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Sample records for older aged people

  1. Research into ageing and older people.

    PubMed

    Watson, Roger

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider the process of ageing, the effects of ageing and research related to ageing. In most countries of the world, the UK being no exception, the population is ageing in terms of the absolute numbers of and relative proportion of older people. This has resulted from economic, scientific and medical progress. However, it poses challenges for health and social services. Selective review of the literature. Ageing is an inevitable part of life and, while not in itself debilitating, can be accompanied by a range of debilitating physical and mental conditions which lead to frailty and dependency. There is limited evidence that the ageing process can be alleviated, as such, but there is some evidence that choices and circumstances in early life can influence the extent to which we age successfully. Nurse managers have two responsibilities with regard to age: they are increasingly engaged in organizing care for older people in acute and long-term settings and in nursing homes and the more they need to understand the process of ageing. They also have responsibilities towards their workforce and can facilitate lifestyle choices which may help their workforce to age successfully.

  2. The Meaning of "Aging in Place" to Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Janine L.; Leibing, Annette; Guberman, Nancy; Reeve, Jeanne; Allen, Ruth E. S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study illuminates the concept of "aging in place" in terms of functional, symbolic, and emotional attachments and meanings of homes, neighbourhoods, and communities. It investigates how older people understand the meaning of "aging in place," a term widely used in aging policy and research but underexplored with…

  3. The Meaning of "Aging in Place" to Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Janine L.; Leibing, Annette; Guberman, Nancy; Reeve, Jeanne; Allen, Ruth E. S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study illuminates the concept of "aging in place" in terms of functional, symbolic, and emotional attachments and meanings of homes, neighbourhoods, and communities. It investigates how older people understand the meaning of "aging in place," a term widely used in aging policy and research but underexplored with…

  4. College Students' Perceptions about Older People and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimuna, Sitawa R.; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the perceptions of college students at a large southeastern university about aging and older people. Participants were 441 students from age 17 to 49 years with a median age of 19 years. There were 118 males (26.8%) and 323 females (73.2%). The results indicated that students believed a person is "old" at the age of 60 years.…

  5. Designing 'older' rather than denying ageing: problematizing anti-ageing discourse in relation to cosmetic surgery undertaken by older people.

    PubMed

    Garnham, Bridget

    2013-01-01

    This paper problematizes anti-ageing discourse and interpretations that cosmetic surgery is an ageist practice and older people who undergo cosmetic surgery are denying ageing. It argues that conceptions of cosmetic surgery as anti-ageing are premised on an essentialist conception of the 'naturally ageing body'. Interview data and media texts are used to demonstrate how, through the notion of "re" suggested by terms such as rejuvenation, reversal and renewal, anti-ageing discourses inscribe 'ageing' in the practice of cosmetic surgery by older people. The oppressive interpretation that older people who undergo cosmetic surgery are 'denying ageing,' and associated subjection to moral critique, are effects of this discourse. To counter interpretations of cosmetic surgery as 'anti-ageing', the paper takes up the idea that cosmetic surgery is undertaken to look better not younger. To advance this argument, the paper suggests that the forms of rationality associated with cosmetic surgery constitute a contemporary regimen of 'care of the self' which enable ethical agency and creative self-stylisation. Through this framework cosmetic surgery can be re-imagined as a practice for designing 'older' rather than denying ageing.

  6. The Housing and Support Needs of People with an Intellectual Disability into Older Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, K.; Cartwright, C.; Craig, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are growing older as a population cohort. Many live at home with family members who are their carers but who are also becoming older and less able to provide care. The housing and support preferences of people with IDs and their carers into older age are poorly characterised in the…

  7. The Housing and Support Needs of People with an Intellectual Disability into Older Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, K.; Cartwright, C.; Craig, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are growing older as a population cohort. Many live at home with family members who are their carers but who are also becoming older and less able to provide care. The housing and support preferences of people with IDs and their carers into older age are poorly characterised in the…

  8. Age Identification in the Framework of Successful Aging: A Study of Older Finnish People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uotinen, Virpi; Suutama, Timo; Ruoppila, Isto

    2003-01-01

    A person-oriented approach was used in a study of age identification among community-dwelling older people. The study was based on 8-year follow-up data; 843 persons aged 65-84 were involved in the first phase of the study, and 426 persons aged 73-92, in the second phase. Loosely, on the basis of the distinction between successful, usual, and…

  9. Age Identification in the Framework of Successful Aging: A Study of Older Finnish People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uotinen, Virpi; Suutama, Timo; Ruoppila, Isto

    2003-01-01

    A person-oriented approach was used in a study of age identification among community-dwelling older people. The study was based on 8-year follow-up data; 843 persons aged 65-84 were involved in the first phase of the study, and 426 persons aged 73-92, in the second phase. Loosely, on the basis of the distinction between successful, usual, and…

  10. Barriers to Care for Depressed Older People: Perceptions of Aged Care among Medical Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Davison, Tanya; Mellor, David; George, Kuruvilla

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated barriers to detection of depression among older people. Focus groups were conducted with 21 professional carers, 4 nurses, 10 general practitioners, and 7 aged care managers. The results demonstrated that care for older people is primarily focused on physical care. Further, staff resources, a lack of continuity of care,…

  11. Barriers to Care for Depressed Older People: Perceptions of Aged Care among Medical Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Davison, Tanya; Mellor, David; George, Kuruvilla

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated barriers to detection of depression among older people. Focus groups were conducted with 21 professional carers, 4 nurses, 10 general practitioners, and 7 aged care managers. The results demonstrated that care for older people is primarily focused on physical care. Further, staff resources, a lack of continuity of care,…

  12. Stair performance in people aged 75 and older.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Kathryn A; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2004-04-01

    To examine specific behaviors used by older adults while ascending and descending stairs and to assess the relationships between confidence and stair performance. Cross-sectional. Center for Locomotion Studies, The Pennsylvania State University. Sixteen male (mean age=82.7, range= 77-89) and 16 female (mean age=82.2, range=77-87) community-dwelling adults. A stair self-efficacy (SSE) test was created to assess individuals' confidence in their safety on stairs. Observational stair performance measures, measures of walking speed on stairs, and the total SSE score were examined for differences due to sex, and the relationships between SSE and specific stair behaviors were assessed. There was a significant relationship between SSE and the safety precautions taken during stair negotiation. Those with lower SSE were more likely to ascend and descend the stairs at a slower speed, use the handrail to a greater extent, and position themselves closer to the rail. The women had lower domain-specific SSE and tended to use the handrail to a greater extent than men even though there were no sex differences in self-reported functional ability or general falls and mobility confidence. A small group of subjects exhibited characteristics of instability, particularly during stair descent, yet most of this group had high SSE scores and failed to use the handrail. It appears that confidence related to stair negotiation plays a major role in determining risk-taking propensity during stair use in older adults.

  13. Expanding the Circle of Knowledge: Reconceptualizing Successful Aging Among North American Older Indigenous Peoples.

    PubMed

    Pace, Jessica E; Grenier, Amanda

    2017-03-01

    Indigenous older peoples' voices and experiences remain largely absent in the dominant models and critical scholarship on aging and late life. This article examines the relevance of the model of successful aging for Indigenous peoples in North America. This article presents the results of a review of the published conceptual literature on successful aging among Indigenous peoples. Our intent was to explore the current state of the field of successful aging among Indigenous peoples and suggest dimensions that may be more reflective of Indigenous voices and experiences that leads to a more inclusive model of successful aging. Based on our review, we suggest four dimensions that may broaden understandings of successful aging to be more inclusive of Indigenous older people: health and wellness, empowerment and resilience, engagement and behavior, and connectedness. Our review suggests that Indigenous peoples' voices and experiences are beginning to be included in academic literature on successful aging. However, we suggest that understandings of successful aging be broadened based on our summative findings and a process of community involvement. Such processes can lead to the development of models that are more inclusive to a wide range of older people, including Indigenous older peoples.

  14. Knowledge of aging and attitudes toward older people. A survey of Australian podiatric medical students.

    PubMed

    Menz, Hylton B; Stewart, Francis A; Oates, Matthew J

    2003-01-01

    Podiatric medical students in Australia were surveyed to evaluate their reasons for entering podiatric medicine, knowledge of aging, attitudes toward older people, perceptions of treatment efficacy, and desire to specialize in geriatrics. Few students plan to specialize in geriatrics upon graduation (4%), with most preferring general practice (25%) or sports medicine (21%). However, knowledge of aging was good, and students had favorable attitudes toward older people and considered treatment of older people to be effective. Few age- or gender-related effects were observed. It is concluded that students' lack of desire to specialize in geriatrics may be due not to unfavorable perceptions of older people but rather to the low profile and limited development of geriatrics as a specialty area within the podiatric medical profession.

  15. Age-associated changes in head jerk while walking reveal altered dynamic stability in older people.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Matthew A D; Menz, Hylton B; Lord, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Many older people have impaired dynamic stability, and up to one in three people over 65 fall each year. It is thought that older people walk more slowly to compensate for reduced capabilities. Here, we investigate whether head jerk, the first time derivative of acceleration, can further our understanding of age-associated changes in dynamic stability while walking. Gait parameters including cadence, step length, walking speed, harmonic ratios, step time variability, and jerk were measured in 43 young and 100 older people using accelerometers securely attached to the head and pelvis. Older people presented significantly (p ≤ 0.004) more mediolateral (ML) head jerk, but significantly less vertical (VT) head jerk. The dimensionless ratio, ML/VT jerk, demonstrated superior ability (89 % accuracy) in differentiating older from younger people. Principal component analysis indicated that ML/VT jerk was a distinct gait construct. ML/VT jerk was highly reliable, normally distributed, independent of stature or gender, and relatively unaffected by walking speed. In older people, reduced VT head jerk may indicate reduced gait vigour, and increased ML head jerk may indicate age-associated changes to dynamic stability. The smoother head movements evident in our younger group may be because they were more able to rely on automatic control and the dynamic (pendulum-like) stability of their systems.

  16. Sleep quality, use of hypnotics and sleeping habits in different age-groups among older people.

    PubMed

    Hägg, Miriam; Houston, Britta; Elmståhl, Sölve; Ekström, Henrik; Wann-Hansson, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among older people (>65 years). Further, long-term use of sedative hypnoticsin older people is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, older people represent a large span of life years, and few studies have included the oldest-old above 85 years. To investigate and compare sleep quality, use of hypnotics and sleeping habits in different age groups of the older population in the Scania region, Sweden and in relation to sociodemographic- and functional status. A cross-sectional population-based study including 2931 people aged 60-93 years from five different municipalities in Scania was performed during 2001-2004. The sample was divided into age groups, young old (60-72 years), old-old (78-84 years) and oldest-old (87-93) years. Data constitutes of sleep related questions, sociodemographic- and functional status from the study 'Good Ageing in Skane'. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sleep quality, hypnotics use and sleeping habitsin relation to sociodemographic- and functional status. The aim was to investigate associations, not the magnitude of associations between variables. In all age groups, those who used hypnotics and were living alone had significantly poorer sleep quality and shortest sleeping time than nonhypnotic users and those who lived together. A significant increase of hypnotics and frequency of use was seen with increasing age. Frequency of napping increased significantly with degree of dependence in all age groups and with increasing age. Insomnia is still a problem and hypnotic use has not improved sleep for a large number of older people. Hypnotics are effective as short-term treatment, however, nonpharmacological interventions and psychological and behavioural therapies should be considered for treating older people with chronic insomnia.

  17. Successful ageing in lesbian, gay and bisexual older people: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Caceres, Billy A; Frank, Mayu O

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to report on an analysis of the concept of successful ageing in lesbian, gay and bisexual older people. Research indicates that lesbian, gay and bisexual older people experience significant health disparities. Yet there is a lack of understanding on what factors contribute to successful ageing in this population. Nursing has lagged behind other disciplines in investigating the health of lesbian, gay and bisexual older people. A concept analysis using Rodgers' evolutionary method. Twenty studies were retrieved by searching PubMed, CINAHL, PsycInfo, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Scopus for English-language peer-reviewed studies published from January 2004 to March 2014. The antecedents, attributes and consequences of the concept were identified through the Rodgers' method of concept analysis. Attributes included support from families of origin and/or families of choice, access to lesbian, gay, and bisexual-friendly services and crisis competence. Self-realisation of lesbian, gay and bisexual identity (coming out to oneself) and age >50 were identified as antecedents. Three consequences of successful ageing in lesbian, gay and bisexual older people were social engagement, optimism and resilience. Successful ageing in lesbian, gay and bisexual older people is defined as a subjective and multifactorial concept that is characterised by support from families of origin/families of choice, access to lesbian, gay, and bisexual-friendly services and the development of crisis competence skills which impact the ageing experience of LGB individuals. Successful ageing models can provide a roadmap for developing culturally competent interventions to address key healthcare issues present in this population. The nursing profession's multidisciplinary knowledge and competence in providing health promotion makes nurses well positioned to take a leading role in reducing disparities of lesbian, gay and bisexual older people. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Suicide among older people.

    PubMed

    Manthorpe, Jill; Iliffe, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Overall, the number of people who kill themselves across all ages is falling but suicide rates among older people remain comparatively high. This article considers possible risk factors and suggests ways of reducing and containing potential harm. It also explores ways of responding when prevention of suicide fails.

  19. General practitioners' knowledge of ageing and attitudes towards older people in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanni; Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Ullah, Shahid; Deng, Lanlan

    2015-06-01

    To explore general practitioners (GPs)knowledge of ageing, attitudes towards older people and factors affecting their knowledge and attitudes in a Chinese context. Four hundred GPs were surveyed using the Chinese version of the Aging Semantic Differential (CASD) and the Chinese version of the Facts on Aging Quiz (CFAQ1) scale. The CASD scores indicated that GPs had a neutral attitude towards older people. The CFAQ1 scores indicated a low level of knowledge about ageing. GPs' awareness of the mental and social facts of ageing was poorer compared to that of physical facts. Male GPs had a significantly higher negative bias score than female GPs. No other variables had a statistically significant influence on knowledge and attitudes. The findings suggest the need for education interventions for GPs regarding knowledge of ageing and also provide evidence to guide future development of continuing medical programs for this group of medical doctors. © 2013 ACOTA.

  20. Inflammatory markers and physical performance in middle-aged and older people in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sujarwoto, Sujarwoto; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2015-07-01

    although recent studies have suggested that inflammation may play an important role in the process of ageing and in the development of disabilities, knowledge about the role of inflammation in physical performance decline among middle-aged and older people in the context of developing countries is limited. to examine the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) and the activities of daily living (ADL) among middle-aged (40-54 years old) and older (55-96 years old) people in Indonesia. data from a population-based sample, the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS) 2007, were analysed. The data consist of 1,702 respondents of middle age (40-54 years old) and 2,017 older respondents who had completed information on ADL and CRP. CRP concentrations in Dried Blood Spot (DBS) specimens were measured, using the validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Thirteen items of ADL were used to measure physical performance. A three-level linear model was applied to take advantage of the nested structure of data at the individual level within the household and community levels. high levels of CRP were significantly associated with lower ADL for middle-aged and older people (P < 0.001). The model was adjusted for co-morbid conditions, health risk factors, medications, depressive symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics. the significant association between the high level of CRP and lower ADL among older people in Indonesia is in line with earlier studies in the context of developed countries. This study provides an extension in which the significant association was also found in middle-aged people (40-54 years old). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Healthy ageing from the perspective of older people: a capability approach to resilience.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Christine; Breheny, Mary; Mansvelt, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    A policy focus on healthy ageing has been critiqued for homogenising, oppressing and neglecting the physical realities of older age. Current healthy ageing discourse places responsibility on individuals for achieving good physical health and ignores their broader circumstances. Sen's capability approach provides a basis for including the physical changes of ageing and the social environment by focusing on what older people themselves value in regards to healthy ageing. Accounts of desired living standards in 145 interviews with people aged 63-93 years in New Zealand were subjected to a thematic analysis which revealed six commonly valued 'functionings': physical comfort, social integration, contribution, security, autonomy and enjoyment. The capability to achieve the valued functionings was of high importance regardless of physical health status while this capability was often limited by social and material circumstances. The importance of an environment supportive of valued functionings provides a framework for understanding health for older adults, whatever their present physical abilities. We suggest that health psychology is in a good position to reflect critically on the impact of discourses promoting healthy ageing in the lives of older adults, and consider broader models that include understandings of resilience and capability.

  2. Quality of life and attitudes to ageing in Turkish older adults at old people's homes.

    PubMed

    Top, Mehmet; Dikmetaş, Elif

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate quality of life (QOL) and attitudes to ageing in Turkish older adults at two old people's homes (nursing homes) and to explain relationship between QOL and attitudes to ageing. This study is a quantitative and descriptive exploratory study of QOL and attitudes to ageing of older adults in nursing homes in a developing country. Two international data measurement tools were used for data collection. Data measurement instruments in this study are The World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-Older Adults Module (WHOQOL-OLD) and the WHO - Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ). The WHOQOL-OLD module consists of 24 items assigned to six facets (sensory abilities, autonomy, past, present and future activities, social participation, death and dying and intimacy) AAQ consists of 24 items classified in three domains (psychosocial loss, physical change and psychological growth) with eight items each. The Turkish version of the WHOQOL-OLD and AAQ was administered to 120 older (>65 years) adults living in two old people's homes in Samsun Province, Turkey. This study was conducted and planned between on 1 November 2011 and on 31 November, 2011. The results indicated that there was significant relationship between QOL and attitudes to ageing of older adults. In this study, the highest significant relationship is between psychological growth subscale of attitudes to ageing and sensory abilities subscale of QOL (r = 0.579; P < 0.01). Overall QOL and overall attitudes to ageing had a significant and positive relationship (r = 0.408; P < 0.01). The dimensions of attitudes to ageing (psychosocial loss, physical change and psychological growth) were significant predictors for QOL in older adults in Turkey. It was found that the gender does not affect overall QOL in older adults. However, happiness is significant variable for overall QOL in this study. The results suggest that QOL is a complex, multidimensional concept that

  3. Healthy Aging from the Perspectives of 683 Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine what factors most greatly contributed to healthy aging with multiple sclerosis (MS) from the perspective of a large sample of older people with MS. Design and Methods. Participants (n = 683; >55 years of age with symptoms >20 years) provided answers to an open-ended question regarding healthy aging and were categorized into three groups, 55–64 (young), 65–74 (middle), and 75 and over (oldest old). Sociodemographic actors were compared using ANOVA. Two independent raters used the framework method of analyzing qualitative data. Results. Participants averaged 64 years of age (±6.2) with MS symptoms for 32.9 years (±9.4). 531 participants were female (78%). The majority of participants lived in their own home (n = 657) with a spouse or partner (n = 483). Participants described seven themes: social connections, attitude and outlook on life, lifestyle choices and habits, health care system, spirituality and religion, independence, and finances. These themes had two shared characteristics, multidimensionality and interdependence. Implications. Learning from the experiences of older adults with MS can help young and middle aged people with MS plan to age in their own homes and communities. Our data suggests that older people with MS prioritize factors that are modifiable through targeted self-management strategies. PMID:27504201

  4. Factors associated with Spanish older people's membership in political organizations: the role of active aging activities.

    PubMed

    Serrat, Rodrigo; Villar, Feliciano; Celdrán, Montserrat

    2015-09-01

    This study explores older people's membership in political organizations by using data from the Survey on older people 2010, carried out by Spain's National Institute for older people and social services. The objectives were to describe the extent of this kind of participation among Spaniards aged 65 and over, and to analyze the factors that are associated with it. Results show that only slightly less than 7 % of the sample belonged to a political organization. To analyze the factors related to this membership, a set of models of multivariate analyses were run, including socioeconomic resources and participation in other types of active aging activity (participation in leisure, learning, and productive activities). Educational level, leisure activities, learning activities, and only volunteering in the case of productive activities were found to be associated with membership in political organizations. Results provide partial support for the socioeconomic resources model and suggest that engagement in leisure activities, learning activities, and volunteering might have an enhancing effect on membership in political organizations.

