2002, Volume 3B. Southwest Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 392 streams, periodic discharge for 15 streams, continuous daily stage for 191 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 33 streams and peak discharge for 33 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 49 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 418 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,287 wells, and quality-of-water data for 116 surface-water sites and 291 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 125 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 31 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 377 wells; and water quality at 46 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  20. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2001, Volume 3B. Southwest Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Y.E.; Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 406 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous daily stage for 142 streams, periodic stage for 12 streams, peak stage and discharge for 37 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 11 lakes, periodic elevations for 30 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 424 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,426 wells, and quality-of-water data for 80 surface-water sites and 245 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 128 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 33 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 347 wells; and water quality at 25 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  1. Water quality in the Ozark Plateaus, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.; Adamski, James C.; Bell, Richard W.; Davis, Jerri V.; Femmer, Suzanne R.; Freiwald, David A.; Joseph, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to summarize major findings that emerged between 1992 and 1995 from the water-quality assessment of the Ozark Plateaus Study Unit and to relate these findings to water-quality issues of regional and national concern. The information is primarily intended for those who are involved in water-resource management. Yet, the information contained here may also interest those who simply wish to know more about the quality of water in the rivers and aquifers in the area where they live.

  2. Suitability of ponds formed by strip mining in eastern Oklahoma for public water supply, aquatic life, waterfowl habitat, livestock watering, irrigation, and recreation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, Renee S.

    1994-01-01

    A study of coal ponds formed by strip mining in eastern Oklahoma included 25 ponds formed by strip mining from the Croweburg, McAlester, and Iron Post coal seams and 6 noncoal-mine ponds in the coal-mining area. Water-quality samples were collected in the spring and summer of 1985 to determine the suitability of the ponds for public water supply, aquatic life, waterfowl habitat, livestock watering, irrigation, and recreation. The rationale for water-quality criteria and the criteria used for each proposed use are discussed. The ponds were grouped by the coal seam mined or as noncoal-mine ponds, and the number of ponds from each group containing water that exceeded a given criterion is noted. Water in many of the ponds can be used for public water supplies if other sources are not available. Water in most of these ponds exceeds one or more secondary standards, but meets all primary standards. Water samples from the epilimnion (shallow strata as determined by temperature) of six ponds exceeded one or more primary standards, which are criteria protective of human health. Water samples from five of eight Iron Post ponds exceeded the selenium criterion. Water samples from all 31 ponds exceeded one or more secondary standards, which are for the protection of human welfare. The criteria most often exceeded were iron, manganese, dissolved solids, and sulfate, which are secondary standards. The criteria for iron and manganese were exceeded more frequently in the noncoal-mine ponds, whereas ponds formed by strip mining were more likely to exceed the criteria for dissolved solids and sulfate. The ponds are marginally suited for aquatic life. Water samples from the epilimnion of 18 ponds exceeded criteria protective of aquatic life. The criteria for mercury and iron were exceeded most often. Little difference was detected between mine ponds and noncoal-mine ponds. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion (deepest strata) of all the ponds were less than the minimum

  3. Water Resources Data North Dakota Water Year 2002, Volume 2. Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harkness, R.E.; Wald, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for North Dakota consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality for streams; contents, stage, and water quality for lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality for ground-water wells. Volume 2 contains water-level records for 117 ground-water wells and water-quality records for 65 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in North Dakota.

  4. Hydrology and Water Quality near Bromide Pavilion in Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Murray County, Oklahoma, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Burrough, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    The Bromide Pavilion in Chickasaw National Recreation Area drew many thousands of people annually to drink the mineral-rich waters piped from nearby Bromide and Medicine Springs. Periodic detection of fecal coliform bacteria in water piped to the pavilion from the springs, low yields of the springs, or flooding by adjacent Rock Creek prompted National Park Service officials to discontinue piping of the springs to the pavilion in the 1970s. Park officials would like to resume piping mineralized spring water to the pavilion to restore it as a visitor attraction, but they are concerned about the ability of the springs to provide sufficient quantities of potable water. Pumping and sampling of Bromide and Medicine Springs and Rock Creek six times during 2000 indicate that these springs may not provide sufficient water for Bromide Pavilion to supply large numbers of visitors. A potential problem with piping water from Medicine Spring is the presence of an undercut, overhanging cliff composed of conglomerate, which may collapse. Evidence of intermittent inundation of the springs by Rock Creek and seepage of surface water into the spring vaults from the adjoining creek pose a threat of contamination of the springs. Escherichia coli, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcal bacteria were detected in some samples from the springs, indicating possible fecal contamination. Cysts of Giardia lamblia and oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum protozoa were not detected in the creek or the springs. Total culturable enteric viruses were detected in only one water sample taken from Rock Creek.

  5. A ground-water-quality monitoring program for Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlin, Jon O.

    1986-01-01

    A program was designed for the systematic monitoring of ground-water quality in Nevada. Basic hydrologic and water-quality principles are discussed in the formulation of a rational approach to developing a statewide monitoring program. A review of ground-water monitoring efforts in Nevada through 1977 indicates that few requirements for an effective statewide program are being met. A suggested program has been developed that consists of five major elements: (1) A Background-Quality Network to assess the existing water quality in Nevada aquifers, (2) a Contamination Source Inventory of known or potential threats to ground-water quality, (3) Surveillance Networks to monitor ground-water quality in selected hydrographic areas, (4) Intensive Surveys of individual instances of known or potential ground-water contamination, and (5) Ground-Water Data File to manage data generated by the other monitoring elements. Two indices have been developed to help assign rational priorities for monitoring ground water in the 255 hydrographic areas of Nevada: (1) A Hydrographic-Area Priority Index for surveillance monitoring, and (2) A Development-Potential Index for background monitoring of areas with little or no current development. Requirements for efficient management of data from ground-water monitoring are discussed and the three major systems containing Nevada ground-water data are reviewed. More than 11,000 chemical analyses of ground water have been acquired from existing systems and incorporated into a prototype data base.

  6. Protecting ground water: pesticides and agricultural practices. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The booklet presents the results of a project conducted by EPA's Office of Ground-Water Protection to evaluate the potential impacts of various agronomic, irrigation, and pesticide application practices on ground water. The report provides State and local water quality and agricultural officials with technical information to help in the development of programs to protect ground water from pesticide contamination. The report explains the principles involved in reducing the risk of pesticide contamination and describes what is known about the impact of various agricultural practices on pesticide leaching. It is hoped that the information will be helpful to water-quality officials in developing and implementing ground-water protection programs.

  7. Hydrogeologic data for the Blaine aquifer and associated units in southwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, D.L.; Bergman, D.L.; Fabian, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    This report is a compilation of hydrogeologic data collected for an areal ground-water investigation of the Blaine aquifer and associated units in southwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas. The study area includes parts of Greer, Harmon, and Jackson counties in Oklahoma and parts of Childress, Collingsworth, Hall, Hardeman, and Wilbarger counties in Texas. The Blaine aquifer consists of cavernous gypsum and dolomite beds. Water from the Blaine aquifer supports a local agriculture based mainly on irrigated cotton and wheat. The purpose of the study was to determine the availability, quantity, and quality of ground water from the Blaine aquifer and associated units. This report provides a reference for some of the data that was used as input into a computer ground-water flow model that simulates ground-water flow in the Blaine aquifer. The data in this report consists of: (1) Monthly or periodic water-level measurements in 134 wells; (2) daily mean water-level measurements for 11 wells equipped with water-level recorders; (3) daily total precipitation measurements from five precipitation gages; (4) low-flow stream-discharge measurements for 89 stream sites; (5) miscellaneous stream-discharge measurements at seven stream sites; (6) chemical analyses of surface water from 78 stream sites during low-flow periods; (7) chemical analyses of ground water from 41 wells; and (8) chemical analyses of runoff water collected at five sites.

  8. The Impact of Climatological Variability on Surface Water Supply in Oklahoma.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), which is managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Reston, Virginia. The WATSTORE database...maximum soil moisture or available water capacity (AWC) for this area was defined in the hydrologic accounting system to be seven inches. Demand (Figure 62...recharge of the soil moisture, and RO -runoff. The accounting system , which used weekly values, followed this logic. a. The PET demand is first satisfied

  9. 78 FR 78318 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma AGENCY: Federal...), channel 51, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, requesting the substitution of channel 23 for channel 51 at Oklahoma City. While the Commission instituted a freeze on the acceptance of full power television...

  10. Water resources data, North Carolina, water year 2003. Volume 2: Ground-water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, S.S.; Breton, P.L.; Chapman, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for North Carolina consist of records of stage, discharge, water quality for streams; stage and contents for lakes and reservoirs; precipitation; and ground-water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 213 gaging stations; stage for 61 gaging stations; and continuous precipitation at 118 sites. Volume 2 contains ground-water-level data from 143 observation wells and ground-water-quality data from 72 wells. The collection of water-resources data in North Carolina is a part of the National Water-Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, municipal, and Federal agencies.

  11. Saline contamination of soil and water on Pawnee tribal trust land, eastern Payne County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, Donna L.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management reported evidence of saline contamination of soils and water in Payne County on Pawnee tribal trust land. Representatives of the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Geological Survey inspected the site, in September 1997, and observed dead grass, small shrubs, and large trees near some abandoned oil production wells, a tank yard, an pit, and pipelines. Soil and bedrock slumps and large dead trees were observed near a repaired pipeline on the side of the steep slope dipping toward an unnamed tributary of Eagle Creek. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, initiated an investigation in March 1998 to examine soil conductance and water quality on 160 acres of Pawnee tribal trust land where there was evidence of saline contamination and concern about saline contamination of the Ada Group, the shallowest freshwater aquifer in the area. The proximity of high specific conductance in streams to areas containing pipeline spill, abandoned oil wells, the tank yard, and the pit indicates that surface-water quality is affected by production brines. Specific conductances measured in Eagle Creek and Eagle Creek tributary ranged from 1,187 to 10,230 microsiemens per centimeter, with the greatest specific conductance measured downgradient of a pipeline spill. Specific conductance in an unnamed tributary of Salt Creek ranged from 961 to 11,500 microsiemens per centimeter. Specific conductance in three ponds ranged from 295 to 967 microsiemens per centimeter, with the greatest specific conductance measured in a pond located downhill from the tank yard and the abandoned oil well. Specific conductance in water from two brine storage pits ranged from 9,840 to 100,000 microsiemens per centimeter, with water from the pit near a tank yard having the greater specific conductance. Bartlesville brine samples from the oil well and injection well have the greatest specific conductance, chloride concentration, and dissolved

  12. Surface water of Muddy Boggy River basin in south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westfall, A.O.; Cummings, T. Ray

    1963-01-01

    This report summarizes basic hydrologic data of the surface water resources of Muddy Boggy River basin, and by analysis and interpretation, presents certain streamflow characteristics at specified points in the basin. Muddy Boggy River has a drainage area of 2,429 square miles. The climate is moist subhumid and the annual precipitation averages about 39 inches. Gross annual lake evaporation averages 54 inches. The average annual discharge at the gaging stations for the period 1938-62 was 24,000 acre-feet for Chickasaw Creek near Stringtown; 72,000 acre-feet for McGee Creek near Stringtown; 671,800 acre-feet for Muddy Boggy Creek near Farris; and 358,200 acre-feet for Clear Boggy Creek near Caney. Flow-duration curves of daily discharge have been developed to show the percentage of time various rates of discharge have been equaled or exceeded. Procedures for determining the frequency of annual floods at any point in the basin are given. Low-flow frequency curves that define the recurrence intervals of 7, 14, 30, 60, and 120 day mean flows have been prepared for two gaging stations. Curves showing the relation of measured discharge at the low-flow partial-record stations to the daily mean discharge at a base gaging station are presented. Discharge measurements made in February 1963 at selected sites show the areal distribution of low flow. The storage requirements to supplement natural flows have been prepared for two gaging-stations sites. The chemical quality of surface water of Muddy Boggy River basin varies from place-to-place during base flow periods. Limestone and dolomite outcrops and oilfield brines affect water quality in some areas. Water of North Boggy Creek, McGee Creek, and their tributaries contains less than 100 ppm (parts per million) dissolved solids. Water of other streams in Muddy Boggy River basin has a higher dissolved-solids content, but the content does not exceed 500 ppm. Water of Muddy Boggy River basin is usable for domestic, irrigation, and

  13. Ground-Water Availability in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.

  14. Surface water of Beaver Creek Basin, in South-Central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laine, L.L.; Murphy, J.J.

    1962-01-01

    Annual discharge from Beaver Creek basin is estimated to have averaged 217,000 acre-feet during a 19-year base period, water years 1938-56, equivalent to an average annual runoff depth of 4.7 inches over the 857 square-mile drainage area. About 55,000 acre-feet per year comes from Little Beaver Creek basin, a tributary drainage of 195 square miles. Yearly streamflow is highly variable. The discharge of Little Beaver Creek near Duncan during 13-year period of record (water years 1949-61) has ranged from 86,530 acre-feet in calendar year 1957 to 4,880 acre-feet in 1956, a ratio of almost 18 to 1. Highest runoff within a year tends to occur in the spring months of May and June, a 2-month period that, on the average, accounts for more than half of the annual discharge of Little Beaver Creek near Duncan. The average monthly runoff during record was lowest in January. Variation in daily streamflow is such that while the average discharge for the 13-year period of record was 50.1 cfs (cubic feet per second), the daily discharge was more than 6 cfs only about half of the time. There was no flow at the site 19 percent of the time during the period. Some base runoff usually exists in the headwaters of Beaver and Little Beaver Creeks, and in the lower reaches of Beaver Creek. Low flow in Cow Creek tends to be sustained by waste water from Duncan, where water use in 1961 averaged 4 million gallons per day. In the remainder of the basin, periods of no flow occur in most years. The surface water of Beaver Creek basin is very hard but in general is usable for municipal, agricultural and industrial purposes. The chemical character of the water is predominantly a calcium, magnesium bicarbonate type of water in the lower three quarters of the basin, except in Cow Creek where oil-field brines induce a distinct sodium, calcium chloride characteristic at low and medium flows. A calcium sulfate type of water occurs in most of the northern part of the basin except in headwater areas

  15. Geology and occurrence of ground water in Lyon County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.

    1963-01-01

    Large quantities of ground water are available from melt-water channels in the county. Moderate quantities, adequate for domestic and small industrial needs, are available from many of the small isolated deposits of sand and gravel in the till. Small quantities of ground water, adequate only for domestic supply, generally can be obtained from Cretaceous sandstone.

  16. Ground-water resources of Rusk County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandeen, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Some mineralization of ground water is due to natural causes. Other mineralization of ground water is due to contamination. A program needs to be initiated to determine the extent and cause of mineralization that has taken place in freshwater sands. Water-quality data is needed at Henderson in order to monitor saltwater encroachment.

  17. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  18. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  19. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  20. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  1. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  2. Progress in ground-water protection and restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    Since issuing EPA's 'Ground-Water Protection Strategy' in 1984, the Agency has made significant strides in the protection of ground-water resources, both in implementing the ground-water related statutory authorities and in developing new EPA initiatives and activities. States also have made great progress in developing their own ground-water protection strategies and wellhead protection programs. Despite the progress already made in the protection and restoration of ground water, as documented in the report, much remains to be done--especially with respect to preventing pollution of ground-water resources. On July 18, 1989, a ground-water task force with the primary goal to develop a strategy for the direction EPA will take in ground-water protection. The strategy will incorporate recommendations and initiatives to ensure effective and consistent decision-making in all Agency actions affecting the resource, guide us as we deal with future ground-water issues, and assure that a clean and safe source of water will be available to all Americans and to the ecological systems on which we depend.

  3. Ground-Water Hydrology of the Upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E.; Morgan, David S.; Collins, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    The upper Deschutes Basin is among the fastest growing regions in Oregon. The rapid population growth has been accompanied by increased demand for water. Surface streams, however, have been administratively closed to additional appropriation for many years, and surface water is not generally available to support new development. Consequently, ground water is being relied upon to satisfy the growth in water demand. Oregon water law requires that the potential effects of ground-water development on streamflow be evaluated when considering applications for new ground-water rights. Prior to this study, hydrologic understanding has been insufficient to quantitatively evaluate the connection between ground water and streamflow, and the behavior of the regional ground-water flow system in general. This report describes the results of a hydrologic investigation undertaken to provide that understanding. The investigation encompasses about 4,500 square miles of the upper Deschutes River drainage basin.A large proportion of the precipitation in the upper Deschutes Basin falls in the Cascade Range, making it the principal ground-water recharge area for the basin. Water-balance calculations indicate that the average annual rate of ground- water recharge from precipitation is about 3,500 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Water-budget calculations indicate that in addition to recharge from precipitation, water enters the ground-water system through interbasin flow. Approximately 800 ft3/s flows into the Metolius River drainage from the west and about 50 ft3/s flows into the southeastern part of the study area from the Fort Rock Basin. East of the Cascade Range, there is little or no ground-water recharge from precipitation, but leaking irrigation canals are a significant source of artificial recharge north of Bend. The average annual rate of canal leakage during 1994 was estimated to be about 490 ft3/s. Ground water flows from the Cascade Range through permeable volcanic rocks

  4. Water type and concentration of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the St. Francois aquifer in Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imes, Jeffrey L.; Davis, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    The St. Francois aquifer, the lowermost of three regional aquifers that form part of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system, is composed of water-bearing sandstone and dolostone of Late Cambrian age. The aquifer was studied as part of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (CMRASA, Jorgensen and Signor, 1981), a study of regional aquifer systems in the midcontinent United States that includes parts of 10 States. Because of its significance as a source of freshwater in and adjacent to the Ozark Plateaus province (index map) of Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma, a subregional project was established to investigate the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in more detail than the regional study could provide.The geologic and hydrologic relation between the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and other regional aquifer systems of the Midwest is presented in Jorgensen an others (in press). The relation of the St. Francois aquifer to the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system is explained in Imes [in press (a)]. A companion publication, Imes [in press (b)], contains contour maps of the altitude of the top, thickness, and potentiometric surface of the St. Francois aquifer. This report contains maps that show water type and concentration of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the St. Francois aquifer. Most of the data from which these maps are compiled is stored in the CMRASA hydrochemical data base (R.B. Leonard, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1986). Only water quality analyses that ionically balanced to within 10 percent are included in this report. Because few water wells are completed in the St. Francois aquifer beyond the vicinity of the St. Francois Mountains in southeastern Missouri (index map), water-quality data, with few exceptions, are limited to a relatively small area near the outcrop of the aquifer.

  5. Hydrologic data for the alluvium and terrace deposits of the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Gregory P.; Bergman, D.L.; Pruitt, D.J.; May, J.E.; Kurklin, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water in the Quaternary alluvium and terrace deposits associated with the Cimarron River in northwestern Oklahoma is used extensively for irrigation, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The data in this report were collected as part of an investigation to provide State water managers with the quantitative knowledge necessary to manage the ground-water resource effectively. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey. The information presented in this report include data collected in the field from 1985 through 1989, and unpublished data compiled from files of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Data include well and test-bole records, consisting of ground-water levels, depth of wells, principal aquifer, and primary use of water. Water levels include continuous, daily, monthly, and periodic measure- ments for selected wells. Concentrations of common chemical constituents, selected trace elements, organic analyses, and tritium analyses of water samples from wells completed in the Cimarron River alluvium and terrace deposits and Permian geologic units are reported. Winter and summer base-flow discharge measurements of the Cimarron River and its Tributaries are presented together with water-quality data from the measuring sites. Continuous water-level and precipitation-gage data are presented graphically. Locations of data- collection sites are shown on plates.

  6. Estimated Nutrient Concentrations and Continuous Water-Quality Monitoring in the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin, Northwestern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2004-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Esralew, Rachel A.; Allen, Monica L.

