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  1. Dietary screening tool identifies nutritional risk in older adults123

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paige E; Mitchell, Diane C; Hartman, Terryl J; Lawrence, Frank R; Sempos, Christopher T; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Background: No rapid methods exist for screening overall dietary intakes in older adults. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a scoring system for a diet screening tool to identify nutritional risk in community-dwelling older adults. Design: This cross-sectional study in older adults (n = 204) who reside in rural areas examined nutrition status by using an in-person interview, biochemical measures, and four 24-h recalls that included the use of dietary supplements. Results: The dietary screening tool was able to characterize 3 levels of nutritional risk: at risk, possible risk, and not at risk. Individuals classified as at nutritional risk had significantly lower indicators of diet quality (Healthy Eating Index and Mean Adequacy Ratio) and intakes of protein, most micronutrients, dietary fiber, fruit, and vegetables. The at-risk group had higher intakes of fats and oils and refined grains. The at-risk group also had the lowest serum vitamin B-12, folate, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin concentrations. The not-at-nutritional-risk group had significantly higher lycopene and β-carotene and lower homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentrations. Conclusion: The dietary screening tool is a simple and practical tool that can help to detect nutritional risk in older adults. PMID:19458013

  2. Plasma phospholipids identify antecedent memory impairment in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mapstone, Mark; Cheema, Amrita K; Fiandaca, Massimo S; Zhong, Xiaogang; Mhyre, Timothy R; MacArthur, Linda H; Hall, William J; Fisher, Susan G; Peterson, Derick R; Haley, James M; Nazar, Michael D; Rich, Steven A; Berlau, Dan J; Peltz, Carrie B; Tan, Ming T; Kawas, Claudia H; Federoff, Howard J

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease causes a progressive dementia that currently affects over 35 million individuals worldwide and is expected to affect 115 million by 2050 (ref. 1). There are no cures or disease-modifying therapies, and this may be due to our inability to detect the disease before it has progressed to produce evident memory loss and functional decline. Biomarkers of preclinical disease will be critical to the development of disease-modifying or even preventative therapies2. Unfortunately, current biomarkers for early disease, including cerebrospinal fluid tau and amyloid-β levels3, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging4 and the recent use of brain amyloid imaging5 or inflammaging6, are limited because they are either invasive, time-consuming or expensive. Blood-based biomarkers may be a more attractive option, but none can currently detect preclinical Alzheimer’s disease with the required sensitivity and specificity7. Herein, we describe our lipidomic approach to detecting preclinical Alzheimer’s disease in a group of cognitively normal older adults. We discovered and validated a set of ten lipids from peripheral blood that predicted phenoconversion to either amnestic mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s disease within a 2–3 year timeframe with over 90% accuracy. This biomarker panel, reflecting cell membrane integrity, may be sensitive to early neurodegeneration of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24608097

  3. Examining older adults' perceptions of health care providers: identifying important aspects of older adults' relationships with physicians and nurses.

    PubMed

    Calvin, Amy O; Frazier, Lorraine; Cohen, Marlene Z

    2007-05-01

    This article describes older adults' conversations about their relationships with health care providers. Focus group participants (N = 23) were from three ethnic groups (Black, White, and Hispanic) and ages 53 to 92. All but three of the participants were women. Content analysis revealed an overarching theme of genuine caring and three sub-themes: interest in patients' well-being, respectful dialogue, and sharing of information. Older adults' perceptions of genuine caring by physicians and nurses did not differ by ethnicity. Older adults want to engage in a caring, respectful, and educational relationship with their health care providers, which is consistent with fundamental professional values.

  4. Public health model identifies recruitment barriers among older adults with delirium and dementia.

    PubMed

    Bull, Margaret J; Boaz, Lesley; Sjostedt, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Recruiting older adults and their family caregivers into research studies presents challenges. Although the literature notes some general recruitment challenges, no studies specifically address the unique challenges of recruiting older adults who have Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and their family caregivers in studies about delirium or suggest using a framework to identify barriers to recruiting this population. In conducting a pilot study about preparing family caregivers to detect delirium symptoms in older adults with (AD) the researchers used the Public Health Model for identifying barriers to recruitment. The goals of this methodological article are to: (1) briefly describe the methodology of the pilot study to illustrate how the Public Health Model was applied in the context of the present study and (2) discuss the benefits of the Public Health Model for identifying the barriers to recruitment in a study that prepared family caregivers to detect delirium symptoms in older adults with AD. The Public Health Model helped us to identify four specific barriers to recruitment (lack of knowledge about delirium, desire to maintain normalcy, protective caregiving behaviors, and older adult's fears) and ways to overcome them. The Public Health Model might also help other researchers address similar issues.

  5. Behavioral Health Services Utilization among Older Adults Identified within a State Abuse Hotline Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Lawrence; Larsen, Rebecca G.; Stiles, Paul G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the extent to which older adults identified in a statewide abuse hotline registry utilized behavioral health services. This is important as mental health issues have been identified as a high priority for filling gaps in services for victims of mistreatment. Design and Methods: We compared Medicaid and Medicare claims…

  6. Behavioral Health Services Utilization among Older Adults Identified within a State Abuse Hotline Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Lawrence; Larsen, Rebecca G.; Stiles, Paul G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the extent to which older adults identified in a statewide abuse hotline registry utilized behavioral health services. This is important as mental health issues have been identified as a high priority for filling gaps in services for victims of mistreatment. Design and Methods: We compared Medicaid and Medicare claims…

  7. Behavioral health services utilization among older adults identified within a state abuse hotline database.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, Lawrence; Larsen, Rebecca G; Stiles, Paul G

    2006-04-01

    This study examined the extent to which older adults identified in a statewide abuse hotline registry utilized behavioral health services. This is important as mental health issues have been identified as a high priority for filling gaps in services for victims of mistreatment. We compared Medicaid and Medicare claims data for two groups of older adults: those using health services and identified within a statewide abuse hotline information system and those claimants not identified within the hotline database. Behavioral health service use was greater among those identified in the abuse hotline database. The penetration rate (percentage of service users out of all enrollees) for Medicaid behavioral health service claims was more than twice that of other service users, with costs of services about 30% greater. Analyses of Medicare data revealed that the penetration rate for those in the hotline data was almost 6 times greater at approximately twice the cost compared to other service users. The results provide evidence for previous assumptions that mistreated individuals experience a higher rate of behavioral health disorders. As mental health screening by adult protective services is rarely conducted, the results suggest the need to train investigators and other service providers to screen older adults for behavioral health and substance-abuse issues as well as physical signs of abuse. Further research on the relationship of abuse to behavioral health might focus on collection of additional data involving more specific victim-related characteristics and comparisons of cases of mistreatment versus self-neglect.

  8. Package Information Used by Older Adults to Identify Whole Grain Foods.

    PubMed

    Violette, Catherine; Kantor, Mark A; Ferguson, Katharine; Reicks, Marla; Marquart, Len; Laus, Mary Jane; Cohen, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    A structured interview protocol was used to investigate the ability of older adults (n = 89, age ≥ 65 years) to accurately determine whether three common food items were whole grain, and to assess the package information used in their decision process. Cereal and crackers, which were both whole grain products, were correctly identified by 63% and 66% of participants, respectively. Bread (a refined product), was correctly identified by only 19% of participants, while 46% of participants misidentified the bread as being whole grain. The ingredient list was the information most frequently cited in deciding if a food was whole grain, but participants varied in their ability to accurately interpret it. Package information considered nonpertinent (e.g., the Nutrition Facts label) in identifying a whole grain product was used almost as often as the ingredient list. Older adults would benefit from whole grain education programs that focus on accurately interpreting package information.

  9. Procedures for identifying evidence-based psychological treatments for older adults.

    PubMed

    Yon, Adriana; Scogin, Forrest

    2007-03-01

    The authors describe the methods used to identify evidence-based psychological treatments for older adults in this contribution to the special section. Coding teams were assembled to review the literature on several problems relevant to mental health and aging. These teams used the manual developed by the Committee on Science and Practice of the Society for Clinical Psychology (Division 12) of the American Psychological Association that provided definitions of key constructs used in coding. The authors provide an overview of the process followed by the review teams and of some of the issues that emerged to illustrate the steps involved in the coding procedure. Identifying evidence-based treatments is a fundamental aspect of promoting evidence-based practice with older adults; such practice is advocated by most health care disciplines, including psychology.

  10. A GIS Approach to Identifying Socially and Medically Vulnerable Older Adult Populations in South Florida.

    PubMed

    Hames, Elizabeth; Stoler, Justin; Emrich, Christopher T; Tewary, Sweta; Pandya, Naushira

    2016-08-05

    We define, map, and analyze geodemographic patterns of socially and medically vulnerable older adults within the tri-county region of South Florida. We apply principal components analysis (PCA) to a set of previously identified indicators of social and medical vulnerability at the census tract level. We create and map age-stratified vulnerability scores using a geographic information system (GIS), and use spatial analysis techniques to identify patterns and interactions between social and medical vulnerability. Key factors contributing to social vulnerability in areas with higher numbers of older adults include age, large household size, and Hispanic ethnicity. Medical vulnerability in these same areas is driven by disease burden, access to emergency cardiac services, availability of nursing home and hospice beds, access to home health care, and available mental health services. Age-dependent areas of social vulnerability emerge in Broward County, whereas age-dependent areas of medical vulnerability emerge in Palm Beach County. Older-adult social and medical vulnerability interact differently throughout the study area. Spatial analysis of older adult social and medical vulnerability using PCA and GIS can help identify age-dependent pockets of vulnerability that are not easily identifiable in a populationwide analysis; improve our understanding of the dynamic spatial organization of health care, health care needs, access to care, and outcomes; and ultimately serve as a tool for health care planning. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Identifying Mobility Types in Cognitively Heterogeneous Older Adults Based on GPS-Tracking: What Discriminates Best?

    PubMed

    Wettstein, Markus; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Shoval, Noam; Auslander, Gail; Oswald, Frank; Heinik, Jeremia

    2015-12-01

    Heterogeneity in older adults' mobility and its correlates have rarely been investigated based on objective mobility data and in samples including cognitively impaired individuals. We analyzed mobility profiles within a cognitively heterogeneous sample of N = 257 older adults from Israel and Germany based on GPS tracking technology. Participants were aged between 59 and 91 years (M = 72.9; SD = 6.4) and were either cognitively healthy (CH, n = 146), mildly cognitively impaired (MCI, n = 76), or diagnosed with an early-stage dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT, n = 35). Based on cluster analysis, we identified three mobility types ("Mobility restricted," "Outdoor oriented," "Walkers"), which could be predicted based on socio-demographic indicators, activity, health, and cognitive impairment status using discriminant analysis. Particularly demented individuals and persons with worse health exhibited restrictions in mobility. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of heterogeneity in mobility in old age.

  12. Identifying mobility heterogeneity in very frail older adults. Are frail people all the same?

    PubMed

    Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Bergman, Howard; Béland, François; Sourial, Nadia; Fletcher, John D; Dallaire, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Frail older adults sustain mobility limitations; however, clinical experience suggests that their mobility characteristics are far from being homogeneous. We conducted a prospective analysis to identify mobility heterogeneity in 1160 very frail older adults and we investigated the associations between mobility limitation profiles and further institutionalization and death. A cluster analysis using 11 self-reported mobility indicators was used to identify mobility profiles (MPs). At baseline, MPs varies from having mild limitations (n=370), moderate limitations (n=470), to severe limitations (n=320). Mild MP did not have mobility disability. Moderate MP had upper limb task limitations and mild lower limb task difficulties. Severe MP portrayed more deficits in lower limbs tasks functions with important mobility disability. After 2 years of follow up, the Severe MP group had a higher risk of mortality and nursing home placement when compared with Mild MP. Higher incidences of hip fracture and hospitalization were associated with the severity of MP. Even among very frail elderly, we identified different levels of mobility, cautioning against to treat them as a homogeneous group. Mobility heterogeneity predicted mortality and nursing home placement in a dose response manner. None of the mobility indicators individually predicted the outcomes as strongly as the profiles. Identification of this mobility heterogeneity may assist on planning of health programs in very frail elderly.

  13. Successful outcomes of older adolescents and adults with profound biotinidase deficiency identified by newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Barry

    2017-04-01

    We began screening newborns for biotinidase deficiency disorder in 1984, and now all states in the United States and many countries perform this screening. The purpose of this study was to determine the outcomes of older adolescent and adult individuals with the disorder identified by newborn screening. We located and surveyed, by questionnaire and telephone interviews, 44 individuals with profound biotinidase deficiency identified by newborn screening with a mean age of 23.1 years. All individuals had successfully completed high school, and many were attending or had completed college or graduate school. Compliance in using biotin has been excellent. Several individuals developed a variety of symptoms when they discontinued biotin for days or weeks. These features readily resolved when biotin was resumed. In addition, five treated women had nine uneventful pregnancies and deliveries. Newborn screening for profound biotinidase deficiency and early treatment with biotin result in excellent outcomes for older adolescents and adults with the disorder. In addition, mothers with profound biotinidase deficiency who were treated with biotin had pregnancies with good outcomes. These outcome results indicate that newborn screening for biotinidase deficiency is one of the most successful newborn screening programs.Genet Med 19 4, 396-402.

  14. Food Safety Knowledge and Practices among Older Adults: Identifying Causes and Solutions for Risky Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cates, Sheryl C; Kosa, Katherine M; Karns, Shawn; Godwin, Sandria L; Speller-Henderson, Leslie; Harrison, Robert; Ann Draughon, F

    2009-04-01

    Adults aged 60 years and older are more likely than younger adults to experience complications, hospitalization, and death because of food-borne infections. Recognizing this risk, we conducted a nationally representative survey (n = 1,140) to characterize older adults' food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices as well as the demographic characteristics of older adults with risky food handling practices. The survey was conducted using a Web-enabled panel. We found that although older adults consider themselves to be knowledgeable about food safety, many are not following recommended food safety practices. Areas for improvement include the following: reheating deli meats to steaming hot, not eating store-bought deli salads, cooking eggs properly, monitoring refrigerator temperature using a thermometer, using a food thermometer to check doneness of meat/poultry/egg dishes, and storing leftovers properly. The survey results also suggest that food safety education targeting older adults is needed and that such initiatives should emphasize practices to prevent listeriosis, a potentially fatal illness among older adults. Our findings suggest that, in particular, men, individuals with higher incomes, and college-educated individuals would benefit from food safety education.

  15. Identifying the Potential for Robotics to Assist Older Adults in Different Living Environments

    PubMed Central

    Mitzner, Tracy L.; Chen, Tiffany L.; Kemp, Charles C.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    2014-01-01

    As the older adult population grows and becomes more diverse, so will their needs and preferences for living environments. Many adults over 65 years of age require some assistance [1, 2]; yet it is important for their feelings of well-being that the assistance not restrict their autonomy [3]. Not only is autonomy correlated with quality of life [4], autonomy enhancement may improve functionality [2, 5]. The goal of this paper is to provide guidance for the development of technology to enhance autonomy and quality of life for older adults. We explore the potential for robotics to meet these needs. We evaluated older adults' diverse living situations and the predictors of residential moves to higher levels of care in the United States. We also examined older adults' needs for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and medical conditions when living independently or in a long-term care residence. By providing support for older adults, mobile manipulator robots may reduce need-driven, undesired moves from residences with lower levels of care (i.e., private homes, assisted living) to those with higher levels of care (i.e., skilled nursing). PMID:24729800

  16. Standard laboratory tests to identify older adults at increased risk of death.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Susan E; Rockwood, Michael R H; Mitnitski, Arnold; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-10-07

    Older adults are at an increased risk of death, but not all people of the same age have the same risk. Many methods identify frail people (that is, those at increased risk) but these often require time-consuming interactions with health care providers. We evaluated whether standard laboratory tests on their own, or added to a clinical frailty index (FI), could improve identification of older adults at increased risk of death. This is a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study, where community dwelling and institutionalized participants in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging who also volunteered for blood collection (n = 1,013) were followed for up to six years. A standard FI (FI-CSHA) was constructed from data obtained during the clinical evaluation and a second, novel FI was constructed from laboratory data plus systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements (FI-LAB). A combined FI included all items from each index. Predictive validity was tested using Cox proportional hazards analysis and discriminative ability by the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Of 1,013 participants, 51.3% had died by six years. The mean baseline value of the FI-LAB was 0.27 (standard deviation 0.11; range 0.05 to 0.63), the FI-CSHA was 0.25 (0.11; 0.02 to 0.72), and the combined FI was 0.26 (0.09; 0.06 to 0.59). In an age- and sex-adjusted model, with each increment in the FI-LAB, the hazard ratios increased by 2.8% (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.04). The hazard ratios for the FI-CSHA and the combined FI were 1.02 (1.01 to 1.03) and 1.04 (1.03 to 1.05), respectively. The FI-LAB and FI-CSHA remained independently associated with death in the face of the other. The areas under the ROC curves were 0.72 for FI-LAB, 0.73 for FI-CSHA and 0.74 for the combined FI. An FI based on routine laboratory data can identify older adults at increased risk of death. Additional evaluation of this approach in clinical settings is warranted.

  17. Depression in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home » Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression affects more ... combination of both. [8] Older Adult Attitudes Toward Depression: According to a Mental Health America survey [9] ...

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of Body Mass Index to Identify Obesity in Older Adults: NHANES 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Batsis, John A.; Mackenzie, Todd A.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Sahakyan, Karine R.; Somers, Virend K.; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background Body composition changes with aging lead to increased adiposity and decreased muscle mass, making the diagnosis of obesity challenging. Conventional anthropometry, including body mass index (BMI), while easy to use clinically may misrepresent adiposity. We determined the diagnostic accuracy of BMI using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in assessing the degree of obesity in older adults. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999–2004 were used to identify adults aged ≥60years with DEXA measures. They were categorized (yes/no) as having elevated body fat by gender (men≥25%; females ≥35%) and by body mass index (BMI) ≥25 and ≥30kg/m2. The diagnostic performance of BMI was assessed. Metabolic characteristics were compared in discordant cases of BMI/body fat. Weighting and analyses were performed per NHANES guidelines. Results We identified 4,984 subjects (men:2,453; female:2,531). Mean BMI and % body fat was 28.0kg/m2 and 30.8% in men, and 28.5kg/m2 and 42.1% in females. A BMI ≥30kg/m2 had a low sensitivity and moderately high specificity (men:32.9% and 80.8%, concordance index 0.66; females:38.5% and 78.5%, concordance 0.69) correctly classifying 41.0 and 45.1% of obese subjects. A BMI ≥25kg/m2 had a moderately high sensitivity and specificity (men:80.7% and 99.6%, concordance 0.81;females:76.9% and 98.8%, concordance 0.84) correctly classifying 80.8 and 78.5% of obese subjects. In subjects with BMI<30kg/m2 body fat was considered elevated in 67.1% and 61.5% of males and females, respectively. For a BMI≥30kg/m2, sensitivity drops from 40.3 to 14.5% and 44.5 to 23.4%, while specificity remains elevated (>98%),in males and females, respectively in those 60–69.9years to subjects aged ≥80years. Correct classification of obesity using a cutoff of 30kg/m2 drops from 48.1 to 23.9% and 49.0 to 19.6%, in males and females in these two age groups. Conclusions Traditional measures poorly identify obesity in the

  19. Identifying important factors for older adults' physical activity participation across individual/group, structured/unstructured contexts.

    PubMed

    Beck, Katie L; Weeks, Lori E; Montelpare, William J; MacDonald, Dany J

    2016-09-01

    Most Canadian older adults do not meet physical activity recommendations. Researchers have investigated participation barriers and facilitators, with little consideration given to how specific factors influence activity participation for older adults. The purpose of this study was to identify unique factors that influence older adults' activity selection and to determine in which type of setting they are preferred. Using a two-phase methodology, identification of 25 factors affecting participation was followed by 45 older adults ranking the factors within four categories of activities: individual unstructured, group unstructured, individual structured, and group structured. Phase 1 analysis ranked each factor within each category. Further analysis found that there was a statistical difference between categories, indicating that older adults found different factors important, depending on the category of physical activity in question. This led to phase 2 analyses which identified three levels of factor groupings including the following factors: level A: fun, satisfaction, commitment, and energize; level B: safety, learning, awareness, internal motivation, and productive; and level C: meaningful contribution, intensity, and motivation. Additionally, some factors which were not identified in all categories were identified as unique to certain categories. These included creativity, hobbies, meaningful contribution, spiritual, competence, interaction casual, regularly scheduled, competition, self-efficacy physical, and team. This information can be used by individuals as well as program providers to nurture these factors within physical activity programs, which may lead to increased participation in this age cohort.

  20. Geriatric-specific triage criteria are more sensitive than standard adult criteria in identifying need for trauma center care in injured older adults.

    PubMed

    Ichwan, Brian; Darbha, Subrahmanyam; Shah, Manish N; Thompson, Laura; Evans, David C; Boulger, Creagh T; Caterino, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the sensitivity of Ohio's 2009 emergency medical services (EMS) geriatric trauma triage criteria compared with the previous adult triage criteria in identifying need for trauma center care among older adults. We studied a retrospective cohort of injured patients aged 16 years or older in the 2006 to 2011 Ohio Trauma Registry. Patients aged 70 years or older were considered geriatric. We identified whether each patient met the geriatric and the adult triage criteria. The outcome measure was need for trauma center care, defined by surrogate markers: Injury Severity Score greater than 15, operating room in fewer than 48 hours, any ICU stay, and inhospital mortality. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of both triage criteria for both age groups. We included 101,577 patients; 33,379 (33%) were geriatric. Overall, 57% of patients met adult criteria and 68% met geriatric criteria. Using Injury Severity Score, for older adults geriatric criteria were more sensitive for need for trauma center care (93%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 92% to 93%) than adult criteria (61%; 95% CI 60% to 62%). Geriatric criteria decreased specificity in older adults from 61% (95% CI 61% to 62%) to 49% (95% CI 48% to 49%). Geriatric criteria in older adults (93% sensitivity, 49% specificity) performed similarly to the adult criteria in younger adults (sensitivity 87% and specificity 44%). Similar patterns were observed for other outcomes. Standard adult EMS triage guidelines provide poor sensitivity in older adults. Ohio's geriatric trauma triage guidelines significantly improve sensitivity in identifying Injury Severity Score and other surrogate markers of the need for trauma center care, with modest decreases in specificity for older adults. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Problem areas identified as important to older adults with lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Todd C; Lavallee, Danielle C; Bauer, Zoya; Comstock, Bryan A; Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Patrick, Donald L; Makris, Una E; Friedly, Janna L

    2015-07-01

    There is growing concern that patient-reported outcomes (PROs) commonly used in clinical research evaluating treatments such as epidural steroid injections (ESIs) for lumbar spinal stenosis may not adequately capture outcomes of greatest importance to older adults. The purpose of the study was to determine what outcomes are most important to older adults with spinal stenosis, how well commonly used PROs reflect what is most important to these participants, and which outcomes older adults with spinal stenosis would want improved to consider having ESI. This is an outcome prioritization study. Community sample of 33 older adults with spinal stenosis were included. The outcome measures were Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. The methods involve individual sorting and ranking exercises followed by facilitated focus groups. Highest rated problem areas were "experiencing pain/discomfort" (88% of participants), "problems with physical function" (85%), "difficulty exercising" (73%), "difficulty participating in hobbies and leisure activities" (55%), and "problems with weakness" (52%). Only 10 of the 24 Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire items were rated by 50% or more of participants experiencing them as important enough to warrant ESI treatment. Older adults with spinal stenosis rated problems related to pain and physical function as the most important outcomes to them. However, difficulty exercising and difficulty participating in hobbies and leisure activities were also among the most highly rated and were two areas not typically assessed in treatment studies. Commonly used PROs in spinal stenosis treatment studies may be insufficient to comprehensively assess outcomes from the patient perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Museums and Older Adults .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Elizabeth M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This issue contains articles on characteristics of the older adult population and how one museum program addressed them; an analysis of sensory changes in older adulthood and their implications for museum facilities and programing; what older adults can contribute to the museum; older adults as museum volunteers; and case studies of museum…

  3. Bereavement in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, James P.

    1994-01-01

    Factors that place older adults at risk for problems associated with the bereavement process are identified and discussed. Provides guidelines for distinguishing between normal bereavement depression and clinical depression, discusses the impact of different types of loss, describes three types of intervention, and explores countertransference.…

  4. Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred; Onedera, Jill D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address selected aspects of depression in older adults. Specifically, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and interventions for depression in older adults are reviewed.

  5. Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred; Onedera, Jill D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address selected aspects of depression in older adults. Specifically, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and interventions for depression in older adults are reviewed.

  6. PM2: a partitioning-mining-measuring method for identifying progressive changes in older adults' sleeping activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Daqing; Connelly, Kay; Zhou, Xingshe; Ni, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    As people age, their health typically declines, resulting in difficulty in performing daily activities. Sleep-related problems are common issues with older adults, including shifts in circadian rhythms. A detection method is proposed to identify progressive changes in sleeping activity using a three-step process: partitioning, mining, and measuring. Specifically, the original spatiotemporal representation of each sleeping activity instance was first transformed into a sequence of equal-sized segments, or symbols, via a partitioning process. A data-mining-based algorithm was proposed to find symbols that are not present in all instances of a sleeping activity. Finally, a measuring process was responsible for evaluating the changes in these symbols. Experimental evaluation conducted on a group of datasets of older adults showed that the proposed method is able to identify progressive changes in sleeping activity.

  7. Improving the Pharmacologic Management of Pain in Older Adults: Identifying the Research Gaps and Methods to Address Them

    PubMed Central

    Reid, M. C.; Bennett, David A.; Chen, Wen G.; Eldadah, Basil A.; Farrar, John T.; Ferrell, Bruce; Gallagher, Rollin M.; Hanlon, Joseph T.; Herr, Keela; Horn, Susan D.; Inturrisi, Charles E.; Lemtouni, Salma; Lin, Yu Woody; Michaud, Kaleb; Morrison, R. Sean; Neogi, Tuhina; Porter, Linda L.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Von Korff, Michael; Weiss, Karen; Witter, James; Zacharoff, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective There has been a growing recognition of the need for better pharmacologic management of chronic pain among older adults. To address this need, the National Institutes of Health Pain Consortium sponsored an “Expert Panel Discussion on the Pharmacological Management of Chronic Pain in Older Adults” conference in September, 2010, to identify research gaps and strategies to address them. Specific emphasis was placed on ascertaining gaps regarding use of opioid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications because of continued uncertainties regarding their risks and benefits. Design Eighteen panel members provided oral presentations; each was followed by a multidisciplinary panel discussion. Meeting transcripts and panelists’ slide presentations were reviewed to identify the gaps, and the types of studies and research methods panelists suggested could best address them. Results Fifteen gaps were identified in the areas of treatment(e.g., uncertainty regarding the long-term safety and efficacy of commonly prescribed analgesics), epidemiology (e.g., lack of knowledge regarding the course of common pain syndromes), and implementation(e.g., limited understanding of optimal strategies to translate evidence-based pain treatments into practice). Analyses of data from electronic health care databases, observational cohort studies, and ongoing cohort studies (augmented with pain and other relevant outcomes measures) were felt to be practical methods for building an age-appropriate evidence base to improve the pharmacologic management of pain in later life. Conclusions Addressing the gaps presented in the current report was judged by the panel to have substantial potential to improve the health and well being of older adults with chronic pain. PMID:21834914

  8. Identifying Effective Nurse-Led Care Transition Interventions for Older Adults With Complex Needs Using a Structured Expert Panel.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Lianne; Kuluski, Kerry; Law, Madelyn; Saragosa, Marianne; Espin, Sherry; Ferris, Ella; Merkley, Jane; Dusek, Brenda; Kastner, Monika; Bell, Chaim M

    2017-04-01

    Nursing plays a central role in facilitating care transitions for complex older adults, yet there is no consensus of the components of nurse-led care transitions interventions to facilitate high quality care transitions among complex older adults. A structured expert panel was established with the purpose of identifying effective nurse-led care transition interventions. A modified Delphi consensus technique based on the RAND method was employed. Panelists (n = 23) were asked to individually rate a series of statements derived from a realist synthesis of the literature for relevance, feasibility and likely impact. Statements receiving an aggregate score of ≥75% (7/9) were reviewed and revised at a face-to-face consensus meeting. A second round of rating following the same process as round one was used, followed by a final ranking of the statements. The five highest ranked intervention components and contextual factors were: (a) educating and coaching patients, their family members and caregivers about self-management skills; (b) ensuring patients, their family members and caregivers are aware of follow-up medical appointments and postdischarge care plan; (c) using standardized documentation tools and comprehensive communication strategies during care transitions; (d) optimizing nurses' roles and scopes of practice across the care transitions spectrum; and (e) having strong leadership, strategic alignment and accountability structures in organizations to enable quality care transitions for the complex older person population. Key insights on optimizing the nurses' roles and scope of practice during care transitions included having nurses provide "warm hand-offs" and serve as the "go-to person." The panel also identified current challenges to optimizing the nurses' roles and scope of practice across care transition points. Future research is required to determine effective nurse-led intervention components and in which context do they work or do not. © 2017 Sigma

  9. [CONSISTENCY OF MINI NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT TO IDENTIFY SARCOPENIA IN OLDER ADULTS IN NURSING HOMES IN BOGOTA, COLOMBIA].

    PubMed

    Díaz Muñoz, Gustavo Alfonso; Cárdenas Zuluaga, Diana María; Mesa Jimenez, Alfonso

    2015-07-01

    malnutrition and sarcopenia, which have similar physiological mechanisms and are both responsible for adverse health outcomes, are highly prevalent in the elderly. to measure the consistency of the MNA with the diagnosis of sarcopenia in older adults. cross-sectional study of consistency in four nursing homes in Bogotá. The nutritional screening and nutritional assessment were made with the Mini Nutritional Assessment in its long form; the diagnosis of sarcopenia was done with the algorithm and the breakpoints of the European Consensus (EWGSOP). Pearson Chi2, Mann-Whitney and consistency by Cohen's kappa coefficient. we included 108 patients, 62% women, mean age 80.4 years (SD 7.7). The prevalence of sarcopenia, malnutrition and risk of malnutrition were 38.9%, 33.3% and 2.8% respectively. The concordance of the MNA with the diagnosis of sarcopenia was slight (kappa 0.1908 95% CI 0.0025 to 0.3791, p < 0.05) CONCLUSION: MNA shows mild concordance to identify sarcopenia, suggesting that it is not an appropriate tool for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in older institutionalized adults. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying Underlying Beliefs About Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Low-Income Older Adults: An Elicitation Study Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seung Eun; Shin, Yeon Ho; Kim, Sunyoung; Hermann, Janice; Bice, Crystal

    2017-06-17

    Identify underlying salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption among limited-income older adults. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used as the framework for conducting semistructured individual interviews in 2016. Two congregate meal sites in the city of Tuscaloosa, AL. A total of 25 low-income older adults aged ≥60 years. Behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about F&V intake. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a hybrid inductive and deductive content analysis approach. The elicitation interviews identified salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about F&V intake among low-income older adults. These results can be used to develop nutrition education programs aimed at improving economically vulnerable older adults' F&V intake. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Depression - older adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... active and engaged. The most worrisome complication of depression is suicide. Men make up most suicides among older adults. ... such as 911) if you are thinking about suicide (taking your own ... and think they may have depression, contact their provider.

  12. Managing dyslipidemia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, C M; Carnes, M; McBride, P E; Stein, J H

    1999-12-01

    To summarize and critically review clinical trial data regarding dyslipidemia as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and the efficacy and safety of lipid-lowering interventions in older adults. Based on these data, clinical recommendations for diagnosing and managing dyslipidemia in older adults are provided. Peer-reviewed journal articles were identified by a MEDLINE search and a review of journal article references. Studies that were performed exclusively in subjects older than 65 years or that included a large subgroup of older adults were included. Elevated low density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels are independent risk factors for CHD events in patients aged older than 65 years. Older adults have a higher risk of mortality attributable to hypercholesterolemia. Diet and lipid-lowering medications safely and effectively lower cholesterol levels in this age group. Exercise increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and decreases triglyceride levels. If accompanied by weight loss, exercise may reduce low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels. Improving lipid levels in older adults with CHD decreases the risk of future coronary events by up to 45%, and significant effects on outcome measures may be observed within 2 years of the initiation of therapy.

  13. Enhancing Older Adults' Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigates older adults' reading comprehension skills through syntactic measures and measures of sentence content. Analyzes the apparent reading difficulties of older adults. Provides guidelines for the preparation of prose materials for older readers. (HB)

  14. Problems identified by dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care when using a self-management program: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Roets-Merken, Lieve; Zuidema, Sytse; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Dees, Marianne; Hermsen, Pieter; Kempen, Gertrudis; Graff, Maud

    2017-01-01

    To gain insights into the problems of dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care. Insights into these problems are essential for developing adequate policies which address the needs of the increasing population of dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care. A qualitative study was conducted in parallel with a cluster randomized controlled trial. Dual sensory impaired older adults in the intervention group (n = 47, age range 82-98) were invited by a familiar nurse to identify the problems they wanted to address. Data were taken from the semi-structured intervention diaries in which nurses noted the older adults' verbal responses during a five-month intervention period in 17 long-term care homes across the Netherlands. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis based on the Grounded Theory. The 47 dual sensory impaired older adults identified a total of 122 problems. Qualitative content analysis showed that the older adults encountered participation problems and problems controlling what happens in their personal environment. Three categories of participation problems emerged: (1) existential concerns of not belonging or not being able to connect with other people, (2) lack of access to communication, information and mobility, and (3) the desire to be actively involved in care delivery. Two categories of control-in-personal-space problems emerged: (1) lack of control of their own physical belongings, and (2) lack of control regarding the behavior of nurses providing daily care in their personal environment. The invasive problems identified indicate that dual sensory impaired older adults experience great existential pressures on their lives. Long-term care providers need to develop and implement policies that identify and address these problems, and be aware of adverse consequences of usual care, in order to improve dual sensory impaired residents' autonomy and quality of life.

  15. Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

  16. Diabetes mellitus in older adults.

    PubMed

    Mooradian, Arshag D; Chehade, Joe M

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus increases with age and causes significant morbidity and poor quality of life in older adults. To review the current literature on the diagnosis and management of diabetes in the elderly, the relevant manuscripts were identified through a MEDLINE (2000-September 1, 2010) search of the English literature. The key phrase used was diabetes in older adults or diabetes in the elderly. The literature search was limited to core clinical journals that have accessible full texts. A total of 480 manuscripts were reviewed. Managing diabetes in older adults is a challenging task. Some features of the disease are unique to the older patient. Several new antidiabetic agents are now available for clinical use, and yet very few clinical trials have been carried out in this age group. For many older adults, maintaining independence is more important than adherence to published guidelines to prevent diabetes complications. The goals of diabetes care in older adults are to enhance quality of life without subjecting the residents to inappropriate interventions.

  17. Problems identified by dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care when using a self-management program: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Zuidema, Sytse; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Dees, Marianne; Hermsen, Pieter; Kempen, Gertrudis; Graff, Maud

    2017-01-01

    Objective To gain insights into the problems of dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care. Insights into these problems are essential for developing adequate policies which address the needs of the increasing population of dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in parallel with a cluster randomized controlled trial. Dual sensory impaired older adults in the intervention group (n = 47, age range 82–98) were invited by a familiar nurse to identify the problems they wanted to address. Data were taken from the semi-structured intervention diaries in which nurses noted the older adults’ verbal responses during a five-month intervention period in 17 long-term care homes across the Netherlands. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis based on the Grounded Theory. Findings The 47 dual sensory impaired older adults identified a total of 122 problems. Qualitative content analysis showed that the older adults encountered participation problems and problems controlling what happens in their personal environment. Three categories of participation problems emerged: (1) existential concerns of not belonging or not being able to connect with other people, (2) lack of access to communication, information and mobility, and (3) the desire to be actively involved in care delivery. Two categories of control-in-personal-space problems emerged: (1) lack of control of their own physical belongings, and (2) lack of control regarding the behavior of nurses providing daily care in their personal environment. Conclusions The invasive problems identified indicate that dual sensory impaired older adults experience great existential pressures on their lives. Long-term care providers need to develop and implement policies that identify and address these problems, and be aware of adverse consequences of usual care, in order to improve dual sensory impaired residents’ autonomy and

  18. A Novel Approach to Identifying Trajectories of Mobility Change in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Rachel E.; Beauchamp, Marla K.; Latham, Nancy K.; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Kurlinski, Laura; Ni, Pengsheng; Goldstein, Richard; Jette, Alan M.; Bean, Jonathan F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To validate trajectories of late-life mobility change using a novel approach designed to overcome the constraints of modest sample size and few follow-up time points. Methods Using clinical reasoning and distribution-based methodology, we identified trajectories of mobility change (Late Life Function and Disability Instrument) across 2 years in 391 participants age ≥65 years from a prospective cohort study designed to identify modifiable impairments predictive of mobility in late-life. We validated our approach using model fit indices and comparing baseline mobility-related factors between trajectories. Results Model fit indices confirmed that the optimal number of trajectories were between 4 and 6. Mobility-related factors varied across trajectories with the most unfavorable values in poor mobility trajectories and the most favorable in high mobility trajectories. These factors included leg strength, trunk extension endurance, knee flexion range of motion, limb velocity, physical performance measures, and the number and prevalence of medical conditions including osteoarthritis and back pain. Conclusions Our findings support the validity of this approach and may facilitate the investigation of a broader scope of research questions within aging populations of varied sizes and traits. PMID:28006024

  19. Obesity in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kalish, Virginia B

    2016-03-01

    The percentage of older obese adults is on the rise. Many clinicians underestimate the health consequences of obesity in the elderly, citing scarce evidence and concerns that weight loss might be detrimental to the health of older adults. Although overweight and obese elders are not at the same risk for morbidity and mortality as younger individuals, quality of life and function are adversely impacted. Weight loss plans in the elderly should include aerobic activities as well as balance and resistance activities to maintain optimal physical function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Using Dynamic Walking Models to Identify Factors that Contribute to Increased Risk of Falling in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Paulien E.; Dingwell, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    Falls are common in older adults. The most common cause of falls is tripping while walking. Simulation studies demonstrated that older adults may be restricted by lower limb strength and movement speed to regain balance after a trip. This review examines how modeling approaches can be used to determine how different measures predict actual fall risk and what some of the causal mechanisms of fall risk are. Although increased gait variability predicts increased fall risk experimentally, it is not clear which variability measures could best be used, or what magnitude of change corresponded with increased fall risk. With a simulation study we showed that the increase in fall risk with a certain increase in gait variability was greatly influenced by the initial level of variability. Gait variability can therefore not easily be used to predict fall risk. We therefore explored other measures that may be related to fall risk and investigated the relationship between stability measures such as Floquet multipliers and local divergence exponents and actual fall risk in a dynamic walking model. We demonstrated that short-term local divergence exponents were a good early predictor for fall risk. Neuronal noise increases with age. It has however not been fully understood if increased neuronal noise would cause an increased fall risk. With our dynamic walking model we showed that increased neuronal noise caused increased fall risk. Although people who are at increased risk of falling reduce their walking speed it had been questioned whether this slower speed would actually cause a reduced fall risk. With our model we demonstrated that a reduced walking speed caused a reduction in fall risk. This may be due to the decreased kinematic variability as a result of the reduced signal-dependent noise of the smaller muscle forces that are required for slower. These insights may be used in the development of fall prevention programs in order to better identify those at increased risk of

  1. Dance for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)

  2. Older Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Jeffrey

    In an effort to improve the quality of life for area senior citizens, De Anza College has established an older adult education program which combines adaptive physical education with holistic health care principles to instruct students in relaxation, nutrition, and physical activity. Classes are held in convalescent hospitals, retirement homes,…

  3. Older Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Jeffrey

    In an effort to improve the quality of life for area senior citizens, De Anza College has established an older adult education program which combines adaptive physical education with holistic health care principles to instruct students in relaxation, nutrition, and physical activity. Classes are held in convalescent hospitals, retirement homes,…

  4. Dance for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)

  5. Protein and older adults.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, Ronni

    2004-12-01

    Body composition changes as people get older. One of the noteworthy alterations is the reduction in total body protein. A decrease in skeletal muscle is the most noticeable manifestation of this change but there is also a reduction in other physiologic proteins such as organ tissue, blood components, and immune bodies as well as declines in total body potassium and water. This contributes to impaired wound healing, loss of skin elasticity, and an inability to fight infection. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for adults for protein is 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. Protein tissue accounts for 30% of whole-body protein turnover but that rate declines to 20% or less by age 70. The result of this phenomenon is that older adults require more protein/kilogram body weight than do younger adults. Recently, it has become clear that the requirement for exogenous protein is at least 1.0 gram/kilogram body weight. Adequate dietary intake of protein may be more difficult for older adults to obtain. Dietary animal protein is the primary source of high biological value protein, iron, vitamin B(12), folic acid, biotin and other essential nutrients. In fact, egg protein is the standard against which all other proteins are compared. Compared to other high-quality protein sources like meat, poultry and seafood, eggs are the least expensive. The importance of dietary protein cannot be underestimated in the diets of older adults; inadequate protein intake contributes to a decrease in reserve capacity, increased skin fragility, decreased immune function, poorer healing, and longer recuperation from illness.

  6. Identifying effective and feasible interventions to accelerate functional recovery from hospitalization in older adults: A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Deer, Rachel R; Dickinson, Jared M; Fisher, Steve R; Ju, Hyunsu; Volpi, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Hospitalization induces functional decline in older adults. Many geriatric patients fail to fully recover physical function after hospitalization, which increases the risk of frailty, disability, dependence, re-hospitalization, and mortality. There is a lack of evidence-based therapies that can be implemented following hospitalization to accelerate functional improvements. The aims of this Phase I clinical trial are to determine 1) the effect size and variability of targeted interventions in accelerating functional recovery from hospitalization and 2) the feasibility of implementing such interventions in community-dwelling older adults. Older patients (≥65years, n=100) will be recruited from a single site during hospitalization for an acute medical condition. Subjects will be randomized to one of five interventions initiated immediately upon discharge: 1. protein supplementation, 2. in-home rehabilitation plus placebo supplementation, 3. in-home rehabilitation plus protein supplementation, 4. single testosterone injection, or 5. isocaloric placebo supplementation. Testing will occur during hospitalization (baseline) and at 1 and 4weeks post-discharge. Each testing session will include measures of muscle strength, physical function/performance, body composition, and psychological function. Physical activity levels will be continuously monitored throughout study participation. Feasibility will be determined through collection of the number of eligible, contacted, and enrolled patients; intervention adherence and compliance; and reasons for declining enrollment and study withdrawal. This research will determine the feasibility of post-hospitalization strategies to improve physical function in older adults. These results will also provide a foundation for performing larger, multi-site clinical trials to improve physical function and reduce readmissions in geriatric patents.

  7. Rhinitis in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nyenhuis, Sharmilee; Mathur, Sameer K.

    2013-01-01

    Rhinitis symptoms of rhinorrhea, congestion, sneezing, nasal/ocular pruritis, and postnasal drainage can significantly affect the quality of life for older adults. As the US population ages, it will be increasingly important for healthcare providers to effectively diagnose and manage rhinitis. Rhinitis is categorized broadly into allergic rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis. Environmental changes and avoidance measures are a primary means of intervention. In addition, there are several topical therapies (nasal sprays) that can be effective for symptom control. PMID:23389558

  8. Proteomics Analysis to Identify and Characterize the Biomarkers and Physical Activities of Non-Frail and Frail Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Hung; Liao, Chen-Chung; Huang, Chi-Huang; Tung, Yu-Tang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Hsu, Mei-Chich; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the proportion of older adults is increasing. Older people face chronic conditions such as sarcopenia and functional decline, which are often associated with disability and frailty. Proteomics assay of potential serum biomarkers of frailty in older adults. Older adults were divided into non-frail and frail groups (n = 6 each; 3 males in each group) in accordance with the Chinese-Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale. Adults were measured for grip power and the 6-min walk test for physical activity, and venous blood was sampled after adults fasted for 8 h. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for proteomics assay. The groups were compared for levels of biomarkers by t test and Pearson correlation analysis. Non-frail and frail subjects had mean age 77.5±0.4 and 77.7±1.6 years, mean height 160.5±1.3 and 156.6±2.9 cm and mean weight 62.5±1.2 and 62.8±2.9 kg, respectively. Physical activity level was lower for frail than non-frail subjects (grip power: 13.8±0.4 vs 26.1±1.2 kg; 6-min walk test: 215.2±17.2 vs 438.3±17.2 m). Among 226 proteins detected, for 31, serum levels were significantly higher for frail than non-frail subjects; serum levels of Ig kappa chain V-III region WOL, COX7A2, and albumin were lower. The serum levels of ANGT, KG and AT were 2.05-, 1.76- and 2.22-fold lower (all p < 0.05; Figure 1A, 2A and 3A) for non-frail than frail subjects and were highly correlated with grip power (Figure 1B, 2B and 3B). Our study found that ANGT, KG and AT levels are known to increase with aging, so degenerated vascular function might be associated with frailty. In total, 226 proteins were revealed proteomics assay; levels of angiotensinogen (ANGT), kininogen-1 (KG) and antithrombin III (AT) were higher in frail than non-frail subjects (11.26±2.21 vs 5.09±0.74; 18.42±1.36 vs 11.64±1.36; 22.23±1.64 vs 9.52±0.95, respectively, p < 0.05). These 3 factors were highly correlated with grip

  9. [Polypharmacy issues in older adults].

    PubMed

    Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Tan, Jung-Ying; Chiang, Ling-Chun

    2014-06-01

    Polypharmacy is a major concern in the care of older adults. People over 65 years of age frequently have multiple medical conditions and may have cancer, which requires multiple medications for treatment. The use of multiple medications increases the risk of drug-drug interactions, non-adherence, and adverse drug reactions. Polypharmacy is a term that refers to a high number of prescribed medications, usually five and above, or the use of more medications than is clinically justified. Although medications are an important factor in improving and maintaining the quality of life of older adults, polypharmacy increases the risks of morbidity and mortality, loss of functional independence, and a multiplicity of cognitive and physical problems in this population. This article examines issues related to polypharmacy in older adults and identifies nursing strategies and interventions to detect and prevent polypharmacy. Nursing strategies discussed include: (1) increasing patient knowledge of pharmacological issues, (2) increasing patient medication management competency, (3) promoting safe patient medication practices, and (4) enhancing patient education. Nurses must be familiar with medicine regimens, understand the primary factors that affect adherence, and participate in continuing education to enhance their ability to safeguard older adult patients.

  10. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults Quitting When You’re Older ... may wonder if it’s too late to quit smoking. Or you may ask yourself if it’s even ...

  11. An observational study identifying obese subgroups among older adults at increased risk of mobility disability: do perceptions of the neighborhood environment matter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is an increasingly prevalent condition among older adults, yet relatively little is known about how built environment variables may be associated with obesity in older age groups. This is particularly the case for more vulnerable older adults already showing functional limitation...

  12. Obesity Prevention in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe

    2016-06-01

    The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented.