  5. Predicting Falls in People Aged 65 Years and Older from Insurance Claims.

    PubMed

    Homer, Mark L; Palmer, Nathan P; Fox, Kathe P; Armstrong, Joanne; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2017-06-01

    Accidental falls among people aged 65 years and older caused approximately 2,700,000 injuries, 27,000 deaths, and cost more than 34 billion dollars in the US annually in recent years. Here, we derive and validate a predictive model for falls based on a retrospective cohort of those 65 years and older. Insurance claims from a 1-year observational period were used to predict a fall-related claim in the following 2 years. The predictive model takes into account a person's age, sex, prescriptions, and diagnoses. Through random assignment, half of the people had their claims used to derive the model, while the remaining people had their claims used to validate the model. Of 120,881 individuals with Aetna health insurance coverage, 12,431 (10.3%) members fell. During validation, people were risk stratified across 20 levels, where those in the highest risk stratum had 10.5 times the risk as those in the lowest stratum (33.1% vs 3.1%). Using only insurance claims, individuals in this large cohort at high risk of falls could be readily identified up to 2 years in advance. Although external validation is needed, the findings support the use of the model to better target interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Frailty in Older People

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary Frailty is the most problematic expression of population ageing. It is a state of vulnerability to poor resolution of homeostasis following a stress and is a consequence of cumulative decline in multiple physiological systems over a lifespan. This cumulative decline erodes homeostatic reserve until relatively minor stressor events trigger disproportionate changes in health status, typically a fall or delirium. Landmark studies have developed valid models for frailty and these have allowed epidemiological studies that demonstrate the association of frailty with adverse health outcomes. New research is needed to develop more efficient methods to detect and severity grade frailty as part of routine clinical practice, particularly methods with utility for primary care. This would greatly inform the appropriate selection of older people for invasive procedures or medications and would be the basis for a paradigm shift in the care of frail older people towards a more appropriate goal-directed care. PMID:23395245

  7. Impairments in hearing and vision impact on mortality in older people: the AGES-Reykjavik Study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Diana; Li, Chuan-Ming; Chiu, May S; Themann, Christa L; Petersen, Hannes; Jónasson, Friðbert; Jónsson, Pálmi V; Sverrisdottir, Johanna Eyrun; Garcia, Melissa; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hoffman, Howard J; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    to examine the relationships between impairments in hearing and vision and mortality from all-causes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among older people. population-based cohort study. the study population included 4,926 Icelandic individuals, aged ≥67 years, 43.4% male, who completed vision and hearing examinations between 2002 and 2006 in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES-RS) and were followed prospectively for mortality through 2009. participants were classified as having 'moderate or greater' degree of impairment for vision only (VI), hearing only (HI), and both vision and hearing (dual sensory impairment, DSI). Cox proportional hazard regression, with age as the time scale, was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) associated with impairment and mortality due to all-causes and specifically CVD after a median follow-up of 5.3 years. the prevalence of HI, VI and DSI were 25.4, 9.2 and 7.0%, respectively. After adjusting for age, significantly (P < 0.01) increased mortality from all causes, and CVD was observed for HI and DSI, especially among men. After further adjustment for established mortality risk factors, people with HI remained at higher risk for CVD mortality [HR: 1.70 (1.27-2.27)], whereas people with DSI remained at higher risk of all-cause mortality [HR: 1.43 (1.11-1.85)] and CVD mortality [HR: 1.78 (1.18-2.69)]. Mortality rates were significantly higher in men with HI and DSI and were elevated, although not significantly, among women with HI. older men with HI or DSI had a greater risk of dying from any cause and particularly cardiovascular causes within a median 5-year follow-up. Women with hearing impairment had a non-significantly elevated risk. Vision impairment alone was not associated with increased mortality.

  8. The Aging Urban Brain: Analyzing Outdoor Physical Activity Using the Emotiv Affectiv Suite in Older People.

    PubMed

    Neale, Chris; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Tilley, Sara; Mavros, Panagiotis; Cinderby, Steve; Coyne, Richard; Thin, Neil; Bennett, Gary; Thompson, Catharine Ward

    2017-09-11

    This research directly assesses older people's neural activation in response to a changing urban environment while walking, as measured by electroencephalography (EEG). The study builds on previous research that shows changes in cortical activity while moving through different urban settings. The current study extends this methodology to explore previously unstudied outcomes in older people aged 65 years or more (n = 95). Participants were recruited to walk one of six scenarios pairing urban busy (a commercial street with traffic), urban quiet (a residential street) and urban green (a public park) spaces in a counterbalanced design, wearing a mobile Emotiv EEG headset to record real-time neural responses to place. Each walk lasted around 15 min and was undertaken at the pace of the participant. We report on the outputs for these responses derived from the Emotiv Affectiv Suite software, which creates emotional parameters ('excitement', 'frustration', 'engagement' and 'meditation') with a real-time value assigned to them. The six walking scenarios were compared using a form of high dimensional correlated component regression (CCR) on difference data, capturing the change between one setting and another. The results showed that levels of 'engagement' were higher in the urban green space compared to those of the urban busy and urban quiet spaces, whereas levels of 'excitement' were higher in the urban busy environment compared with those of the urban green space and quiet urban space. In both cases, this effect is shown regardless of the order of exposure to these different environments. These results suggest that there are neural signatures associated with the experience of different urban spaces which may reflect the older age of the sample as well as the condition of the spaces themselves. The urban green space appears to have a restorative effect on this group of older adults.

  9. Involving Older People in the Design, Development, and Delivery of an Innovative Module on Aging for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullo, Ellen; Greaves, Laura; Wakeling, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    As the number of older people in society increases, gaining an awareness of the needs of an aging population is important for university students from all academic backgrounds. Using a multidisciplinary approach to aging, we developed a new teaching module (NU-AGE [Newcastle University Aging Generations Education]) aimed at students enrolled in…

  10. Involving Older People in the Design, Development, and Delivery of an Innovative Module on Aging for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullo, Ellen; Greaves, Laura; Wakeling, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    As the number of older people in society increases, gaining an awareness of the needs of an aging population is important for university students from all academic backgrounds. Using a multidisciplinary approach to aging, we developed a new teaching module (NU-AGE [Newcastle University Aging Generations Education]) aimed at students enrolled in…

  11. Factors Associated With Cancer Worry Among People Aged 50 or Older, Spain, 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Sotos, Joseba Rabanales; Herráez, María José Simarro; Rosa, Monchi Campos; López, Jaime López-Torres; Ortiz, María Pilar Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cancer worry varies among patients and may influence their participation in preventive activities. We tested whether sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, locus of control, comorbidity, and perceived health status were associated with the level of cancer worry among adults aged 50 or older. Methods We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of 666 adults in Spain aged 50 or older. Participants were selected by simple random sampling and asked to visit their designated health center for a personal interview. The study variables were level of cancer worry (measured by Cancer Worry Scale [CWS]), sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, personal history or family history of cancer, comorbidity, self-perceived health, locus of control, and social support. Results More than half of participants, 58.1%, were women; mean age was 60.5 years (standard deviation [SD], 6.8 y). Measurement of the frequency and severity of cancer worry (possible scale of 6–24 points) yielded a mean CWS score of 9.3 (95% confidence interval, 9.0–9.5); 31.9% of participants reported being concerned about cancer. Scores were higher among women (9.7 [SD, 3.3]) than men (8.7 [SD, 2.7]) (P < .001) and among participants in rural settings (10.0 [SD, 3.4]) than in urban settings (9.0 [SD, 3.0]) (P < .001). Multiple linear regression showed a greater degree of cancer worry among people with personal or family history of cancer, more health problems, worse self-perceived health, and lower social support. Conclusion Cancer worry is frequent among older adults, and the level of such concern is related not only to personal characteristics but also to lifestyle and health status. Further research is required to understand how contextual factors can influence cancer worry and how such concern changes behavior patterns related to cancer prevention activities. PMID:26704444

  12. Does active ageing contribute to life satisfaction for older people? Testing a new model of active ageing.

    PubMed

    Marsillas, Sara; De Donder, Liesbeth; Kardol, Tinie; van Regenmortel, Sofie; Dury, Sarah; Brosens, Dorien; Smetcoren, An-Sofie; Braña, Teresa; Varela, Jesús

    2017-09-01

    Several debates have emerged across the literature about the conceptualisation of active ageing. The aim of this study is to develop a model of the construct that is focused on the individual, including different elements of people's lives that have the potential to be modified by intervention programs. Moreover, the paper examines the contributions of active ageing to life satisfaction, as well as the possible predictive role of coping styles on active ageing. For this purpose, a representative sample of 404 Galician (Spain) community-dwelling older adults (aged ≥60 years) were interviewed using a structured survey. The results demonstrate that the proposed model composed of two broad categories is valid. The model comprises status variables (related to physical, psychological, and social health) as well as different types of activities, called processual variables. This model is tested using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The findings show that active ageing is a fourth-order, formative construct. In addition, PLS analyses indicate that active ageing has a moderate and positive path on life satisfaction and that coping styles may predict active ageing. The discussion highlights the potential of active ageing as a relevant concept for people's lives, drawing out policy implications and suggestions for further research.

  13. Older people's concepts of spirituality, related to aging and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Lindanor Jacó; Gil, Claudia Aranha

    2015-12-01

    Increased life expectancy and the prospect of longevity lead to reflection on the importance of spirituality while aging. This article aims to investigate and analyze the concepts that older people have of spirituality and how this concept affects their quality of life. It is a descriptive, exploratory, quantitative-qualitative study, with a sample of 12 participants over the age of 60. The following tools were used: semi-structured interviews, social-demographic questionnaires and WHOQOL (Bref, SRPB and Domain VI). The statistical program SPSS 21.0, and Content Analysis, were used in the analysis. The average score on the Psychological Health and Social Relationship domains was high, and the WHOQOL-SRPB showed high averages in all facets, and positive association with the Bref domains. Content analysis showed a relationship between Quality of Life and Spirituality. The latter is conceptualized as: Support, Relationship with the Sacred, and Transcendence; and is distinguished from Religion, which is defined by Religious Affiliation, Cultural Affiliation, and Dogmas. The relationship between spirituality and old age takes place through the capacity to bear the limitations, difficulties and losses inherent to the process; thus, the nature of living a spiritual life was observed to be heterogeneous, while all had in common the recognition of its importance and its significance for living an old age with Quality of Life.

  14. An alternative discourse of productive aging: A self-restrained approach in older Chinese people in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Luo, Minxia; Chui, Ernest Wing-Tak

    2016-08-01

    While Western discourses regarding productive aging emphasize individuals' contributions to economic productivity, the Confucian cultural heritage of the Chinese community may provide an alternative perspective. This qualitative study explores interpretations of what constitutes productive aging, based on a series of in-depth interviews with older Chinese people in Hong Kong. It shows that some of these individuals adopted a passive and indirect interpretation of productive aging, distinct from that found in Western countries. The Confucianism-based, collectivist, normative order underpinning Hong Kong society disposed these older people to adopting a self-restrained attitude with the aim of avoiding becoming a burden to others, especially family members. Such a tendency toward self-restraint or avoidance also encompassed a compromise between ideals and reality, with the older people opting to compromise their expectations of the younger generation as a whole, their adult children in particular, in terms of respect and reciprocity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. #WaysToRelax: developing an online alcohol-related health promotion animation for people aged 55 and older.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Nyssa; Savic, Michael; Manning, Victoria; Lubman, Daniel

    2017-04-27

    Alcohol use among middle-aged and older adults (55 years and older) is increasingly becoming a public health concern. Despite this, there is relatively little research on the experiences of alcohol use and related concerns among people aged 55 and older to inform tailored and engaging health promotion activities. To address this gap, we aimed to develop an engaging alcohol-related health promotion resource for people aged 55 and older. We drew on a research-into-action approach, which involved: 1) thematic analysis of alcohol-related concerns in online counselling transcripts of 70 people aged 55 and older, 2) a review of health promotion literature, and 3) consultation with consumers of alcohol and other drug services, and carers. The research phase highlighted that people aged 55 and older were concerned that their reliance on alcohol use to manage stress had become a habit they wanted to shift. Alongside this, the literature showed that people aged 55 and older were often dismissive of conventional health promotion activities, and pointed to the benefits of conveying health promotion messages through animation. In response, we developed an animation to stimulate reflection and thought about other ways to relax and manage stress. We drew on health promotion principles to ensure that the animation had a positive message and was engaging without being ageist or paternalistic. It was further refined with input from consumers and carers, who thought the animation was appropriate, appealing and useful. Future activities will include further dissemination and evaluation of the animation and associated activities.

  16. Problem gambling and the circumstances facing older people : a study of gaming machine players aged 60+ in licensed clubs.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Jenni; Boreham, Paul; Laffan, Warren

    2008-06-01

    Local gambling venues are an important contemporary context for older people's gambling in many parts of the world typically being more accessible to this segment of the population than traditional, centralised gambling venues, such as casinos. This study, undertaken in South East Queensland, analyses older people's electronic gaming machine (EGM) behaviour and motivations, specifically in the context of licensed social and recreational clubs-a popular local gambling venue in many parts of Australia. The study gathered data via a postal survey of 80 managers of licensed clubs, interviews with Gambling Help services and a survey of 414 people aged 60+ who regularly play EGMs, self-administered on site at local clubs. The analysis undertaken suggests that certain age-related circumstances of older people-such as being without a partner, having a disability that impacts on everyday activities, having a low annual income, and no longer participating in the workforce-are associated with higher overall levels of motivation for playing EGMs and greater reliance on EGMs to meet social, recreational and mental health needs. Over a quarter of the older people surveyed (27%) reported drawing on their savings to fund their EGM gambling. Certain categories of older people, including those who were without a partner and those with a disability, were more likely to report drawing on their savings to fund EGM play and betting more than they could afford to lose, pointing to age-related vulnerabilities older people may experience to the negative impacts of gambling given the greater likelihood of their dependency on smaller, fixed incomes. The explanatory contribution of a range of demographic and motivational variables on problem/moderate risk gambling status was computed via a logistic regression model. Younger age (60-69), male gender, single marital status and being motivated to play EGMs to experience excitement and to win money all emerged as significant predictors in the

  17. Health-related Quality of Life among hospitalized older people awaiting residential aged care

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Lynne C; Hawthorne, Graeme; Crotty, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life (HRQoL) in very late life is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to assess HRQoL and health outcomes at four months follow-up in a group of older people awaiting transfer to residential aged care. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in three public hospitals in Adelaide. A total of 320 patients in hospital beds awaiting a residential aged care bed participated. Outcome measurements included HRQoL (Assessment of Quality of Life; AQoL), functional level (Modified Barthel Index), hospital readmission rates, survival, and place of residence at four months follow-up. Results In this frail group the median AQoL was poor at baseline (median 0.02; 95%CI -0.01 – 0.04) and at follow-up (0.05; 95%CI 0.03 – 0.06). On leaving hospital, more than one third of participants who were moving for the first time into nursing home care rated themselves in a state worse than death (AQoL ≤ 0.0). Poor HRQoL at discharge from hospital (AQoL ≤ 0.0) was a significant predictor of mortality (HR 1.7; 95%CI 1.2 – 2.7), but not hospital readmission nor place of residence at four months follow-up. Improved function was a predictor of improved HRQoL among the surviving cohort. Conclusion People making the transition to residential aged care from hospital have very poor HRQoL, but small gains in function seem to be related to improvement. While functional gains are unlikely to change discharge destination in this frail group, they can contribute to improvements in HRQoL. These gains may be of great significance for individuals nearing the end of life and should be taken into account in resource allocation. PMID:19630996

  18. A controlled study of suicide in middle-aged and older people: personality traits, age, and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Draper, Brian; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego; Snowdon, John

    2014-04-01

    Personality traits were examined using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory-Revised in an Australian psychological autopsy study involving 259 suicide deaths and 181 sudden death controls aged 35 years and over. Interviews included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to determine the presence of psychiatric disorder. Personality traits of suicide deaths differed significantly from those of controls, scoring higher in the Neuroticism and Openness to Experience domains and lower on the Agreeableness and Extraversion domains. These findings varied with the presence of psychiatric disorder and by age. High Neuroticism scores were the most consistent finding in people who died by suicide, although these scores decreased in older suicides.

  19. Ageing, Leisure, and Social Connectedness: How could Leisure Help Reduce Social Isolation of Older People?

    PubMed

    Toepoel, Vera

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the relation between leisure activities and the social status of the elderly based on a heterogeneous sample of the Dutch population. Close relationships are also analyzed to identify which people could serve as successful stimulators of leisure participation. The social profile confirms that older people have fewer social contacts and often feel lonely. This study shows that leisure activities explain a significant part of older people's social connectedness. Voluntary work, cultural activities, holiday, sports, reading books, hobbies and shopping are found to be successful predictors for social connectedness of older people. Watching TV, listening to the radio, and spending time behind the computer (passive activities) were not associated with social connectedness. Friends correlate positively to participation in leisure activities. Partners play a role in participation in cultural activities and sports; parents play a role in participation in voluntary work and holidays; siblings play a role in voluntary work and sports; and children play a role in cultural activities, reading books, and shopping. Local communities can use these close relationships and develop special programs to increase social connectedness and hence improve quality of life for older adults.

  20. Working With Older People: A Guide to Practice. Volume III, The Aging Person: Needs and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Services Research.

    Anticipation some years ago of the need to provide a comprehensive body of knowledge in applied gerontology for training purposes led to the development of the series "Working with Older People: A Guide to Practice." This volume, the third in the series, deals with the many facets of social welfare as these relate to the health status of the…

  1. Vitamin D response of older people in residential aged care to sunlight-derived ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Durvasula, Seeta; Gies, Peter; Mason, Rebecca S; Chen, Jian Sheng; Henderson, Stuart; Seibel, Markus J; Sambrook, Philip N; March, Lynette M; Lord, Stephen R; Kok, Cindy; Macara, Monique; Parmenter, Trevor R; Cameron, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the vitamin D response to sunlight ultraviolet radiation in older people. Increases in vitamin D depended on the season of exposure, but the changes were small. Natural sun exposure is not a practical intervention for vitamin D deficiency in this population. The purpose of this study is to measure the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure of those in residential aged care in an earlier trial of sunlight exposure and to determine its effect on their vitamin D response. Attendance data, demographic, clinical and biochemical variables for 248 participants were used for a secondary analysis of a previous cluster randomized trial of sunlight exposure and falls. The ambient solar UV Index data were used to calculate the participants' UVR dose. Multiple linear regression was used to test if UVR exposure over 6 months, as measured by the standard erythemal dose (SED), was a predictor of vitamin D response, controlling for age, gender, BMI, calcium intake, baseline vitamin D and season of exposure. The median 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was 32.4 nmol/L at baseline and 34.6 nmol/L at 6 months (p = 0.35). The significant predictors of 25OHD at 6 months were UVR exposures in spring-summer (coefficient = 0.105, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.001-0.209, p = 0.05) and autumn-winter (coefficient = 0.056, 95 % CI 0.005-0.107, p = 0.03) and baseline vitamin D (adjusted coefficient = 0.594, 95 % CI 0.465-0.724, p = 0.00). In those starting sunlight sessions in spring, an increase of 1 unit in log SED was associated with 11 % increase in 25OHD. Natural UVR exposure can increase 25OHD levels in older people in residential care, but depends on the season of exposure. However, due to inadequate sun exposure, 25OHD did not reach optimal levels. Nevertheless, where sun exposure is encouraged in this group, the focus for the start of exposure should be in the months of spring or autumn, as this timing was associated with a vitamin D response.