    2008-01-01

    The Eucha-Spavinaw basin is the source of water for Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lake, which are part of the water supply for the City of Tulsa. The City of Tulsa has received complaints of taste and odor in the finished drinking water because of deteriorating water quality. The deterioration is largely because of algal growth from the input of nutrients from the Eucha-Spavinaw basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Tulsa, implemented a continuous, real-time water-quality monitoring program in the Eucha-Spavinaw basin to better understand the source of the nutrient loading. This program included the manual collection of samples analyzed for nutrients and the collection of continuous, in-stream data from water-quality monitors. Continuous water-quality monitors were installed at two existing continuous streamflow-gaging stations - Spavinaw Creek near Colcord, Oklahoma, and Beaty Creek near Jay, Oklahoma, from October 2004 through September 2007. Total nitrogen concentrations for manually collected water samples ranged from 2.08 to 9.66 milligrams per liter for the water samples collected from Spavinaw Creek near Colcord, Oklahoma, and from 0.67 to 5.12 milligrams per liter for manually collected water samples from Beaty Creek near Jay, Oklahoma. Total phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 1.5 milligrams per liter for the water samples collected from Spavinaw Creek near Colcord and from 0.028 to 1.0 milligram per liter for the water samples collected from Beaty Creek near Jay. Data from water samples and in-stream monitors at Spavinaw and Beaty Creeks (specific conductance and turbidity) were used to develop linear regression equations relating in-stream water properties to total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations. The equations developed for the Spavinaw and Beaty sites are site specific and only valid for the concentration ranges of the explanatory variables used in the analysis. The range in estimated and measured

  7. An application of thermometry to the study of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    The precise measurement of fluctuations in ground-water temperature, based on monthly readings in shallow glacial-outwash aquifers (up to about 70 feet deep), is useful in the study of ground-water movement and recharge. In addition to the study of natural phenomena in the hydrologic cycle, thermometry may be used as a tool in making detailed studies of (1) the effects of inducing the infiltration of surface water, (2) artificial recharge, (3) the effects of injecting petroleum products or radioactive or other wastes into the ground, and (4) ground-water movement in mines.

  8. Georgia's Ground-Water Resources and Monitoring Network, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is an abundant resource in Georgia, providing 1.45 billion gallons per day, or 22 percent, of the total freshwater used (including thermoelectric) in the State (Fanning, 2003). Contrasting geologic features and landforms of the physiographic provinces of Georgia affect the quantity and quality of ground water throughout the State. Most ground-water withdrawals are in the Coastal Plain in the southern one-half of the State, where aquifers are highly productive. For a more complete discussion of the State's ground-water resources, see Leeth and others (2005).

  9. An overview of ground-water quality data in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1984-01-01

    This report contains a summary of ground-water-quality data for Wisconsin and an evaluation of the adequacy of these data for assessing the impact of land disposal of wastes on ground-water quality. Chemical analyses used in data summaries were limited to those stored in the USGS computer system (WATSTORE). Information on documented instances of ground-water contamination and sources of potential contamination from land disposal of wastes was provided by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Available data provide an overview of ground water quality but may be insufficient for assessment of ground-water contamination from land disposal of wastes. Many sources of potential ground-water contamination (landfills, surface waste-storage impoundments, and buried tanks) are known. Some of these are probably causing local ground-water contamination that is not apparent from available regional data. Information needs for assessment of ground-water contamination from land disposal of wastes include improved understanding of both ground-water hydrology and the chemical behavior of specific contaminants in the environment. (USGS)

  10. Surface waters of North Boggy Creek basin in the Muddy Boggy Creek basin in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laine, L.L.

    1958-01-01

    available water supplies in this region. The surface waters of the North Boggy Creek basin are of excellent quality, being suitable for municipal, agricultural and most industrial uses. The concentration of the dissolved mineral content is usually about 75 ppm (parts per million) and the hardness about 50 ppm. The water is slightly acidic, with a range of pH values from 6.5 to 7.0. This report gives the estimated average discharge at gaging stations and 3 selected other sites in the basin for the 16-year period October 1938 to September 1954, used as a base period in this report. Duration-of-flow data for selected percentages of the time are shown for the period of observed record on North Boggy and Chickasaw Creeks; similar data are estimated for the base period 1938-54. The basic records in the basin are presented on a monthly and annual basis (through March 1958). For other sites at which discharge measurements have been made, a tabulation of observed discharge is given. These data have been correlated to obtain information on the low-water portion of the duration curves at 2 of the sites. (available as photostat copy only)

  11. A geographic data model for representing ground water systems.

    PubMed

    Strassberg, Gil; Maidment, David R; Jones, Norm L

    2007-01-01

    The Arc Hydro ground water data model is a geographic data model for representing spatial and temporal ground water information within a geographic information system (GIS). The data model is a standardized representation of ground water systems within a spatial database that provides a public domain template for GIS users to store, document, and analyze commonly used spatial and temporal ground water data sets. This paper describes the data model framework, a simplified version of the complete ground water data model that includes two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) object classes for representing aquifers, wells, and borehole data, and the 3D geospatial context in which these data exist. The framework data model also includes tabular objects for representing temporal information such as water levels and water quality samples that are related with spatial features.

  12. GROUND WATER QUALITY SURROUNDING LAKE TEXOMA DURING SHORT-TERM DROUGHT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality data from 55 monitoring wells during drought conditions surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, was compared to assess the influence of drought on groundwater quality. During the drought month of October, water table levels were three ...

  13. Ground-water availability and water quality, Farmington, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazzaferro, David L.

    1980-01-01

    The strataified-drift aquifer in Farmington, Conn., is capable of yielding large amounts of water to individual wells. About 14 square miles of Farmington is underlain by stratified-drift deposits which, in places, are more than 450 feet thick. The most productive deposits are found in the Farmington River valley, from Unionville to River Glen, and along Scott Swamp Brook. In these areas, saturated, coarse-grained, stratified-drift deosits exceed 80 feet in thickness and estimated yields to individual wells ranged from 250 to 1,000 gallons per minute. Results of mathematical model analysis of three of the most favorable ground-water areas indicate that long-term yields range from 1.2 to 2.5 million gallons per day. Water in the Framington and Pequabuck Rivers meets the Connecticut Drinking Water Standards, assuming complete conventional treatment, for coliform orgaisms, color, trubidity, chloride, copper, and nitrate. Coliform bacteria concentrations in the Pequabuck river (12-month geometric mean of about 6,800 colonies per 100 milliliters of water) indicate a potential problem. Water in the stratified-drift aquifer is of good quality with the exception of manganese; 10 of 11 wells sampled had maganese concentrations above 0.05 milligram per liter. (USGS)

  14. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, Martel J.; Freeman, Michael L.; Downhour, Paul; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Enright, Michael; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.

    2008-01-01

    This is the forty-fifth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2007. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah.gov/techinfo/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/publications/GW2008.pdf.

  15. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Fisher, Martel J.; Freeman, Michael L.; Downhour, Paul; Nielson, Ashley; Eacret, Robert J.; Myers, Andrew; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.

    2009-01-01

    This is the forty-sixth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions. This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2008. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights. utah.gov/techinfo/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/publications/ GW2009.pdf.

  16. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Enright, Michael; Cillessen, J.L.; Gerner, S.J.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.; Fisher, Martel J.

    2007-01-01

    This is the forty-fourth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2006. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah. gov/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/newUTAH/GW2007.pdf.

  17. Land subsidence caused by ground water withdrawal in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Johnson, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    At least eight urban areas in the world have encountered significant economic impact from land subsidence caused by pumping of ground water from unconsolidated sediment. The areas, most of which are coastal, include Bangkok, Houston, Mexico City, Osaka, San Jose, Shanghai, Tokyo, and Venice. Flooding related to decreased ground elevation is the principal adverse effect of the subsidence. Lesser effects include regional tilting, well-casing failures, "rising" buildings, and ground failure or rupture. Subsidence of most of these urban areas began before the phenomenon was discovered and understood. Thus, the subsidence problems were unanticipated. Methods to arrest subsidence typically have included control of ground water pumping and development of surface water to offset the reductions of ground water pumping. Ground water recharge has also been practiced. Areas threatened by flooding have been protected by extensive networks of dikes and sea walls, locks, and pumping stations to remove storm runoff. ?? 1985 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  18. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements...

  19. Guide to North Dakota's Ground-Water Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Q.F.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water, the water we pump from the Earth through wells or that which flows naturally from springs, is one of North Dakota's most valuable resources. More than 60 percent of the people living in the State use ground water for one purpose of another. It is the only source of water for thousands of farm families and their livestock. Almost all smaller cities and villages depend solely on groudn water as a source of supply. Increasingly, ground water is being used to irrigate crops and grasslands (fig. 1) during protracted dry spells so common in North Dakota. During recent years there has been a rapid development of rural water ditribution systems in which thousands of farms and rurals residences are connected via underground pipeline to a single water source, usually wells pumping ground water.

  20. Urban flood analysis in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.; Huntzinger, T.L.; Bergman, D.L.; Patneaude, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    Flood insurance study information from the Federal Emergency Management Agency is utilized to estimate future flood hazard in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Techniques are described for estimating future urban runoff estimates. A method of developing stream cross section rating curves is explained. Future runoff estimates are used in conjuction with the rating curves to develop an estimate of 50- and 100- year flood profiles that would result from future urban development.

  1. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  2. Water resources data, Maryland and Delaware, water year 1997, volume 2. ground-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smigaj, Michael J.; Saffer, Richard W.; Starsoneck, Roger J.; Tegeler, Judith L.

    1998-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Maryland and Delaware each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data - Maryland and Delaware.' This series of annual reports for Maryland and Delaware began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the l975 water year, the report format was changed to present, in one volume, data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels. In the 1989 water year, the report format was changed to two volumes. Both volumes contained data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels. Volume 1 contained data on the Atlantic Slope Basins (Delaware River thru Patuxent River) and Volume 2 contained data on the Monongahela and Potomac River basins. Beginning with the 1991 water year, Volume 1 contains all information on quantities of surface water and surface- water-quality data and Volume 2 contains ground-water levels and ground-water-quality data. This report is Volume 2 in our 1998 series and includes records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells and springs. It contains records for water levels at 397 observation wells, discharge data for 6 springs, and water quality at 107 wells. Location of ground-water level wells are shown on figures 3 and 4. The location for the ground-water-quality sites are shown on figures 5

  3. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Walzem, Vince; Cillessen, J.L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Fisher, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This is the forty-second in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable inter­ested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water with­drawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2004. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah.gov/techinfo/ wwwpub/gw2005.pdf and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/publications/GW2005.pdf.

  4. Water resources data for North Carolina, water year 1995. Volume 2. Ground-water records. Water data report (Annual), 1 October 1994-30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.G.; George, E.D.; Breton, P.L.

    1996-06-01

    Water-resources data for the 1995 water year for North Carolina consist of records of ground-water levels and water quality of ground water; records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs. This report contains ground-water level data from 81 observation wells and ground-water quality data from 125 wells.

  5. Water resources data for North Carolina, water year 1993. Volume 2. Ground-water records. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1992-30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, R.W.; Smith, D.G.; Ragland, B.C.

    1994-04-13

    Water-resources data for the 1993 water year for North Carolina consist of records of ground-water levels and water quality of ground water; records of stage, discharge and water quality of streams; and stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs. This report contains ground-water level data from 82 observation wells and ground-water quality data from 41 wells.

  6. Ground water in the Thousand Oaks area, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.

    1980-01-01

    The ground-water basin beneath the city of Thousand Oaks, Calif. , corresponds closely in area with the surface-water drainage basin of Conejo Valley. Before World War II there was little ground-water development. After World War II, urban development put a stress on the ground-water basin; many wells were drilled and water levels in wells were drawn down as much as 300 feet in places. Beginning in 1963, imported water replaced domestic and municipal ground-water systems, and water levels rapidly recovered to predevelopment levels or nearly so. Most of the ground water in the Thousand Oaks area is stored in fractured basalt of the middle Miocene Conejo Volcanics. Depending on the degree of occurrence of open fractures and cavities in the basalt, recoverable ground water in the upper 300 to 500 feet of aquifer is estimated to be between 400,000 and 600,000 acre-feet. The yield of water from wells in the area ranges from 17 to 1,080 gallons per minute. Most of the ground-water in the eastern part of the valley is high insulfate and has a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter. In the western part of the valley the ground-water is mostly of a bicarbonate type, and the dissolved-solids concentration is less than 800 milligrams per liter. In most areas of Conejo Valley, ground-water is a viable resource for irrigation of public lands and recreation areas. (USGS)

  7. EPA Research Evaluating CAFO Impacts on Ground Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of several projects will be presented on a research program currently underway at ORD’s Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) to evaluate CAFO impacts on ground water quality. The overall research objectives are to characterize the potential for gro...

  8. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is one in a series of Ground Water Issue papers which have been prepared in response to needs expressed by the Ground Water Forum. It is based on findings from the research community in concert with experience gained at sites undergoing remediation. the intent of th...

  9. Ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eakin, T.E.; Robinson, T.W.

    1950-01-01

    As a part of the State-wide cooperative program between the Office of the State Engineer of Nevada and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Ground Water Branch of the Geological Survey made a reconnaissance study of ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada.

  10. Procedures for ground-water investigations. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  11. Latin hypercube approach to estimate uncertainty in ground water vulnerability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, J.J.; McCray, J.E.; Thyne, G.; Qi, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    A methodology is proposed to quantify prediction uncertainty associated with ground water vulnerability models that were developed through an approach that coupled multivariate logistic regression with a geographic information system (GIS). This method uses Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) to illustrate the propagation of input error and estimate uncertainty associated with the logistic regression predictions of ground water vulnerability. Central to the proposed method is the assumption that prediction uncertainty in ground water vulnerability models is a function of input error propagation from uncertainty in the estimated logistic regression model coefficients (model error) and the values of explanatory variables represented in the GIS (data error). Input probability distributions that represent both model and data error sources of uncertainty were simultaneously sampled using a Latin hypercube approach with logistic regression calculations of probability of elevated nonpoint source contaminants in ground water. The resulting probability distribution represents the prediction intervals and associated uncertainty of the ground water vulnerability predictions. The method is illustrated through a ground water vulnerability assessment of the High Plains regional aquifer. Results of the LHS simulations reveal significant prediction uncertainties that vary spatially across the regional aquifer. Additionally, the proposed method enables a spatial deconstruction of the prediction uncertainty that can lead to improved prediction of ground water vulnerability. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  12. Ground Water Quality Protection. State and Local Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

    Using regional case studies, this document examines representative programs for dealing with ground water contamination. Section one describes the ground water protection strategy of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); (2) discusses the limited data available for determining the extent of contamination; (3) provides a listing of the…

  13. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... limits under § 264.94 in the uppermost aquifer underlying the waste management area beyond the point of... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard....

  14. In-Situ Bioremediation of Contaminated Ground Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is one in a series of Ground Water Issue papers which have been prepared in response to needs expressed by the Ground Water Forum. It is based on findings from the research community in concert with experience gained at sites undergoing ...

  15. Landscape approach to identifying environments where ground water and surface water are closely interrelated

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Thomas C.

    1995-01-01

    Understanding the interaction of ground water and surface water is fundamental to solving many of the water resource problems facing the Nation. To facilitate efficient management of the Nation's water resources, a program of study and evaluation of the interaction of ground water and surface water is proposed that would emphasize intersite comparison between 24 environments throughout the Nation.

  16. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Sory, J.D.; Danner, M.R.; Johnson, K.K.; Kenny, T.A.; Brockner, S.J.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Fisher, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    This is the thirty-seventh in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1999. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  17. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Walzem, Vince; Cillessen, J.L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Fisher, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    This is the forty-first in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2003. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  18. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Enright, Michael; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    2003-01-01

    This is the fortieth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2002. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  19. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Enright, Michael; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    2002-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2001. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  20. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Sory, J.D.; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    2001-01-01

    This is the thirty-eighth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2000. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  1. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Spangler, L.E.; Sory, J.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Kenney, T.A.; Johnson, K.K.; Loving, B.L.; Brockner, S.J.; Danner, M.R.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Fisher, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    This is the thirty-sixth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1998. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  2. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  3. Geothermal resource assessment in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.E.; Luza, K.V.; Prater, M.L.; Cheung, P.K.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    The procedures and methods used to develop a geothermal gradient map of Oklahoma are discussed. Two areas, Haskell and Pittsburg Counties, in the Arkoma Basin, are discussed in detail. Three sandstone units, the Spiro, Cromwell, and Hartshorne were selected as potential low-temperature geothermal water sources. The average temperature ranged from 103/sup 0/F at Hartshorne to 158/sup 0/F at Cromwell. (MJF)

  4. Pesticides in Ground Water - Sublette County, Wyoming, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Sublette County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Sublette County.

  5. Pesticides in Ground Water - Carbon County, Wyoming, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Carbon County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Carbon County.

  6. Pesticides in Ground Water - Campbell County, Wyoming, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Campbell County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Campbell County.

  7. Southwest principal aquifers regional ground-water quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, D.W.; Thiros, S.A.; Bexfield, L.M.; McKinney, T.S.; Green, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifers in the southwestern United States. The Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the region to ground-water contamination by synthesizing the baseline knowledge of ground-water quality conditions in 15 basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. The improved understanding of aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability to contamination is assisting in the development of tools that water managers can use to assess and protect the quality of ground-water resources. This fact sheet provides an overview of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States and description of the completed and planned regional analyses of ground-water quality being performed by the SWPA study.

  8. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  9. Water quality of the Quaternary and Ada-Vamoosa aquifers on the Osage Reservation, Osage County, Oklahoma, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Marvin M.

    2000-01-01

    The project was to provide information on the quality of ground water from rural-domestic-water wells within the Osage Reservation and compare the water-quality to proximity to oil wells. About 38,500 oil wells have been drilled in the Reservation since drilling began in 1896. About 1,480 square miles or 64 percent of the Reservation is within a quarter mile of an oil well. The unconfined Quaternary sand aquifer covers about 315 square miles or about 14 percent of the Reservation and the confined Ada-Vamoosa sandstone aquifer covers about 800 square miles or about 35 percent of the Reservation. Fifty-eight percent of the Quaternary aquifer and 69 percent of the outcrop area of the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer are within a quarter mile of an oil well . One hundred twenty domestic ground-water wells were sampled from the Quaternary and Ada-Vamoosa aquifers. Forty-nine percent of the Reservation is underlain by the aquifers. Ground-water quality is good on most of the Reservation, but the use of domestic water-supply wells tend to minimize water-quality problems. Existing water-supply wells commonly are located in areas that produce usable volumes of potable water. Several constituents in samples from the Ada-Vamoosa-aquifer within a quarter mile of an oil well were significantly greater than from the aquifer not near oil wells. The constituents include specific conductance, dissolved solids, sodium, sulfate, chloride, bromide, and silica. These ions are probably derived from brine water. In the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer subgroups, 57 percent of the samples near oil wells and 24 percent of the samples not near oil wells had dissolved-solids concentrations greater than 500 milligrams per liter. The water quality in the Quaternary and Ada-Vamoosa aquifers is similar in areas where no oil wells have been drilled but is significantly different for several constituents. Median concentrations of major constituents from the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer not near oil wells were less than or equal to

  10. Ground water in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kunkel, Fred; Hofman, Walter

    1966-01-01

    Ladies and gentlemen, it is a pleasure to be invited to attend this Irrigation Institute conference and to describe the Geological Survey's program of ground-water studies in the San Joaquin Valley. The U.S. Geological Survey has been making water-resources studies in cooperation with the State of California and other agencies in California for more than 70 years. Three of the earliest Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers--numbers 17, 18, and 19--published in 1898 and 1899, describe "Irrigation near Bakersfield," "Irrigation near Fresno," and "Irrigation near Merced." However, the first Survey report on ground-water occurrence in the San Joaquin Valley was "Ground Water in the San Joaquin Valley," by Mendenhall and others. The fieldwork was done from 1905 to 1910, and the report was published in 1916 as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 398.The current series of ground-water studies in the San Joaquin Valley was begun in 1952 as part of the California Department of Water Resources-U.S. Geological Survey cooperative water-resources program. The first report of this series is Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1469, "Ground-Water Conditions and Storage Capacity in the San Joaquin Valley." Other reports are Water-Supply Paper 1618, "Use of Ground-Water Reservoirs for Storage of Surface Water in the San Joaquin Valley;" Water-Supply Paper 1656, "Geology and Ground-Water Features of the Edison-Maricopa Area;" Water-Supply Paper 1360-G, "Ground- Water Conditions in the Mendota-Huron Area;" Water-Supply Paper 1457, "Ground-Water Conditions in the Avenal-McKittrick Area;" and an open-file report, "Geology, Hydrology, and Quality of Water in the Terra Bella-Lost Hills Area."In addition to the preceding published reports, ground-water studies currently are being made of the Kern Fan area, the Hanford- Visalia area, the Fresno area, the Merced area, and of the clays of Tulare Lake. Also, detailed studies of both shallow and deep subsidence in the southern part of