  13. Vision Loss in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Allen L; Rojas-Roldan, Ledy; Coffin, Janis

    2016-08-01

    Vision loss affects 37 million Americans older than 50 years and one in four who are older than 80 years. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concludes that current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in adults older than 65 years. However, family physicians play a critical role in identifying persons who are at risk of vision loss, counseling patients, and referring patients for disease-specific treatment. The conditions that cause most cases of vision loss in older patients are age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, ocular complications of diabetes mellitus, and age-related cataracts. Vitamin supplements can delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor can preserve vision in the neovascular form of macular degeneration. Medicated eye drops reduce intraocular pressure and can delay the progression of vision loss in patients with glaucoma, but adherence to treatment is poor. Laser trabeculoplasty also lowers intraocular pressure and preserves vision in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, but long-term studies are needed to identify who is most likely to benefit from surgery. Tight glycemic control in adults with diabetes slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, but must be balanced against the risks of hypoglycemia and death in older adults. Fenofibrate also slows progression of diabetic retinopathy. Panretinal photocoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for diabetic retinopathy, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors slow vision loss resulting from diabetic macular edema. Preoperative testing before cataract surgery does not improve outcomes and is not recommended.

  14. eHealth Literacy: Patient Engagement in Identifying Strategies to Encourage Use of Patient Portals Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Price-Haywood, Eboni G; Harden-Barrios, Jewel; Ulep, Robin; Luo, Qingyang

    2017-04-06

    Innovations in chronic disease management are growing rapidly as advancements in technology broaden the scope of tools. Older adults are less likely to be willing or able to use patient portals or smartphone apps for health-related tasks. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of older adults (ages ≥50) with hypertension or diabetes to examine relationships between portal usage, interest in health-tracking tools, and eHealth literacy, and to solicit practical solutions to encourage technology adoption. Among 247 patients surveyed in a large integrated delivery health system between August 2015 and January 2016, eHealth literacy was positively associated with portal usage (OR [95% CI]: 1.3 [1.2-1.5]) and interest in health-tracking tools (1.2 [1.1-1.3]). Portal users compared to nonusers (N = 137 vs.110) had higher rates of interest in using websites/smartphone apps to track blood pressure (55% vs. 36%), weight (53% vs. 35%), exercise (53% vs. 32%), or medication (46% vs 33%, all P < 0.05). Portal users noted cumbersome processes for accessing portals and variations in provider availability for online scheduling and response times to messages. Portal nonusers expressed concerns about data security, lack of personalization, and limited perceived value of using portals. Both groups noted the importance of computer literacy and technical support. Patient stakeholders recommended marketing initiatives that capture patient stories demonstrating real-life applications of what patients can do with digital technology, how to use it, and why it may be useful. Health systems also must screen for eHealth literacy, provide training, promote proxy users, and institute quality assurance that ensures patients' experiences will not vary across the system.

  15. Fecal incontinence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Syed H

    2007-11-01

    Fecal incontinence is an underreported and underappreciated problem in older adults. Although fecal incontinence is more common in women than in men, this difference narrows with aging. Risk factors that lead to the development of fecal incontinence include dementia, physical disability, and fecal impaction. Treatment options include medical or conservative therapy for older adults who have mild incontinence, and surgical options can be explored in selected older adults if surgical expertise is available.

  16. Identifying patient-level health and social care costs for older adults discharged from acute medical units in England.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Matthew; Berdunov, Vladislav; Edmans, Judi; Conroy, Simon; Gladman, John; Tanajewski, Lukasz; Gkountouras, Georgios; Elliott, Rachel A

    2014-09-01

    acute medical units allow for those who need admission to be correctly identified, and for those who could be managed in ambulatory settings to be discharged. However, re-admission rates for older people following discharge from acute medical units are high and may be associated with substantial health and social care costs. identifying patient-level health and social care costs for older people discharged from acute medical units in England. a prospective cohort study of health and social care resource use. an acute medical unit in Nottingham, England. four hundred and fifty-six people aged over 70 who were discharged from an acute medical unit within 72 h of admission. hospitalisation and social care data were collected for 3 months post-recruitment. In Nottingham, further approvals were gained to obtain data from general practices, ambulance services, intermediate care and mental healthcare. Resource use was combined with national unit costs. costs from all sectors were available for 250 participants. The mean (95% CI, median, range) total cost was £1926 (1579-2383, 659, 0-23,612). Contribution was: secondary care (76.1%), primary care (10.9%), ambulance service (0.7%), intermediate care (0.2%), mental healthcare (2.1%) and social care (10.0%). The costliest 10% of participants accounted for 50% of the cost. this study highlights the costs accrued by older people discharged from acute medical units (AMUs): they are mainly (76%) in secondary care and half of all costs were incurred by a minority of participants (10%). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cochlear Implantation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Frank R.; Chien, Wade W.; Li, Lingsheng; Niparko, John K.; Francis, Howard W.

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear implants allow individuals with severe-to-profound hearing loss access to sound and spoken language. The number of older adults in the United States who are potential candidates for cochlear implantation is approximately 150,000 and will continue to increase with the aging of the population. Should cochlear implantation (CI) be routinely recommended for these older adults, and do these individuals benefit from CI? We reviewed our 12 year experience with cochlear implantation in adults ≥60 years (n = 445) at Johns Hopkins to investigate the impact of CI on speech understanding and to identify factors associated with speech performance. Complete data on speech outcomes at baseline and 1 year post-CI were available for 83 individuals. Our results demonstrate that cochlear implantation in adults ≥60 years consistently improved speech understanding scores with a mean increase of 60. 0% (S. D. 24. 1) on HINT sentences in quiet . The magnitude of the gain in speech scores was negatively associated with age at implantation such that for every increasing year of age at CI the gain in speech scores was 1. 3 percentage points less (95% CI: 0. 6 – 1. 9) after adjusting for age at hearing loss onset. Conversely, individuals with higher pre-CI speech scores (HINT scores between 40–60%) had significantly greater post-CI speech scores by a mean of 10. 0 percentage points (95% CI: 0. 4 – 19. 6) than those with lower pre-CI speech scores (HINT <40%) after adjusting for age at CI and age at hearing loss onset. These results suggest that older adult CI candidates who are younger at implantation and with higher preoperative speech scores obtain the highest speech understanding scores after cochlear implantation with possible implications for current Medicare policy. Finally, we provide an extended discussion of the epidemiology and impact of hearing loss in older adults. Future research of CI in older adults should expand beyond simple speech outcomes to take into

  18. Cochlear implantation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Frank R; Chien, Wade W; Li, Lingsheng; Clarrett, Danisa M; Niparko, John K; Francis, Howard W

    2012-09-01

    Cochlear implants allow individuals with severe to profound hearing loss access to sound and spoken language. The number of older adults in the United States who are potential candidates for cochlear implantation (CI) is approximately 150,000 and will continue to increase with the aging of the population. Should CI be routinely recommended for these older adults, and do these individuals benefit from CI? We reviewed our 12-year experience with CI in adults aged ≥60 years (n = 445) at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions to investigate the impact of CI on speech understanding and to identify factors associated with speech performance. Complete data on speech outcomes at baseline and 1 year post-CI were available for 83 individuals. Our results demonstrate that CI in adults aged ≥60 years consistently improved speech understanding scores, with a mean increase of 60.0% (SD 24.1) on HINT (Hearing in Noise Test) sentences in quiet. The magnitude of the gain in speech scores was negatively associated with age at implantation, such that for every increasing year of age at CI the gain in speech scores was 1.3 percentage points less (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.6-1.9) after adjusting for age at hearing loss onset. Conversely, individuals with higher pre-CI speech scores (HINT scores between 40% and 60%) had significantly greater post-CI speech scores by a mean of 10.0 percentage points (95% CI, 0.4-19.6) than those with lower pre-CI speech scores (HINT <40%) after adjusting for age at CI and age at hearing loss onset. These results suggest that older adult CI candidates who are younger at implantation and with higher preoperative speech scores obtain the highest speech understanding scores after CI, with possible implications for current United States Medicare policy. Finally, we provide an extended discussion of the epidemiology and impact of hearing loss in older adults. Future research of CI in older adults should expand beyond simple speech outcomes to take

  19. Using a Body-Fixed Sensor to Identify Subclinical Gait Difficulties in Older Adults with IADL Disability: Maximizing the Output of the Timed Up and Go

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Aner; Mirelman, Anat; Buchman, Aron S.; Bennett, David A.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The identification and documentation of subclinical gait impairments in older adults may facilitate the appropriate use of interventions for preventing or delaying mobility disability. We tested whether measures derived from a single body-fixed sensor worn during traditional Timed Up and Go (TUG) testing could identify subclinical gait impairments in community dwelling older adults without mobility disability. Methods We used data from 432 older adults without dementia (mean age 83.30±7.04 yrs, 76.62% female) participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. The traditional TUG was conducted while subjects wore a body-fixed sensor. We derived measures of overall TUG performance and different subtasks including transitions (sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit), walking, and turning. Multivariate analysis was used to compare persons with and without mobility disability and to compare individuals with and without Instrumental Activities of Daily Living disability (IADL-disability), all of whom did not have mobility disability. Results As expected, individuals with mobility disability performed worse on all TUG subtasks (p<0.03), compared to those who had no mobility disability. Individuals without mobility disability but with IADL disability had difficulties with turns, had lower yaw amplitude (p<0.004) during turns, were slower (p<0.001), and had less consistent gait (p<0.02). Conclusions A single body-worn sensor can be employed in the community-setting to complement conventional gait testing. It provides a wide range of quantitative gait measures that appear to help to identify subclinical gait impairments in older adults. PMID:23922665

  20. Exercise Prescriptions in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pearl Guozhu; Jackson, Elizabeth A; Richardson, Caroline R

    2017-04-01

    Regular physical activity and exercise are important for healthy aging and are beneficial for chronic disease management. Exercise prescriptions for older adults should account for the individual's health status and functional capacity. Any amount of exercise is better than being sedentary, even if health status prevents a person from achieving recommended goals. For most health outcomes, more benefits occur with physical activity performed at higher intensity, greater frequency, or longer duration. Guidelines recommend at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity and at least two days of muscle-strengthening activities per week. Key components of the prescription include setting achievable activity goals, identifying barriers and providing potential solutions, and providing specific recommendations on the type, frequency, and intensity of activities. Older adults will derive distinct benefits from aerobic exercise, strength or resistance training, flexibility or stretching exercises, and balance training. Many community resources are available to help older adults begin a more active lifestyle.

  1. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  2. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults

    PubMed Central

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Methods Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1st of September 2013 and 31st of March 2014. Results Mean age of respondents was 66.42± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants’ medical ailments (65%), partners’ failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. Conclusion There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient. PMID:26977224

  3. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults.

    PubMed

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1(st) of September 2013 and 31(st) of March 2014. Mean age of respondents was 66.42 ± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants' medical ailments (65%), partners' failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient.

  4. Dehydration in the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Miller, Hayley J

    2015-09-01

    Dehydration affects 20% to 30% of older adults. It has a greater negative outcome in this population than in younger adults and increases mortality, morbidity, and disability. Dehydration is often caused by water deprivation in older adults, although excess water loss may also be a cause. Traditional markers for dehydration do not take into consideration many of the physiological differences present in older adults. Clinical assessment of dehydration in older adults poses different findings, yet is not always diagnostic. Treatment of dehydration should focus on prevention and early diagnosis before it negatively effects health and gives rise to comorbidities. The current article discusses what has most thoroughly been studied; the best strategies and assessment tools for evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of dehydration in older adults; and what needs to be researched further. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(9), 8-13.].

  5. An observational study identifying obese subgroups among older adults at increased risk of mobility disability: do perceptions of the neighborhood environment matter?

    PubMed

    King, Abby C; Salvo, Deborah; Banda, Jorge A; Ahn, David K; Gill, Thomas M; Miller, Michael; Newman, Anne B; Fielding, Roger A; Siordia, Carlos; Moore, Spencer; Folta, Sara; Spring, Bonnie; Manini, Todd; Pahor, Marco

    2015-12-18

    Obesity is an increasingly prevalent condition among older adults, yet relatively little is known about how built environment variables may be associated with obesity in older age groups. This is particularly the case for more vulnerable older adults already showing functional limitations associated with subsequent disability. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) trial dataset (n = 1600) was used to explore the associations between perceived built environment variables and baseline obesity levels. Age-stratified recursive partitioning methods were applied to identify distinct subgroups with varying obesity prevalence. Among participants aged 70-78 years, four distinct subgroups, defined by combinations of perceived environment and race-ethnicity variables, were identified. The subgroups with the lowest obesity prevalence (45.5-59.4%) consisted of participants who reported living in neighborhoods with higher residential density. Among participants aged 79-89 years, the subgroup (of three distinct subgroups identified) with the lowest obesity prevalence (19.4%) consisted of non-African American/Black participants who reported living in neighborhoods with friends or acquaintances similar in demographic characteristics to themselves. Overall support for the partitioned subgroupings was obtained using mixed model regression analysis. The results suggest that, in combination with race/ethnicity, features of the perceived neighborhood built and social environments differentiated distinct groups of vulnerable older adults from different age strata that differed in obesity prevalence. Pending further verification, the results may help to inform subsequent targeting of such subgroups for further investigation. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier =  NCT01072500.

  6. Scoping review report: obesity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Decaria, J E; Sharp, C; Petrella, R J

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk for early death, heart disease and stroke, disability and several other comorbidities. Although there is concern about the potential burden on health-care services with the aging demographic and the increasing trend of obesity prevalence in older adults, evidence on which to base management strategies is conflicting for various reasons. The analytic framework for this review is based on a scoping review methodology, and was conducted to examine what is known about the diagnosis, treatment and management of obesity in older adults. A total of 492 relevant research articles were identified using PubMed, Scirus, EBSCO, Clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane Reviews and Google Scholar. The findings of this review indicate that the current WHO (World Health Organization)-recommended body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio obesity thresholds for the general adult population may not be appropriate for older adults. Alternatively, weight change or physical fitness may be more useful measures of mortality and health risk in obese older adults. Furthermore, although obesity in older adults is associated with several disorders that increase functional disability, epidemiological evidence suggests that obesity is protective against mortality in seniors. Consequently, the trend toward increasing prevalence of obesity in older adults will lead to an increase in unhealthy life years and health-care costs. The findings from this review also suggest that treatment strategies for obese older adults should focus on maintaining body weight and improving physical fitness and function rather than weight loss, and that a combination of aerobic and resistance exercise appears to be the most effective strategy. In conclusion, this review demonstrates the need for more research to clarify the definition of obesity in older adults, to establish criteria for evaluating when to treat older adults for obesity, and to develop effective

  7. Clinical Interviewing with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…

  8. Epidemiology of Anemia in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kushang V.

    2008-01-01

    Anemia is a common, multifactorial condition among older adults. The World Health Organization (WHO) definition of anemia (hemoglobin concentration <12 g/dL in women and <13 g/dL in men) is most often used in epidemiologic studies of older adults. More than 10% of community-dwelling adults age 65 years and older has WHO-defined anemia. After age 50 years, prevalence of anemia increases with advancing age and exceeds 20% in those 85 years and older. In nursing homes, anemia is present in 48–63% of residents. Incidence of anemia in older adults is not well characterized. Among older adults with anemia, approximately one-third have evidence of iron, folate, and/or vitamin B12 deficiency, another third have renal insufficiency and/or chronic inflammation, and the remaining third have anemia that is unexplained. Several studies demonstrate that anemia is associated with poorer survival in older adults. This review details the distribution and consequences of anemia in older adults and identifies future epidemiologic research needs. PMID:18809090

  9. Epidemiology of anemia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kushang V

    2008-10-01

    Anemia is a common, multifactorial condition among older adults. The World Health Organization (WHO) definition of anemia (hemoglobin concentration <12 g/dL in women and <13 g/dL in men) is most often used in epidemiologic studies of older adults. More than 10% of community-dwelling adults age 65 years and older has WHO-defined anemia. After age 50 years, prevalence of anemia increases with advancing age and exceeds 20% in those 85 years and older. In nursing homes, anemia is present in 48% to 63% of residents. Incidence of anemia in older adults is not well characterized. Among older adults with anemia, approximately one third have evidence of iron, folate, and/or vitamin B(12) deficiency, another third have renal insufficiency and/or chronic inflammation, and the remaining third have anemia that is unexplained. Several studies demonstrate that anemia is associated with poorer survival in older adults. This review details the distribution and consequences of anemia in older adults and identifies future epidemiologic research needs.

  10. Root Caries in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Dick; Hyde, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Older adults are retaining an increasing number of natural teeth, and nearly half of all individuals aged 75 and older have experienced root caries. Root caries is a major cause of tooth loss in older adults, and tooth loss is the most significant negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for the elderly. The need for improved preventive efforts and treatment strategies for this population is acute.

  11. Effective communication with older adults.

    PubMed

    Daly, Louise

    2017-06-07

    Communication is an essential aspect of life, yet it can be taken for granted. Its centrality to being in the world and in professional practice often becomes evident when nurses and older adults encounter communication difficulties. The factors that can affect nurses' communication with older adults relate to the older adult, the nurse, sociocultural considerations and the environment, and the interactions between these factors. In adopting a person-centred approach to communicating with older adults, it is necessary to get to know the person as an individual and ensure communication meets their needs and abilities. Effective communication is essential in nursing practice and requires professional competence and engagement. This article can be used by nurses to support effective communication with older adults across the continuum of care.

  12. Population Health Management for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tkatch, Rifky; Musich, Shirley; MacLeod, Stephanie; Alsgaard, Kathleen; Hawkins, Kevin; Yeh, Charlotte S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The older adult population is expanding, living longer, with multiple chronic conditions. Understanding and managing their needs over time is an integral part of defining successful aging. Population health is used to describe the measurement and health outcomes of a population. Objectives: To define population health as applied to older adults, summarize lessons learned from current research, and identify potential interventions designed to promote successful aging and improved health for this population. Method: Online search engines were utilized to identify research on population health and health interventions for older adults. Results: Population health management (PHM) is one strategy to promote the health and well-being of target populations. Interventions promoting health across a continuum tend to be disease, risk, or health behavior specific rather than encompassing a global concept of health. Conclusion: Many existing interventions for older adults are simply research based with limited generalizability; as such, further work in this area is warranted. PMID:28680938

  13. A system-wide analysis using a senior-friendly hospital framework identifies current practices and opportunities for improvement in the care of hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ken S; Ryan, David P; Liu, Barbara A

    2014-11-01

    Older adults are vulnerable to hospital-associated complications such as falls, pressure ulcers, functional decline, and delirium, which can contribute to prolonged hospital stay, readmission, and nursing home placement. These vulnerabilities are exacerbated when the hospital's practices, services, and physical environment are not sufficiently mindful of the complex, multidimensional needs of frail individuals. Several frameworks have emerged to help hospitals examine how organization-wide processes can be customized to avoid these complications. This article describes the application of one such framework-the Senior-Friendly Hospital (SFH) framework adopted in Ontario, Canada-which comprises five interrelated domains: organizational support, processes of care, emotional and behavioral environment, ethics in clinical care and research, and physical environment. This framework provided the blueprint for a self-assessment of all 155 adult hospitals across the province of Ontario. The system-wide analysis identified practice gaps and promising practices within each domain of the SFH framework. Taken together, these results informed 12 recommendations to support hospitals at all stages of development in becoming friendly to older adults. Priorities for system-wide action were identified, encouraging hospitals to implement or further develop their processes to better address hospital-acquired delirium and functional decline. These recommendations led to collaborative action across the province, including the development of an online toolkit and the identification of accountability indicators to support hospitals in quality improvement focusing on senior-friendly care. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Nutritional Problems Affecting Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Crogan, Neva L

    2017-09-01

    Nutritional problems, such as malnutrition, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalance, are multifaceted and complex issues for older adults. This article describes these potential nutritional problems and then discusses evidence-based assessment strategies and treatment modalities that target these problems. Micronutrient deficiency is explored and evidence-based supplementation discussed. Many factors contribute to weight loss and malnutrition in older adults. These factors are classified as social, psychological, and/or biological. Addressing these issues and the influence of oral health on food intake are imperative to enhancing the overall quality of life for older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  16. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  17. Brain health and exercise in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Michael A; Gill, Dawn P; Petrella, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Identifying feasible and effective interventions aimed at mitigating the effects of cognitive decline in older adults is currently a high priority for researchers, clinicians, and policy makers. Evidence suggests that exercise and cognitive training benefit cognitive health in older adults; however, a preferred modality has to be endorsed yet by the scientific community. The purpose of this review is to discuss and critically examine the current state of knowledge concerning the effects of aerobic, resistance, cognitive, and novel dual-task exercise training interventions for the preservation or improvement of cognitive health in older adults. A review of the literature suggests that the potential exists for multiple exercise modalities to improve cognitive functioning in older adults. Nonetheless current limitations within the field need to be addressed prior to providing definitive recommendations concerning which exercise modality is most effective at improving or maintaining cognitive health in aging.

  18. Medication Adherence among Older Adults with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Leutwyler, Heather C.; Fox, Patrick J.; Wallhagen, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia are a growing segment of the population yet their physical and mental health status is extremely poor. The paper presents findings from a qualitative study that explored the understanding older adults with schizophrenia have of their physical health status. The study was conducted among 28 older adults with schizophrenia from a variety of settings using semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Self-management of psychiatric and non-psychiatric medications and its affect on their health status was one of the central themes that emerged from the study. Different styles of medication adherence were identified and factors associated with each style are presented. The findings provide insights into the design of clinical interventions aimed at promoting medication adherence among older adults with schizophrenia. PMID:23327119

  19. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fractures if needed annual flu shots. Protein-Calorie Malnutrition Many older adults living at home eat ... so serious that a condition known as protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) develops. Sometimes, PCM occurs after a ...

  20. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  1. Nutrition: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Nutrition Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... teeth that are needed for grinding up food, nutrition suffers. If you are unable to chew and ...

  2. Nursing students identify fears regarding working with diverse critically ill patients: development of guidelines for caring for diverse critically ill older adults.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate students need to gain more exposure to communicating, assessing, and planning appropriate care and evaluating outcomes of care with diverse critically ill geriatric patients. This project developed teaching strategies that facilitated additional opportunities for gaining these valuable learning experiences for students. Nurse educators can use the Guidelines for Caring for Diverse Critically Ill Older Adults, the case study and simulation examples, and topical outline to assist them in teaching critical care students and nurses about diverse critically ill older adults.

  3. Severe sepsis in older adults.

    PubMed

    Umberger, Reba; Callen, Bonnie; Brown, Mary Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Severe sepsis may be underrecognized in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review special considerations related to early detection of severe sepsis in older adults. Normal organ changes attributed to aging may delay early detection of sepsis at the time when interventions have the greatest potential to improve patient outcomes. Systems are reviewed for changes. For example, the cardiovascular system may have a limited or absent compensatory response to inflammation after an infectious insult, and the febrile response and recruitment of white blood cells may be blunted because of immunosenescence in aging. Three of the 4 hallmark responses (temperature, heart rate, and white blood cell count) to systemic inflammation may be diminished in older adults as compared with younger adults. It is important to consider that older adults may not always manifest the typical systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Atypical signs such as confusion, decreased appetite, and unsteady gait may occur before sepsis related organ failure. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and a comparison of organ failure criteria were reviewed. Mortality rates in sepsis and severe sepsis remain high and are often complicated by multiple organ failures. As the numbers of older adults increase, early identification and prompt treatment is crucial in improving patient outcomes.

  4. Cardiac Rehabilitation in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, David W; Forman, Daniel E

    2016-09-01

    The biology of aging and the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) overlap, with the effect that CVD is endemic in the growing population of older adults. Moreover, CVD in older adults is usually complicated by age-related complexities, including multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty, and other intricacies that add to the risks of ambiguous symptoms, deconditioning, iatrogenesis, falls, disability, and other challenges. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a comprehensive lifestyle program that can have particular benefit for older patients with cardiovascular conditions. Although CR was originally designed primarily as an exercise training program for younger adults after a myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass surgery, it has evolved as a comprehensive lifestyle program (promoting physical activity as well as education, diet, risk reduction, and adherence) for a broader range of CVD (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and valvular heart disease). It provides a valuable opportunity to address and moderate many of the challenges pertinent for the large and growing population of older adults with CVD. Cardiac rehabilitation promotes physical function (cardiorespiratory fitness as well as strength and balance) that helps overcome disease and deconditioning as well as related vulnerabilities such as disability, frailty, and falls. Similarly, CR facilitates education, monitoring, and guidance to reduce iatrogenesis and promote adherence. Furthermore, CR fosters cognition, socialization, and independence in older patients. Yet despite all its conceptual benefits, CR is significantly underused in older populations. This review discusses benefits and the paradoxical underuse of CR, as well as evolving models of care that may achieve greater application and efficacy.

  5. Weight Management in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gill, Lydia E; Bartels, Stephen J; Batsis, John A

    2015-09-01

    As the number of older adults increases rapidly, the national epidemic of obesity is also affecting our aging population. This is particularly concerning given the numerous health risks and increased costs associated with this condition. Weight management is extremely important for older adults given the risks associated with abdominal adiposity, which is a typical fat redistribution during aging, and the prevalence of comorbid conditions in this age group. However, approaches to weight loss must be considered critically given the dangers of sarcopenia (a condition that occurs when muscle mass and quality are lost), the increased risk of hip fracture with weight loss, and the association between reduced mortality and increased BMI in older adults. This overview highlights the challenges and implications of measuring adiposity in older adults and the dangers and benefits of weight loss in this population and provides an overview of the new Medicare Obesity Benefit. In addition, we provide a summary of outcomes from successful weight loss interventions for older adults and discuss implications for advancing clinical practice.

  6. Weight Management in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Lydia E.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Batsis, John A.

    2017-01-01

    As the number of older adults increases rapidly, the national epidemic of obesity is also affecting our aging population. This is particularly concerning given the numerous health risks and increased costs associated with this condition. Weight management is extremely important for older adults given the risks associated with abdominal adiposity, which is a typical fat redistribution during aging, and the prevalence of comorbid conditions in this age group. However, approaches to weight loss must be considered critically given the dangers of sarcopenia (a condition that occurs when muscle mass and quality is lost), the increase risk of hip fracture with weight loss, and the association between reduced mortality and increased BMI in older adults. This overview highlights the challenges and implications of measuring adiposity in older adults, the dangers and benefits of weight loss in this population, and provides an overview of the new Medicare Obesity Benefit. In addition we provide a summary of outcomes from successful weight loss interventions for older adults and discuss implications for advancing clinical practice. PMID:26627496

  7. Waist circumference, body mass index and waist-height ratio: Are two indices better than one for identifying hypertension risk in older adults?

    PubMed

    Luz, Rafaela Haeger; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-12-01

    To investigate if the combination of Waist Circumference (WC) and Body Mass Index (BMI) or Waist to Height Ratio (WHtR) and BMI measures is superior to the separate indicators in identifying hypertension risk in older adults from southern Brazil. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the second wave (2013/14) of a population- and household-based survey carried out with 1197 older adults (778 women). Hypertension (i.e., outcome) was identified by self-report. The independent variables were body mass index (BMI≥27kg/m(2)), waist circumference (WC≥88cm for women and WC≥102cm for men), waist/height ratio (WHtR≥0.5), and the combined indexes BMI+WC (BMI≥27kg/m(2)+WC≥88cm for women and WC≥102cm for men) and BMI+WHtR (BMI≥27kg/m(2)+WHtR≥0.5). The associations were explored using binary logistic regression. The results showed sex differences in all study characteristics. In women, all indicators were associated with the outcome, after adjustments (age, race/color, marital status, schooling, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diabetes). WHtR was the indicator most strongly associated with hypertension (OR=2.97; 95% CI 1.58 to 5.59). For men, only BMI and the combined indicators were associated with hypertension. Combined measures of BMI+WHtR showed a stronger association with the outcome (OR=2.68; IC95% 1.62 to 4.44). The associated indicators differed between the sexes. The combination of BMI+WC and BMI+WHtR using current cut-off points may provide an improved measure of hypertension risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Health Literacy and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chesser, Amy K.; Keene Woods, Nikki; Smothers, Kyle; Rogers, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this review was to assess published literature relating to health literacy and older adults. Method: The current review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses. Results: Eight articles met inclusion criteria. All studies were conducted in urban settings in the United States. Study sample size ranged from 33 to 3,000 participants. Two studies evaluated health-related outcomes and reported significant associations between low health literacy and poorer health outcomes. Two other studies investigated the impact of health literacy on medication management, reporting mixed findings. Discussion: The findings of this review highlight the importance of working to improve health care strategies for older adults with low health literacy and highlight the need for a standardized and validated clinical health literacy screening tool for older adults. PMID:28138488

  9. Catastrophic events and older adults.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Elizabeth; Dyer, Carmel B

    2010-12-01

    The plight of older adults during catastrophic events is a societal concern. Older persons have an increased prevalence of cognitive disorders, chronic illnesses, and mobility problems that limit their ability to cope. These disorders may result in a lack of mental capacity and the ability to discern when they should evacuate or resolve problems encountered during a catastrophe. Some older persons may have limited transportation options, and many of the elderly survivors are at increased risk for abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Recommendations for future catastrophic events include the development of a federal tracking system for elders and other vulnerable adults, the designation of separate shelter areas for elders and other vulnerable adults, and involvement of gerontological professionals in all aspects of emergency preparedness and care delivery, including training of frontline workers. Preparation through preevent planning that includes region-specific social services, medical and public health resources, volunteers, and facilities for elders and vulnerable adults is critical. Elders need to be protected from abuse and fraud during catastrophic events. A public health triage system for elders and other vulnerable populations in pre- and postdisaster situations is useful, and disaster preparedness is paramount. Communities and members of safety and rescue teams must address ethical issues before an event. When older adults are involved, consideration needs to be given to triage decision making, transporting those who are immobile, the care of older adults who receive palliative care, and the equitable distribution of resources. Nurses are perfectly equipped with the skills, knowledge, and training needed to plan and implement disaster preparedness programs. In keeping with the tradition of Florence Nightingale, nurses can assume several crucial roles in disaster preparedness for older adults. Nurses possess the ability to participate and lead community

  10. The impact of resilience among older adults.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Stephanie; Musich, Shirley; Hawkins, Kevin; Alsgaard, Kathleen; Wicker, Ellen R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to provide an overview of resilience for the purpose of informing potential intervention designs that may benefit older adults. While numerous reviews have focused on various specific aspects of resilience, none have provided the necessary information required to design an effective resilience intervention. Research examining resilience suggests that older adults are capable of high resilience despite socioeconomic backgrounds, personal experiences, and declining health. Thus opportunities to inform interventions in this area exist. Research studies have identified the common mental, social, and physical characteristics associated with resilience. High resilience has also been significantly associated with positive outcomes, including successful aging, lower depression, and longevity. Interventions to enhance resilience within this population are warranted, but little evidence of success exists. Thus this review provides an overview of resilience that may aid in the design of resilience interventions for the often underserved population of older adults.

  11. The Older Adult and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiemstra, Roger

    According to recent census figures, 10% of today's population are over 65 years old. It has often been stated that individual learning needs and capabilities decline with age. To challenge this idea, a study was conducted to gather information about older adults, their learning interests, activities, and obstacles. Four hypotheses were tested…

  12. Cancer Screening in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Sarah A; Heflin, Mitchell T

    2016-02-01

    Cancer screening is an important tool for reducing morbidity and mortality in the elderly. In this article, performance characteristics of commonly used screening tests for colorectal, lung, prostate, breast, and cervical cancers are discussed. Guidelines are emphasized and key issues to consider in screening older adults are highlighted.

  13. Visuomotor Binding in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the…

  14. Walking Tips for Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most ppular form of exercise among older adults and it's a great choice. What can walking do for you? strengthen muscles help prevent weight gain lower risks of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and osteoporosis improve balance lower the likelihood of falling If ...

  15. Visuomotor Binding in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the…

  16. Faith Development in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulik, Richard N.

    1988-01-01

    Introduces the faith development paradigm of James Fowler, describing six stages of faith development: intuitive-projective faith, mythic-literal faith, synthetic-conventional faith, individuating-reflective faith, conjunctive faith, and universalizing faith. Reviews one research project in which Fowler's paradigm was applied to older adults.…

  17. Representational momentum in older adults.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Andrea S; Jakobson, Lorna S

    2011-10-01

    Humans have a tendency to perceive motion even in static images that simply "imply" movement. This tendency is so strong that our memory for actions depicted in static images is distorted in the direction of implied motion - a phenomenon known as representational momentum (RM). In the present study, we created an RM display depicting a pattern of implied (clockwise) rotation of a rectangle. Young adults viewers' memory of the final position of the test rectangle was biased in the direction of continuing rotation, but older adults did not show a similar memory bias. We discuss several possible explanations for this group difference, but argue that the failure of older adults to shown an RM effect most likely reflects age-related changes in areas of the brain involved in processing real and implied motion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexuality in Older Adults: A Deconstructionist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffstetler, Beverly

    2006-01-01

    Societal myths argue against active expression of sexuality in older adults, but these prejudices are unfounded. Using a deconstructionist framework, this article addresses issues surrounding sexuality in older adults. Implications for clinical practice are given.

  19. Cancer Screening in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Ashley H; Magnuson, Allison; Westcott, Amy M

    2016-09-01

    When screening for cancer in older adults, it is important to consider the risks of screening, how long it takes to benefit from screening, and the patient's comorbidities and life expectancy. Delivering high-value care requires the consideration of evidence-based screening guidelines and careful selection of patients. This article considers the impact of cancer. It explores perspectives on the costs of common cancer screening tests, illustrates how using life expectancy can help clinicians determine who will benefit most from screening, and provides tools to help clinicians discuss with their older patients when it may be appropriate to stop screening for cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  1. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  2. Changing Medical Students' Attitudes toward Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Ernest; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Gilbert, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Given the growth in the number of older adults and the ageist attitudes many in the health care profession hold, interventions aimed at improving health professionals' attitudes toward older adults are imperative. Vital Visionaries is an intergenerational art program designed to improve medical students' attitudes toward older adults. Participants…

  3. Nutrition Goals for Older Adults: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwath, Caroline C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses specific goals of nutrition education for older adults and high-risk groups within the elderly population through review of three crucial areas: current knowledge of eating patterns, nutrient intake, and supplement use of older adults; existing information on multiple influences on eating habits of older adults; and potential benefits…

  4. Vestibular rehabilitation of older adults with dizziness.

    PubMed

    Alrwaily, Muhammad; Whitney, Susan L

    2011-04-01

    The role of rehabilitation for treatment of older adults with dizziness and balance disorders is reviewed. Theories related to functional recovery from peripheral and central vestibular disorders are presented. Suggestions on which older adults might benefit from vestibular rehabilitation therapy are presented. Promising innovative rehabilitation strategies and technologies that might enhance recovery of the older adult with balance dysfunction are discussed.

  5. Nutrition Goals for Older Adults: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwath, Caroline C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses specific goals of nutrition education for older adults and high-risk groups within the elderly population through review of three crucial areas: current knowledge of eating patterns, nutrient intake, and supplement use of older adults; existing information on multiple influences on eating habits of older adults; and potential benefits…

  6. Optimal management of ADHD in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Torgersen, Terje; Gjervan, Bjorn; Lensing, Michael B; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background The manifestation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among older adults has become an interesting topic of interest due to an increasing number of adults aged 50 years and older (≥50 years) seeking assessment for ADHD. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research on ADHD in older adults, and until recently only a few case reports existed. Method A systematic search was conducted in the databases Medline/PubMed and PsycINFO in order to identify studies regarding ADHD in adults ≥50 years. Results ADHD persists into older ages in many patients, but the prevalence of patients fulfilling the criteria for the diagnosis at age ≥50 years is still unknown. It is reason to believe that the prevalence is falling gradually with age, and that the ADHD symptom level is significantly lower in the age group 70–80 years than the group 50–60 years. There is a lack of controlled studies of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years, but this review suggests that many patients aged ≥50 years experience beneficial effects of pharmacological treatment. The problem with side effects and somatic complications may rise to a level that makes pharmacotherapy for ADHD difficult after the age of 65 years. Physical assessment prior to initiation of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years should include a thorough clinical examination, and medication should be titrated with low doses initially and with a slow increase. In motivated patients, different psychological therapies alone or in addition to pharmacotherapy should be considered. Conclusion It is essential when treating older adult patients with ADHD to provide good support based on knowledge and understanding of how ADHD symptoms have affected health, quality of life, and function through the life span. Individualized therapy for each elderly patient should be recommended to balance risk–benefit ratio when pharmacotherapy is considered to be a possible treatment. PMID:26811680

  7. Older Adults' Perceptions of Home Telehealth Services

    PubMed Central

    Brenčič, Maja Makovec; Trkman, Peter; de Leonni Stanonik, Mateja

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The success of home telemedicine depends on end-user adoption, which has been slow despite rapid advances in technological development. This study focuses on an examination of significant factors that may predict the successful adoption of home telemedicine services (HTS) among older adults. Based on previous studies in the fields of remote patient monitoring, assisted living technologies, and consumer health information technology acceptance, eight factors were identified as a framework for qualitative testing. Twelve focus groups were conducted with an older population living in both urban and rural environments. The results reveal seven predictors that play an important role in perceptions of HTS: perceived usefulness, effort expectancy, social influence, perceived security, computer anxiety, facilitating conditions, and physicians' opinion. The results provide important insights in the field of older adults' acceptance of HTS, with guidelines for the strategic planning, developing, and marketing of HTS for the graying market. PMID:23931702

  8. Older adults' perceptions of home telehealth services.

    PubMed

    Cimperman, Miha; Brenčič, Maja Makovec; Trkman, Peter; Stanonik, Mateja de Leonni

    2013-10-01

    The success of home telemedicine depends on end-user adoption, which has been slow despite rapid advances in technological development. This study focuses on an examination of significant factors that may predict the successful adoption of home telemedicine services (HTS) among older adults. Based on previous studies in the fields of remote patient monitoring, assisted living technologies, and consumer health information technology acceptance, eight factors were identified as a framework for qualitative testing. Twelve focus groups were conducted with an older population living in both urban and rural environments. The results reveal seven predictors that play an important role in perceptions of HTS: perceived usefulness, effort expectancy, social influence, perceived security, computer anxiety, facilitating conditions, and physicians' opinion. The results provide important insights in the field of older adults' acceptance of HTS, with guidelines for the strategic planning, developing, and marketing of HTS for the graying market.

  9. Older Adults and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Safety / Older Adults and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  10. Association between participant-identified problems and depression severity in problem-solving therapy for low-income homebound older adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G; Hegel, Mark T; Marinucci, Mary Lynn; Sirrianni, Leslie; Bruce, Martha L

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the severity of baseline depressive symptoms and the problems that low-income homebound older adults (n = 66) identified in their problem-solving therapy (PST) sessions. Depressive symptoms were measured with the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). Participant-identified problems recorded in the therapists' worksheets were coded into seven categories: living arrangement/housing issues, financial/health care expense issues, family or other relationship issues, hygiene/task issues, social isolation issues, physical/functional health issues, and mental/emotional health issues. T-tests and ordinary least squares regression analyses were used to examine differences in HAMD scores between those who identified any problem in each category and those who did not. Participants who had living arrangement/housing and family or other relationship issues had higher baseline HAMD scores than the rest of the participants. At 2-week posttest, those with living arrangement/housing issues continued to have higher HAMD scores than the others, whereas those with family or other relationship issues did not. The study findings provide insights into the problems that low-income, depressed homebound individuals bring to their PST sessions. It was not clear if family conflict or other relationship issues contributed to their depression or vice versa, but it appears that PST may have contributed to alleviating depressive symptoms associated with these issues. Precarious living/housing situations appeared to have had a serious depressogenic effect and could not be easily resolved within a short time frame of the PST process, as these issues required formal support. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Association between Participant-Identified Problems and Depression Severity in Problem-Solving Therapy for Low-Income Homebound Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Namkee G.; Hegel, Mark T.; Marinucci, Mary Lynn; Sirrianni, Leslie; Bruce, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the severity of baseline depressive symptoms and the problems that low-income homebound older adults (n = 66) identified in their problem-solving therapy (PST) sessions. Methods Depressive symptoms were measured with the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). Participant-identified problems recorded in the therapists’ worksheets were coded into seven categories: living arrangement/housing issues; financial/healthcare expenses issues; family or other relationship issues; hygiene/task issues; social isolation issues; physical/functional health issues; and mental/emotional health issues. T-tests and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis were used to examine differences in HAMD scores between those who identified any problem in each category and those who did not. Results Participants who had living arrangement/housing and family or other relationship issues had higher baseline HAMD scores than the rest of the participants. At 2-week posttest, those with living arrangement/housing issues continued to have higher HAMD scores than the others, while those with family or other relationship issues did not. Conclusion The study findings provide insights into the problems that low-income, depressed homebound individuals bring to their PST sessions. It was not clear if family conflict or other relationship issues contributed to their depression or vice versa, but it appears that PST may have contributed to alleviating depressive symptoms associated with these issues. Precarious living/housing situations appeared to have had a serious depressogenic effect and could not be easily resolved within a short time frame of the PST process, as these issues required formal support. PMID:21638330

  12. Emergency department utilization patterns among older adults.

    PubMed

    Wolinsky, Fredric D; Liu, Li; Miller, Thomas R; An, Hyonggin; Geweke, John F; Kaskie, Brian; Wright, Kara B; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Pavlik, Claire E; Cook, Elizabeth A; Ohsfeldt, Robert L; Richardson, Kelly K; Rosenthal, Gary E; Wallace, Robert B

    2008-02-01

    We identified 4-year (2 years before and 2 years after the index [baseline] interview) ED use patterns in older adults and the factors associated with them. A secondary analysis of baseline interview data from the nationally representative Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old linked to Medicare claims data. Participants were 4310 self-respondents 70 years old or older. Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes 99281 and 99282 identified low-intensity use, and CPT codes 99283-99285 identified high-intensity use. Exploratory factor analysis and multivariable multinomial logistic regression were used. The majority (56.6%) of participants had no ED visits during the 4-year period. Just 5.7% had only low-intensity ED use patterns, whereas 28.9% used the ED only for high-intensity visits, and 8.7% had a mixture of low-intensity and high-intensity use. Participants with lower immediate word recall scores and those who did not live in major metropolitan areas were more likely to be low-intensity-only ED users. Older individuals, those who did not live in rural counties, had greater morbidity and functional status burdens, and lower immediate word recall scores were more likely to be high-intensity-only ED users. Participants who were older, did not live in major cities, had lower education levels, had greater morbidity and functional status burdens, and lower immediate word recall scores were more likely to have mixed ED use patterns. Nearly half of these older adults used the ED at least once over a 4-year period, with a mean annual ED use percentage of 18.4. Few, however, used the ED only for visits that may have been avoidable. This finding suggests that triaging Medicare patients would not decrease ED overcrowding, although continued surveillance is necessary to detect potential changes in ED use patterns among older adults.

  13. Sensory-Cognitive Interactions in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Humes, Larry E.; Young, Levi A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To review evidence regarding sensory and cognitive interactions in older adults published since 2009, the approximate date of the most recent reviews on this topic. Design Following an electronic database search of articles published in English since 2009 on measures of hearing and cognition or vision and cognition in older adults, a total of 437 articles were identified. Screening by title and abstract for appropriateness of topic and for articles presenting original research in peer-reviewed journals reduced the final number of articles reviewed to 34. These articles were qualitatively evaluated and synthesized with the existing knowledge base. Results Additional evidence has been obtained since 2009 associating declines in vision, hearing, or both with declines in cognition among older adults. The observed sensory-cognitive associations are generally stronger when more than one sensory domain is measured and when the sensory measures involve more than simple threshold sensitivity. Conclusions Evidence continues to accumulate supporting a link between decline in sensory function and cognitive decline in older adults. PMID:27355770

  14. Both young and older adults discount suggestions from older adults on a social memory test.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sara D; Meade, Michelle L

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the impacts of participant age and confederate age on social memory processes. During a collaborative recall phase, young and older adult participants were exposed to the erroneous memory reports of a young or an older adult confederate. On a subsequent individual recall test, young and older adult participants were equally likely to incorporate the confederates' erroneous suggestions into their memory reports, suggesting that participant age had a minimal effect on social memory processes. However, confederate age did have a marked effect: Young adult participants were less likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from older adult confederates and less likely to report "remembering" items suggested by older adult confederates. Critically, older adult participants were also less likely to incorporate misleading information from fellow older adult confederates. Both young and older adult participants discounted older adult confederates' contributions to a memory test.

  15. Risk Factors for Urosepsis in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peach, Brian C.; Garvan, Gerard J.; Garvan, Cynthia S.; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors that predispose older adults to urosepsis and urosepsis-related mortality. Method: A systematic search using PubMed and CINAHL databases. Articles that met inclusion criteria were assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria and were scored on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Results: A total of 180 articles were identified, and six met inclusion criteria. The presence of an internal urinary catheter was associated with the development of urosepsis and septic shock. Although a number of factors were examined, functional dependency, number of comorbidities, and low serum albumin were associated with mortality across multiple studies included in this review. Discussion: Little scientific evidence is available on urosepsis, its associated risk factors, and those factors associated with urosepsis-related mortality in older adults. More research is warranted to better understand urosepsis in this vulnerable population in an effort to improve the quality of patient care. PMID:28138493

  16. Changing medical students' attitudes toward older adults.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Ernest; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Gilbert, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Given the growth in the number of older adults and the ageist attitudes many in the health care profession hold, interventions aimed at improving health professionals' attitudes toward older adults are imperative. Vital Visionaries is an intergenerational art program designed to improve medical students' attitudes toward older adults. Participants met for four 2-hour sessions at local art museums to create and discuss art. Three hundred and twenty-eight individuals (112 treatment group, 96 comparison, 120 older adults) in eight cities participated in the program and evaluation. Participants completed pre-and postsurveys that captured their attitude toward older adults, perception of commonality with older adults, and career plans. Findings suggest that medical students' attitudes toward old adults were positive at pretest. However, Vital Visionary students became more positive in their attitudes toward older adults at posttest (p < .001), with a moderate effect size, G = .60, and they felt they had more in common with older adults at posttest (p < .001), with a moderate effect size, G = .64. The program did not influence their career plans (p = .35). Findings from this demonstration project suggest that socializing medical students with healthy older adults through art programs can foster positive attitudes and enhance their sense of commonality with older adults.

  17. Training Older Adults for New Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sally

    In this paper, the discussion concerns the trainig of older adults for work as child caregivers. Four questions are addressed: (1) Why is child care a work option for the older worker? (2) What is the target population of older persons interested in preparing for this field of work? (3) How can adult learner characteristics be integrated into a…

  18. Religious congregations as social services providers for older adults.

    PubMed

    Cnaan, Ram A; Boddie, Stephanie C; Kang, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A large proportion of older adults are affiliated with congregations. The literature suggests that, in general, religious participation among the older adults enhances their quality of life and provides a network of social care. In this article, we explored the relevant literature on organized religion and social support for older adults. Based on a census study of congregations in Philadelphia (N = 1,393), we documented the following: (1) the number of congregations serving older adults, (2) the types of services provided, and (3) the number of beneficiaries. The study also identified the organizational factors that predict the provision of congregation-based services for older adults. The findings suggest that serving older adults is not a top priority for most congregations. Most senior programs are small and often informal. Approximately half (48%) of the congregations do not provide a formal social service. However, those congregations that are more likely to serve older adults have larger budgets, more members over 65-years-old, and a moderate political orientation. We recommend that congregations, social service providers, and older adults explore ways to maximize this underutilized resource of congregational services to meet the needs of the increasing number of older adults.