  2. Homicide perpetrated by older people.

    PubMed

    Overshott, Ross; Rodway, Cathryn; Roscoe, Alison; Flynn, Sandra; Hunt, Isabelle M; Swinson, Nicola; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to describe the circumstances in which older people commit homicide, the form of assessment they undergo and to examine the proportion of those who suffer from mental illness. The study was carried out as part of the England and Wales National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness based on a five-year sample. The Inquiry was notified of the names of those over the age of 60 years convicted of homicide and also the details of the offence, sentencing and outcome in court by the Home Office. The Inquiry collected clinical data of those known to have had contact with mental health services from the responsible service and also retrieved psychiatric reports of those convicted. Homicide incidents perpetrated by older people typically involve a man killing his partner in an impulsive manner. The most common method was by using a sharp instrument (34%), followed by the use of a blunt instrument (26%). The use of firearms was rare (11%). Perpetrators aged 65 years and older were significantly more likely to kill a current or former spouse/partner and less likely to kill an acquaintance. Forty-four per cent of perpetrators over 65 years old suffered from depression at the time of the offence, whereas rates of schizophrenia and alcohol dependence were low. The information used in the study was extracted from a unique national database of homicide perpetrators. The characteristics and the circumstances of homicides perpetrated by older people are different to other age groups. An older-people homicide may be preventable if depression is identified early in older people. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Learning Opportunities for Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeracher, Dorothy

    1980-01-01

    The author summarizes a conference on learning opportunities for older people by discussing six issues: (1) perspectives of older people and service providers; (2) categorization of older learners; (3) learning needs of older people; (4) participation rates; (5) government policies; and (6) curriculum concerns. (SK)

  4. Children's Views of Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sally; Howatson-Jones, Lioba

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide demographic change means that the responsibility for an aging population will fall to younger generations. This narrative literature review comprises an international examination of what has been published about children's views of older people between 1980 and 2011. Sixty-nine academic articles were inductively analyzed, and the…

  5. Association of polypharmacy with fall-related fractures in older Taiwanese people: age- and gender-specific analyses.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hsueh-Hsing; Li, Chung-Yi; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping; Wang, Kwua-Yun

    2014-03-28

    To elucidate the associations between polypharmacy and age- and gender-specific risks of admission for fall-related fractures. Nested case-control study. This analysis was randomly selected from all elderly beneficiaries in 2007-2008, and represents some 30% of the whole older insurers using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 5933 cases newly admitted for fall-related fractures during 2007-2008, and 29 665 random controls free from fracture. Polypharmacy was defined as the use of fall-related drugs of four or more categories of medications and prescribed related to fall within a 1-year period. Logistic regression models were employed to estimate the ORs and related 95% CIs. The interaction of polypharmacy with age and sex was assessed separately. Compared with those who consumed no category of medication, older people who consumed 1, 2, 3 and ≥4 categories of medications were all at significantly increased odds of developing fall-related fractures, with a significant dose-gradient pattern (β=0.7953; p for trend <0.0001). There were significant interactions between polypharmacy and age, but no significant interactions between polypharmacy and gender. The dose-gradient relationship between number of medications category and risk of fall-related fractures was more obvious in women than in men (β=0.1962 vs β=0.1873). Additionally, it was most evident in older people aged 75-84 years (β=0.2338). This population-based study in Taiwan confirms the link between polypharmacy and increased risk of fall-related fractures in older people; and highlights that elderly women and older people aged 75-84 years will be the targeted participants for further prevention from fall-related fractures caused by polypharmacy.

  6. The National Service Framework for Older People: England's approach to ending age discrimination in services and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Crome, Peter; Natarajan, Indira

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, the new Labour Government in the UK embarked on an ambitious programme of reform. One of the key changes has been the publication of a series of National Service Frameworks. The National Service Framework for Older People (NSFOP) sets out a 10-year programme that has as its principal standard rooting out age discrimination. Together with its companion documents, a series of robust milestones and standards are set out that have to be met. Although generally welcomed by the profession, the NSFOP has been criticised by some because it mandates the initiation of new 'intermediate care' services that may be seen as denying older people the opportunity for admission to mainstream hospital care. Monitoring tools covering both procedures and prescribing have been developed. The government-produced frameworks mirror guidelines produced by the profession and include a number of prescribing recommendations, e.g. the use of antihypertensives and aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) in the prevention of stroke, and the use of calcium, vitamin D and bisphosphonates in the treatment of osteoporosis. In tackling age discrimination, both direct and indirect barriers to effective prescribing need to be considered. The evidence base on the effectiveness of medication in older people is more limited due to the previous systematic exclusion of older people from clinical trials. The consequent lack of evidence of efficacy, coupled with perhaps a natural reluctance to prescribe potentially toxic medication, may lead to underprescribing. Other indirect causes of age discrimination may include difficulties for older people attending hospitals for drug monitoring, and the difficulties of translating the results of trials into meaningful endpoints that older patients can understand and thus make valid decisions about whether they wish to take the particular drug or not. At the same time as the NSFOP argues against age discrimination, other government policies may operate in a

  7. U3A Online: A Virtual University of the Third Age for Isolated Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swindell, Rick

    2002-01-01

    Data from 29 older adults in University of the Third Age Online in 1999 and 34 in 2001 indicated that women outnumbered men; more than 70% were from large urban areas; and 70% had professional, business, and managerial backgrounds. Many are unable to participate in mainstream adult education and derive purpose and enjoyment from virtual…

  8. How Older People Think about Images of Aging in Advertising and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Don E.; Longino, Charles F., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A literature review documents distorted images of aging in mass media and advertising, including underrepresentation and stereotyping. Older consumers are dissatisfied with these images, and their growing purchasing power is forcing advertisers to make more effective appeals. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)

  9. How Older People Think about Images of Aging in Advertising and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Don E.; Longino, Charles F., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A literature review documents distorted images of aging in mass media and advertising, including underrepresentation and stereotyping. Older consumers are dissatisfied with these images, and their growing purchasing power is forcing advertisers to make more effective appeals. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)

  10. Toward a typology of technology users: how older people experience technology's potential for active aging.

    PubMed

    Gjevjon, Edith Roth; Oderud, Tone; Wensaas, Gro H; Moen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines an emerging typology of older users of information and communication technology (ICT) to facilitate active aging. Through inductive data analysis from focus groups, iterative workshops, and personal interviews, we suggest three types of technology users. These types are "the Excluded," "the Entertained," and "the Networker." Clearly, ICT offers several benefits to those who are enthusiastic and frequent users, exemplified as the Entertained and the Networker. Hence, our findings support the notion of technology as a tool to maintain or increase an older person's engagement and activity level. Conversely, for those reluctant, uninterested, or incapable of using ICT, such potentials are limited and imply fewer opportunities for participation in activities.

  11. Coming of Age: Arts Practice with Older People in Private and Domestic Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvinchey, Caoimhe

    2013-01-01

    Britain's ageing population reflects an international trend--more people are living for longer. Whilst government grapples with the economic and social impact of this demographic revolution, social justice and equality charities advocate for greater recognition of the contribution that an ageing population brings to society, not just the health,…

  12. Coming of Age: Arts Practice with Older People in Private and Domestic Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvinchey, Caoimhe

    2013-01-01

    Britain's ageing population reflects an international trend--more people are living for longer. Whilst government grapples with the economic and social impact of this demographic revolution, social justice and equality charities advocate for greater recognition of the contribution that an ageing population brings to society, not just the health,…

  13. Changing the balance of social care for older people: simulating scenarios under demographic ageing in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lay-Yee, Roy; Pearson, Janet; Davis, Peter; von Randow, Martin; Kerse, Ngaire; Brown, Laurie

    2016-10-06

    The demographic ageing of New Zealand society, as elsewhere in the developed world, has dramatically increased the proportion of older people (aged 65 years and over) in the population. This has major policy implications for the future organisation of social care. Our objective was to test the effects on social care use, first, of putative changes in the overall disability profile of older people, and second, of alterations to the balance of their care, i.e. whether it was community-based or residential. In order to undertake these experiments, we developed a microsimulation model of the later life course using individual-level data from two official national survey series on health and disability, respectively, to generate a synthetic version which replicated original data and parameter settings. A baseline projection under current settings from 2001 to 2021 showed moderate increases in disability and associated social care use. Artificially decreasing disability levels, below the baseline projection, only moderately reduced the use of community care (both informal and formal). Scenarios implemented by rebalancing towards informal care use moderately reduced formal care use. However, only moderate compensatory increases in community-based care were required to markedly decrease the transition to residential care. The disability impact of demographic ageing may not have a major negative effect on system resources in developed countries like New Zealand. As well as healthy ageing, changing the balance of social care may alleviate the impact of increasing demand due to an expanding population of older people.

  14. A Captive, a Wreck, a Piece of Dirt: Aging Anxieties Embodied in Older People With a Death Wish.

    PubMed

    van Wijngaarden, Els; Leget, Carlo; Goossensen, Anne; Pool, Robert; The, Anne-Mei

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this present study were to explore the use and meaning of metaphors and images about aging in older people with a death wish and to elucidate what these metaphors and images tell us about their self-understanding and imagined feared future. Twenty-five in-depth interviews with Dutch older people with a death wish (median 82 years) were analyzed by making use of a phenomenological-hermeneutical metaphor analysis approach. We found 10 central metaphorical concepts: (a) struggle, (b) victimhood, (c) void, (d) stagnation, (e) captivity, (f) breakdown, (g) redundancy, (h) subhumanization, (i) burden, and (j) childhood. It appears that the group under research does have profound negative impressions of old age and about themselves being or becoming old. The discourse used reveals a strong sense of distance, disengagement, and nonbelonging associated with their wish to die. This study empirically supports the theory of stereotype embodiment.

  15. Gerotechnology: a new kind of care for aging? An analysis of the relationship between older people and technology.

    PubMed

    Rodeschini, Giulia

    2011-12-01

    Healthcare systems in aging societies need to find new solutions in the provision of care and treatment of older people. Gerotechnologies play a crucial role in the "aging-in-place" process. This article offers a critical overview of gerotechnological studies and will suggest a new approach in the study of the relationship between aging and technologies. Some trajectories of analysis and theoretical models are presented to underline the different perspectives in the discipline. Critical positions highlight the lack of theoretical analysis, mainly in relation to the complex social phenomenon of aging related to technology. Conclusions outline a relational approach to gerotechnologies: an analysis of the interactions between technological artifacts, users, and the context in which technologies are used. This approach expands the view from the technical potential of the technology to the way elderly people use technology, and suggests innovative care and cure strategies for aging. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Challenging cisgenderism in the ageing and aged care sector: Meeting the needs of older people of trans and/or non-binary experience.

    PubMed

    Ansara, Y Gavriel

    2015-10-01

    Recent Australian legislative and policy changes can benefit people of trans and/or non-binary experience (e.g. men assigned female with stereotypically 'female' bodies, women assigned male with stereotypically 'male' bodies, and people who identify as genderqueer, agender [having no gender], bi-gender [having two genders] or another gender option). These populations often experience cisgenderism, which previous research defined as 'the ideology that invalidates people's own understanding of their genders and bodies'. Some documented forms of cisgenderism include pathologising (treating people's genders and bodies as disordered) and misgendering (disregarding people's own understanding and classifications of their genders and bodies). This system of classifying people's lived experiences of gender and body invalidation is called the cisgenderism framework. Applying the cisgenderism framework in the ageing and aged care sector can enhance service providers' ability to meet the needs of older people of trans and/or non-binary experience. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  17. Promoting mobility in older people.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Taina

    2013-01-01

    Out-of-home mobility is necessary for accessing commodities, making use of neighborhood facilities, and participation in meaningful social, cultural, and physical activities. Mobility also promotes healthy aging as it relates to the basic human need of physical movement. Mobility is typically assessed either with standardized performance-based tests or with self-reports of perceived difficulty in carrying out specific mobility tasks. Mobility declines with increasing age, and the most complex and demanding tasks are affected first. Sometimes people cope with declining functional capacity by making changes in their way or frequency of doing these tasks, thus avoiding facing manifest difficulties. From the physiological point of view, walking is an integrated result of the functioning of the musculoskeletal, cardio-respiratory, sensory and neural systems. Studies have shown that interventions aiming to increase muscle strength will also improve mobility. Physical activity counseling, an educational intervention aiming to increase physical activity, may also prevent mobility decline among older people. Sensory deficits, such as poor vision and hearing may increase the risk of mobility decline. Consequently, rehabilitation of sensory functions may prevent falls and decline in mobility. To promote mobility, it is not enough to target only individuals because environmental barriers to mobility may also accelerate mobility decline among older people. Communities need to promote the accessibility of physical environments while also trying to minimize negative or stereotypic attitudes toward the physical activity of older people.

  18. Eating habits in older people in Greece: the role of age, dental status and chewing difficulties.

    PubMed

    Kossioni, Anastassia; Bellou, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of age-related parameters on the dietary preferences in a Greek community-dwelling sample. 130 participants aged between 18 and 92 years were interviewed and clinically examined. Data were collected on their socio-demographic characteristics, their dental status, the oral complaints, their chewing difficulties and the frequency of eating a variety of food types. The results revealed that increasing age was associated with increased frequency of consumption of fish, grains and vegetables. Impaired dental status and chewing difficulties did not affect the frequency of eating meat and other "difficult to chew" food, but it was related to more frequent consumption of softer food (chicken, fish, grains, and dairy products). The older Greeks did not exclude any food type from their diet, because of dental impairment. To overcome chewing problems they used various preparing methods to consume their favorite food. The dietary patterns of the older participants adhere to the traditional Mediterranean diet greater than those of the younger ones, revealing the various cultural and social parameters which influence food selection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of real-life accidental falls in older people with experimental falls in middle-aged test subjects.

    PubMed

    Kangas, M; Vikman, I; Nyberg, L; Korpelainen, R; Lindblom, J; Jämsä, T

    2012-03-01

    Falling is a common accident among older people. Automatic fall detectors are one method of improving security. However, in most cases, fall detectors are designed and tested with data from experimental falls in younger people. This study is one of the first to provide fall-related acceleration data obtained from real-life falls. Wireless sensors were used to collect acceleration data during a six-month test period in older people. Data from five events representing forward falls, a sideways fall, a backwards fall, and a fall out of bed were collected and compared with experimental falls performed by middle-aged test subjects. The signals from real-life falls had similar features to those from intentional falls. Real-life forward, sideways and backward falls all showed a pre impact phase and an impact phase that were in keeping with the model that was based on experimental falls. In addition, the fall out of bed had a similar acceleration profile as the experimental falls of the same type. However, there were differences in the parameters that were used for the detection of the fall phases. The beginning of the fall was detected in all of the real-life falls starting from a standing posture, whereas the high pre impact velocity was not. In some real-life falls, multiple impacts suggested protective actions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated similarities between real-life falls of older people and experimental falls of middle-aged subjects. However, some fall characteristics detected from experimental falls were not detectable in acceleration signals from corresponding heterogeneous real-life falls. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The relationship of tobacco and alcohol use with ageing self-perceptions in older people in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Villiers-Tuthill, Amanda; Copley, Antoinette; McGee, Hannah; Morgan, Karen

    2016-07-22

    ageing (RRR 1.24), and negative emotional responses to it (RRR 1.21), and decreased with stronger perceptions of the positive consequences of ageing (RRR 0.85). The relationship between ageing perceptions, smoking and drinking is complex. Altering perceptions of ageing may be a useful intervention target aimed at facilitating engagement in preventative health behaviours in older people.

  1. What carers and family said about music therapy on behaviours of older people with dementia in residential aged care.

    PubMed

    Tuckett, Anthony G; Hodgkinson, Brent; Rouillon, Lisa; Balil-Lozoya, Tania; Parker, Deborah

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of group music therapy (MT) intervention on behaviours of older people with dementia. Reported here are qualitative data from five, semi-structured focus groups; two comprising a total of seven family members and three comprising a total of 23 staff members. A number of core themes emerged: temporality, effect and policy with a number of subthemes. The MT effect is tempered by the temporality of (i) the older person's dementia state, (ii) the session and (iii) the psychosomatic effect on the older person. Music therapy is perceived to (i) evoke memories and facilitate reminiscence, (ii) act as a diversion (has an instrumental value) and it is contentious to discount the (iii) dichotomy between music and therapist in terms of the overall effect. Finally, policymakers need to know that MT is (i) highly prized and more, not less, MT is recommended. Findings from this study illustrate that the timing of the MT session has consequences for the workflow in the residential aged care facility; MT has a psychosomatic effect and participants here evaluate this as temporal. Care providers and family members acknowledge the instrumental value of MT and its helping with cognition and exercise. They have mixed views about the effects of the music and the effect on the older person by the therapist but most definitely want policymakers to ensure more, not less, planned and better funded MT is part of ongoing care in the residential aged care context. Areas for future research and policy are also highlighted. These views on group MT in residential aged care can initiate critical reflection on current practices and systems. Research is needed exploring the timing and scheduling of MT sessions at different times in the day for older person with dementia exhibiting negative behaviours. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Clinical and radiological study of swallowing in patients with deglutition disorders, classified into two age groups: adults and older people].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Heloisa Sawada; Nasi, Ary; Ajzen, Sérgio; Bilton, Tereza; Sanches, Elaine Palinkas

    2006-01-01

    The abnormalities of swallowing process have multifactor and complex etiologies. The videofluoroscopy has been pointed as the exam of greater utility in diagnostic investigation for these cases. This method, when preceded of an adequate anamnesis, can characterize conveniently the level of the dysfunction and usually identify the cause of abnormality with great precision. To study the clinical complaints and findings of the videofluoroscopy examination in patients with deglutition disorders and no clinical evidence associated with neurological disorder, classified into two age groups: adults and older people, and to analyze: symptomatic manifestations, kinds of disorders (oropharyngeal or esophageal) and the capacity of clarifying the clinical complaints through the method of images. Seventy patients with complaint of the capacity of deglutition were analyzed. They had no clinical evidence of associated neurological syndromes or disorders and were classified into two age groups: adults (GI)-- < or = 65 years (n = 36) and older (GII) > 65 years (n = 34). All patients were submitted to anamnesis to obtain the information about their complaints concerning deglutition. The complaints were characterized as high or low, according to their predominant location of manifestation. All the patients were submitted to videofluoroscopy of the deglutition; these alterations were characterized as oropharyngeal or esophageal. The capacity of clarifying the clinical complaints by videofluoroscopy was evaluated in both groups. Among the complaints analyzed, the only one in which the statistical analysis presented a significant difference between the groups was the complaint of heartburn, which occurred more often in the group GI-- eight patients (22.2%) and GII--one patient (2.9%). In the study of videofluoroscopy, it was observed a higher incidence in the oropharyngeal disorder in group GII--41.2% while in group GI--13.9%. As for the esophageal disorder, the incidence was similar in

  3. Sarcopenia in older people.

    PubMed

    Yu, Solomon; Umapathysivam, Kandiah; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2014-12-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. It has been receiving international attention because of its increased prevalence in western societies, such as Australia, which have large and growing older populations. Adverse health consequences of sarcopenia are falls and loss of independence, increased health costs and reduced quality of life. Recently, there have been international attempts to come to a consensus with regards to a definition of the condition, and, increasingly, clinicians are being encouraged to screen and assess for sarcopenia. Screening pathways are being investigated and some are discussed in this review. There is an emphasis on early screening, as it is believed that early detection will allow early intervention. As with most conditions in older age, there are many environmental and medical factors that can contribute to the development and worsening of sarcopenia, and it is important that, when possible, these contributing factors be addressed. Pharmaceutical treatment strategies are under development with some early promise and there is the possibility of clinical trials in the near future. Currently, nutritional supplementation and physical therapy are the strategies advocated for the management of sarcopenia once it is diagnosed.

  4. What keeps you strong? A systematic review identifying how primary health-care and aged-care services can support the well-being of older Indigenous peoples.