  11. Hydrology and simulation of ground-water Flow in the Tooele Valley ground-water basin, Tooele County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolp, Bernard J.; Brooks, Lynette E.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water is the sole source of drinking water within Tooele Valley. Transition from agriculture to residential land and water use necessitates additional understanding of water resources. The ground-water basin is conceptualized as a single interconnected hydrologic system consisting of the consolidated-rock mountains and adjoining unconsolidated basin-fill valleys. Within the basin fill, unconfined conditions exist along the valley margins and confined conditions exist in the central areas of the valleys. Transmissivity of the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer ranges from 1,000 to 270,000 square feet per day. Within the consolidated rock of the mountains, ground-water flow largely is unconfined, though variability in geologic structure, stratigraphy, and lithology has created some areas where ground-water flow is confined. Hydraulic conductivity of the consolidated rock ranges from 0.003 to 100 feet per day. Ground water within the basin generally moves from the mountains toward the central and northern areas of Tooele Valley. Steep hydraulic gradients exist at Tooele Army Depot and near Erda. The estimated average annual ground-water recharge within the basin is 82,000 acre-feet per year. The primary source of recharge is precipitation in the mountains; other sources of recharge are irrigation water and streams. Recharge from precipitation was determined using the Basin Characterization Model. Estimated average annual ground-water discharge within the basin is 84,000 acre-feet per year. Discharge is to wells, springs, and drains, and by evapotranspiration. Water levels at wells within the basin indicate periods of increased recharge during 1983-84 and 1996-2000. During these periods annual precipitation at Tooele City exceeded the 1971-2000 annual average for consecutive years. The water with the lowest dissolved-solids concentrations exists in the mountain areas where most of the ground-water recharge occurs. The principal dissolved constituents are calcium

  12. Impact of poor solid waste management on ground water.

    PubMed

    Vasanthi, P; Kaliappan, S; Srinivasaraghavan, R

    2008-08-01

    The leachate produced by waste disposal sites contains a large amount of substances which are likely to contaminate ground water. The impact of such sites upon ground water can be judged by monitoring the concentration of potential contaminants at a number of specific monitoring points. In this study, the quality of ground water around a municipal solid waste disposal site in Chennai was investigated. Chemical analyses were carried out on water samples collected at various radial distances from the boundary of the dumping yard, at intervals of 3 months and for a period of 3 years. The study has revealed that the ground water quality does not conform to the drinking water quality standards as per Bureau of Indian Standards. The effects of dumping activity on ground water appeared most clearly as high concentrations of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total hardness, chlorides, chemical oxygen demand, nitrates and sulphates. Leachate collected from the site showed presence of heavy metals. The contaminant concentrations tend to decrease, during the post monsoon season and increase, during the pre monsoon season in most of the samples. The study clearly indicates that landfills in densely populated cities should have the ground water monitored on regular basis. Furthermore, ground water in and around the landfill sites shall not be used for drinking purposes unless it meets specific standards. Indiscriminate dumping of wastes in developed areas without proper solid waste management practices should be stopped.

  13. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, S.J.; Steiger, J.I.; Sory, J.D.; Burden, Carole B.; Loving, B.L.; Brockner, S.J.; Danner, M.R.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Herbert, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    This is the thirty-fourth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep aware of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1996. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  14. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Susong, David D.; Burden, Carole B.; Sory, J.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Johnson, K.K.; Loving, B.L.; Brockner, S.J.; Danner, M.R.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Herbert, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    This is the thirty-fifth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1997. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  15. Water resources data, North Carolina, water year 2004. Volume 2: Ground-water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, S.S.; Breton, P.L.; Chapman, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for North Carolina consist of records of stage, discharge, water quality for streams; stage and contents for lakes and reservoirs; precipitation; and ground-water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 217 gaging stations; stage and contents for 58 lakes and reservoirs; stage only records for 22 gaging stations; elevations for 9 stations; water quality for 39 gaging stations and 5 miscellaneous sites, and continuous water quality for 35 sites; and continuous precipitation at 127 sites. Volume 2 contains ground-water-level data from 161 observation wells, ground-water-quality data from 38 wells, continuous water quality for 7 sites and continuous precipitation at 7 sites. Additional water data were collected at 51 sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements in Volume 1. The collection of water-resources data in North Carolina is a part of the National Water-Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, municipal, and Federal agencies.

  16. The ground-water-level monitoring network in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of the ground-water-level monitoring network in Iowa are to provide the data needed to: (1) determine the change in aquifer storage, (2) document the effects of climatic stress and human activities on discharge and recharge to the principal aquifers, (3) quantify the physical characteristics of ground-water flow including the transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, and specific capacity of aquifers; and (4) provide historical baseline data for future research. The design of the ground-water-level monitoring network in Iowa that satisfies these objectives includes three types of data: (1) hydrologic data, (2) water-management data for use by State and local officials, and (3) baseline data.

  17. Arsenic in Illinois ground water : community and private supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Kelly L.; Martin, Angel; Arnold, Terri L.

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the distribution of arsenic in ground water from community-water supplies, private supplies, or monitoring wells is part of the process of determining the risk of arsenic contamination of drinking water in Illinois. Lifestyle, genetic, and environmental factors make certain members of the population more susceptible to adverse health effects from repeated exposure to drinking water with high arsenic concentrations (Ryker, 2001). In addition, such factors may have geographic distribution patterns that complicate the analysis of the relation between arsenic in drinking water and health effects. For example, arsenic may not be the only constituent affecting the quality of drinking water in a region (Ryker, 2001); however, determining the extent and distribution of arsenic in ground water is a starting place to assess the potential risk for persons drinking from a community or private supply. Understanding the potential sources and pathways that mobilize arsenic in ground water is a necessary step in protecting the drinking-water supply in Illinois.

  18. Natural recharge and localization of fresh ground water in Kuwait

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstrom, R.E.; Aten, R.E.

    1965-01-01

    Fresh ground water (200 parts per million total dissolved solids and upwards) occurs in portions of Pleistocene sandstone aquifers beneath basins and wadis in north Kuwait where the mean rainfall is about five inches per year. The fresh water is surrounded and underlain by brackish water (> 4000 ppm TDS). Drilling and testing show that fresh water saturation is restricted to wadis and basin areas; in Rawdatain basin it attains a maximum thickness of about 110 feet and a lateral extent of about seven miles. The fresh ground water represents recharge localized, during infrequent, torrential rain storms, in areas of concentrated runoff where sediments in the vadose zone are moderately permeable and depth to the water table is generally less than a hundred feet. Concentration of runoff appears to be the primary control in the localization of recharge. The fresh water percolates downward to the ground-water reservoir following rare storms, then flows in the direction of hydraulic gradient and gradually becomes brackish. Theoretical delineation of the recharge area and ground-water flow pattern in Rawdatain was confirmed by tritium and C14 dating of the water. Brackish ground-water conditions prevail from water table downward in areas where rainfall infiltrates essentially where it falls, permeability of sediments in the vadose zone is low, or the water table is several hundred feet below land surface. In these areas, rainfall is retained and lost within the soil zone or becomes mineralized during deep percolation. ?? 1964.

  19. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requirements for Class V Large-Capacity Cesspools and Motor Vehicle Waste Disposal Wells § 144.87 How does the... existing motor vehicle waste disposal wells within your State. (b) Ground water protection areas. (1) For... area is complete every existing motor vehicle waste disposal well owner in that ground water...

  20. Geology and ground-water resources of Outagamie County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeRoux, E.F.

    1957-01-01

    The ground water differs greatly in chemical quality from well to well, but it is generally a very hard calcium magnesium bicarbonate water, some of it high in iron. To aid in determining the source of well waters, 22 chemical analyses were plotted on a logarithmic diagram to obtain characteristic patterns for waters from several geologic sources.

  1. Dynamic factor analysis for estimating ground water arsenic trends.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Chang, Fi-John

    2010-01-01

    Drinking ground water containing high arsenic (As) concentrations has been associated with blackfoot disease and the occurrence of cancer along the southwestern coast of Taiwan. As a result, 28 ground water observation wells were installed to monitor the ground water quality in this area. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA) is used to identify common trends that represent unexplained variability in ground water As concentrations of decommissioned wells and to investigate whether explanatory variables (total organic carbon [TOC], As, alkalinity, ground water elevation, and rainfall) affect the temporal variation in ground water As concentration. The results of the DFA show that rainfall dilutes As concentration in areas under aquacultural and agricultural use. Different combinations of geochemical variables (As, alkalinity, and TOC) of nearby monitoring wells affected the As concentrations of the most decommissioned wells. Model performance was acceptable for 11 wells (coefficient of efficiency >0.50), which represents 52% (11/21) of the decommissioned wells. Based on DFA results, we infer that surface water recharge may be effective for diluting the As concentration, especially in the areas that are relatively far from the coastline. We demonstrate that DFA can effectively identify the important factors and common effects representing unexplained variability common to decommissioned wells on As variation in ground water and extrapolate information from existing monitoring wells to the nearby decommissioned wells.

  2. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  3. Water resources data, North Carolina, water year 2002. Volume 2: Ground-water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, S.S.; Breton, P.L.; Chapman, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for North Carolina consist of records of stage, discharge, water quality for streams; stage and contents for lakes and reservoirs; precipitation; and ground-water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 211 gaging stations; stage and contents for 62 lakes and reservoirs; stage for 20 gaging stations; water quality for 52 gaging stations and 7 miscellaneous sites, and continuous water quality for 30 sites; and continuous precipitation at 109 sites. Volume 2 contains ground-water-level data from 143 observation wells and ground-water-quality data from 72 wells. Additional water data were collected at 85 sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements in Volume 1. The collection of water-resources data in North Carolina is a part of the National Water-Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, municipal, and Federal agencies.

  4. Ground-water quality protection; why it's important to you

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webbers, Ank

    1995-01-01

    Ground water is a valuable resource often used for industry, commerce, agriculture, and drinking water. In the 19080's, ground water provided 35 percent of the municipal water supplies in the United States and 95 percent of the rural, domestic drinking water. Scientists participating in ground-water studies may determine the potential pathways that contaminants could be transported in aquifers. In karst terrain especially, a contanimant can enter a fracture network in a carbonate aquifer and quickly spread to become a widespread health problem. Although Federal and local funding for ground-water cleanups and treatment may be available, the costs can exceed many millions of dollars each year. Such costly remedial actions could be avoided or minimized by becoming aware that ground water anywhere is vulnerable to contamination, but particularly so in carbonate terrain. Practicing good "out-of-doors" house- keeping is necessary. From the standpoint of economic and environmental responsibility, it is critical that we all work together to protect the quality of ground-water resources so that future generations can continue to have clean water.

  5. Oklahoma's Advanced School Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary

    A new means of funding school operations known as advanced school funding allows Oklahoma schools financing during the temporary cash shortfalls. The program consists of the Oklahoma Development Authority issuing revenue bonds purchased by E. F. Hutton and Company, Inc., which then sells the tax free bonds to investors throughout the country. A…

  6. Pride in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gordon; Blackburn, Bob L.

    This booklet is intended to be used as background material by social studies and history classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs on Oklahoma's heritage. It includes background information on the land and people of Oklahoma (geology, climate, topography, vegetation, animals, prehistoric peoples, French explorers,…

  7. Earthquake history of Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The strongest and most widely felt earthquake in Oklahoma occured on April 9, 1952. The intensity VII (Modified Mercalli Scale) tremor was felt over 362,000 sqaure kilometres. A second intensity VII earthquake, felt over a very small area, occurred in October 1956. In addition, 15 other shocks, intensity V or VI, have originated within Oklahoma

  8. Ground Watering of the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    USGS

    2006-10-12

    Water is a precious commodity, especially in the arid southwest region of the US, where there is a limited supply of both surface water and ground water. Ground water has a variety of uses (such as agricultural, commercial, and domestic) in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) of southern Nevada and eastern California. The DVRFS, an area of about 100,000 square kilometers, contains very complex geology and hydrology. Using a computer model to represent this complex system the US Geological Survey (USGS) simulated ground-water flow in the Death Valley region for use with US Department of Energy (DOE) projects in southern Nevada. The model was created to help address contaminant cleanup activities associated with the underground nuclear testing conducted from 1951 to 1992 at the Nevada Test Site and to support the licensing process for the Nation's proposed geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  9. Ground-water resources of the Lexington, Kentucky, area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faust, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Ground water in the Lexington, Kentucky, area occurs in Ordovician Limestones in which cavity development is generally limited to about 100 feet below land surface. Some wells produce about 300 gallons per minute in some of the large stream valleys , about 50 gallons per minute in the rolling upland and small stream valleys, and about 5 gallons per minute on hilltops and steep slopes. Many wells throughout the area do not furnish adequate water for domestic supplies because no significant water-bearing openings are penetrated during drilling. Ground-water use is limited mostly to domestic and stock supplies and a few small public supplies. Ground water is generally a calcium bicarbonate type and in places contains sodium chloride and (or) hydrogen sulfide. Bacterial pollution of ground water is widespread because of direct recharge of polluted runoff and streamflow to cavernous limestones. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Pesticides in ground water: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, Jack; Resek, Elizabeth A.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive review of published information on the distribution and behavior of pesticides and their transformation products in ground water indicates that pesticides from every chemical class have been detected in ground waters of the United States. Many of these compounds are commonly present at low concentrations in ground water beneath agricultural land. Little information is available on their occurrence beneath non-agricultural land, although the intensity of their use in such areas (on lawns, golf courses, rights of way, timberlands, etc.) is often comparable to, or greater than agricultural use. Information on pesticides in ground water is not sufficient to provide either a statistically representative view of pesticide occurrence in ground water across the United States, or an indication of long-term trends or changes in the severity or extent of this contamination over the past three decades. This is largely due to wide variations in analytical detection limits, well selection procedures, and other design features among studies conducted in different areas or at different times. Past approaches have not been well suited for distinguishing "point source" from "nonpoint source" pesticide contamination. Among the variety of natural and anthropogenic factors examined, those that appear to be most strongly associated with the intensity of pesticide contamination of ground water are the depth, construction and age of the sampled wells, the amount of recharge (by precipitation or irrigation), and the depth of tillage. Approaches commonly employed for predicting pesticide distributions in the subsurface--including computer simulations, indicator solutes (e.g., nitrate or tritium), and ground-water vulnerability assessments--generally provide unreliable predictions of pesticide occurrence in ground water. Such difficulties may arise largely from a general failure to account for the preferential transport of pesticides in the subsurface. Significant

  11. ESTIMATING FLOW AND FLUX OF GROUND-WATER DISCHARGE USING WATER TEMPERATURE AND VELOCITY. (R827961)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature of ground water discharge to a stream has important implications for nearby ground water flow, especially with respect to contaminant transport and well-head protection. Measurements of ground water discharge were accomplished in this study using (1) differences bet...

  12. Evidence for ground-water stratification near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Futa, K.; Marshall, B.D.; Peterman, Z.E.

    2006-01-01

    Major- and trace-element concentrations and strontium isotope ratios (strontium-87/strontium-86) in samples of ground water potentially can be useful in delineating flow paths in the complex ground-water system in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Water samples were collected from boreholes to characterize the lateral and vertical variability in the composition of water in the saturated zone. Discrete sampling of water-producing intervals in the saturated zone includes isolating borehole sections with packers and extracting pore water from core obtained by sonic drilling. Chemical and isotopic stratification was identified in the saturated zone beneath southern Fortymile Wash.

  13. Ground-Water Reconnaissance at Pinnacles National Monument, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evenson, R.E.

    1962-01-01

    Ground-water supplies at Pinnacles National Monument have been obtained from springs that occur in fractures and along bedding planes of volcanic flows and deposits, and from springs discharged from perched water in a sedimentary fanglomerate formation. The spring-water yield is barely adequate to supply existing camp facilities, and therefore a supplemental water supply is necessary before existing campgrounds can be expanded. This supplemental water can be supplied by good-quality ground water obtained from shallow wells drilled in the alluvium of Chalone Creek. The yield of properly constructed wells in this area should exceed 10 gallons per minute.

  14. Field Techniques for Estimating Water Fluxes Between Surface Water and Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; LaBaugh, James W.

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on measuring the flow of water across the interface between surface water and ground water, rather than the hydrogeological or geochemical processes that occur at or near this interface. The methods, however, that use hydrogeological and geochemical evidence to quantify water fluxes are described herein. This material is presented as a guide for those who have to examine the interaction of surface water and ground water. The intent here is that both the overview of the many available methods and the in-depth presentation of specific methods will enable the reader to choose those study approaches that will best meet the requirements of the environments and processes they are investigating, as well as to recognize the merits of using more than one approach. This report is designed to make the reader aware of the breadth of approaches available for the study of the exchange between surface and ground water. To accomplish this, the report is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 describes many well-documented approaches for defining the flow between surface and ground waters. Subsequent chapters provide an in-depth presentation of particular methods. Chapter 2 focuses on three of the most commonly used methods to either calculate or directly measure flow of water between surface-water bodies and the ground-water domain: (1) measurement of water levels in well networks in combination with measurement of water level in nearby surface water to determine water-level gradients and flow; (2) use of portable piezometers (wells) or hydraulic potentiomanometers to measure hydraulic gradients; and (3) use of seepage meters to measure flow directly. Chapter 3 focuses on describing the techniques involved in conducting water-tracer tests using fluorescent dyes, a method commonly used in the hydrogeologic investigation and characterization of karst aquifers, and in the study of water fluxes in karst terranes. Chapter 4 focuses on heat as a tracer in hydrological

  15. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, D.V.; Garrett, R.B.; Sory, J.D.; Burden, Carole B.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Steiger, J.I.; ReMillard, M.D.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Bagley, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the thirty-first in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1993. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1989 to the spring of 1994. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  16. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batty, D.M.; Allen, D.V.; Sory, J.D.; Hanson, K.M.; Thomas, W.J.; Greene, M.R.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Hadley, H.K.; Gerner, S.J.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    1993-01-01

    This is the thirtieth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1992. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1988 to the spring of 1993. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  17. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batty, D.M.; Herbert, L.R.; Sory, J.D.; Hanson, Karen M.; Eads, James P.; Smith, G.J.; Danner, M.R.; Drumiler, M.M.; Garrett, R.B.; Gerner, S.J.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Thomas, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    This is the twenty-ninth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1991. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1987 to the spring of 1992. Most of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  18. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbert, L.R.; Smith, G.J.; Kariya, Kim A.; Eads, James P.; Allen, D.V.; Stolp, Bert; Brooks, Lynette E.; Garrett, R.B.; Brothers, W.C.; Puchta, R.W; Swenson, R.L.; Emett, D.C.; Overman, W.R.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    This is the twenty-seventh in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1989. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1989 to the spring of 1990. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  19. Ground water for oil-shale development, Piceance Basin, Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Uses a synthetic streamflow model to investigate the effects of using conservative estimates of ground water on the required active storage capacity of a hypothetical reservoir on the White River. Results of the study indicate that use of ground water from mine drainage and/or auxiliary wells may have a significant impact on the size and timing of surface-water reservoirs. -from Author

  20. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford operations

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M. D.; Thorne, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEOR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides originating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: 1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; 2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; 3) through wells that draw some or all of their water from the Columbia River (riparian wells); and 4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in the contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring. These four pathways make up the "ground-water pathway ," which is the subject of this study. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the groundwater pathway contributed to radiation doses that populations or individuals may have received from past operations at Hanford. The assessment presented in this report was performed by 1) reviewing the extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and 2) performing simple calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations in ground water and the Columbia River resulting from ground-water discharge. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to this ground water and surface water were calculated. The study conclusion is that the ground-water pathways did not contribute significantly to dose. Compared with background radiation in the TriCities {300 mrem/yr), estimated doses are small: 0.02 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from discharge of contaminated ground water to the Columbia River; 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from Hanford Site wells; 11 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from riparian wells; and 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from the watershed. Because the estimated doses are so small, the recommendation is that further work