  19. The Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest) Demonstrates Higher Accuracy in Identifying Older Adult Participants With History of Falls Than Do the BESTest, Berg Balance Scale, or Timed Up and Go Test.

    PubMed

    Yingyongyudha, Anyamanee; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Panichaporn, Wanvisa; Boonsinsukh, Rumpa

    2016-01-01

    Balance deficits a significant predictor of falls in older adults. The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) and the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest) are tools that may predict the likelihood of a fall, but their capabilities and accuracies have not been adequately addressed. Therefore, this study aimed at examining the capabilities of the BESTest and Mini-BESTest for identifying older adult with history of falls and comparing the participants with history of falls identification accuracy of the BESTest, Mini-BESTest, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) for identifying participants with a history of falls. Two hundred healthy older adults with a mean age of 70 years were classified into participants with and without history of fall groups on the basis of their 12-month fall history. Their balance abilities were assessed using the BESTest, Mini-BESTest, BBS, and TUG. An analysis of the resulting receiver operating characteristic curves was performed to calculate the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, cutoff score, and posttest accuracy of each. The Mini-BESTest showed the highest AUC (0.84) compared with the BESTest (0.74), BBS (0.69), and TUG (0.35), suggesting that the Mini-BESTest had the highest accuracy in identifying older adult with history of falls. At the cutoff score of 16 (out of 28), the Mini-BESTest demonstrated a posttest accuracy of 85% with a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 75%. The Mini-BESTest had the highest posttest accuracy, with the others having results of 76% (BESTest), 60% (BBS), and 65% (TUG). The Mini-BESTest is the most accurate tool for identifying older adult with history of falls compared with the BESTest, BBS, and TUG.

  20. Underactive Bladder in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yao-Chi; Plata, Mauricio; Lamb, Laura E; Chancellor, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Overactive bladder is one of the most common bladder problems, but an estimated 20 million Americans have underactive bladder (UAB), which makes going to the bathroom difficult, increases the risk of urinary tract infections, and even leads to institutionalization. This article provides an overview of UAB in older adults, and discusses the prevalence, predisposing factors, cause, clinical investigations, and treatments. At present, there is no effective therapy for UAB. A great deal of work still needs to be done on understanding the pathogenesis and the development of effective therapies.

  1. Fitness and Full Living for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGilio, Deborah A.; Howze, Elizabeth H.

    1984-01-01

    There are many misconceptions about exercise that keep older adults from participating in a regular physical fitness program. This article explores some of these misconceptions and offers strategies for developing appropriate and safe programs for the older population. (DF)

  2. Multimorbidity Combinations and Disability in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Ana R; Markwardt, Sheila; Botoseneanu, Anda

    2016-06-01

    Multimorbidity (multiple co-occurring chronic diseases) is associated with greater likelihood of disability and mortality, above and beyond the risk attributable to individual diseases. This study identifies prevalent multimorbidity patterns and evaluates their association with disability among U.S. older adults. Prospective cohort study using longitudinal Health and Retirement Study data (2010-2012). We included 8,782 participants aged 65 years and older and used negative binomial models to examine prospective disability, measured by the combined activities of daily living-instrumental activities of daily living index. Multimorbidity was defined as the co-occurring combination of at least two of the following chronic diseases: hypertension, cardiovascular disease, lung disease, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, stroke, cognitive impairment, or high depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥ 4). We found 291 unique disease combinations with 1 to 1,167 older adults per disease combination. The three most prevalent combinations were: (a) hypertension and arthritis (n = 1,167); (b) hypertension, arthritis, and cardiovascular disease (n = 510); and (c) hypertension, arthritis, and diabetes (n = 430). Only one of the prevalent combinations included depressive symptoms (in combination with arthritis, hypertension; n = 129). This group showed the highest level of activities of daily living-instrumental activities of daily living disability compared to healthy participants or participants with a single disease (either included in the combination or different from diseases in the combination) even after adjusting for age, gender, education, race/ethnicity, and body mass index. Clinicians stand to gain from a better understanding of which disease combinations are more and less disabling among older adults. Understanding how multimorbidity combinations relate to functional status is an important step towards reducing disability and sustaining independent living among older adults.

  3. Nutritional screening in community dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Callen, Bonnie L

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether a combination of validated tools, one for each of five leading nutritional risk factors, could predict unintentional weight loss in community dwelling older adults. Non-invasive, easily administered nutritional screening tools for community dwelling older adults are few and those that are available are problematic. Convenience samples of 115 adults ≥65 were interviewed. Height, weight and measures of the five nutritional risk factors were collected at interviews 6 months apart. Repeated measures. 91 subjects completing T2 were largely white (95.6%), female (69%), well educated and in good health. Multiple regression was conducted with unintentional weight loss as the dependent variable and depression (the GDS-SF), the Lubben Social Networking Scale, food security, food intake and Independent Activities of Daily Living as the predictor variables. The regression model was statistically significant (F (5, 85) = 0.30852, P = 0.003) with an adjusted r(2) of 0.137. Five validated tools can be administered by nurses or non-professionals to screen for nutritional risk factors leading to unintentional weight loss. Early screening has the potential to identify either nutritional risk or nutritional decline in older adults. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for 70+ Adults. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of older adults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. I...

  5. Heart Failure in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Butrous, Hoda; Hummel, Scott L

    2016-09-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality in older adults and a growing public health problem placing a huge financial burden on the health care system. Many challenges exist in the assessment and management of HF in geriatric patients, who often have coexisting multimorbidity, polypharmacy, cognitive impairment, and frailty. These complex "geriatric domains" greatly affect physical and functional status as well as long-term clinical outcomes. Geriatric patients have been under-represented in major HF clinical trials. Nonetheless, available data suggest that guideline-based medical and device therapies improve morbidity and mortality. Nonpharmacologic strategies, such as exercise training and dietary interventions, are an active area of research. Targeted geriatric evaluation, including functional and cognitive assessment, can improve risk stratification and guide management in older patients with HF. Clinical trials that enroll older patients with multiple morbidities and HF and evaluate functional status and quality of life in addition to mortality and cardiovascular morbidity should be encouraged to guide management of this age group.

  6. Pneumococcal colonization in older adults.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Mari, Daniela; Bergamaschini, Luigi; Orenti, Annalisa; Terranova, Leonardo; Ruggiero, Luca; Ierardi, Valentina; Gambino, Monia; Croce, Francesco Della; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pneumococcal carrier states in older adults. The main aim of this study was to evaluate pneumococcal colonization patterns among older adults in two centres in Milan, Italy, before the widespread use of the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in this age group, to investigate demographic and clinical features that are associated with pneumococcal colonization and to estimate the potential coverage offered by PCV13. Among 417 adults ≥65 years old (171, 41.1 %, ≥75 years), 41 (9.8 %) were pneumococcal carriers. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that pneumococcal colonization was significantly less common among individuals with underlying co-morbidities than among those without (odds ratio [OR] 0.453, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.235-0.875, p = 0.018; adjusted OR 0.503, 95 % CI 0.255-0.992, p = 0.047). Moreover, among these patients, those with cardiac disease had a significantly lower risk of colonization (OR 0.308, 95 % CI 0.119-0.795, p = 0.015; adjusted OR 0.341, 95 % CI 0.13-0.894, p = 0.029). Only one vaccinated subject who received 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) was colonized. Twenty-five (89.3 %) of the subjects who were <75 years old and 9 (75.0 %) of those who were ≥75 years old were colonized by at least one of the serotypes that is included in PCV13, with serotype 19 F being the most common. Respiratory allergies as well as overall co-morbidities were more common in subjects who were positive for only non-PCV13 serotypes compared with negative subjects and those who were carriers of only PCV13 serotypes. Although this study included a relatively small number of subjects and has been performed in a limited geographic setting, results showed that pneumococcal colonization in older people is common, and the monitoring of carriers can offer useful information about the circulation of this pathogen among older people and the potential protective effect of

  7. Prescription use disorders in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kalapatapu, Raj K; Sullivan, Maria A

    2010-01-01

    The number of older adults needing substance abuse treatment is projected to rise significantly in the next few decades. This paper will focus on the epidemic of prescription use disorders in older adults. Particular vulnerabilities of older adults to addiction will be considered. Specifically, the prevalence and patterns of use of opioids, stimulants, and benzodiazepines will be explored, including the effects of these substances on morbidity and mortality. Treatment intervention strategies will be briefly discussed, and areas for future research are suggested.

  8. Are older adults more social than younger adults? Social importance increases older adults' prospective memory performance.

    PubMed

    Altgassen, Mareike; Kliegel, Matthias; Brandimonte, Maria; Filippello, Pina

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of social importance on prospective remembering in younger and older adults as a possible factor contributing to the age-prospective memory paradox. Using a between-subjects design, 40 younger and 40 older adults worked on a time-based prospective memory task in which social importance was varied. Overall, younger adults outperformed older adults in the prospective memory task. Importantly, in contrast to younger adults, older adults' prospective memory performance was significantly better in the social importance condition than in the standard condition. This interaction was not reflected in participants' time-monitoring behaviour. Findings are discussed in the context of recent prospective memory theories.

  9. Pulmonary issues in the older adult.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Delia E

    2014-03-01

    This article elicits why critical care nurses need to become aware of the pulmonary issues of older adults. The population of older adults is increasing. Older adults undergo anatomic and physiologic changes of the protective mechanisms of the pulmonary system. These changes alter the rate and effort of breathing. Speech is slowed because of expiratory strength effort. Cognition changes may be the only indication of impaired oxygenation. Bedside nursing care provides protection from pulmonary complications. Health behaviors of smoking cessation, oral hygiene, and exercise promote pulmonary health even in older adults.

  10. Polypharmacy and Medication Management in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jennifer; Parish, Abby Luck

    2017-09-01

    Polypharmacy in older adults is a global problem that has recently worsened. Approximately 30% of adults aged 65 years and older in developed countries take 5 or more medications. Although prescribed and over-the-counter medications may improve a wide range of health problems, they also may cause or contribute to harm, especially in older adults. Polypharmacy in older adults is associated with worsening of geriatric syndromes and adverse drug events. Given the risks and burdens of polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medications, nurses must use patient-centered approaches and nonpharmacologic strategies to treat common symptoms and to optimize patient function and quality of life. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Older Adults' Uptake and Adherence to Exercise Classes: Instructors' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hawley-Hague, Helen; Horne, Maria; Skelton, Dawn A; Todd, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Exercise classes provide a range of benefits for older adults, but adherence levels are poor. We know little of instructors' experiences of delivering exercise classes to older adults. Semistructured interviews, informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), were conducted with instructors (n = 19) delivering multicomponent exercise classes to establish their perspectives on older adults' uptake and adherence to exercise classes. Analysis revealed 'barriers' to uptake related to identity, choice/control, cost, and venue, and 'solutions' included providing choice/control, relating exercise to identity, a personal touch, and social support. Barriers to adherence included unrealistic expectations and social influences, and solutions identified were encouraging commitment, creating social cohesion, and an emphasis on achieving outcomes. Older adults' attitudes were an underlying theme, which related to all barriers and solutions. The instructor plays an important, but not isolated, role in older adults' uptake and adherence to classes. Instructors' perspectives help us to further understand how we can design successful exercise classes.

  12. Stand by me! Reducing the risk of injurious falls in older adults.

    PubMed

    Beegan, Leah; Messinger-Rapport, Barbara J

    2015-05-01

    About one-third of community-dwelling adults age 65 and older fall each year, and some suffer fractures, traumatic brain injury, and even death. Therefore, it is important to identify older adults at risk and recommend helpful interventions.

  13. Health Contract with Sedentary Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David; Rhodes, Darson

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Health educators used health contracts with sedentary older adults for the purpose of increasing exercise or physical activity. Design and Methods: Two health educators helped 25 sedentary older adults complete health contracts, and then they conducted follow-up evaluations. The percentage of scheduled exercise sessions successfully…

  14. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  15. Changing Students' Stereotypes of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; Maruyama, LaRae

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that university students tend to hold negative attitudes about older adults. However, there is some evidence to suggest that these ageist attitudes can be challenged and changed through curricular intervention. The current study was designed to determine whether the "Activities of Older Adults" exercise as part of a…

  16. Older Adult Women Learners in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mary Alice

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the potential for personal growth, development, and learning of older adult women who will have many productive years in the workforce. What implications are there for adult education communities who will interact with these older women? How do they adapt to the educational environment, and what social support will enable…

  17. Death, Suicide, and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Notes characteristics of older adults at high risk for suicide (male, living alone, living in low-income transient urban area, depression). Provides converging perspectives on death and suicide from standpoints of external observer and older adult. Interprets statistical pattern and critiques current policy proposals for limiting society's…

  18. Education: A Possibility for Empowering Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kump, Sonja; Krasovec, Sabina Jelenc

    2007-01-01

    Educating older adults (in the so-called third age) is becoming an increasingly important activity for the elderly, above all because it empowers them, while at the same time reducing their social exclusion. The aim of this paper is to closely examine the actual state of affairs and the education possibilities for older adults in Slovenia. The…

  19. Changing Students' Stereotypes of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; Maruyama, LaRae

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that university students tend to hold negative attitudes about older adults. However, there is some evidence to suggest that these ageist attitudes can be challenged and changed through curricular intervention. The current study was designed to determine whether the "Activities of Older Adults" exercise as part of a…

  20. Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

  1. Older Adults Have Difficulty in Decoding Sarcasm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Louise H.; Allen, Roy; Bull, Rebecca; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Channon, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Younger and older adults differ in performance on a range of social-cognitive skills, with older adults having difficulties in decoding nonverbal cues to emotion and intentions. Such skills are likely to be important when deciding whether someone is being sarcastic. In the current study we investigated in a life span sample whether there are…

  2. Bender Gestalt Performance of Normal Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacks, Patricia; Storandt, Martha

    1982-01-01

    Provides normative data on the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) with a sample of 334 normal older adults. Showed that these older adults do not perform on the BGT in a manner that can be called brain damaged. Use of the cut-off score developed with younger persons appears appropriate. (Author)

  3. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  4. Bender Gestalt Performance of Normal Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacks, Patricia; Storandt, Martha

    1982-01-01

    Provides normative data on the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) with a sample of 334 normal older adults. Showed that these older adults do not perform on the BGT in a manner that can be called brain damaged. Use of the cut-off score developed with younger persons appears appropriate. (Author)

  5. Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

  6. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  7. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Older Adults' Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, M. Dianne; Toth, Ellen L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined knowledge, attitudes, and opinions of 60 older adults about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Most had little or no accurate knowledge of CPR. Knowledge deficits and misconceptions of older adults should be addressed so that they may become informed and active participants in CPR decision-making process. (BF)

  8. Saskatchewan Older Adult Literacy Survey. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regina Univ. (Saskatchewan). Univ. Extension. Seniors Education Centre.

    The Saskatchewan Older Adult Literacy Survey involved 16 literacy programs offered by the regional colleges, public libraries, and technical institutes throughout the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. The 2-month survey acquired information for an overview of the current state of older adults and literacy in Saskatchewan through mailed…

  9. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  10. Health Contract with Sedentary Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David; Rhodes, Darson

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Health educators used health contracts with sedentary older adults for the purpose of increasing exercise or physical activity. Design and Methods: Two health educators helped 25 sedentary older adults complete health contracts, and then they conducted follow-up evaluations. The percentage of scheduled exercise sessions successfully…

  11. Domestic violence and mental health in older adults.

    PubMed

    Knight, Lucy; Hester, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    Domestic violence affects every age group and is present throughout the life span, but, while the mental health impact of domestic violence is clearly established in working age adults, less is known about the nature and impact of domestic violence among older adults. This review, therefore, aimed to synthesize findings on the prevalence, nature, and impact of domestic violence among older adults, and its identification and management. Electronic searches were conducted of Medline, PsycINFO, Cinahl, and Embase to identify studies reporting on the mental health and domestic violence in older adults. Findings suggested that, although prevalence figures are variable, the likely lifetime prevalence for women over the age of 65 is between 20-30%. Physical abuse is suggested to decrease with age, but rates of emotional abuse appear to be stable over the lifespan. Among older adults, domestic violence is strongly associated with physical and mental health problems, and the scarce research comparing the impact of domestic violence across the age cohorts suggests that the physical health of older victims may be more severely affected than younger victims. In contrast, there is evidence that older victims may experience less psychological distress in response to domestic violence than younger victims. Internationally, evidence on the management of domestic violence in older adults is sparse. Findings suggest, however, that identification of domestic violence is poor among older adults, and there are very limited options for onwards referral and support.

  12. Community covariates of malnutrition based mortality among older adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Berthelot, Emily R

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify community level covariates of malnutrition-based mortality among older adults. A community level framework was delineated which explains rates of malnutrition-related mortality among older adults as a function of community levels of socioeconomic disadvantage, disability, and social isolation among members of this group. County level data on malnutrition mortality of people 65 years of age and older for the period 2000-2003 were drawn from the CDC WONDER system databases. County level measures of older adult socioeconomic disadvantage, disability, and social isolation were derived from the 2000 US Census of Population and Housing. Negative binomial regression models adjusting for the size of the population at risk, racial composition, urbanism, and region were estimated to assess the relationships among these indicators. Results from negative binomial regression analysis yielded the following: a standard deviation increase in socioeconomic/physical disadvantage was associated with a 12% increase in the rate of malnutrition mortality among older adults (p < 0.001), whereas a standard deviation increase in social isolation was associated with a 5% increase in malnutrition mortality among older adults (p < 0.05). Community patterns of malnutrition based mortality among older adults are partly a function of levels of socioeconomic and physical disadvantage and social isolation among older adults. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality of life in indigenous and non-indigenous older adults: assessing the CASP-12 factor structure and identifying a brief CASP-3.

    PubMed

    Towers, Andy; Yeung, Polly; Stevenson, Brendan; Stephens, Christine; Alpass, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    We assessed whether the original three-factor structure of the older adult CASP-12 Quality of Life (QOL) scale was stable for both indigenous and non-indigenous older adult populations in the same non-European country (i.e. New Zealand). A total of 3076 New Zealanders aged 50-84 (Māori = 1,130; non-Māori sample = 1,946) completed a postal survey for the first data collection wave of the New Zealand Longitudinal Study of Ageing in 2010. The survey included the CASP-12, a chronic health conditions checklist, CES-D-10, de Jong Gierveld loneliness scale, and the WHOQOL single-item QOL indicator. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that the CASP-12 responses resulted in a revised two-factor structure for both Māori and non-Māori we called the NZCASP-11, which included a new three-item global indicator of QOL (CASP-3) that consistently cross-loaded on both factors. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the NZCASP-11 factor structure over the original CASP-12 model, and further assessment validated both the utility of the NZCASP-11 as an indicator of QOL in New Zealand and illustrated the utility of the CASP-3 as a brief screen for global QOL. While CASP items coalesce to provide a robust QOL indicator of indigenous and non-indigenous QOL in a single-country setting, the actual factor structure underpinning this CASP indicator (i.e. the NZCASP-11) is not entirely reflective of that found in the United Kingdom. Furthermore, we revealed that three CASP items (i.e. the CASP-3) may reflect a stable brief indicator of QOL applicable for assessing QOL across cultures within a single setting.

  14. Priorities for Action in a Rural Older Adults Study

    PubMed Central

    Averill, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a recent study of older adults in the rural southwestern United States and discusses practice and research implications. The aim of the study was to analyze health disparities and strengths in the contexts of rurality, aging, a depressed economy, and limited health resources. Identified themes needing action included sustained access to prescriptions, transportation solutions for older adults in isolated communities, inadequate access to care, poor infrastructure and coordination of services, scarce assisted living and in-home care for frail older adults, and barriers related to culture, language, and economics. PMID:22929381

  15. Hypersexuality among cognitively impaired older adults.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Meredith; Safer, Meredith

    2009-01-01

    Hypersexuality, also referred to in the literature as sexually inappropriate behavior and sexual disinhibition, involves persistent, uninhibited sexual behaviors directed at oneself or at others. For older adults, the literature generally attributes the behavior to biochemical or physiological changes that accompany cognitive impairment-specifically, dementia. Although less common than other behavioral issues, such as aggression and agitation, hypersexuality presents complex logistical and ethical problems for caregivers. This article reviews the current literature on hypersexual behavior. Assessment essentials as well as nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatment approaches are discussed, identifying the need for standardization as well as caregiver education and training.

  16. Dispelling myths about palliative care and older adults.

    PubMed

    Duggleby, Wendy; Raudonis, Barbara M

    2006-02-01

    To explore the myths about palliative care and older adults with cancer. Research literature and review articles. Several myths about older adults exist: older adults are the same as younger adults, older adults are all the same, and optimizing function and quality of life are not important outcomes. Little research has focused on older adults receiving palliative care and their families. The Oncology Nursing Society and Geriatric Oncology Consortium published the Joint Position Statement on Cancer Care in Older Adults acknowledging the unique needs of older adults with cancer. Application of this statement may be helpful in guiding inquiry and practice in the care for older adults receiving palliative care.

  17. Discourse Performance in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Alvin J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed older (N=33) and middle-aged (N=18) women on linguistic discourse tasks. Subjects were interviewed, administered cognitive tests, and given narrative and procedural discourse tasks. Older subjects generally performed more poorly than did middle-aged subjects. Within the older group, measures of quality of disclosure were generally…

  18. Design of smart home sensor visualizations for older adults.

    PubMed

    Le, Thai; Reeder, Blaine; Chung, Jane; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2014-07-24

    Smart home sensor systems provide a valuable opportunity to continuously and unobtrusively monitor older adult wellness. However, the density of sensor data can be challenging to visualize, especially for an older adult consumer with distinct user needs. We describe the design of sensor visualizations informed by interviews with older adults. The goal of the visualizations is to present sensor activity data to an older adult consumer audience that supports both longitudinal detection of trends and on-demand display of activity details for any chosen day. The design process is grounded through participatory design with older adult interviews during a six-month pilot sensor study. Through a secondary analysis of interviews, we identified the visualization needs of older adults. We incorporated these needs with cognitive perceptual visualization guidelines and the emotional design principles of Norman to develop sensor visualizations. We present a design of sensor visualization that integrate both temporal and spatial components of information. The visualization supports longitudinal detection of trends while allowing the viewer to view activity within a specific date.CONCLUSIONS: Appropriately designed visualizations for older adults not only provide insight into health and wellness, but also are a valuable resource to promote engagement within care.

  19. Design of smart home sensor visualizations for older adults.

    PubMed

    Le, Thai; Reeder, Blaine; Chung, Jane; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2014-01-01

    Smart home sensor systems provide a valuable opportunity to continuously and unobtrusively monitor older adult wellness. However, the density of sensor data can be challenging to visualize, especially for an older adult consumer with distinct user needs. We describe the design of sensor visualizations informed by interviews with older adults. The goal of the visualizations is to present sensor activity data to an older adult consumer audience that supports both longitudinal detection of trends and on-demand display of activity details for any chosen day. The design process is grounded through participatory design with older adult interviews during a six-month pilot sensor study. Through a secondary analysis of interviews, we identified the visualization needs of older adults. We incorporated these needs with cognitive perceptual visualization guidelines and the emotional design principles of Norman to develop sensor visualizations. We present a design of sensor visualization that integrate both temporal and spatial components of information. The visualization supports longitudinal detection of trends while allowing the viewer to view activity within a specific date. Appropriately designed visualizations for older adults not only provide insight into health and wellness, but also are a valuable resource to promote engagement within care.

  20. Perceptions of technology among older adults.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer A; Yearns, Mary; Franke, Warren; Yang, Hen-I; Wong, Johnny; Chang, Carl K

    2013-01-01

    Changes and advancements in technology have the potential to benefit older adults by promoting independence and increasing the ability to age in place. However, older adults are less likely to adopt new technology unless they see benefits to themselves. This study assessed the perceptions of 30 older adults in the Midwest concerning technology via three separate focus groups (i.e., independent apartment complex, a rural community, exercise program participants), which addressed a need in the literature (i.e., inclusion of oldest-old and rural individuals). The focus group questions included items such as what technology older adults currently used, desired improvements in technology, and the greatest challenges participants were facing or would face in the future. Overall, older adults were enthusiastic about learning new forms of technology that could help them maintain their independence and quality of life. Five themes emerged from all three focus groups: (a) Frustrations, Limitations, and Usability Concerns; (b) Transportation; (c) Help and Assistance; (d) Self-Monitoring; and (e) Gaming. The themes have important implications for future technology developed for older adults; in particular, older adults were willing and eager to adopt new technology when usefulness and usability outweighed feelings of inadequacy.

  1. Psychotropic medications in older adults: a review.

    PubMed

    Ćurković, Mario; Dodig-Ćurković, Katarina; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Kralik, Kristina; Pivac, Nela

    2016-03-01

    Prevalence of prescribing psychotropic medications, particularly inappropriate prescription, is widespread in older adults, both in nursing home residents as well as community-dwelling older adults. This review describes prevalence and prevention of inappropriate prescribing and risk factors associated with psychotropic medications. MEDLINE and GOOGLE SCHOLAR data base were searched for the key words "older adults", "psychotropic drugs", "inappropriate prescribing", "nursing home residents", "community-dwelling older adults". The study was limited to the articles published in English in the period from 2007 to 2014. The list of references includes additional articles that were searched manually. The utilization of different psychotropic medications is prevalent among older adults worldwide, regardless of whether they live in nursing homes or in the community. Among older adults, nursing home residents are the most vulnerable individuals for potentially inappropriate drug prescription. The most common potentially inappropriate prescribed medications in the elderly are benzodiazepines, particularly long-acting, antipsychotics and antidepressants, particularly SSRIs. All classes of listed medications have been associated with different adverse events, particularly falls and falls-related fractures and increased risk for mortality. Many different pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, such as monitoring polypharmacy, reviewing medications, spending more time in the institution by a physician, reducing the number of prescribers in the institution as well as greater involvement of geriatricians, general practitioners and pharmacists should be implemented to reduce this health issue. The prevalence of prescribing psychotropic medications to older adults is high. Inappropriate prescribing of psychotropic drugs and polypharmacy are present in institutionalized and non-institutionalized older adults and can cause adverse health events, and can significantly

  2. Prescription Use Disorders in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    The number of older adults needing substance abuse treatment is projected to rise significantly in the next few decades. This article will focus on the epidemic of prescription use disorders in older adults. Particular vulnerabilities of older adults to addiction will be considered. Specifically, the prevalence and patterns of use of opioids, stimulants, and benzodiazepines will be explored, including the effects of these substances on morbidity and mortality. Treatment intervention strategies will be briefly discussed, and areas for future research are suggested. PMID:20958847

  3. Dementia literacy in older adults.

    PubMed

    Loi, Samantha M; Lautenschlager, Nicola T

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing aging population, it is predicted that there will also be a rise in the number of people with dementia. Although there is no definitive cure, early detection and access to treatment and services remains the cornerstone of management. Misinformation and poor knowledge about dementia may lead to delayed diagnosis. A study of dementia literacy was undertaken to explore current knowledge in a metropolitan city in Australia. A vignette describing an older person with symptoms of cognitive impairment was posted out to volunteers at the local hospital. The majority of participants surveyed correctly identified that the person in the vignette was suffering from symptoms of dementia or cognitive impairment. However, there was more variation with regard to types of treatment available and appropriate help-seeking behavior. Although people are able to identify symptoms of dementia when they are presented in a scenario, the reality is often not as clear. More education to improve knowledge with regard to this increasingly common disorder is required so that appropriate interventions can be made available. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Sarcopenia, Frailty, and Diabetes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Populations are aging and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing tremendously. The number of older people with diabetes is increasing unexpectedly. Aging and diabetes are both risk factors for functional disability. Thus, increasing numbers of frail or disabled older patients with diabetes will increase both direct and indirect health-related costs. Diabetes has been reported as an important risk factor of developing physical disability in older adults. Older people with diabetes have lower muscle mass and weaker muscle strength. In addition, muscle quality is poorer in diabetic patients. Sarcopenia and frailty have a common soil and may share a similar pathway for multiple pathologic processes in older people. Sarcopenia is thought to be an intermediate step in the development of frailty in patients with diabetes. Thus, early detection of sarcopenia and frailty in older adults with diabetes should be routine clinical practice to prevent frailty or to intervene earlier in frail patients. PMID:27098509

  5. Identifying consumer's needs of health information technology through an innovative participatory design approach among English- and Spanish-speaking urban older adults.

    PubMed

    Lucero, R; Sheehan, B; Yen, P; Velez, O; Nobile-Hernandez, D; Tiase, V

    2014-01-01

    We describe an innovative community-centered participatory design approach, Consumer-centered Participatory Design (C2PD), and the results of applying C2PD to design and develop a web-based fall prevention system. We conducted focus groups and design sessions with English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling older adults. Focus group data were summarized and used to inform the context of the design sessions. Descriptive content analysis methods were used to develop categorical descriptions of design session informant's needs related to information technology. The C2PD approach enabled the assessment and identification of informant's needs of health information technology (HIT) that informed the development of a falls prevention system. We learned that our informants needed a system that provides variation in functions/content; differentiates between actionable/non-actionable information/structures; and contains sensory cues that support wide-ranging and complex tasks in a varied, simple, and clear interface to facilitate self-management. The C2PD approach provides community-based organizations, academic researchers, and commercial entities with a systematic theoretically informed approach to develop HIT innovations. Our community-centered participatory design approach focuses on consumer's technology needs while taking into account core public health functions.

  6. Identifying Consumer’s Needs of Health Information Technology through an Innovative Participatory Design Approach among English- and Spanish-speaking Urban Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, B.; Yen, P.; Velez, O.; Nobile-Hernandez, D.; Tiase, V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives We describe an innovative community-centered participatory design approach, Consumer-centered Participatory Design (C2PD), and the results of applying C2PD to design and develop a web-based fall prevention system. Methods We conducted focus groups and design sessions with English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling older adults. Focus group data were summarized and used to inform the context of the design sessions. Descriptive content analysis methods were used to develop categorical descriptions of design session informant’s needs related to information technology. Results The C2PD approach enabled the assessment and identification of informant’s needs of health information technology (HIT) that informed the development of a falls prevention system. We learned that our informants needed a system that provides variation in functions/content; differentiates between actionable/non-actionable information/structures; and contains sensory cues that support wide-ranging and complex tasks in a varied, simple, and clear interface to facilitate self-management. Conclusions The C2PD approach provides community-based organizations, academic researchers, and commercial entities with a systematic theoretically informed approach to develop HIT innovations. Our community-centered participatory design approach focuses on consumer’s technology needs while taking into account core public health functions. PMID:25589909

  7. Reading Interests of Older Adult Public Library Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourlie, Suzanne K.

    This study sought to identify the reading interests and preferences of older adult public library users in the Oakwood, Ohio community, and also to gauge interest in large print materials within this group. Surveys assessed in this study were completed by 70 adults age 50 or over. The results revealed a wide range of reading interests and…

  8. Perceptions of Physical Activity by Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…

  9. Reading Practices and Profiles of Older Adults in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Su-Yen

    2008-01-01

    Using data from a national survey of adults in Taiwan, this study presents findings regarding older adults' reading practices with respect to newspapers, magazines, books, and Internet information. The study also identifies four reading profiles defined by the frequency and diversification of the material read: the nonreaders, the less diversified…

  10. Perceptions of Physical Activity by Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…

  11. New Approaches to the Education of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mary Alice

    New approaches to the education of older adults can be identified through a review of the literature on the following topics: developmental perspectives (including generativity and integrity) and adult development, life span habits (as determined by longitudinal research), gender roles, reminiscence, cognitive, and need-based learning. One of the…

  12. Advances in Psychotherapy for Depressed Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Raue, Patrick J; McGovern, Amanda R; Kiosses, Dimitris N; Sirey, Jo Anne

    2017-09-01

    We review recent advances in psychotherapies for depressed older adults, in particular those developed for special populations characterized by chronic medical illness, acute medical illness, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk factors. We review adaptations for psychotherapy to overcome barriers to its accessibility in non-specialty settings such as primary care, homebound or hard-to-reach older adults, and social service settings. Recent evidence supports the effectiveness of psychotherapies that target late-life depression in the context of specific comorbid conditions including COPD, heart failure, Parkinson's disease, stroke and other acute conditions, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk. Growing evidence supports the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of psychotherapy modified for a variety of health care and social service settings. Research supports the benefits of selecting the type of psychotherapy based on a comprehensive assessment of the older adult's psychiatric, medical, functional, and cognitive status, and tailoring psychotherapy to the settings in which older depressed adults are most likely to present.

  13. Four Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults Share Tweet Linkedin ... t select a dose yourself. 2. Keep a Medication List Write down what you’re taking and ...

  14. Collaborative Strategic Planning for Older Adult Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzzarelli, Robert; Young, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Given the implications of current trends showing the aging of the population, continuing education programs for older adults should focus on "retirement employment." A strategic planning approach can incorporate forecasting into program development. (SK)

  15. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes Heart Attack Heart Failure Kidney Problems Managing Multiple Health Problems Nutrition Peripheral Artery Disease Prevention Sleep Problems Stroke Related News Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions at Increased Risk for Mild Cognitive ...

  16. Older adults abuse in three Brazilian cities.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Monteiro, Edilene Araújo; Santos, Ana Maria Ribeiro Dos; Pontes, Maria de Lourdes de Farias; Fhon, Jack Roberto Silva; Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Seredynskyj, Fernanda Laporti; Almeida, Vanessa Costa; Giacomini, Suelen Borelli Lima; Defina, Giovanna Partezani Cardoso; Silva, Luipa Michele

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the police reports filed by older adults who suffered abuse in order to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and aggressors, type of violence, location, as well as to compare rates in three Brazilian cities in the period from 2009 to 2013. Ecological study, in which 2,612 police reports registered in Police Stations were analyzed. An instrument was used to obtain data from the victim, the aggressor and the type of violence. Psychological abuse predominated and most cases occurred in the older adults own home. In the cities of Ribeirão Preto and João Pessoa, the older adults presented similar rates for both gender. Regarding the standardized rates, in João Pessoa, there was a rise of this type of abuse in the two first years, and later there was a certain stability. In the city of Teresina, there was an increase, also observed in the city of Ribeirão Preto in the three first years, followed by a decrease. Older adults abuse is a cultural phenomenon difficult to be reported by them, since it occurs in the family context. Analisar os boletins de ocorrência registrados por idosos que sofreram violência, a fim de identificar características sociodemográficas das vítimas e dos agressores, tipo de violência, local, bem como comparar as taxas em três municípios brasileiros no período de 2009 a 2013. Estudo ecológico, em que foram analisados 2.612 boletins de ocorrência registrados em Delegacias do Idoso. Utilizou-se um instrumento para obter dados da vítima, do agressor e tipo de violência. Predominou a violência psicológica, na maioria dos casos na própria residência do idoso. Em Ribeirão Preto e João Pessoa, os idosos mais jovens apresentaram taxas semelhantes entre ambos os sexos. Na comparação das taxas padronizadas, em João Pessoa, houve ascensão deste tipo de violência nos dois primeiros anos, e, posteriormente, certa estabilidade. Em Teresina, houve ascensão, também observada em Ribeirão Preto nos tr

  17. How Older Adults Combine Medical and Experiential Notions of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Wittink, Marsha N.; Dahlberg, Britt; Biruk, Crystal; Barg, Frances K.

    2009-01-01

    Past research has suggested that patients might not accept depression treatment in part because of differences between patient and doctor understandings of depression. In this article, we use a cultural models approach to explore how older adults incorporate clinical and experiential knowledge into their model of depression. We conducted semistructured interviews about depression with 19 patients aged 65 years and older who were identified by their physicians as depressed. We found that whereas older adults viewed as helpful the doctor’s ability to identify symptoms and “put it all together” into a diagnosis, they felt that this viewpoint omitted important information about the etiology and feeling of depression grounded in embodied experience and social context. Our findings suggest that more emphasis on issues related to the etiology of depression, the effect of depression on social relationships, and emotions emanating from depression might lead to more acceptable depression treatments for older adults. PMID:18689531

  18. How older adults combine medical and experiential notions of depression.

    PubMed

    Wittink, Marsha N; Dahlberg, Britt; Biruk, Crystal; Barg, Frances K

    2008-09-01

    Past research has suggested that patients might not accept depression treatment in part because of differences between patient and doctor understandings of depression. In this article, we use a cultural models approach to explore how older adults incorporate clinical and experiential knowledge into their model of depression. We conducted semistructured interviews about depression with 19 patients aged 65 years and older who were identified by their physicians as depressed. We found that whereas older adults viewed as helpful the doctor's ability to identify symptoms and "put it all together" into a diagnosis, they felt that this viewpoint omitted important information about the etiology and feeling of depression grounded in embodied experience and social context. Our findings suggest that more emphasis on issues related to the etiology of depression, the effect of depression on social relationships, and emotions emanating from depression might lead to more acceptable depression treatments for older adults.

  19. Older Adults' Knowledge of Internet Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Galen A.; Hough, Michelle G.; Mazur, Elizabeth; Signorella, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    Older adults are less likely to be using computers and less knowledgeable about Internet security than are younger users. The two groups do not differ on trust of Internet information. The younger group shows no age or gender differences. Within the older group, computer users are more trusting of Internet information, and along with those with…

  20. Older Adults' Knowledge of Internet Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Galen A.; Hough, Michelle G.; Mazur, Elizabeth; Signorella, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    Older adults are less likely to be using computers and less knowledgeable about Internet security than are younger users. The two groups do not differ on trust of Internet information. The younger group shows no age or gender differences. Within the older group, computer users are more trusting of Internet information, and along with those with…

  1. Engaging and Honoring Older Adults in Research.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Steven L

    2017-01-01

    Research involving persons with cognitive changes associated with aging, including dementia, has increased dramatically in the past two decades, motivated in large part by an increasing number of older adults with such issues. Velzke in the paper that follows this introduction discusses why it is important and how to include older adults as participants in research. While focused primarily on elders and their caregivers in Scotland, the topic is a globally important one.

  2. Primary Care Providers' HIV Prevention Practices Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Tracy; Teaster, Pamela B.; Thornton, Alice; Watkins, John F.; Alexander, Linda; Zanjani, Faika

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore primary care providers' HIV prevention practices for older adults. Primary care providers' perceptions and awareness were explored to understand factors that affect their provision of HIV prevention materials and HIV screening for older adults. Design and Method Data were collected through 24 semistructured interviews with primary care providers (i.e., physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) who see patients older than 50 years. Results Results reveal facilitators and barriers of HIV prevention for older adults among primary care providers and understanding of providers' HIV prevention practices and behaviors. Individual, patient, institutional, and societal factors influenced HIV prevention practices among participants, for example, provider training and work experience, lack of time, discomfort in discussing HIV/AIDS with older adults, stigma, and ageism were contributing factors. Furthermore, factors specific to primary and secondary HIV prevention were identified, for instance, the presence of sexually transmitted infections influenced providers' secondary prevention practices. Implications HIV disease, while preventable, is increasing among older adults. These findings inform future research and interventions aimed at increasing HIV prevention practices in primary care settings for patients older than 50. PMID:25736425

  3. Offset analgesia is reduced in older adults.

    PubMed

    Naugle, Kelly M; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Fillingim, Roger B; Riley, Joseph L

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that aging is associated with dysfunctional changes in pain modulatory capacity, potentially contributing to increased incidence of pain in older adults. However, age-related changes in offset analgesia (offset), a form of temporal pain inhibition, remain poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate age differences in offset analgesia of heat pain in healthy younger and older adults. To explore the peripheral mechanisms underlying offset, an additional aim of the study was to test offset at 2 anatomical sites with known differences in nociceptor innervation. A total of 25 younger adults and 20 older adults completed 6 offset trials in which the experimental heat stimulus was presented to the volar forearm and glabrous skin of the palm. Each trial consisted of 3 continuous phases: an initial 15-second painful stimulus (T1), a slight increase in temperature from T1 for 5 seconds (T2), and a slight decrease back to the initial testing temperature for 10 seconds (T3). During each trial, subjects rated pain intensity continuously using an electronic visual analogue scale (0-100). Older adults demonstrated reduced offset compared to younger adults when tested on the volar forearm. Interestingly, offset analgesia was nonexistent on the palm for all subjects. The reduced offset found in older adults may reflect an age-related decline in endogenous inhibitory systems. However, although the exact mechanisms underlying offset remain unknown, the absence of offset at the palm suggests that peripheral mechanisms may be involved in initiating this phenomenon.

  4. Treatment of periodontal disease in older adults.

    PubMed

    Renvert, Stefan; Persson, G Rutger

    2016-10-01

    Within the next 40 years the number of older adults worldwide will more than double. This will impact periodontal treatment needs and presents a challenge to health-care providers and governments worldwide, as severe periodontitis has been reported to be the sixth most prevalent medical condition in the world. Older adults (≥ 80 years of age) who receive regular dental care retain more teeth than those who do not receive such care, but routine general dental care for these individuals is not sufficient to prevent the progression of periodontitis with the same degree of success as in younger individuals. There is a paucity of data on the efficacy of different periodontal therapies for older individuals. However, considering the higher prevalence of chronic medical conditions seen in older adults, it cannot be assumed that periodontal therapy will yield the same degree of success seen in younger individuals. Furthermore, medications can influence the status of the periodontium and the delivery of periodontal care. As an example, anticoagulant drugs are common among older patients and may be a contraindication to certain treatments. Newer anticoagulants will, however, facilitate surgical intervention in older patients. Furthermore, prescription medications taken for chronic conditions, such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases, can affect the periodontium in a variety of ways. In summary, consideration of socio-economic factors, general health status and multiple-drug therapies will, in the future, be an important part of the management of periodontitis in older adults.

  5. Young and Older Adults' Reading of Distracters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; Mcdowd, Joan; Metcalf, Kim; Liu, Chiung-Ju

    2008-01-01

    Eye-tracking technology was employed to examine young and older adults' performance in the reading with distraction paradigm. Distracters of 1, 2, and 4 words that formed meaningful phrases were used. There were marked age differences in fixation patterns. Young adults' fixations to the distracters and targets increased with distracter length.…

  6. Evaluation of Verbal Behavior in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Amy C.; Fuqua, Wayne; Merritt, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 5% of older adults have a dementia diagnosis, and language deterioration is commonly associated with this disorder (Kempler, 2005). Several instruments have been developed to diagnose dementia and assess language capabilities of elderly adults. However, none of these instruments take a functional approach to language assessment as…

  7. Evaluation of Verbal Behavior in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Amy C.; Fuqua, Wayne; Merritt, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 5% of older adults have a dementia diagnosis, and language deterioration is commonly associated with this disorder (Kempler, 2005). Several instruments have been developed to diagnose dementia and assess language capabilities of elderly adults. However, none of these instruments take a functional approach to language assessment as…

  8. Management of Colorectal Cancer in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Joleen M

    2016-02-01

    Treatment for colorectal cancer should not be based on age alone. Pooled analyses from clinical trials show that fit older adults are able to tolerate treatment well with similar efficacy as younger adults. When an older adult is considered for treatment, the clinical encounter must evaluate for deficits in physical and cognitive function, and assess comorbidities, medications, and the degree of social support, all which have may affect tolerance of treatment. Based on the degree of fitness of the patient, multiple alternatives to aggressive treatment regimens and strategies exist to minimize toxicity and preserve quality of life during treatment.

  9. Urinary tract infection in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-10-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults.

  10. Urinary tract infection in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults. PMID:24391677

  11. Digital Dating: Online Profile Content of Older and Younger Adults.

    PubMed

    Davis, Eden M; Fingerman, Karen L

    2016-11-01

    Older adults are utilizing online dating websites in increasing numbers. Adults of different ages may share motivations for companionship and affection, but dating profiles may reveal differences in adults' goals. Theories addressing age-related changes in motivation suggest that younger adults are likely to emphasize themselves, achievements, attractiveness, and sexuality. Older adults are likely to present themselves positively and emphasize their existing relationships and health. We collected 4,000 dating profiles from two popular websites to examine age differences in self-presentations. We used stratified sampling to obtain a sample equally divided by gender, aged 18-95 years. We identified 12 themes in the profiles using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software (Pennebaker, Booth, & Francis, 2007). Regression analyses revealed that older adults were more likely to use first-person plural pronouns (e.g., we, our) and words associated with health and positive emotions. Younger adults were more likely to use first-person singular pronouns (e.g., I, my) and words associated with work and achievement. Findings suggest that younger adults enhance the "self" when seeking romantic partnership. In contrast, older adults are more positive in their profiles and focus more on connectedness and relationships to others. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. ActiGraph GT3X+ cut-points for identifying sedentary behaviour in older adults in free-living environments.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Farías, Nicolás; Brown, Wendy J; Peeters, G M E E Geeske

    2014-05-01

    To determine the ActiGraph GT3X+ cut-points with the highest accuracy for estimating time spent in sedentary behaviour in older adults in free-living environments. ActivPAL(3)™ was used as the reference standard. Cross-sectional study. 37 participants (13 males and 24 females, 73.5 ± 7.3 years old) wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ and an ActivPAL(3)™ for 7 consecutive days. For ActivPAL(3)™, variables were created based on posture. For ActiGraph GT3X+, sedentary behaviour was defined as (1) vector magnitude and (2) vertical axis counts for 1-s, 15-s and 1-min epochs, with cut-points for 1-s epochs of <1 to <10 counts, for 15-s epochs of <1 to <100 counts and for 1-min epochs of <1 to <400 counts. For each of the ActiGraph GT3X+ cut-points, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve), sensitivity, specificity, and percentage correctly classified were calculated. Bias and 95% limits of agreement were calculated using the Bland-Altman method. The highest areas under the curve were obtained for the vector magnitude cut-points: <1 count/s, <70 counts/15-s, and <200 counts/min; and for the vertical axis cut-points: <1 count/s, <10 counts/15-s and <25 counts/min. Mean biases ranged from -4.29 to 124.28 min/day. The 95% limits of agreement for these cut-points were ± 2 h suggesting great inter-individual variation. The results suggest that cut-points are dependent on unit of analyses (i.e. epoch length and axes); cut-points for a given epoch length and axis cannot simply be extrapolated to other epoch lengths. Limitations regarding inter-individual variability and misclassification of standing activity as sitting/lying must be considered. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An Evaluation of Wellness Assessment Visualizations for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Blaine; Yoo, Daisy; Aziz, Rafae; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Demiris, George

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Smart home technologies provide a valuable resource to unobtrusively monitor health and wellness within an older adult population. However, the breadth and density of data available along with aging associated decreases in working memory, prospective memory, spatial cognition, and processing speed can make it challenging to comprehend for older adults. We developed visualizations of smart home health data integrated into a framework of wellness. We evaluated the visualizations through focus groups with older adults and identified recommendations to guide the future development of visualizations. Materials and Methods We conducted four focus groups with older adult participants (n=31) at an independent retirement community. Participants were presented with three different visualizations from a wellness pilot study. A qualitative descriptive analysis was conducted to identify thematic content. Results We identified three themes related to processing and application of visualizations: (1) values of visualizations for wellness assessment, (2) cognitive processing approaches to visualizations, and (3) integration of health data for visualization. In addition, the focus groups highlighted key design considerations of visualizations important towards supporting decision-making and evaluation assessments within integrated health displays. Conclusions Participants found inherent value in having visualizations available to proactively engage with their healthcare provider. Integrating the visualizations into a wellness framework helped reduce the complexity of raw smart home data. There has been limited work on health visualizations from a consumer perspective, in particular for an older adult population. Creating appropriately designed visualizations is valuable towards promoting consumer involvement within the shared decision-making process of care. PMID:25401414

  14. Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Ethier-Majcher, Catherine; Joubert, Sven; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as "facial trustworthiness."In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness.