    PubMed

    Davy, Carol; Kite, Elaine; Aitken, Graham; Dodd, Garth; Rigney, Janice; Hayes, Jenny; Van Emden, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to identify primary health-care or aged-care strategies that have or could support the well-being of older Indigenous peoples. A search was undertaken of primary databases including Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Papers which reported on the perspectives of older Indigenous peoples, community members and provider participants were included. Findings were pooled using a meta-aggregative approach. Three high-level synthesised findings - maintaining Indigenous identity, promoting independence and delivering culturally safe care - were believed to be important for supporting the well-being of older Indigenous peoples. As physical independence often diminishes with age, having the support of culturally safe primary health-care and aged-care services that understand the importance of maintaining an Indigenous identity and promoting independence will be crucial for the well-being of older Indigenous peoples. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  5. Good places for ageing in place: development of objective built environment measures for investigating links with older people's wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is renewed interest in the role of the built environment in public health. Relatively little research to date investigates its impact on healthy ageing. Ageing in place has been adopted as a key strategy for coping with the challenges of longevity. What is needed is a better understanding of how individual characteristics of older people's residential environments (from front door to wider neighbourhood) contribute to their wellbeing, in order to provide the basis for evidence-based housing/urban design and development of interventions. This research aimed to develop a tool to objectively measure a large range of built environment characteristics, as the basis for a preliminary study of potential relationships with a number of 'place-related' functional, emotional and social wellbeing constructs. Methods Through a review of urban design literature, design documents, and existing measures, a new tool, the NeDeCC (Neighbourhood Design Characteristics Checklist) was developed. It was piloted, refined, and its reliability validated through inter-rater tests. A range of place-related wellbeing constructs were identified and measured through interviews with 200 older people living in a wide variety of rural-urban environments and different types of housing in England. The NeDeCC was used to measure the residential environment of each participant, and significant bivariate relationships with wellbeing variables were identified. Results The NeDeCC was found to have convincing face and construct validity and good inter-rater and test/retest reliability, though it would benefit from use of digital data sources such as Google Earth to eliminate the need for on-site survey. The significant relationships found in the study suggest that there may be characteristics of residential environments of potential relevance for older people's lives that have been overlooked in research to date, and that it may be worthwhile to question some of the assumptions about where

  6. [Old and offline? : Findings on the use of the Internet by people aged 65 years and older in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Seifert, Alexander; Schelling, Hans Rudolf

    2016-10-01

    The supply of information and communication is becoming continuously more focused on the Internet. While the age groups up to 64 years have shown a vast increase in the use of the Internet since 1997, intensive use of the Internet by age groups above 64 years lags behind and this is not only the case in Switzerland. Against this background and an interest in finding out more about Internet (non)use of older people, two representative surveys were conducted in Switzerland, one in 2009 and another one in 2014. The data used were acquired throughout Switzerland via a standardized telephone survey. The random sample (2014) consisted of 1037 people aged between 65 and 100 years old. Although the digital divide between the age groups has lessened over the past years, only 55.7 % of the elderly people interviewed were using the Internet in the autumn of 2014. Internet usage differs greatly between age groups. Resources such as education, income and health positively impact actual use of the Internet. Additionally, recommendations from a person's social environment, as well as an affinity for technology and a personal benefit assessment have a positive impact on Internet usage. In particular, security concerns and difficulties of use were mentioned as predominant reasons for the non-use of the Internet. Some of the people questioned felt excluded from society because they did not use the Internet. Internet usage among elderly people depends on individual and social resources, as well as on general attitude towards technology and personal benefit expectations. The exclusion of today's elderly "offliners" should be avoided, even if the digital divide will decrease in the future.

  7. Using existing information from medico-legal death investigations to improve care of older people in residential aged care services.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Joseph Elias; Bugeja, Lyndal; Ranson, David

    2013-12-01

    The care of older people in residential aged care services could be improved by optimising the use of existing information gathered for medico-legal death investigations. The authors address three myths contributing to underuse of this information: deaths are not preventable; public health gains are too small; and it is someone else's charter or responsibility A significant proportion of deaths are preventable, specifically those occurring prematurely from natural causes or due to injury and trauma. By addressing these preventable deaths, significant public health cost savings and better health outcomes for our growing ageing population can be achieved. Despite substantive monitoring of the provision of aged care, no single entity is explicitly responsible for systematically analysing medico-legal death information. The data and skills for using information from medico-legal death investigations currently exist. Dispelling the myths removes one impediment to investing in this area of public health.

  8. Adult Education in Sweden: Possibilities for the Middle Aged and Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thang, Per-Olof; Warvik, Gun-Britt

    2000-01-01

    Older adults in Sweden lack access to funding for education and training, a gap partly filled by popular education. Study circles, one form of popular education, enable older adults to learn and adapt to the challenges of global society. They promote humanistic rather than economic goals of education. (SK)

  9. Older people, the natural environment and common mental disorders: cross-sectional results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A Matthew; Jones, Andy; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the hypothesis that higher exposure to natural environments in local areas is associated with a lower odds of depression and anxiety in later life. Design A cross-sectional study based on the year-10 interview of the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS), a population-based study of ageing in the UK. Postcodes of the CFAS participants were mapped onto small geographic units, lower-layer super output areas (LSOAs) and linked to environmental data from government databases. The natural environment was characterised as the percentage of green space and private gardens in each LSOA based on the UK Generalised Land Use 2001 Dataset. Participants 2424 people aged 74 and over in the CFAS year-10 follow-up interview (2001) from 4 English centres (Cambridgeshire, Nottingham, Newcastle and Oxford). Main outcome measures Depression and anxiety; clinical and subthreshold cases were identified using the Geriatric Mental State Examination (GMS) package and its associated diagnostic algorithm: the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy. Results Compared with the lowest quartile, living in the highest quartile of neighbourhood natural environment provision was associated with a reduced odds of subthreshold depression (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.95), anxiety symptoms (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.83) and their co-occurrence (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.84) after adjusting for individual-level factors. Controlling for area deprivation attenuated the strength of associations for subthreshold depression by 20% but not for anxiety symptoms or for co-occurrence of the conditions. Conclusions A high exposure to natural environments (green space and gardens) in communities was associated with fewer mental disorders among older people. Increasing provision of green environments in local areas could be a potential population-level intervention to improve mental health among older people. PMID:26377504

  10. Self-reported chronic pain is associated with physical performance in older people leaving aged care rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo; Sherrington, Catherine; Ferreira, Manuela L; Tiedemann, Anne; Ferreira, Paulo H; Blyth, Fiona M; Close, Jacqueline CT; Taylor, Morag; Lord, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives The impact of pain on the physical performance of patients in aged care rehabilitation is not known. The study sought to assess 1) the prevalence of pain in older people being discharged from inpatient rehabilitation; 2) the association between self-reported pain and physical performance in people being discharged from inpatient rehabilitation; and 3) the association between self-reported pain and physical performance in this population, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Methods This was an observational cross-sectional study of 420 older people at two inpatient aged care rehabilitation units. Physical performance was assessed using the Lower Limb Summary Performance Score. Pain was assessed with questions about the extent to which participants were troubled by pain, the duration of symptoms, and the impact of chronic pain on everyday activity. Depression and the number of comorbidities were assessed by questionnaire and medical file audit. Cognition was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results Thirty percent of participants reported chronic pain (pain lasting more than 3 months), and 17% reported that this pain interfered with daily activities to a moderate or greater extent. Chronic pain (P=0.013) and chronic pain affecting daily activities (P<0.001) were associated with a poorer Lower Limb Summary Performance Score. The relationship between chronic pain affecting daily activities and Lower Limb Summary Performance Score remained significant (P=0.001) after adjusting for depression, age, comorbidities, and Mini-Mental State Examination score. This model explained 10% of the variability in physical performance. Conclusion One-third of participants reported chronic pain, and close to one-fifth reported that this pain interfered with daily activities. Chronic pain was associated with impaired physical performance, and this relationship persisted after adjusting for likely confounding factors. PMID:24523583

  11. Animalistic Dehumanization of Older People by Younger Ones: Variations of Humanness Perceptions as a Function of a Target's Age.

    PubMed

    Boudjemadi, Valérian; Demoulin, Stéphanie; Bastart, Jennifer

    2017-02-23

    The present work investigated associations of older people with humanness. Focusing on complementary approaches (attribute-based, metaphor-based, and target-based), 4 studies tested the hypothesis that older people are the targets of animalistic dehumanization. Using an emotional attribution task, Study 1 (N = 112) explored infrahumanization and shows that young participants attributed more uniquely human emotions to young people than to older ones. No such effect occurred with regards to nonuniquely human emotions. Results of Study 2 (N = 62) replicated this result using a lexical-decision task. Using the metaphor-based approach, Study 3 (N = 99) confirmed that older people's dehumanization is restricted to its animalistic form and does not extend to the mechanistic one. Finally, in Study 4 (N = 167), we used a target-based approach and showed that characteristics initially attributed to older people are perceived as denoting lesser humanness than when these same characteristics are associated with younger people. Results of the 4 studies provide evidence for an animalistic form of dehumanization of older people by younger ones. Limits, implications, and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Time Trends in Self-Rated Health and Disability in Older Spanish People: Differences by Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    GIRON, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background: To analyse time trends in self-rated health in older people by gender and age and examine disability in the time trends of self-rated health. Methods: The data used come from the Spanish National Health Surveys conducted in 2001, 2003, 2006 and 2011–12. Samples of adults aged 16 yr and older were selected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between age, gender, socio-economic status, marital status, disability and self-rated health across period study. Results: Women exhibited lower (higher) prevalence of good self-rated health (disability) compared to men. The multivariate analysis for time trends found that good self-rated health increased from 2001 to 2012. Overall, variables associated with a lower likelihood of good self-rated health were: being married or living with a partner, lower educational level, and disability. Conclusion: Trends of good self-rated health differ by gender according to socio-demographic factors and the prevalence of disability. PMID:27141490

  13. Time Trends in Self-Rated Health and Disability in Older Spanish People: Differences by Gender and Age.

    PubMed

    Giron, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    To analyse time trends in self-rated health in older people by gender and age and examine disability in the time trends of self-rated health. The data used come from the Spanish National Health Surveys conducted in 2001, 2003, 2006 and 2011-12. Samples of adults aged 16 yr and older were selected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between age, gender, socio-economic status, marital status, disability and self-rated health across period study. Women exhibited lower (higher) prevalence of good self-rated health (disability) compared to men. The multivariate analysis for time trends found that good self-rated health increased from 2001 to 2012. Overall, variables associated with a lower likelihood of good self-rated health were: being married or living with a partner, lower educational level, and disability. Trends of good self-rated health differ by gender according to socio-demographic factors and the prevalence of disability.

  14. Exploring attitudes towards older people's sexuality.

    PubMed

    Price, B

    2009-07-01

    Sexuality is an important part of life, for older people as well as for others. Sexual attitudes, beliefs and lifestyles may be as diverse among older people as they are among younger age groups. But for nurses to plan care with patients in ways that take issues of sexuality into account, they need to feel more comfortable talking about sexuality with older people. This article uses case studies to help readers explore their own attitudes and those of colleagues towards sexuality in later years, and prompts discussions on what this might signify for future nursing care so that staff are better equipped to assist patients with this subject.

  15. What It's Like to Grow Older: The Aging Perceptions of People with an Intellectual Disability in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Eilish; McCarron, Mary; Carroll, Rachael; McGlinchey, Eimear; McCallion, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The Intellectual Disability Supplement to The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing is a national longitudinal study on the aging of people with an intellectual disability (ID) using a randomly selected sample of people with ID over the age of 40. In total, 367 people with an ID completed the aging perception self-report only section. Over 57% of…

  16. What It's Like to Grow Older: The Aging Perceptions of People with an Intellectual Disability in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Eilish; McCarron, Mary; Carroll, Rachael; McGlinchey, Eimear; McCallion, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The Intellectual Disability Supplement to The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing is a national longitudinal study on the aging of people with an intellectual disability (ID) using a randomly selected sample of people with ID over the age of 40. In total, 367 people with an ID completed the aging perception self-report only section. Over 57% of…

  17. Barriers to eye care among people aged 40 years and older with diagnosed diabetes, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chiu-Fang; Sherrod, Cheryl E; Zhang, Xinzhi; Barker, Lawrence E; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examine barriers to receiving recommended eye care among people aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 22 states (n = 27,699). Respondents who had not sought eye care in the preceding 12 months were asked the main reason why. We categorized the reasons as cost/lack of insurance, no need, no eye doctor/travel/appointment, and other (meaning everything else). We used multinomial logistic regression to control for race/ethnicity, education, income, and other selected covariates. RESULTS Among adults with diagnosed diabetes, nonadherence to the recommended annual eye examinations was 23.5%. The most commonly reported reasons for not receiving eye care in the preceding 12 months were "no need" and "cost or lack of insurance" (39.7 and 32.3%, respectively). Other reasons were "no eye doctor," "no transportation" or "could not get appointment" (6.4%), and "other" (21.5%). After controlling for covariates, adults aged 40-64 years were more likely than those aged ≥65 years (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.79; 95% CI 2.01-3.89) and women were more likely than men (RRR = 2.33; 95% CI 1.75-3.14) to report "cost or lack of insurance" as their main reason. However, people aged 40-64 years were less likely than those aged ≥65 years to report "no need" (RRR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.39-0.67) as their main reason. CONCLUSIONS Addressing concerns about "cost or lack of insurance" for adults under 65 years and "no perceived need" among those 65 years and older could help improve eye care service utilization among people with diabetes.

  18. Barriers to Eye Care Among People Aged 40 Years and Older With Diagnosed Diabetes, 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chiu-Fang; Sherrod, Cheryl E.; Zhang, Xinzhi; Barker, Lawrence E.; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Crews, John E.; Saaddine, Jinan B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examine barriers to receiving recommended eye care among people aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 22 states (n = 27,699). Respondents who had not sought eye care in the preceding 12 months were asked the main reason why. We categorized the reasons as cost/lack of insurance, no need, no eye doctor/travel/appointment, and other (meaning everything else). We used multinomial logistic regression to control for race/ethnicity, education, income, and other selected covariates. RESULTS Among adults with diagnosed diabetes, nonadherence to the recommended annual eye examinations was 23.5%. The most commonly reported reasons for not receiving eye care in the preceding 12 months were “no need” and “cost or lack of insurance” (39.7 and 32.3%, respectively). Other reasons were “no eye doctor,” “no transportation” or “could not get appointment” (6.4%), and “other” (21.5%). After controlling for covariates, adults aged 40–64 years were more likely than those aged ≥65 years (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.79; 95% CI 2.01–3.89) and women were more likely than men (RRR = 2.33; 95% CI 1.75–3.14) to report “cost or lack of insurance” as their main reason. However, people aged 40–64 years were less likely than those aged ≥65 years to report “no need” (RRR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.39–0.67) as their main reason. CONCLUSIONS Addressing concerns about “cost or lack of insurance” for adults under 65 years and “no perceived need” among those 65 years and older could help improve eye care service utilization among people with diabetes. PMID:24009300

  19. Pulse Pressure Relation to Aortic and Left Ventricular Structure in Older People in the AGES-Reykjavik Study

    PubMed Central

    Torjesen, Alyssa A; Sigurđsson, Sigurđur; Westenberg, Jos JM; Gotal, John D; Bell, Vanessa; Aspelund, Thor; Launer, Lenore J; de Roos, Albert; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Mitchell, Gary F

    2014-01-01

    High pulse pressure, a major cardiovascular risk factor, has been attributed to medial elastic fiber degeneration and aortic dilation, which transfers hemodynamic load to stiffer collagen. However, recent studies suggest higher pulse pressure is instead associated with smaller aortic diameter. Thus, we sought to elucidate relations of pulse pressure with aortic stiffness and aortic and cardiac dimensions. We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine relations of pulse pressure with lumen area and wall stiffness and thickness in the thoracic aorta and left ventricular structure in 526 participants (72 to 94 years of age, 295 women) in the community-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. In a multivariable model that adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, and standard vascular risk factors, central pulse pressure had a negative relation with aortic lumen area (all effects expressed as mm Hg/SD; B=−8.1±1.2, P<0.001) and positive relations with left ventricular end-diastolic volume (B=3.8±1.0, P<0.001), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (B=3.6±1.0, P<0.001), and aortic wall area (B=3.0±1.2, P=0.015). Higher pulse pressure in older people is associated with smaller aortic lumen area and greater aortic wall stiffness and thickness and left ventricular volume. Relations of larger ventricular volume and smaller aortic lumen with higher pulse pressure suggest mismatch in hemodynamic load accommodation by the heart and aorta in older people. PMID:25024287

  20. Hazardous drinking in people aged 50 years or older: a cross-sectional picture of Europe, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Brugal, M Teresa; Lima, Kenio C; Villalbí, Joan R; Bartroli, Montse; Espelt, Albert

    2017-08-01

    To assess gender and age differences in hazardous drinking and to analyse and compare the factors associated with it in men versus women, and in 50 to 64-year-old versus ≥65-year-old people in Europe. Cross-sectional study with data from 65,955 people aged ≥50 years from 18 countries (SHARE project, 2011-2013). The outcome variable, hazardous drinking, was calculated using an adaptation of the AUDIT-C test. Several individual (sociodemographic, life-style and health factors) and contextual variables (country socioeconomic indicators and alcohol policies) were analysed. The prevalence of hazardous drinking was estimated by each exposure variable. To estimate associations, multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were fit, yielding prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Overall, the prevalence of hazardous drinking was 21.5% (95%CI = 21.1-22.0), with substantial differences between countries. The proportion of hazardous drinking was higher in men than in women [26.3%(95%CI = 25.6-27.1); 17.5%(95%CI = 17.0-18.0), respectively], as well as in middle-aged people than in older people [23.6%(95%CI = 23.0-24.3); 19.2%(95%CI = 18.6-19.8), respectively]. At the individual level, associations were found for migrant background, marital status, educational level, tobacco smoking, depression and self-perceived health. At the contextual level, hazardous drinking was associated with gender inequalities in society (only in women) and alcohol advertising regulations (both genders). One in five people aged ≥50 years in the countries studied is a hazardous drinker, with large differences by countries, gender and age group. Interventions and policies aimed at preventing or reducing alcohol use in this population should account for country, gender and age differences, as well as individual characteristics. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Preventing abuse of older people.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Aileen

    2010-10-01

    The author travelled to the United States on a Florence Nightingale Travel Scholarship to study the systems in place to respond to and prevent elder abuse. She visited centres in Orange County, California, and New York City that are involved in dealing with the issue. This article provides a summary of her findings, with emphasis on education and training strategies for healthcare professionals working with older people, and provides recommendations for developments in safeguarding older people in the UK. The author also reviews models of service, models of evaluation and approaches to older people who self-neglect.

  2. How can contemporary art contribute toward the development of social and cultural capital for people aged 64 and older.

    PubMed

    Goulding, Anna

    2013-12-01

    This article focuses on how visiting contemporary art galleries and discussing the artwork in facilitated focus groups affected culturally inactive participants' social and cultural capital. The research is taken from a larger study that explored the contribution that visiting contemporary art galleries made to the well-being of people aged 64 and older. A total of 19 participants were given guided visits around 3 contemporary art galleries in the United Kingdom. Participants were drawn from categories identified as not already actively engaged in cultural activities (men, those with a limiting disability, people from minority ethnic backgrounds, those in lower socioeconomic groups and people living alone). Before and after each visit, focus group interviews were used to gage the impact of participation in the intervention in terms of subjective well-being. Follow-up interviews were held with participants and group leaders 2 years after the visits. Spontaneous reminiscence was a functional part of the discussion that facilitated shifts in participants' social and cultural capital. Participants developed bonding social capital with each other, bridging social capital with group leaders, and linking social capital with gallery staff and researchers. Participants' cultural capital developed in terms of an increase in knowledge and understanding of contemporary art. Understanding the interplay between social capital, cultural capital, and reminiscence has implications for programmers and policy makers trying to engage less culturally engaged participants in the arts. Developing bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and cultural capital through engagement with the arts may have implications for health, particularly among this demographic.