  1. Potentiometric surface in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer, Oklahoma, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Magers, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    A study of the hydrogeology of the Central Oklahoma aquifer was started in 2008 to provide the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) hydrogeologic data and a groundwater flow model that can be used as a tool to help manage the aquifer. The 1973 Oklahoma water law requires the OWRB to do hydrologic investigations of Oklahoma's aquifers (termed 'groundwater basins') and to determine amounts of water that may be withdrawn by permitted water users. 'Maximum annual yield' is a term used by OWRB to describe the total amount of water that can be withdrawn from a specific aquifer in any year while allowing a minimum 20-year life of the basin (Oklahoma Water Resources Board, 2010). Currently (2010), the maximum annual yield has not been determined for the Central Oklahoma aquifer. Until the maximum annual yield determination is made, water users are issued a temporary permit by the OWRB for 2 acre-feet/acre per year. The objective of the study, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, was to study the hydrogeology of the Central Oklahoma aquifer to provide information that will enable the OWRB to determine the maximum annual yield of the aquifer based on different proposed management plans. Groundwater flow models are typically used by the OWRB as a tool to help determine the maximum annual yield. This report presents the potentiometric surface of the Central Oklahoma aquifer based on water-level data collected in 2009 as part of the current (2010) hydrologic study. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-724 by Christenson and others (1992) presents the 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map. This 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map was made as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment pilot project for the Central Oklahoma aquifer that examined the geochemical and hydrogeological processes operating in the aquifer. An attempt was made to obtain water-level measurements for the 2009 potentiometric-surface map from the wells

  2. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  3. Groundwater quality and the relation between pH values and occurrence of trace elements and radionuclides in water samples collected from private wells in part of the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    From 1999 to 2007, the Indian Health Service reported that gross alpha-particle activities and concentrations of uranium exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Levels for public drinking-water supplies in water samples from six private wells and two test wells in a rural residential neighborhood in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, in central Oklahoma. Residents in this rural area use groundwater from Quaternary-aged terrace deposits and the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington aquifer for domestic purposes. Uranium and other trace elements, specifically arsenic, chromium, and selenium, occur naturally in rocks composing the Garber-Wellington aquifer and in low concentrations in groundwater throughout its extent. Previous studies have shown that pH values above 8.0 from cation-exchange processes in the aquifer cause selected metals such as arsenic, chromium, selenium, and uranium to desorb (if present) from mineral surfaces and become mobile in water. On the basis of this information, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, conducted a study in 2011 to describe the occurrence of selected trace elements and radionuclides in groundwater and to determine if pH could be used as a surrogate for laboratory analysis to quickly and inexpensively identify wells that might contain high concentrations of uranium and other trace elements. The pH and specific conductance of groundwater from 59 private wells were measured in the field in an area of about 18 square miles in Lincoln and Pottawatomie Counties. Twenty of the 59 wells also were sampled for dissolved concentrations of major ions, trace elements, gross alpha-particle and gross beta-particle activities, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, and radon-222 gas. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 24.7 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50

  4. Geology and ground-water resources of Goshen County, Wyoming; Chemical quality of the ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, J.R.; Visher, F.N.; Littleton, R.T.; Durum, W.H.

    1957-01-01

    Goshen County, which has an area of 2,186 square miles, lies in southeastern Wyoming. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the county by determining the character, thickness, and extent of the waterbearing materials; the source, occurrence, movement, quantity, and quality of the ground water; and the possibility of developing additional ground water. The rocks exposed in the area are sedimentary and range in age from Precambrian to Recent. A map that shows the areas of outcrop and a generalized section that summarizes the age, thickness, physical character, and water supply of these formations are included in the report. Owing to the great depths at which they lie beneath most of the county, the formations older than the Lance formation of Late Cretaceous age are not discussed in detail. The Lance formation, of Late Cretaceous age, which consists mainly of beds of fine-grained sandstone and shale, has a maximum thickness of about 1,400 feet. It yields water, which usually is under artesian pressure, to a large number of domestic and stock wells in the south-central part of the county. Tertiary rocks in the area include the Chadron and Brule formations of Oligocene age, the Arikaree formation of Miocene age, and channel deposits of Pliocene age. The Chadron formation is made up of two distinct units: a lower unit of highly variegated fluviatile deposits that has been found only in the report area; and an upper unit that is typical of the formation as it occurs in adjacent areas. The lower unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 95 feet, is not known to yield water to wells, but its coarse-grained channel deposits probably would yield small quantities of water to wells. The upper unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 150 feet, yields sufficient quantities of water for domestic and stock uses from channel deposits of sandstone under artesian pressure. The Brule formation, which is mainly a

  5. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  6. Radon-222 in the ground water of Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1998-01-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in ground water in 31 geologic units in Chester County, Pa., were measured in 665 samples collected from 534 wells from 1986 to 1997. Chester County is underlain by schists, gneisses, quartzites, carbonates, sandstones, shales, and other rocks of the Piedmont Physiographic Province. On average, radon concentration was measured in water from one well per 1.4 square miles, throughout the 759 square-mile county, although the distribution of wells was not even areally or among geologic units. The median concentration of radon-222 in ground water from the 534 wells was 1,400 pCi/L (picocuries per liter). About 89 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 300 pCi/L, and about 11 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 5,000 pCi/L. The highest concentration measured was 53,000 pCi/L. Of the geologic units sampled, the median radon-222 concentration in ground water was greatest (4,400 pCi/L) in the Peters Creek Schist, the second most areally extensive formation in the county. Signifi- cant differences in the radon-222 concentrations in ground water among geologic units were observed. Generally, concentrations in ground water in schists, quartzites, and gneisses were greater than in ground water in anorthosite, carbonates, and ultramafic rocks. The distribution of radon-222 in ground water is related to the distribution of uranium in aquifer materials of the various rock types. Temporal variability in radon-222 concentrations in ground water does not appear to be greater than about a factor of two for most (75 percent) of wells sampled more than once but was observed to range up to almost a factor of three in water from one well. In water samples from this well, seasonal variations were observed; the maximum concentrations were measured in the fall and the minimum in the spring.

  7. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelsberger, R.R.; Smith, E.D.; Broz, M.; Wright, J.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

  8. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, D.V.; Steiger, J.I.; Sory, J.D.; Garrett, R.B.; Burden, Carole B.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Gerner, S.J.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Bagley, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirty-second in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1994. Much of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  9. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbert, L.R.; Gates, Joseph S.; Sory, J.D.; Kariya, Kim A.; Eads, James P.; Smith, G.J.; Thomas, B.K.; Brooks, Lynette E.; Garrett, R.B.; Overman, W.R.; Swenson, R.L.; Emett, D.C.; Drumiler, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    This is the twenty-eighth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1990. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1986 to the spring of 1991. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  10. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steiger, J.I.; Gerner, S.J.; Sory, J.D.; Burden, Carole B.; Loving, B.L.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Hadley, H.K.; Enright, Michael; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Brockner, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is the thirty-third in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1995. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  11. Ground-water resources data for Baldwin County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, James L.; Moreland, Richard S.; Clark, Amy E.

    1996-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data for 237 wells were collected, and water-levels in 223 wells in Baldwin and Escambia Counties were measured. Long-term water water-level data, available for many wells, indicate that ground-water levels in most of Baldwin County show no significant trends for the period of record. However, ground-water levels have declined in the general vicinity of Spanish Fort and Daphne, and ground-water levels in the Gulf Shores and Orange Beach areas are less than 5 feet above sea level in places. The quality of ground water generally is good, but problems with iron, sulfur, turbidity, and color occur. The water from most private wells in Baldwin County is used without treatment or filtration. Alabama public- health law requires that water from public-supply wells be chlorinated. Beyond that, the most common treatment of ground water by public-water suppliers in Baldwin County consists of pH adjustment, iron removal, and aeration. The transmissivity of the Miocene-Pliocene aquifer was determined at 10 locations in Baldwin County. Estimates of transmissivity ranged from 700 to 5,400 feet squared per day. In general, aquifer transmissivity was greatest in the southeastern part of the county, and least in the western part of the county near Mobile Bay. A storage coefficient of 1.5 x 10-3 was determined for the Miocene-Pliocene aquifer near Loxley.

  12. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Smith, G.J.; Greene, Michael R.; Eads, James P.; Allen, D.V.; Yarbrough, John A.; Brooks, Lynette E.; Garrett, R.B.; Brothers, W.C.; Puchta, R.W; Swenson, R.L.; Emett, D.C.; Overman, W.R.; Sandberg, G.W.; Thomas, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    This is the twenty-sixth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1988. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described from the spring of 1988 to the spring of 1989. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  13. Sampling colloids and colloid-associated contaminants in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Backhus, Debera A.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Groher, Daniel M.; MacFarlane, John K.; Gschwend, Philip M.

    1993-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that mobile colloids may affect the transport of contaminants in ground water. To determine the significance of this process, knowledge of both the total mobile load (dissolved + colloid-associated) and the dissolved concentration of a ground-water contaminant must be obtained. Additional information regarding mobile colloid characteristics and concentrations are required to predict accurately the fate and effects of contaminants at sites where significant quantities of colloids are found. To obtain this information, a sampling scheme has been designed and refined to collect mobile colloids while avoiding the inclusion of normally immobile subsurface and well-derived solids. The effectiveness of this sampling protocol was evaluated at a number of contaminated and pristine sites.The sampling results indicated that slow, prolonged pumping of ground water is much more effective at obtaining ground-water samples that represent in situ colloid populations than bailing. Bailed samples from a coal tar-contaminated site contained 10–100 times greater colloid concentrations and up to 750 times greater polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations as were detected in slowly pumped samples. The sampling results also indicated that ground-water colloid concentrations should be monitored in the field to determine the adequacy of purging if colloid and colloid-associated contaminants are of interest. To avoid changes in the natural ground-water colloid population through precipitation or coagulation, in situ ground-water chemistry conditions must be preserved during sampling and storage. Samples collected for determination of the total mobile load of colloids and low-solubility contaminants must not be filtered because some mobile colloids are removed by this process. Finally, suggestions that mobile colloids are present in ground water at any particular site should be corroborated with auxiliary data, such as colloid levels in

  14. Ground-water field trip, Tucson to Nogales, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, D.R.; Halpenny, L.C.

    1954-01-01

    A field excursion following the route described herein was conducted as a part of the curriculum of the 6th Ground Water Short Course, which was held by the Geological Survey at the University of Arizona in April 1954. The route log and descriptive text were designed to provide a general background of the ground-water situation in the Upper Santa Cruz Basin, a few of the geologic features that affect the occurrence of ground water, and some of the historical highlights of the region. 

  15. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Walzem, Vince; Cillessen, J.L.; Downhour, Paul; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Wilberg, D.E.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Fisher, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    This is the forty-third in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable inter­ested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water with­drawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2005. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah. gov/techinfo/wwwpub/gw2006.pdf and http://ut.water.usgs. gov/publications/GW2006.pdf.

  16. Transboundary impacts on regional ground water modeling in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rainwater, K.; Stovall, J.; Frailey, S.; Urban, L.

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation required regional grassroots water resources planning across the entire state of Texas. The Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), the state's primary water resource planning agency, divided the state into 16 planning regions. Each planning group developed plans to manage both ground water and surface water sources and to meet future demands of various combinations of domestic, agricultural, municipal, and industrial water consumers. This presentation describes the challenges in developing a ground water model for the Llano Estacado Regional Water Planning Group (LERWPG), whose region includes 21 counties in the Southern High Plains of Texas. While surface water is supplied to several cities in this region, the vast majority of the regional water use comes from the High Plains aquifer system, often locally referred to as the Ogallala Aquifer. Over 95% of the ground water demand is for irrigated agriculture. The LERWPG had to predict the impact of future TWDB-projected water demands, as provided by the TWDB, on the aquifer for the period 2000 to 2050. If detrimental impacts were noted, alternative management strategies must be proposed. While much effort was spent on evaluating the current status of the ground water reserves, an appropriate numerical model of the aquifer system was necessary to demonstrate future impacts of the predicted withdrawals as well as the effects of the alternative strategies. The modeling effort was completed in the summer of 2000. This presentation concentrates on the political, scientific, and nontechnical issues in this planning process that complicated the modeling effort. Uncertainties in data, most significantly in distribution and intensity of recharge and withdrawals, significantly impacted the calibration and predictive modeling efforts. Four predictive scenarios, including baseline projections, recurrence of the drought of record, precipitation enhancement, and reduced irrigation demand, were simulated to

  17. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    PubMed

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  18. Tectonic influences on ground water quality: insight from complementary methods.

    PubMed

    Earman, Sam; McPherson, Brian J O L; Phillips, Fred M; Ralser, Steve; Herrin, James M; Broska, James

    2008-01-01

    A study using multiple techniques provided insight into tectonic influences on ground water systems; the results can help to understand ground water systems in the tectonically active western United States and other parts of the world. Ground water in the San Bernardino Valley (Arizona, United States and Sonora, Mexico) is the main source of water for domestic use, cattle ranching (the primary industry), and the preservation of threatened and endangered species. To improve the understanding of ground water occurrence, movement, and sustainability, an investigation was conducted using a number of complementary methods, including major ion geochemistry, isotope hydrology, analysis of gases dissolved in ground water, aquifer testing, geophysics, and an examination of surface and subsurface geology. By combining information from multiple lines of investigation, a more complete picture of the basin hydrogeology was assembled than would have been possible using fewer methods. The results show that the hydrogeology of the San Bernardino Valley is markedly different than that of its four neighboring basins in the United States. The differences include water quality, chemical evolution, storage, and residence time. The differences result from the locally unique geology of the San Bernardino Valley, which is due to the presence of a magmatically active accommodation zone (a zone separating two regions of normal faults with opposite dips). The geological differences and the resultant hydrological differences between the San Bernardino Valley and its neighboring basins may serve as a model for the distinctive nature of chemical evolution of ground water in other basins with locally distinct tectonic histories.

  19. Identification of Naegleria fowleri in warm ground water aquifers.

    PubMed

    Laseke, Ian; Korte, Jill; Lamendella, Regina; Kaneshiro, Edna S; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Oerther, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    The free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri was identified as the etiological agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis that caused the deaths of two children in Peoria, Arizona, in autumn of 2002. It was suspected that the source of N. fowleri was the domestic water supply, which originates from ground water sources. In this study, ground water from the greater Phoenix Metropolitan area was tested for the presence of N. fowleri using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA sequences of bacterial populations in the ground water were performed to examine the potential link between the presence of N. fowleri and bacterial groups inhabiting water wells. The results showed the presence of N. fowleri in five out of six wells sampled and in 26.6% of all ground water samples tested. Phylogenetic analyses showed that beta- and gamma-proteobacteria were the dominant bacterial populations present in the ground water. Bacterial community analyses revealed a very diverse community structure in ground water samples testing positive for N. fowleri.

  20. Sewage in ground water in the Florida Keys

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    More than 24,000 septic tanks, 5,000 cesspools, and greater than 600 shallow disposal wells introduce sewage effluents into porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To assess the fate of sewage nutrients, 21 2- to 20-m-deep wells were core drilled and completed as water-monitoring wells. The wells were sampled quarterly and analyzed for 17 parameters. including nutrients and bacteria. Nutrients (mainly NH4, - which is 30 to 40 times higher than in surface sea water) were detected in ground water beneath the Keys and offshore coral reefs. Highest levels were beneath reefs 5 to 8 km offshore. Ground waters were generally hypersaline and fecal bacteria (fecal coliform and streptococci) were detected in ground water beneath living coral reefs. Higher sea level on the Florida Bay side of the Keys is proposed as the mechanism for forcing ground water toward offshore coral reefs. Tidal pumping, which is more pronounced near the Keys, causes leakage of ground water where the sediment is thin. Areas lacking sediment cover consist of bare limestone bedrock or permeable coral reefs. These are the areas where coral diseases and algal growth have increased in recent years. Pollutants entering the ground water beneath the Florida Keys are likely to be transported seaward beneath impermeable Holocene sediments and may be upwelling through coral reefs and other hardbottom communities.

  1. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1974 through 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragsdale, J.O.; Oberender, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Ground-water levels are measured periodically in a network of about 270 observation wells in Wyoming, mostly in areas where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. The program is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State engineer and the Wyoming Department of Economic Planning and Development. This report contains hydrographs for most observation wells showing water-level fluctuations from 1974 through 1983. Also included in the report are maps showing locations of observation wells and tabulations of well depths, use of water, geologic source, records available, and highest and lowest water levels for the period of record. (USGS)

  2. Ground-water resources of Coke County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Clyde A.

    1973-01-01

    Coke County, located in semiarid west-central Texas, where large ranches, small farms, and oil production are the main bases of the economy, has a small supply of ground and surface water. Of the approximately 1,900 acre-feet of fresh to moderately saline ground water used in 1968, industry used 880 acre-feet, irrigation used 210 acre-feet, and domestic supply and livestock used 820 acre-feet. All of the water for municipal supply and some of the water for industry is obtained from surface-water reservoirs.

  3. Arsenic Species in the Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Arsenic concentrations in ground varies widely and regionally across the United States and exists as oxyanions having two oxidation states: As(+III) and As(+V). As(V) is effectively removed by most arsenic treatment processes whereas uncharged As(III) is poorly removed...

  4. Hydrogeology, ground-water use, and ground-water levels in the Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles; Schumann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Withdrawals of ground water in the central Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio, caused water-level declines of more than 100 feet by the 1950s. Since the 1950s, management practices have changed to reduce the withdrawals of ground water, and recovery of water levels in long-term monitoring wells in the valley has been documented. Changing conditions such as these prompted a survey of water use, streamflow conditions, and water levels in several aquifers in the central Mill Creek Valley, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Geohydrologic information, water use, and water levels were compiled from historical records and collected during the regional survey. Data collected during the survey are presented in terms of updated geohydrologic information, water use in the study area, water levels in the aquifers, and interactions between ground water and surface water. Some of the data are concentrated at former Air Force Plant 36 (AFP36), which is collocated with the General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) plant, and these data are used to describe geohydrology and water levels on a more local scale at and near the plant. A comparison of past and current ground-water use and levels indicates that the demand for ground water is decreasing and water levels are rising. Before 1955, most of the major industrial ground-water users had their own wells, ground water was mined from a confined surficial (lower) aquifer, and water levels were more than 100 feet below their predevelopment level. Since 1955, however, these users have been purchasing their water from the city of Cincinnati or a private water purveyor. The cities of Reading and Lockland, both producers of municipal ground-water supplies in the area, shut down their well fields within their city limits. Because the demand for ground-water supplies in the valley has lessened greatly since the 1950s, withdrawals have decreased, and, consequently, water levels in the lower aquifer are 65 to 105 feet higher than they were

  5. Water-table contours, directions of ground-water movement, and measurements of inflow to American Falls Reservoir, Southeastern Idaho, April 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    In 1978 the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluating the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop a capability for predicting aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management. By use of a digital model, this report presents a quantitative description of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The High Plains aquifer consists predominantly of the Tertiary Ogallala Formation and overlying Quaternary alluvium and terrace deposits which are hydraulically connected to the High Plains aquifer. Much of the aquifer is underlain by formations of Permian through Cretaceous age, which generally have very small hydraulic conductivities. In some areas parts of underlying Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous rocks are hydraulically connected with the aquifer. The High Plains aquifer is a water-table aquifer in which water moves generally to the east-southeast. Before the beginning of extensive irrigation of the 1960's, the aquifer was essentially in dynamic equilibrium with recharge from precipitation balanced by natural discharge from the aquifer. Ground-water discharge appeared in streams leaving the area or was returned to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration. Accurate records of irrigation pumpage are not available from the High Plains. In order to estimate irrigation pumpage, published records of crop distribution were used and a consumptive use was assigned to each principal irrigated crop. This method gave an estimated irrigation demand. Pumpage was taken as a percentage of the total irrigation demand. Irrigation has decreased ground-water discharge from the High Plains aquifer. Ground-water discharge was estimated as approximately 118 cubic feet per second in 1980. A finite-difference digital model was used to simulate flow in the High Plains aquifer. The recharge was adjusted so that 1980 ground-water discharge was 118 cubic feet per

  6. Hydrology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the Chipuxet ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, H.E.; Dickerman, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    A glacial sand and gravel aquifer in the Chipuxet River basin of Rhode Island forms a ground-water reservoir that could yield as much as 8.6 million gallons per day to wells; however, some streams would go dry for extended periods of time. The State Water Resources Board has tested five site that it proposes to develop for a public supply of 3 million gallons per day. A digital model was used to determine how withdrawal at this rate from alternative combinations of wells would affect water levels and streamflow. Results show that withdrawal of 3 million gallons per day would have a minimal effect on water levels, but that withdrawal at this rate from some well combinations could cause the Chipuxet River to have little or no flow for 90 consecutive days on the average of 1 year in 20. Quality of ground water is generally good, but leaching of fertilizers applied to croplands, which overlie much of the aquifer, has caused locally excessive concentrations of nitrate. Induced infiltration of surface water through organic sediments that line the bottoms of ponds and streams also seems to be the cause of elevated concentrations of manganese in water from some heavily pumped wells. (USGS)

  7. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2002--Volume 2. Ground-Water Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and levels and quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface- and ground-water hydrologic conditions for the 2002 water year, a listing of current water-resources projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 118 continuing-record surface-water stations, 15 miscellaneous ground-water sites, and records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 6 continuous-recording stations. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 12-14. Locations of miscellaneous water-quality sites are shown in figures 40-41. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating federal, state, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  8. Ground-water resources and geology of Colquitt County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    The ground water is generally hard, but is otherwise of good quality. One exception is near the hypothesized Ochlockonee fault where water contains higher-than-usual concentrations of various ions, especially sulfate. Another exception occurs along the axis of the Suwannee strait where clay minerals in the channel facies may soften the water by ion exchange.