  15. Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Éthier-Majcher, Catherine; Joubert, Sven; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as “facial trustworthiness.”In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness. PMID:24046755

  16. Understanding and reducing disability in older adults following critical illness.

    PubMed

    Brummel, Nathan E; Balas, Michele C; Morandi, Alessandro; Ferrante, Lauren E; Gill, Thomas M; Ely, E Wesley

    2015-06-01

    To review how disability can develop in older adults with critical illness and to explore ways to reduce long-term disability following critical illness. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science and Google Scholar for studies reporting disability outcomes (i.e., activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and mobility activities) and/or cognitive outcomes among patients treated in an ICU who were 65 years or older. We also reviewed the bibliographies of relevant citations to identify additional citations. We identified 19 studies evaluating disability outcomes in critically ill patients who were 65 years and older. Descriptive epidemiologic data on disability after critical illness. Newly acquired disability in activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and mobility activities was commonplace among older adults who survived a critical illness. Incident dementia and less severe cognitive impairment were also highly prevalent. Factors related to the acute critical illness, ICU practices, such as heavy sedation, physical restraints, and immobility, as well as aging physiology, and coexisting geriatric conditions can combine to result in these poor outcomes. Older adults who survive critical illness have physical and cognitive declines resulting in disability at greater rates than hospitalized, noncritically ill and community dwelling older adults. Interventions derived from widely available geriatric care models in use outside of the ICU, which address modifiable risk factors including immobility and delirium, are associated with improved functional and cognitive outcomes and can be used to complement ICU-focused models such as the ABCDEs.

  17. Guidelines for psychological practice with older adults.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The "Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Older Adults" are intended to assist psychologists in evaluating their own readiness for working with older adults and in seeking and using appropriate education and training to increase their knowledge, skills, and experience relevant to this area of practice. The specific goals of these professional practice guidelines are to provide practitioners with (a) a frame of reference for engaging in clinical work with older adults and (b) basic information and further references in the areas of attitudes, general aspects of aging, clinical issues, assessment, intervention, consultation, professional issues, and continuing education and training relative to work with this group. The guidelines recognize and appreciate that there are numerous methods and pathways whereby psychologists may gain expertise and/or seek training in working with older adults. This document is designed to offer recommendations on those areas of awareness, knowledge, and clinical skills considered as applicable to this work, rather than prescribing specific training methods to be followed. The guidelines also recognize that some psychologists will specialize in the provision of services to older adults and may therefore seek more extensive training consistent with practicing within the formally recognized specialty of Professional Geropsychology (APA, 2010c).

  18. The Digital Divide and urban older adults.

    PubMed

    Cresci, M Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N; Morrell, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults opportunities and resources for independent living. However, many urban older adults do not use computers. This study examined the demographic, health, and social activities of urban older adults to determine variables that might predict the use and nonuse of computers in this population. A secondary data analysis was performed using the 2001 Detroit City-Wide Needs Assessment of Older Adults (n = 1410) data set. Logistic regression was used to explore potential differences in predictor variables between computer users and nonusers. Overall, computer users were younger (27%), had a higher level of education, were more likely to be employed, had an annual income greater than $20,000, and were healthier and more active than nonusers. They also were more likely to have memberships in community organizations and do volunteer work. Preferred computer activities included conducting Internet searches, playing games, writing, and communicating with family members and friends. The results suggest significant differences in demographic and health-related characteristics between computer users and nonusers among urban older adults. Although about a quarter of participants in this study used computers, the Digital Divide continues to exist in urban settings for scores of others.

  19. Older Adults and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... important for an older person with symptoms of depression to seek treatment as it is for someone younger. The impact ... with conditions like heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. Depression can complicate the treatment of these conditions, including making it more difficult ...

  20. Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Alice H; Rasmussen, Helen; Yu, Winifred W; Epstein, Susanna R; Russell, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for adults aged 70+ y. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of older adults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. It is not intended to substitute for MyPyramid, which is a multifunctional Internet-based program allowing for the calculation of individualized food-based dietary guidance and providing supplemental information on food choices and preparation. Pedagogic issues related to computer availability, Web access, and Internet literacy of older adults suggests a graphic version of MyPyramid is needed. Emphasized are whole grains and variety within the grains group; variety and nutrient density, with specific emphasis on different forms particularly suited to older adults' needs (e.g. frozen) in the vegetables and fruits groups; low-fat and non-fat forms of dairy products including reduced lactose alternatives in the milk group; low saturated fat and trans fat choices in the oils group; and low saturated fat and vegetable choices in the meat and beans group. Underlying themes stress nutrient- and fiber-rich foods within each group and food sources of nutrients rather than supplements. Fluid and physical activity icons serve as the foundation of MyPyramid for Older Adults. A flag to maintain an awareness of the potential need to consider supplemental forms of calcium, and vitamins D and B-12 is placed at the top of the pyramid. Discussed are newer concerns about potential overnutrition in the current food landscape available to older adults.

  1. The Meaning of the Learning Experiences of Older Adults in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fok, Shiu-yeu

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the themes that emerged from qualitative research exploring the meaning that Chinese older adults find in their learning experiences in Hong Kong. In-depth interviewing was used to solicit information from older learners taking courses in elderly centers or units. Four themes were identified: (a) older adults as learners,…

  2. Volunteerism, health, and civic engagement among older adults.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Benjamin H; Gillespie, Alayna A

    2008-01-01

    In North America, 40-50 per cent of older adults are actively involved as formal volunteers in providing diverse health and human services. We review empirical studies concerning older adults' motivations for volunteering, as well as the health and morale benefits they derive from this expression of altruism. Knowledge of the exact nature and amount of volunteer activity necessary to produce these effects is limited, and studies have yet to identify the behavioural and psychological mechanisms that are implicated. We propose that older adult volunteers may enjoy good health and longevity because being useful to others instills a sense of being needed and valued. We present several theoretical perspectives on the developmental significance of volunteering, discuss the challenges to volunteerism imposed by the baby boom cohort, and identify future research priorities.

  3. Physical activity, disability, and quality of life in older adults.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2010-05-01

    This article provides an overview of physical activity and its association with function, disability, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes among older adults. The rationale and the associated onset of chronic disease conditions that influence function, disability, and QOL is embedded in the "Graying of America". The literature reviewed in this article yielded 3 general conclusions: (1) there is an alarming rate of physical inactivity among older adults, particularly those aging with a disability; (2) there is strong evidence for the beneficial effects of physical activity on impairment, function, and health-related aspects of QOL among older adults, but there is less conclusive evidence for positive effects of physical activity on disability and global QOL; and (3) there is emerging support for self-efficacy as a mediator of the association between physical activity and disability, and QOL outcomes in older adults. Researchers should consider designing and testing programs that incorporate strategies for enhancing self-efficacy along with the promotion of physical activity as a means of preventing disablement and improving QOL among older adults. Such work will go a long way in identifying practical approaches that can be applied for improving the later years of life and is critical because many Americans will soon be affected by the aging of adults in the United States.

  4. Improving the Evidence Base for Treating Older Adults With Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Statement.

    PubMed

    Hurria, Arti; Levit, Laura A; Dale, William; Mohile, Supriya G; Muss, Hyman B; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Magnuson, Allison; Lichtman, Stuart M; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Tew, William P; Postow, Michael A; Cohen, Harvey J

    2015-11-10

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) convened a subcommittee to develop recommendations on improving the evidence base for treating older adults with cancer in response to a critical need identified by the Institute of Medicine. Older adults experience the majority of cancer diagnoses and deaths and make up the majority of cancer survivors. Older adults are also the fastest growing segment of the US population. However, the evidence base for treating this population is sparse, because older adults are underrepresented in clinical trials, and trials designed specifically for older adults are rare. The result is that clinicians have less evidence on how to treat older adults, who represent the majority of patients with cancer. Clinicians and patients are forced to extrapolate from trials conducted in younger, healthier populations when developing treatment plans. This has created a dearth of knowledge regarding the risk of toxicity in the average older patient and about key end points of importance to older adults. ASCO makes five recommendations to improve evidence generation in this population: (1) Use clinical trials to improve the evidence base for treating older adults with cancer, (2) leverage research designs and infrastructure for generating evidence on older adults with cancer, (3) increase US Food and Drug Administration authority to incentivize and require research involving older adults with cancer, (4) increase clinicians' recruitment of older adults with cancer to clinical trials, and (5) use journal policies to improve researchers' reporting on the age distribution and health risk profiles of research participants.

  5. Attitudes toward advertisements of the older adults.

    PubMed

    Estrada, M; Moliner, M A; Sánchez, J

    2010-01-01

    In this study we will analyze the attitude of older adults to advertisements, differentiating between advertisements that contain rhetorical figures (trope ads) and those that do not (explicit ads). We will also study their attitude toward the brand advertised according to their degree of involvement with the product. In the course of the empirical research, a total of 183 personal surveys were carried out with people aged over 65 taking as reference 2 products with different prices and durabilities. Analysis of the results indicated that in products involving little economic effort, older adults showed the same attitude toward both trope and explicit advertisements. However, with products requiring greater economic effort, older adults showed differences in their attitudes to trope ads and to explicit ads depending on their degree of involvement with the product. These differences had a strong effect on their attitudes to the brands of the products analyzed.

  6. Hypothyroidism: challenges when treating older adults.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Tamera

    2013-01-01

    Hypothyroidism frequently affects older adults' general sense of health, their cognitive abilities, and quality of life. Management decisions regarding when to start treatment and at what dosage to begin medication are influenced by both laboratory values and patient symptoms. Although specific guidelines regarding management of hypothyroidism in older adults do not exist, general recommendations include initiating hormone replacement with levothyroxine (Levoxyl(®), Synthroid(®), and others) at 12.5 mcg to 25 mcg and titrating the dose slowly based on response at 6-week intervals. Multiple medications and certain foods can interact with levothyroxine; therefore, the best dosage time is when a person is fasting or 4 hours postprandial. Using a consistent brand-name drug for hormone replacement with levothyroxine is important due to variations in the active ingredient in generic formulations. Providers need to be aware of the prevalence of hypothyroidism and management issues when caring for older adults.

  7. Depression in older adults: screening and referral.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Brown, Ellen; Raue, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Depression is related to disability and affects rehabilitation participation, outcomes, and compliance with treatment. Improving older adult depression detection and referral requires knowledge, skills, supportive organizational policies, and access to mental health experts. This review provides a selected overview of evidence-based approaches for screening of suspected cases of depression in older adults by physical therapists and other non-mental health professionals and discusses procedures to refer suspected cases to primary care providers and/or mental health specialists for evaluation, including resources and a tool to assist in communicating depression-related information to the primary care provider or mental health specialist. We hope that this review will promote the incorporation of evidence-based screening and referral of suspected cases of depression in older adults into routine practice.

  8. Improved Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Daniel E.; Alexander, Karen; Brindis, Ralph G.; Curtis, Anne B.; Maurer, Mathew; Rich, Michael W.; Sperling, Laurence; Wenger, Nanette K.

    2016-01-01

    Longevity is increasing and the population of older adults is growing. The biology of aging is conducive to cardiovascular disease (CVD), such that prevalence of coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, arrhythmia and other disorders are increasing as more adults survive into old age.  Furthermore, CVD in older adults is distinctive, with management issues predictably complicated by multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty and other complexities of care that increase management risks (e.g., bleeding, falls, and rehospitalization) and uncertainty of outcomes.  In this review, state-of-the-art advances in heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, transcatheter aortic valve replacement, atrial fibrillation, amyloidosis, and CVD prevention are discussed.  Conceptual benefits of treatments are considered in relation to the challenges and ambiguities inherent in their application to older patients. PMID:26918183

  9. Everyday Memory Errors in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ossher, Lynn; Flegal, Kristin E.; Lustig, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    Despite concern about cognitive decline in old age, few studies document the types and frequency of memory errors older adults make in everyday life. In the present study, 105 healthy older adults completed the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ; Sunderland, Harris, & Baddeley, 1983), indicating what memory errors they had experienced in the last 24 hours, the Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (MSEQ; West, Thorn, & Bagwell, 2003), and other neuropsychological and cognitive tasks. EMQ and MSEQ scores were unrelated and made separate contributions to variance on the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975), suggesting separate constructs. Tip-of-the-tongue errors were the most commonly reported, and the EMQ Faces/Places and New Things subscales were most strongly related to MMSE. These findings may help training programs target memory errors commonly experienced by older adults, and suggest which types of memory errors could indicate cognitive declines of clinical concern. PMID:22694275

  10. [Substance abuse in older adults].

    PubMed

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen

    2014-09-03

    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective.

  11. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy with Older Adults: Rationale and Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Andrew J.; Wetherell, Julie Loebach

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the population. With these changing demographics, mental health professionals will be seeing more older clients. Additionally, older adults are an underserved population in that most older adults in need of mental health services do not receive treatment. Thus, it is essential that treatments for…

  12. Comprehension of Health-Related Written Materials by Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Kemper, Susan; Bovaird, James A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how Flesch Reading Ease and text cohesion affect older adults' comprehension of common health texts. All older adults benefited when high Flesh Reading Ease was combined with high cohesion. Older adults with small working memories had more difficulty understanding texts high in Flesch Reading Ease. Additionally, older adults…

  13. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy with Older Adults: Rationale and Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Andrew J.; Wetherell, Julie Loebach

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the population. With these changing demographics, mental health professionals will be seeing more older clients. Additionally, older adults are an underserved population in that most older adults in need of mental health services do not receive treatment. Thus, it is essential that treatments for…

  14. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In two studies, we examined whether considering older adults’ preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively as opposed to negatively framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PMID:24956001

  15. Neuropsychological mechanisms of falls in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Chan, John S. Y.; Yan, Jin H.

    2014-01-01

    Falls, a common cause of injury among older adults, have become increasingly prevalent. As the world’s population ages, the increase in—and the prevalence of—falls among older people makes this a serious and compelling societal and healthcare issue. Physical weakness is a critical predictor in falling. While considerable research has examined this relationship, comprehensive reviews of neuropsychological predictors of falls have been lacking. In this paper, we examine and discuss current studies of the neuropsychological predictors of falls in older adults, as related to sporting and non-sporting contexts. By integrating the existing evidence, we propose that brain aging is an important precursor of the increased risk of falls in older adults. Brain aging disrupts the neural integrity of motor outputs and reduces neuropsychological abilities. Older adults may shift from unconscious movement control to more conscious or attentive motor control. Increased understanding of the causes of falls will afford opportunities to reduce their incidence, reduce consequent injuries, improve overall well-being and quality of life, and possibly to prolong life. PMID:24782761

  16. Health Tips for Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity Using the World Around You to Stay Healthy and Fit Very ... good prices. Buy and split bulk items or fresh produce with neighbors. Buy canned or frozen vegetables ...

  17. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W

    2015-08-01

    The health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and understudied. A defined treatment of geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related comorbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This retrospective article highlights the current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. The findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions help one to move closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults.

  18. Evaluation of Syncope in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Teresita M; Constantine, Stephen Tyler; Crain, Aoko Doris

    2016-08-01

    The older adult patient with syncope is one of the most challenging evaluations for the emergency physician. It requires clinical skill, patience, and knowledge of specific older adult issues. It demands care in the identification of necessary resources, such as medication review, and potential linkage with several multidisciplinary follow-up services. Excellent syncope care likely requires reaching out to ensure institutional resources are aligned with emergency department patient needs, thus asking emergency physicians to stretch their administrative talents. This is likely best done as preset protocols prior to individual patient encounters. Emergency physicians evaluate elders with syncope every day and should rise to the challenge to do it well.

  19. Bridging the digital divide in older adults: a study from an initiative to inform older adults about new technologies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Damnée, Souad; Kerhervé, Hélène; Ware, Caitlin; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In a society where technology progresses at an exponential rate, older adults are often unaware of the existence of different kinds of information and communication technologies (ICTs). To bridge the gap, we launched a 2-year project, during which we conducted focus groups (FGs) with demonstrations of ICTs, allowing older adults to try them out and to share their opinions. This study aimed at investigating how participants perceived this kind of initiative and how they reacted to different kinds of ICTs. In total, 14 FGs were conducted with community-dwelling older adults, with a frequency of two FGs on the same topic once per trimester. Twenty-three older adults (four men and 19 women) attended at least one FG but only nearly half of them were regular attendants (ten participating in at least five sessions). Age of participants ranged from 63 years to 88 years, with a mean of 77.1 years. All of them had completed secondary education. The analyses of the data were performed according to inductive thematic analysis. Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis. The first concerned participants' motivation for and assessment of the project. The second theme identified the underlying factors of the "digital divide" between the younger and the older generations. The third theme concerned the factors of technology adoption among older adults. The fourth one identified participants' attitudes toward assistive ICTs, designed specifically for older adults ("gerontechnologies"). This project encouraging older adults to be informed about different kinds of ICTs was positively rated. With regard to ICTs, participants perceived a digital divide. The underlying factors are generation/cohort effects, cognitive and physical decline related to aging, and negative attitudes toward technologies. However, more and more older adults adopt different kinds of ICTs in order to fit in with the society. Concerning assistive ICTs, they manifested a lack of perceived need and usefulness

  20. Bridging the digital divide in older adults: a study from an initiative to inform older adults about new technologies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Damnée, Souad; Kerhervé, Hélène; Ware, Caitlin; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In a society where technology progresses at an exponential rate, older adults are often unaware of the existence of different kinds of information and communication technologies (ICTs). To bridge the gap, we launched a 2-year project, during which we conducted focus groups (FGs) with demonstrations of ICTs, allowing older adults to try them out and to share their opinions. This study aimed at investigating how participants perceived this kind of initiative and how they reacted to different kinds of ICTs. Patients and methods In total, 14 FGs were conducted with community-dwelling older adults, with a frequency of two FGs on the same topic once per trimester. Twenty-three older adults (four men and 19 women) attended at least one FG but only nearly half of them were regular attendants (ten participating in at least five sessions). Age of participants ranged from 63 years to 88 years, with a mean of 77.1 years. All of them had completed secondary education. The analyses of the data were performed according to inductive thematic analysis. Results Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis. The first concerned participants’ motivation for and assessment of the project. The second theme identified the underlying factors of the “digital divide” between the younger and the older generations. The third theme concerned the factors of technology adoption among older adults. The fourth one identified participants’ attitudes toward assistive ICTs, designed specifically for older adults (“gerontechnologies”). Discussions and conclusion This project encouraging older adults to be informed about different kinds of ICTs was positively rated. With regard to ICTs, participants perceived a digital divide. The underlying factors are generation/cohort effects, cognitive and physical decline related to aging, and negative attitudes toward technologies. However, more and more older adults adopt different kinds of ICTs in order to fit in with the society

  1. Older Adult Participation in Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives of Facility Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tim; Hyner, Gerald C.

    2011-01-01

    Administrators of older adult-centered facilities must identify barriers to the planning and implementation of health promotion programs. In this qualitative research those barriers were identified through in-depth interviews with administrators of older adult-centered facilities. As identified by administrators, the predominant barriers to the…

  2. Older Adult Participation in Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives of Facility Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tim; Hyner, Gerald C.

    2011-01-01

    Administrators of older adult-centered facilities must identify barriers to the planning and implementation of health promotion programs. In this qualitative research those barriers were identified through in-depth interviews with administrators of older adult-centered facilities. As identified by administrators, the predominant barriers to the…

  3. Motivations of older Chinese adult learners in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyi; Fu, Yuanyuan; Chui, Ernest W T

    2016-01-01

    Motivation for learning, as an important aspect pertaining to studying the phenomenon of elder learning, is not fully explored in Hong Kong. This study was designed to create a measurement to investigate the possible diversity of motivations of elder learners, so as to harness the older people's potential in learning and thus capitalize on productive ageing. 283 older learners participating in learning activities at elder centres were interviewed. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify the latent factors in the learning motivation scale. Reliability of the scale was assessed. ANOVA testing was used to assess for differences in learning motivation by different socio-demographic variables. Four dimensions of older Chinese adults' motivations for engaging in learning have been found: 'keeping up with and contributing to society', 'fulfilment', 'social integration' and 'reemployment'. Elders with higher education levels were more likely to seek out opportunities for lifelong learning. Younger (aged 55 to 64) participants of learning activities were more likely than their older (aged 75 or above) counterparts to learn for fulfillment. Older adults who had volunteer experience were more motivated to engage in learning through keeping up with and contributing to society. Older learners in Hong Kong participated in learning for self-fulfilment and development, contributing to society, maintaining social connection, and acquisition of knowledge and qualifications for possible (re)employment. Some of their socio-demographic features might influence their motivations. Learning programmes could be designed and improved based on older adults' motivations to meet their needs.

  4. Experience of sport stacking in Korean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chae-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Today sedentary lifestyles are a major public health concern and there are many evidences related to physical inactivity. The well-documented evidence is that regular physical activity is an essential part for improving overall health with advancing aging and the most efficient means playing roles of rehabilitation and prehabilitation. However, there are few activity programs which could motivate older adults to continue and maintain their active lifestyles. The purpose of the current study was to describe experience of sport stacking which applied to Korean older adults in the first time. Eighteen older adults living in the community in Seoul which was the capital and largest metropolis of the Republic of Korea participated in the study. A qualitative interview and a survey were conducted and data were analyzed by interpretive content analysis. Individual, semistructured, face-to-face interviews were recorded, transcribed, condensed and coded to find themes. The main themes were identified regarding older adults’ experience of sport stacking: enjoyment of sport stacking, attitudes toward sport stacking as a physical activity program, and benefits from sport stacking. In conclusions, Korean older adults had positive experience of sport stacking and it was necessary for developing strategies to spread it as the physical activity program for older persons in Korea to improve their health and quality of life. PMID:28349032

  5. Negotiating Depression Treatment with Older Adults: Primary Care Providers’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wittink, Marsha N.; Givens, Jane L.; Knott, Kathryn A.; Coyne, James C.; Barg, Frances K.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Whether and how primary care providers consider older patients’ perceptions of depression may have an impact on patients’ acceptance of treatment. AIM To explore how physicians view and experience the process of discussing depression diagnosis and care with older adults. METHOD Semi-structured interviews conducted with 15 providers involved with intervention studies of depression management for older adults. We used the constant comparative method to identify themes related to negotiating the diagnosis and treatment of depression with older adults. RESULTS Providers felt that older patients often attribute depression to non-medical causes. They talked about the challenges of treating older adults and described the need to “convince” them of the medical model of depression to enter them into standard treatment (medication). CONCLUSION How primary care physicians surmise patients’ views of depression may influence whether and how depression is discussed in practice. Given that they most often provide medication for depression treatment, some may feel compelled to convince their patients of biomedical explanations while others may avoid treating depression altogether. DECLARATION OF INTEREST Dr. Marsha Wittink was supported by an NIMH Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Career Development Award (MH073658). Provider interviews were funded by the Advanced Center for Interventions and Services Research of the University of Pennsylvania. PMID:21780938

  6. Emerging HIV epidemic among older adults in Nanning, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjie; Lin, Xinqin; Xu, Yongfang; Chen, Shiyi; Shi, Jian; Morisky, Donald

    2012-10-01

    The HIV/AIDS surveillance data indicates that the proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) who were 50 years old or older increased to 42.7% in 2011 from 16.5% in 2007 in Nanning, the capital city of Guangxi Province. A greater number of newly diagnosed HIV cases compared to clinical AIDS cases were identified from older adults. The dominant HIV transmission mode among older PLWHAs was heterosexual although approximately 30% of all PLWHAs acquired HIV through heterosexual contacts.

  7. Systematic Review of Falls in Older Adults with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wildes, Tanya M; Dua, Priya; Fowler, Susan A.; Miller, J. Philip; Carpenter, Christopher R.; Avidan, Michael S.; Stark, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives lder adults frequently experience falls, at great cost to themselves and society. Older adults with cancer may be at greater risk for falls and have unique risk factors. Materials and Methods We undertook a systematic review of the available medical literature to examine the current evidence regarding factors associated with falls in older adults with cancer. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, CENTRAL, DARE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and clinical trials.gov were searched using standardized terms for concepts of oncology/cancer, people 60 and older, screening, falls and diagnosis. Eligible studies included cohort or case-control studies or clinical trials in which all patients, or a subgroup of patients, had a diagnosis of cancer and in which falls were either the primary or secondary outcome. Results We identified 31 studies that met our inclusion criteria. Several studies suggest that falls are more common in older adults with a diagnosis of cancer than those without. Among the 11 studies that explored factors associated with outpatient falls, some risk factors for falls established in the general population were also associated with falls in older adults with cancer, including dependence in activities of daily living and prior falls. Other factors associated with falls in a general population, such as age, polypharmacy and opioid use, were not predictive of falls among oncology populations. Falls among older adults with cancer in the inpatient setting were associated with established risk factors for falls in people without cancer, but also with factors unique to an oncology population, such as brain metastases. Conclusions Falls in older adults with cancer are more common than in the general population, and are associated with risk factors unique to people with cancer. Further study is needed to establish methods of screening older adults with cancer for fall risk and ultimately implement interventions to reduce their risk of falls. Identifying

  8. Joint Attention is Slowed in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Deroche, Thomas; Castanier, Carole; Perrot, Alexandra; Hartley, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The automatic propensity to orient to the location where other people are looking is the main way of establishing joint attention with others. Whereas joint attention has been mostly investigated with young adults, the present study examines age-related differences in the magnitude and time course of joint attention. Forty-three community-dwelling seniors and 43 younger adults performed a visuospatial task. The procedures closely follow those of gaze-cueing tasks commonly used to investigate joint attention. The findings revealed that a gaze-cueing effect occurs for both younger and older adults, with an equivalent average magnitude but with different time courses. The effect peaks later in older adults. Age-related differences in joint attention could be linked to a more general cognitive slowing rather than to poorer basic social skills. The present study adds to the growing interest in gerontological research regarding social attention.

  9. Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

  10. Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

  11. Location tracking: views from the older adult population.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lisa; Little, Linda; Briggs, Pam; McInnes, Lynn; Jones, Emma; Nicholson, James

    2013-11-01

    there has been a rise in the use of social media applications that allow people to see where friends, family and nearby services are located. Yet while uptake has been high for younger people, adoption by older adults is relatively slow, despite the potential health and social benefits. In this paper, we explore the barriers to acceptance of location-based services (LBS) in a community of older adults. to understand attitudes to LBS technologies in older adults. eighty-six older adults used LBS for 1-week and completed pre- and post-use questionnaires. Twenty available volunteers from the first study also completed in-depth interviews after their experience using the LBS technology. the pre-use questionnaire identified perceptions of usefulness, individual privacy and visibility as predictive of intentions to use a location-tracking service. Post-use, perceived risk was the only factor to predict intention to use LBS. Interviews with participants revealed that LBS was primarily seen as an assistive technology and that issues of trust and privacy were important. the findings from this study suggest older adults struggle to see the benefits of LBS and have a number of privacy concerns likely to inhibit future uptake of location-tracking services and devices.

  12. Geriatric Syndromes in Older HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Meredith; Covinsky, Kenneth E.; Valcour, Victor; Miao, Yinghui; Madamba, Joy; Lampiris, Harry; Cenzer, Irena Stijacic; Martin, Jeffrey; Deeks, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Geriatric syndromes such as falls, frailty, and functional impairment are multifactorial conditions used to identify vulnerable older adults. Limited data exists on these conditions in older HIV-infected adults and no studies have comprehensively examined these conditions. Methods Geriatric syndromes including falls, urinary incontinence, functional impairment, frailty, sensory impairment, depression and cognitive impairment were measured in a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults age 50 and older who had an undetectable viral load on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined both HIV and non-HIV related predictors of geriatric syndromes including sociodemographics, number of co-morbidities and non-antiretroviral medications, and HIV specific variables in multivariate analyses. Results We studied 155 participants with a median age of 57 (IQR 54-62); (94%) were men. Pre-frailty (56%), difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (46%), and cognitive impairment (47%) were the most frequent geriatric syndromes. Lower CD4 nadir (IRR 1.16, 95% CI 1.06-1.26), non-white race (IRR 1.38, 95% CI 1.10-1.74), and increasing number of comorbidities (IRR 1.09, 95%CI 1.03-1.15) were associated with increased risk of having more geriatric syndromes. Conclusions Geriatric syndromes are common in older HIV infected adults. Treatment of comorbidities and early initiation of ART may help to prevent development of these age related complications. Clinical care of older HIV-infected adults should consider incorporation of geriatric principles. PMID:26009828

  13. Dual Sensory Loss in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Heine, Chyrisse; Browning, Colette

    2015-10-01

    Combined vision and hearing loss [dual sensory loss (DSL)] is commonly experienced by older adults. The literature on comorbidities and outcomes associated with DSL in older adults is limited and thus a systematic review was conducted to explore the existing research and identify gaps in the evidence base. A review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews. Forty-two articles were selected for review. Although several studies evaluated DSL and its comorbidities and impacts, few fully met the criteria for good study design. Reviewed studies primarily investigated DSL and its comorbidities using cross-sectional methods and varying methods of vision and hearing assessment. Many of the studies were large population studies that did not provide sufficient information to draw valid conclusions about the impact of DSL in older adults. Studies focusing specifically on sensory loss in older people across a broad age range are needed to inform clinical practice so that DSL and its impacts in older adults can be identified and managed, leading to improved quality of life for this population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The Moderating Role of Age-Group Identification and Perceived Threat on Stereotype Threat among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sonia K.; Chasteen, Alison L.

    2009-01-01

    Although research has shown that older adults are negatively affected by aging stereotypes, relatively few studies have attempted to identify those older adults who may be especially susceptible to these effects. The current research takes steps toward identifying older adults most susceptible to the effects of stereotype threat and investigates…

  15. The International Network for Older Adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Dianne

    1992-07-01

    Although funds were not available to bring members of the Older Adults Network to the World Assembly of Adult Education in January 1990, there was, among the delegates, considerable interest in the subject and several meetings were arranged. The thing that struck me most was not how different were our situations, coming as we did from every corner of the earth, but how many problems and concerns we had in common. With the second Network Newsletter, sent out in the spring of 1991, questionnaires asked for brief details of schemes which involved older people in projects that were, in some way, conservational. They could be involved in conserving language, mythology or history. They might be working to improve and save their environment. The aim is to establish a small but useful register of such projects in sufficient detail to encourage contact and replication by others. For this purpose, small grants are being made available from the money given by CIDA. Slowly but surely, the Older Adults Network is gathering information about positive actions being taken to ensure that older people, in all countries, have the skills and opportunities they need to continue as fully participating citizens. With the rapidly increasing number of older people in all our countries, this small beginning will, hopefully, be a foundation on which much important work will be done in the years to come.

  16. Strategies to improve diet in older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mary Ann

    2013-02-01

    It is estimated that by 2050 there will be 2 billion people aged 60 years and older in the world. The evidence base for the health benefits of good nutrition and physical activity, as well as weight loss among overweight and obese adults, is growing and a number of policies and guidelines are available to guide health professionals in serving older people at various stages of the lifecycle. There are many potential influences on dietary habits including individual factors, families and friends, community characteristics, the food and supplement industry, and public policy. This review focuses on the evidence base for factors influencing diet in older adults, food insecurity, Na, vitamin D, vitamin B12, protein, obesity and the benefits of energy restriction in overweight and obese older adults. Research is needed to continue to increase the evidence base for appropriate ways to improve diet and health in older people. Also, much of the available information is from the US, so there is a need to conduct research in other areas of the world.

  17. Digital Skills Acquisition: Future Trends among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify future trends and barriers that will either facilitate or impede the narrowing of the digital skills divide among older adults during the next 10 years. Methodology: To address the research questions, this study used a modified version of the Delphi process using a panel of experts who…

  18. Keeping It Safe: Aging in Place among Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina G.; Bishop, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study addressed in this article was to identify ways to reduce risk and improve safe aging in place among rural older adults. Resident and Extension faculty and county educators visited study participants at home to assess functional capacity and the home environment. Extension professionals may be uniquely positioned to provide…

  19. Digital Gaming Perspectives of Older Adults: Content vs. Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Hannah R.

    2013-01-01

    There were two objectives to this study: (a) to establish flow and (2) to establish whether computer game interaction or content was important to the older adult, using the Nintendo Wii and the Sony PlayStation 2 consoles. An earlier study had identified the sports genre as a preference, and three games (golf, tennis, and boxing) were selected…

  20. Digital Gaming Perspectives of Older Adults: Content vs. Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Hannah R.

    2013-01-01

    There were two objectives to this study: (a) to establish flow and (2) to establish whether computer game interaction or content was important to the older adult, using the Nintendo Wii and the Sony PlayStation 2 consoles. An earlier study had identified the sports genre as a preference, and three games (golf, tennis, and boxing) were selected…

  1. Participation in Learning and Wellbeing among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify the effects of participation in learning on the subjective wellbeing of older adults. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a large-scale, nationally representative survey of those aged 50 and above. The survey contains several wellbeing measures and information on three…

  2. Participation in Learning and Wellbeing among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify the effects of participation in learning on the subjective wellbeing of older adults. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a large-scale, nationally representative survey of those aged 50 and above. The survey contains several wellbeing measures and information on three…

  3. Digital Skills Acquisition: Future Trends among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify future trends and barriers that will either facilitate or impede the narrowing of the digital skills divide among older adults during the next 10 years. Methodology: To address the research questions, this study used a modified version of the Delphi process using a panel of experts who…

  4. Keeping It Safe: Aging in Place among Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina G.; Bishop, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study addressed in this article was to identify ways to reduce risk and improve safe aging in place among rural older adults. Resident and Extension faculty and county educators visited study participants at home to assess functional capacity and the home environment. Extension professionals may be uniquely positioned to provide…

  5. Older Adults' Online Dating Profiles and Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Wada, Mineko; Mortenson, William Bennett; Hurd Clarke, Laura

    2016-12-01

    This study examined how relevant Rowe and Kahn's three criteria of successful aging were to older adults' self-portrayals in online dating profiles: low probability of disease and disability, high functioning, and active life engagement. In this cross-sectional study, 320 online dating profiles of older adults were randomly selected and coded based on the criteria. Logistic regression analyses determined whether age, gender, and race/ethnicity predicted self-presentation. Few profiles were indicative of successful aging due to the low prevalence of the first two criteria; the third criterion, however, was identified in many profiles. Native Americans were significantly less likely than other ethnic groups to highlight the first two criteria. Younger age predicted presenting the first criterion. Women's presentation of the third criterion remained significantly high with age. The findings suggest that the criteria may be unimportant to older adults when seeking partners, or they may reflect the exclusivity of this construct.

  6. HIV behavioural interventions targeted towards older adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing number of people living with HIV aged 50 years and older has been recognised around the world yet non-pharmacologic HIV behavioural and cognitive interventions specifically targeted to older adults are limited. Evidence is needed to guide the response to this affected group. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the available published literature in MEDLINE, Embase and the Education Resources Information Center. A search strategy was defined with high sensitivity but low specificity to identify behavioural interventions with outcomes in the areas of treatment adherence, HIV testing uptake, increased HIV knowledge and uptake of prevention measures. Data from relevant articles were extracted into excel. Results Twelve articles were identified all of which originated from the Americas. Eight of the interventions were conducted among older adults living with HIV and four for HIV-negative older adults. Five studies included control groups. Of the included studies, four focused on general knowledge of HIV, three emphasised mental health and coping, two focused on reduced sexual risk behaviour, two on physical status and one on referral for care. Only four of the studies were randomised controlled trials and seven – including all of the studies among HIV-negative older adults – did not include controls at all. A few of the studies conducted statistical testing on small samples of 16 or 11 older adults making inference based on the results difficult. The most relevant study demonstrated that using telephone-based interventions can reduce risky sexual behaviour among older adults with control reporting 3.24 times (95% CI 1.79-5.85) as many occasions of unprotected sex at follow-up as participants. Overall however, few of the articles are sufficiently rigorous to suggest broad replication or to be considered representative and applicable in other settings. Conclusions More evidence is needed on what interventions work among older adults to

  7. Optimizing Tailored Health Promotion for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Marcus-Varwijk, Anne Esther; Koopmans, Marg; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Seidell, Jacob C.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Smits, Carolien H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study explores older adults’ perspectives on healthy living, and their interactions with professionals regarding healthy living. This perspective is necessary for health professionals when they engage in tailored health promotion in their daily work routines. Method: In a qualitative study, 18 semi-structured interviews were carried out with older adults (aged 55-98) living in the Netherlands. The framework analysis method was used to analyze the transcripts. Results: Three themes emerged from the data—(a) healthy living: daily routines and staying active, (b) enacting healthy living: accepting and adapting, (c) interaction with health professionals with regard to healthy living: autonomy and reciprocity. Discussion: Older adults experience healthy living in a holistic way in which they prefer to live active and independent lives. Health professionals should focus on building an equal relationship of trust and focus on positive health outcomes, such as autonomy and self-sufficiency when communicating about healthy living. PMID:28138485

  8. Optimizing Sleep in Older Adults: Treating Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Wennberg, Alexandra M.; Canham, Sarah L.; Smith, Michael T.; Spira, Adam P.

    2013-01-01

    As the world’s population ages, the elevated prevalence of insomnia in older adults is a growing concern. Insomnia is characterized by difficulty falling or remaining asleep, or by non-restorative sleep, and resultant daytime dysfunction. In addition to being at elevated risk for primary insomnia, older adults are at greater risk for comorbid insomnia, which results from, or occurs in conjunction with another medical or psychiatric condition. In this review, we discuss normal changes in sleep that accompany aging, circadian rhythm changes and other factors that can contribute to late-life insomnia, useful tools for the assessment of insomnia and related problems in older people, and both non-pharmacological and pharmacological strategies for the management of insomnia and optimization of sleep in later life. PMID:23746664

  9. Walking and Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Strath, Scott; Swartz, Ann; Parker, Sarah; Miller, Nora; Cieslik, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Background Little data exists describing the impact that walking has on metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a multicultural sample of older adults. Methods Walking was measured via pedometer in 150 older adults from 4 different ethnic categories. Steps per day were classified as low (<3100 steps/d) or high (≥3100 steps/d) for statistical analyses. Results Occurrence of MetS was lower in the white (33%) versus non-white population (50%). Low steps/d were related to an increase in MetS for both white (OR = 96.8, 95% CI 12.3–764.6) and non-white individuals (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.8–11.3). Low steps/d also increased the odds for selected components of MetS in both the white and non-white groups. Conclusion Low levels of walking increase the likelihood of having MetS in both white and non-white older adults. Efforts to increase walking in older adults may decrease the likelihood of developing this clustering of disease risk factors. PMID:18209231

  10. Exercise Prescribing: Computer Application in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kressig, Reto W.; Echt, Katharina V.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if older adults are capable and willing to interact with a computerized exercise promotion interface and to determine to what extent they accept computer-generated exercise recommendations. Design and Methods: Time and requests for assistance were recorded while 34 college-educated volunteers,…

  11. Older adults have difficulty in decoding sarcasm.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Louise H; Allen, Roy; Bull, Rebecca; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Channon, Shelley

    2015-12-01

    Younger and older adults differ in performance on a range of social-cognitive skills, with older adults having difficulties in decoding nonverbal cues to emotion and intentions. Such skills are likely to be important when deciding whether someone is being sarcastic. In the current study we investigated in a life span sample whether there are age-related differences in the interpretation of sarcastic statements. Using both video and verbal materials, 116 participants aged between 18 and 86 completed judgments about whether statements should be interpreted literally or sarcastically. For the verbal stories task, older adults were poorer at understanding sarcastic intent compared with younger and middle-aged participants, but there was no age difference in interpreting control stories. For the video task, older adults showed poorer understanding of sarcastic exchanges compared with younger and middle-aged counterparts, but there was no age difference in understanding the meaning of sincere interactions. For the videos task, the age differences were mediated by the ability to perceive facial expressions of emotion. Age effects could not be explained in terms of variance in working memory. These results indicate that increased age is associated with specific difficulties in using nonverbal and contextual cues to understand sarcastic intent. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Community College Older Adult Program Development Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getskow, Veronica

    This guide provides information and suggestions for developing programs that meet the needs of older adults at community colleges. Recommended procedures are presented for the following stages of program development: (1) leadership influences, highlighting the process of hiring effective leaders, key leadership skills, and leaders'…

  13. Correlates of Sex Roles of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Jan D.

    1982-01-01

    Community-dwelling older adults (N=364) described their own sex roles using the Bem Sex Role Inventory and were tested with additional measures of mental and physical health and current life situation. Most elderly persons described androgynous roles. Perceived sex roles related to several dimensions of life situation and well-being. (Author)

  14. Social participation and older adults' sleep.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Hao; Lauderdale, Diane S; Waite, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Sleep complaints are common among older adults, and poor sleep has been found to predict chronic diseases and mortality. Many studies suggest that social participation benefits healthy aging. We examined the relationships between older adults' social participation and their sleep using two waves (2005-2006, 2010-2011) of data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). The NSHAP recorded older adults' social participation (including religious attendance, volunteer work, and attendance at meetings of organized groups) over five years, and included self-reported sleep duration in both waves and, in the second wave, measures of insomnia symptoms and measures of sleep patterns and rhythms using actigraphy for a subsample. Cross-sectional analysis of the second wave indicates that those reporting higher levels of social participation had better actigraphic sleep but not better self-reported sleep. However, longitudinal analysis suggests that change in social participation was not associated with actigraphic or self-reported sleep characteristics in the second wave data. Further analysis using fixed-effects model showed no association between change in social participation and change in self-reported sleep duration. Thus, although older adults with greater social participation slept better, we did not find that increasing social participation improved sleep. These findings imply that a self-selection process may at work; or if social participation does affect sleep, the causal effect may be over a much shorter time frame than five years.

  15. Attitudes toward Advertisements of the Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, M.; Moliner, M. A.; Sanchez, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we will analyze the attitude of older adults to advertisements, differentiating between advertisements that contain rhetorical figures (trope ads) and those that do not (explicit ads). We will also study their attitude toward the brand advertised according to their degree of involvement with the product. In the course of the…

  16. Services for Older Adults: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumme, Debbie

    This curriculum guide contains materials for a course that provides occupationally specific training designed to develop knowledge and skills for employment in the area of services for older adults. Contents include an introduction, the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) covered; sample course outlines; instructional strategies organized…

  17. Mobility in Older Adults: A Comprehensive Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Sandra C.; Porter, Michelle M.; Menec, Verena H.

    2010-01-01

    Mobility is fundamental to active aging and is intimately linked to health status and quality of life. Although there is widespread acceptance regarding the importance of mobility in older adults, there have been few attempts to comprehensively portray mobility, and research has to a large extent been discipline specific. In this article, a new…

  18. Expressive Group Psychotherapy with the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szwabo, Peggy; Thale, Thomas T.

    Traditionally, the elderly have not been viewed as appropriate candidates for dynamic psychotherapy. To examine the effectiveness of a psycho-dynamically oriented group (focusing on the issues of aging, conflict resolution, and self-actualization) on 6 older adult participants, ages 63 to 87 years, systematic clinical observations of group…

  19. Attitudes toward Advertisements of the Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, M.; Moliner, M. A.; Sanchez, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we will analyze the attitude of older adults to advertisements, differentiating between advertisements that contain rhetorical figures (trope ads) and those that do not (explicit ads). We will also study their attitude toward the brand advertised according to their degree of involvement with the product. In the course of the…

  20. Community Service by Visually Impaired Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkman, Susan C. J.

    1984-01-01

    The Braille Institute's Community Outreach Program provides adventitiously blinded older adults with opportunities to volunteer in local community agencies, schools, and hospitals upon completion of the institute's special education program. Students use new independence skills in a functional social environment, thereby increasing their…

  1. Clinical Assessment Research with Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Rue, Asenath; Markee, Taryn

    1995-01-01

    Methodological issues in geropsychological assessment research are discussed and illustrated through recent investigations. Cross-sectional studies are needed to extend and diversify age norms, and short-term longitudinal studies should be planned to assess the predictive validity of test outcomes and diagnostic profiles of older adults. (SLD)

  2. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of dementia, in particular Alzheimer’s disease, is increasing with the expansion of the older adult population. In the absence of effective therapy, preventive approaches are essential to mitigate this public health problem. Blueberries contain polyphenolic compounds, most prominent...

  3. A Nutritional Questionnaire for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanelli, Marie T.; Abernethy, Marilyn M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a questionnaire assessing nutritional knowledge and eating behaviors of older adults. The questionnaire consists of six sections: demographic and personal information, food resources, food consumption patterns, dietary practices related to health, activity patterns, and nutritional knowledge. Study results demonstrating the…

  4. Exercise Prescribing: Computer Application in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kressig, Reto W.; Echt, Katharina V.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if older adults are capable and willing to interact with a computerized exercise promotion interface and to determine to what extent they accept computer-generated exercise recommendations. Design and Methods: Time and requests for assistance were recorded while 34 college-educated volunteers,…

  5. Online Attention Training for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, Alexandra; Kueider, Alexandra; Spira, Adam; Adams, Gregory; Rager, Robert; Rebok, George

    Evidence suggests that cognitive training interventions can improve older adults' cognitive performance. Successful training programs are adaptable and train multiple cognitive domains to target individual strengths and weaknesses. Computerized training programs are useful because they allow older adults to easily access training. This pilot study used an online attention training program, ATTENTION WORKOUT™, to enhance three aspects of attention- coordination, allocation, and selective focus -in community-dwelling older adults randomized to either an abbreviated (n=13) or an extended (n=17) practice training program over a 6-week period. Participants in the extended practice group significantly improved on selective focus reading distraction tasks with unrelated words (U=39.5; Z=-2.34; p=.02) and blanks (U=26.5; Z=-3.05; p=.002) as well as a matching attributes task (U=49.5; Z=-2.33; p=.02). The extended practice group significantly improved on three tasks of coordinating attention - radio-tuning (U=30; Z=-2.73; p=.01), circuit-breaker resetting (U=46; Z=-2.24; p=.03), and the combination of the two tasks (U=15; Z=-3.51; p<.0001) - as well as a memory generalization task (U=20; Z=-3.27; p=.001). A post-test satisfaction survey found both groups enjoyed the program, but the abbreviated practice group felt the tasks were more difficult. These findings suggest online attention training programs, like ATTENTION WORKOUT, can improve attention-related skills in community-dwelling older adults.

  6. Endurance of Undergraduate Attitudes toward Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funderburk, Brooke; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Storms, Lene Levy; Solomon, David H.

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed undergraduate attitudes toward older adults and attitude endurance 3 to 18 months after aging coursework. Survey respondents included 349 students who took an aging elective and 430 comparison students. Aging-elective students indicated more positive attitudes than comparison students. Attitudes did not vary…

  7. Mobility in Older Adults: A Comprehensive Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Sandra C.; Porter, Michelle M.; Menec, Verena H.