  3. Intermediate care for older people.

    PubMed

    Logan, Pip; Stoner-Hobbs, Val; McCloughry, Helen; Foster, Carol; Fitzsimmons, Dwane; Williams, Jo; Spencer, Pamela; Robertson, Kate; Gladman, John

    2007-06-01

    Up to 40 per cent of older people do not go to hospital after calling an emergency ambulance and until recently were not referred on to any other community services. This article describes how a multidisciplinary working group developed and evaluated a protocol to enable older people to be referred to intermediate care services after calling an emergency ambulance. A total of 54 patients were monitored after referral to intermediate care to assess adherence to the protocol and outcomes.

  4. Nutritional guidelines for older people in Finland.

    PubMed

    Suominen, M H; Jyvakorpi, S K; Pitkala, K H; Finne-Soveri, H; Hakala, P; Mannisto, S; Soini, H; Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, S

    2014-12-01

    Ageing is associated with an increased risk of malnutrition, decreased nutrient intake, unintentional weight loss and sarcopenia, which lead to frailty, functional disabilities and increased mortality. Nutrition combined with exercise is important in supporting older people's health, functional capacity and quality of life. To identify nutritional needs in various groups of older individuals and to present the nutritional guidelines for older people in Finland. A review of the existing literature on older people's nutritional needs and problems. The draft guidelines were written by a multidisciplinary expert panel; they were then revised, based on comments by expert organisations. The guidelines were approved by the National Nutritional Council in Finland. The heterogeneity of the older population is highlighted. The five key guidelines are: 1. The nutritional needs in different age and disability groups should be considered. 2. The nutritional status and food intake of older individuals should be assessed regularly. 3. An adequate intake of energy, protein, fiber, other nutrients and fluids should be guaranteed. 4. The use of a vitamin D supplement (20 μg per day) recommended. 5. The importance of physical activity is highlighted. In addition, weight changes, oral health, constipation, obesity, implementing nutritional care are highlighted. Owing to the impact that good nutrition has on health and well-being in later life, nutrition among older people should be given more attention. These nutritional guidelines are intended to improve the nutrition and nutritional care of the older population.

  5. Older people and skin: challenging perceptions.

    PubMed

    Cowdell, Fiona; Garrett, Dawne

    In this article we set out to challenge perceptions about older people and skin. We examine current portrayals of older people and skin, both in the media and in the nursing literature. We describe the ‘normal’ process of skin ageing and highlight the importance of maintaining skin integrity and effective barrier function for health and wellbeing, particularly in older people. One element of maintaining skin integrity is ensuring that personal hygiene and emollient needs are met. Effective skin hygiene and emollient care will reduce the risk of breakdown, with all its burdensome and costly consequences. We therefore offer a summary of the current evidence base for skin-hygiene practice. We make a case for nurses considering skin health from a wider societal and human perspective, and identify opportunities to enhance nursing practice through skin-care advice and health education for all older people.

  6. Older people, the natural environment and common mental disorders: cross-sectional results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A Matthew; Jones, Andy; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol

    2015-09-16

    To explore the hypothesis that higher exposure to natural environments in local areas is associated with a lower odds of depression and anxiety in later life. A cross-sectional study based on the year-10 interview of the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS), a population-based study of ageing in the UK. Postcodes of the CFAS participants were mapped onto small geographic units, lower-layer super output areas (LSOAs) and linked to environmental data from government databases. The natural environment was characterised as the percentage of green space and private gardens in each LSOA based on the UK Generalised Land Use 2001 Dataset. 2424 people aged 74 and over in the CFAS year-10 follow-up interview (2001) from 4 English centres (Cambridgeshire, Nottingham, Newcastle and Oxford). Depression and anxiety; clinical and subthreshold cases were identified using the Geriatric Mental State Examination (GMS) package and its associated diagnostic algorithm: the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy. Compared with the lowest quartile, living in the highest quartile of neighbourhood natural environment provision was associated with a reduced odds of subthreshold depression (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.95), anxiety symptoms (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.83) and their co-occurrence (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.84) after adjusting for individual-level factors. Controlling for area deprivation attenuated the strength of associations for subthreshold depression by 20% but not for anxiety symptoms or for co-occurrence of the conditions. A high exposure to natural environments (green space and gardens) in communities was associated with fewer mental disorders among older people. Increasing provision of green environments in local areas could be a potential population-level intervention to improve mental health among older people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  7. Risk-Taking, Safety and Older People. Selected Bibliographies on Ageing 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Wendy, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography, which was developed as part of a series of selected bibliographies on aging for Great Britain's Centre for Policy on Ageing, contains a total of 368 entries organized under the following subject headings: risk (identification, nature, responsibilities, risk taking, security); environmental safety (hazards, design,…

  8. Student Knowledge and Attitudes toward Older People and Their Impact on Pursuing Aging Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lun, Man Wai Alice

    2011-01-01

    The international community is facing the pressure of aging societies. In the United States of America, we will shortly be facing the aging of baby boomers, a dramatically large population expected to peak as senior citizens in 2030 at 70 million. Global societies are facing a crisis: lack of adequately trained and emotionally oriented personnel…

  9. Student Knowledge and Attitudes toward Older People and Their Impact on Pursuing Aging Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lun, Man Wai Alice

    2011-01-01

    The international community is facing the pressure of aging societies. In the United States of America, we will shortly be facing the aging of baby boomers, a dramatically large population expected to peak as senior citizens in 2030 at 70 million. Global societies are facing a crisis: lack of adequately trained and emotionally oriented personnel…

  10. Multiple, but not traditional risk factors predict mortality in older people: the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Vasant; Naganathan, Vasi; Blyth, Fiona; Le Couteur, David G; Gnjidic, Danijela; Stanaway, Fiona F; Seibel, Markus J; Waite, Louise M; Handelsman, David J; Cumming, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify the common risk factors for mortality in community-dwelling older men. A prospective population-based study was conducted with a median of 6.7 years of follow-up. Participants included 1705 men aged ≥70 years at baseline (2005-2007) living in the community in Sydney, Australia. Demographic information, lifestyle factors, health status, self-reported history of diseases, physical performance measures, blood pressure, height and weight, disability (activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADLs, instrumental ADLs (IADLs)), cognitive status, depressive symptoms and blood analyte measures were considered. Cox regression analyses were conducted to model predictors delete time until of mortality. During follow-up, 461 men (27 %) died. Using Cox proportional hazards model, significant predictors of delete time to time to mortality included in the final model (p < 0.05) were older age, body mass index < 20 kg m(2), high white cell count, anaemia, low albumin, current smoking, history of cancer, history of myocardial infarction, history of congestive heart failure, depressive symptoms and ADL and IADL disability and impaired chair stands. We found that overweight and obesity and/or being a lifelong non-drinker of alcohol were protective against mortality. Compared to men with less than or equal to one risk factor, the hazard ratio in men with three risk factors was 2.5; with four risk factors, it was 4.0; with five risk factors, it was 4.9; and for six or more risk factors, it was 11.4, respectively. We have identified common risk factors that predict mortality that may be useful in making clinical decisions among older people living in the community. Our findings suggest that, in primary care, screening and management of multiple risk factors are important to consider for extending survival, rather than simply considering individual risk factors in isolation. Some of the "traditional" risk factors for mortality in a

  11. [Functional decline in older people].

    PubMed

    Wada, Taizo

    2013-10-01

    World Health Organization(WHO) proposed to be used as an index of the health of elderly independence of functioning. Basic activities of daily living (BADL), such as bathing, dressing, toileting, transferring, continence, and feeding are well known as the functioning of the elderly. However, not only BADL, there are a variety of levels, such as the ability to play a social role, intellectual activities and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), which are components of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence(TMIG-IC). Functional decline in older people is associated with age, gender, depression, up and go test and manual dexterity. Smoking, body-mass index, and exercise patterns in midlife and late adulthood are predictors of subsequent disability.

  12. Prevalence of use and level of awareness of CAM in older people - results from the KORA-Age study.

    PubMed

    Weidenhammer, Wolfgang; Lacruz, Maria Elena; Emeny, Rebecca Thwing; Linde, Klaus; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Mielck, Andreas; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing proportion of older adults in Europe there is only limited knowledge of CAM use among the elderly. This analysis aims to provide estimates for the prevalence of CAM use in persons with an age of ≥65, and to investigate correlations of CAM use with demographic characteristics. Based on participants of the MONICA/KORA studies S1-S4 who were born before 1944, a random sample of 1,079 was selected for comprehensive medical examinations. Questions were presented in structured face-to-face interviews conducted from February to November 2009. Data on CAM use were available for 1,026 subjects with a mean age of 76 years, ranging from 65 to 93 years. 14% of the participants were unaware of CAM. The overall prevalence of CAM use was estimated 37% with minor differences between age groups, but clear differences between male (29%) and female (44%) participants. 1-year prevalence of CAM use was 22% (16% males, 28% females). 1-year of CAM use was associated with a higher level of education in both men and women; with higher income in men; and with more actual diseases in women. Findings indicate that awareness of CAM is high even among people ≥65 years. Estimates for the prevalence of CAM use confirm the relevance of this treatment sector in the healthcare system for the elderly. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  13. Psychosocial factors and ageing in older lesbian, gay and bisexual people: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    McParland, James; Camic, Paul M

    2016-12-01

    facing ageing challenges. Also, clinicians should be aware older people may have prior negative experiences of accessing services and try to involve 'families of choice' in care planning. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Malnutrition, functional ability and mortality among older people aged ⩾ 60 years: a 7-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Naseer, M; Forssell, H; Fagerström, C

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between risk of malnutrition and 7-year mortality, controlling for functional ability, socio-demographics, lifestyle behavior and diseases, and investigate the interaction between risk of malnutrition and functional ability on the risk of mortality. A longitudinal study on home-living and special-housing residents aged ⩾ 60 years was conducted. Of 2312 randomly invited participants, 1402 responded and 1203 provided information on both nutritional status and functional ability. The risk of malnutrition was estimated by the occurrence of at least one anthropometric measure (BMI, MAC and CC) below cut-off in addition to the presence of at least one subjective measure (decreased food intake, weight loss and eating difficulty). At baseline, 8.6% of subjects were at risk of malnutrition and during the 7-year follow-up 34.6% subjects died. The risk of malnutrition was independently associated with 7-year mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-2.65). Additional independent predictors were dementia (HR 2.76, 95% CI 1.85-4.10), activity of daily living (ADL) dependence (HR 2.08, 95% CI 1.62-2.67), heart disease (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.16-1.78), diabetes (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.03-1.93) and older age (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.07-1.10). Moreover, the risk of malnutrition and ADL dependence in combination predicted the poorest survival rate (18.7%, P<0.001). The risk of malnutrition significantly increases the risk of mortality in older people. Moreover, risk of malnutrition and ADL dependence together explain a significantly poorer survival rate; however, the importance of this interaction decreased in the multivariable model and risk of malnutrition and ADL dependence independently explained a significant risk of mortality.

  15. Using Older People's Life Stories to Teach Developmental Psychology and Aging: Benefits and Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Feliciano; Fabà, Josep; Celdrán, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to design and implement an experiential learning assignment in an undergraduate developmental psychology and aging course and to explore students' perceptions of it. One hundred and forty-three first-year students enrolled in an introductory course on developmental psychology across the life span recorded, transcribed,…

  16. Using Older People's Life Stories to Teach Developmental Psychology and Aging: Benefits and Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Feliciano; Fabà, Josep; Celdrán, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to design and implement an experiential learning assignment in an undergraduate developmental psychology and aging course and to explore students' perceptions of it. One hundred and forty-three first-year students enrolled in an introductory course on developmental psychology across the life span recorded, transcribed,…

  17. Self-reported visual function in healthy older people in Britain: an exploratory study of associations with age, sex, depression, education and income.

    PubMed

    Iliffe, Steve; Kharicha, Kalpa; Harari, Danielle; Swift, Cameron; Gillmann, Gerhard; Stuck, Andreas

    2005-12-01

    Tractable but undetected visual impairment in older people may be relatively common, particularly amongst the very old and in more deprived populations. Measurement of visual acuity is unlikely to be helpful in identifying this impairment, but targeted assessment of visual function may be beneficial. There is uncertainty about the defining characteristics of the target group. To explore factors associated with self-reported visual impairment in community dwelling older people. secondary cross sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomised controlled trial. three large group practices in outer London. older people aged 65 and over enrolled in a study of health risk appraisal. postal questionnaire using questions from the National Eye Institute Visual Function questionnaire. Moderate or extreme visual function loss occurred in 4 to 12% of community-dwelling older people in this population reporting less than excellent vision, depending on which aspect of visual function is considered. Visual function loss in this subgroup increases in prevalence with advancing age, but is not associated with female sex, low educational attainment or low income. It is associated with depressed mood. Questions about visual function identify a group of older people whose vision and mental state needs further investigation.

  18. Trends in AIDS-related mortality among people aged 60 years and older in Brazil: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lima, Mauricélia da Silveira; Firmo, Andréa Acioly Maia; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio

    2016-12-01

    The success of antiretroviral therapy has led to an increase in the number of older people living with human immunodeficiency virus worldwide. This study analyzed the epidemiological patterns and time trends of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related mortality in people aged 60 and older in Brazil from 2000 to 2011. Secondary mortality data from the Brazilian Mortality Information System was used to perform a nationwide population-based study, which included all AIDS-related deaths among people aged 60 years and older in Brazil from 2000 to 2011. Crude and age-adjusted mortality rates (per 100,000 inhabitants) were calculated by sex, age group and place of residence. Trends over time were assessed using joinpoint regression analysis. In the 12-year study period, 12,491,280 deaths were recorded in Brazil, of which 144,175 were AIDS-related deaths. A total of 8194 AIDS-related deaths was identified in people aged 60 years and older (0.12% of all deaths and 5.7% of AIDS-related deaths). The overall age-adjusted mortality rate for the period was 4.30 deaths/100,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval: 3.99-4.64). Males (6.45 deaths/100,000 inhabitants), aged 60-64 years (6.63 deaths/100,000 inhabitants) and residing in the South region (5.94 deaths/100,000 inhabitants) had the highest mortality rates. We observed a significant increase in mortality at the national level and in all the Brazilian regions, with a sharper increase in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged regions of the country, such as the North and Northeast. The findings show that AIDS in older people is an increasing public health problem in Brazil, and reinforce the need to establish public policies for the prevention, early diagnosis and appropriate clinical treatment of this age group.

  19. Perceived Age Discrimination as a Mediator of the Association Between Income Inequality and Older People's Self-Rated Health in the European Region.

    PubMed

    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Marques, Sibila; Lima, Maria L; Abrams, Dominic; Swift, Hannah; Bratt, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    The relative income hypothesis predicts poorer health in societies with greater income inequality. This article examines whether the psychosocial factors of perceived age discrimination and (lack of) social capital may help explain the adverse effect of inequality on older people's health. Self-rated health, perceived age discrimination, and social capital were assessed in the 2008/9 European Social Survey (European Social Survey Round 4 Data, 2008). The Gini coefficient was used to represent national inequalities in income in each of the 28 European Social Survey countries. Mediation analyses (within a multilevel structural equation modeling paradigm) on a subsample of respondents over 70 years of age (N = 7,819) were used to examine whether perceived age discrimination mediates the negative effect of income inequality on older people's self-rated health. Perceived age discrimination fully mediated the associations between income inequality and self-rated health. When social capital was included into the model, only age discrimination remained a significant mediator and predictor of self-rated health. Concrete instances of age discrimination in unequal societies are an important psychosocial stressor for older people. Awareness that the perception of ageism can be an important stressor and affect older patient's self-reported health has important implications for the way health practitioners understand and treat the sources of patient's health problems in later life. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. What it's like to grow older: the aging perceptions of people with an intellectual disability in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Burke, Eilish; McCarron, Mary; Carroll, Rachael; McGlinchey, Eimear; McCallion, Philip

    2014-06-01

    The Intellectual Disability Supplement to The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing is a national longitudinal study on the aging of people with an intellectual disability (ID) using a randomly selected sample of people with ID over the age of 40. In total, 367 people with an ID completed the aging perception self-report only section. Over 57% of people described their health as very good to excellent with no significant difference in health perceptions found for gender, level of ID, or living circumstance. Exploring people's perceptions utilizing PASW Text Analytics for Surveys 4.1 perceptions often supported negative views of the consequences of aging. These findings suggest challenging negative aging concepts is essential to promote positivity with associated improved health and wellbeing.

  1. Risk factors associated with residential aged care, respite and transitional aged care admission for older people following an injury-related hospitalisation.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Harvey, Lara; Draper, Brian; Brodaty, Henry; Close, Jacqueline

    2017-09-01

    To identify factors associated with admission to residential aged care (RAC), respite RAC and transitional care (TC) for older individuals following an injury hospitalisation. A retrospective analysis was conducted of individuals aged ≥65 years who had an injury hospitalisation and who were admitted to RAC during 1 July 2008 and 30 June 2013 in New South Wales, Australia. Multinominal logistic regression was used to examine the factors associated with admissions to aged care services compared to returning to the community. Of 191,301 injury hospitalisations, 41,085 (21.5%) individuals either returned or were new admissions to long-term or respite RAC and 3,218 individuals were admitted to TC. Older individuals newly admitted to long-term RAC were four times more likely (OR: 4.36; 95%CI 4.15-4.57), those admitted to respite RAC were twice as likely (OR: 2.37; 95%CI 2.21-2.54) and people admitted to TC were less likely (OR: 0.60; 95%CI 0.53-0.68) to have dementia compared to individuals who returned to the community. Overall, individuals who were admitted to long-term or respite RAC had a higher likelihood of experiencing limitations associated with their physical, cognitive or social abilities, with individuals admitted to TC having a higher likelihood of issues with hygiene and mobility, compared to individuals returning to the community. Understanding the profile and predictive risk factors for injured older individuals using RAC (long-term, respite or TC services) can inform current and future aged care service resource use needs and can be used to understand factors associated with service use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement of resilience in Chinese older people.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Bao, J-M; Huang, X-H; Guo, Q; Smith, G D

    2015-03-01

    Resilience has been identified as a personal construct that may contribute to the process of healthy ageing in older people. To date, no measurement instrument has been tested to evaluate resilience in Chinese older people. To examine the psychometric testing and clinical application of the Chinese version of the Resilience Scale (RS) in Chinese older people. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Forward and backward translation procedures were used to obtain semantic equivalence of the original English version of the RS. Content validity was examined by identified experts, followed by exploratory factor analysis, item-to-total correlation, Cronbach's α coefficients and test-retest reliability. The 25-item Chinese version of Resilience Scale (RS-CN) was fully completed by 461 Chinese older people. Cronbach's α for the total Chinese version of the Revised Resilience Scale was 0.95, with a range of 0.85-0.89 for the sub-scales. Item-to-total correlation coefficients ranged from 0.51 to 0.75 and items were excluded with item-to-total correlations coefficients lower than 0.4. The test-retest reliability of the total scale was 0.80, sub-scale test-retest reliability ranged from 0.61 to 0.620. The exploratory principal component analysis with varimax rotation revealed RS-CN to have a four-factor structure. The RS-CN is a valid and reliable instrument for the measurement of the concept of resilience in Chinese older people. The results of this study provide cross-cultural evidence for the potential application of this scale in Chinese older people. Greater insight into the psychological constructs of resilience in Chinese older people can lead to international comparisons and to the potential development of interventions for this population around the world. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  3. Evidence-based recommendations for optimal dietary protein intake in older people: a position paper from the PROT-AGE Study Group.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jürgen; Biolo, Gianni; Cederholm, Tommy; Cesari, Matteo; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J; Morley, John E; Phillips, Stuart; Sieber, Cornel; Stehle, Peter; Teta, Daniel; Visvanathan, Renuka; Volpi, Elena; Boirie, Yves

    2013-08-01

    New evidence shows that older adults need more dietary protein than do younger adults to support good health, promote recovery from illness, and maintain functionality. Older people need to make up for age-related changes in protein metabolism, such as high splanchnic extraction and declining anabolic responses to ingested protein. They also need more protein to offset inflammatory and catabolic conditions associated with chronic and acute diseases that occur commonly with aging. With the goal of developing updated, evidence-based recommendations for optimal protein intake by older people, the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS), in cooperation with other scientific organizations, appointed an international study group to review dietary protein needs with aging (PROT-AGE Study Group). To help older people (>65 years) maintain and regain lean body mass and function, the PROT-AGE study group recommends average daily intake at least in the range of 1.0 to 1.2 g protein per kilogram of body weight per day. Both endurance- and resistance-type exercises are recommended at individualized levels that are safe and tolerated, and higher protein intake (ie, ≥ 1.2 g/kg body weight/d) is advised for those who are exercising and otherwise active. Most older adults who have acute or chronic diseases need even more dietary protein (ie, 1.2-1.5 g/kg body weight/d). Older people with severe kidney disease (ie, estimated GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), but who are not on dialysis, are an exception to this rule; these individuals may need to limit protein intake. Protein quality, timing of ingestion, and intake of other nutritional supplements may be relevant, but evidence is not yet sufficient to support specific recommendations. Older people are vulnerable to losses in physical function capacity, and such losses predict loss of independence, falls, and even mortality. Thus, future studies aimed at pinpointing optimal protein intake in specific populations of older people

  4. Development and Validation of an Interactive Internet Platform for Older People: The Healthy Ageing Through Internet Counselling in the Elderly Study.