  9. Factors affecting ground-water quality in Oakland County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2004-01-01

    Ground water is water stored in pores within soil and rock beneath the land surface. When these pores are connected so that water can be transmitted to wells or springs, these bodies of soil and rock are termed aquifers, from two Greek words meaning “water” and “to bear.” 

  10. Selected bibliography of ground-water in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ward-McLemore, E.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography contains 899 records related to the hydrology of the US. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: aquifers; artesian wells; geophysics; ground water; flow models; pollution; tritium; water levels; water policy; and legal aspects. The subject index provides listings of records related to each state. Some of the items (81) are themselves bibliographies.

  11. Ground Water / Surface Water Exchange: Streambed Versus a Channel Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, C. L.; Constantz, J. E.; Cooper, C. A.; McKay, W. A.

    2007-12-01

    The streambed is important in controlling exchange of water, solutes, and heat between streams and ground water. Processes such as sedimentation, erosion, and fluctuations in diurnal temperatures can have significant effects on the streambed hydraulic conductivity, which in turn affects fluid velocities across the streambed. The objectives of this study are to quantify the difference in flux magnitude and direction within and around a channel bar. The focus of this presentation is to compare fluxes in channel bar sediments with fluxes in the streambed to determine the effect of the upper boundary conditions on sediment fluxes. A network of piezometers was installed on and around a channel bar located within the Truckee River, a dense 6th order river network, located primarily in northwest Nevada. Instruments used were temperature loggers, pressure transducers, and stage recorders. Several methods were simultaneously utilized to quantify water and heat fluxes and to interpret the hydrodynamic processes through the streambed sediments. Numerical simulations are being completed to quantify the spatial and temporal fluid flux and heat transport in relation to varied hydraulic parameters such as variable river stage, geometry, and hydraulic conductivity. In general, we have found that surface water exchange to the streambed occurs at the upstream portion of bed features and streambed discharge dominates at the downstream bed feature. This exchange is evidenced at the channel bar as well as localized riffles and point bars adjacent to the channel bar. We found that at least two separate hydraulic conditions are evident during our study. The range in water levels between the piezometers was altered from approximately 1.25 m to a minimum of 0.10 m and the mean potentiometric surface increased by 1 m. These variations are geomorphic responses due to a flood event, inundating the channel bar, and a channel restoration project both upstream and downstream of the study area

  12. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at two landfills in Bristol, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    A study was done to describe the hydrogeology of unconsolidated deposits, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at two landfills in Bristol, Vermont. The study area is characterized by a glacial delta greater than 200 feet thick on the west flank of the Green Mountains. An upper unconfined, coarse-grained glacial aquifer and a lower fine-grained glacial aquifer are separated throughout most of the study area by a sand, silt, and clay confining unit. A two-layer ground-water flow model was designed and calibrated to estimate ground-water-flow paths form the aquifers beneath the landfills. Large upward head gradients of 0.03 to 0.30 foot per foot are the result of ground water leaking from the underlying bedrock aquifer, which caused ground-water flow to concentrate in the upper aquifer. Most simulated ground-water-flow paths in the lower glacial aquifer beneath the landfills crossed into the upper aquifer. Simulated ground- water-flow paths in the upper aquifer, beneath the landfills, remained in the upper aquifer. Ground water characterized as landfill leachate, or influenced by landfill leachate, has a median specific conductance of 700 microseimens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius. Landfill leachate contained mean concentrations 1.5 to 10 times the background concentrations of common constituents and metals, including calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride, iron, magnesium, and manganese. Trace metals detected in the leachate included copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, lead, and arsenic. Ten volatile organic compounds were found at four observation wells associated with one landfill and three volatile organic compounds were found at two observation wells associated with the record landfill. No one volatile organic compound was consistently found and detections were generally at or near detection limits.

  13. Flowpath delineation and ground water age, Allequash Basin, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pint, Christine D.; Hunt, Randall J.; Anderson, Mary P.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of ground water flowpaths to a lake and creek in northern Wisconsin shows the flow system in a geologically simple basin dominated by lakes can be surprisingly complex. Differences in source area, i.e., lakes or terrestrial, combined with the presence of intervening lakes, which may or may not capture underflowing ground water as water moves downgradient from recharge areas, contribute to a complex mix of flowpaths. The result is water of different chemistry and vastly different ages may discharge in close proximity. Flowpaths, travel times, and capture zones in the Allequash Basin in northern Wisconsin were delineated using particle tracking based on a calibrated steady-state ground water flow model. The flowpath analysis supports the conclusions of Walker et al. (2003) who made inferences about flowpath characteristics from isotope and major ion chemistry. Simulated particle tracking agreed with Walker et al.'s measurements of water source (lake or terrestrial recharge) in the stream subsurface and also supported their assertion that ground water with a high calcium concentration in the lower basin of Allequash Lake is derived from long flowpaths. Numerical simulations show that ground water discharging in this area originates more than 5 km away in a source area located upgradient of Big Muskellunge Lake, which is upgradient of Allequash Lake. These results graphically illustrate that in settings with multiple sources of water with different age characteristics and converging flowlines (like the Allequash Basin) it may be difficult to obtain accurate estimates of ground water age by chemical analyses of ground water.

  14. Predicting ground water nitrate concentration from land use.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Kristin K; Vogel, Richard M

    2005-01-01

    Ground water nitrate concentrations on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, were analyzed to assess the effects of land use on ground water quality. Exploratory data analysis was applied to historic ground water nitrate concentrations to determine spatial and temporal trends. Maximum likelihood Tobit and logistic regression analyses of explanatory variables that characterize land use within a 1000-foot radius of each well were used to develop predictive equations for nitrate concentration at 69 wells. The results demonstrate that historic nitrate concentrations downgradient from agricultural land are significantly higher than nitrate concentrations elsewhere. Tobit regression results demonstrate that the number of septic tanks and the percentages of forest, undeveloped, and high-density residential land within a 1000-foot radius of a well are reliable predictors of nitrate concentration in ground water. Similarly, logistic regression revealed that the percentages of forest, undeveloped, and low-density residential land are good indicators of ground water nitrate concentration > 2 mg/L. The methodology and results outlined here provide a useful tool for land managers in communities with shallow water tables overlain with highly permeable materials to evaluate potential effects of development on ground water quality.

  15. Monitored Natural Attenuation For Radionuclides In Ground Water - Technical Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attentuation) within the subsurface. In gen...

  16. Reductive Dehalogenation of Organic Contaminants in Soils and Ground Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Reductive dehalogenation is a process which may prove to be of paramount importance in dealing with a particularly persistent class of contaminants often found in soil and ground water at superfund sites.

  17. Site Characterization for MNA of Radionuclides in Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation is often evaluated as a component of the remedy for ground water contaminated with radionuclides. When properly employed, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) may provide an effective knowledge-based remedy where a thorough engineering analysis inform...

  18. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethinyl estradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl de...

  19. EFFECT OF GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES ON INDIGENOUS MICROFLORA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with the Interagency DNAPL Consortium, completed an independent evaluation of microbial responses to ground-water remediation technology demonstrations at Launch Pad 34 at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Brevard Count...

  20. GROUND WATER REMEDIATION RESEARCH: ENHANCED BIOREMEDIATION AND MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of ground water remediation research conducted at the Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division is provided. The focus of the overview is on Enhanced Bioremediation and Monitored Natural Attenuation research for the remediation of organic and inorganic contamina...

  1. CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC GROUND WATER SUPPLIES BY SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple sources of contamination can affect ground water supplies, including municipal landfills, industrial operations, leaking underground storage tanks, septic tank systems, and prioritized uncontrolled hazardous waste sites known as “Superfund” sites. A review of Superfund R...

  2. GROUND WATER SAMPLING USING LOW-FLOW TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and remedial performance monitoring objectives. The sampling device or method used to collect samples from monitoring or compliance well can significantly impact data quality and reliability. Low-flo...

  3. Use of RORA for Complex Ground-Water Flow Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    The RORA computer program for estimating recharge is based on a condition in which ground water flows perpendicular to the nearest stream that receives ground-water discharge. The method, therefore, does not explicitly account for the ground-water-flow component that is parallel to the stream. Hypothetical finite-difference simulations are used to demonstrate effects of complex flow conditions that consist of two components: one that is perpendicular to the stream and one that is parallel to the stream. Results of the simulations indicate that the RORA program can be used if certain constraints are applied in the estimation of the recession index, an input variable to the program. These constraints apply to a mathematical formulation based on aquifer properties, recession of ground-water levels, and recession of streamflow.

  4. ACQUISITION OF REPRESENTATIVE GROUND WATER QUALITY SAMPLES FOR METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    R.S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) personnel have evaluated sampling procedures for the collection of representative, accurate, and reproducible ground water quality samples for metals for the past four years. Intensive sampling research at three different field...

  5. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethynylestradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl der...

  6. The effects of using ground water to maintain water levels of Cedar Lake, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLeod, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    There were no identifiable changes in measured physical and chemical characteristics of lake water during sustained pumping of ground water into the lake, nor were there identifiable changes in the number or makeup of the phytoplankton community. Differences in physical and chemical characteristics of lake water and ground water added to the lake probably were not great enough to cause changes within the lake.

  7. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field.

  8. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  9. Enhanced submarine ground water discharge form mixing of pore water and estuarine water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Cable, Jaye E.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lindenberg, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    Submarine ground water discharge is suggested to be an important pathway for contaminants from continents to coastal zones, but its significance depends on the volume of water and concentrations of contaminants that originate in continental aquifers. Ground water discharge to the Banana River Lagoon, Florida, was estimated by analyzing the temporal and spatial variations of Cl− concentration profiles in the upper 230 cm of pore waters and was measured directly by seepage meters. Total submarine ground water discharge consists of slow discharge at depths > ∼70 cm below seafloor (cmbsf) of largely marine water combined with rapid discharge of mixed pore water and estuarine water above ∼70 cmbsf. Cl− profiles indicate average linear velocities of ∼0.014 cm/d at depths > ∼70 cmbsf. In contrast, seepage meters indicate water discharges across the sediment-water interface at rates between 3.6 and 6.9 cm/d. The discrepancy appears to be caused by mixing in the shallow sediment, which may result from a combination of bioirrigation, wave and tidal pumping, and convection. Wave and tidal pumping and convection would be minor because the tidal range is small, the short fetch of the lagoon limits wave heights, and large density contacts are lacking between lagoon and pore water. Mixing occurs to ∼70 cmbsf, which represents depths greater than previously reported. Mixing of oxygenated water to these depths could be important for remineralization of organic matter.

  10. State summaries: Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krukowski, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, Oklahoma mines produced both industrial minerals and coal. No metals were mined in the state. Based on value, leading industrial minerals include crushed stone followed by cement, construction sand and gravel, industrial sand and gravel, iodine and gypsum. The Oklahoma Department of Mines (ODOM) reported that more than 343 mine operators produced nonfuel minerals from 405 mines in the state. However, 530 mining permitted sites were on file. The Oklahoma Miner Training Institute (OMTI) held 239 classes for 33,768 classroom hours of instruction, in which 84 coal miners and 4,587 metal/nonmetal miners were trained.

  11. Improvements to the DRASTIC ground-water vulnerability mapping method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water vulnerability maps are designed to show areas of greatest potential for ground-water contamination on the basis of hydrogeologic and anthropogenic (human) factors. The maps are developed by using computer mapping hardware and software called a geographic information system (GIS) to combine data layers such as land use, soils, and depth to water. Usually, ground-water vulnerability is determined by assigning point ratings to the individual data layers and then adding the point ratings together when those layers are combined into a vulnerability map. Probably the most widely used ground-water vulnerability mapping method is DRASTIC, named for the seven factors considered in the method: Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone media, and hydraulic Conductivity of the aquifer (Aller and others, 1985, p. iv). The DRASTIC method has been used to develop ground-water vulnerability maps in many parts of the Nation; however, the effectiveness of the method has met with mixed success (Koterba and others, 1993, p. 513; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1993; Barbash and Resek, 1996; Rupert, 1997). DRASTIC maps usually are not calibrated to measured contaminant concentrations. The DRASTIC ground-water vulnerability mapping method was improved by calibrating the point rating scheme to measured nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2+NO3–N) concentrations in ground water on the basis of statistical correlations between NO2+NO3–N concentrations and land use, soils, and depth to water (Rupert, 1997). This report describes the calibration method developed by Rupert and summarizes the improvements in results of this method over those of the uncalibrated DRASTIC method applied by Rupert and others (1991) in the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho.

  12. Proceedings of the second international conference on ground water ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, J.A.; Valett, H.M.

    1994-12-31

    This conference was held March 27--30, 1994 in Atlanta, Georgia. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for state-of-the-art information on groundwater ecosystems. Attention is focused on the following topics: Biogeochemistry; ecology of metazoans; ground water management; microbial ecology; modeling; pollution, restoration and bioremediation; problems in karst systems; and surface and ground water interaction zones. Individual papers are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  13. Regional water table (2000) and ground-water-level changes in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins, southwestern Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water systems, and consequently, water availability. During 2000, the U. S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and, when compared with previous data, changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from about 500 wells, providing coverage for most of the basins. Twenty-nine hydrographs show long-term (up to 70 years) water-level conditions throughout the basins, and 13 short-term (1996 to 2000) hydrographs show the effects of recharge and discharge along the Mojave River. In addition, a water-level-change map was compiled to compare 1998 and 2000 water-levels throughout the basins. In the Mojave River ground-water basins, water-level data showed little change from 1998 to 2000, with the exception of areas along the Mojave River. Water levels along the Mojave River were typically in decline or unchanged, with exceptions near the Hodge and the Lenwood outlet, where water levels rose in response to artificial recharge. The Morongo ground-water basin had virtually no change in water levels from 1998 to 2000, with the exception of Yucca Valley, where artificial recharge and ground-water withdrawal continues.

  14. Handbook for state ground water managers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    ;Table of Contents: Nonpoint Source Implementation; State Public Water System Supervision; State Underground Water Source Protection (Underground Injection Control); Water Pollution Control -- State and Interstate Program Support (106 Grants); Water Quality Management Planning; Agriculture in Concert with the Environment; Consolidated Pesticide Compliance Monitoring and Program Cooperative Agreements; Pollution Prevention Incentives for States; Hazardous Substance Response Trust Fund; Hazardous Waste Financial Assistance; Underground Storage Tank Program; Leaking Underground Storage Tank Trust Fund; State/EPA Data Management Financial Assistance Program; Environmental Education; and Multi-Media Assistance Agreements for Indian Tribes.

  15. Comparison of Irrigation Water Use Estimates Calculated from Remotely Sensed Irrigated Acres and State Reported Irrigated Acres in the Lake Altus Drainage Basin, Oklahoma and Texas, 2000 Growing Season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, J.R.; Mladinich, C.S.; Konduris, A.M.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2003-01-01

    Increased demand for water in the Lake Altus drainage basin requires more accurate estimates of water use for irrigation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, is investigating new techniques to improve water-use estimates for irrigation purposes in the Lake Altus drainage basin. Empirical estimates of reference evapotranspiration, crop evapotranspiration, and crop irrigation water requirements for nine major crops were calculated from September 1999 to October 2000 using a solar radiation-based evapotranspiration model. Estimates of irrigation water use were calculated using remotely sensed irrigated crop acres derived from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery and were compared with irrigation water-use estimates calculated from irrigated crop acres reported by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and the Texas Water Development Board for the 2000 growing season. The techniques presented will help manage water resources in the Lake Altus drainage basin and may be transferable to other areas with similar water management needs. Irrigation water use calculated from the remotely sensed irrigated acres was estimated at 154,920 acre-feet; whereas, irrigation water use calculated from state reported irrigated crop acres was 196,026 acre-feet, a 23 percent difference. The greatest difference in irrigation water use was in Carson County, Texas. Irrigation water use for Carson County, Texas, calculated from the remotely sensed irrigated acres was 58,555 acrefeet; whereas, irrigation water use calculated from state reported irrigated acres was 138,180 acre-feet, an 81 percent difference. The second greatest difference in irrigation water use occurred in Beckham County, Oklahoma. Differences between the two irrigation water use estimates are due to the differences of irrigated crop acres derived from the mapping process and those reported by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and Texas Water Development Board.

  16. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-01-01

    Geochemistry has contributed significantly to the understanding of ground-water systems over the last 50 years. Historic advances include development of the hydrochemical facies concept, application of equilibrium theory, investigation of redox processes, and radiocarbon dating. Other hydrochemical concepts, tools, and techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms of flow and transport in ground-water systems, and have helped unlock an archive of paleoenvironmental information. Hydrochemical and isotopic information can be used to interpret the origin and mode of ground-water recharge, refine estimates of time scales of recharge and ground-water flow, decipher reactive processes, provide paleohydrological information, and calibrate ground-water flow models. Progress needs to be made in obtaining representative samples. Improvements are needed in the interpretation of the information obtained, and in the construction and interpretation of numerical models utilizing hydrochemical data. The best approach will ensure an optimized iterative process between field data collection and analysis, interpretation, and the application of forward, inverse, and statistical modeling tools. Advances are anticipated from microbiological investigations, the characterization of natural organics, isotopic fingerprinting, applications of dissolved gas measurements, and the fields of reaction kinetics and coupled processes. A thermodynamic perspective is offered that could facilitate the comparison and understanding of the multiple physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting ground-water systems.