    2010-01-01

    Mobility is fundamental to active aging and is intimately linked to health status and quality of life. Although there is widespread acceptance regarding the importance of mobility in older adults, there have been few attempts to comprehensively portray mobility, and research has to a large extent been discipline specific. In this article, a new…

  8. Older adults challenged financially when adult children move home.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Steven P; Padilla-Frausto, D Imelda

    2014-02-01

    This policy brief looks at the financial burdens imposed on older Californians when adult children return home, often due to a crisis not of their own making, to live with their parents. The findings show that on average in California, the amount of money that older adults need in order to maintain a minimally decent standard of living while supporting one adult child in their home increases their expenses by a minimum of 50 percent. Low-income older adults are usually on fixed incomes, so helping an adult child can provide the child with a critical safety net but at the cost of the parents' own financial well-being. Policy approaches to assisting this vulnerable population of older adults include implementing reforms to increase Supplemental Security Income (SSI), improving the availability of affordable housing, assuring that all eligible nonelderly adults obtain health insurance through health care reform's expansion of Medi-Cal and subsidies, and increasing food assistance through SNAP and senior meal programs.

  9. Screening for Suicide Risk in Adolescents, Adults, and Older Adults in Primary Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force Recommendations Screening for Suicide Risk in Adolescents, Adults, and Older Adults in Primary Care The ... recommendation statement on Screening for Suicide Risk in Adolescents, Adults, and Older Adults in Primary Care. This ...

  10. Barriers and facilitators of Hispanic older adult mental health service utilization in the USA.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Erin De; Woods-Giscombe, Cheryl L; Beeber, Linda S

    2015-01-01

    Mental health providers in the USA encounter the challenge and opportunity to engage the rapidly growing population of Hispanic older adults in evidence-based mental health treatments. This population underutilizes mental health services, despite comparable or slightly higher rates of mental illness compared with non-Hispanic White older adults. This review identified barriers and facilitators of mental health service use by Hispanic older adults in the USA to identify practice, policy, and research implications. Hispanic older adults face multiple compounding barriers to mental health service use. Issues related to identification of needs, availability of services, accessibility of services, and acceptability of mental healthcare treatment are discussed.

  11. Light therapy for insomnia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gammack, Julie K

    2008-02-01

    Exposure to bright light suppresses the production of melatonin and contributes to the regulation of the circadian rhythm. Because of environmental and medical conditions, older adults are less likely than younger adults to receive the prolonged, high intensity, daily bright light needed to promote a satisfactory sleep-wake cycle. The best available evidence for bright light therapy is in the management of seasonal affective disorder, which is relatively infrequent in the elderly population. For older adults with chronic insomnia, dementia, and nonseasonal depression, there is no consensus on the optimum treatment protocol for bright light therapy. However, in addition to sleep improvement, bright light therapy may be used to reduce unwanted behavioral and cognitive symptoms associated with dementia and depression in the elderly.

  12. Virtual augmented exercise gaming for older adults.

    PubMed

    Van Schaik, Paul; Blake, Jonathan; Pernet, Fred; Spears, Iain; Fencott, Clive

    2008-02-01

    This paper details the design, development, and testing of virtual augmented exercise (VAE) gaming for older adults. Three versions of an underwater VAE environment were tested with a sample of 22 healthy adults aged 50 or over. Participants strongly preferred VAE to traditional physical exercise, and adherence rate was 100%. The findings suggest that VAE with puzzles changes or negates the expected negative associations among exercise outcomes. Fitness level was not associated with performance in the game, irrespective of VAE type, indicating that persons who are less physically fit can expect to perform similarly to those who are more physically fit. In conclusion, the research found some evidence for the benefits of VAE with cognitive exercise (solving simple puzzles and hitting targets based on the answer). This type of exercise appears to be a promising method of exercise for older adults.

  13. Cognitive behavioural therapy for older adults with depression: a review.

    PubMed

    Jayasekara, Rasika; Procter, Nicholas; Harrison, Julie; Skelton, Kerim; Hampel, Sally; Draper, Russell; Deuter, Kate

    2015-06-01

    Depression is a major public health concern of global significance. The illness diminishes overall quality of life and has been associated with significant distress and disability in physical, interpersonal, and social role functioning. Over the past few decades, a consensus has evolved that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can be an effective treatment for depression in older adults; however, little attention has been given to its effect on them. The purpose of this review was to examine the current use of CBT and its effect on older adults with depression. A web-based literature search was performed to identify original research articles published from 2000 to 2013 using a three-step search strategy. Evidence indicates that cognitive behavioural therapies are likely to be efficacious in older people when compared with treatment as usual. This is consistent with the findings of several systematic reviews and meta-analyses undertaken across a wider age range. Given that many older adults with depression are reluctant to accept antidepressant medication or unable to tolerate their side effects, CBT can be used as an option in treating depression in older adults.

  14. Family caregiving for dependent older adults in Thai families.

    PubMed

    Wongsawang, Nongnuch; Lagampan, Sunee; Lapvongwattana, Punyarat; Bowers, Barbara J

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to understand how Thai families care for dependent older adults. The methodology used for the study was grounded dimensional analysis. Participants were 30 adult family members from 15 families who were involved in caregiving. A total of 46 interviews were conducted. Data were collected and analyzed in three phases: (a) calling up dimensions, (b) assigning relative value to each of the dimension considers, and (c) inferring. In Thai families, "natural caregiving" precedes care of dependent older persons (dependent caregiving). Dependent caregiving begins when dependency is first noticed and care needs are identified. Dependent caregiving is a dynamic process integrating three major processes: (a) mobilizing family members, (b) performing dependent care, and (c) maintaining continuity of care. The consequences of performing dependent care and unpredictable changes lead to care remobilizing. Dependent care for older adults varies across and is influenced by many conditions. Health personnel need to assess and monitor these varying conditions in order to support Thai families caring for dependent older adults. The conceptual model developed from the findings of this study provide a starting place for increasing our understanding of how to help Thai families care effectively and continuously for their older family members. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  15. What Older Adults Need to Know about Retail Clinics

    MedlinePlus

    What Older Adults Need to Know about Retail Clinics Expert Information from Healthcare Professionals Who Specialize in the Care of Older Adults Retail clinics are medical clinics based in pharmacies, supermarkets, ...

  16. Living with Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Problems Nutrition Osteoporosis Stroke Related Documents PDF Living With Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Living With Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should ...

  17. Could Obesity Undermine Memory Training in Older Adults?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163198.html Could Obesity Undermine Memory Training in Older Adults? Study adds ... training is less beneficial for older adults with obesity, but we really don't know why," said ...

  18. Chronic Eccentric Exercise and the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Gluchowski, Ashley; Harris, Nigel; Dulson, Deborah; Cronin, John

    2015-10-01

    Eccentric exercise has gained increasing attention as a suitable and promising intervention to delay or mitigate the known physical and physiological declines associated with aging. Determining the relative efficacy of eccentric exercise when compared with the more conventionally prescribed traditional resistance exercise will support evidence-based prescribing for the aging population. Thus, original research studies incorporating chronic eccentric exercise interventions in the older adult population were included in this review. The effects of a range of eccentric exercise modalities on muscular strength, functional capacity, body composition, muscle architecture, markers of muscle damage, the immune system, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and rating of perceived exertion were all reviewed as outcomes of particular interest in the older adult. Muscular strength was found to increase most consistently compared with results from traditional resistance exercise. Functional capacity and body composition showed significant improvements with eccentric endurance protocols, especially in older, frail or sedentary cohorts. Muscle damage was avoided with the gradual progression of novel eccentric exercise, while muscle damage from intense acute bouts was significantly attenuated with repeated sessions. Eccentric exercise causes little cardiovascular stress; thus, it may not generate the overload required to elicit cardiovascular adaptations. An anabolic state may be achievable following eccentric exercise, while improvements to insulin sensitivity have not been found. Finally, rating of perceived exertion during eccentric exercise was often significantly lower than during traditional resistance exercise. Overall, evidence supports the prescription of eccentric exercise for the majority of outcomes of interest in the diverse cohorts of the older adult population.

  19. Piloting the older adult financial exploitation measure in adult safeguarding services.

    PubMed

    Phelan, A; Fealy, G; Downes, C

    2017-01-27

    Financial abuse is arguably the most complex form of elder abuse as it may occur remote to the older person and it is impacted by issues such as cultural values, perpetrator intent and family expectations. Financial abuse may not be recognised by either the older person or the perpetrator, thus, its prevention, early identification and amelioration are important. The (Irish) National Centre for the Protection of Older People undertook a study to determine the appropriateness of the Older Adult Financial Exploitation Measure for use by the national safeguarding older person services. Findings from a small pilot study involving 16 safeguarding staff's use of the Older Adult Financial Exploitation Measure with 52 community dwelling older people referred to their service demonstrate a higher suspicion of financial abuse as well as identifying multiple instances of possible financial exploitation in a single individual. Thus, the Older Adult Financial Exploitation Measure is considered appropriate to assist safeguarding personnel's assessment of older people related to a suspicion of financial abuse.

  20. Child's play: the creativity of older adults.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2012-09-01

    In this article, I discuss Paul W. Pruyser's view presented in his article "An Essay on Creativity" (Pruyser in Bull Menninger Clin 43:294-353, 1979) that creative persons manifest early childhood qualities of playfulness, curiosity, and pleasure seeking and that adaptation is itself a form of creativity. I then discuss his article "Creativity in Aging Persons" (Pruyser in Bull Menninger Clin 51:425-435, 1987) in which he presents his view that aging itself is a potentially creative process, that creativity among older adults is not limited to the talented few, and that older adulthood has several specific features that are conducive to creativity. Significant among these features are object loss (especially involving human relationships) and functional loss (due to the vicissitudes of aging). Noting his particular emphasis on object loss and its role in late-life creativity, I focus on functional loss, and I emphasize the importance of adaptation in sustaining the creativity of older adults who experience such loss. I illustrate this adaptation by considering well-known painters who in late life suffered visual problems common to older adults. I suggest that in adapting to their visual problems these artists drew on the early childhood qualities (playfulness, curiosity and pleasure seeking) that all creative persons possess and that they are therefore illustrative for other older adults who are experiencing functional losses. I conclude with Erik H. Erikson's (Toys and reasons: stages in the ritualization of experience, W. W. Norton, New York, 1977) and Paul W. Pruyser's (Pastor Psychol 35:120-131, 1986) reflections on the relationship between seeing and hoping.

  1. Conducting research with visually impaired older adults.

    PubMed

    Moore, Linda Weaver

    2002-04-01

    Due to the frequency of eye disorders among older adults, qualitative researchers who involve older individuals in their work must be sensitive to the multiple ways in which visual deficits can influence the research process. The author addresses some of the difficulties encountered, insights gained, and strategies developed while conducting a phenomenological study in which all the participants were severely visually impaired. The author's insights, drawn from personal experiences, reflections, and log entries kept throughout the study, are shared to help other researchers design and implement studies in which the voices of individuals with severe visual impairments can be skillfully tapped.

  2. Medication management in the older adult: A narrative exploration.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Johnanna

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the meaning nurse practitioners (NPs) ascribed to personal experiences providing care to older adults who take multiple medications to manage complex conditions. The study illuminated the NP experience in caring for the older adult while addressing the complexities of medication management through narrative stories in practice. NPs self-identifying as caring for older adults were interviewed (N=15). Narrative inquiry and the three-dimensional narrative inquiry space were used to guide the researcher during data collection and analysis. Three common themes emerged from the narratives. These themes illuminated the complexities NPs face in managing patients with multiple comorbidities, taking multiple medications, and seeing multiple providers. Identified themes were "mastering the art of the puzzle," "it takes a village," and "power in knowledge." Tools to assist NPs identify and manage polypharmacy were identified including the 2015 updated Beers Criteria, ARMOR (Assess, Review, Minimize, Optimize, and Reassess), STOPP (screening tool of older people's potentially inappropriate prescriptions), and START (screening tool to alert providers to the right treatment) tools. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  3. Diagnosis and management of urinary tract infection in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Theresa Anne; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2014-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a commonly diagnosed infection in older adults. Despite consensus guidelines developed to assist providers in diagnosing UTI, distinguishing symptomatic UTI from asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in older adults is problematic, as many older adults do not present with localized genitourinary symptoms. This article summarizes the recent literature and guidelines on the diagnosis and management of UTI and ASB in older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Older Adults can Learn to Learn New Motor Skills

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, Rachael D.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that aging is associated with declines in skill acquisition. In the current study, we tested whether older adults could acquire general, transferable knowledge about skill learning processes. Older adult participants learned five different motor tasks. Two older adult control groups performed the same number of trials, but learned only one task. The experimental group exhibited faster learning than that seen in the control groups. These data demonstrate that older adults can learn to learn new motor skills. PMID:17602760

  5. Older Adults, "Malignant" Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, and Associated Cardiac-Specific Biomarker Phenotypes to Identify the Differential Risk of New-Onset Reduced Versus Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure: CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study).

    PubMed

    Seliger, Stephen L; de Lemos, James; Neeland, Ian J; Christenson, Robert; Gottdiener, John; Drazner, Mark H; Berry, Jarett; Sorkin, John; deFilippi, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    This study hypothesized that biomarkers of subclinical myocardial injury (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T [hs-cTnT]) and hemodynamic stress (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) would differentiate heart failure (HF) risk among older adults with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The natural history of LVH, an important risk factor for HF, is heterogeneous. NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT were measured at baseline and after 2 to 3 years in older adults without prior HF or myocardial infarction in the CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study). LVH and left ventricular ejection fraction were determined by echocardiography. HF events were adjudicated over a median of 13.1 years and classified as preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (heart failure with preserved ejection fraction or heart failure with reduced ejection fraction [HFrEF]). Adjusted risk of HF by LVH and biomarker tertiles, and by LVH and longitudinal increase in each biomarker was estimated using Cox regression. Prevalence of LVH was 12.5% among 2,347 participants with complete measures. Adjusted risk of HF (N = 643 events) was approximately 3.8-fold higher among participants with LVH and in the highest biomarker tertile, compared with those with low biomarker levels without LVH (NT-proBNP, hazard ratio [HR]: 3.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78 to 5.15 and hs-cTnT, HR: 3.86; 95% CI: 2.84 to 5.26). The adjusted risk of HFrEF was 7.8 times higher among those with the highest tertile of hs-cTnT and LVH (HR: 7.83; 95% CI: 4.43 to 13.83). Those with LVH and longitudinal increases in hs-cTnT or NT-proBNP were approximately 3-fold more likely to develop HF, primarily HFrEF, compared with those without LVH and with stable biomarkers. The combination of LVH with greater hs-cTnT or NT-proBNP levels, and their longitudinal increase, identifies older adults at highest risk for symptomatic HF, especially HFrEF. These biomarkers may characterize sub-phenotypes in the transition from LVH

  6. Managing Status Epilepticus in the Older Adult

    PubMed Central

    Legriel, Stephane; Brophy, Gretchen M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to describe particularities in epidemiology, outcome, and management modalities in the older adult population with status epilepticus. There is a higher incidence of status epilepticus in the older adult population, and it commonly has a nonconvulsive presentation. Diagnosis in this population may be difficult and requires an unrestricted use of EEG. Short and long term associated-mortality are high, and age over 60 years is an independent factor associated with poor outcome. Stroke (acute or remote symptomatic), miscellaneous metabolic causes, dementia, infections hypoxemia, and brain injury are among the main causes of status epilepticus occurrence in this age category. The use of anticonvulsive agents can be problematic as well. Thus, it is important to take into account the specific aspects related to the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes in older critically-ill adults. Beyond these precautions, the management may be identical to that of the younger adult, including prompt initiation of symptomatic and anticonvulsant therapies, and a broad and thorough etiological investigation. Such management strategies may improve the vital and functional prognosis of these patients, while maintaining a high overall quality of care. PMID:27187485

  7. The Mental Health of Older LGBT Adults.

    PubMed

    Yarns, Brandon C; Abrams, Janet M; Meeks, Thomas W; Sewell, Daniel D

    2016-06-01

    There are approximately one million older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults in the USA. Their mental health issues result from interactions between genetic factors and stress associated with membership in a sexual minority group. Although advancements in acceptance and equal treatment of LGBT individuals have been occurring, sexual minority status remains associated with risks to physical and mental well-being. Older LGBT adults are more likely to have experienced mistreatment and discrimination due to living a majority of their lives prior to recent advancements in acceptance and equal treatment. All LGBT adults experience one common developmental challenge: deciding if, when, and how to reveal to others their gender identity and/or sexual orientation. LGBT individuals have higher rates of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders and also are at increased risk for certain medical conditions like obesity, breast cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Improved education and training of clinicians, coupled with clinical research efforts, holds the promise of improved overall health and life quality for older LGBT adults.

  8. Behavioral correlates of anxiety in well-functioning older adults.

    PubMed

    Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Pachana, Nancy A; Wetherell, Julie L; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Nogales-González, Celia; Ruiz-Díaz, Miguel

    2015-07-01

    Research on the behavioral correlates of anxiety in older adults is sparse. The aim of this study was to explore the association of anxiety with behavioral patterns defined by health, activity, emotional and social variables. A convenience sample of 395 older adults completed measures of health, activity, emotions, social variables and experiential avoidance. Cross-sectional data were analysed using cluster analysis. Five clusters were identified: active healthy, healthy, active vulnerable, lonely inactive and frail lonely. Participants in the active healthy and healthy clusters showed the highest scores on health variables (vitality and physical function), and adaptive scores on the rest of variables. They also reported the lowest scores on anxiety and included the lowest number of cases with clinically significant anxiety levels. Active vulnerable showed high scores on social support, leisure activities and capitalization on them but low scores in vitality and physical functioning. Participants in the lonely inactive cluster reported the highest mean score in experiential avoidance and high scores on boredom and loneliness, and low scores on social support, leisure activities capitalizing on pleasant activities and health variables. Frail lonely represent a particularly vulnerable profile of participants, similar to that of lonely inactive, but with significantly lower scores on health variables and higher scores on boredom and hours watching TV. Anxiety in older adults is not only linked to poor health, but also to dysfunctional social behavior, loneliness, boredom and experiential avoidance. Maladaptive profiles of older adults with regard to these variables have been identified.

  9. Older Adults in Child Care: A Job-Training Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Christopher R.; Smith, Thomas B.

    Recognizing the increasing demand for older adults to work as child care employees, this manual presents the Generations Together model for training older adults at the community college level to work in child care settings. The manual describes the steps necessary to implement a community-college-based, older-adult child care employment training…

  10. Effects of a Forgiveness Intervention for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allemand, Mathias; Steiner, Marianne; Hill, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The authors' aim in the present study was to examine the effects of a brief forgiveness intervention for older adults. The psychoeducational group intervention consists of (a) established core components of previous forgiveness interventions and (b) additional components considering specific needs of older adults. Seventy-eight older adults (mean…

  11. Older Adults and E-Learning: Opportunities and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Githens, Rod P.

    2007-01-01

    E-learning and distance education can play a role in helping older adults become integrated with the rest of society. As demographic and cultural changes affect the place of older adults in society, online learning programs become increasingly appealing to older adults. In this article, I discuss (1) the changing notion of work and learning in…

  12. Reviewing and Critiquing Computer Learning and Usage among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Sek

    2008-01-01

    By searching the keywords of "older adult" and "computer" in ERIC, Academic Search Premier, and PsycINFO, this study reviewed 70 studies published after 1990 that address older adults' computer learning and usage. This study revealed 5 prominent themes among reviewed literature: (a) motivations and barriers of older adults' usage of computers, (b)…

  13. A Lead User Approach to Universal Design - Involving Older Adults in the Design Process.

    PubMed

    Raviselvam, Sujithra; Wood, Kristin L; Hölttä-Otto, Katja; Tam, Victoria; Nagarajan, Kamya

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Universal Design has received increasing appreciation over the past two decades. Yet, there are very few existing designs that cater to the needs of extraordinary users who experience some form of physical challenge. Previous work has shown promising results on involving users with physical challenges as lead users - users who have the potential to identify needs that could be latent among the general population. It has also been shown that older adults can act as such lead users. They can help design universal product ideas that satisfy both older adults and the general population. In this paper we build on this and examine if involving older adults in the design phase can result in universal products, products preferred by both older adults and the general population over a current option. Eighty-nine older adult participants and thirty-four general population participants took part in the study. Products were redesigned and prototyped based on the needs of older adults and tested among both populations. Results show that, although older adults and the general population did share certain needs and demands, the majority of older adults had needs and demands that were different from those of the general population. However, even though the needs differed between the populations, on average 89% of the general population participants preferred products designed based on design needs expressed by older adults over the current option. This provides further evidence supporting the use of older adults in designing products for all.

  14. Emergency Department Visits by Older Adults for Motor Vehicle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Jody A.; Ginde, Adit A.; Lowenstein, Steven R.; Betz, Marian E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To describe the epidemiology and characteristics of emergency department (ED) visits by older adults for motor vehicle collisions (MVC) in the United States (U.S.). Methods: We analyzed ED visits for MVCs using data from the 2003–2007 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). Using U.S. Census data, we calculated annual incidence rates of driver or passenger MVC-related ED visits and examined visit characteristics, including triage acuity, tests performed and hospital admission or discharge. We compared older (65+ years) and younger (18–64 years) MVC patients and calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to measure the strength of associations between age group and various visit characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of admissions for MVC-related injuries among older adults. Results: From 2003–2007, there were an average of 237,000 annual ED visits by older adults for MVCs. The annual ED visit rate for MVCs was 6.4 (95% CI 4.6–8.3) visits per 1,000 for older adults and 16.4 (95% CI 14.0–18.8) visits per 1,000 for younger adults. Compared to younger MVC patients, after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity, older MVC patients were more likely to have at least one imaging study performed (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.46–9.36). Older MVC patients were not significantly more likely to arrive by ambulance (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.76–2.86), have a high triage acuity (OR 1.56; 95% CI 0.77–3.14), or to have a diagnosis of a head, spinal cord or torso injury (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.42–2.23) as compared to younger MVC patients after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity. Overall, 14.5% (95% CI 9.8–19.2) of older MVC patients and 6.1% (95% CI 4.8–7.5) of younger MVC patients were admitted to the hospital. There was also a non-statistically significant trend toward hospital admission for older versus younger MVC patients (OR 1.78; 95% CI 0.71–4.43), and

  15. Surveillance for injuries and violence among older adults.

    PubMed

    Stevens, J A; Hasbrouck, L M; Durant, T M; Dellinger, A M; Batabyal, P K; Crosby, A E; Valluru, B R; Kresnow, M; Guerrero, J L

    1999-12-17

    twice those for older women. Although suicide rates remain higher among older adults than among any other age group, rates of suicide among adults aged > or =65 years decreased 16% during the study period. Suicide rates among older adults varied by sex and age group. Homicide rates declined 36% among older adults. Homicide rates were highest for black men, followed by black women and white men; the homicide risk for blacks relative to whites decreased from 4.8 to 3.9 per 100,000 persons, indicating that the gap between rates for blacks and whites is closing. Half of the older homicide victims were killed by someone they knew. The increase in rates of fall-related deaths and hip fracture hospitalizations from 1988 through 1996 might reflect a change in the proportion of adults aged > or =85 years compared with those aged 65-84 years - a change that results, in part, from reduced mortality from cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Fall-related death rates might be higher among older men because they often have a higher prevalence of comorbid conditions than women of similar age. Racial differences in hospitalization rates might have some underlying biologic basis; the prevalence of osteoporosis, a condition that contributes to reduced bone mass and increased bone fragility, is greatest among older white women. Compared with whites aged > or =65 years, blacks of comparable ages have greater bone mass and are less likely to sustain fall-related hip fractures. Additional studies are needed to determine why rates of motor vehicle-related injury have increased slightly among older adults and why these rates vary by state. Declining rates of suicide among older adults might be related to changes in the effect or type of risk factors traditionally observed in this age group. Research is needed to identify reasons for variations in suicide rates among older persons. Homicides among olde

  16. TP53 mutations in older adults with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yanada, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Yukiya; Iba, Sachiko; Okamoto, Akinao; Inaguma, Yoko; Tokuda, Masutaka; Morishima, Satoko; Kanie, Tadaharu; Mizuta, Shuichi; Akatsuka, Yoshiki; Okamoto, Masataka; Emi, Nobuhiko

    2016-04-01

    The net benefits of induction therapy for older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain controversial. Because AML in older adults is a heterogeneous disease, it is important to identify those who are unlikely to benefit from induction therapy based on information available at the initial assessment. We used next-generation sequencing to analyze TP53 mutation status in AML patients aged 60 years or older, and evaluated its effects on outcomes. TP53 mutations were detected in 12 of 77 patients (16 %), and there was a significant association between TP53 mutations and monosomal karyotype. Patients with TP53 mutations had significantly worse survival than those without (P = 0.009), and multivariate analysis identified TP53 mutation status as the most significant prognostic factor for survival. Neverthelsess, TP53-mutated patients had a 42 % chance of complete remission and a median survival of 8.0 months, which compares favorably with those who did not undergo induction therapy, even in the short term. These results suggest that screening for TP53 mutations at diagnosis is useful for identifying older adults with AML who are least likely to respond to chemotherapy, although the presence of this mutation alone does not seem to justify rejecting induction therapy.

  17. Management of pain in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, Thomas A

    2005-03-01

    The elderly are often untreated or undertreated for pain. Barriers to effective management include challenges to proper assessment of pain; underreporting on the part of patients; atypical manifestations of pain in the elderly; a need for increased appreciation of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes of aging; and misconceptions about tolerance and addiction to opioids. Physicians can effectively manage pain in the elderly by understanding different types of pain (nociceptive and neuropathic), and appropriate use of nonopioid, opioid, and adjuvant medications. Opioids have become more widely accepted for treating older adults who have persistent pain, but their use requires physicians have an understanding of prevention and management of side effects, opioid titration and withdrawal, and careful monitoring. Placebo use is unwarranted and unethical. Nonpharmacologic approaches to pain management are essential and include osteopathic manipulative treatment, cognitive behavioral therapy, exercise, and spiritual interventions. The holistic and interdisciplinary approach of osteopathic medicine offers an approach that can optimize effective pain management in older adults.

  18. Design Principles to Accommodate Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Ajayi, Funmi; Hutchins, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The global population is aging. In many industrial countries, almost one in five people are over age 65. As people age, gradual changes ensue in vision, hearing, balance, coordination, and memory. Products, communication materials, and the physical environment must be thoughtfully designed to meet the needs of people of all ages. This article summarizes normal changes in sensory function, mobility, balance, memory, and attention that occur with age. It presents practical guidelines that allow design professionals to accommodate these changes and better meet the needs of older adults. Designing for older adults is inclusive design: it accommodates a range of physical and cognitive abilities and promotes simplicity, flexibility, and ease of use for people of any age. PMID:22980147

  19. Astrophysics for Older adults in Chicago.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grin, Daniel; Landsberg, Randall H.; Flude, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Gerontology research continues to show that the adage "Use it or Lose it" is a clinical fact when it comes to cognitive engagement post-retirement. Here, I'll discuss a new program developed at the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, bringing classes on astrophysics to older adults throughout the city, at retirement homes, at senior center, and at public libraries, bookended by an engaging trip to the Adler Planetarium. In my presentation, I'll present the gerontological and policy motivations for this program, the presenter training techniques, our partner collaboration strategy, and the results of our effort, which engaged hundreds of older adults throughout Chicago from a variety of socioeconomic strata.

  20. Clostridium difficile infection in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Robin LP

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection, the most frequent cause of nosocomial diarrhea, disproportionately affects older adults. The two most important risk factors for developing C. difficile infection are antimicrobial exposure and age >65 years old. Risk factors specific to older adults are frequent interactions with healthcare systems and age-related changes in physiology, including immune senescence and changes to the gut microbiome. Metronidazole and oral vancomcyin are the mainstays of conventional treatment for C. difficile infection. Alternative therapies include fidaxomicin, a narrow-spectrum macrocyclic antibiotic, and fectal bacteriotherapy, which offers an excellent therapeutic outcome. Strategies to prevent C. difficile infections include enhanced infection control measures and reducing inappropriate antimicrobial use through stewardship. PMID:24955106

  1. Polypharmacy in Older Adults with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maggiore, Ronald J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2010-01-01

    The definition of “polypharmacy” ranges from the use of a large number of medications; the use of potentially inappropriate medications, which can increase the risk for adverse drug events; medication underuse despite instructions to the contrary; and medication duplication. Older adults are particularly at risk because they often present with several medical conditions requiring pharmacotherapy. Cancer-related therapy adds to this risk in older adults, but few studies have been conducted in this patient population. In this review, we outline the adverse outcomes associated with polypharmacy and present polypharmacy definitions offered by the geriatrics literature. We also examine the strengths and weaknesses of these definitions and explore the relationships among these definitions and what is known about the prevalence and impact of polypharmacy. PMID:20418534

  2. Multimorbidity in older adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Heidi; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2014-04-01

    Multimorbidity may be related to the supposed early aging of people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This group may suffer more often from multimorbidity, because of ID-related physical health conditions, unhealthy lifestyle and metabolic effects of antipsychotic drug use. Multimorbidity has been defined as two or more chronic conditions. Data on chronic conditions have been collected through physical assessment, questionnaires, and medical files. Prevalence, associated factors and clusters of multimorbidity have been studied in 1047 older adults (≥ 50 years) with ID. Multimorbidity was prevalent in 79.8% and associated with age and severe/profound ID. Four or more conditions were prevalent in 46.8% and associated with age, severe/profound ID and Down syndrome. Factor analyses did not reveal a model for disease-clusters with good fit. Multimorbidity is highly prevalent in older adults with ID. Multimorbidity should receive more attention in research and clinical practice for targeted pro-active prevention and treatment.

  3. Treatment of specific phobia in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Pachana, Nancy A; Woodward, Rana M; Byrne, Gerard JA

    2007-01-01

    Phobias are common in later life, yet treatment research in this population remains scant. The efficacy of exposure therapy, in combination with other Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) components, in the treatment of specific phobia with a middle and older aged sample was examined. Sixteen adults aged 45–68 with DSM-IV diagnosis of a specific phobia received a manualized intervention over ten weeks, and were compared with a control group. Results indicated significant time effects in the treatment group for the primary outcome variables of phobic severity and avoidance as well as secondary outcome variables including depression and anxiety. Symptom presence and severity also significantly declined in the treatment group. No significant changes in state anxiety were noted across the treatment period. Such results provide support for the efficacy of exposure combined with CBT treatment for specific phobia in middle to older aged adults. PMID:18044196

  4. Design principles to accommodate older adults.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Miller, Kenneth W; Ajayi, Funmi; Hutchins, Deborah

    2012-02-29

    The global population is aging. In many industrial countries, almost one in five people are over age 65. As people age, gradual changes ensue in vision, hearing, balance, coordination, and memory. Products, communication materials, and the physical environment must be thoughtfully designed to meet the needs of people of all ages. This article summarizes normal changes in sensory function, mobility, balance, memory, and attention that occur with age. It presents practical guidelines that allow design professionals to accommodate these changes and better meet the needs of older adults. Designing for older adults is inclusive design: it accommodates a range of physical and cognitive abilities and promotes simplicity, flexibility, and ease of use for people of any age.

  5. THE OLDER ADULT DRIVER WITH COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT

    PubMed Central

    Carr, David B.; Ott, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Although automobiles remain the transportation of choice for older adults, late life cognitive impairment and dementia often impair the ability to drive safely. There is, however, no commonly utilized method of assessing dementia severity in relation to driving, no consensus on the assessment of older drivers with cognitive impairment, and no gold standard for determining driving fitness. Yet, clinicians are called upon by patients, their families, other health professionals, and often the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) to assess their patients' fitness-to-drive and to make recommendations about driving privileges. Using the case of Mr W, we describe the challenges of driving with cognitive impairment for both the patient and caregiver, summarize the literature on dementia and driving, discuss evidenced-based assessment of fitness-to-drive, and address important ethical and legal issues. We describe the role of physician assessment, referral to neuropsychology, functional screens, dementia severity tools, driving evaluation clinics, and DMV referrals that may assist with evaluation. Finally, we discuss mobility counseling (eg, exploration of transportation alternatives) since health professionals need to address this important issue for older adults who lose the ability to drive. The application of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach to the older driver with cognitive impairment will have the best opportunity to enhance our patients' social connectedness and quality of life, while meeting their psychological and medical needs and maintaining personal and public safety. PMID:20424254

  6. Perceived age discrimination in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rippon, Isla; Kneale, Dylan; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: to examine perceived age discrimination in a large representative sample of older adults in England. Methods: this cross-sectional study of over 7,500 individuals used data from the fifth wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a longitudinal cohort study of men and women aged 52 years and older in England. Wave 5 asked respondents about the frequency of five everyday discriminatory situations. Participants who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. Results: approximately a third (33.3%) of all respondents experienced age discrimination, rising to 36.8% in those aged 65 and over. Perceived age discrimination was associated with older age, higher education, lower levels of household wealth and being retired or not in employment. The correlates of age discrimination across the five discriminatory situations were similar. Conclusion: understanding age discrimination is vital if we are to develop appropriate policies and to target future interventions effectively. These findings highlight the scale of the challenge of age discrimination for older adults in England and illustrate that those groups are particularly vulnerable to this form of discrimination. PMID:24077751

  7. Sarcopenic indices in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Merriwether, Ericka N.; Host, Helen H.; Sinacore, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Sarcopenic indices are used to estimate loss of skeletal lean mass and function, and to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in older adults. It is believed that older women and men with lower skeletal lean mass will be weaker and have more functional limitations. Purpose 1) To classify community-dwelling older adults using two common sarcopenic indices: appendicular lean mass/height2 (ALM/ht2) and skeletal muscle index (SMI), and 2) to determine each indices value as indicators of lower extremity strength and physical function. Methods The sample consisted of 154 community-dwelling older adults (111 women, 43 men; mean age=82.4 SD=3.6 years; mean BMI=25.8 SD=4.4 kg/m2). Each underwent whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess lean mass. The 9-item modified physical performance test (PPT) and s elf-selected walking speed were used to evaluate function. Lower extremity strength was measured bilaterally using isokinetic dynamometry. Results The ALM/ht2 index classified 75 participants (49%) as sarcopenic (SP) and 79 (51%) as non-sarcopenic (NSP). The SMI classified 129 participants (84%) as SP and 25 (16%) as NSP. There were no differences in functional measures between groups by gender using either index after classification. The ALM/ht2 index was more strongly correlated with peak torque of all lower extremity muscle groups (r=.276–.487) compared with the SMI (r=.103–.344). There was no relationship between either sarcopenic index and physical function. Discussion There were marked differences in how two sarcopenic indices classified community-dwelling older adults. Lower extremity strength was lower in older women classified as sarcopenic compared to non-sarcopenic using the ALM/ht2 index, but LE strength was not different in older men. However, no lower extremity strength differences were observed between sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic men or women using the SMI classification. Neither sarcopenic index uniformly identified

  8. Chronic use of benzodiazepines among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alvarenga, Jussara Mendonça; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; de Loyola, Antônio Ignácio; Uchoa, Elizabeth; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the perception of and motivation for the chronic use of benzodiazepine among older adults. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted on 22 older adults living in Bambuí, MG, Southeastern Brazil, who were taking benzodiazepines and had the clinical and cognitive ability to respond to interview questions. The collected data were analyzed on the basis of the “signs, meanings, and actions” model. RESULTS The main reasons pointed out for the use of benzodiazepines were “nervousness”, “sleep problems”, and “worry” due to family and financial problems, everyday problems, and existential difficulties. None of the interviewees said that they used benzodiazepines in a dose higher than that recommended or had been warned by health professionals about any risks of their continuous use. Different strategies were used to obtain the prescription for the medication, and any physician would prescribe it, indicating that a bond was established with the drug and not with the health professional or healthcare service. Obtaining and consuming the medication turned into a crucial issue because benzodiazepine assumes the status of an essential food, which leads users to not think but sleep. It causes a feeling of relief from their problems such as awareness of human finitude and fragility, existential difficulties, and family problems. CONCLUSIONS Benzodiazepine assumes the characteristics of polyvalence among older adults, which extrapolate specific clinical indications, and of essentiality to deal with life’s problems in old age. Although it relieves the “nerves”, the chronic use of benzodiazepines buffers suffering and prevents older adults from going through the suffering. This shows important difficulties in the organization and planning of strategies that are necessary for minimizing the chronic use in this population. PMID:26039388

  9. Chronic use of benzodiazepines among older adults.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Jussara Mendonça; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio de; Uchoa, Elizabeth; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the perception of and motivation for the chronic use of benzodiazepine among older adults. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted on 22 older adults living in Bambuí, MG, Southeastern Brazil, who were taking benzodiazepines and had the clinical and cognitive ability to respond to interview questions. The collected data were analyzed on the basis of the "signs, meanings, and actions" model. RESULTS The main reasons pointed out for the use of benzodiazepines were "nervousness", "sleep problems", and "worry" due to family and financial problems, everyday problems, and existential difficulties. None of the interviewees said that they used benzodiazepines in a dose higher than that recommended or had been warned by health professionals about any risks of their continuous use. Different strategies were used to obtain the prescription for the medication, and any physician would prescribe it, indicating that a bond was established with the drug and not with the health professional or healthcare service. Obtaining and consuming the medication turned into a crucial issue because benzodiazepine assumes the status of an essential food, which leads users to not think but sleep. It causes a feeling of relief from their problems such as awareness of human finitude and fragility, existential difficulties, and family problems. CONCLUSIONS Benzodiazepine assumes the characteristics of polyvalence among older adults, which extrapolate specific clinical indications, and of essentiality to deal with life's problems in old age. Although it relieves the "nerves", the chronic use of benzodiazepines buffers suffering and prevents older adults from going through the suffering. This shows important difficulties in the organization and planning of strategies that are necessary for minimizing the chronic use in this population.

  10. Recognition of dementia in hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Katie; Mezey, Mathy

    2008-01-01

    Many hospital patients with dementia have no documented dementia diagnosis. In some cases, this is because they have never been diagnosed. Recognition of Dementia in Hospitalized Older Adults proposes several approaches that hospital nurses can use to increase recognition of dementia. This article describes the Try This approaches, how to implement them, and how to incorporate them into a hospital's current admission procedures. For a free online video demonstrating the use of these approaches, go to http://links.lww.com/A216.

  11. Online Attention Training for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wennberg, Alexandra; Kueider, Alexandra; Spira, Adam; Adams, Gregory; Rager, Robert; Rebok, George

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that cognitive training interventions can improve older adults' cognitive performance. Successful training programs are adaptable and train multiple cognitive domains to target individual strengths and weaknesses. Computerized training programs are useful because they allow older adults to easily access training. This pilot study used an online attention training program, ATTENTION WORKOUT™, to enhance three aspects of attention– coordination, allocation, and selective focus –in community-dwelling older adults randomized to either an abbreviated (n=13) or an extended (n=17) practice training program over a 6-week period. Participants in the extended practice group significantly improved on selective focus reading distraction tasks with unrelated words (U=39.5; Z=-2.34; p=.02) and blanks (U=26.5; Z=-3.05; p=.002) as well as a matching attributes task (U=49.5; Z=-2.33; p=.02). The extended practice group significantly improved on three tasks of coordinating attention – radio-tuning (U=30; Z=-2.73; p=.01), circuit-breaker resetting (U=46; Z=-2.24; p=.03), and the combination of the two tasks (U=15; Z=-3.51; p<.0001) – as well as a memory generalization task (U=20; Z=-3.27; p=.001). A post-test satisfaction survey found both groups enjoyed the program, but the abbreviated practice group felt the tasks were more difficult. These findings suggest online attention training programs, like ATTENTION WORKOUT, can improve attention-related skills in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:27057152

  12. Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Suzanne F

    2016-08-01

    Antibiotic use is common in older adults, and much of it is deemed unnecessary. Complications of antibiotic use may occur as a consequence of changes in age-related physiology and dosing with resulting drug toxicity and secondary infection. Knowing when it is appropriate to initiate antibiotics may help reduce unnecessary antibiotic use and prevent adverse drug events. Careful attention to antibiotic selection, dosing adjustments, and drug-drug interactions may also help prevent antibiotic-related adverse events.

  13. [Adaptation Process to Group Home Living by Older Adults].

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hee Sook; Sok, Sohyune

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the adaptation process of older people to group homes. Participants were twenty older adults aged 65 or older who were living in group homes. Data were collected from January to April, 2015. In-depth unstructured interviews were conducted with individual participants. Data were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory method. From open coding, 100 concepts, 38 sub-categories, and 14 categories were identified. Analysis showed that the central phenomenon of the adaptation process of older people to group homes was 'gradually giving up'. Causal conditions were 'good-for-nothing body', contextual conditions were 'pushed', 'beleaguered'. Intervening conditions were 'reliable pillar: children', 'having affection more than having it from family: facility workers', 'comfort - like feeling at home', 'relieved: system'. Action/interaction strategies were 'facing the unfamiliar reality', 'building relationships with other people', 'accepting reality'. Consequences were 'a good place, more than expected', 'hope for the remaining days', 'waiting for a peaceful death'. The results of this study provide an in-depth understanding of the experience of the adaptation process of older people to group homes. The findings from this study can be used as basic data to establish policies to increase the number of small scale facilities which can help older adults adapt easily to the facilities.

  14. Influences on Neighborhood Walking in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Nancy Ambrose; Clarke, Philippa J.; Ronis, David L.; Cherry, Carol Loveland; Nyquist, Linda; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional survey study was to examine the influence of self-efficacy, outcome expectations and environment on neighborhood walking in older adults with (n=163, mean age=78.7, SD=7.96 years) and without (n=163, mean age=73.6, SD=7.93 years) mobility limitations (controlling for demographic characteristics). Measures included: Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire, Multidimensional Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale, Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, and self-efficacy scales. Multiple regression revealed that in mobility-limited older adults, demographic characteristics, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations explained 17.4% of variance in neighborhood walking, while environment (neighborhood destinations and design) explained 9.5%. Destinations, self-efficacy, gender, and outcome expectations influenced walking. In those without mobility limitations, demographic characteristics, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations explained 15.6% of the variance, while environment explained 5.7%. Self-efficacy, gender, and design influenced walking. Neighborhood walking interventions for older adults should include self-efficacy strategies tailored to mobility status and neighborhood characteristics. PMID:22998660

  15. Patterns of Sedentary Behavior in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Schlaff, Rebecca A; Baruth, Meghan; Boggs, Ashley; Hutto, Brent

    2017-07-01

    We measured the volume and patterns of sedentary behavior (including breaks from sedentary behavior) in a sample of older adults via accelerometry. Inactive, older adults (≥50 years of age) were eligible to participate. A cut point of <100 counts/minute was used to estimate: (1) total volume; (2) > 10-, > 30-, and > 60-minute bouts; and (3) patterns of sedentary behavior according to time of day and day of the week were computed. Total breaks in sedentary time also were calculated. Participants (N = 67) were sedentary 62% of the day, engaging in 73.3 total bouts of daily sedentary behavior, and each bout lasted, on average, 7.8 minutes. All participants engaged in >1 daily bout of sedentary behavior > 10 and > 30 minutes. Sedentary time was slightly greater during the evening and on weekdays. Participants averaged 72.9 daily breaks from sedentary behavior, with each break lasting approximately 4.4 minutes. Our findings add valuable insights into the patterns of sedentary behaviors among older adults. Concentrated research efforts should be made to gain a clearer understanding of patterns and enablers to sedentary behaviors, which will allow for development of targeted interventions for this high-risk population.

  16. Neighborhood Characteristics and Disability in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Blaney, Shannon; Cerda, Magda; Frye, Victoria; Lovasi, Gina S.; Ompad, Danielle; Rundle, Andrew; Vlahov, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize the influence of the residential neighborhood of older adults on the prevalence of disability. Methods We combined Census data on disability in older adults living in New York City with environmental information from a comprehensive geospatial database. We used factor analysis to derive dimensions of compositional and physical neighborhood characteristics and linear regression to model their association with levels of disability. Measures of neighborhood collective efficacy were added to these models to explore the impact of the social environment. Results Low neighborhood socioeconomic status, residential instability, living in areas with low proportions of foreign born and high proportions of Black residents, and negative street characteristics were associated with higher prevalence of both “physical” disability and “going outside the home” disability. High crime levels were additionally associated with physical disability, although this relationship disappeared when misdemeanor arrests were removed from the crime variable. Low levels of collective efficacy were associated with more going-outside-the-home disability, with racial/ethnic composition dropping out of this model to be replaced by an interaction term. Conclusion The urban environment may have a substantial impact on whether an older adult with a given level of functional impairment is able to age actively and remain independent. PMID:19181694

  17. Tolerability of Antihypertensive Medications in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Dharmarajan, Thiruvinvamalai S; Dharmarajan, Lekshmi

    2015-10-01

    Several guidelines for hypertension have recently undergone revisions to incorporate an approach providing choices of medications based on age, race, and specific situations where hypertension may co-exist with disorders such as diabetes, coronary artery disease, heart failure and chronic kidney disease. Initial recommendations include diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and calcium channel blockers; beta blockers are favored in some guidelines and are a choice in specific settings. Within the classes of drugs, several antihypertensive agents provide options. This review discusses antihypertensive drugs by class, including adverse effects and tolerability, with preferences in older adults and specific settings. Adverse drug events from antihypertensive medications are discussed by class and where applicable for specific agents. Data from select studies pertinent to tolerability and adverse effects are presented in tables for several classes of drugs. The rationale for nonadherence to medication is reviewed, including the roles played by tolerability and adverse drug effects. Antihypertensive therapy in typical settings in older adults is discussed; they include hypertension in association with impaired cognition, depression, diabetes, sexual dysfunction, and falls. The key to successful therapy and tolerability is to promote a healthy lifestyle in conjunction with medications as the approach, thereby also lowering the adverse drug effects. The eventual choice of the specific drug(s) is based on risks, benefits, and patient preferences, and is best tailored for each older adult.

  18. Influence of blister package design on usability among older adults.

    PubMed

    Mühlfeld, Lukas; Langguth, Peter; Häusler, Heribert; Hagels, Hansjörg

    2012-08-01

    Blisters packs are commonly used as packaging for oral drug products. Utilization problems among older adults with pharmaceutical packaging are well known from investigations of multi-unit dose containers, but there is a lack of studies focusing on blister packaging. This study was performed to identify design parameters that should be considered when developing blister packaging for drug products intended to be used by older adults. To investigate the relationship between blister pack design and utilization problems among older adults. Community-based study including 141 volunteers (age 80+) living at home and in assisted-living facilities. In random order 5 blister packs of uniform shape but with different opening characteristics (variation of the force required to open the blisters and different mechanisms of opening) were tested by each participant. Opening was evaluated (difficulty, pain perception and overall assessment) by questioning of the participants. Additionally, data were collected as to whether participants managed to take out 4 tablets within 4 min test duration and whether they gave up opening. Reasons for utilization problems were examined by subgroup analysis, frequently made observations, and technological characterization of blisters. Results Blisters with thicker push-through foils were assessed as being inferior. Anyhow, most of participants (>84 %) were capable of opening each type of push-through blister within 4 min. By contrast, many of the participants were unable to open peel (30 %) and child-resistant peel-off push-through blisters (44 %) or gave up trying before the end of the test. In addition to medical conditions, vision and age of participants correlated with utilization problems. Blister pack design, including opening force and opening mechanism, can have significant impact on the usability of blister packs by older adults. The study identified several parameters that should be considered with respect to older adults when

  19. Perceptions of Older Adults: Differences by Age and Sex among Children in a Costa Rican Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Mathews, Holly F.