    PubMed

    Jongstra, Susan; Beishuizen, Cathrien; Andrieu, Sandrine; Barbera, Mariagnese; van Dorp, Matthijs; van de Groep, Bram; Guillemont, Juliette; Mangialasche, Francesca; van Middelaar, Tessa; Moll van Charante, Eric; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia; Richard, Edo

    2017-02-01

    A myriad of Web-based applications on self-management have been developed, but few focus on older people. In the face of global aging, older people form an important target population for cardiovascular prevention. This article describes the full development of an interactive Internet platform for older people, which was designed for the Healthy Ageing Through Internet Counselling in the Elderly (HATICE) study. We provide recommendations to design senior-friendly Web-based applications for a new approach to multicomponent cardiovascular prevention. The development of the platform followed five phases: (1) conceptual framework; (2) platform concept and functional design; (3) platform building (software and content); (4) testing and pilot study; and (5) final product. We performed a meta-analysis, reviewed guidelines for cardiovascular diseases, and consulted end users, experts, and software developers to create the platform concept and content. The software was built in iterative cycles. In the pilot study, 41 people aged ≥65 years used the platform for 8 weeks. Participants used the interactive features of the platform and appreciated the coach support. During all phases adjustments were made to incorporate all improvements from the previous phases. The final platform is a personal, secured, and interactive platform supported by a coach. When carefully designed, an interactive Internet platform is acceptable and feasible for use by older people with basic computer skills. To improve acceptability by older people, we recommend involving the end users in the process of development, to personalize the platform and to combine the application with human support. The interactive HATICE platform will be tested for efficacy in a multinational randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN48151589).

  5. Theme: Pharmacology and Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, William; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue discusses maximizing the benefits and minimizing the risks of drug therapy for older people. It includes articles on psychoactive drugs, drug-related problems, medication compliance, geriatric psychopharmacotherapy, consumer guidelines, and outpatient prescriptions drug coverage as it relates to health care reform. (JOW)

  6. Prevalence of physical activity behaviour in older people: findings from the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project and Australian national survey data.

    PubMed

    Sims, Jane; Birrell, Carole L; Hunt, Susan; Browning, Colette; Burns, Richard A; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Many older people lead sedentary lives. National Health Survey physical activity prevalence data provide limited coverage of the 'old old' (≥75 years). The Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project's dataset provided physical activity data for 13,420 participants. Physical activity (walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities in the previous week) was measured. Data were weighted and prevalence was calculated. The frequency of walking in DYNOPTA was similar to that in the national sample. Walking remained relatively stable until a decline among persons aged 80 years and over; moderate and vigorous activity declined in all but a minority of persons aged 70 years and over. Although DYNOPTA participants reported more physical activity than those in the contemporary national survey, the rates of sedentary behaviour were high. We require more information about the 'oldest old' (85+ years). There is great scope for increasing physical activity, even walking, among older people. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2012 ACOTA.

  7. Blood pressure and falls in community-dwelling people aged 60 years and older in the VHM&PP cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Falls are one of the major health problems in old people. Different risk factors were identified but only few epidemiological studies analysed the influence of conventionally measured blood pressure on falls. The objective of our study was to investigate the relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and falls. Methods In 3,544 community-dwelling Austrian women and men aged 60 years and older, data on falls within the previous three months were collected by questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured by general practitioners within the Vorarlberg Health Monitoring and Prevention Programme (VHM&PP) 90 to 1095 days before the fall assessment. A multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted. The models were stratified by gender and adjusted by age, number of medical conditions and subjective feeling of illness. Results In total, 257 falls in 3,544 persons were reported. In women, high systolic and diastolic blood pressure was associated with a decreased risk of falls. An increase of systolic blood pressure by 10 mmHg and of diastolic blood pressure by 5 mmHg reduced the risk of falling by 9% (OR 0.91, 95% Cl 0.84-0.98) and 8% (OR 0.92, 95% Cl 0.85-0.99), respectively. In men, an increased risk of falls was observed in participants with low systolic or low diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions Blood pressure was associated with the risk of falls. Hypertensive values decreased the risk in women and low blood pressure increased the risk in men. PMID:23692779

  8. Older People as Consumers of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Alan

    Socio-psychological variables that influence the extent to which older people (age: 50+) will be consumers of education are examined to arrive at criteria for programs appropriate to the developmental needs of this group. Research indicates that two primary influences are changes in learning abilities and interests. Secondary influences include…

  9. Assessing and managing depression in older people.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Hywel

    Depression is the most common mental health condition in people aged 65 and over. It can have a detrimental effect on quality of life and reduce patients' ability to manage their health. Nurses caring for older people with physical health problems are in an ideal position to identify depression; this article outlines how general receive the appropriate mental health care. nurses can do so and ensure their patientsepression can occur as a result of major life changes. It affects an estimated two million people over the age of 65 in the UK and is the most common mental illness

  10. Health service use, out-of-pocket payments and catastrophic health expenditure among older people in India: the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Brinda, Ethel Mary; Kowal, Paul; Attermann, Jørn; Enemark, Ulrika

    2015-05-01

    Healthcare financing through out-of-pocket payments and inequities in healthcare utilisation are common in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Given the dearth of pertinent studies on these issues among older people in LMICs, we investigated the determinants of health service use, out-of-pocket and catastrophic health expenditures among older people in one LMIC, India. We accessed data from a nationally representative, multistage sample of 2414 people aged 65 years and older from the WHO's Study on global AGEing and adult health in India. Sociodemographic characteristics, health profiles, health service utilisation and out-of-pocket health expenditure were assessed using standard instruments. Multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to evaluate the determinants of health service visits. Multivariate Heckman sample selection regression models were used to assess the determinants of out-of-pocket and catastrophic health expenditures. Out-of-pocket health expenditures were higher among participants with disability and lower income. Diabetes, hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, heart disease and tuberculosis increased the number of health visits and out-of-pocket health expenditures. The prevalence of catastrophic health expenditure among older people in India was 7% (95% CI 6% to 8%). Older men and individuals with chronic diseases were at higher risk of catastrophic health expenditure, while access to health insurance lowered the risk. Reducing out-of-pocket health expenditure among older people is an important public health issue, in which social as well as medical determinants should be prioritised. Enhanced public health sector performance and provision of publicly funded insurance may protect against catastrophic health expenses and healthcare inequities in India. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Association between Frailty, Osteoporosis, Falls and Hip Fractures among Community-Dwelling People Aged 50 Years and Older in Taiwan: Results from I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Kuo; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chen, Liang-Yu; Hwang, An-Chun; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Peng, Li-Ning; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2015-01-01

    Background Association of frailty with adverse clinical outcomes has been reported in Western countries, but data from the Asian population are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of frailty among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly population and to explore its association with musculoskeletal health in Taiwan. Methods I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study (ILAS) data were retrieved for this study. Frailty was defined by the Fried’s criteria; a comparison of demographic characteristics, physical performance, and body composition, including skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density (BMD), as well as recent falls, history of hip fractures and the functional status of subjects with different frailty statuses were accomplished. Results Overall, the data of 1,839 participants (mean age: 63.9±9.3 years, male 47.5%) were obtained for analysis. The prevalence of pre-frailty was 42.3% in men and 38.8% in women, whereas the prevalence of frailty was 6.9% and 6.7% in men and women, respectively. Frailty was significantly associated with older age, the male gender, larger waist circumference, lower skeletal muscle index, lower hip BMD, poorer physical function, poorer nutritional status, and poorer cognitive function. Also, frailty was significantly associated with osteoporosis (OR: 7.73, 95% CI: 5.01–11.90, p<0.001), history of hip fractures (OR: 8.66, 95% CI: 2.47–30.40, p = 0.001), and recent falls (O.R: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.35–4.76, p = 0.004). Conclusions Frailty and pre-frailty, in Taiwan, was closely associated with recent falls, history of hip fractures and osteoporosis among community-dwelling people 50 years of age and older. Furthermore, frailty intervention programs should take an integrated approach towards strengthening both and muscle mass, as well as prevention of falls. PMID:26348034

  12. Helping Aged Victims of Crime (the HAVoC Study): Common Crime, Older People and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Serfaty, Marc; Ridgewell, Anna; Drennan, Vari; Kessel, Anthony; Brewin, Chris R; Leavey, Gerard; Wright, Anwen; Laycock, Gloria; Blanchard, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Limited data suggest that crime may have a devastating impact on older people. Although identification and treatment may be beneficial, no well-designed studies have investigated the prevalence of mental disorder and the potential benefits of individual manualized CBT in older victims of crime. To identify mental health problems in older victims of common crime, provide preliminary data on its prevalence, and conduct a feasibility randomized controlled trial (RCT) using mixed methods. Older victims, identified through police teams, were screened for symptoms of anxiety, depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) one (n = 581) and 3 months (n = 486) after experiencing a crime. Screen positive participants were offered diagnostic interviews. Of these, 26 participants with DSM-IV diagnoses agreed to be randomized to Treatment As Usual (TAU) or TAU plus our manualized CBT informed Victim Improvement Package (VIP). The latter provided feedback on the VIP. Recruitment, assessment and intervention are feasible and acceptable. At 3 months 120/486 screened as cases, 33 had DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric disorder; 26 agreed to be randomized to a pilot trial. There were trends in favour of the VIP in all measures except PTSD at 6 months post crime. This feasibility RCT is the first step towards improving the lives of older victims of common crime. Without intervention, distress at 3 and 6 months after a crime remains high. However, the well-received VIP appeared promising for depressive and anxiety symptoms, but possibly not posttraumatic stress disorder.

  13. "Old People Are Cranky": Helping Professional Trainees' Knowledge, Attitudes, Aging Anxiety, and Interest in Working with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of a gerontology education course in decreasing ageism and aging anxiety and increasing knowledge and interest in working with older adults among undergraduates training for social services careers. Participants completed study measures at the beginning and end of semester. Analyses supported the study…

  14. "Old People Are Cranky": Helping Professional Trainees' Knowledge, Attitudes, Aging Anxiety, and Interest in Working with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of a gerontology education course in decreasing ageism and aging anxiety and increasing knowledge and interest in working with older adults among undergraduates training for social services careers. Participants completed study measures at the beginning and end of semester. Analyses supported the study…

  15. The Right to Health of Older People.

    PubMed

    Baer, Britta; Bhushan, Anjana; Taleb, Hala Abou; Vasquez, Javier; Thomas, Rebekah

    2016-04-01

    A focus on the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health (hereinafter, "the right to health") draws attention to the health needs of older people, including the most marginalized among them. Many factors that influence vulnerability or impede the enjoyment of health and access to quality services result from an inability to freely exercise these human rights. A human rights approach can help to address the legal, social, and structural barriers to good health for older persons, clarifying the legal obligations of State and non-State actors to uphold and respect these rights. However, despite growing impetus for action, this area has historically received limited attention. Drawing on practice examples from different regions, this article unpacks the meaning of the right to health and other related human rights of older people in practice, covering both health care and underlying determinants of their health. Questions of availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality are highlighted from the perspective of older people's health and well-being. The article brings together knowledge, principles, norms, and standards from the human rights law, health, and ageing arenas. By making links between these arenas, it is hoped that the article fills a gap in thinking on how to achieve the progressive realization of the right to health of older people and the effective promotion and protection of their other related human rights, which are crucial for the enjoyment of health.

  16. Advance care planning for older people in Australia presenting to the emergency department from the community or residential aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Street, Maryann; Ottmann, Goetz; Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Considine, Julie; Livingston, Patricia M

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of advance care planning (ACP) among older people presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) from the community or a residential aged care facility. The study sample comprised 300 older people (aged 65+ years) presenting to three Victorian EDs in 2011. A total of 150 patients transferred from residential aged care to ED were randomly selected and then matched to 150 people who lived in the community and attended the ED by age, gender, reason for ED attendance and triage category on arrival. Overall prevalence of ACP was 13.3% (n = 40/300); over one-quarter (26.6%, n = 40/150) of those presenting to the ED from residential aged care had a documented Advance Care Plan, compared to none (0%, n = 0/150) of the people from the community. There were no significant differences in the median ED length of stay, number of investigations and interventions undertaken in ED, time seen by a doctor or rate of hospital admission for those with an Advance Care Plan compared to those without. Those with a comorbidity of cerebrovascular disease or dementia and those assessed with impaired brain function were more likely to have a documented Advance Care Plan on arrival at ED. Length of hospital stay was shorter for those with an Advance Care Plan [median (IQR) = 3 days (2-6) vs. 6 days (2-10), P = 0.027] and readmission lower (0% vs. 13.7%). In conclusion, older people from the community transferred to ED were unlikely to have a documented Advance Care Plan. Those from residential aged care who were cognitively impaired more frequently had an Advance Care Plan. In the ED, decisions of care did not appear to be influenced by the presence or absence of Advance Care Plans, but length of hospital admission was shorter for those with an Advance Care Plan.

  17. Interface Design and Engagement with Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorn, D.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper examines the design process that led to an unusually successful interactive tutorial for older people. The paper describes the issues that make designing for older people different. These include differences between the designer and the target population and the difficulty that older people have in interacting with low-fidelity…

  18. Interface Design and Engagement with Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorn, D.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper examines the design process that led to an unusually successful interactive tutorial for older people. The paper describes the issues that make designing for older people different. These include differences between the designer and the target population and the difficulty that older people have in interacting with low-fidelity…

  19. Individual and environmental factors underlying life space of older people - study protocol and design of a cohort study on life-space mobility in old age (LISPE).

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Taina; Portegijs, Erja; Viljanen, Anne; Eronen, Johanna; Saajanaho, Milla; Tsai, Li-Tang; Kauppinen, Markku; Palonen, Eeva-Maija; Sipilä, Sarianna; Iwarsson, Susanne; Rantakokko, Merja

    2012-11-22

    A crucial issue for the sustainability of societies is how to maintain health and functioning in older people. With increasing age, losses in vision, hearing, balance, mobility and cognitive capacity render older people particularly exposed to environmental barriers. A central building block of human functioning is walking. Walking difficulties may start to develop in midlife and become increasingly prevalent with age. Life-space mobility reflects actual mobility performance by taking into account the balance between older adults internal physiologic capacity and the external challenges they encounter in daily life. The aim of the Life-Space Mobility in Old Age (LISPE) project is to examine how home and neighborhood characteristics influence people's health, functioning, disability, quality of life and life-space mobility in the context of aging. In addition, examine whether a person's health and function influence life-space mobility. This paper describes the study protocol of the LISPE project, which is a 2-year prospective cohort study of community-dwelling older people aged 75 to 90 (n = 848). The data consists of a baseline survey including face-to-face interviews, objective observation of the home environment and a physical performance test in the participant's home. All the baseline participants will be interviewed over the phone one and two years after baseline to collect data on life-space mobility, disability and participation restriction. Additional home interviews and environmental evaluations will be conducted for those who relocate during the study period. Data on mortality and health service use will be collected from national registers. In a substudy on walking activity and life space, 358 participants kept a 7-day diary and, in addition, 176 participants also wore an accelerometer. Our study, which includes extensive data collection with a large sample, provides a unique opportunity to study topics of importance for aging societies. A novel

  20. Chronic disease, risk factors and disability in adults aged 50 and above living with and without HIV: findings from the Wellbeing of Older People Study in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mugisha, Joseph O.; Schatz, Enid J.; Randell, Madeleine; Kuteesa, Monica; Kowal, Paul; Negin, Joel; Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on the prevalence of chronic conditions, their risk factors, and their associations with disability in older people living with and without HIV are scarce in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives In older people living with and without HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: 1) to describe the prevalence of chronic conditions and their risk factors and 2) to draw attention to associations between chronic conditions and disability. Methods Cross-sectional individual-level survey data from people aged 50 years and over living with and without HIV were analyzed from three study sites in Uganda. Diagnoses of chronic conditions were made through self-report, and disability was determined using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS). We used ordered logistic regression and calculated predicted probabilities to show differences in the prevalence of multiple chronic conditions across HIV status, age groups, and locality. We used linear regression to determine associations between chronic conditions and the WHODAS. Results In total, 471 participants were surveyed; about half the respondents were living with HIV. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and eye problems (except for those aged 60–69 years) was higher in the HIV-positive participants and increased with age. The prevalence of diabetes and angina was higher in HIV-negative participants. The odds of having one or more compared with no chronic conditions were higher in women (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) and in those aged 70 years and above (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.6). Sleep problems (coefficient 14.2, 95% CI 7.3–21.0) and depression (coefficient 9.4, 95% CI 1.2–17.0) were strongly associated with higher disability scores. Conclusion Chronic conditions are common in older adults and affect their functioning. Many of these conditions are not currently addressed by health services in Uganda. There is a need to revise health care policy and practice in Uganda to consider the health needs of

  1. Old and in pain: Enduring and situational effects of cultural aging stereotypes on older people's pain experiences.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, S F; Marques, S; Matos, M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interplay between enduring and situational aging stereotype (AS) effects in older adults' self-reports of clinical and experimentally induced pain. We expected that, as compared with the situational activation of positive AS or a neutral condition, the activation of negative AS would lead to more severe self-reports of clinical pain (H1, hypothesis 1), higher cold pressor task (CPT) pain threshold (H2) and lower CPT pain tolerance (H3), especially among older adults who more strongly endorsed AS. This was a prospective study across two moments in time. At time 1 (T1), 52 older adults (Mage  = 74.7; 51.9% women) filled out measures of cultural AS endorsement, clinical pain severity and interference. Three months afterwards (T2), some of these participants collaborated in an experimental study on the effects of AS activation on reported clinical pain (n = 40) and experimentally induced (using CPT) pain threshold and tolerance (n = 35). Our results supported H2, i.e., as compared with the activation of positive AS or a neutral condition, when negative AS were activated older adults showed higher CPT pain thresholds, but this effect was more salient among those who more strongly endorsed AS at T1. This study stresses the influence of cultural AS in older adults' pain experiences showing that the situational activation of negative AS greatly increases experimentally induced pain thresholds of elders who more strongly endorse those stereotypes. It also highlights the relevance of interventions at the level of the physical and/or social environments surrounding elders in pain. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  2. Characteristics and Factors Associated With Pain in Older Homeless Individuals: Results From the Health Outcomes in People Experiencing Homelessness in Older Middle Age (HOPE HOME) Study.