  17. Assessing background ground water chemistry beneath a new unsewered subdivision

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, J.D.; Bradbury, K.R.; Thomas, C.L.; Bahr, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Previous site-specific studies designed to assess the impacts of unsewered subdivisions on ground water quality have relied on upgradient monitoring wells or very limited background data to characterize conditions prior to development. In this study, an extensive monitoring program was designed to document ground water conditions prior to construction of a rural subdivision in south-central Wisconsin. Previous agricultural land use has impacted ground water quality; concentrations of chloride, nitrate-nitrogen, and atrazine ranged from below the level of detection to 296 mg/L, 36 mg/L, and 0.8 ??g/L, respectively, and were highly variable from well to well and through time. Seasonal variations in recharge, surface topography, aquifer heterogeneities, surficial loading patterns, and well casing depth explain observed variations in ground water chemistry. This variability would not have been detected if background conditions were determined from only a few monitoring wells or inferred from wells located upgradient of the subdivision site. This project demonstrates the importance of characterizing both ground water quality and chemical variability prior to land-use change to detect any changes once homes are constructed. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  18. Transboundary impacts on regional ground water modeling in Texas.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Ken; Stovall, Jeff; Frailey, Scott; Urban, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation required regional grassroots water resources planning across the entire state of Texas. The Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), the state's primary water resource planning agency, divided the state into 16 planning regions. Each planning group developed plans to manage both ground water and surface water sources and to meet future demands of various combinations of domestic, agricultural, municipal, and industrial water consumers. This presentation describes the challenges in developing a ground water model for the Llano Estacado Regional Water Planning Group (LERWPG), whose region includes 21 counties in the Southern High Plains of Texas. While surface water is supplied to several cities in this region, the vast majority of the regional water use comes from the High Plains aquifer system, often locally referred to as the Ogallala Aquifer. Over 95% of the ground water demand is for irrigated agriculture. The LERWPG had to predict the impact of future TWDB-projected water demands, as provided by the TWDB, on the aquifer for the period 2000 to 2050. If detrimental impacts were noted, alternative management strategies must be proposed. While much effort was spent on evaluating the current status of the ground water reserves, an appropriate numerical model of the aquifer system was necessary to demonstrate future impacts of the predicted withdrawals as well as the effects of the alternative strategies. The modeling effort was completed in the summer of 2000. This presentation concentrates on the political, scientific, and nontechnical issues in this planning process that complicated the modeling effort. Uncertainties in data, most significantly in distribution and intensity of recharge and withdrawals, significantly impacted the calibration and predictive modeling efforts. Four predictive scenarios, including baseline projections, recurrence of the drought of record, precipitation enhancement, and reduced irrigation demand, were simulated to

  19. Ground-water data for Georgia, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.S.; Longsworth, S.A.; Joiner, C.N.; Peck, M.F.; McFadden, K.W.; Milby, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Continuous water level records from 152 wells and water level measurements from an additional 750 wells in Georgia during 1986 provide the basic data for this report. Hydrographs for selected wells illustrate the effects that changes in recharge and discharge have had on the groundwater reservoirs in the State. Daily mean water levels are shown in hydrographs for 1986. Monthly mean water levels are shown for the 10-yr period 1977-86. During 1986, a prolonged drought resulted in water level declines throughout the State. Annual mean water levels were from 2.7 ft higher to 17.3 ft lower than in 1985, and record lows were measured in 33 wells in the summer and fall. The 1986 lows were from 0.02 ft to 29.2 ft lower than the previous record lows. The largest declines were measured in the Clayton aquifer in the southwestern part of the State. The declines can be attributed to reduced recharge and increased pumping that resulted from below-normal precipitation during the first half of the year. Water quality samples are collected periodically throughout Georgia and analyzed as part of areal and regional groundwater studies. Periodic monitoring of water quality in the Savannah and Brunswick areas indicates that the chloride concentration in the Upper Floridan aquifer there generally has remained stable. (USGS)

  20. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    The great importance of the fresh ground-water resources of Michigan is evident because 90 percent of the rural and about 70 percent of the total population of the State exclusive of the Detroit metropolitan area are supplied from underground sources. The water-supply and public-health problems that have been caused by some cases of ground-water contamination in the State illustrate the necessity of protecting this vital resource.Manmade and natural contaminants, including many types of chemical and organic matter, have entered many of the numerous aquifers of the State. Aquifers have been contaminated by waste-laden liquids percolating from the surface or from the zone of aeration and by direct injection to the aquifer itself. Industrial and domestic wastes, septic tanks, leaking sewers, flood waters or other poor quality surface waters, mine waters, solids stored or spread at the surface, and even airborne wastes all have been sources of ground-water contamination in Michigan. In addition, naturally occurring saline waters have been induced into other aquifers by overpumping or unrestricted flow from artesian wells, possibly by dewatering operations, and by the deepening of surface stream channels. Vertical migration of saline waters through open holes from formations underlying various important aquifers also has spoiled some of the fresh ground waters in the State. In spite of the contamination that has occurred, however, the total amount of ground water that has been spoiled is only a small part of the total resource. Neither is the contamination so widespread as that of the surface streams of Michigan.Overall legal authority to control most types of ground-water contamination in the State has been assigned by the Michigan Legislature to the Water Resources Commission, although the Department of Conservation and the Health Department also exercise important water-pollution control functions. The Michigan Supreme Court, in an important case upholding the power

  1. The acetochlor registration partnership: prospective ground water monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, Andrew C; Gustafson, David I; Fuhrman, John D; van Wesenbeeck, Ian J; Simmons, Nick D; Klein, Andrew J; Travis, Kim Z; Harradine, Kevin J

    2005-01-01

    The Acetochlor Registration Partnership conducted a prospective ground water (PGW) monitoring program to investigate acetochlor [2-chloro-N-(ethoxymethyl)-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-acetamide] transport to ground water at eight sites. The distribution of soil textures among these sites was weighted toward coarser soil types, while also including finer-textured soils that dominate most corn (Zea mays L.)-growing areas of the United States. Each site consisted of a 1.2-ha test plot adjacent to a 0.2-ha control plot. Suction lysimeters and monitoring wells were installed at multiple depths within each test and control plot to sample soil-pore water and near-surface ground water. Irrigation was applied to each site during the growing season to ensure water input of 110 to 200% of average historical rainfall. Acetochlor dissipated rapidly from surface soils at all sites with a DT(50) (time for 50% of the initial residues to dissipate) of only 3 to 9 d, but leaching was not an important loss mechanism, with only 0.25% of the 15,312 soil-pore water and ground water samples analyzed containing parent acetochlor at or above 0.05 microg L(-1). However, quantifiable residues of a soil degradation product, acetochlor ethanesulfonic acid, were more common, with approximately 16% of water samples containing concentrations at or above 1.0 microg L(-1). A second soil degradation product, acetochlor oxanilic acid, was present at concentrations at or above 1.0 microg L(-1) in only 0.15% of water samples analyzed. The acetochlor PGW program demonstrated that acetochlor lacks the potential to leach to ground water at detectable concentrations, and when applied in accordance with label restrictions, is unlikely to move to ground water at concentrations hazardous to human health.

  2. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  3. Bibliography of publications relating to ground water in Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushman, R.V.

    1950-01-01

    In 1939, when it became necessary to curtail the work being carried on by the Works Progress Administration, cooperation was arranged between the Federal Ecological Survey and the State Water Commission to continue investigations relative to the over-development of ground-water supplies in the New Haven area. From time to time additional funds have been made available to meet growing demands by the State for data on its ground-water supplied and the present cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey and the State Water Commission is a continuation of the original arrangement. It is estimated that about 14 per cont of the State has been covered by recent ground-water surveys and in addition some data are available for another 20 per cent of he State.

  4. Coliphages and bacteria in ground water from Tehran, Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Shariatpanahi, M.; Anderson, A.C.

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the microbial quality of Tehran's ground water and selected springs, using coliphages and selected bacteria as indicator organisms. The water table in Tehran varies from approximately 160 meters in the north to approximately 5 meters in the south. Individual wells and subterranean man-made aqueducts (qanate) tap the ground water. Since Tehran lacks municipal sewage facilities, waste disposal is by means of seepage pits, privies and leaching cesspools. There is potential for waste from these sites to leach into the ground water, particularly in the south where the water table is near the surface and the clay content of the soil holds moisture during periods of heavy rainfall.

  5. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Newcomer, D.R.; Evans, J.C.; Webber, W.D.; Spane, F.A. Jr.; Raymond, R.G.; Opitz, B.E.

    1993-06-01

    Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals present in ground water as a result of Hanford Site operations and, whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. A total of 720 wells were sampled during 1992 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project prepared water-table maps of DOE`s Hanford Site for June 1992 from water-level elevations measured in 287 wells across the Hanford Site and outlying areas. These maps are used to infer ground-water flow directions and gradients for the interpretation of contaminant transport. Water levels beneath the 200 Areas decreased as much as 0.75 m (2.5 ft) between December 1991 and December 1992. Water levels in the Cold Creek Valley decreased approximately 0.5 m in that same period. The water table adjacent to the Columbia River along the Hanford Reach continues to respond significantly to fluctuations in river stage. These responses were observed in the 100 and 300 areas. The elevation of the ground-water mound beneath B Pond did not change significantly between December 1991 and December 1992. However, water levels from one well located at the center of the mound indicate a water-level rise of approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) during the last quarter of 1992. Water levels measured from unconfined aquifer wells north and east of the Columbia River in 1992 indicate that the primary source of recharge is from irrigation practices.

  6. Oklahoma City Revitalization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Since the beginning of their Brownfields Program in 2003, Oklahoma City has been the recipient of nine EPA Brownfields Grants, creating a new city from the inside out. So far, 45 properties have been assessed and/or remediated.

  7. Correlation between nitrate contamination and ground water pollution potential.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shafiul H; Kehew, Alan E; Passero, Richard N

    2003-01-01

    AQUIPRO, a PC-based method, was used to assess aquifer vulnerability using digital water well logs. The AQUIPRO model is a parameter/factor weighting system for rating the pollution potential of an aquifer. This method uses the well depth, as well as the clay and partial clay thickness in a well, to generate pollution potential scores. In this model, aquifer protection increases as the AQUIPRO vulnerability scores increase and ground water pollution potential decreases. Computerized water well records of 2435 domestic wells with partial chemistry data were used to determine the ground water pollution potential of Kalamazoo County, Michigan. Theoretically, low AQUIPRO pollution potential scores should have more frequent occurrences of ground water contamination events than areas with high AQUIPRO scores with similar land-use, well construction, and well densities. The relative AQUIPRO scores were compared with the frequency of occurrences of nitrate-N in ground water wells. The average nitrate-N concentrations within each relative AQUIPRO vulnerability scores category were also compared. The results indicate that domestic wells containing 5 mg/L or more nitrate-N showed a positive correlation between the frequency of occurrences of nitrate-N and relative decrease of AQUIPRO (r2 = 0.99) vulnerability scores. In other words, as the ground water pollution potential increases, the occurrence frequency of nitrate-N also increases. Furthermore, the results show that as the relative AQUIPRO (r2 = 0.96) vulnerability scores decrease, the mean nitrate-N concentrations also increase.

  8. Pesticides in Ground Water of the Maryland Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denver, Judith M.; Ator, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    Selected pesticides are detectable at low levels (generally less than 0.1 microgram per liter) in unconfined ground water in many parts of the Maryland Coastal Plain. Samples were recently collected (2001-04) from 47 wells in the Coastal Plain and analyzed for selected pesticides and degradate compounds (products of pesticide degradation). Most pesticide degradation occurs in the soil zone before infiltration to the water table, and degradates of selected pesticides were commonly detected in ground water, often at higher concentrations than their respective parent compounds. Pesticides and their degradates often occur in ground water in mixtures of multiple compounds, reflecting similar patterns in usage. All measured concentrations in ground water were below established standards for drinking water, and nearly all were below other health-based guidelines. Although drinking-water standards and guidelines are typically much higher than observed concentrations in ground water, they do not exist for many detected compounds (particularly degradates), or for mixtures of multiple compounds. The distribution of observed pesticide compounds reflects known usage patterns, as well as chemical properties and environmental factors that affect the fate and transport of these compounds in the environment. Many commonly used pesticides, such as glyphosate, pendimethalin, and 2,4-D were not detected in ground water, likely because they were sorbed onto organic matter or degraded in the soil zone. Others that are more soluble and (or) persistent, like atrazine, metolachlor, and several of their degradates, were commonly detected in ground water where they have been used. Atrazine, for example, an herbicide used primarily on corn, was most commonly detected in ground water on the Eastern Shore (where agriculture is common), particularly where soils are well drained. Conversely, dieldrin, an insecticide previously used heavily for termite control, was detected only on the Western

  9. Ground-water conditions and studies in Georgia, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeth, David C.; Clarke, John S.; Craigg, Steven D.; Wipperfurth, Caryl J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects ground-water data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, to better define ground-water resources, and address problems related to water supply and water quality. Data collected as part of ground-water studies include geologic, geophysical, hydraulic property, water level, and water quality. A ground-water-level network has been established throughout most of the State of Georgia, and ground-water-quality networks have been established in the cities of Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick and in Camden County, Georgia. Ground-water levels are monitored continuously in a network of wells completed in major aquifers of the State. This network includes 17 wells in the surficial aquifer, 12 wells in the upper and lower Brunswick aquifers, 73 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 10 wells in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 12 wells in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 well in the Gordon aquifer, 11 wells in the Clayton aquifer, 11 wells in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 wells in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 7 wells in crystalline-rock aquifers. In this report, data from these 156 wells were evaluated to determine whether mean-annual ground-water levels were within, below, or above the normal range during 2001, based on summary statistics for the period of record. Information from these summaries indicates that water levels during 2001 were below normal in almost all aquifers monitored, largely reflecting climatic effects from drought and pumping. In addition, water-level hydrographs for selected wells indicate that water levels have declined during the past 5 years (since 1997) in almost all aquifers monitored, with water levels in some wells falling below historical lows. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic measurements taken in 52 wells in the Camden County-Charlton County area, and 65 wells in the city of Albany-Dougherty County area were used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for

  10. GROUND WATER AND WATERSHEDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective watershed management has the potential to achieve both drinking water and ecological protection goals. However, it is important that the watershed perspective be three- dimensional and include the hidden subsurface. The subsurface catchment, or groundwatershed, is geohy...

  11. Earthquake activity in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. )

    1989-08-01

    Oklahoma is one of the most seismically active areas in the southern Mid-Continent. From 1897 to 1988, over 700 earthquakes are known to have occurred in Oklahoma. The earliest documented Oklahoma earthquake took place on December 2, 1897, near Jefferson, in Grant County. The largest known Oklahoma earthquake happened near El Reno on April 9, 1952. This magnitude 5.5 (mb) earthquake was felt from Austin, Texas, to Des Moines, Iowa, and covered a felt area of approximately 362,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to 1962, all earthquakes in Oklahoma (59) were either known from historical accounts or from seismograph stations outside the state. Over half of these events were located in Canadian County. In late 1961, the first seismographs were installed in Oklahoma. From 1962 through 1976, 70 additional earthquakes were added to the earthquake database. In 1977, a statewide network of seven semipermanent and three radio-telemetry seismograph stations were installed. The additional stations have improved earthquake detection and location in the state of Oklahoma. From 1977 to 1988, over 570 additional earthquakes were located in Oklahoma, mostly of magnitudes less than 2.5. Most of these events occurred on the eastern margin of the Anadarko basin along a zone 135 km long by 40 km wide that extends from Canadian County to the southern edge of Garvin County. Another general area of earthquake activity lies along and north of the Ouachita Mountains in the Arkoma basin. A few earthquakes have occurred in the shelves that border the Arkoma and Anadarko basins.

  12. Interactions between ground water and surface water in the Suwannee River basin, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; DeHan, R.S.; Hirten, J.J.; Catches, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water and surface water constitute a single dynamic system in roost parts of the Suwannee River basin due to the presence of karat features that facilitate the interaction between the surface and subsurface. Low radon-222 concentrations (below background levels) and enriched amounts of oxygen-18 and deuterium in ground water indicate mixing with surface water in parts of the basin. Comparison of surface water and regional ground water flow patterns indicate that boundaries for ground water basins typically do not coincide with surface water drainage subbasins. There are several areas in the basin where ground water flow that originates outside of the Suwannee River basin crosses surface water basin boundaries during both low-flow and high-flow conditions. In a study area adjacent to the Suwannee River that consists predominantly of agricultural land use, 18 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer and 7 springs were sampled three times during 1990 through 1994 for major dissolved inorganic constituents, trace elements, and nutrients. During a period of above normal rainfall that resulted in high river stage and high ground water levels in 1991, the combination of increased amounts of dissolved organic carbon and decreased levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water created conditions favorable for the natural reduction of nitrate by denitrification reactions in the aquifer. As a result, less nitrate was discharged by ground water to the Suwannee River.

  13. Geologic controls on movement of produced-water releases at US geological survey research Site A, Skiatook lake, Osage county, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, J.K.; Zielinski, R.A.; Smith, B.D.; Abbott, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Highly saline produced water was released from multiple sources during oil field operations from 1913 to 1973 at the USGS research Site A on Skiatook Lake in northeastern Oklahoma. Two pits, designed to hold produced water and oil, were major sources for release of these fluids at the site. Produced water spills from these and other features moved downslope following topography and downdip by percolating through permeable eolian sand and colluvium, underlying permeable sandstone, and, to a lesser extent, through shales and mudstones. Saline water penetrated progressively deeper units as it moved through the gently dipping bedrock to the north and NW. A large eroded salt scar north of the pits coincides with underlying fine-grained rocks that have retained substantial concentrations of salt, causing slow revegetation. Where not eroded, thick eolian sand or permeable sandstone bedrock is near the surface, and vegetation has been little affected or has reestablished itself after the introduced salt was flushed by precipitation. The extent of salt-contaminated bedrock extends well beyond existing surface salt scars. These results indicate that one of the legacies of surface salt spills can be a volume of subsurface salinization larger than the visible surface disturbance. ?? 2007.

  14. Submarine ground-water discharge: nutrient loading and nitrogen transformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroeger, Kevin D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Crusius, John; Bratton, John F.; Charette, Matthew A.

    2006-01-01

    Eutrophication of coastal waters due to nonpoint source land-derived nitrogen (N) loads is a worldwide phenomenon and perhaps the greatest agent of change altering coastal ecology (National Research Council, 2000; Howarth and others, 2000). Within the United States, a majority of estuaries have been determined to be moderately to severely impaired by eutrophication associated with increasing nutrient loads (Bricker and others, 1999). In coastal watersheds with soils of high hydraulic conductivity and permeable coastal sediments, ground water is a major route of transport of freshwater and its solutes from land to sea. Freshwater flowing downgradient from aquifers may either discharge from a seepage face near the intertidal zone, or flow directly into the sea as submarine ground-water discharge (SGD) (fig. 1). In the coastal aquifer, entrainment of saline pore water occurs prior to discharge, producing a gradient in ground-water salinity from land to sea, referred to as a subterranean estuary (Moore, 1999). In addition, processes including density-driven flow and tidal pumping create brackish and saline ground-water circulation. Hence, submarine ground-water discharge often consists of a substantial amount of recirculating seawater. Mixing of fresh and saline ground waters in the context of coastal sediments may alter the chemical composition of the discharging fluid. Depending on the biogeochemical setting, removal of fixed N due to processes leading to N2 (dinitrogen gas) production in the nearshore aquifer and subterranean estuary may significantly attenuate land-derived N loads; or, processes such as ion exchange and tidal pumping in the subterranean estuary may substantially accelerate the transport of both land-derived and sediment re-mineralized N to estuarine water columns. As emphasized by Burnett and others (2001, 2002), a fundamental problem in evaluating the importance of ground-water discharge in marine geochemical budgets is the difficulty of

  15. Simulation of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leighton, David A.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley ground-water basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, ground water provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most ground-water pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet in some parts of the ground-water basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may continue to increase reliance on ground water. To better understand the ground-water flow system and to develop a tool to aid in effectively managing the water resources, a numerical model of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin was developed using old and new geohydrologic information. The ground-water flow system consists of three aquifers: the upper, middle, and lower aquifers. The aquifers, which were identified on the basis of the hydrologic properties, age, and depth of the unconsolidated deposits, consist of gravel, sand, silt, and clay alluvial deposits and clay and silty clay lacustrine deposits. Prior to ground-water development in the valley, recharge was primarily the infiltration of runoff from the surrounding mountains. Ground water flowed from the recharge areas to discharge areas around the playas where it discharged either from the aquifer system as evapotranspiration or from springs. Partial barriers to horizontal ground-water flow, such as faults, have been identified in the ground-water basin. Water-level declines owing to

  16. Delineating and quantifying ground water discharge zones using streambed temperatures.

    PubMed

    Conant, Brewster

    2004-01-01

    Streambed temperature mapping, hydraulic testing using minipiezometers, and geochemical analyses of interstitial water of the streambed were used to delineate the pattern of ground water discharge in a sandy streambed and to develop a flux-based conceptual model for ground water/surface water interactions. A new and simple empirical method was used to relate fluxes obtained from minipiezometer data to streambed temperatures. The relationship allowed flux to be calculated at locations where only streambed temperature measurements were made. Slug testing and potentiomanometer measurements at 34 piezometers indicated ground water discharge ranged from 0.03 to 446 L/m2/day (and possibly as high as 7060 L/m2/day) along a 60 m long by 11 to 14 m wide reach of river. Complex but similar plan-view patterns of flux were calculated for both summer and winter using hundreds of streambed temperatures measured on a 1 by 2 m grid. The reach was dominated by ground water discharge and 5% to 7% of the area accounted for approximately 20% to 24% of the total discharge. < 12% of the total area consisted of recharge zones or no-discharge zones. A conceptual model for ground water/surface water interactions consisting of five different behaviors was developed based on the magnitude and direction of flux across the surface of the streambed. The behaviors include short-circuit discharge (e.g., high-flow springs), high discharge (e.g., preferential flowpaths), low to moderate discharge, no discharge (e.g., horizontal hyporheic or ground water flow), and recharge. Geological variations at depth played a key role in determining which type of flow behavior occurred in the streambed.