    1987-01-01

    Identified two subdimensions of an index designed to measure children's perceptions of older adults in responses from 120 Afro-Caribbean children living in a rural Costa Rican community. Findings showed older females were perceived as more authoritative and older males as more affective. Used ethnographic techniques with survey results to…

  20. Community leader perceptions of the health needs of older adults.

    PubMed

    Goris, Emilie Dykstra; Schutte, Debra L; Rivard, Jamie L; Schutte, Brian C

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this needs assessment was to determine community leader perceptions of health-related needs and resources available to rural-dwelling older adults as part of a community-academic partnership in the rural Midwest. A community advisory board, in accordance with community-based participatory research principles, was influential in study design and implementation. Key informant interviews (N = 30) were conducted with community leaders including professionals from schools, businesses, churches, and health care as well as government officials. Thematic analysis revealed "Family Is Central," "Heritage," "Strength," and "Longevity" as important themes related to older adults and their health care needs within the community. "Close-knit" and "Church Is Central" were also identified as important aspects of elder care. Community leaders perceived the "Rural Economy," "Distance to Resources," and "Seasonal Resources" as significant barriers for older adults. This work contributes important insights into community leaders' perceptions of health needs and challenges faced by older adults in rural settings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Assessment of Implicit Self-Esteem in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Demeyer, Ineke; Romero, Nuria; De Raedt, Rudi

    2017-02-01

    The interplay between actual and ideal self-esteem may be a key component in emotional disorders. Since automatic self-evaluations are not always consciously accessible, assessment through implicit measures is necessary. Given the lack of implicit self-esteem measures in late life, we aimed to identify a reliable measure and to clarify the role of actual and ideal self-esteem in mood and depressive symptoms in older adults. Forty-nine older adults completed two adapted Go/No go Association tasks measuring implicit actual and ideal self-esteem and measures of mood and depressive symptoms. The two Go/No go Association tasks showed satisfactory internal consistency. Moderation analyses revealed that lower actual self-esteem in older adults is related to higher levels of sad mood when ideal self-esteem is high. Moreover, lower actual self-esteem is related to more anxious mood. Given the role of self-esteem in emotional well-being, a reliable measure for older adults is crucial to improve age-appropriate diagnostics and treatment.

  2. Home environmental problems and physical function in Taiwanese older adults.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tzuo-Yun; Wu, Shwu-Chong; Chang, Wen-Chiung; Chen, Ching-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Environmental hazards play an important role in the disablement process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between home environmental problems and personal physical function. Data were based on a two-stage nationwide survey and evaluation on the needs of long-term care in Taiwan. A total of 10,596 individuals aged 65 and over were included in this study. These participants were identified with physical or cognitive problems at the screening interview and further evaluated at the second interview on health condition, functional status, needs of long-term care, and home environmental problems. Six items of environmental hazards were assessed at the participants' homes with direct observation. The prevalence rates of home environmental problems were similar among older adults with different levels of physical function. No grab bars (79.6-85.1%) and no protections against slip (81.9-92.8%) in the bathroom were two commonly present hazards in older adults' homes. Older adults with a higher income (Odds ratio=OR=0.75), without income information (OR=0.78) or living with other persons (OR=0.74) were less likely to experience environmental problems at home. Results from this study revealed that home environment condition was associated with factors other than personal disabling conditions for the elderly. Modifying home environment, especially the bathroom, should be attached with great importance for physically disabled older adults.

  3. Application of a Risk Score to Identify Older Adults with Community-Onset Pneumonia Most Likely to Benefit From Empiric Pseudomonas Therapy.

    PubMed

    Frei, Christopher R; Rehani, Sylvie; Lee, Grace C; Boyd, Natalie K; Attia, Erene; Pechal, Ashley; Britt, Rachel S; Mortensen, Eric M

    2017-02-01

    To assess the impact of empiric Pseudomonas pharmacotherapy on 30-day mortality in hospitalized patients with community-onset pneumonia stratified according to their risk (low, medium, or high) of drug-resistant pathogens. Retrospective cohort study. Veterans Health Administration database. A total of 50,119 patients who were at least 65 years of age, hospitalized with pneumonia, and received antibiotics within 48 hours of admission between fiscal years 2002 and 2007. Patients were stratified into empiric Pseudomonas therapy (31,027 patients) and no Pseudomonas therapy (19,092 patients) groups based on antibiotics received during their first 48 hours of admission. A clinical prediction scoring system developed in 2014 that stratifies patients with community-onset pneumonia according to their risk of drug-resistant pathogens was used to identify patients who were likely to benefit from empiric Pseudomonas therapy as well as those in whom antipseudomonal therapy could be spared; patients were classified into low-risk (68%), medium-risk (21%), and high-risk (11%) groups. Of the 50,119 patients, 62% received Pseudomonas therapy. All-cause 30-day mortality was the primary outcome. Empiric Pseudomonas therapy (adjusted odds ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.62-0.84) was associated with lower 30-day mortality in the high-risk group but not the low- or medium-risk groups. Application of a risk score for patients with drug-resistant pathogens can identify patients likely to benefit from empiric Pseudomonas therapy. Widespread use of this score could reduce overuse of anti-Pseudomonas antibiotics in low- to medium-risk patients and improve survival in high-risk patients. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  4. Dimensions of stereotypical attitudes among older adults: Analysis of two countries.

    PubMed

    Helmes, Edward; Pachana, Nancy A

    2016-11-01

    Much research on attitudes towards older adults has used younger adults as participants and identified a range of negative attitudes towards older persons. Comparatively little literature has explored the attitudes of older adults themselves towards their own age cohort. The present study explicitly compared attitudes towards other older adults from samples of 195 older adults in Australia and 172 older Canadians. Attitudinal measures included the Aging Attitudes Questionnaire (assesses older adults' attitudes toward other older adults), Fraboni Scale of Ageism (assesses younger adults' attitudes toward older adults) and the Reactions to Aging Questionnaire (assesses attitudes toward one's own aging), as well as a scale measuring knowledge of aging, the Facts on Aging Quiz, adapted for Australia and Canada. Responses on the three attitudinal measures were subjected to principal components analysis. Two components emerged in both samples, one defined by the Reactions to Aging Questionnaire and Aging Attitudes Questionnaire scales and the second by the Fraboni Scale of Ageism scales. Regression analyses to ascertain prediction of scores on the Facts on Aging Quiz, adapted for Australia and Facts on Aging Quiz, adapted for Canada showed that only the Aging Attitudes Questionnaire scale for Physical Changes predicted scores on the Facts on Aging Quiz, adapted for Australia and no attitudes predicted Facts on Aging Quiz, adapted for Canada scores. It appears that older adults distinguish between their own aging and aging in others. Knowledge of aging appears to be predicted only by attitudes toward physical changes. Given increasing proportions of older adults in the population, as well as increasing access to aging information available to older cohorts, continued research on how older adults view themselves and the aging process is important, and will almost certainly continue to evolve over time. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 1226-1230. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics

  5. Social networks of older adults living with HIV in Finland.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Nuno Ribeiro; Kylmä, Jari; Kirsi, Tapio; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the social networks of older adults living with HIV. Interviews were conducted with nine individuals aged 50 or older living with HIV in Helsinki, Finland. Analysis of transcripts was analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Results indicated that these participants' networks tended to be large, including those both aware and unaware of the participants' health status. Analysis identified three main themes: large multifaceted social networks, importance of a support group, and downsizing of social networks. Support received appeared to be of great importance in coping with their health condition, especially since the time of diagnosis. Friends and family were the primary source of informal support. The majority of participants relied mostly on friends, some of whom were HIV-positive. Formal support came primarily from the HIV organisation's support group. In this study group, non-disclosure did not impact participants' well-being. In years to come, social networks of older adults living with HIV may shrink due to personal reasons other than HIV-disclosure. What is of primary importance is that healthcare professionals become knowledgeable about psychosocial issues of older adults living with HIV, identifying latent problems and developing adequate interventions in the early stages of the disease; this would help prevent social isolation and foster successful ageing with HIV.

  6. The National Blueprint for Promoting Physical Activity in the Mid-Life and Older Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…

  7. Factors Affecting Burnout when Caring for Older Adults Needing Long Term Care Services in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Won, Seojin; Song, Inuk

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address factors related to caregiver burnout as a result of caring for an older adult with a chronic disease. Characteristics of care recipients and caregivers as well as social support were included to identify the relationships with caregiver burnout. The analysis was based on a sample of 334 older adults and…

  8. Perceptions of Biopsychosocial Services Needs among Older Adults with Severe Mental Illness: Met and Unmet Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Sherry M.; Cassie, Kimberly McClure

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to identify the psychiatric, physical, and social services needs experienced by older adults with severe mental illness (SMI) and to examine factors influencing their experience of need and service provision adequacy. Seventy-five older adults with SMI were recruited from a community mental health center to participate in the…

  9. Personal Strength and Finding Meaning in Conjugally Bereaved Older Adults: A Four-Year Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su Hyun; Kjervik, Diane; Belyea, Michael; Choi, Eun Sook

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify the patterns and mechanisms of the development of personal strength of bereaved older adults over a 4-year period after spousal death. The findings showed that while bereaved older adults, on average, experienced a moderate level of personal strength at 6 months post-spousal death with a slight increase over a…

  10. Personal Strength and Finding Meaning in Conjugally Bereaved Older Adults: A Four-Year Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su Hyun; Kjervik, Diane; Belyea, Michael; Choi, Eun Sook

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify the patterns and mechanisms of the development of personal strength of bereaved older adults over a 4-year period after spousal death. The findings showed that while bereaved older adults, on average, experienced a moderate level of personal strength at 6 months post-spousal death with a slight increase over a…

  11. Effects of an Enhanced Discharge Planning Intervention for Hospitalized Older Adults: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altfeld, Susan J.; Shier, Gayle E.; Rooney, Madeleine; Johnson, Tricia J.; Golden, Robyn L.; Karavolos, Kelly; Avery, Elizabeth; Nandi, Vijay; Perry, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To identify needs encountered by older adult patients after hospital discharge and assess the impact of a telephone transitional care intervention on stress, health care utilization, readmissions, and mortality. Design and Methods: Older adult inpatients who met criteria for risk of post-discharge complications were…

  12. The National Blueprint for Promoting Physical Activity in the Mid-Life and Older Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…

  13. Effects of an Enhanced Discharge Planning Intervention for Hospitalized Older Adults: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altfeld, Susan J.; Shier, Gayle E.; Rooney, Madeleine; Johnson, Tricia J.; Golden, Robyn L.; Karavolos, Kelly; Avery, Elizabeth; Nandi, Vijay; Perry, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To identify needs encountered by older adult patients after hospital discharge and assess the impact of a telephone transitional care intervention on stress, health care utilization, readmissions, and mortality. Design and Methods: Older adult inpatients who met criteria for risk of post-discharge complications were…

  14. Ageing with HIV: newly diagnosed older adults in Italy.

    PubMed

    Orchi, N; Balzano, R; Scognamiglio, P; Navarra, A; De Carli, G; Elia, P; Grisetti, S; Sampaolesi, A; Giuliani, M; De Filippis, A; Puro, V; Ippolito, G; Girardi, E

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of HIV/AIDS among people in midlife and late adulthood has been increasing in Western countries over the last decade. We analyzed data from a prospective, observational multi-centre study on individuals newly diagnosed with HIV between January 2004 and March 2007 in 10 public counselling and testing sites in Latium, Italy. At diagnosis, routine demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data are recorded, and patients are asked to complete a questionnaire investigating socio-demographic and psycho-behavioural aspects. To analyze the association of individual characteristics with age, we compared older adults (> or = 50 years) with their younger counterpart (18-49 years). To adjust for potential confounding effect of the epidemiological, clinical and behavioural characteristics, to identify factors associated with older age at HIV diagnosis, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Overall, 1073 individuals were identified, 125 of whom (11.6%) were aged 50 years or above. The questionnaire was completed by 41% (440/1073). Compared with their younger counterparts, a higher proportion of older patients were males, born in Italy, reported heterosexual or unknown HIV risk exposure, were never tested for HIV before and were in a more advanced stage of HIV infection at diagnosis. In addition, older adults had a lower educational level and were more frequently living with their partners or children. With respect to psycho-behavioural characteristics, older patients were more likely to have paid money for sex and have never used recreational drugs. Interestingly, no differences were found regarding condom use, which was poor in both age groups. These findings may have important implications for the management of older adults with HIV, who should be targeted by appropriate public health actions, such as opportunistic screening and easier access to healthcare. Moreover, strategies including information on HIV and prevention of risk

  15. Motor asymmetry reduction in older adults.

    PubMed

    Przybyla, Andrzej; Haaland, Kathleen Y; Bagesteiro, Leia B; Sainburg, Robert L

    2011-02-04

    While cerebral lateralization has previously been well documented for many neurobehavioral functions, recent research has shown that as people age, formerly lateralized processes recruit more symmetric patterns of neural activity. Such findings provide the foundation for the model of hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults, or "HAROLD"[4]. Previous studies that have measured reaction time and movement time have suggested that aging does not affect manual asymmetries. However, whether these findings can be extended to kinematic variables associated with motor coordination remains largely unknown. The purpose of the current study is to determine whether asymmetries in intralimb coordination are also reduced during the aging process. We examined multidirectional reaching in two different right handed age groups, a younger group from 20 to 40 years of age, and an older group, from 60 to 80 years of age. Measures of final position accuracy, precision, and trajectory linearity showed robust asymmetries between the left and right arm groups of young adults. However, the trajectories and accuracies of the older subjects were symmetric, such that our dependent measures were not significantly different between the right and left arm groups. Our findings extend the HAROLD model to motor behavior, suggesting that aging results in decrements in motor lateralization.

  16. Human-Animal Interaction and Older Adults: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Gee, Nancy R; Mueller, Megan K; Curl, Angela L

    2017-01-01

    Both pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are becoming increasingly popular in the United States, and the science of human-animal interaction (HAI) seeks to explore how these relationships with animals can impact health and well-being. In particular, one burgeoning area of research is the role of HAI in healthy aging, given the potential for HAI as an important feature of health and well-being in older adults. The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate existing research in this innovative area of scholarship, identifying the potential benefits and risks of both pet ownership and animals in therapeutic settings for older adults. We will also identify recommendations for future research and applications in this developing area of scholarship.

  17. Risk Factors for Urosepsis in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Peach, Brian C; Garvan, Gerard J; Garvan, Cynthia S; Cimiotti, Jeannie P

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors that predispose older adults to urosepsis and urosepsis-related mortality. Method: A systematic search using PubMed and CINAHL databases. Articles that met inclusion criteria were assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria and were scored on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Results: A total of 180 articles were identified, and six met inclusion criteria. The presence of an internal urinary catheter was associated with the development of urosepsis and septic shock. Although a number of factors were examined, functional dependency, number of comorbidities, and low serum albumin were associated with mortality across multiple studies included in this review. Discussion: Little scientific evidence is available on urosepsis, its associated risk factors, and those factors associated with urosepsis-related mortality in older adults. More research is warranted to better understand urosepsis in this vulnerable population in an effort to improve the quality of patient care.

  18. Geriatric Syndromes in Older HIV-Infected Adults.

    PubMed

    Greene, Meredith; Covinsky, Kenneth E; Valcour, Victor; Miao, Yinghui; Madamba, Joy; Lampiris, Harry; Cenzer, Irena Stijacic; Martin, Jeffrey; Deeks, Steven G

    2015-06-01

    Geriatric syndromes such as falls, frailty, and functional impairment are multifactorial conditions used to identify vulnerable older adults. Limited data exist on these conditions in older HIV-infected adults, and no studies have comprehensively examined these conditions. Geriatric syndromes including falls, urinary incontinence, functional impairment, frailty, sensory impairment, depression, and cognitive impairment were measured in a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults aged 50 years and older who had an undetectable viral load on antiretroviral therapy. We examined both HIV and non-HIV-related predictors of geriatric syndromes including sociodemographics, number of comorbidities and nonantiretroviral medications, and HIV-specific variables in multivariate analyses. We studied 155 participants with a median age of 57 (interquartile range: 54-62) and 94% were men. Prefrailty (56%), difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (46%), and cognitive impairment (47%) were the most frequent geriatric syndromes. Lower CD4 nadir incidence rate ratio [IRR: 1.16, 95% (confidence interval) CI: 1.06 to 1.26], non-white race (IRR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.74), and increasing number of comorbidities (IRR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.15) were associated with increased risk of having more geriatric syndromes. Geriatric syndromes are common in older HIV-infected adults. Treatment of comorbidities and early initiation of antiretroviral therapy may help to prevent development of these age-related complications. Clinical care of older HIV-infected adults should consider incorporation of geriatric principles.

  19. Older Adults, Chronic Disease and Leisure-time Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Miller, William C.; Eng, Janice J.; Noreau, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Background Participating in regular physical activity is an important part of healthy aging. There is an increased risk for inactivity associated with aging and the risk becomes greater for adults who have a chronic disease. However, there is limited information on current physical activity levels for older adults and even less for those with chronic diseases. Objective Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of older adults who achieved a recommended amount of weekly physical activity (≥1000 kcal/week). The secondary objectives were to identify variables associated with meeting guideline leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and to describe the type of physical activities that respondents reported across different chronic diseases. Methods In this study we used the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 (2000/2001) to report LTPA for adults aged 65 years and older. This was a population-based self-report telephone survey. We used univariate logistic regression to provide odds ratios to determine differences in activity and the likelihood of meeting guideline recommendations. Results For adults over 65 years of age with no chronic diseases, 30% reported meeting guideline LTPA, while only 23% met the recommendations if they had one or more chronic diseases. Factors associated with achieving the guideline amount of physical activity included a higher level of education, higher income and moderate alcohol consumption. Likelihood for not achieving the recommended level of LTPA included low BMI, pain and the presence of mobility and dexterity problems. Walking, gardening and home exercises were the three most frequent types of reported physical activities. Conclusion This study provides the most recent evidence to suggest that older Canadians are not active enough and this is accentuated if a chronic disease is present. It is important to develop community-based programs to facilitate LTPA, in particular for older people with a chronic disease. PMID

  20. Medication management activities performed by informal caregivers of older adults.

    PubMed

    Look, Kevin A; Stone, Jamie A

    2017-05-16

    Medication management is commonly performed by informal caregivers, yet they are often unprepared and ill-equipped to manage complex medication regimens for their older adult care recipients. In order to develop interventions that will enhance the caregiver's ability to safely and confidently manage medications, it is critical to first understand caregiver challenges and unmet needs related to medication management. To explore how informal caregivers manage medications for their older adult care recipients by identifying the activities involved in medication management and the tools or strategies used to facilitate these activities. Four focus groups with caregivers of older adults were conducted with 5-9 caregivers per group. Participants were asked to describe the medication management activities performed and the tools or strategies used to facilitate these activities. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for themes using an inductive approach. Caregivers were commonly involved in 2 types of activities: direct activities requiring physical handling of medications such as obtaining medications, preparing pill boxes, and assisting with medication administration; and indirect activities that were more complex and required more of a cognitive effort by the caregiver, such as organizing and tracking medications, gathering information, and making treatment decisions. They utilized a variety of tools and strategies to support these medication management activities; however, these approaches often needed to be modified or personalized to meet the specific needs of their caregiving situation. Informal caregivers play a vital role in ensuring safe and appropriate medication use by older adults. Medication management is complex and involves many activities that are supported through the use of a variety of tools and strategies that have been adapted and individualized to each specific caregiving scenario. Caregivers should be an important

  1. Neuropsychological status in older adults influences susceptibility to false memories.

    PubMed

    Meade, Michelle L; Geraci, Lisa D; Roediger, Henry L

    2012-01-01

    In 2 experiments we examined the influence of frontal lobe function on older adults' susceptibility to false memory in a categorized list paradigm. Using a neuropsychological battery of tests developed by Glisky, Polster, and Routhieaux (1995), we designated older adults as having high- or low-frontal function. Young and older adults studied and were tested on categorized lists using free report cued recall and forced report cued recall instructions, with the latter requiring participants to produce responses even if they had to guess. Under free report cued recall instructions, frontal lobe function was a strong predictor of false memories in older adults: Older adults who scored low on tests of frontal functioning demonstrated much higher levels of false recall than younger adults, whereas levels of false recall in high-frontal older adults were more similar to those of young adults. However, after forced report cued recall, high- and low-frontal older adults performed similarly to each other, and both demonstrated higher levels of false recall than young adults. On a final recognition test, high-frontal older adults in both the free report cued recall and forced report cued recall conditions were more successful than low-frontal older adults in using source information to reduce memory errors. The results indicate that older adults show higher levels of false recall than younger adults, but type of test (free report or forced report) and neuropsychological status of older adults mediate these effects. Low-frontal older adults are particularly susceptible to producing false memories on free report tests that entail source monitoring.

  2. Comprehension of Health-related Written Materials by Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chiung-ju; Kemper, Susan; Bovaird, James A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how Flesch Reading Ease and text cohesion affect older adults' comprehension of common health texts. All older adults benefited when high Flesh Reading Ease was combined with high cohesion. Older adults with small working memories had more difficulty understanding texts high in Flesch Reading Ease. Additionally, older adults with low verbal ability or older than 77 years of age had difficulty understanding texts high in text cohesion but low in Flesch Reading Ease. These results imply that writers must increase Flesch Reading Ease without disrupting text cohesion to ensure comprehension of health-related texts. PMID:19543546

  3. Educating Older Adults about Their Increased Cancer Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keintz, Martha K.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Cancer Program for Older Citizens is a program to improve the outcome of a possible cancer diagnosis for older adults by encouraging early detection of cancer. Program has achieved positive, though modest, changes in the cancer-related knowledge and beliefs of older adult participants, with these impacts sustained for months after the program.…

  4. Organizational Support and Volunteering Benefits for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. Design and Methods: This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling…

  5. Cultural Diversity Among Older Adults: Addressing Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2005-01-01

    The diversity of the older adult population is increasing, and health professionals need to learn new knowledge and skills to improve the adherence of older ethnic clients to their health recommendations. Much of the existing research literature on diversity in gerontology concludes that ethnic older adults are at a health disadvantage. Few if any…

  6. Explicit Instruction, Bilingualism, and the Older Adult Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Jessica G.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about older adult language learners and effects of aging on L2 learning. This study investigated learning in older age through interactions of learner-internal and -external variables; specifically, late-learned L2 (bilingualism) and provision of grammar explanation (explicit instruction, EI). Forty-three older adults (age 60+) who…

  7. Organizational Support and Volunteering Benefits for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. Design and Methods: This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling…

  8. Nutritional habits and cognitive performance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Mallidou, Anastasia; Cartie, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Healthy nutritional habits, including drinking plenty of water and maintaining hydration, are fundamental components for sustaining life, health and wellbeing. Evidence has suggested that certain dietary patterns and lifestyles could help delay the ageing process and reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. This article explores the potential association between nutritional habits and the cognitive performance of older adults and identifies research gaps that could be filled by future studies on healthy ageing.

  9. Recognition of Rapid Speech by Blind and Sighted Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Friedman, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether older blind participants recognize time-compressed speech better than older sighted participants. Method: Three groups of adults with normal hearing participated (n = 10/group): (a) older sighted, (b) older blind, and (c) younger sighted listeners. Low-predictability sentences that were uncompressed (0% time…

  10. Role of Allergen Sensitization in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Ravi K.; Mathur, Sameer K.

    2012-01-01

    There is a common perception among physicians and patients that allergic diseases are not relevant in older adults. There is recognition that both innate and adaptive immune functions decline with aging. It is the function of a variety of immune cells in the form of allergic inflammation that is a hallmark of allergic diseases. In fact, there is a fairly consistent observation that measures of allergic sensitization, such as skin prick testing, specific IgE or total IgE decline with age. Nonetheless, the association between allergic sensitization and allergic diseases, particularly asthma and allergic rhinitis, remains robust in the elderly population. Consequently, an appropriate evaluation of allergic sensitivities is warranted and indicated in older asthma and rhinitis patients in order to provide optimal care for the individual and minimize any resultant morbidity and mortality. PMID:21667198

  11. On the origins of ageism among older and younger adults.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Ehud

    2009-12-01

    Ageism is apparent in many social structures and contexts and in diverse forms over the life cycle. This review discusses the development and consequences of ageism toward elderly people by others of any age, according to the Terror Management Theory (TMT) and the Social Identity Theory (SIT). A systematic search of the literature was carried out on the social and psychological origins of ageism in younger and older adults. Studies on the reasons for ageism among older adults point to attitudes that older adults have toward their own age group, while studies on ageism in young adults explain it as an unconscious defensive strategy which younger adults use against death anxiety. In other words, TMT can serve as a suitable framework for ageism in younger adults, and SIT appears to explain ageism in older adults. A dissociation of the linkage between death and old age in younger adults can be achieved by changing the concepts of death and old age. For older adults, it is recommended to improve self-worth by encouraging social contacts in which older adults contribute to younger adults, weaken the effects of age stereotypes in TV programs, and prepare middle-aged adults for living healthy lives as older adults. However, these conclusions should be regarded with caution, because several key areas (age related cues, activated cognitive processes, impact of death awareness on ageism) need to be investigated in order to validate this understanding of the origins of ageism among younger and older adults.

  12. Gout in Older Adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Bridget Teevan; Köttgen, Anna; Law, Andrew; Grams, Morgan; Baer, Alan N.; Coresh, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age predict the onset of gout in older age. Methods: We studied the incidence of gout in older adults using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, a prospective U.S. population–based cohort of middle-aged adults enrolled between 1987 and 1989 with ongoing follow-up. A genetic urate score was formed from common urate-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms for eight genes. The adjusted hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval of incident gout by traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The cumulative incidence from middle age to age 65 was 8.6% in men and 2.5% in women; by age 75 the cumulative incidence was 11.8% and 5.0%. In middle age, increased adiposity, beer intake, protein intake, smoking status, hypertension, diuretic use, and kidney function (but not sex) were associated with an increased gout risk in older age. In addition, a 100 µmol/L increase in genetic urate score was associated with a 3.29-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.63–6.63) increased gout risk in older age. Conclusions: These findings suggest that traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age may be useful for identifying those at risk of gout in older age. PMID:26714568

  13. Neighborhood amenities and mobility in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Andrea L; Grubesic, Tony H; Auchincloss, Amy H; Tabb, Loni P; Michael, Yvonne L

    2013-09-01

    Diversity of neighborhood amenities may promote the mobility of older adults. A 2010 community-based sample of 510 adults aged ≥65 years in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and geospatial data from the Esri Business Analyst database (Esri, Inc., Redlands, California) were used to assess associations of neighborhood amenity diversity with mobility. Neighborhoods were defined by census tract, and diversity of amenities was derived by using the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design's neighborhood development index (US Green Building Council, Washington, DC). Generalized estimating equations adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics were used to estimate differences in mobility score by tertile of amenity diversity. Analyses were stratified by participants' routine travel habits (stayed at home, stayed in home zip code, or traveled beyond home zip code). We found that for those who spent most of their time in their home neighborhoods, mobility scores (from the Life-Space Assessment, which ranges from 0 to 104 points) were 8.3 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.1, 16.6) among those who lived in neighborhoods with the most amenity diversity compared with those who lived in neighborhoods with the least amenity diversity. No significant associations between amenity diversity and mobility were observed for those who did not leave home or who regularly traveled outside their neighborhoods. Neighborhoods with a high diversity of amenities may be important promoters of mobility in older adults who do not routinely travel outside their neighborhoods.

  14. Neighborhood Amenities and Mobility in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Andrea L.; Grubesic, Tony H.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Tabb, Loni P.; Michael, Yvonne L.

    2013-01-01

    Diversity of neighborhood amenities may promote the mobility of older adults. A 2010 community-based sample of 510 adults aged ≥65 years in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and geospatial data from the Esri Business Analyst database (Esri, Inc., Redlands, California) were used to assess associations of neighborhood amenity diversity with mobility. Neighborhoods were defined by census tract, and diversity of amenities was derived by using the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design's neighborhood development index (US Green Building Council, Washington, DC). Generalized estimating equations adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics were used to estimate differences in mobility score by tertile of amenity diversity. Analyses were stratified by participants' routine travel habits (stayed at home, stayed in home zip code, or traveled beyond home zip code). We found that for those who spent most of their time in their home neighborhoods, mobility scores (from the Life-Space Assessment, which ranges from 0 to 104 points) were 8.3 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.1, 16.6) among those who lived in neighborhoods with the most amenity diversity compared with those who lived in neighborhoods with the least amenity diversity. No significant associations between amenity diversity and mobility were observed for those who did not leave home or who regularly traveled outside their neighborhoods. Neighborhoods with a high diversity of amenities may be important promoters of mobility in older adults who do not routinely travel outside their neighborhoods. PMID:23666814

  15. Food Label Knowledge, Usage and Attitudes of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Jackey, Beverly A; Cotugna, Nancy; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Few recent studies have investigated food label practices in older adults. This cross-sectional study surveyed adults, 60 years and older in Delaware (n = 100, 82% female, 74% between 60 and 79 years, 49% Caucasian, 45% African Americans) to examine associations between food label knowledge, attitudes, and usage patterns. A 28-item questionnaire assessed knowledge, attitudes, usage, and demographic information. Bivariate analysis results showed food label knowledge was associated with education and monthly income. Those reporting a high school education or less incorrectly identified calorie (P < 0.05) and carbohydrate information (P < 0.03). Monthly income ≤$2000 was associated with incorrectly interpreting carbohydrate information (P < 0.03). Label usage was associated with being female (P < 0.001), having a high school education or less (P < 0.000), being 70 years or older (P < 0.05), and having a monthly income ≤$2000 (P < 0.001). Respondent's usage and perceived label comprehension was high; however less than half could correctly interpret label information. When shown samples of the US Food and Drug Administration's proposed new labels, subjects had a very favorable attitude toward the new changes. Increasing nutrition knowledge through education interventions appropriate for older adult consumers may improve comprehension of information on the food labels.

  16. Depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Lee, Sangyoon; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-10-01

    Many longitudinal studies have found that older adults with depressive symptoms or depression have increased risk of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationships between depressive symptoms or depression, cognitive function, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and volumetric MRI measurements in older adults. A total of 4352 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years) participated in the study. We investigated medical history and geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS-15) items to determine depression and depressive symptoms. Cognitive tests included the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), story memory, word list memory, trail-making tests, and the symbol digit substitution task. Of the 4352 participants, 570 (13%) fulfilled the criteria for depressive symptoms (GDS-15: 6 + points) and 87 (2%) were diagnosed with depression. All cognitive tests showed significant differences between the 'no depressive symptoms', 'depressive symptoms', and 'depression' groups. The 'depressive symptoms' and 'depression' groups showed lower serum BDNF (p < 0.001) concentrations than the 'no depressive symptoms' group. The 'depressive symptoms' group exhibited greater atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe than did the 'no depressive symptoms' group (p = 0.023). These results suggest that memory, executive function, and processing speed examinations are useful to identify cognitive decline in older adults who have depressive symptoms and depression. Serum BDNF concentration and atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe may in part mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An intervention to help older adults maintain independence safely.

    PubMed

    Ganong, Lawrence H; Coleman, Marilyn; Benson, Jacquelyn J; Snyder-Rivas, Linley A; Stowe, James D; Porter, Eileen J

    2013-05-01

    Older adults who live alone are at risk for problems (e.g., falling, sudden illness). To maintain themselves safely at home they may benefit from planning to prevent problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an intervention designed to train family members or friends as to how to help older adults who were living alone make plans to maintain independence safely in their homes and to make behavioral and household changes to enhance safety. Support network members of 19 older adults randomly assigned to the intervention group were taught to use multiple segment vignettes to assist the older adults in creating plans for living safely. Older adults in the control group (n = 21) were asked to engage in an unstructured discussion about home safety with their network members. Older adults in the intervention group developed safer plans and made more household and behavioral changes than did control group adults.

  18. Spatial navigation in young versus older adults

    PubMed Central

    Gazova, Ivana; Laczó, Jan; Rubinova, Eva; Mokrisova, Ivana; Hyncicova, Eva; Andel, Ross; Vyhnalek, Martin; Sheardova, Katerina; Coulson, Elizabeth J.; Hort, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Older age is associated with changes in the brain, including the medial temporal lobe, which may result in mild spatial navigation deficits, especially in allocentric navigation. The aim of the study was to characterize the profile of real-space allocentric (world-centered, hippocampus-dependent) and egocentric (body-centered, parietal lobe dependent) navigation and learning in young vs. older adults, and to assess a possible influence of gender. We recruited healthy participants without cognitive deficits on standard neuropsychological testing, white matter lesions or pronounced hippocampal atrophy: 24 young participants (18–26 years old) and 44 older participants stratified as participants 60–70 years old (n = 24) and participants 71–84 years old (n = 20). All underwent spatial navigation testing in the real-space human analog of the Morris Water Maze, which has the advantage of assessing separately allocentric and egocentric navigation and learning. Of the eight consecutive trials, trials 2–8 were used to reduce bias by a rebound effect (more dramatic changes in performance between trials 1 and 2 relative to subsequent trials). The participants who were 71–84 years old (p < 0.001), but not those 60–70 years old, showed deficits in allocentric navigation compared to the young participants. There were no differences in egocentric navigation. All three groups showed spatial learning effect (p’ s ≤ 0.01). There were no gender differences in spatial navigation and learning. Linear regression limited to older participants showed linear (β = 0.30, p = 0.045) and quadratic (β = 0.30, p = 0.046) effect of age on allocentric navigation. There was no effect of age on egocentric navigation. These results demonstrate that navigation deficits in older age may be limited to allocentric navigation, whereas egocentric navigation and learning may remain preserved. This specific pattern of spatial navigation impairment may help differentiate normal aging from

  19. Feasibility of reducing older adults' sedentary time.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Paul A; Eakin, Elizabeth G; Healy, Genevieve N; Owen, Neville

    2011-08-01

    Sedentary time (too much sitting, as distinct from lack of exercise) is a prevalent risk to health among older adults. Examine the feasibility of an intervention to reduce and break up sedentary time in older adults. A pre-experimental (pre-post) study. A total of 59 participants aged ≥60 years from Brisbane, Australia. Data were collected between May and December 2009 and analyzed in 2010. One face-to-face goal-setting consultation and one individually tailored mailing providing feedback on accelerometer-derived sedentary time, grounded in social cognitive theory and behavioral choice theory. Program reach and retention; changes in accelerometer-derived sedentary time, light-intensity physical activity (LIPA), and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) (assessed over 6 days in pre- and post-intervention periods); and participant satisfaction. Reach was 87.5% of those screened and eligible; retention was 100%. From pre- to post-intervention, participants decreased their sedentary time [-3.2% (95% CI= -4.18, -2.14), p<0.001], increased their breaks in sedentary time per day [4.0 (1.48, 6.52), p=0.003], and increased their LIPA [2.2% (1.40, 2.99), p<0.001] and MVPA [1.0% (0.55, 1.38), p<0.001]. Significantly greater reductions in sedentary time were made after 10:00am, with significantly greater number of breaks occurring between 7:00pm and 9:00pm. Participants reported high satisfaction with the program (median 9/10). Sedentary time in older adults can be reduced following a brief intervention based on goal setting and behavioral self-monitoring. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Challenges with Diagnosing and Managing Sepsis in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Kalin M.; Dy-Boarman, Eliza A.; Haase, Krystal K.; Maxvill, Kristen (Hesch); Pass, Steven; Alvarez, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis in older adults has many challenges that affect rate of septic diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring parameters. Numerous age-related changes and comorbidities contribute to increased risk of infections in older adults, but also atypical symptomatology that delays diagnosis. Due to various pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic changes in the older adult, medications are absorbed, metabolized, and eliminated at different rates as compared to younger adults, which increases risk of adverse drug reactions due to use of drug therapy needed for sepsis management. This review provides information to aid in diagnosis as well as offers recommendations for monitoring and treating sepsis in the older adult population. PMID:26687340

  1. Nonpharmacological pain management by ethnically diverse older adults with chronic pain: barriers and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyoung; Hirz, Christina E; Manotas, Karen; Hooyman, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    As key players in multidisciplinary health care systems, geriatric social workers must understand the dynamics of pain management among older adults with chronic pain. This study identified perceived barriers to, and facilitators for, utilizing nonpharmacological pain management through face-to-face interviews with 44 ethnically diverse community-dwelling older adults. Constant comparative analysis identified barriers not recognized in prior studies: (a) embarrassment/self-consciousness, (b) unavailability of certain treatments, and (c) lack of faith in effectiveness of nonpharmacological treatments. Most frequently reported facilitators were (a) social support, (b) positive attitude, and (c) available resources. Social workers can provide counseling to motivate older adults to exercise to manage chronic pain and refer them to exercise programs tailored for older adults. To resolve the most frequently reported barrier-transportation-social workers can link older adults with transportation services offered by senior centers or other nonprofit agencies.

  2. Internet use and loneliness in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sum, Shima; Mathews, R Mark; Hughes, Ian; Campbell, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Use of the Internet by seniors as a communication technology may lead to changes in older adult social relationships. This study used an online questionnaire to survey 222 Australians over 55 years of age on Internet use. Respondents primarily used the Internet for communication, seeking information, and commercial purposes. The results showed negative correlations between loneliness and well-being. Multiple regression analyses revealed that greater use of the Internet as a communication tool was associated with a lower level of social loneliness. In contrast, greater use of the Internet to find new people was associated with a higher level of emotional loneliness.

  3. Medicare, health care reform, and older adults.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Ann L

    2010-12-01

    Nurses will play a key role in health care reform, educating and engaging consumers, providing input into and monitoring implementation, and assisting organizations with transition to new policies. As the largest group of professional health care providers, nurses must be key players in the actualization of health care reform. This article addresses how The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 will affect the solvency of Medicare, what older adults will gain, effects on quality and effectiveness of care, cost reduction, changes in taxes, and the key provisions of special interest to nurses. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Driving Retirement in Older Adults with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Croston, Jami; Meuser, Thomas M.; Berg-Weger, Marla; Grant, Elizabeth A.; Carr, David B.

    2010-01-01

    In order to characterize the driving and mobility status of older adults with dementia, a questionnaire was mailed to 527 informants; 119 were returned. The majority of patients were diagnosed with Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type. Only 28% were actively driving at the time of survey. Informants rated 53% of current or recently retired drivers as potentially unsafe. Few informants reported using community/educational resources. Individuals with progressive dementia retire from driving for differing reasons, many subsequent to family recognition of impaired driving performance. Opportunities for education and supportive assistance exist but are underutilized. PMID:20161565

  5. Predictors of health anxiety among older and young adults.

    PubMed

    Gerolimatos, Lindsay A; Edelstein, Barry A

    2012-12-01

    Many older adults have at least one chronic disease and experience greater health problems than young adults. However, little is known about factors other than health that account for health anxiety (HA) among older adults. The overall objective of the present study was to develop a better understanding of HA among older and young adults. We examined how anxiety-related constructs (anxiety sensitivity, intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety control, and emotion regulation) predict two core components of HA described in the cognitive-behavioral model of HA (illness likelihood and negative consequences) in older and young adults. We also examined the extent to which the predictor variables differentially account for HA in both age groups. Older and young adult participants completed several self-report surveys. Young adults reported higher levels of HA than older adults. Anxiety sensitivity and reappraisal predicted illness likelihood for older and young adults. Intolerance of uncertainty predicted negative consequences in both age groups. Anxiety sensitivity predicted negative consequences for older adults only. Anxiety control did not predict illness likelihood or negative consequences for either age group. Results suggest that anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty may predispose older and young adults to HA, which is influenced by reappraisal. Implications for the cognitive-behavioral model of HA in both age groups are discussed.

  6. Changes and events over life course: a comparative study between groups of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luípa Michele; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes; Nogueira, Jordana Almeida; Cavalli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the changes which had occurred over the last year in the life of older adults, as well as the values attributed to these changes. METHOD: this is a multicentric, cross-sectional study, of the inquiry type, undertaken in three cities of the Brazilian Northeast, investigating two distinct groups of older adults. RESULTS: among the 236 older adults interviewed, it was observed that 30.0% reported health as the main change in their life course in the last year, this category being the most significant response among the older adults aged between 80 and 84 years old (37.7%). Changes in the family were mentioned by 11.5% of the older adults; death (9.6%) and alterations in routine activities (9.6%). In relation to the value attributed to these changes, it was ascertained that for 64.7% of the older adults aged between 65 and 69 years old, these changes were positive. In the older group, 49.4% of the older adults believe that their changes were related to losses. CONCLUSION: the knowledge of the changes mentioned, the value attributed to these changes, and the self-evaluation of health provide information which assists in formulating actions which are more specific to the real needs of these age groups. They also provide the health professionals with a better understanding of how some experiences are experienced in the life trajectories of these older adults. PMID:25806625

  7. Motivation to Learn among Older Adults in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Dian-Fu; Lin, Sung-Po

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the survey on adults administered by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008, and logistic regression analysis showed a close relationship between learning motivations of older adults. The finding revealed that the higher age or the lower education attainment of older adults, the lower their learning motivation. The…

  8. Motivation to Learn among Older Adults in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Dian-Fu; Lin, Sung-Po

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the survey on adults administered by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008, and logistic regression analysis showed a close relationship between learning motivations of older adults. The finding revealed that the higher age or the lower education attainment of older adults, the lower their learning motivation. The…

  9. Sexual Abuse of Older Adults: Aps Cases and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaster, Pamela B.; Roberto, Karen A.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of sexual abuse cases among adults aged 60 and older receiving attention from Adult Protective Services units in Virginia over a 5-year period. Design and Methods: We used bivariate analysis to characterize older adults (n = 82) experiencing sexual abuse and the circumstances of the…

  10. Sexual Abuse of Older Adults: Aps Cases and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaster, Pamela B.; Roberto, Karen A.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of sexual abuse cases among adults aged 60 and older receiving attention from Adult Protective Services units in Virginia over a 5-year period. Design and Methods: We used bivariate analysis to characterize older adults (n = 82) experiencing sexual abuse and the circumstances of the…

  11. Balance performance in older adults and its relationship with falling.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mir Mohammad; Gerami, Hooshang; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Soleimani, Robabeh

    2015-06-01

    A normal consequence of aging is a general deterioration in a number of musculoskeletal and sensory systems that affect postural control and balance. The aim of this study was to evaluate history of falls among active older individuals in Iran, and estimate the risk factors for falls among this population. A total of 448 active older subjects from rural region of Rasht city, Iran, were included. They were divided into three groups depending on their age: young-old (n = 266); middle-old (n = 154) and oldest-old (n = 28). We assessed balance performance by One-Leg Balance (OLB), Functional Reach (FR), Timed Up and Go (TUG) and Romberg tests. The fall rate (>2 in the last year) was 27.0 %. The cut-off point 13.75 s for TUG test showed 84.7 % sensitivity and 56 % specificity. Also the best cut-off point for OLB test was 12.7 s (63 % sensitivity and 83.5 % specificity). Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, BMI, diabetes, and failure in OLB, FR, and Romberg tests predicted fall risk. The decision tree classification of older individuals showed three categorical variables, which in their order of importance included diabetes, Romberg test, and OLB test. This study revealed the value of history taking about diabetes as a predictor for existing falling. Decision tree technique showed that Romberg and OLB tests help in identifying older adults with balance problems. Given the incidence and consequences of falls among older adults, large-scale prospective studies on older individuals to identify those prone to falls are warranted.

  12. [Medication use among older adults in Bogota, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Cano-Guitierrez, Carlos; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Cabrera, Javier; Rosselli, Diego

    2016-01-01

    To determine the frequency and types of medication used by older adults living in the Colombian capital, Bogota, and to identify the use of potentially inappropriate medications according to the revised Beers criteria. Data were obtained from the health, welfare, and aging (SABE, Spanish: salud, bienestar y envejecimiento) study conducted in both urban and rural areas of Bogota in 2012. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze sex-related differences in the number of medications used among age-stratified subgroups. Of 2 000 subjects, 1,268 (63.4%) were women; furthermore, 1,514 (75.7%) of the total participants had ≤5 years of basic education. The self-reported prevalence rates of hypertension and diabetes were 56.9% and 17.5%, respectively. The average number of medications per subject was 3.24, and it was higher in women (3.50) than in men (2.79). A total of 549 subjects (27.4%) reported using ≥5 medications. Only 311 subjects (15.6%) reported not using any medication. According to the Beers criteria, 443 (6.9%) of the medications were potentially inappropriate. The use of inappropriate medications is a major problem among older adults in Bogota. Further studies should identify factors that increase the risks of polypharmacy and inappropriate medication use and design interventions that would allow older adults to avoid these risks.

  13. Creativity in older adults: a plethora of possibilities.

    PubMed

    Flood, Meredith; Phillips, Kenneth D

    2007-04-01

    Aging continues to be an important topic of study. For many older adults, the elder years can be a challenging, if not difficult, time. Creativity interventions have been shown to positively affect mental and physiological health indicators. The process of creating and one's attitude toward life may be more important than the actual product or tangible outcome. While many activities are those typically thought of as creative, such as painting, there are also a number of useful interventions that are not traditionally identified as creative ones, but that are, in fact, creative activities. This paper describes recent work with creativity in older adults, including research and clinical projects, and earlier works that could be refined as creative interventions. Recommendations for further investigation of creativity also are presented.

  14. Sodium-reduction strategies for meals prepared for older adults.

    PubMed

    Losby, Jan L; Patel, Deesha; Schuldt, June; Hunt, Glynnis S; Stracuzzi, Jeanne C; Johnston, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This article describes lessons learned from implementing sodium-reduction strategies in programs that provide meals to older adults in 2 New York counties, with one county replicating the approaches of the other. The implemented sodium-reduction strategies were product substitutions, recipe modifications, and cooking from scratch. Both counties were able to achieve modest sodium reductions in prepared meals. Lessons learned to implement sodium reduction strategies include the following: (1) identifying partners with shared experience and common goals; (2) engaging experts; (3) understanding the complexity of the meals system for older adults; (4) conducting sodium nutrient analysis; (5) making gradual and voluntary reductions to sodium content; and (6) working toward sustainable sodium reduction.