    PubMed

    Landefeld, John C; Miaskowski, Christine; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Lee, Christopher T; Guzman, David; Kushel, Margot

    2017-09-01

    Individuals experiencing homelessness in the United States are aging; little is known about chronic pain in this population. In a cross-sectional, population-based study, we interviewed 350 homeless individuals aged 50 years and older to describe pain experienced by older persons experiencing homelessness and to assess factors associated with chronic moderate to severe pain, defined as pain lasting ≥3 months, with a past week average severity score of 5 to 10 (scale 0-10). The median age of participants was 58 years. Participants were predominantly African American (79.6%) and male (77.3%). Overall, 46.8% reported chronic moderate to severe pain. Almost half of participants reported a diagnosis of arthritis (44.3%) and one-third reported symptoms consistent with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 32.8%). Three-quarters (75.3%) endorsed a personal history of abuse. In multivariate analyses, PTSD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.7), arthritis (AOR: 4.8, 95% CI, 3.0-7.8), and history of experiencing abuse (AOR: 2.4, 95% CI, 1.3-4.3) were associated with chronic moderate to severe pain. HIV status, diabetes, depressive symptoms, and substance use were not associated with pain. Clinicians should consider the management of associated mental health conditions and the sequelae of experiencing abuse in the treatment of chronic pain in older adults experiencing homelessness. This article describes the prevalence and factors associated with chronic pain in older homeless adults. Almost half report chronic pain, which was associated with PTSD, arthritis, and personal history of abuse. Clinicians should address chronic pain, trauma, and the associated mental health conditions in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and risk of depression in older people: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Chigogora, S; Zaninotto, P; Kivimaki, M; Steptoe, A; Batty, G D

    2016-01-01

    Depressive disorders are a leading cause of disability in older age. Although the role of psychosocial and behavioural predictors has been well examined, little is known about the biological origins of depression. Findings from animal studies have implicated insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the aetiology of this disorder. A total of 6017 older adults (mean age of 65.7 years; 55% women) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing provided serum levels of IGF-1 (mean=15.9 nmol l−1, s.d. 5.7) during a nurse visit in 2008. Depression symptoms were assessed in the same year and again in 2012 using the eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Self-reports of a physician-diagnosis of depression were also collected at both time points. In separate analyses for men and women, the results from both the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses revealed a ‘U'-shaped pattern of association, such that lower and higher levels of IGF-1 were associated with a slightly elevated risk of depression, whereas the lowest risk was seen around the median levels. Thus, in men, with the lowest quintile of IGF-1 as the referent, the age-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of developing depression symptoms after 4 years of follow-up, for increasing quintiles of IGF-1, were: 0.51 (0.28–0.91), 0.50 (0.27–0.92), 0.63 (0.35–1.15) and 0.63 (0.35–1.13) (P-value for quadratic association 0.002). Some attenuation of these effects was apparent after adjustment for co-morbidity, socioeconomic status and health behaviours. In conclusion, in the present study of older adults, there was some evidence that moderate levels of IGF-1 levels conferred a reduced risk of depression. PMID:27648920

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection in older people

    PubMed Central

    Pilotto, Alberto; Franceschi, Marilisa

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection as the major cause of gastroduodenal disorders three decades ago, H. pylori has been the focus of active research and debate in the scientific community. Its linkage to several diseases, such as peptic ulcer disease, gastritis and gastric malignancy is incontestable. In particular, it has been noticed that, as the aged population is increasing worldwide, older people are at increased risk of developing several gastroduodenal diseases and related complications. At the same time, gastric cancer is definitely more frequent in elderly than in adult and young people. In addition, it has been showed that peptic ulcer and related complications occur much more commonly in aged individuals than in young people, resulting in a significantly higher mortality. Although this infection plays a crucial role in gastrointestinal disorders affecting all age groups and in particular older people, only a few studies have been published regarding the latter. This article presents an overview of the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and therapy of H. pylori infection in elderly people. PMID:24914358

  5. Creating the right light for older people.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Carl

    2014-09-01

    In last month's HEJ first we ran the first of a two-part focus, by Carl Gardner, former editor of the Institution of Lighting Professionals' Lighting Journal, on the issues surrounding lighting and the ageing population, which focused particularly on effective task lighting. In the second part of the article, the author considers the important psychological, physiological, and biological effects of lighting on older people--and how improved lighting design can benefit this group in a number of ways.

  6. Positive ageing perceptions among migrant Turkish and native Dutch older people: a matter of culture or resources?

    PubMed

    Cramm, Jane M; Nieboer, Anna P

    2017-07-21

    This study examined ethnic differences in ageing perceptions of migrant Turkish and native Dutch elders residing in Rotterdam, and explored whether such differences could be attributed to culture or resources (personal, physical, economic and/or social). This study was based on combined data from two research projects focusing on the health and well-being of community-dwelling elderly people in Rotterdam. The first dataset contained data from 994 native Dutch elders aged 70-99 years. The Rotterdam municipal register was used to randomly sample respondents, stratified by age group (70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and ≥85 years) and neighbourhood. Of the 2593 eligible respondents, 1075 returned filled-in questionnaires (41% response rate). Of these 1075 respondents a total of 994 were natives which is the sample we selected for the current study. The second dataset contained data from 680 Turkish migrants aged 65-90 years. All Turkish people aged ≥65 years were identified using the Rotterdam municipal register and invited to participate. In total, 680 Turkish respondents returned filled-in questionnaires (32% response rate; out of 2350). Ageing perceptions were measured using the 21-item Ageing Perceptions Questionnaire-Short (APQ-S). Respondents were additionally asked about their current general health, income, education, marital status, age and gender. The results of this study clearly reveal the importance of culture for all ageing perceptions among Turkish and Dutch elders. We found that age, health, and education were also important factors. For Turkish elders, health and education were the most important resources; for Dutch elders, age and health were most important in relation to ageing perceptions. Ageing perceptions were generally more negative among Turkish than among Dutch elders. Turkish elders reported more negative awareness of ageing, felt less in control of their ageing processes, and had more negative emotional reactions to ageing. They also believed

  7. Improving the Gastrointestinal Tolerability of Aspirin in Older People

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Julia L

    2006-01-01

    Interventions to reduce mortality and disability in older people are vital. Aspirin is cheap and effective and known to prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, many cancers, and Alzheimer dementia. The widespread use of aspirin in older people is limited by its gastrointestinal side effects. Understanding age-related changes in gastrointestinal physiology that could put older people at risk of the side effects of aspirin may direct strategies to improve tolerance and hence lead to greater numbers of older people being able to take this effective intervention. PMID:18047255

  8. Individual and environmental factors underlying life space of older people – study protocol and design of a cohort study on life-space mobility in old age (LISPE)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A crucial issue for the sustainability of societies is how to maintain health and functioning in older people. With increasing age, losses in vision, hearing, balance, mobility and cognitive capacity render older people particularly exposed to environmental barriers. A central building block of human functioning is walking. Walking difficulties may start to develop in midlife and become increasingly prevalent with age. Life-space mobility reflects actual mobility performance by taking into account the balance between older adults internal physiologic capacity and the external challenges they encounter in daily life. The aim of the Life-Space Mobility in Old Age (LISPE) project is to examine how home and neighborhood characteristics influence people’s health, functioning, disability, quality of life and life-space mobility in the context of aging. In addition, examine whether a person’s health and function influence life-space mobility. Design This paper describes the study protocol of the LISPE project, which is a 2-year prospective cohort study of community-dwelling older people aged 75 to 90 (n = 848). The data consists of a baseline survey including face-to-face interviews, objective observation of the home environment and a physical performance test in the participant’s home. All the baseline participants will be interviewed over the phone one and two years after baseline to collect data on life-space mobility, disability and participation restriction. Additional home interviews and environmental evaluations will be conducted for those who relocate during the study period. Data on mortality and health service use will be collected from national registers. In a substudy on walking activity and life space, 358 participants kept a 7-day diary and, in addition, 176 participants also wore an accelerometer. Discussion Our study, which includes extensive data collection with a large sample, provides a unique opportunity to study topics of

  9. Delirium and older people: repositioning nursing care.

    PubMed

    Neville, Stephen

    2006-06-01

    Aims.  To critically examine the nursing care offered to older people who have been delirious. Background.  Delirium occurs as a result of physiological imbalances resulting in an alteration in consciousness and cognitive impairment. Delirium is a prevalent and serious cognitive disorder experienced by older people. While there is a vast number of studies published utilizing quantitative methods, there remains a dearth of research relating to delirium in older people from a qualitative perspective. Design.  A qualitative research design that utilized a critical gerontological framework underpinned this study. This framework drew on aspects of postmodernism and Foucault's understanding of discourse. Methods.  Data sources included published documents on delirium, semi-structured taped interviews with people over the age of 65 years who had been delirious (as well as their clinical notes), family members, Registered Nurses and a hospital doctor. A postmodern discourse analytic approach was used to interrogate the 20 sets of data collected. Findings.  Textual analysis revealed the presence of two major discourses impacting on being an older person with delirium. These were identified as a nursing discourse of delirium and a personal discourse of delirium. A nursing discourse of delirium was largely focussed on the biomedical processes that resulted in a delirious episode. Conversely, a personal discourse of delirium highlights that there are other ways of 'knowing' about delirium through considering the narratives of older adults, and their families, when offering a nursing service to this group of people. Relevance to clinical practice.  Nursing needs to critically examine all aspects of nursing care as it applies to older people who have delirium to ensure the rhetorical claims of the profession become the reality for consumers of health services. The use of critical gerontology provides nurses with the tools to challenge the status quo and uncover the

  10. Antipsychotic prescribing in older people.

    PubMed

    Neil, Wendy; Curran, Stephen; Wattis, John

    2003-09-01

    older people. There is a need to redress this balance to ensure that the prescribing of antipsychotics in older people is evidence based.

  11. Risk Factors Associated With Incident Cerebral Microbleeds According to Location in Older People: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jie; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Garcia, Melissa; Phillips, Caroline L; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van Buchem, Mark A; Launer, Lenore J

    2015-01-01

    Importance The spatial distribution of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), which are asymptomatic precursors of intracerebral hemorrhage, reflects specific underlying microvascular pathologies of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (lobar) and hypertensive vasculopathy (deep brain structures). Relatively little is known about occurrence of and modifiable risk factors for developing CMBs, especially in a lobar location, in the general population of older people. Objective To investigate whether lifestyle and lipid factors predict new CMBs in relation to their location. Design, setting, participants Population-based sample of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study of 2,635 individuals aged 66–93 years. Participants underwent a baseline brain MRI examination in 2002–2006, and returned for a repeat brain MRI in 2007–2011. Exposures Lifestyle and lipids factors assessed at baseline, i.e. smoking, alcohol drinking, body mass index, serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. Main outcomes and measures Brain MRI-detected incident CMBs, which were further categorized into one of two locations: strictly lobar or deep. Results During a mean follow-up of 5.2 years, 486 people (18.4%) developed new CMBs, of whom 308 had strictly lobar and 178 had deep CMBs. In the multivariate log-binomial regression model adjusting for baseline cardiovascular risk factors including blood pressure and antihypertensive use, prevalent CMBs and markers of cerebral ischemic small vessel disease, heavy alcohol consumption (versus light to moderate, relative risk [RR] 2.94; 95%CI, 1.23 to 7.01) predicted incident CMBs in a deep location. Baseline being underweight (versus normal weight, 2.41; 1.21 to 4.80), current smoking (1.47; 1.11 to 1.94), higher serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (per SD increase 1.13; 1.02 to 1.25) and lower triglycerides (per SD decrease in natural log-transformed triglycerides 1.17; 1.03 to

  12. Risk Factors Associated With Incident Cerebral Microbleeds According to Location in Older People: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Garcia, Melissa; Phillips, Caroline L; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van Buchem, Mark A; Launer, Lenore J

    2015-06-01

    The spatial distribution of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), which are asymptomatic precursors of intracerebral hemorrhage, reflects specific underlying microvascular abnormalities of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (lobar structures) and hypertensive vasculopathy (deep brain structures). Relatively little is known about the occurrence of and modifiable risk factors for developing CMBs, especially in a lobar location, in the general population of older people. To investigate whether lifestyle and lipid factors predict new CMBs in relation to their anatomic location. We enrolled 2635 individuals aged 66 to 93 years from the population-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study in a brain imaging study. Participants underwent a baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the brain from September 1, 2002, through February 28, 2006, and returned for a second MRI examination from April 1, 2007, through September 30, 2011. Lifestyle and lipid factors assessed at baseline included smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and serum levels of total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. Incident CMBs detected on MRIs, which were further categorized as exclusively lobar or as deep. During a mean follow-up of 5.2 years, 486 people (18.4%) developed new CMBs, of whom 308 had lobar CMBs only and 178 had deep CMBs. In the multivariate logarithm-binomial regression model adjusted for baseline cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, antihypertensive use, prevalent CMBs, and markers of cerebral ischemic small-vessel disease, heavy alcohol consumption (vs light to moderate consumption; relative risk [RR], 2.94 [95% CI, 1.23-7.01]) was associated with incident CMBs in a deep location. Baseline underweight (vs normal weight; RR, 2.41 [95% CI, 1.21-4.80]), current smoking (RR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.11-1.94]), an elevated serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (RR per 1-SD increase, 1.13 [95

  13. Atrial fibrillation, stroke, and cognition: a longitudinal population-based study of people aged 85 and older.

    PubMed

    Rastas, Sari; Verkkoniemi, Auli; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Juva, Kati; Niinistö, Leena; Mattila, Kimmo; Länsimies, Esko; Pirttilä, Tuula; Sulkava, Raimo

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between atrial fibrillation (AF), stroke, dementia, and their correlation with brain pathology in subjects aged 85 years or older. This is a prospective 9-year follow-up population based study in Vantaa, a town in Southern Finland; 553 subjects (92% of the total population) aged 85 years or older were clinically examined by a neurologist. The presence of AF was collected from the medical records or examined by ECG or ambulatory ECG. Neuropathological examination was conducted in more than half of the clinically examined subjects. AF was significantly associated with stroke at baseline; 32% of patients with AF had clinical evidence of stroke compared with 16.7% of those without such evidence (P<0.001). Dementia at baseline was significantly associated with age, clinical stroke, and the presence of apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele, but not with sex, education, or vascular risk factors. Multiple regression analysis including neuropathological results showed that dementia was significantly associated with education (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.98; P=0.019), the beta-amyloid load in the brain (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.39; P<0.001) and with the vascular pathology (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.14 to 3.62; P=0.016), but not with sex, age at death, apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele, or vascular risk factors. AF is a significant and preventable risk factor for stroke but not for dementia in the very old. The etiology of dementia syndrome in the very old is multifactorial. Both Alzheimer disease pathology and vascular pathology, particularly multiple small infarcts, contribute to cognitive decline.

  14. Taking older people's rights seriously: the role of international law.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kwong-leung

    2008-01-01

    Older people face many difficult challenges that amount to a deplorable violation of their basic human rights (poverty, discrimination, denial of social services, etc.). However, the world has been slow to react. Factors that limit global responses to the challenges of aging include: limited political will, the prevalence of neo-liberalism, and NGOs' longstanding advocacy for other seemingly "more" disadvantaged groups. Such oppression of and discrimination against older people require a concerted world-wide response. We contend that the introduction of an international convention on the human rights of older people is most relevant. Reinforced by a potent international monitoring system, the convention should contain comprehensive and legally binding provisions that require participating states to promote older people's rights. It is argued that international law would be a powerful force in defending and protecting older persons, operating as a baseline for establishing underlying values for national aging policies and linking older persons' concerns with other segments of society.

  15. Does pain mediate or moderate the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in older people? Findings from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA)

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, C.; Hickey, A.; Conroy, R.; Doyle, F.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Depression is an increasing problem in older adults, which is exacerbated by under diagnosis and ineffective treatment options. Broadly speaking, as people age, their levels of regular physical activity (PA) decrease, while their experience of chronic pain increases. PA has been shown to be an effective, yet under-utilised, treatment for depression in this age-cohort although the influence of pain on the relationship between PA and depressive symptoms has not been considered. Methods. Secondary analysis of national data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA, 2011) (n = 8163 participants aged 50 years and older) examined the mediating or moderating role of pain in the relationship between depressive symptoms and PA, and the impact of PA, pain and depressive symptoms on health-care utilisation. Results. Approximately 8.5% TILDA older adults were depressed. No mediating or moderating effects of pain were found in the association between PA and depressive symptoms. Higher levels of PA were found to be independently associated with lower depressive symptoms, while higher levels of pain significantly increased the likelihood of depressive symptoms supporting previous findings. Depressive symptoms and higher levels of pain were also found to significantly increase health-care utilisation. Conclusions. Consistent with previous findings in this field, both PA and pain were found to be independently associated with depressive symptoms in Irish older adults. Furthermore, pain does not play a mediating or moderating role in the relationship between PA and depressive symptoms. Continued support for ongoing initiatives in this area aimed at increasing PA in older adults as a means to improve both physical and mental well-being is advised. The absence of any synergistic effect between PA and pain suggests that clinicians and health service providers should continue to promote PA as a treatment for depression, irrespective of the pain levels of their

  16. Psychosocial barriers to sexual intimacy for older people.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Dawne

    A review of the literature relating to the psychosocial barriers to sexual intimacy in older people reveals wide-ranging influences on people aged 75-85 years. These influences include: a lack of positive social policy, a lack of research, partner availability, negative media portrayals, psychological factors, relationship factors, and difficulties in interactions with health professionals. Stereotypical attitudes about sexual intimacy and older people remain a cultural norm. A high value is placed on a gold standard of sexual performance, which can reinforce negative esteem and set unrealistic expectations and measures for older people. This article focuses on the majority of the older population who do not require residential care. It examines major influences emerging from a review of the literature from 1995 to 2013, which informs a working definition for sexual intimacy in people over the age of 75 years. The article concludes with key recommendations for nurses working with older adults.

  17. Providing comfort and support to older people.

    PubMed

    Triggle, Nick

    2012-10-01

    This article reports on a scheme run by Age UK at Hillingdon Hospital, Middlesex, to help support emergency department (ED) staff with the care of older people. The A&E support-worker team assists patients with non-clinical activities, such as going to the toilet, eating meals and finding out care-related information. The support-worker scheme has been running for nine years and its success has prompted Age UK to consider expanding it nationally. It comes at a time when there is a growing focus on the care Solder patients receive in hospitals.

  18. Trends and predicted trends in presentations of older people to Australian emergency departments: effects of demand growth, population aging and climate change.