  17. Eolian transport of geogenic hexavalent chromium to ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, W.W.; Clark, D.; Imes, J.L.; Councell, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    A conceptual model of eolian transport is proposed to address the widely distributed, high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) observed in ground water in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Concentrations (30 to more than 1000 μg/L Cr+6) extend over thousands of square kilometers of ground water systems. It is hypothesized that the Cr is derived from weathering of chromium-rich pyroxenes and olivines present in ophiolite sequence of the adjacent Oman (Hajar) Mountains. Cr+3 in the minerals is oxidized to Cr+6 by reduction of manganese and is subsequently sorbed on iron and manganese oxide coatings of particles. When the surfaces of these particles are abraded in this arid environment, they release fine, micrometer-sized, coated particles that are easily transported over large distances by wind and subsequently deposited on the surface. During ground water recharge events, the readily soluble Cr+6 is mobilized by rain water and transported by advective flow into the underlying aquifer. Chromium analyses of ground water, rain, dust, and surface (soil) deposits are consistent with this model, as are electron probe analyses of clasts derived from the eroding Oman ophiolite sequence. Ground water recharge flux is proposed to exercise some control over Cr+6 concentration in the aquifer.

  18. Pesticides in Ground Water of Central and Western Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott W.; Reyes, Betzaida

    2008-01-01

    Selected pesticides and degradates (products of pesticide degradation) are detectable in ground water in many parts of central and western Maryland, although concentrations are generally less than 0.1 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples collected recently (1994-2003) from 72 wells in areas of Maryland underlain by consolidated carbonate, crystalline, or siliciclastic aquifers (areas north and west of the Fall Line) were analyzed for selected pesticides and degradates. Pesticides were typically detected in mixtures of multiple compounds in ground water, and degradates were commonly detected, often at greater concentrations than their respective parent compounds. No pesticides were observed at concentrations greater than established standards for drinking water, and nearly all observed concentrations were below other health-based guidelines. Although such standards and guidelines are generally much greater than measured concentrations in ground water, they do not exist for many detected compounds (particularly degradates), or for mixtures of multiple compounds. The distribution of pesticides and degradates in ground water is related to application practices, as well as chemical and environmental factors that affect the fate and movement of individual compounds.

  19. INVESTIGATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION NEAR PAVILLION, WYOMING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to complaints by domestic well owners regarding objectionable taste and odor problems in well water, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated a ground water investigation near the town of Pavillion, Wyoming under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental ...

  20. Ground water in north Monterey County, California, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Present ground-water demands exceed long-term recharge throughout much of North Monterey County in the shallow Quaternary deposits--principally the upper part of the Aromas Sand--and the overlying alluvium. Recharge occurs largely from local precipitation, although small quantities of potable ground water from outside areas also recharge these aquifers. Water levels in the Pajaro and Salinas River valleys north and south of the study area are lower than most of the intervening area, and recharge from the east is blocked by faults and impervious rock. Ocean water moves in from the west to replace depleted freshwater storage in the upper part of the Aromas Sand, alluvium, and terrace deposits. The North County area was divided into subareas to estimate pumpage demands and to evaluate ground-water yields. Pumpage near the granitic ridge, an area of limited storage, nearly matches local recharge. West of the granitic ridge, pumpage exceeds available recharge but draws upon a large storage potential. Deeper units than those now tapped by wells in the Aromas Sand and the underlying Purisima Formation may have substantial water-bearing potential for additional ground-water development. Extensive development of water from these formations might be limited, however, by the remoteness of the recharge source and by the proximity to the ocean. (USGS)

  1. DETECTION OF A GROUND-WATER/SURFACE-WATER INTERFACE WITH DIRECT-PUSH EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A ground-water/surface-water interface (GSI) was documented at the Thermo Chem CERCLA Site in Muskegon, MI via direct-push (DP) sampling. At that time, contaminated ground water flowed from the upland area of the site into the Black Creek floodplain. DP rods equipped with a 1.5...

  2. ARSENIC SORUCE IDENTIFICATION AT THE GROUND WATER-SURFACE WATER INTERACTION ZONE AT A CONTAMINATED SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the challenges in assessing the current impact of the discharge of arsenic contaminated ground water into a surface water body is differentiating the arsenic ground-water flux versus dissolution of in-place contaminated sediments. A field investigation has been carried ou...

  3. Geology and ground-water resources of Galveston County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petitt, Ben McDowell; Winslow, Allen George

    1957-01-01

    Much additional ground water could be obtained from both the "Alta Loma" sand and the upper part of the Beaumont clay, especially in the northern and western parts of the county. Before large developments of supplies are planned, however, these areas should be explored by test drilling. The problems of well spacing and pumping rates should be thoroughly studied in order to determine the maximum development permitted by the ground-water supply. Current observations should be continued with special emphasis on the progress of salt-water encroachment.

  4. Ground water quality protection: the issue in perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of protecting ground water resources cannot be overstated, and many people throughout the world seem anxious to physically and financially support a rational program to this end. Public complacency regarding the quality of ground water was destroyed with headline-grabbing incidents of pollution such as Love Canal, Valley of the Drums, and Times Beach. Contrary to earlier popular belief, the soil mantle has been shown to be ineffective in cleansing certain pollutants from the water flowing through it. The legislative basis for developing and implementing broad ground water quality protection programs exists, although it is dispersed in a variety of pieces of legislation. Such programs presuppose the existence of the scientific knowledge necessary to produce viable and effective results from its implementation. This article addresses the research needed for accumulation of this information. 12 references.

  5. Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Transport Across The Ground-Water/Surface Water Interface: Ground-Water Discharge And Iron Oxide Precipitation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in ground water, surface water, and sediments at a Superfund Site in the northeastern United States (see companion presentation by K. G. Scheckel et al). Ground-water discharge into the study area was cha...

  6. Regional Water Table (1998) and Ground-Water-Level Changes in the Mojave River, and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Gregory A.; Pimentel, M. Isabel

    2000-01-01

    The Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The rapid and continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The continuing collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water systems and, consequently, water availability. During 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,370 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from 450 wells, providing coverage for most of both basins. Twenty-three hydrographs show long-term (as much as 70 years) water-level trends throughout the basins. To help show effects of late seasonal recharge along the Mojave River, 14 short-term (13 years) hydrographs were created. A water-level change map was compiled to enable comparison of 1996 and 1998 water levels. The Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins had little change in water levels between 1996 and 1998 - with the exception of the areas of the Yucca Valley affected by artificial recharge. Other water-level changes were localized and reflected pumping or measurements made before seasonal recharge. Three areas of perched ground water were identified: El Mirage Lake (dry), Adelanto, and Lucerne Valley.

  7. The role of hand calculations in ground water flow modeling.

    PubMed

    Haitjema, Henk

    2006-01-01

    Most ground water modeling courses focus on the use of computer models and pay little or no attention to traditional analytic solutions to ground water flow problems. This shift in education seems logical. Why waste time to learn about the method of images, or why study analytic solutions to one-dimensional or radial flow problems? Computer models solve much more realistic problems and offer sophisticated graphical output, such as contour plots of potentiometric levels and ground water path lines. However, analytic solutions to elementary ground water flow problems do have something to offer over computer models: insight. For instance, an analytic one-dimensional or radial flow solution, in terms of a mathematical expression, may reveal which parameters affect the success of calibrating a computer model and what to expect when changing parameter values. Similarly, solutions for periodic forcing of one-dimensional or radial flow systems have resulted in a simple decision criterion to assess whether or not transient flow modeling is needed. Basic water balance calculations may offer a useful check on computer-generated capture zones for wellhead protection or aquifer remediation. An easily calculated "characteristic leakage length" provides critical insight into surface water and ground water interactions and flow in multi-aquifer systems. The list goes on. Familiarity with elementary analytic solutions and the capability of performing some simple hand calculations can promote appropriate (computer) modeling techniques, avoids unnecessary complexity, improves reliability, and is likely to save time and money. Training in basic hand calculations should be an important part of the curriculum of ground water modeling courses.

  8. Subsurface imaging of an abandoned solid waste landfill site in Norman, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zume, J.T.; Tarhule, A.; Christenson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Leachate plume emanating from an old unlined municipal landfill site near the city of Norman, Oklahoma, is discharging into the underlying alluvial aquifer. Subsurface imaging techniques, electrical resistivity tomography and electrical conductivity (EC) logging, were used on the site to detect and map the position of the leachate plume. Anomalous EC zones, delineated with the two methods, correlated with the occurrence of the plume detected by water chemistry analyses from multilevel monitoring wells. Specific conductance, a potential indicator of leachate contamination, ranged from 1861 to 7710 ??S/cm in contaminated zones and from 465 to 2180 ??S/cm in uncontaminated ground water. Results are in agreement with those from earlier studies that the leachate plume emerges from the landfill along preferential pathways. Additionally, there are indications that the leading edge of the plume has migrated, at least, 200 m away from the landfill in the direction of ground water flow. ?? 2006 National Ground Water Association.

  9. Ground-water models as a management tool in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    Highly sophisticated computer models provide powerful tools for analyzing historic data and for simulating future water levels, water movement, and water chemistry under stressed conditions throughout the ground-water system in Florida. Models that simulate the movement of heat and subsidence of land in response to aquifer pumping also have potential for application to hydrologic problems in the State. Florida, with 20 ground-water modeling studies reported since 1972, has applied computer modeling techniques to a variety of water-resources problems. Models in Florida generally have been used to provide insight to problems of water supply, contamination, and impact on the environment. The model applications range from site-specific studies, such as estimating contamination by wastewater injection at St. Petersburg, to a regional model of the entire State that may be used to assess broad-scale environmental impact of water-resources development. Recently, groundwater models have been used as management tools by the State regulatory authority to permit or deny development of water resources. As modeling precision, knowledge, and confidence increase, the use of ground-water models will shift more and more toward regulation of development and enforcement of environmental laws. (USGS)

  10. Geology, ground-water flow, and dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water along hydrogeologic sections through Wisconsin aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    A cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) was begun with the objectives of describing water quality and its relation to the hydrology of Wisconsin's principal aquifers and summarizing instances of ground-water contamination and quality problems from information available in DNR files. The first objective was met by a hydrologic investigation done by the USGS, and the second, by preparation of a report by the DNR, for their internal use, that describes the State's water resources and known ground-water quality and contamination problems and makes policy recommendations for ground-water management.The USGS investigation was divided into two phases. The first phase consisted of compiling available water-quality and hydrogeologic data and collecting new data to describe general regional water-quality and hydrogeologic relations within and between Wisconsin aquifers. The second phase began concurrently with the later part of the first phase and consisted of an areal description of water quality and flow in the State's shallow aquifer system (Kammerer, 1995). The overall purpose of this investigation was to provide a regional framework that could serve as a basis for intensive local and site specific ground-water investigations by State and local government agencies.This report presents the results of the first phase of the USGS investigation. Regional hydrogeologic and water-quality relations within and between aquifers are shown along 15 hydrogeologic sections that traverse the State. Maps are used to show surficial geology of bedrock and unconsolidated deposits and horizontal direction of ground-water flow. Interpretations on the maps and hydrogeologic sections are based on data from a variety of sources and provide the basis for the areal appraisal of water quality in the State's shallow aquifer system in the second phase of the investigation.

  11. Summary of Ground-Water Data for Brunswick County, North Carolina, Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water availability in Brunswick County, North Carolina, has been monitored continuously since 2000 through the operation and maintenance of ground-water-level observation wells in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. Ground-water-resource conditions for the Brunswick County area were determined by relating the period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean ground-water-level and precipitation data to median monthly mean ground-water levels and monthly sum of daily precipitation for water year 2006. Summaries of precipitation and ground-water conditions for the Brunswick County area and hydrographs and statistics of continuous ground-water levels collected during the 2006 water year are presented in this report. Ground-water resource conditions varied by aquifer and geographic location within Brunswick County. Water levels were normal in 3 of the 11 observation wells, above normal in 5, and below normal in the remaining 3 wells.

  12. Toward implementation of a national ground water monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiber, Robert P.; Cunningham, William L.; Copeland, Rick; Frederick, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    The Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information's (ACWI) Subcommittee on Ground Water (SOGW) has been working steadily to develop and encourage implementation of a nationwide, long-term ground-water quantity and quality monitoring framework. Significant progress includes the planned submission this fall of a draft framework document to the full committee. The document will include recommendations for implementation of the network and continued acknowledgment at the federal and state level of ACWI's potential role in national monitoring toward an improved assessment of the nation's water reserves. The SOGW mission includes addressing several issues regarding network design, as well as developing plans for concept testing, evaluation of costs and benefits, and encouraging the movement from pilot-test results to full-scale implementation within a reasonable time period. With the recent attention to water resource sustainability driven by severe droughts, concerns over global warming effects, and persistent water supply problems, the SOGW mission is now even more critical.

  13. A national look at nitrate contamination of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Ruddy, Barbara C.; Hitt, Kerie J.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    1998-01-01

    Knowing where and what type of risks to ground water exist can alert water-resource managers and private users of the need to protect water supplies. Although nitrate generally is not an adult public-health threat, ingestion in drinking water by infants can cause low oxygen levels in the blood, a potentially fatal condition (Spalding and Exner, 1993). For this reason, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established a drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) nitrate as nitrogen (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1995). Nitrate concentrations in natural ground waters are usually less than 2 mg/L (Mueller and others, 1995).

  14. Assessing background ground water chemistry beneath a new unsewered subdivision.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Jeffrey D; Bradbury, Kenneth R; Thomas, Curtis L; Bahr, Jean M

    2005-01-01

    Previous site-specific studies designed to assess the impacts of unsewered subdivisions on ground water quality have relied on upgradient monitoring wells or very limited background data to characterize conditions prior to development. In this study, an extensive monitoring program was designed to document ground water conditions prior to construction of a rural subdivision in south-central Wisconsin. Previous agricultural land use has impacted ground water quality; concentrations of chloride, nitrate-nitrogen, and atrazine ranged from below the level of detection to 296 mg/L, 36 mg/L, and 0.8 microg/L, respectively, and were highly variable from well to well and through time. Seasonal variations in recharge, surface topography, aquifer heterogeneities, surficial loading patterns, and well casing depth explain observed variations in ground water chemistry. This variability would not have been detected if background conditions were determined from only a few monitoring wells or inferred from wells located upgradient of the subdivision site. This project demonstrates the importance of characterizing both ground water quality and chemical variability prior to land-use change to detect any changes once homes are constructed.

  15. GWVis: A tool for comparative ground-water data visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Daniel M.; Lewis, Robert R.

    2010-11-01

    The Ground-Water Visualization application ( GWVis) presents ground-water data visually in order to educate the public on ground-water issues. It is also intended for presentations to government and other funding agencies. GWVis works with ground-water level elevation data collected or modeled over a given time span, together with a matching fixed underlying terrain. GWVis was developed using the Python programming language in conjunction with associated extension packages and application program interfaces such as OpenGLTM to improve performance and allow us fine control of attributes of the model such as lighting, material properties, transformations, and interpolation. There are currently several systems available for visualizing ground-water data. We classify these into two categories: research-oriented models and static presentation-based models. While both of them have their strengths, we find the former overly complex and non-intuitive and the latter not engaging and presenting problems showing multiple data dimensions. GWVis bridges the gap between static and research based visualizations by providing an intuitive, interactive design that allows participants to view the model from different perspectives, infer information about simulations, and view a comparison of two datasets. By incorporating scientific data in an environment that can be easily understood, GWVis allows that information to be presented to a large audience base.

  16. Dichlorobenzene in ground water: Evidence for long-term persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, L.B.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrologic and geochemical evidence were used to establish the long-term persistence of dichlorobenzene in ground water that has been contaminated from 50 years of rapid-infiltration sewage disposal. An extensive plume of dichlorobenzene extends more than 3,500 meters downgradient from the disposal beds, with concentrations of the combined isomers ranging from less than 0.01 to over 1.0 ??g/l. Based on estimates of maximum ground-water flow velocities, a minimum age of 20 years was established for the farthest downgradient zone of dichlorobenzene contamination. Branched-chained, alkylbenzenesulfonic acid surfactants, that were introduced into the ground water prior to 1966, occur along with dichlorobenzene in the downgradient part of the plume, further establish residence of the compounds in the aquifer for at least 20 years. Although dichlorobenzene can be biologically degraded under aerobic conditions, its persistence at this field site is attributed to the dynamics of the ground-water system. Denitrifying conditions, resulting from the degradation of organic compounds in the aquifer near the disposal beds, appear to have enhanced the persistence of dichlorobenzene, which is not degraded by anaerobic bacteria. Biological degradation of dichlorobenzene in the aerobic part of the plume downgradient from the source is probably limited by the paucity of a suitable organic-carbon substrate and the low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the contaminated ground water.

  17. Pesticides in ground-water data base: 1988 interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    One of EPA's priorities is to determine the extent of pesticides occurring in the nation's ground water. While many individual, localized ground-water monitoring studies have been conducted across the country, there has been no comprehensive compilation of these results. In response to this, the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs has developed the Pesticides in Ground Water Data Base. The data base contains information derived from monitoring studies conducted by pesticide registrants, universities, and government agencies. The data base identifies the pesticides that have been looked for in ground water, the areas that have been monitored, and the pesticides that have been detected. The data base was developed in the first quarter of 1988, and at the same time, a public docket was established so interested parties could have access to the source information. Following the development of the data base, the EPA has been conducting a program to assess the validity of the information it contains. At this time, the authors believe they have gathered sufficient information to provide the public with an interim report on the national status of pesticide residues in ground water.

  18. Deposit control in ground water remediation equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, B.; Soeder, K.

    1995-12-31

    Remedial actions at all types of hazardous waste sites require the implementation of various water treatment technologies. Though the many groundwater treatment technologies are constantly developing, some age-old problems associated with handling any water remains. These operating problems include deposition of naturally occurring inorganic solutes such as iron, manganese, calcium and fouling by indigenous micro-organisms. Fouling of air stripping towers is a common example of this phenomenon. Virtually all groundwater treatment systems experience some degree of operating impediment from this cause. Some systems may take years for deposits to become problems, but many systems become inoperable within weeks or months. Recently released studies by the American Petroleum Institute show that deposit control is the most common operation problem causing remediation system failure. Such failures result in greatly increased operation & maintenance costs and non compliance with regulatory mandates.