  15. Demographic Profile of Older Adults Using Wheeled Mobility Devices

    PubMed Central

    Karmarkar, Amol M.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Cooper, Rosemarie; Collins, Diane M.; Matthews, Judith T.; Koontz, Alicia; Teodorski, Emily E.; Cooper, Rory A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of wheeled mobility devices differed with respect to age, gender, residential setting, and health-related factors among older adults. A total of 723 adults ageing 60 and older are representing three cohorts, from nursing homes, the Center for Assistive Technology, and the wheelchair registry from the Human Engineering Research Laboratories. Wheeled mobility devices were classified into three main groups: manual wheelchairs, power wheelchairs, and scooters. Our results found factors including age, gender, diagnosis, and living settings to be associated with differences in use of manual versus powered mobility devices. Differences in use were also noted for subtypes of manual (depot, standard, and customized) and powered (scooter, standard, and customized) mobility devices, on demographic, living arrangements, and health-related factors. Consideration of demographic, health-related, and environmental factors during the prescription process may help clinicians identify the most appropriate mobility device for the user. PMID:21748007

  16. Dimensionality of Everyday Problem Solving in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Marsiske, Michael; Willis, Sherry L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated individual differences in older adults' everyday problem-solving performance using 3 instruments. Past research, typically using only single measures, has yielded a multitude of findings regarding age effects in everyday problem solving. The present sample consisted of 111 older adults (44 men, 67 women) who ranged in age from 68 to 94 years. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that, within each of the 3 instruments, subscales representing particular content domains could be reliably identified. There was, however, little relation between the different instruments, and the measures also differed in their relation with chronological age. These results support the view that everyday problem-solving competence is a multidimensional construct, of which previous investigations may only have studied particular dimensions. PMID:7662186

  17. Fruit and vegetable intake among older adults: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Kadell, Andria R.

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world population. Older adults are also at heightened risk of chronic conditions (such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer) and specific geriatric conditions (such as cognitive impairment, frailty, and falls). Research studies have examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and subsequent health outcomes and the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in the U.S. population. However, relatively few studies have specifically examined health impacts and correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among older adults, who have unique biophysical and socioeconomic circumstances. Evidence is reviewed to (1) describe findings related to consumption and chronic, geriatric, and other health outcomes among older adults and (2) describe patterns in fruit and vegetable consumption among older adults and how these patterns vary within and among populations. This review addresses specific barriers faced by older adults in obtaining and consuming fruits and vegetables in community settings. Recommendations for practice and policy are discussed. PMID:23769545

  18. Mobility adaptations of older adults: a secondary analysis.

    PubMed

    Rush, Kathy L; Watts, Wilda E; Stanbury, Janice

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this secondary study was to describe the mobility adaptations of community-living older adults. The primary study, designed to understand weakness and aging from the perspective of older adults, revealed that older adults viewed weakness as a progression from inability to an end point of 'giving up,' which prompted the use of adaptation strategies to preserve mobility and to counter a self-identity of being weak. A qualitative descriptive design guided the primary study of 15 community-living older adults, who participated in in-depth interviews. A systematic secondary analysis using Baltes and Baltes' theory of Selective Optimization with Compensation (SOC) showed that older adults used selection, optimization, and compensation adaptations across a range of mobility behaviors. The SOC model offered a framework for profiling older adults' agency and motivations in meeting mobility challenges as they age and provided the basis for targeted interventions to maximize mobility with aging.

  19. The significance of low back pain in older adults.

    PubMed

    Fernbach, J C; Langer, F; Gross, A E

    1976-11-06

    A retrospective study of the practice of an orthopedic surgeon at a university teaching hospital was done to evaluate the significance of low back pain in older adults. All 259 patients in a 3-year period 50 years of age and over whose presenting complaint was low back pain or sciatica or both were identified and classified by final diagnosis. A comparison was similarly identified and classified. Systemic disease, particularly cancer, was much more prevalent in the older group. It was demonstrated that a simple screening routine consisting of measuring the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and calcium would identify all cases of unsuspected malignant disease--that is, at least one of the values would be abnormal in every case.

  20. Blueberry Supplementation Improves Memory in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    KRIKORIAN, ROBERT; SHIDLER, MARCELLE D; NASH, TIFFANY A; KALT, WILHELMINA; VINQVIST-TYMCHUK, MELINDA R; SHUKITT-HALE, BARBARA; JOSEPH, JAMES A

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of dementia is increasing with expansion of the older adult population. In the absence of effective therapy, preventive approaches are essential to address this public health problem. Blueberries contain polyphenolic compounds, most prominently anthocyanins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, anthocyanins have been associated with increased neuronal signaling in brain centers mediating memory function as well as improved glucose disposal, benefits that would be expected to mitigate neurodegeneration. We investigated the effects of daily consumption of wild blueberry juice in a sample of nine older adults with early memory changes. At 12 weeks, we observed improved paired associate learning (p = 0.009) and word list recall (p = 0.04). In addition, there were trends suggesting reduced depressive symptoms (p = 0.08) and lower glucose levels (p = 0.10). We also compared the memory performances of the blueberry subjects with a demographically-matched sample who consumed a berry placebo beverage in a companion trial of identical design and observed comparable results for paired associate learning. The findings of this preliminary study suggest that moderate-term blueberry supplementation can confer neurocognitive benefit and establish a basis for more comprehensive human trials to study preventive potential and neuronal mechanisms. PMID:20047325

  1. Measuring Fluid Intelligence in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Goghari, Vina M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluated subjective and objective cognitive measures as predictors of fluid intelligence in healthy older adults. We hypothesized that objective cognitive measures would predict fluid intelligence to a greater degree than self-reported cognitive functioning. Ninety-three healthy older (>65 years old) community-dwelling adults participated. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) were used to measure fluid intelligence, Digit Span Sequencing (DSS) was used to measure working memory, Trail Making Test (TMT) was used to measure cognitive flexibility, Design Fluency Test (DFT) was used to measure creativity, and Tower Test (TT) was used to measure planning. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) was used to measure subjective perceptions of cognitive functioning. RAPM was correlated with DSS, TT, and DFT. When CFQ was the only predictor, the regression model predicting fluid intelligence was not significant. When DSS, TMT, DFT, and TT were included in the model, there was a significant change in the model and the final model was also significant, with DFT as the only significant predictor. The model accounted for approximately 20% of the variability in fluid intelligence. Our findings suggest that the most reliable means of assessing fluid intelligence is to assess it directly. PMID:28250990

  2. The Ethics of Deprescribing in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Emily; Denig, Petra; Hilmer, Sarah N; Ter Meulen, Ruud

    2016-12-01

    Deprescribing is the term used to describe the process of withdrawal of an inappropriate medication supervised by a clinician. This article presents a discussion of how the Four Principles of biomedical ethics (beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, and justice) that may guide medical practitioners' prescribing practices apply to deprescribing medications in older adults. The view of deprescribing as an act creates stronger moral duties than if viewed as an omission. This may explain the fear of negative outcomes which has been reported by prescribers as a barrier to deprescribing. Respecting the autonomy of older adults is complex as they may not wish to be active in the decision-making process; they may also have reduced cognitive function and family members may therefore have to step in as surrogate decision-makers. Informed consent is intended as a process of information giving and reflection, where consent can be withdrawn at any time. However, people are rarely updated on the altered risks and benefits of their long-term medications as they age. Cessation of inappropriate medication use has a large financial benefit to the individual and the community. However, the principle of justice also dictates equal rights to treatment regardless of age.

  3. Training attentional control in older adults

    PubMed Central

    MacKay-Brandt, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated benefits for older adults from training attentional control using a variable priority strategy, but the construct validity of the training task and the degree to which benefits of training transfer to other contexts are unclear. The goal of this study was to characterize baseline performance on the training task in a sample of 105 healthy older adults and to test for transfer of training in a subset (n = 21). Training gains after 5 days and extent of transfer was compared to another subset (n = 20) that served as a control group. Baseline performance on the training task was characterized by a two-factor model of working memory and processing speed. Processing speed correlated with the training task. Training gains in speed and accuracy were reliable and robust (ps <.001, η2 = .57 to .90). Transfer to an analogous task was observed (ps <.05, η2 = .10 to .17). The beneficial effect of training did not translate to improved performance on related measures of processing speed. This study highlights the robust effect of training and transfer to a similar context using a variable priority training task. Although processing speed is an important aspect of the training task, training benefit is either related to an untested aspect of the training task or transfer of training is limited to the training context. PMID:21728889

  4. Training attentional control in older adults.

    PubMed

    Mackay-Brandt, Anna

    2011-07-01

    Recent research has demonstrated benefits for older adults from training attentional control using a variable priority strategy, but the construct validity of the training task and the degree to which benefits of training transfer to other contexts are unclear. The goal of this study was to characterize baseline performance on the training task in a sample of 105 healthy older adults and to test for transfer of training in a subset (n = 21). Training gains after 5 days and extent of transfer was compared to another subset (n = 20) that served as a control group. Baseline performance on the training task was characterized by a two-factor model of working memory and processing speed. Processing speed correlated with the training task. Training gains in speed and accuracy were reliable and robust (ps <.001, η(2) = .57 to .90). Transfer to an analogous task was observed (ps <.05, η(2) = .10 to .17). The beneficial effect of training did not translate to improved performance on related measures of processing speed. This study highlights the robust effect of training and transfer to a similar context using a variable priority training task. Although processing speed is an important aspect of the training task, training benefit is either related to an untested aspect of the training task or transfer of training is limited to the training context.

  5. Pedometer accuracy in slow walking older adults

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jessica B.; Krč, Katarina M.; Mitchell, Emily A.; Eng, Janice J.; Noble, Jeremy W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine pedometer accuracy during slow overground walking in older adults (Mean age = 63.6 years). A total of 18 participants (6 males, 12 females) wore 5 different brands of pedometers over 3 pre-set cadences that elicited walking speeds between 0.3 and 0.9 m/s and one self-selected cadence over 80 meters of indoor track. Pedometer accuracy decreased with slower walking speeds with mean percent errors across all devices combined of 56%, 40%, 19% and 9% at cadences of 50, 66, and 80 steps/min, and self selected cadence, respectively. Percent error ranged from 45.3% for Omron HJ105 to 66.9% for Yamax Digiwalker 200. Due to the high level of error across the slowest cadences of all 5 devices, the use of pedometers to monitor step counts in healthy older adults with slower gait speeds is problematic. Further research is required to develop pedometer mechanisms that accurately measure steps at slower walking speeds. PMID:24795762

  6. Depression among older adults with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mijung; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Depression is among the leading causes of decreased disability-adjusted life years in the world1 and a serious public health problem.2 Older adults with DM experience greater risk for comorbid depression compared to those who do not have DM.3 Having DM increases the risk of subsequent development or recurrence of depression. Conversely, history of depression increases the risk for new onset DM.4 As an unwanted co-traveler of DM, undetected, untreated or undertreated depression impinges an individual’s ability to manage their DM successfully, hindering their adherence to treatment regime.5 It also undermines the effectiveness of provider-patient communication and decays therapeutic relationships. Thus, in the context of caring for older adults with DM, comorbid depression presents special challenges and opportunities for clinicians. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that co-occurring depression and DM may accelerate cognitive decline, highlighting the importance of treating depression and DM. Several treatment modalities are available, which can be used to treat and manage depression in primary care settings: pharmaceutical, brief psychotherapeutic, behavioral and life style interventions, and combination therapies. An evidence-based health care delivery model is also available for treating depression in primary care settings. In this article, we summarize the clinical presentation of late-life depression, potential mechanisms of comorbidity of depression and DM, importance of depression in the successful management of DM, and available best practice models for depression treatment. PMID:25453305

  7. Gait Speed and Survival in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Studenski, Stephanie; Perera, Subashan; Patel, Kushang; Rosano, Caterina; Faulkner, Kimberly; Inzitari, Marco; Brach, Jennifer; Chandler, Julie; Cawthon, Peggy; Connor, Elizabeth Barrett; Nevitt, Michael; Visser, Marjolein; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Badinelli, Stefania; Harris, Tamara; Newman, Anne B.; Cauley, Jane; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Context Survival estimates help individualize goals of care for geriatric patients, but life tables fail to account for the great variability in survival. Physical performance measures, such as gait speed, might help account for variability, allowing clinicians to make more individualized estimates. Objective To evaluate the relationship between gait speed and survival. Design, Setting, and Participants Pooled analysis of 9 cohort studies (collected between 1986 and 2000), using individual data from 34 485 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years or older with baseline gait speed data, followed up for 6 to 21 years. Participants were a mean (SD) age of 73.5 (5.9) years; 59.6%, women; and 79.8%, white; and had a mean (SD) gait speed of 0.92 (0.27) m/s. Main Outcome Measures Survival rates and life expectancy. Results There were 17 528 deaths; the overall 5-year survival rate was 84.8% (confidence interval [CI], 79.6%–88.8%)and 10-year survival rate was 59.7% (95%CI, 46.5%–70.6%). Gait speed was associated with survival in all studies (pooled hazard ratio per 0.1 m/s, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.87–0.90; P<. 001). Survival increased across the full range of gait speeds, with significant increments per 0.1 m/s. At age 75, predicted 10-year survival across the range of gait speeds ranged from 19% to 87% in men and from 35% to 91% in women. Predicted survival based on age, sex, and gait speed was as accurate as predicted based on age, sex, use of mobility aids, and self-reported function or as age, sex, chronic conditions, smoking history, blood pressure, body mass index, and hospitalization. Conclusion In this pooled analysis of individual data from 9 selected cohorts, gait speed was associated with survival in older adults. PMID:21205966

  8. Use of complementary medications among older adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Maggiore, Ronald J; Gross, Cary P; Togawa, Kayo; Tew, William P; Mohile, Supriya G; Owusu, Cynthia; Klepin, Heidi D; Lichtman, Stuart M; Gajra, Ajeet; Ramani, Rupal; Katheria, Vani; Klapper, Shira M; Hansen, Kurt; Hurria, Arti

    2012-10-01

    Little is known about complementary medication use among older adults with cancer, particularly those who are receiving chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of complementary medication use and to identify the factors associated with its use among older adults with cancer. The prevalence of complementary medication use (defined as herbal agents, minerals, or other dietary supplements, excluding vitamins) was evaluated in a cohort of adults aged ≥65 years who were about to start chemotherapy for their cancer. The associations between complementary medication use and patient characteristics (sociodemographics; comorbidities; and functional, nutritional, psychological, and cognitive status), medication use (number of medications and concurrent vitamin use), and cancer characteristics (type and stage) were analyzed. The cohort included 545 patients (mean age, 73 years; range, 65-91 years; 52% women) with cancer (61% stage IV). Seventeen percent of these patients (N = 93) reported using ≥1 complementary medication; the mean number of complementary medications among users was 2 (range, 1-10 medications). Complementary medication use was associated with 1) earlier cancer stage (29% had stage I-II disease vs 17% with stage III-IV disease; odds ratio [OR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-3.49) and 2) less impairment with instrumental activities of daily living (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.12-1.73). Complementary medication use was reported by 17% of older adults with cancer and was more common among those who had less advanced disease (i.e., those receiving adjuvant, potentially curative treatment) and higher functional status. Further studies are needed to determine the association between complementary medication use and cancer outcomes among older adults. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  9. Social Network Types and Mental Health Among LGBT Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Bryan, Amanda E B; Muraco, Anna

    2017-02-01

    This study was designed to identify social network types among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults and examine the relationship between social network type and mental health. We analyzed the 2014 survey data of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,450) from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study. Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify clusters of social network ties based on 11 indicators. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the association between social network types and mental health. We found five social network types. Ordered from greatest to least access to family, friend, and other non-family network ties, they were diverse, diverse/no children, immediate family-focused, friend-centered/restricted, and fully restricted. The friend-centered/restricted (33%) and diverse/no children network types (31%) were the most prevalent. Among individuals with the friend-centered/restricted type, access to social networks was limited to friends, and across both types children were not present. The least prevalent type was the fully restricted network type (6%). Social network type was significantly associated with mental health, after controlling for background characteristics and total social network size; those with the fully restricted type showed the poorest mental health. Unique social network types (diverse/no children and friend-centered/restricted) emerge among LGBT older adults. Moreover, individuals with fully restricted social networks are at particular risk due to heightened health needs and limited social resources. This study highlights the importance of understanding heterogeneous social relations and developing tailored interventions to promote social connectedness and mental health in LGBT older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Perceptions of Sedentary Behavior Among Socially Engaged Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mcewan, Toshoya; Tam-Seto, Linna; Dogra, Shilpa

    2017-08-01

    To better understand the perceptions of sedentary behavior, its pros and cons, and the barriers associated with reducing sedentary time as it pertains to older adults. Four focus group sessions were conducted with older adults (n = 26). Each focus group lasted approximately 45min, was led by an experienced qualitative researcher, and utilized probing questions on the definition of sedentary behavior, pros and cons of sedentary behavior, and programming needs for sedentary time reduction. Sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers independently extracted data from the transcripts and identified major themes and subthemes. Data on sociodemographics and current activity levels were collected via questionnaires. Participants were 74±8.5 years old and were primarily women (77%). They self-reported sitting for 5.6±1.7h per day and engaging in physical activity for 172±115min/day. Four themes were identified. The first theme indicated that older adults have varied definitions of the term sedentary behavior and that they have a negative perception of this term. The second theme indicated that participants perceived social, cognitive, and physical benefits to the sedentary activities in which they engaged, and that these activities were meaningful. The third theme indicated that physical health was the only perceived disadvantage of engaging in sedentary activities. Finally, the fourth theme indicated that there were several perceived barriers to sedentary time reduction, both person and environment related. These findings have implications for use of terminology in policy and public health strategies targeting sedentary time reduction in older adults.

  11. Lack of anticipated support for care for community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Déborah Cristina de; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; D'Elboux, Maria José

    2016-06-01

    to identify the factors associated with lack of anticipated support for care for community-dwelling older adults. this study presents comparison and logistic regression analyses of data from 671 individuals who took part of the multicentric study entitled "Frailty in older Brazilians" - a quantitative, epidemiologic and transversal investigation carried out between 2008 and 2009. the subjective evaluation of anticipated support for care for community-dwelling older adults was a good indicator of risk for lack of anticipated support for care in women, older adults who live alone and those with poor self-rated health. it is necessary to reflect upon the formal support system currently available for older people in Brazil, considering that those who most frequently presented lack of anticipated support for care are an increasing population. The study also highlights the importance of using subjective methods for the evaluation of the adequacy of older adults' support network.

  12. Social, Economic, and Health Disparities Among LGBT Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Emlet, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    LGBT older adults are a heterogeneous population with collective and unique strengths and challenges. Health, personal, and economic disparities exist in this group when compared to the general population of older adults, yet subgroups such as transgender and bisexual older adults and individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for disparities and poorer health outcomes. As this population grows, further research is needed on factors that contribute to promoting health equity, while decreasing discrimination and improving competent service delivery.

  13. Social, Economic, and Health Disparities Among LGBT Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Emlet, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    LGBT older adults are a heterogeneous population with collective and unique strengths and challenges. Health, personal, and economic disparities exist in this group when compared to the general population of older adults, yet subgroups such as transgender and bisexual older adults and individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for disparities and poorer health outcomes. As this population grows, further research is needed on factors that contribute to promoting health equity, while decreasing discrimination and improving competent service delivery. PMID:28366981

  14. Suicide in older adults: the role of emotions and cognition.

    PubMed

    Kiosses, Dimitris N; Szanto, Katalin; Alexopoulos, George S

    2014-11-01

    Suicide in older adults is a significant clinical concern. In this review of recent findings, we concentrate on the role of emotions and cognition in suicide risk and behavior in older adults. We discuss the epidemiology of suicide in older adults, integrate recent findings on non-psychotic major depression, schizophrenia and suicidal ideation, explore the relationship of emotion regulation with suicide, present recent advances on suicide in demented patients, and describe the latest developments on cognition and decision processes in suicide.

  15. Functional predictors of stair-climbing speed in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Martha R; O'Connell, Janelle K; Dorr, Melissa; Hardin, Robyn; Tumlinson, Allison B; Varner, Bria

    2014-01-01

    Falls on stairs are a common cause of injury and death among older adults. Although stair climbing is a component of some instruments that assess activities of daily living, normal speeds for safe stairway ambulation have not been established. Furthermore, little is known about which components of functional mobility are most highly associated with stair-climbing speed. The purposes of this study were to determine the range of normal stair-climbing speeds for ambulatory, community-dwelling older adults and identify which functional mobility tests could best explain this speed. Twenty men and 34 women older than 65 years completed 6 functional mobility tests, including timed heel rises, timed chair stands, functional reach, one-legged stance time (OLST), a timed step test (alternately touching a step 10 times), and self-selected gait speed. Participants were then timed as they ascended and descended a flight of 8 to 10 steps. Combined ascent-descent times were used to calculate stair-climbing speed in steps per second. Stepwise regression techniques determined the best functional predictors for stair-climbing speed. Participants ascended and descended stairs at an average speed of 1.3 steps per second; men tended to ambulate stairs more quickly than women. The best predictors of stair-climbing speed were usual gait speed and OLST (R = 0.79; P = .01), which explained 63% of the variance in stair-climbing speed. Our results were similar to others who reported stair-climbing speeds ranging from 1.1 to 1.7 steps per second for older adults. However, the 2 predictors identified in this study provide a simpler and more accurate model for estimating stair-climbing speed than has been previously reported. Further research is needed to determine whether this speed is sufficient for negotiating stairs in an emergency. In addition, further study is needed to determine which tests/measures best differentiate individuals who can and cannot independently climb a typical flight of

  16. Snow and Rain Modify Neighbourhood Walkability for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa; Hirsch, Jana A; Melendez, Robert; Winters, Meghan; Sims Gould, Joanie; Ashe, Maureen; Furst, Sarah; McKay, Heather

    2017-04-09

    The literature has documented a positive relationship between walkable built environments and outdoor mobility in older adults. Yet, surprisingly absent is any consideration of how weather conditions modify the impact of neighbourhood walkability. Using archived weather data linked to survey data collected from a sample of older adults in Vancouver, Canada, we found that car-dependent neighbourhoods (featuring longer block lengths, fewer intersections, and greater distance to amenities) became inaccessible in snow. Even older adults who lived in very walkable neighbourhoods walked to 25 per cent fewer destinations in snow. It is crucial to consider the impact of weather in the relationship between neighbourhood walkability and older adult mobility.

  17. Update on managing generalized anxiety disorder in older adults.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Kalin M; Duncan, Nakia A; Heinrich, Krista; Shaw, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    With the recent updates to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition; DSM-5), there are many questions on how to care for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and other psychiatric conditions. The current article reviews the new changes to the DSM-5 for diagnosis of GAD, discusses new anxiety assessment scales that are validated in older adults, evaluates pharmacological agents that have been studied in older adults for GAD treatment, and provides monitoring recommendations to help those who provide care to older adults experiencing GAD.

  18. Treatment options for osteoarthritis: considerations for older adults.

    PubMed

    Seed, Sheila M; Dunican, Kaelen C; Lynch, Ann M

    2011-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and the leading cause of disability among older adults in the United States. Treatment options such as acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most widely used agents to manage mild-to-moderate pain. Treatment with tramadol or opioids is usually reserved for severe pain associated with OA. These agents do not come without risk, especially for older adults. Patient-specific parameters and comorbid conditions must be considered when evaluating treatment options for older adults. This article reviews pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to the management of OA in older adults.

  19. Correlates of, and barriers to, Internet use among older adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Janet; McAllister, Carolyn; McCaslin, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Older adults constitute the group with the greatest increase in Internet usage in the past decade; however, usage varies greatly within this population. Services to older adults require a current understanding of Internet-use trends. This study utilized a quantitative survey method to examine correlates of, and barriers to, current Internet use in a demographically diverse county in Southern California. Findings indicate that the presence of a computer at home, a job requiring computer use, age, education, and ethnicity are important factors in predicting Internet use in older adults. Implications for social work practice with older adults is discussed.

  20. Maintenance of physical function in frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Carol E; Cordeiro, Maria; Perryman, Erica

    2014-06-01

    Inactivity leads to frailty and loss of function for older adults. Most older adults are sedentary. Participating in a regular routine of physical activity is recommended for maintaining physical function required to sustain quality of life and independence for older adults. Annual screening for level of physical activity is required to determine changes from year to year. Research shows older adults are more likely to initiate a regular routine of physical activity when a health care provider writes a prescription for physical activity including the type, frequency, and specific duration of physical activity sessions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of a forgiveness intervention for older adults.

    PubMed

    Allemand, Mathias; Steiner, Marianne; Hill, Patrick L

    2013-04-01

    The authors' aim in the present study was to examine the effects of a brief forgiveness intervention for older adults. The psychoeducational group intervention consists of (a) established core components of previous forgiveness interventions and (b) additional components considering specific needs of older adults. Seventy-eight older adults (mean age 70.1 years) were randomized to a treatment condition or a waiting-list control condition. The intervention reduced the levels of perceived actual transgression painfulness, transgression-related emotions and cognitions, and negative affect. These findings suggest the promise of forgiveness interventions for older adults that help participants clarify and deal with past, present, and future interpersonal transgressions.

  2. Specific phobias in older adults: characteristics and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carlos M; Gonçalves, Daniela C; Purkis, Helena; Pocinho, Margarida; Pachana, Nancy A; Byrne, Gerard J

    2010-08-01

    Differential diagnosis implies identifying shared and divergent characteristics between clinical states. Clinical work with older adults demands not only the knowledge of nosological features associated with differential diagnosis, but also recognition of idiosyncratic factors associated with this population. Several factors can interfere with an accurate diagnosis of specific phobia in older cohorts. The goal of this paper is to review criteria for specific phobia and its differential diagnosis with panic disorder, agoraphobia, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder, while stressing the specific factors associated with aging. A literature search regarding specific phobia in older adults was carried out using PubMed. Relevant articles were selected and scanned for further pertinent references. In addition, relevant references related to differential diagnosis and assessment were used. Etiologic factors, specificity of feared stimulus or situation, fear predictability and the nature of phobic situations are key points to be assessed when implementing a differential diagnosis of specific phobia. First, age-related sensory impairments are common and interfere both with information processing and communication. Second, medical illnesses create symptoms that might cause, interfere with, or mimic anxiety. Third, cohort effects might result in underreporting, through the inability to communicate or recognize anxiety symptoms, misattributing them to physical conditions. Finally, diagnostic criteria and screening instruments were usually developed using younger samples and are therefore not adapted to the functional and behavioral characteristics of older samples.

  3. Systematic Review of Yoga Interventions to Promote Cardiovascular Health in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Jennifer L; Fleury, Julie

    2016-06-01

    The benefits of physical activity are well established, yet few older adults engage in adequate physical activity to optimize health. While yoga may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, few studies have focused on the efficacy of yoga-based physical activity to promote cardiovascular health in older adults. The objective of this review is to provide an evaluation of yoga interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk in older adults. Four databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of yoga interventions in older adults. Studies with cardiovascular outcomes were included. Literature searches identified nine articles eligible for review. Significant health benefits were reported, including favorable changes in blood pressure, body composition, glucose, and lipids. Yoga practices, participant characteristics, and outcome measures were variable. There was limited use of theory. Yoga is safe and feasible in older adults; additional research is warranted to examine the specific components of yoga interventions essential to reducing cardiovascular risk.

  4. Trust and trustworthiness in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Phoebe E; Slessor, Gillian; Rieger, Matthias; Rendell, Peter G; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Ruffman, Ted

    2015-12-01

    In a series of 1-shot economic trust games in which participants could make real monetary profits, but also risked losing money, 2 studies compared young and older adults' trust (amount invested with trustees) and trustworthiness (amount returned to investors by trustees). In Study 1, young (n = 35) and older (n = 32) participants acted as investors, and the age of simulated trustees (young, older) was manipulated. In Study 2, young (n = 61) and older (n = 67) participants acted in real life as both investors and trustees. They completed 2 face-to-face trust games with same- and other-age partners, and 3 anonymous trust games with same-, other-, and unknown-age partners. Study 1 found that young and older participants rate older trustees as appearing more trustworthy than young trustees, but neither group invest more with older than young trustees. Rather, older participants were more likely than young participants to invest money averaged across trustee age. In Study 2, there were no age-related differences in trust, but older adults were more trustworthy than young adults in anonymous games with same- and unknown-age partners. It was also found that young adults demonstrate greater reputational concerns than older adults by reciprocating more trust when face-to-face than anonymous. We discuss the complex influences of age on trust game investing and reciprocation, as well as the implications for older adults' wellbeing and financial security. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Self-concepts of exercise in frail older adults with heart failure: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Xie, Boqin; Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    The co-occurrence of frailty and heart failure (HF) in older adults (65 years or older) can adversely affect the ability to engage in self-care management behaviors, which may alter self-concepts and decrease quality of life. Little is known about how frailty and HF influence older adults' self-concepts or how these self-concepts affect exercise behaviors. Therefore, the aims of this literature review were to identify the self-concepts of older frail adults with HF and to identify how these self-concepts affect their exercise behaviors. Guided by the schema model of self-concept, publications before April 2013 that examined the impact of the self-concepts of older adults with HF and/or frailty on exercise behavior were reviewed. As a result, 6 articles were included. Three of the 6 articles focused on frailty, and 3 of the 6 articles focused on HF. However, no study was found that specifically examined the self-concepts of frail older adults with HF. The self-concepts of older adults with HF and/or frailty are multifaceted and include both cognitive resources (facilitating exercise) and cognitive liabilities (hindering exercise). Studies are needed to determine how the co-occurrence of frailty and HF impact self-concepts and exercise behaviors in older adults.

  6. The role of chiropractic care in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There are a rising number of older adults; in the US alone nearly 20% of the population will be 65 or older by 2030. Chiropractic is one of the most frequently utilized types of complementary and alternative care by older adults, used by an estimated 5% of older adults in the U.S. annually. Chiropractic care involves many different types of interventions, including preventive strategies. This commentary by experts in the field of geriatrics, discusses the evidence for the use of spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture, nutritional counseling and fall prevention strategies as delivered by doctors of chiropractic. Given the utilization of chiropractic services by the older adult, it is imperative that providers be familiar with the evidence for and the prudent use of different management strategies for older adults. PMID:22348431

  7. Young Adults' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes towards the Sexuality of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle

    2014-09-01

    Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality.

  8. Applying the Integrated Behavior Change Model to Understanding Physical Activity Among Older Adults: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Arnautovska, Urska; O'Callaghan, Frances; Hamilton, Kyra

    2017-02-01

    We explored older adults' experiences of physical activity (PA) and related decision-making processes underlying PA. Twenty Australians (Mage = 73.8 years) participated in semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis, and identified themes were matched deductively within motivational, volitional, and implicit processes of the integrated behavior change model for PA. Motivational influences such as participants' time orientation toward health and perceptions of what PA should be like were frequently featured in participants' narratives. Volitional processes were also identified, with participants reporting different ways of coping with competing priorities. Physical surroundings and habitual PA were the identified themes within implicit processes. Together, these findings contribute to a better understanding of subjective experiences of older adults regarding PA. They also add to a more contextual understanding of multiple decision-making processes underpinning older adults' PA engagement. Identified concepts may be used in future research and PA interventions targeting older adults.

  9. Applying the Integrated Behavior Change model to Understanding Physical Activity Among Older Adults: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Arnautovska, Urska; O'Callaghan, Frances; Hamilton, Kyra

    2017-02-07

    We explored older adults' experiences of physical activity (PA) and related decision-making processes underlying PA. Twenty Australians (Mage= 73.8 years) participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and identified themes were matched deductively within motivational, volitional, and implicit processes of the integrated behavior change model for PA. Motivational influences such as participants' time orientation towards health and perceptions of what PA should be like were frequently featured in participants' narratives. Volitional processes were also identified, with participants reporting different ways of coping with competing priorities. Physical surroundings and habitual PA were the identified themes within implicit processes. Together, these findings contribute to a better understanding of subjective experiences of older adults regarding PA. They also add to a more contextual understanding of multiple decision-making processes underpinning older adults' PA engagement. Identified concepts may be used in future research and PA interventions targeting older adults.

  10. In The Best Interest Of The (Adult) Child: Ideas About Kinship Care Of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Tezra; Perry, Tam E.; Valeriani, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a qualitative, ethnographic approach to examine the experiences older adults and their kin, as the older adult engages in relocation. Studies looking at caregiving by kin for older adults highlight burdens for the adult child. This study offers a life course perspective on kinship care, analyzing older adults' decisions' to move. It was found that many older adults are strongly influenced by the desire to not be cared for by their kin as well as to select housing near their existing social network, which might exclude kin. In conclusion, policy implications are discussed. PMID:25278741

  11. Investigation of pain and life satisfaction in older adults.

    PubMed

    Karadag Arli, Senay; Bakan, Ayse Berivan; Varol, Ela; Aslan, Gulpinar

    2017-07-28

    The present study aimed to investigate pain and life satisfaction in older adults. This study, which is descriptive in nature, utilized the relational screening model. It was carried out between September 2016 and March 2017, with 387 people aged ≥65 years who were registered in Family Health Centers in Ağrı, a city located in eastern Turkey. The participants' mean Geriatric Pain Measure score was 53.23 ± 29.40, indicating moderate pain. The mean Life Satisfaction Scale score was 8.50 ± 5.34, indicating moderate life satisfaction level. The study also found a statistically significant, negative relationship between life satisfaction and geriatric pain. An increase in the elderly population brings various health problems. The results of the present study showed that the rate of chronic diseases is very high in older adults. Therefore, pain is one of the most frequently encountered health problems, and it has negative effects on life satisfaction. In conclusion, is it considered that older adults' life satisfaction could increase if their pain is identified and reduced effectively. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Cognitive benefits of computer games for older adults

    PubMed Central

    Zelinski, Elizabeth M.; Reyes, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a basis for the hypothesis that digital action games may produce cognitive benefits for older adults. First, a discussion of the relationship between cognitive and physical health shows the increasing weight given to the role of declines in cognition in the development of dependency in older adult population studies. Second, evidence that cognitive training produces ‘far transfer’ in elders is presented. The key issue is that one approach, known as extended practice training, has been successful in producing far transfer to memory and other processes. Its principles, which are consistent with those associated with positive brain plasticity effects, are identified. Those principles are then related to the mechanics of digital action games, which also have the important added feature of producing the experiences of presence, engagement, and flow, the subjective elements of game play that are likely to sustain interest and emotional investment in the skills practiced so that the play produces cognitive benefits. The specific cognitive abilities proposed to be improved by different types of game genres are outlined, and recent developments in game and interface design that may affect the willingness of older adults to play are described. PMID:25126043

  13. Protein intake and muscle function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Deer, Rachel R; Volpi, Elena

    2015-05-01

    We provide an update on the recent advances in nutrition research regarding the role of protein intake in the development and treatment of sarcopenia of aging. Specific muscle mass, strength and function cut-points for the diagnosis of sarcopenia have been identified. There is mounting evidence, as highlighted by multiple consensus statements, that the Recommended Dietary Allowance (0.8 g/kg body weight) may be inadequate to promote optimal health in older adults. Recent research indicates that in addition to total daily protein intake the timing of protein intake is also important to best stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and maintain muscle mass and function in older adults. Recent evidence suggests that the Recommended Dietary Allowance for protein is inadequate, and that the timing and distribution of protein consumption throughout daily meals may be as important as the total quantity. Research has continued to advance our understanding of protein's effects on muscle metabolism; however, there remains a need for large, long-term, randomized clinical trials examining whether the positive effects of dietary protein on muscle metabolism seen in acute studies will translate over the long term into gains of muscle mass, function, and the overall health of older adults.

  14. Improving the quality of survivorship for older adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohile, Supriya G; Hurria, Arti; Cohen, Harvey J; Rowland, Julia H; Leach, Corinne R; Arora, Neeraj K; Canin, Beverly; Muss, Hyman B; Magnuson, Allison; Flannery, Marie; Lowenstein, Lisa; Allore, Heather G; Mustian, Karen M; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Extermann, Martine; Ferrell, Betty; Inouye, Sharon K; Studenski, Stephanie A; Dale, William

    2016-08-15

    In May 2015, the Cancer and Aging Research Group, in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging through a U13 grant, convened a conference to identify research priorities to help design and implement intervention studies to improve the quality of life and survivorship of older, frailer adults with cancer. Conference attendees included researchers with multidisciplinary expertise and advocates. It was concluded that future intervention trials for older adults with cancer should: 1) rigorously test interventions to prevent the decline of or improve health status, especially interventions focused on optimizing physical performance, nutritional status, and cognition while undergoing cancer treatment; 2) use standardized care plans based on geriatric assessment findings to guide targeted interventions; and 3) incorporate the principles of geriatrics into survivorship care plans. Also highlighted was the need to integrate the expertise of interdisciplinary team members into geriatric oncology research, improve funding mechanisms to support geriatric oncology research, and disseminate high-impact results to the research and clinical community. In conjunction with the 2 prior U13 meetings, this conference provided the framework for future research to improve the evidence base for the clinical care of older adults with cancer. Cancer 2016;122:2459-68. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  15. Cognitive benefits of computer games for older adults.

    PubMed

    Zelinski, Elizabeth M; Reyes, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a basis for the hypothesis that digital action games may produce cognitive benefits for older adults. First, a discussion of the relationship between cognitive and physical health shows the increasing weight given to the role of declines in cognition in the development of dependency in older adult population studies. Second, evidence that cognitive training produces 'far transfer' in elders is presented. The key issue is that one approach, known as extended practice training, has been successful in producing far transfer to memory and other processes. Its principles, which are consistent with those associated with positive brain plasticity effects, are identified. Those principles are then related to the mechanics of digital action games, which also have the important added feature of producing the experiences of presence, engagement, and flow, the subjective elements of game play that are likely to sustain interest and emotional investment in the skills practiced so that the play produces cognitive benefits. The specific cognitive abilities proposed to be improved by different types of game genres are outlined, and recent developments in game and interface design that may affect the willingness of older adults to play are described.

  16. Nursing needs of hospitalized older adults. Consumer and nurse perceptions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Esther; Chenoweth, Lynn; Hancock, Karen

    2003-09-01

    The proportion of older adults is increasing in Australia, and the proportion of older adults requiring medical care is expected to increase in the future. At the same time, budget restrictions are a reality for Australia's health system. Increasing need and decreasing resources suggest the need to focus on the quality aspect of treatment and care for older adults. Little research has been conducted in the area of perceived nursing needs of elderly patients during hospitalization. This is an important area of research because it is increasingly recognized that elderly patients have specialized needs and are the major consumers of health care. Even less research has compared patient and carer perceptions with those of nursing staff. This article is a literature review and an investigation of the quality of care elderly patients receive, and of patient and nurse perceptions of the importance of various nursing activities. Quality of care is reviewed in terms of perceptions of nursing care priorities and elderly patients' satisfaction with the quality of nursing care they receive. Research examining nurses' perceptions related to why they are unable to consistently provide quality nursing care to all elderly patients is also reviewed. By identifying the nursing needs of elderly patients and educating nursing staff about these needs, professional practice can be guided and improvements in quality of care, patient satisfaction, and patient outcomes may occur.

  17. Prevention of depressive disorders in older adults: An overview.

    PubMed

    Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Filip; Patel, Vikram; Dias, Amit; Li, Juan; Reynolds, Charles F

    2015-03-01

    Prevention of depressive disorders is one of the most important challenges for health care in coming decades. Depressive disorders in all age groups have a high disease burden and are associated with huge economic costs, and current treatments are only capable of taking away one-third of the (nonfatal) disease burden of depression under optimal conditions. Prevention may be one alternative strategy that may help in further reducing the disease burden of depression. Because of the worldwide increase in the number of older adults, the number of depressed older adults will also increase considerably in the next few decades, making prevention of depression an important priority for research. Identifying the high-risk target groups for preventive interventions is complicated because most risk indicators have a low specificity, indicating that most people from these groups will not develop the disorder despite increased risk levels. We describe one promising method to identify the best target groups, based on the principle that the high-risk group should be as small as possible, should be responsible for as many new cases of depression as possible, and that intervention be as effective as possible. The number of trials examining the possibility to prevent the onset of depressive disorders in those who do not (yet) meet diagnostic criteria for depression is increasing rapidly. A recent meta-analysis identified more than 30 randomized trials and these studies showed that the incidence of depressive disorders was 21% lower in the prevention groups compared with the control groups who did not receive the preventive intervention. Most of these trials are aimed at adolescents and younger adults. Only six trials were specifically aimed at older adults. The development of evidence-based preventive interventions for major depression and other mental disorders should be an important scientific and public health objective for the 21st century.

  18. A dual-process model of older adults' sedentary behavior.

    PubMed

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Conroy, David E

    2016-03-01

    This 14-day daily diary study tested a dual-process model of motivation to determine the between-person (time-invariant) and within-person (time-varying) processes associated with older adults' daily sedentary behavior. This model integrated the health action process approach (HAPA) with research on habit strength. Older adults (n = 100) answered questions regarding their motivation and behavior at the beginning and end of each day, respectively. Participants also wore ActivPAL3 activity monitors for the duration of the study. Multilevel models predicting behavior revealed that sedentary behavior was (a) negatively associated with planning to reduce sedentary behavior at the within-person (but not the between-person) level, and (b) positively associated with sedentary behavior habit strength. Plans to limit sedentary behavior were (a) positively associated with task self-efficacy at the within-person level, but (b) negatively associated at the between-person level, and (c) positively associated with intentions at the between- and within-person level. Intentions to limit sedentary behavior were (a) positively associated with task self-efficacy at the between and within-person level, but (b) not associated with light-intensity physical activity outcome expectations, sedentary behavior risk perceptions, or sedentary behavior habit strength. This study was the first to systematically investigate a combination of controlled and automatic processes that are associated with daily fluctuations in older adults' sedentary behavior. Interventions aiming to reduce sedentary behavior in older adults should target the motivational constructs identified in this study to provide the best chance for behavior change. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Frailty in self-neglecting older adults: A secondary analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jessica L; Burnett, Jason; Dyer, Carmel B

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect (SN) and frailty in older adults is associated with increased disability and mortality. Despite these commonalities, there have been no studies objectively assessing frailty in older adults who SN. This secondary analysis classified frailty in N = 37 older adults with Adult Protective Services validated SN using the Fried Frailty Phenotype (FFP) of weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, activity level, and walking speed. Overall, 3% were classified as robust, 62% as prefrail, and 35% as frail. Most (72%) were overweight/obese, with clinically significant decreases in activity level (60%) and walking speed (97%). Compared to the original FFP population, older adults who SN exhibit important differences in frailty phenotypes, and finding that the largest percentage of older adults who SN were prefrail may indicate a critical opportunity for intervening in this population to reduce future functional decline and mortality.

  20. Improving older adults' memory performance using prior task success.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Lisa; Miller, Tyler M

    2013-06-01

    Holding negative aging stereotypes can lead older adults to perform poorly on memory tests. We attempted to improve older adults' memory performance by giving them task experience that would counter their negative performance expectations. Before participating in a memory experiment, younger and older adults were given a cognitive task that they could either successfully complete, not successfully complete, or they were given no prior task. For older adults, recall was significantly higher and self-reported anxiety was significantly lower for the prior task success group relative to the other groups. There was no effect of prior task experience on younger adults' memory performance. Results suggest that older adults' memory can be improved with a single successful prior task experience.

  1. Methodological Challenges in Physical Activity Research with Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Jo-Ana D.

    2015-01-01

    The aging adult population is growing, as well as the incidence of chronic illness among older adults. Physical activity has been demonstrated in the literature to be a beneficial component of self-management for chronic illnesses commonly found in the older adult population. Health sciences research seeks to develop new knowledge, practices, and policies that may benefit older adults’ management of chronic illness and quality of life. However, research with the older adult population, though beneficial, includes potential methodological challenges specific to this age group. This article discusses common methodological issues in research among older adults, with a focus on physical activity intervention studies. Awareness and understanding of these issues may facilitate future development of research studies devoted to the aging adult population, through appropriate modification and tailoring of sampling techniques, intervention development, and data measures and collection. PMID:21821726

  2. Sleep protects memories from interference in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Sonni, Akshata; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2015-01-01

    In a recent study, we demonstrated that sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memories is preserved in older adults. The present study examined whether this benefit of sleep for declarative learning in older adults reflects a passive role of sleep in protecting memories from decay or an active role in stabilizing them. Young and older adults learned a visuo-spatial task and recall was probed following sleep or wake. Although a reduction in performance was observed following sleep and wake, task-related interference prior to recall had a larger detriment on performance in the wake condition. This was true for young and high performing older adults only. Low performing older adults did not receive a benefit of sleep on the visuo-spatial task. Performance changes were associated with early night NREM sleep in young adults and with early night REM sleep in high performing older adults. These results demonstrate that performance benefits from sleep in older adults as a result of an active memory stabilization process; importantly, the extent of this benefit of sleep is closely linked to the level of initial acquisition of the episodic information in older adults. PMID:25890819

  3. Sleep protects memories from interference in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sonni, Akshata; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-07-01

    In a recent study, we demonstrated that sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memories is preserved in older adults. The present study examined whether this benefit of sleep for declarative learning in older adults reflects a passive role of sleep in protecting memories from decay or an active role in stabilizing them. Young and older adults learned a visuospatial task, and recall was probed after sleep or wake. Although a reduction in performance was observed after sleep and wake, task-related interference before recall had a larger detriment on performance in the wake condition. This was true for young and high performing older adults only. Low performing older adults did not receive a benefit of sleep on the visuospatial task. Performance changes were associated with early night nonrapid eye movement sleep in young adults and with early night rapid eye movement sleep in high performing older adults. These results demonstrate that performance benefits from sleep in older adults as a result of an active memory stabilization process; importantly, the extent of this benefit of sleep is closely linked to the level of initial acquisition of the episodic information in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Music improves sleep quality in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hui-Ling; Good, Marion

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to report an investigation of the effects of soft music on sleep quality in older community-dwelling men and women in Taiwan. Sleep is a complex rhythmic state that may be affected by the ageing process. Few studies have focused on the effects of music, a non-pharmacological method of improving the quality of sleep in older adults. A randomized controlled trial was used with a two-group repeated measures design. Sixty people aged 60-83 years with difficulty in sleeping were recruited through community leaders and screened using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Those reporting depression, cognitive impairment, medical or environmental problems that might interfere with sleep; and those who used sleeping medications, meditation, or caffeine at bedtime were excluded. Participants listened to their choice among six 45-minute sedative music tapes at bedtime for 3 weeks. There were five types of Western and one of Chinese music. Sleep quality was measured with the PSQI before the study and at three weekly post-tests. Groups were comparable on demographic variables, anxiety, depressive symptoms, physical activity, bedtime routine, herbal tea use, napping, pain, and pretest overall sleep quality. Music resulted in significantly better sleep quality in the experimental group, as well as significantly better components of sleep quality: better perceived sleep quality, longer sleep duration, greater sleep efficiency, shorter sleep latency, less sleep disturbance and less daytime dysfunction (P = 0.04-0.001). Sleep improved weekly, indicating a cumulative dose effect. The findings provide evidence for the use of soothing music as an empirically-based intervention for sleep in older people.

  5. Hospitalization and aesthetic health in older adults.

    PubMed

    Moss, Hilary; Donnellan, Claire; O'Neill, Desmond

    2015-02-01

    To assess the impact of hospitalization on arts engagement among older people; and to assess perceptions of whether hospitals are aesthetically deprived environments. A Survey of Aesthetic and Cultural Health was developed to explore the role of aesthetics before, during and after hospital. Study participants were n = 150 hospital in-patients aged >65. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Attendance at arts events was an important part of life for this sample and a large drop off was noted in continuation of these activities in the year post-hospital stay. Physical health issues were the main causes but also loss of confidence and transport issues. Film, dance, and music were the most popular arts for this sample prior to hospital stay. Noise pollution caused by other patients, lack of control over TV/radio, and access to receptive arts in hospital (reading and listening to music) were important issues for patients in hospital. This study identifies a trend for decreasing exposure to arts beginning with a hospital stay and concludes that older people may need encouragement to resume engagement in arts following a hospital stay. There is relatively limited evidence regarding the nature of, and potential benefit from, aesthetics in healthcare and limited studies with rigorous methodology, and further research is needed to understand the aesthetic preferences of older people in hospital. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pain and obesity in the older adult.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Raffa, Robert B; Nalamachu, Srinivas; Balestrieri, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and pain are common problems affecting the older adult and a possible relationship between the two is considered. Obesity and pain themselves are significant burdens on the individual, the healthcare system, and society as a whole and they can lead to emotional conditions such as stress, anxiety, and depression - which lead to further healthcare utilization and burden. Cross-sectional studies have revealed a high correlation between pain and obesity and a few longitudinal studies implicate obesity as a risk factor for the development of pain and the associated reduction in quality of life. Obesity leads to pain due to mechanical stress and metabolic disruptions, so mitigating obesity may help reduce the risk of developing pain and improve recovery from pain. More research is warranted to elucidate the mechanistic links between obesity and pain and to determine the optimal treatment strategies for reducing these comorbities. Reducing obesity could reduce pain medication burden.

  7. Assessing shyness in Chinese older adults.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2005-09-01

    The Shyness Scale (SS) is a brief instrument for assessing shyness as a personality trait. The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the SS were investigated in a random sample of 192 Macau Chinese older adults. The Chinese version of the SS possesses high internal consistency and exhibited satisfactory short-term test-retest reliability. The Chinese version of the SS exhibited acceptable convergent validity with other negative measures of psychological well-being including negative emotional states (assessed by the Negative Affect Scale), loneliness (assessed by the UCLA Loneliness Scale), and state anxiety and trait anxiety (assessed by STAI). The divergent validity of the Chinese version of the SS was demonstrated by the negative but significant association between the SS and self esteem (assessed by Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory).

  8. Caregivers of older adults with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    DeFries, Erin L; McGuire, Lisa C; Andresen, Elena M; Brumback, Babette A; Anderson, Lynda A

    2009-04-01

    Because of the growing number of caregivers and the awareness of related health and quality-of-life issues, caregiving has emerged as an important public health issue. We examined the characteristics and caregiving experiences of caregivers of people with and without cognitive impairment. Participants (n = 668) were adults who responded to the 2005 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Caregivers were people who provided regular care to a family member or friend aged 60 years or older either with or without cognitive impairment (ie, memory loss, confusion, or Alzheimer's disease). Demographic characteristics of caregivers of people with cognitive impairment were similar to those of caregivers of people without cognitive impairment. However, compared with caregivers of people without cognitive impairment, caregivers of people with cognitive impairment reported higher levels of disability, were more likely to be paid, and provided care for a longer duration. Care recipients with cognitive impairment were more likely than care recipients without cognitive impairment to be older, have dementia or confusion, and need assistance with memory and learning. State-level caregiving surveillance is vital in assessing and responding to the needs of the growing number of caregivers.

  9. Visual impairment and disability in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G S; Roche, K B; Prasada-Rao, P; Fried, L P

    1994-12-01

    Previous studies have reported that reduced visual acuity is associated with functional dependence in older persons. The purpose of this study was to determine whether components of vision impairment besides reduced acuity contribute to reduced functional independence. Community dwelling adults aged 65 years and older were administered a battery of vision tests including distance acuity, letter contrast sensitivity, disability glare, and stereoacuity. A physical function questionnaire assessed self-reported difficulty with activities of daily living (ADL's), Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL's), and mobility activities. A visual function questionnaire assessed self-reported difficulty with a wide variety of everyday visual activities. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that reduced acuity and reduced contrast sensitivity were independently associated with an overall vision disability score. Acuity was associated with difficulty in tasks requiring good resolution and adaption to changing light conditions, whereas contrast sensitivity was associated with difficulty in tasks requiring distance judgments, night driving, and mobility. Glare and stereoacuity were not associated with self-reported disability. Reduced acuity and contrast sensitivity are significant risk factors for self-reported disability.

  10. Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, “Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults,” focuses on information sources and data available for modeling environmental exposures in the older U.S. population, defined here to be people 60 years and older, with an emphasis on those...

  11. Assertiveness by Older Adults with Visual Impairment: Context Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Anas, Ann P.; Mays, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Within a communication predicament of aging and disability framework, this study examined the impact of two types of contextual variation on perceptions of older adult assertiveness within problematic service encounters. Young (N = 66) and older (N = 66) participants evaluated conversational scenarios in which a visually-impaired older woman…

  12. Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, “Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults,” focuses on information sources and data available for modeling environmental exposures in the older U.S. population, defined here to be people 60 years and older, with an emphasis on those...

  13. Assertiveness by Older Adults with Visual Impairment: Context Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Anas, Ann P.; Mays, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Within a communication predicament of aging and disability framework, this study examined the impact of two types of contextual variation on perceptions of older adult assertiveness within problematic service encounters. Young (N = 66) and older (N = 66) participants evaluated conversational scenarios in which a visually-impaired older woman…

  14. Education for Older Adults: A Synthesis of Significant Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura-Merkel, Catherine; Worthy, Edmund H., Jr.

    Despite the record numbers of older learners today and the probable future growth of these numbers, older people today are underrepresented in adult education. Furthermore, a significant segment of older people has serious educational deficiencies hindering their ability to cope in the contemporary world. Surveys show that the characteristics that…

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness is differentially associated with cortical thickness in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Williams, Victoria J; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Forman, Daniel E; Salat, David H; Sperling, Reisa A; Verfaellie, Mieke; Hayes, Scott M

    2017-02-01

    Aging is associated with reductions in gray matter volume and cortical thickness. One factor that may play a role in mitigating age-associated brain decline is cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Although previous work has identified a positive association between CRF and gray matter volume, the relationship between CRF and cortical thickness, which serves as a more sensitive indicator of gray matter integrity, has yet to be assessed in healthy young and older adults. To address this gap in the literature, 32 young and 29 older adults completed treadmill-based progressive maximal exercise testing to assess CRF (peak VO2), and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine vertex-wise surface-based cortical thickness metrics. Results indicated a significant CRF by age group interaction such that Peak VO2 was associated with thicker cortex in older adults but with thinner cortex in young adults. Notably, the majority of regions demonstrating a positive association between peak VO2 and cortical thickness in older adults overlapped with brain regions showing significant age-related cortical thinning. Further, when older adults were categorized as high or low fit based on normative data, we observed a stepwise pattern whereby cortex was thickest in young adults, intermediate in high fit older adults and thinnest in low fit older adults. Overall, these results support the notion that CRF-related neuroplasticity may reduce although not eliminate age-related cortical atrophy.

  16. Depression and associated factors in older adults in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2013-01-18

    Late-life depression is an important public health problem because of its devastating consequences. The study aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported symptom-based depression in a national sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008. We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements as well as questions on depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the association of socio-demographic factors, health variables, and depression. The overall prevalence of symptom-based depression in the past 12 months was 4.0%. In multivariable analysis, functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems) were associated with self-reported depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Self-reported depression in older South Africans seems to be a public health problem calling for appropriate interventions to reduce occurrence. Factors identified to be associated with depression, including functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems), can be used to guide interventions. The identified protective and risk factors can help in formulating public health care policies to improve quality of life among older adults.

  17. Bereavement-related regret trajectories among widowed older adults.

    PubMed

    Holland, Jason M; Thompson, Kara L; Rozalski, Vincent; Lichtenthal, Wendy G

    2014-01-01

    Although regrets and unfinished business with a deceased spouse are frequently discussed as crucial determinants of one's postloss adjustment, there have been few empirical investigations of bereavement-related regrets. This present study aimed to investigate the longitudinal course of these regrets and their correlates among widowed older adults. Drawing upon information from 201 widowed older adults in the Changing Lives of Older Couples study, this present study used latent class growth analysis to identify unique longitudinal trajectories of regret from 6 to 48 months postloss and examine differences between these trajectories with regard to grief and depressive symptomatology. Three distinct bereavement-related regret trajectories were identified, characterized by Stable Low Regret, Stable High Regret, and Worsening High Regret. Results revealed that those in the Worsening High Regret group, whose bereavement-related regrets were exacerbated during the study, had the poorest grief outcomes. No differences were observed between these groups with regard to depressive symptoms, indicating that regret may be a unique marker of difficulties in the grieving process. These findings highlight the importance of periodically reassessing bereavement-related regrets (and perhaps other aspects of the continued relationship with the deceased) over time and support the rationale behind interventions designed to facilitate resolution of these issues.

  18. Bereavement-Related Regret Trajectories Among Widowed Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Although regrets and unfinished business with a deceased spouse are frequently discussed as crucial determinants of one’s postloss adjustment, there have been few empirical investigations of bereavement-related regrets. This present study aimed to investigate the longitudinal course of these regrets and their correlates among widowed older adults. Methods. Drawing upon information from 201 widowed older adults in the Changing Lives of Older Couples study, this present study used latent class growth analysis to identify unique longitudinal trajectories of regret from 6 to 48 months postloss and examine differences between these trajectories with regard to grief and depressive symptomatology. Results. Three distinct bereavement-related regret trajectories were identified, characterized by Stable Low Regret, Stable High Regret, and Worsening High Regret. Results revealed that those in the Worsening High Regret group, whose bereavement-related regrets were exacerbated during the study, had the poorest grief outcomes. No differences were observed between these groups with regard to depressive symptoms, indicating that regret may be a unique marker of difficulties in the grieving process. Discussion. These findings highlight the importance of periodically reassessing bereavement-related regrets (and perhaps other aspects of the continued relationship with the deceased) over time and support the rationale behind interventions designed to facilitate resolution of these issues. PMID:23766434

  19. Memory training plus yoga for older adults.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Graham J; Vance, David E; Wayde, Ernest; Ford, Katy; Ross, Jeremiah

    2015-06-01

    Previous tests of the SeniorWISE intervention with community-residing older adults that were designed to improve affect and cognitive performance were successful and positively affected these outcomes. In this study, we tested whether adding yoga to the intervention would affect the outcomes. Using a quasiexperimental pre-post design, we delivered 12 hours of SeniorWISE memory training that included a 30-minute yoga component before each training session. The intervention was based on the four components of self-efficacy theory: enactive mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiologic arousal. We recruited 133 older adults between the ages of 53 and 96 years from four retirement communities in Central Texas. Individuals were screened and tested and then attended training sessions two times a week over 4 weeks. A septuagenarian licensed psychologist taught the memory training, and a certified yoga instructor taught yoga. Eighty-three participants completed at least 9 hours (75%) of the training and completed the posttest. Those individuals who completed made significant gains in memory performance, instrumental activities of daily living, and memory self-efficacy and had fewer depressive symptoms. Thirteen individuals advanced from poor to normal memory performance, and seven improved from impaired to poor memory performance; thus, 20 individuals improved enough to advance to a higher functioning memory group. The findings from this study of a memory training intervention plus yoga training show that the benefits of multifactorial interventions had additive benefits. The combined treatments offer a unique model for brain health programs and the promotion of nonpharmacological treatment with the goals of maintaining healthy brain function and boosting brain plasticity.

  20. Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 (IVCF-20): rapid recognition of frail older adults

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; do Carmo, Juliana Alves; de Moraes, Flávia Lanna; Azevedo, Raquel Souza; Machado, Carla Jorge; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the adequacy of the Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20, a rapid triage instrument to test vulnerability in Brazilian older adults, for the use in primary health care. METHODS The study included convenience sample of 397 patients aged older than or equal to 60 years attended at Centro de Referência para o Idoso (Reference Center for Older Adults) and of 52 older adults the same age attended at the community. The results of the questionnaire, consisting of 20 questions, were compared with those of the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, considered a reference for identifying frail older adults. Spearman’s correlation was evaluated in the Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 with the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment; the validity was verified by the area under the ROC curve; reliability was estimated by the percentage of agreement among evaluators and by the kappa coefficient, both with quadratic weighted. The cut-off point was obtained based on the higher accuracy criterion. Cronbach’s alpha, a measure of internal consistency, was estimated. RESULTS The Spearman’s correlation coefficient was high and positive for both groups (0.792 for older adults attended at the Reference Center and 0.305 for older adults from the community [p < 0.001]). The area under the ROC curve for older adults attended at the Reference Center was substantial (0.903). The cut-off point obtained was six, and older adults with scores in Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 above that value had strong possibility of being frail. For older adults from the community, the quadratic weighted agreement among evaluators was 99.5%, and the global quadratic weighted kappa coefficient was 0.94. Cronbach’s alpha was high for older adults attended at the Reference Center (0.861) and those attended at the community (0.740). CONCLUSIONS The Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 questionnaire, in the sample examined, turned out to be positively

  1. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy with Older Adults: Rationale and Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Petkus, Andrew J; M.A; Wetherell, Julie Loebach

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the population. With these changing demographics, mental health professionals will be seeing more older clients. Additionally, older adults are an underserved population in that most older adults in need of mental health services do not receive treatment. Thus, it is essential that treatments for mental and behavioral health problems are empirically supported with older adults and that mental health professionals are aware of the special needs of older adult populations. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an emerging approach to the treatment of distress. The purpose of this article is to provide a rationale for using ACT with older adults based on gerontological theory and research. We also review research on ACT-related processes in later life. We present a case example of an older man with depression and anxiety whom we treated with ACT. Finally, we describe treatment recommendations and important adaptations that need to be considered when using ACT with older adults and discuss important areas for future research. PMID:26997859

  2. Older adults in health education research: some recommendations.

    PubMed

    Connell, C M

    1999-06-01

    A review of articles published in two health education journals is provided to examine the extent to which older adults were included in published research. The review suggests that older adults were included in about 15% of the research articles published in Health Education and Behavior and Health Education Research. Of the articles that include older adults, age differences in study processes and outcomes are rarely examined, and very few studies advance specific hypotheses based on a theoretical or conceptual model of aging or older adulthood. Several recommendations for health education research are suggested.

  3. Older Adults: Community College Students of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Ford M.

    With a declining pool of youth to draw from, community colleges need to be concerned about what can be done to serve the needs of a burgeoning older adult population. Recent research on the educational needs of older adults reveals that they are interested in: (1) information on such personal business and financial topics as social security…

  4. Older Adults Seeking Healthcare Information on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Jeffrey H.; Hollis-Sawyer, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Due to an aging population and increases in healthcare costs, particular attention needs to be focused on developing Internet sites that provide older adults with credible and accurate healthcare information. Present research findings suggest that motivation is only one factor that influences whether or not older adults utilize the World Wide Web…

  5. Self-Report Measure of Psychological Abuse of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Anetzberger, Georgia J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested key psychometric properties of the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM), one self-report scale of the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment (OAMA). Design and Methods: Items and theory were developed in a prior concept mapping study. Subsequently, the measures were administered to 226 substantiated clients by 22…

  6. Medication Adherence in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Elizabeth W.; Rung, Ariane L.; Leon, Kyla A.; Firestein, Catherine; Krousel-Wood, Marie

    2014-01-01

    To effectively address medication adherence and improve cardiovascular health among older adults, a deeper understanding is needed of the barriers that this age group faces and of approaches that would be most effective and feasible for improving adherence. We conducted a focus group study (n = 25) in a diverse population of older adults with…

  7. Observational Learning among Older Adults Living in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Colleen D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning by older adults living in nursing homes through observational learning based on Bandura's (1977) social learning theory. This quantitative study investigated if older adults could learn through observation. The nursing homes in the study were located in the midwestern United States. The…

  8. Institutional Facilitation in Sustained Volunteering among Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Songiee

    2009-01-01

    As more nonprofit organizations rely on older adult volunteers to provide services, it is important to retain volunteers for an extended period of time to ensure service quality and the beneficial outcomes of volunteering. Nonprofit organizations are positioned to facilitate older adult volunteers' role performance. Based on an institutional…

  9. Formal Group Communication with Older Adults: A Research Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger-Vartabedian, Laurel C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the "social interaction" of older adults as a communication phenomenon which influences self-concept. Explores older adult group processes, and gives specific applications of group methods. Suggests the importance of assessing and applying communication constructs to research on detection and prevention of social isolation through formal…

  10. Videogames to Promote Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Erin M.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia. PMID:24761318

  11. Volunteerism, Health, and Civic Engagement among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Gillespie, Alayna A.

    2008-01-01

    In North America, 40-50 per cent of older adults are actively involved as formal volunteers in providing diverse health and human services. We review empirical studies concerning older adults' motivations for volunteering, as well as the health and morale benefits they derive from this expression of altruism. Knowledge of the exact nature and…

  12. Older Adults' Memory for Verbally Presented Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankoff, Sarah M.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…

  13. Older Adults' Memory for Verbally Presented Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankoff, Sarah M.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…

  14. Videogames to Promote Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A

    2012-10-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia.

  15. Dare to Dream: New Venture Incubator for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantman, Shira; Gimmon, Eli

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a project that aims to foster active aging through entrepreneurial activities among older adults. The project establishes the feasibility of implementing an intervention program that assimilates the concept and capabilities of entrepreneurship among older adults and supports them while launching new…

  16. Older Adults: Community College Students of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Ford M.

    With a declining pool of youth to draw from, community colleges need to be concerned about what can be done to serve the needs of a burgeoning older adult population. Recent research on the educational needs of older adults reveals that they are interested in: (1) information on such personal business and financial topics as social security…

  17. Older Adults Seeking Healthcare Information on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Jeffrey H.; Hollis-Sawyer, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Due to an aging population and increases in healthcare costs, particular attention needs to be focused on developing Internet sites that provide older adults with credible and accurate healthcare information. Present research findings suggest that motivation is only one factor that influences whether or not older adults utilize the World Wide Web…

  18. Older Adults' Comprehension of Transformational and Deactivation Negation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    The present research aimed to examine young and older adults' comprehension of negated text to determine the locus of older adults' difficulty in understanding this text construction. Participants were asked to read short passages at their own pace, complete a lexical decision task, and answer a comprehension question about what they had read.…

  19. Health Literacy Programs for Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Older adults make up the fastest growing age group in North America. This has demanded increased attention in supporting the health and well-being of this population and, in particular, the role of health information in promoting the health and well-being of older adults. Increased availability and accessibility of information as well as a greater…

  20. Self-Report Measure of Psychological Abuse of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Anetzberger, Georgia J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested key psychometric properties of the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM), one self-report scale of the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment (OAMA). Design and Methods: Items and theory were developed in a prior concept mapping study. Subsequently, the measures were administered to 226 substantiated clients by 22…

  1. The Meaning of Older Adults' Peer Teaching: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ilseon

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated older adults' peer teaching experiences at a Lifelong Learning Institute through interviews with eight teachers and observations of their classes. Thematic analysis revealed themes of peer-to-peer teaching, volunteer teaching, and explorative teaching. Discussion of the themes examines the meaning of older adults' peer…

  2. Emotional Wellness Needs: Older Adults in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Randall

    2009-01-01

    The importance of emotional wellness for rural older adults is a topic of growing significance. Older adults, now the fastest growing United States population sector, have special wellness needs. By the year 2030, about 70 million people will be over the age of 65. A low or declining sense of control over one's life increases depression. Emotional…

  3. Medication Adherence in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Elizabeth W.; Rung, Ariane L.; Leon, Kyla A.; Firestein, Catherine; Krousel-Wood, Marie

    2014-01-01

    To effectively address medication adherence and improve cardiovascular health among older adults, a deeper understanding is needed of the barriers that this age group faces and of approaches that would be most effective and feasible for improving adherence. We conducted a focus group study (n = 25) in a diverse population of older adults with…

  4. Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Alicia Ann; Memmott, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    In this comprehensively updated second edition, written by Alicia Ann Clair and Jenny Memmott the extraordinary benefits of music therapy for older adults are detailed. "Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults" not only examines these benefits but also clarifies the reasons that music is beneficial. This important book shows both informal and…

  5. Health Literacy Programs for Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Older adults make up the fastest growing age group in North America. This has demanded increased attention in supporting the health and well-being of this population and, in particular, the role of health information in promoting the health and well-being of older adults. Increased availability and accessibility of information as well as a greater…

  6. Older Adults' Comprehension of Transformational and Deactivation Negation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    The present research aimed to examine young and older adults' comprehension of negated text to determine the locus of older adults' difficulty in understanding this text construction. Participants were asked to read short passages at their own pace, complete a lexical decision task, and answer a comprehension question about what they had read.…

  7. Dare to Dream: New Venture Incubator for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantman, Shira; Gimmon, Eli

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a project that aims to foster active aging through entrepreneurial activities among older adults. The project establishes the feasibility of implementing an intervention program that assimilates the concept and capabilities of entrepreneurship among older adults and supports them while launching new…

  8. Effectiveness of Weight Loss Interventions for Obese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Holly C.; West, Delia S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The consequences of obesity among older adults are significant, yet few obesity interventions target this group. Unfamiliarity with weight loss intervention effectiveness and concerns that weight loss negatively affects older adults may be inhibiting targeting this group. This paper reviews the evidence on intentional weight loss and effective weight loss interventions for obese older adults to help dispel concerns and guide health promotion practice. Data Source PubMed articles. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Randomized controlled trials examining behavioral and pharmaceutical weight loss strategies with 1-year follow-up targeting obese (body mass index ≥30) older adults (mean age ≥60 years), and studies with quasi-experimental designs examining surgical weight loss strategies targeting older adults were examined. Data Extraction Abstracts were reviewed for study objective relevancy, with relevant articles extracted and reviewed. Data Synthesis Data were inserted into an analysis matrix. Results Evidence indicates behavioral strategies are effective in producing significant (all p < .05) weight loss without significant risk to obese older adults, but effectiveness evidence for surgical and pharmaceutical strategies for obese older adults is lacking, primarily because this group has not been targeted in trials or analyses did not isolate this group. Conclusion These findings support the promotion of intentional weight loss among obese older adults and provide guidance to health promotion practitioners on effective weight loss interventions to use with this group. PMID:23286596

  9. Effectiveness of weight loss interventions for obese older adults.

    PubMed

    Felix, Holly C; West, Delia S

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of obesity among older adults are significant, yet few obesity interventions target this group. Unfamiliarity with weight loss intervention effectiveness and concerns that weight loss negatively affects older adults may be inhibiting targeting this group. This paper reviews the evidence on intentional weight loss and effective weight loss interventions for obese older adults to help dispel concerns and guide health promotion practice. PubMed articles. Randomized controlled trials examining behavioral and pharmaceutical weight loss strategies with 1-year follow-up targeting obese (body mass index ≥ 30) older adults (mean age ≥ 60 years), and studies with quasi-experimental designs examining surgical weight loss strategies targeting older adults were examined. Abstracts were reviewed for study objective relevancy, with relevant articles extracted and reviewed. Data were inserted into an analysis matrix. Evidence indicates behavioral strategies are effective in producing significant (all p < .05) weight loss without significant risk to obese older adults, but effectiveness evidence for surgical and pharmaceutical strategies for obese older adults is lacking, primarily because this group has not been targeted in trials or analyses did not isolate this group. These findings support the promotion of intentional weight loss among obese older adults and provide guidance to health promotion practitioners on effective weight loss interventions to use with this group.

  10. Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Alicia Ann; Memmott, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    In this comprehensively updated second edition, written by Alicia Ann Clair and Jenny Memmott the extraordinary benefits of music therapy for older adults are detailed. "Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults" not only examines these benefits but also clarifies the reasons that music is beneficial. This important book shows both informal and…

  11. Institutional Facilitation in Sustained Volunteering among Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Songiee

    2009-01-01

    As more nonprofit organizations rely on older adult volunteers to provide services, it is important to retain volunteers for an extended period of time to ensure service quality and the beneficial outcomes of volunteering. Nonprofit organizations are positioned to facilitate older adult volunteers' role performance. Based on an institutional…

  12. Adapting Physical Education Curriculum for the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Jeffrey

    Noting that traditional physical education (PE) courses are geared toward healthy, younger students, this paper examines the need to provide adapted PE programs for older adults. The paper first discusses the growing number of older adults in the population and the concomitant need to overcome the materialistic values that relegate the elderly to…

  13. Older Adult Representation in the Counseling Psychology Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werth, James L., Jr.; Kopera-Frye, Karen; Blevins, Dean; Bossick, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The increasing older adult population has implications for the training and practice of counseling psychologists because of the field's avowed dedication to lifespan development. The present study examined the degree to which older adults were represented in articles in the "Journal of Counseling Psychology" and "The Counseling Psychologist" from…

  14. Community College Programs for Older Adults: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don; Ventura-Merkel, Catherine

    Part of an effort to expand and improve community college programs and services for older adults, this two-part report summarizes results from a national survey of older adult programs and provides an overview of current trends and their implications for action in community colleges. Following introductory sections, the report discusses a fall…

  15. The Family Life Education Needs of Midlife and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Sharon M.; Morris Michael Lane

    2003-01-01

    Using a life course perspective, reports the findings from a needs assessment for midlife and older adults regarding family life education. A sample of 264 adults aged 50 and older indicated interest in 29 family life education topics. The highest rated topics were nutrition and health, fitness and exercise, and positive aspects of aging.…

  16. Multiple Myeloma in the Older Adult: Better Prospects, More Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wildes, Tanya M.; Rosko, Ashley; Tuchman, Sascha A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Multiple myeloma (MM) is disproportionately diagnosed in older adults; with the aging of the population, the number of older adults diagnosed with MM will increase by nearly 80% in the next two decades. Duration of survival has improved dramatically over the last 20 years, but the improvements in older adults have not been as great as those in younger adults with MM. Methods In this article, we address treatment approaches in older adults who are eligible for and those ineligible for high-dose therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation as well as supportive care considerations and the potential role for geriatric assessment in facilitating decision making for older adults with MM. Results The evidence from recent studies demonstrates that combinations of novel and conventional antimyeloma agents result in improved response rates and, in some cases, improved progression-free and overall survival. However, some older adults are particularly vulnerable to toxicities of therapy and discontinuation of therapy and, consequently, they have poorer survival. In addition, older adults may prioritize other outcomes of therapy, such as quality of life, over more conventional end points such as disease response and duration of survival. Geriatric assessment can facilitate risk-stratification of older adults at greater risk for adverse events from therapy and aid in personalizing therapy for vulnerable or frail older adults. Conclusion Survival in older adults with MM is improving with novel therapeutics, but efficacy must be balanced with risk of toxicity of therapy and maintenance of quality of life. Novel instruments such as geriatric assessment tools may facilitate these aims. PMID:25071143

  17. Neuropsychological Correlates of Hazard Perception in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    McInerney, Katalina; Suhr, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Hazard perception, the ability to identify and react to hazards while driving, is of growing importance in driving research, given its strong relationship to real word driving variables. Furthermore, although poor hazard perception is associated with novice drivers, recent research suggests that it declines with advanced age. In the present study, we examined the neuropsychological correlates of hazard perception in a healthy older adult sample. A total of 68 adults age 60 and older who showed no signs of dementia and were active drivers completed a battery of neuropsychological tests as well as a hazard perception task. Tests included the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, Wechsler Test of Adult Reading, Trail Making Test, Block Design, Useful Field of View, and the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Color Word Interference Test. Hazard perception errors were related to visuospatial/constructional skills, processing speed, memory, and executive functioning skills, with a battery of tests across these domains accounting for 36.7% of the variance in hazard perception errors. Executive functioning, particularly Trail Making Test part B, emerged as a strong predictor of hazard perception ability. Consistent with prior work showing the relationship of neuropsychological performance to other measures of driving ability, neuropsychological performance was associated with hazard perception skill. Future studies should examine the relationship of neuropsychological changes in adults who are showing driving impairment and/or cognitive changes associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment or dementia.

  18. Perception and negative effect of loneliness in a Chicago Chinese population of older adults.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xinqi; Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Simon, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to investigate the cultural understandings of loneliness, identify the contexts of loneliness, and to examine its effect on the health and well-being of U.S. Chinese older adults. Despite loneliness is one of the main indicators of well-being, little attention has been paid to understanding loneliness among immigrant older adults. This study utilizes both survey questionnaires and semi-structured focus group methods to investigate the feelings of loneliness among U.S. Chinese older adults. Based on interviews with 78 community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Chicago Chinatown, this community-based participatory research study (CBPR) shows loneliness is common among U.S. Chinese older adults. It was frequently identified through emotional isolation and social isolation. Social, psychological and physical health factors could contribute to the experience of loneliness. In addition, the health of older adults with loneliness may be associated with worsening overall health, elder mistreatment, health behavior changes and increased healthcare utilizations. This study has implications for healthcare professionals, social services agencies and policy makers. Our findings point to the needs for healthcare professionals to be more alert of the association of loneliness and adverse health outcomes. Communities and social services agencies should collectively take a lead in reducing social isolation, improving intergenerational relationships, and increasing social networks and companionship for this group of vulnerable older adults.

  19. Calorie restriction in overweight older adults: Do benefits exceed potential risks?

    PubMed

    Locher, Julie L; Goldsby, TaShauna U; Goss, Amy M; Kilgore, Meredith L; Gower, Barbara; Ard, Jamy D

    2016-12-15

    The evidence regarding recommendations of calorie restriction as part of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention to promote weight loss in obese older adults has remained equivocal for more than a decade. The older adult population is the fastest growing segment of the US population and a greater proportion of them are entering old age obese. These older adults require treatments based on solid evidence. Therefore the purpose of this review is three-fold: 1) to provide a more current status of the knowledge regarding recommendations of calorie restriction as part of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention to promote weight loss in obese older adults, 2) to determine what benefits and/or risks calorie restriction adds to exercise interventions in obese older adults, and 3) to consider not only outcomes related to changes in body composition, bone health, cardiometabolic disease risk, markers of inflammation, and physical function, but, also patient-centered outcomes that evaluate changes in cognitive status, quality of life, out-of-pocket costs, and mortality. Seven randomized controlled trials were identified that examined calorie restriction while controlling for exercise intervention effects. Overall, the studies found that calorie restriction combined with exercise is effective for weight loss. Evidence was mixed regarding other outcomes. The risk-benefit ratio regarding calorie restriction in older adults remains uncertain. Greater long-term follow-up is necessary, and complementary effectiveness studies are needed to identify strategies currently used by obese older adults in community settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Perception and Negative Effect of Loneliness in a Chicago Chinese Population of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi; Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Simon, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to investigate the cultural understandings of loneliness, identify the contexts of loneliness, and to examine its effect on the health and well-being of U.S. Chinese older adults. Despite loneliness is one of the main indicators of well-being, little attention has been paid to understanding loneliness among immigrant older adults. This study utilizes both survey questionnaires and semi-structured focus group methods to investigate the feelings of loneliness among U.S. Chinese older adults. Based on interviews with 78 community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Chicago Chinatown, this community-based participatory research study (CBPR) shows loneliness is common among U.S. Chinese older adults. It was frequently identified through emotional isolation and social isolation. Social, psychological and physical health factors could contribute to the experience of loneliness. In addition, the health of older adults with loneliness may be associated with worsening overall health, elder mistreatment, health behavior changes and increased health care utilizations. This study has implications for healthcare professionals, social services agencies and policy makers. Our findings point to the needs for healthcare professionals to be more alert of the association of loneliness and adverse health outcomes. Communities and social services agencies should collectively take a lead in reducing social isolation, improving intergenerational relationships, and increasing social networks and companionship for this group of vulnerable older adults. PMID:21621865

  1. Examining Rural Older Adults' Perceptions of Cognitive Health.

    PubMed

    Bacsu, Juanita; Abonyi, Sylvia; Viger, Marc; Morgan, Debra; Johnson, Shanthi; Jeffery, Bonnie

    2017-09-01

    Existing cognitive health literature focuses on the perspectives of older adults with dementia. However, little is known about the ways in which healthy older adults without dementia understand their cognitive health. In rural communities, early dementia diagnosis may be impeded by numerous factors including transportation challenges, cultural obstacles, and inadequate access to health and support services. Based on participant observation and two waves of 42 semi-structured interviews, this study examined healthy, rural older adults' perceptions of cognitive health. By providing an innovative theoretical foundation informed by local perspectives and culture, findings reveal a complex and multidimensional view of cognitive health. Rural older adults described four key areas of cognitive health ranging from independence to social interaction. As policy makers, community leaders, and researchers work to address the cognitive health needs of the rural aging demographic, it is essential that they listen to the perspectives of rural older adults.

  2. Physical benefits of dancing for healthy older adults: a review.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Justin W L; Kilding, Andrew; Pidgeon, Philippa; Ashley, Linda; Gillis, Dawn

    2009-10-01

    Dancing is a mode of physical activity that may allow older adults to improve their physical function, health, and well-being. However, no reviews on the physical benefits of dancing for healthy older adults have been published in the scientific literature. Using relevant databases and keywords, 15 training and 3 cross-sectional studies that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Grade B-level evidence indicated that older adults can significantly improve their aerobic power, lower body muscle endurance, strength and flexibility, balance, agility, and gait through dancing. Grade C evidence suggested that dancing might improve older adults' lower body bone-mineral content and muscle power, as well as reduce the prevalence of falls and cardiovascular health risks. Further research is, however, needed to determine the efficacy of different forms of dance, the relative effectiveness of these forms of dance compared with other exercise modes, and how best to engage older adults in dance participation.

  3. Gout in Older Adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Burke, Bridget Teevan; Köttgen, Anna; Law, Andrew; Grams, Morgan; Baer, Alan N; Coresh, Josef; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A

    2016-04-01

    It is unclear whether traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age predict the onset of gout in older age. We studied the incidence of gout in older adults using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, a prospective U.S. population-based cohort of middle-aged adults enrolled between 1987 and 1989 with ongoing follow-up. A genetic urate score was formed from common urate-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms for eight genes. The adjusted hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval of incident gout by traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. The cumulative incidence from middle age to age 65 was 8.6% in men and 2.5% in women; by age 75 the cumulative incidence was 11.8% and 5.0%. In middle age, increased adiposity, beer intake, protein intake, smoking status, hypertension, diuretic use, and kidney function (but not sex) were associated with an increased gout risk in older age. In addition, a 100 µmol/L increase in genetic urate score was associated with a 3.29-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.63-6.63) increased gout risk in older age. These findings suggest that traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age may be useful for identifying those at risk of gout in older age. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Non-native Speech Learning in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ingvalson, Erin M; Nowicki, Casandra; Zong, Audrey; Wong, Patrick C M

    2017-01-01

    Though there is an extensive literature investigating the ability of younger adults to learn non-native phonology, including investigations into individual differences in younger adults' lexical tone learning, very little is known about older adults' ability to learn non-native phonology, including lexical tone. There are several reasons to suspect that older adults would use different learning mechanisms when learning lexical tone than younger adults, including poorer perception of dynamic pitch, greater reliance on working memory capacity in second language learning, and poorer category learning in older adulthood. The present study examined the relationships among older adults' baseline sensitivity for pitch patterns, working memory capacity, and declarative memory capacity with their ability to learn to associate tone with lexical meaning. In older adults, baseline pitch pattern sensitivity was not associated with generalization performance. Rather, older adults' learning performance was best predicted by declarative memory capacity. These data suggest that training paradigms will need to be modified to optimize older adults' non-native speech sound learning success.

  5. The Pittsburgh Fatigability Scale for Older Adults: Development and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Nancy W.; Santanasto, Adam J.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Beach, Scott R.; Schulz, Richard; Newman, Anne B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe the development of the Pittsburgh Fatigability Scale (PFS) and establish its reliability and concurrent and convergent validity against performance measures. DESIGN Cross-sectional. SETTING University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. PARTICIPANTS Scale development sample: 1,013 individuals aged 60 and older from two registries; validation sample: 483 adults aged 60 and older from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). MEASUREMENTS The scale development sample and BLSA participants self-administered an initial 26-item perceived fatigability scale. BLSA participants also completed measures of performance fatigability (perceived exertion from a standard treadmill task and performance deterioration from a fast-paced long-distance corridor walk), a 6-m usual-paced corridor walk, and five timed chair stands. RESULTS Principal components analysis with varimax rotation reduced the 26-item scale to the 10-item PFS. The PFS showed strong internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.88) and excellent test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation 0.86). In the validation sample, PFS scores, adjusted for age, sex, and race, were greater for those with high performance fatigability, slow gait speed, worse physical function, and lower fitness, with differences between high and low fatigability ranging from 3.2 to 5.1 points (P < .001). CONCLUSION The 10-item PFS physical fatigability score is a valid and reliable measure of perceived fatigability in older adults and can serve as an adjunct to performance- based fatigability measures for identifying older adults at risk of mobility limitation in clinical and research settings. PMID:25556993

  6. Trends in Kidney Transplant Outcomes in Older Adults Running Header: Kidney Transplant Outcomes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A.; James, Nathan; Salter, Megan L.; Walston, Jeremy; Segev, Dorry L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Age limits for kidney transplantation (KT) have expanded significantly in recent years, yet outcomes in older recipients remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to estimate relative mortality and death-censored graft loss by year of KT between 1990–2011. Design Cohort study. Setting All KT recipients in the United States as reported to the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR). Participants 30,207 KT recipients aged ≥65 at the time of transplantation. Measurements Mortality and death-censored graft loss ascertained through center report, linkage to Social Security Death Master File, and linkage to Medicare. Results Older adults currently represent 18.4% of KT recipients, a 5-fold rise from 3.4% in 1990; similar increases were noted for both deceased (5.4-fold) and live donor (9.1-fold) transplants. Current recipients are not only older, but also more likely to be female, African American, have lengthier pre-transplant dialysis, have diabetes or hypertension, and receive marginal kidneys. Mortality for older deceased donor recipients between 2009–2011 was 57% lower (HR=0.43, 95%CI:0.33–0.56, P<0.001) than in 1990–1993; mortality for older live donor recipients was 50% lower (HR=0.50, 95%CI:0.36–0.68, P<0.001). Death-censored graft loss for older deceased donor recipients between 2009–2011 was 65% lower (HR=0.35, 95% CI:0.29–0.42, P<0.001) than in 1990–1993; death-censored graft loss for older live donor KT recipients was 59% lower (HR=0.41, 95%CI:0.24–0.70, P<0.001). Conclusion Despite a major increase in number of older adults transplanted, and an expanding window of transplant eligibility, mortality and graft loss have decreased substantially for this recipient population. These trends are important to understand, both for patient counseling as well as transplant referral. PMID:25439325

  7. Risk Factors of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Logistic Regression Tree Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamashita, Takashi; Noe, Douglas A.; Bailer, A. John

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: A novel logistic regression tree-based method was applied to identify fall risk factors and possible interaction effects of those risk factors. Design and Methods: A nationally representative sample of American older adults aged 65 years and older (N = 9,592) in the Health and Retirement Study 2004 and 2006 modules was used.…

  8. Risk Factors of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Logistic Regression Tree Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamashita, Takashi; Noe, Douglas A.; Bailer, A. John

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: A novel logistic regression tree-based method was applied to identify fall risk factors and possible interaction effects of those risk factors. Design and Methods: A nationally representative sample of American older adults aged 65 years and older (N = 9,592) in the Health and Retirement Study 2004 and 2006 modules was used.…

  9. Profiles of Reminiscence among Older Adults: Perceived Stress, Life Attitudes, and Personality Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappeliez, Philippe; O'Rourke, Norm

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify subgroups of older participants on the basis of unique configurations of variables among functions of reminiscence, personality traits, life attitudes, and perceived stress by means of cluster analysis. Ninety-three older adults (M = 66.7 years of age) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Life…

  10. Insomnia and Telomere Length in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Judith E.; Esquivel, Stephanie; Goldberg, Alyssa; Seeman, Teresa E.; Effros, Rita B.; Dock, Jeffrey; Olmstead, Richard; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia, particularly in later life, may raise the risk for chronic diseases of aging and mortality through its effect on cellular aging. The current study examines the effects of insomnia on telomere length, a measure of cellular aging, and tests whether insomnia interacts with chronological age to increase cellular aging. Methods: A total of 126 males and females (60–88 y) were assessed for insomnia using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV criterion for primary insomnia and the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition for general insomnia (45 insomnia cases; 81 controls). Telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methodology. Results: In the analysis of covariance model adjusting for body mass index and sex, age (60–69 y versus 70–88 y) and insomnia diagnosis interacted to predict shorter PBMC telomere length (P = 0.04). In the oldest age group (70–88 y), PBMC telomere length was significantly shorter in those with insomnia, mean (standard deviation) M(SD) = 0.59(0.2) compared to controls with no insomnia M(SD) = 0.78(0.4), P = 0.04. In the adults aged 60–69 y, PBMC telomere length was not different between insomnia cases and controls, P = 0.44. Conclusions: Insomnia is associated with shorter PBMC telomere length in adults aged 70–88 y, but not in those younger than 70 y, suggesting that clinically severe sleep disturbances may increase cellular aging, especially in the later years of life. These findings highlight insomnia as a vulnerability factor in later life, with implications for risk for diseases of aging. Citation: Carroll JE, Esquivel S, Goldberg A, Seeman TE, Effros RB, Dock J, Olmstead R, Breen EC, Irwin MR. Insomnia and telomere length in older adults. SLEEP 2016;39(3):559–564. PMID:26715231

  11. Screening and Evaluation Tools for Sleep Disorders in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Luyster, Faith S.; Choi, JiYeon; Yeh, Chao-Hsing; Imes, Christopher C.; Johansson, Ann E. E.; Chasens, Eileen R.

    2015-01-01

    The negative effects of impaired sleep on physical and mental well-being in older adults have recently been recognized by health care professionals. However, researchers and clinicians may be unaware of reliable and valid screening and evaluation tools for evaluating sleep disorders in older adults. The purpose of this article is to present subjective and objective instruments that measure sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, obstructive sleep apnea, insomnia and restless leg syndrome that are appropriate for use in adult and older adult patients. PMID:26608435

  12. Older adult social participation and its relationship with health: Rural-urban differences.

    PubMed

    Vogelsang, Eric M

    2016-11-01

    In an aging world, there is increased need to identify places and characteristics of places that promote health among older adults. This study examines whether there are rural-urban differences in older adult social participation and its relationship with health. Using the 2003 and 2011 waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n=3006), I find that older adults living in rural counties are less socially active than their counterparts in more-urban counties. I also find that relationships between social participation and health vary by the type of activity and rural-urban context.

  13. Benefits, motivations, and barriers related to environmental volunteerism for older adults: developing a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Bushway, Lori J; Dickinson, Janis L; Stedman, Richard C; Wagenet, Linda P; Weinstein, David A

    2011-01-01

    Interest in civic engagement focused on the natural environment has grown dramatically, as has the population of older adults. Our article explores the potential for increased environmental volunteerism among older adults to enrich the lives of volunteers while benefitting the community and environmental quality. Curiously, this convergence has been relatively neglected by researchers and program developers. We review existing literatures on trends in volunteerism, motivations, benefits, and barriers to participation, with a special focus on elements most relevant to older adults. Based on this review, we identify a number of critical areas of research, and pose key research questions.

  14. Determinants of work among older adults in urban China.

    PubMed

    Ling, Davina C; Chi, Iris

    2008-09-01

    We examined the role of personal, family and institutional factors on the work status of older adults in urban China. The analysis was based on data from a large population survey (N = 7381) of community-dwelling urban Chinese aged 60 years and older. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model work status. Demographic variables such as gender, ethnicity, age and self-perceived health status were identified as important determinants of work status. Having material assets, savings, a public pension and health insurance were all negatively correlated with remaining in the workforce, whereas earning a high income was positively correlated. Our findings have implications regarding the impact of health policy and pension reform on employment retention. While economic growth may create an incentive for some to continue working, the lack of widespread public and private old-age support may force others to remain in the workforce out of economic necessity.

  15. Anticoagulation in the older adult: optimizing benefit and reducing risk.

    PubMed

    Ko, Darae; Hylek, Elaine M

    2014-09-01

    The risk for both arterial and venous thrombosis increases with age. Despite the increasing burden of strokes related to atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) among older adults, the use of anticoagulant therapy is limited in this population due to the parallel increase in risk of serious hemorrhage. Understanding the risks and their underlying mechanisms would help to mitigate adverse events and improve persistence with these life-saving therapies. The objectives of this review are to: (1) elucidate the age-related physiologic changes that render this high risk subgroup susceptible to hemorrhage, (2) identify mutable risk factors and hazards contributing to an increased bleeding risk in older individuals, and (3) discuss interventions to optimize anticoagulation therapy in this population.

  16. Language dominance and inhibition abilities in bilingual older adults.

    PubMed

    Goral, Mira; Campanelli, Luca; Spiro, Avron

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the so-called bilingual advantage in older adults' performance in three cognitive domains and to identify whether language use and bilingual type (dominant vs. balanced) predicted performance. The participants were 106 Spanish-English bilinguals ranging in age from 50 years to 84 years. Three cognitive domains were examined (each by a single test): inhibition (the Simon task), alternating attention (the Trail Making test), and working memory (Month Ordering). The data revealed that age was negatively correlated to performance in each domain. Bilingual type - balanced vs. dominant - predicted performance and interacted with age only on the inhibition measure (the Simon task). Balanced bilinguals showed age-related inhibition decline (i.e., greater Simon effect with increasing age); in contrast, dominant bilinguals showed little or no age-related change. The findings suggest that bilingualism may offer cognitive advantage in older age only for a subset of bilinguals.

  17. Freirean Philosophy and Pedagogy in the Adult Education Context: The Case of Older Adults' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findsen, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Central tenets of Freirean philosophy and pedagogy are explored and applied to the emerging field of older adults' learning (educational gerontology), a sub-field of adult education. I argue that many of Freire's concepts and principles have direct applicability to the tasks of adult educators working alongside marginalized older adults. In…

  18. Freirean Philosophy and Pedagogy in the Adult Education Context: The Case of Older Adults' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findsen, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Central tenets of Freirean philosophy and pedagogy are explored and applied to the emerging field of older adults' learning (educational gerontology), a sub-field of adult education. I argue that many of Freire's concepts and principles have direct applicability to the tasks of adult educators working alongside marginalized older adults. In…

  19. Activity interests and Holland's RIASEC system in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kerby, Dave S; Ragan, Katie M

    2002-01-01

    Leisure activities are widely used in research to predict important outcomes, but the existing studies use different classification schemes and apparently rely on the intuition of the researcher to classify activities. The goal of the current study was to use the Holland RIASEC personality system to empirically classify activities using a sample of older adults. Nine activity scales were identified. The correlation of these activity scales with the Holland system showed that they could be reliably classified; further, multidimensional scaling suggested that the pattern of relationship could be interpreted in terms of the RIASEC hexagon. The overall findings suggest that Holland's RIASEC system may offer a useful way to classify many activities.

  20. Major Depressive Disorder in the older adult: implications for women.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Reed D; Gruenberg, Alan M

    2007-01-01

    Mood disorders manifest across the life span yet often go undiagnosed and untreated. Increasingly, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in the older adult is recognized as a frequently occurring, heterogeneous psychiatric illness that impacts the individual and family, one's physical health, and society. Women are more likely to be diagnosed with MDD than men and therefore it is important to identify specific risk factors and other distinguishing features. This article reviews the descriptive characteristics, epidemiology, etiology and pathophysiology, course and natural history, and assessment and treatment of MDD with specific focus on women and aging.