  19. A proposed ground-water quality monitoring network for Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.; Parliman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground water quality monitoring network is proposed for Idaho. The network comprises 565 sites, 8 of which will require construction of new wells. Frequencies of sampling at the different sites are assigned at quarterly, semiannual, annual, and 5 years. Selected characteristics of the water will be monitored by both laboratory- and field-analysis methods. The network is designed to: (1) Enable water managers to keep abreast of the general quality of the State 's ground water, and (2) serve as a warning system for undesirable changes in ground-water quality. Data were compiled for hydrogeologic conditions, ground-water quality, cultural elements, and pollution sources. A ' hydrologic unit priority index ' is used to rank 84 hydrologic units (river basins or segments of river basins) of the State for monitoring according to pollution potential. Emphasis for selection of monitoring sites is placed on the 15 highest ranked units. The potential for pollution is greatest in areas of privately owned agricultural land. Other areas of pollution potential are residential development, mining and related processes, and hazardous waste disposal. Data are given for laboratory and field analyses, number of site visits, manpower, subsistence, and mileage, from which costs for implementing the network can be estimated. Suggestions are made for data storage and retrieval and for reporting changes in water quality. (Kosco-USGS)

  20. Ground-water movement and nitrate in ground water, East Erda area, Tooele County, Utah, 1997-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Susong, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    Nitrate was discovered in ground water in the east Erda area of Tooele County, Utah, in 1994. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Tooele County, investigated the ground-water flow system and water quality in the eastern part of Tooele Valley to determine (1) the vertical and horizontal distribution of nitrate, (2) the direction of movement of the nitrate contamination, and (3) the source of the nitrate. The potentiometric surface of the upper part of the basin-fill aquifer indicates that the general direction of ground-water flow is to the northwest, the flow system is complex, and there is a ground-water mound probably associated with springs. The spatial distribution of nitrate reflects the flow system with the nitrate contamination split into a north and south part by the ground-water mound. The distribution of dissolved solids and sulfate in ground water varies spatially. Vertical profiles of nitrate in water from selected wells indicate that nitrate contamination generally is in the upper part of the saturated zone and in some wells has moved downward. Septic systems, mining and smelting, agriculture, and natural sources were considered to be possible sources of nitrate contamination in the east Erda area. Septic systems are not the source of nitrate because water from wells drilled upgradient of all septic systems in the area had elevated nitrate concentrations. Mining and smelting activity are a possible source of nitrate contamination but few data are available to link nitrate contamination with mining sites. Natural and agricultural sources of nitrate are present east of the Erda area but few data are available about these sources. The source(s) of nitrate in the east Erda area could not be clearly delineated in spite of considerable effort and expenditure of resources.

  1. Child and Family Resource Program (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma). Program Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report describes the Oklahoma City, Oklahoma site of the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP), a Head Start-affiliated program designed to elicit community and family involvement in fostering optimum development of preschool children and their families. The Oklahoma City site, serving a rural black community, is one of 11 demonstration…

  2. Saturated thickness of the High Plains regional aquifer in 1980, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1982-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The 1980 saturated thickness of the High Plains regional aquifer in Oklahoma is shown for the eastern area (plate 1), consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties, and for the Panhandle area (plate 2), consisting of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver Counties.

  3. Stream bottom resistivity tomography to map ground water discharge.

    PubMed

    Nyquist, Jonathan E; Freyer, Paul A; Toran, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of direct current electrical resistivity as a tool for assessing ground water/surface water interactions within streams. This research has shown that patterns of ground water discharge can be mapped at the meter scale, which is important for understanding stream water quality and ecosystem function. Underwater electrical resistivity surveys along a 107-m stream section within the Burd Run Watershed in South Central Pennsylvania identified three resistivity layers: a resistive (100 to 400 Omega m) surface layer corresponding to the streambed sediments, a conductive (20 to 100 Omega m) middle layer corresponding to residual clay sediments, and a resistive (100 to 450 Omega m) bottom layer corresponding to the carbonate bedrock. Tile probing to determine the depth to the bedrock and resistivity test box analysis of augered sediment samples confirmed these interpretations of the resistivity data. Ground water seeps occurred where the resistivity data showed that the residual clays were thinnest and bedrock was closest to the streambed. Plotting the difference in resistivity between two surveys, one conducted during low-stage and the other during high-stage stream conditions, showed changes in the conductivity of the pore fluids saturating the sediments. Under high-stream stage conditions, the top layer showed increased resistivity values for sections with surface water infiltration but showed nearly constant resistivity in sections with ground water seeps. This was expressed as difference values less than 50 Omega m in the area of the seeps and greater than 50 Omega m change for the streambed sediments saturated by surface water. Thus, electrical resistivity aided in characterizing ground water discharge zones by detecting variations in subsurface resistivity under high- and low-stream stage conditions as well as mapping subsurface heterogeneities that promote these exchanges.

  4. Ground-water hydrology and projected effects of ground-water withdrawals in the Sevier Desert, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    The principal ground-water reservoir in the Sevier Desert is the unconsolidated basin fill. The fill has been divided generally into aquifers and confining beds, although there are no clearcut boundaries between these units--the primary aquifers are the shallow and deep artesian aquifers. Recharge to the ground-water reservoir is by infiltration of precipitation; seepage from streams, canals, reservoirs, and unconsumed irrigation water; and subsurface inflow from consolidated rocks in mountain areas and from adjoining areas. Discharge is by wells, springs, seepage to the Sevier River, evapotranspiration, and subsurface outflow to adjoining areas.

  5. Digital map of changes in water levels from predevelopment to 1980 for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for contours of predevelopment to 1980 water-level elevation changes for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the contours for predevelopment to 1980 water-level elevation change from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

  6. Ground-water, surface-water, and bottom-sediment contamination in the O-field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and the possible effects of selected remedial actions on ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Oliveros, James P.

    1995-01-01

    Disposal of munitions and chemical-warfare substances has introduced inorganic and organic contaminants to the ground water, surface water, and bottom sediment at O-Field, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contaminants include chloride, arsenic, transition metals, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and organosulfur and organophosphorus compounds. The hydrologic effects of several remedial actions were estimated by use of a ground-water-flow model. The remedial actions examined were an impermeable covering, encapsulation, subsurface barriers, a ground-water drain, pumping of wells to manage water levels or to remove contaminated ground water for treatment, and no action.

  7. Geohydrology of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer east-central Oklahoma with a section on chemical quality of water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Lugosz, Joseph J.; McClaflin, Roger G.; Marcher, Melvin V.

    1986-01-01

    water in the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer generally is suitable for municipal, domestic, and stock use. Of 55 water samples analyzed in the laboratory, about 75 percent were of the sodium bicarbonate or sodium calcium bicarbonate type; the remainder were of the sodium sulfate, calcium sulfate, sodium chloride, or indeterminate types. Laboratory and on-site chemical-quality data indicate that mineralization of both ground and surface waters is greater than normal in some areas. Water samples from 7 wells and 12 stream sites had concentrations of bromide exceeding 1 milligram per liter; the only known source of bromide in the area is brine associated with petroleum production.

  8. Ground-water hydrology of the Willamette basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conlon, Terrence D.; Wozniak, Karl C.; Woodcock, Douglas; Herrera, Nora B.; Fisher, Bruce J.; Morgan, David S.; Lee, Karl K.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    The Willamette Basin encompasses a drainage of 12,000 square miles and is home to approximately 70 percent of Oregon's population. Agriculture and population are concentrated in the lowland, a broad, relatively flat area between the Coast and Cascade Ranges. Annual rainfall is high, with about 80 percent of precipitation falling from October through March and less than 5 percent falling in July and August, the peak growing season. Population growth and an increase in cultivation of crops needing irrigation have produced a growing seasonal demand for water. Because many streams are administratively closed to new appropriations in summer, ground water is the most likely source for meeting future water demand. This report describes the current understanding of the regional ground-water flow system, and addresses the effects of ground-water development. This study defines seven regional hydrogeologic units in the Willamette Basin. The highly permeable High Cascade unit consists of young volcanic material found at the surface along the crest of the Cascade Range. Four sedimentary hydrogeologic units fill the lowland between the Cascade and Coast Ranges. Young, highly permeable coarse-grained sediments of the upper sedimentary unit have a limited extent in the floodplains of the major streams and in part of the Portland Basin. Extending over much of the lowland where the upper sedimentary unit does not occur, silts and clays of the Willamette silt unit act as a confining unit. The middle sedimentary unit, consisting of permeable coarse-grained material, occurs beneath the Willamette silt and upper sedimentary units and at the surface as terraces in the lowland. Beneath these units is the lower sedimentary unit, which consists of predominantly fine-grained sediments. In the northern part of the basin, lavas of the Columbia River basalt unit occur at the surface in uplands and beneath the basin-fill sedimentary units. The Columbia River basalt unit contains multiple

  9. Ground water hydrology of the Elizabethtown area, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, D.S.; Lyverse, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The principal aquifer in a 52 square mile karst area in north central Kentucky is the St. Louis Limestone of Mississippian age. Unconsolidated residuum and surficial deposits of slumped material may store water and recharge the underlying limestone aquifer. Precipitation averages 49 inches annually; 6 inches recharges ground-water reservoirs. The shallow ground-water velocity ranged from 0.30 to 1.40 feet per second. Flow net analysis indicates that about 2 million gallons of water per day flows through a 1.8 mile wide section of the aquifer. A water-level contour map indicates that the hydraulic gradient averages 40 feet per mile and that the water levels near the city supply wells have not lowered in 10 years. The effects of three faults on the ground-water flow system is shown as ponding on the upthrown side of the faults. Caliper logs suggest that shallow ground-water flow occurs in sheet-like openings within 100 feet of land surface. The openings range in height from 1 inch or less to 6 feet. A test well penetrated 5 zones of horizontal openings. The specific capacity ranged from 11.5 to 12.1 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown after 12 and 72 hours of pumping at 280 to 510 gallons per minute. Water in 28 wells and springs meets most drinking water standards and generally is a very hard calcium bicarbonate type. Heavily pumped industrial and public-supply wells tend to yield water with high values of specific conductance and sulfate. Coliform bacteria varied widely in rural wells and the city springs. Seven wells had no coliform bacteria. (USGS)

  10. The effect of the earth's rotation on ground water motion.

    PubMed

    Loáiciga, Hugo A

    2007-01-01

    The average pore velocity of ground water according to Darcy's law is a function of the fluid pressure gradient and the gravitational force (per unit volume of ground water) and of aquifer properties. There is also an acceleration exerted on ground water that arises from the Earth's rotation. The magnitude and direction of this rotation-induced force are determined in exact mathematical form in this article. It is calculated that the gravitational force is at least 300 times larger than the largest rotation-induced force anywhere on Earth, the latter force being maximal along the equator and approximately equal to 34 N/m(3) there. This compares with a gravitational force of approximately 10(4) N/m(3).

  11. Research to More Effectively Manage Critical Ground-Water Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    As the regional management agency for two of the most heavily used ground-water basins in California, the Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRD) plays a vital role in sheparding the water resources of southern Los Angeles County. WRD is using the results of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies to help more effectively manage the Central and West Coast basins in the most efficient, cost-effective way. In partnership with WRD, the USGS is using the latest research tools to study the geohydrology and geochemistry of the two basins. USGS scientists are: *Drilling and collecting detailed data from over 40 multiple-well monitoring sites, *Conducting regional geohydrologic and geochemical analyses, *Developing and applying a computer simulation model of regional ground-water flow. USGS science is providing a more detailed understanding of ground-water flow and quality. This research has enabled WRD to more effectively manage the basins. It has helped the District improve the efficiency of its spreading ponds and barrier injection wells, which replenish the aquifers and control seawater intrusion into the ground-water system.

  12. Ground-Water Recharge in Humid Areas of the United States--A Summary of Ground-Water Resources Program Studies, 2003-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2007-01-01

    Increased demands on water resources by a growing population and recent droughts have raised awareness about the adequacy of ground-water resources in humid areas of the United States. The spatial and temporal variability of ground-water recharge are key factors that need to be quantified to determine the sustainability of ground-water resources. Ground-water recharge is defined herein as the entry into the saturated zone of water made available at the water-table surface, together with the associated flow away from the water table within the saturated zone (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). In response to the need for better estimates of ground-water recharge, the Ground-Water Resources Program (GWRP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an initiative in 2003 to estimate ground-water recharge rates in the relatively humid areas of the United States.

  13. Ground-water quality and geochemistry, Carson Desert, western Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lico, Michael S.; Seiler, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Aquifers in the Carson Desert are the primary source of drinking water, which is highly variable in chemical composition. In the shallow basin-fill aquifers, water chemistyr varies from a dilute calcium bicarbonate-dominated water beneath the irrigated areas to a saline sodium chloride- dominated water beneath unirrigated areas. Water samples from the shallow aquifers commonly have dissolved solids, chloride, magnesium, sulfate, arsenic, and manganese concentrations that exceed State of Nevada drinking-water standards. Water in the intermediante basin-fill aquifers is a dilute sodium bicarbonate type in the Fallon area and a distinctly more saline sodium chloride type in the Soda Lake-Upsal Hogback area. Dissolved solids, chloride, arsenic, fluoride, and manganese concen- trations commonly exceed drinking-water standards. The basalt aquifer contains a dilute sodium bicarbonate chloride water. Arsenic concentrations exceed standards in all sampled wells. The concen- trations of major constituents in ground water beneath the southern Carson Desert are the result of evapotranspiration and natural geochemical reactions with minerals derived mostly from igneous rocks. Water with higher concentrations of iron and manganese is near thermodynamic equilibrium with siderite and rhodochrosite and indicates that these elements may be limited by the solubility of their respective carbonate minerals. Naturally occurring radionuclides (uranium and radon-222) are present in ground water from the Carson Desert in concen- tratons higher than proposed drinking-water standards. High uranium concentrations in the shallow aquifers may be caused by evaporative concentration and the release of uranium during dissolution of iron and manganese oxides or the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter that typically has elevated uranium concentrations. Ground water in the Carson Desert does not appear to have be contaminated by synthetic organic chemicals.

  14. National water-information clearinghouse activities; ground-water perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haupt, C.A.; Jensen, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) has functioned for many years as an informal clearinghouse for water resources information, enabling users to access groundwater information effectively. Water resources clearinghouse activities of the USGS are conducted through several separate computerized water information programs that are involved in the collection, storage, retrieval, and distribution of different types of water information. The following USGS programs perform water information clearinghouse functions and provide the framework for a formalized National Water-Information Clearinghouse: (1) The National Water Data Exchange--a nationwide confederation of more than 300 Federal, State, local, government, academic, and private water-oriented organizations that work together to improve access to water data; (2) the Water Resources Scientific Information Center--acquires, abstracts, and indexes the major water-resources-related literature of the world, and provides this information to the water resources community; (3) the Information Transfer Program--develops innovative approaches to transfer information and technology developed within the USGS to audiences in the public and private sectors; (4) the Hydrologic Information Unit--provides responses to a variety of requests, both technical and lay-oriented, for water resources information , and helps efforts to conduct water resources research; (5) the Water Data Storage and Retrieval System--maintains accessible computerized files of hydrologic data collected nationwide, by the USGS and other governmental agencies, from stream gaging stations, groundwater observation wells, and surface- and groundwater quality sampling sites; (6) the Office of Water Data Coordination--coordinate the water data acquisition activities of all agencies of the Federal Government, and is responsible for the planning, design, and inter-agency coordination of a national water data and information network; and (7) the Water Resources Research

  15. RadNet Air Data From Oklahoma City, OK

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Oklahoma City, OK from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  16. Reassessment of Ground-Water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2002-01-01

    An estimate of ground-water availability in the Hawi area of north Kohala, Hawaii, is needed to determine whether ground-water resources are adequate to meet future demand within the area and other areas to the south. For the Hawi area, estimated average annual recharge from infiltration of rainfall, fog drip, and irrigation is 37.5 million gallons per day from a daily water budget. Low and high annual recharge estimates for the Hawi area that incorporate estimated uncertainty are 19.9 and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively. The recharge estimates from this study are lower than the recharge of 68.4 million gallons per day previously estimated from a monthly water budget. Three ground-water models, using the low, intermediate, and high recharge estimates (19.9, 37.5, and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively), were developed for the Hawi area to simulate ground-water levels and discharges for the 1990?s. To assess potential ground-water availability, the numerical ground-water flow models were used to simulate the response of the freshwater-lens system to withdrawals at rates in excess of the average 1990?s withdrawal rates. Because of uncertainty in the recharge estimate, estimates of ground-water availability also are uncertain. Results from numerical simulations indicate that for appropriate well sites, depths, and withdrawal rates (1) for the low recharge estimate (19.9 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 10 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 160 feet near the withdrawal sites, (2) for the intermediate recharge estimate (37.5 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 15 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 190 feet near the withdrawal sites, and (3) for the high recharge estimate (55.4 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop at

  17. Use of a ground-water flow model with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability, Clark County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, D.T.; Wilkinson, J.M.; Orzol, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    A ground-water flow model was used in conjunction with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability in Clark County, Washington. Using the particle-tracking program, particles were placed in every cell of the flow model (about 60,000 particles) and tracked backwards in time and space upgradient along flow paths to their recharge points. A new computer program was developed that interfaces the results from a particle-tracking program with a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS was used to display and analyze the particle-tracking results. Ground-water vulnerability was evaluated by selecting parts of the ground-water flow system and combining the results with ancillary information stored in the GIS to determine recharge areas, characteristics of recharge areas, downgradient impact of land use at recharge areas, and age of ground water. Maps of the recharge areas for each hydrogeologic unit illustrate the presence of local, intermediate, or regional ground-water flow systems and emphasize the three-dimensional nature of the ground-water flow system in Clark County. Maps of the recharge points for each hydrogeologic unit were overlaid with maps depicting aquifer sensitivity as determined by DRASTIC (a measure of the pollution potential of ground water, based on the intrinsic characteristics of the near-surface unsaturated and saturated zones) and recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems. A large number of recharge areas were identified, particularly in southern Clark County, that have a high aquifer sensitivity, coincide with areas of recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems, or both. Using the GIS, the characteristics of the recharge areas were related to the downgradient parts of the ground-water system that will eventually receive flow that has recharged through these areas. The aquifer sensitivity, as indicated by DRASTIC, of the recharge areas for downgradient parts of the flow system was mapped for each hydrogeologic unit. A number of

  18. The Hydrolysis of Di-Isopropyl Methylphosphonate in Ground Water

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A., Tomkins, B.A., Griest, W.H., Bayne, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is a byproduct from the manufacture of the nerve agent Sarin. The persistence of DIMP in the ground water is an important question in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of DIMP contamination. The half-life of DIMP in ground water at 10 deg C was estimated to be 500 years with a 95% confidence interval of 447 to 559 years from measurements of the hydrolysis rates at temperatures between 70 to 98 deg C.Extrapolation of the kinetics to 10 deg C used the Arrhenius equation, and calculation of the half-life assumed first-order kinetics. Inorganic phosphate was not detected.

  19. Generalized altitude and configuration of the base of the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1981-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. This report consists of two maps showing the altitude and configuration of the eroded pre-Ogallala bedrock surface (sheets 1 and 2) that forms the base of the aquifer. Bedrock slopes generally from west to east and is composed of rocks of Permian, Triassic-Jurassic, and Cretaceous age. The subcrop extent of these rocks is shown by Morton (1973) for Oklahoma and by Weeks and Gutentag (1981) for the entire High Plains study area. Altitudes of the aquifer base were determined from drillers' logs provided by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and from published and unpublished information in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey. Where data were sparse, the total well depth was used as the aquifer base under the assumption that wells generally are not drilled very deep into non-water yielding bedrock.

  20. Geology and ground-water resources of Richardson County, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emery, Philip A.

    1964-01-01

    Richardson County is in the extreme southeast corner of Nebraska. It has an area of 545 square miles, and in 1960 it had a population of 13,903. The county is in the physiographic region referred to as the Dissected Loess-covered Till Prairies. Major drainage consists of the Big Nemaha River, including its North and South Forks, and Muddy Creek. These streams flow southeastward and empty into the Missouri River, which forms the eastern boundary of the county. The climate of Richardson County is subhumid; the normal annual precipitation is about 35 inches. Agriculture is the chief industry, and corn is the principal crop. Pleistocene glacial drift, loess, and alluvial deposits mantle the bedrock except in the southern and southwestern parts of the county where the bedrock is at the surface. Ground water is obtained from glacial till, fluvioglacial material, terrace deposits, and coarse alluvial deposits, all of Pleistocene age--and some is obtained from bedrock aquifers of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. Adequate supplies of ground water are in many places difficult to locate because the water-bearing sands and gravels of Pleistocene age vary in composition and lack lateral persistence. Perched water tables are common in the upland areas and provide limited amounts of water to many of the shallow wells, Very few wells in bedrock yield adequate supplies, as the permeability of the rock is low and water that is more than a few tens of feet below the bedrock surface is highly mineralized. Recharge is primarily from local precipitation, and water levels in many wells respond rapidly to increased or decreased precipitation. The quality of the ground water is generally satisfactory for most uses, although all the water is hard, and iron and manganese concentrations, in some areas, are relatively high. Ground water is used mainly for domestic and stock purposes.