    PubMed

    Burkett, Ellen; Martin-Khan, Melinda G; Scott, Justin; Samanta, Mayukh; Gray, Leonard C

    2016-07-29

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to describe trends in and age and gender distributions of presentations of older people to Australian emergency departments (EDs) from July 2006 to June 2011, and to develop ED utilisation projections to 2050.Methods A retrospective analysis of data collected in the National Non-admitted Patient Emergency Department Care Database was undertaken to assess trends in ED presentations. Three standard Australian Bureau of Statistics population growth models, with and without adjustment for current trends in ED presentation growth and effects of climate change, were examined with projections of ED presentations across three age groups (0-64, 65-84 and ≥85 years) to 2050.Results From 2006-07 to 2010-11, ED presentations increased by 12.63%, whereas the Australian population over this time increased by only 7.26%. Rates of presentation per head of population were greatest among those aged ≥85 years. Projections of ED presentations to 2050 revealed that overall ED presentations are forecast to increase markedly, with the rate of increase being most marked for older people.Conclusion Growth in Australian ED presentations from 2006-07 to 2010-11 was greater than that expected from population growth alone. The predicted changes in demand for ED care will only be able to be optimally managed if Australian health policy, ED funding instruments and ED models of care are adjusted to take into account the specific care and resource needs of older people.What is known about the topic? Rapid population aging is anticipated over coming decades. International studies and specific local-level Australian studies have demonstrated significant growth in ED presentations. There have been no prior national-level Australian studies of ED presentation trends by age group.What does this paper add? The present study examined national ED presentation trends from July 2006 to June 2011, with specific emphasis on trends in presentation by age group

  19. Thyroid disease in older people.

    PubMed

    Mitrou, Panayota; Raptis, Sotirios A; Dimitriadis, George

    2011-09-01

    Several changes in thyroid hormone secretion, metabolism, and action occur with the increase in age. Aging is often associated with a decrease in serum thyroid stimulating hormone and T3 levels, whereas serum free T4 levels usually remain unchanged. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is higher in the elderly as compared to the younger population. In elderly individuals the non-specific clinical manifestations of thyroid hormone excess or deprivation can cause confusion in the clinical setup; while some of the symptoms of thyroid disease are similar to those in younger patients, it is not uncommon for both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism to be manifested in subtle ways in older patients, often mimicking symptoms of aging or masquerading as diseases of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or nervous system. In addition, diagnosis of thyroid disorders is commonly complicated, due to chronic, non-thyroidal illness or medication therapy. Early diagnosis and treatment of overt thyroid disorders is crucial, since these disorders are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the elderly, usually due to common coexistent diseases such as diminished cardiovascular reserve. Treatment of subclinical thyroid disease should also be considered, based on a combination of age, symptoms and risk factors in the individual patients. In addition, both prevalence and aggressiveness of thyroid cancer increase with age. This review summarizes the changes of thyroid function, as well as the clinical manifestations and treatment of thyroid disorders with advancing age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Quality of life of older people living in Antofagasta, Chile].

    PubMed

    Urzúa, Alfonso; Bravo, Miguel; Ogalde, Mario; Vargas, Carolina

    2011-08-01

    As basic needs of older people are covered, the concern about the determinants of their quality of life becomes preeminent. To evaluate the relationship between self-reported quality of life and related variables. The Quality of Life Survey for older people developed by the World Health Organization (WHOQOL-Old), the reduced scale of Ryff Psychological Well Being, the Functional Social Support Questionnaire, the SF-12 and GHQ12 general health surveys were applied to 406 older adults aged 71 ± 7 years (83% women), that were members of older people organizations and lived in Antofagasta, Chile. Older people that perceived themselves as sick had significantly lower quality of life scores. Self-acceptance, social support, autonomy and having a purpose in life also influenced the perception of quality of life. Health issues and the sense of self efficacy are determinants of the quality of life of these older subjects.

  1. Can Caring Create Prejudice? An Investigation of Positive and Negative Intergenerational Contact in Care Settings and the Generalisation of Blatant and Subtle Age Prejudice to Other Older People.

    PubMed

    Drury, Lisbeth; Abrams, Dominic; Swift, Hannah J; Lamont, Ruth A; Gerocova, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Caring is a positive social act, but can it result in negative attitudes towards those cared for, and towards others from their wider social group? Based on intergroup contact theory, we tested whether care workers' (CWs) positive and negative contact with old-age care home residents (CHRs) predicts prejudiced attitudes towards that group, and whether this generalises to other older people. Fifty-six CWs were surveyed about their positive and negative contact with CHRs and their blatant and subtle attitudes (humanness attributions) towards CHRs and older adults. We tested indirect paths from contact with CHRs to attitudes towards older adults via attitudes towards CHRs. Results showed that neither positive nor negative contact generalised blatant ageism. However, the effect of negative, but not positive, contact on the denial of humanness to CHRs generalised to subtle ageism towards older adults. This evidence has practical implications for management of CWs' work experiences and theoretical implications, suggesting that negative contact with a subgroup generalises the attribution of humanness to superordinate groups. Because it is difficult to identify and challenge subtle prejudices such as dehumanisation, it may be especially important to reduce negative contact. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Screening for Malnutrition in Older People.

    PubMed

    Guyonnet, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2015-08-01

    Malnutrition risk increases with age and level of care. Despite significant medical advances, malnutrition remains a significant and highly prevalent public health problem of developed countries. Earlier identification and appropriate nutrition support may help to reverse or halt the malnutrition trajectory and the negative outcomes associated with poor nutritional status. A nutrition screening process is recommended to help detect people with protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) or at malnutrition risk. Evidence supports that oral nutritional supplements and dietary counseling can increase dietary intake and improve quality of life in elderly with PEM or at malnutrition risk. This article examines nutritional screening and assessment tools designated for older adults.

  3. Mental well-being and independence for older people.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-02-08

    Essential facts The UK population is ageing rapidly, with the number of people aged 65 or above rising by almost half in the past three decades. By 2035, it is estimated that almost one in four people will be aged 65 or more. The Mental Health Foundation says five main factors affect the mental health and well-being of older people: discrimination, participating in meaningful activities, relationships, physical health and poverty.

  4. Prevalence of sleep complaints and associated factors in community-dwelling older people in Brazil: the Bambuí Health and Ageing Study (BHAS).

    PubMed

    Rocha, Fábio Lopes; Uchoa, Elizabeth; Guerra, Henrique L; Firmo, Josélia O A; Vidigal, Pedro G; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2002-05-01

    Population-based studies of insomnia among older people residing in communities in developing countries are rare. The objectives of this population-based study were to determine the prevalence and factors associated with insomnia among older adults (60 years and over) living in a Brazilian town with 15,000 inhabitants (Bambuí MG). All 1742 residents in this age group were selected for a structured interview and blood tests. From these, 1516 (87.0%) participated in the study. The prevalence of insomnia was 38.9%, being higher among women (45.3%) than among men (28.8%). The use of sleeping pills was reported by 380/1513 (25.1%) of the participants; 186 (49.0%) of these complained of insomnia, suggesting that their treatment should be reassessed. Factors independently associated with insomnia were: female sex (OR=1.78, 95% CI=1.41-2.24), dissatisfaction with free time arrangements (OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.28-2.77), self-rated health as reasonable or bad/very bad (OR=2.02, 95% CI=1.50-2.72 and OR=3.12, 95% CI=2.21-4.39, respectively), history of previous medical diagnosis of some chronic conditions (OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.10-1.73), inability to perform routine activities due to a health problem in the previous 2 weeks (OR=1.54, 95% CI=1.10-2.15), and staying in bed in the previous 2 weeks (OR=1.61, 95% CI=1.04-2.48). The prevalence of insomnia was high, indicating that this was a public health problem for older adults living in the study community. Our results emphasize the necessity for further investigations about insomnia among older people living in small communities in Brazil and other developing countries.

  5. Rural older people had lower mortality after accidental falls than non-rural older people

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jen-Wu; Lin, Yi-Ying; Wu, Nai-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the mortality rate after falls of rural and non-rural older people and to explore the risk factors of mortality after falls among older people. Patients and methods This population-based case–control study identified two groups from a nationwide claim database (National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan): a rural group and a non-rural group, which included 3,897 and 5,541 older people, respectively, who were hospitalized for accidental falls (The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification: E880–E888) during 2006–2009. Both groups were followed up for 4 years after falls. Four-year cumulative all-cause mortality rate after falls was calculated, and the demographic factor, comorbidity, and medications were considered as the potential risk factors of mortality after falls. Results The rural group had a significantly higher frequency of fall-related hospitalizations (7.4% vs 4.3%, P<0.001), but a lower 4-year cumulative all-cause mortality rate after falls than the non-rural group (8.8% vs 23.4%, P<0.001). After adjusting for age, gender, comorbidity, and medication use, the rural group had a significantly lower risk of mortality after falls than the non-rural group (adjusted odds ratio =0.32, 95% confidence interval =0.28–0.37, P<0.001). Age, gender, place of residence, comorbidity, number of medications, and inappropriate medication use were independent risk factors of mortality after falls. Conclusion The rural older people had a higher frequency of fall-related hospitalizations but lower mortality after falls than the non-rural older people. Fall prevention programs should be adjusted for difference in place of residence. PMID:28123289

  6. Does the body temperature change in older people?

    PubMed

    Güneş, Ulkü Yapucu; Zaybak, Ayten

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mean body temperatures in older people using mercury-in-glass thermometer. Older people are unable to regulate their body temperatures to the same degree as young adults because their responses to changes in body temperature are altered. Several published reports suggest that body temperature decreases with advancing age and has a greater variability in older populations. The aim of this study was to determine the mean body temperatures in older people. Non-experimental. Axillary body temperatures were taken in 133 older subjects in a nursing home for older people using mercury-in-glass thermometer. Temperatures were measured at 8 a.m., 2 p.m., and 6 p.m., over three consecutive days. Each subject had all three measurements taken on the same day. The mean age of the subjects was 77.2, SD 7.3. In the 133 older subjects, the mean axillary temperatures ranged from 35.1 to 36.4 degrees C (95.3-97.6 degrees F). The mean temperatures for those aged 65-74 was higher than in those aged 75-84 (p < 0.001) and those aged 85 and older (p < 0.001) at 6 p.m. but not at 8 a.m. or 2 p.m. We concluded that older people have mean axillary body temperatures lower than the reference point of 36.5 degrees C (97.7 degrees F). When assessing body temperature, it is important to take the age of the patient into consideration. Also, the reference point of 36.5 degrees C is inappropriate in older people, especially when diagnosing a febrile illness.

  7. Power resources of older people in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ravanipour, Maryam; Salehi, Shayesteh; Taleghani, Fariba; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Ishaghi, Sayed Reza; Schuurmans, Marieke J; de Jong, Anneke

    2013-03-01

    Maximising the client's power resources facilitates their ability to cope with chronic illness. Nurses must be well informed about power resources and feelings of empowerment among older people. This article reports on a study exploring power resources in daily life from the perspective of older people in Iran. A qualitative content analysis study was conducted. The participants were selected from older community dwellers in Iran using in-depth, semi-structured interviews to understand their experiences with power resources. Power in older people in Iran is represented by four dimensions: spiritual, intellectual, social and physical. Each power dimension can be divided into intrinsic and extrinsic modes. By maximising older people's power in intellectual, social and especially in spiritual resources, the effect of the loss of physical power, with its deteriorative or depressogenic effect on older people's sense of power and well-being can be compensated for. It is recommended that nurses should plan their interventions to enhance older people's power, especially their spiritual power. Different models of empowering older people should be explored in Iranian nursing care delivery. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Carotid Arterial Stiffness and Risk of Incident Cerebral Microbleeds in Older People: the AGES-Reykjavik Study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jie; Mitchell, Gary F; Bots, Michiel L; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Harris, Tamara B; Garcia, Melissa; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; van Buchem, Mark A; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Age and high blood pressure are major risk factors for cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and arterial stiffness may be important. We investigated whether carotid arterial stiffness is associated with incidence and location of CMBs. Approach and Results In the prospective, population-based AGES-Reykjavik study, 2,512 participants aged 66–93 years underwent a baseline brain MRI examination and carotid ultrasound in 2002–2006, and returned for a repeat brain MRI in 2007–2011. Common carotid arterial stiffness was assessed using a standardized protocol and expressed as carotid arterial strain (CAS), distensibility coefficient (DC) and Young’s elastic modulus (YEM). Modified poisson regression was applied to relate carotid arterial stiffness parameters to CMBs incidence. During a mean follow-up of 5.2 years, 463 people (18.4%) developed new CMBs, of whom 292 had CMBs restricted to lobar regions and 171 had CMBs in a deep or infratentorial region. After adjusting for age, sex and follow-up interval, arterial stiffness measures were associated with incident CMBs (Risk ratio [RR] per SD decrease in CAS, 1.11 [95%CI, 1.01–1.21]; per SD decrease in natural log-transformed DC, 1.14[1.05–1.24]; per SD increase in natural log-transformed YEM, 1.13[1.04–1.23]). These measures were also significantly associated with incident deep CMBs (1.18[1.02–1.37]; 1.24[1.08–1.42]; 1.23[1.07–1.42]) but not with lobar CMBs. When further adjusted for blood pressure and other baseline vascular risk factors, carotid plaque, prevalent CMBs, subcortical infarcts and white matter hyperintensities, the associations persisted. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that localized increases in carotid arterial stiffness may contribute to the development of CMBs, especially in a deep location atttributable to hypertension. PMID:26112009

  9. Body weight, anorexia, and undernutrition in older people.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian M

    2013-09-01

    Ideal body weight for maximum life expectancy increases with advancing age. Older people, however, tend to weigh less than younger adults, and old age is also associated with a tendency to lose weight. Weight loss in older people is associated with adverse outcomes, particularly if unintentional, and initial body weight is low. When older people lose weight, more of the tissue lost is lean tissue (mainly skeletal muscle) than in younger people. When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes. Unintentional weight loss in older people may be a result of protein-energy malnutrition, cachexia, the physiological anorexia of aging, or a combination of these. The physiological anorexia of aging is a decrease in appetite and energy intake that occurs even in healthy people and is possibly caused by changes in the digestive tract, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and activity, neurotransmitters, and cytokines. A greater understanding of this decrease in appetite and energy intake during aging, and the responsible mechanisms, may aid the search for ways to treat undernutrition and weight loss in older people. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and definition of sarcopenia in community dwelling older people. Data from the Berlin aging study II (BASE-II).

    PubMed

    Spira, D; Norman, K; Nikolov, J; Demuth, I; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E; Eckardt, R

    2016-02-01

    Sarcopenia describes the age-associated loss of muscle mass, strength and function. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of sarcopenia in a cohort of community dwelling elderly people living in Berlin, Germany, according to the criteria proposed by current consensus statements and to study the respective impact on self-reported physical performance. This study included 1405 participants from the Berlin aging study II (BASE-II). The appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was assessed with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), muscle strength was measured by hand grip strength and the timed up and go" test (TUG) was performed as a functional parameter to reflect mobility. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 24.3 % in terms of reduced SMI only and considerably lower for sarcopenia with reduced grip strength (4.1 %) and sarcopenia with limited mobility (2.4 %). Only 0.6 % of the participants fulfilled all three criteria. Of the subjects with a normal SMI, 8.6 % had reduced grip strength and 5.1 % had limited mobility, whereas 1.3 % subjects fulfilled both criteria. Participants with reduced strength or function reported severe difficulties in performing physical tasks significantly more often than participants with normal or reduced SMI alone (p <0.029-p <0.0001). In BASE-II low skeletal muscle mass was much more frequent than reduced grip strength or poor function. Reduced strength and function were found to be associated with a greater impact on physical performance than reduced muscle mass. Low SMI does not seem to be a prerequisite for low strength or limitations in mobility.

  11. The new caring: financial asset management and older people.

    PubMed

    Tilse, Cheryl; Wilson, Jill; Setterlund, Deborah; Rosenman, Linda

    2007-10-01

    Increasing longevity and the growing proportion of the aged in the population in most countries have served to focus on the question of how governments and older people can finance living, health, and care options in retirement. Prudent management of income and assets is an increasingly complex and important aspect of aging as assets and expectations of self-financing increase. Although many informal caregivers act as asset managers and/or substitute decision-makers for older people, little attention has been paid to this increasingly important aspect of care. This paper summaries key findings of a broad research program exploring family involvement in the management of older people's assets and the practices that constitute good practice as well as financial mismanagement and abuse. It identifies multi-level and multi-strategy responses needed to address the issues raised by the research and outlines an innovative community demonstration project aimed at improving financial management practices in relation to older people's assets.

  12. The experience of older people living independently in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, K-K; He, H-G; Chan, S W-C; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K

    2015-12-01

    Globally, older people are living independently either alone or with their spouse, population continues to age. In Singapore, some may live with an unrelated older person in a public rental apartment. In Asia, these older people are associated with increased risks of poor health and social isolation, have poorer social support and a poor quality of life. Few studies have explored why these older people choose such living arrangements, the challenges they encountered and what has helped or may help them overcome these challenges. To explore older people's experiences of living independently or with an unrelated older person. This descriptive qualitative study involved face-to-face interviews with 25 informants, 65 years or older in Singapore. Thematic analysis was adopted. Five themes emerged: (1) making own choice--participants decided to live apart from their families, (2) contending with concerns--the availability of external resources for participants was shrinking, (3) coping with the available assistance--depending on available external resources from the community, (4) holding on to their values--participants rely on their internal resources to manage, and (5) preparing for the inevitable--participants were planning for their final years of life and for their death. Older people have such living arrangements for many reasons. They attain well-being and quality of life by devising strategies, tapping on their limited external resources and relying on their values to manage their diminishing resources and the foreseeable death. Understanding older people's experiences may help nurses and health professionals to develop health promotion programmes that support older people's everyday needs and help them to stay healthy. Public health policy must support older people to live in a safe environment near their extended family to reduce their need to relocate. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  13. Delayed initial recovery and long lie after a fall among middle-aged and older people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Etienne J; Peterson, Elizabeth W; Finlayson, Marcia

    2015-08-01

    To determine (1) the prevalence of lying on the floor or ground for ≥10 minutes (delayed initial recovery [IR]) and for >1 hour (long lie) after a fall; and (2) the factors associated with delayed IR among people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). A secondary analysis of data available from a national, cross-sectional descriptive study of PwMS. Information regarding postfall experiences was extracted from open-ended questions about participants' most recent fall. Community. PwMS (N=700) aged ≥55 years were recruited from the North America Committee on Multiple Sclerosis Registry; 354 of them completed the interview, and 322 provided a fall story that included information regarding postfall experiences. Not applicable. Participants' self-reports regarding time lying on the floor or ground after their most recent fall were used to determine delayed IR and long lie. A total of 89 (27.6%) of 322 fallers reported delayed IR; 15 (4.7%) of them reported a long lie. Logistic regression analysis revealed 5 factors associated with delayed IR: longer disease duration (odds ratio [OR]=1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.05), fall leading to a fracture (OR=2.73; 95% CI, 1.11-6.72), received help to get up (OR=3.94; 95% CI, 2.07-7.50), depression (OR=1.96; 95% CI, 1.10-3.49), and leg weakness (OR=2.14; 95% CI, 1.13-4.03). No significant differences were found between fallers who reported a long lie and those who reported a delayed IR. The findings suggest that while delayed IR is common, long lies are not prevalent among PwMS. The high prevalence of delayed IR highlights the importance of including fall management strategies in fall prevention programs for PwMS. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Technologies in older people's care.

    PubMed

    Andersson Marchesoni, Maria; Axelsson, Karin; Fältholm, Ylva; Lindberg, Inger

    2017-03-01

    The tension between care-based and technology-based rationalities motivates studies concerning how technology can be used in the care sector to support the relational foundation of care. This study interprets values related to care and technologies connected to the practice of good care. This research study was part of a development project aimed at developing innovative work practices through information and communication technology. Participants and research context: All staff (n = 18) working at two wards in a care facility for older people were asked to participate in interviews, and 12 accepted. We analysed the data using latent content analysis in combination with normative analysis. Ethical considerations: The caregivers were informed that participation was voluntary and that they could drop out at any time without providing any explanation. Four values were identified: 'presence', 'appreciation', 'competence' and 'trust'. Caregivers wanted to focus on care receivers as unique persons, a view that they thought was compromised by time-consuming and beeping electronic devices. Appraising from next-of-kin and been seen as someone who can contribute together with knowledge to handle different situations were other desires. The caregivers also desired positive feedback from next-of-kin, as they wanted to be seen as professionals who have the knowledge and skills to handle difficult situations. In addition, the caregivers wanted their employer to trust them, and they wanted to work in a calm environment. Caregivers' desire for disturbance-free interactions, being valued for their skills and working in a trustful working environment were interpreted as their base for providing good care. The caregivers' arguments are based on caring rationality, and sometimes they felt the technological rationality interfered with their main mission, providing quality care. Introducing new technology in caring should support the caring relationship. Although society's overall

  15. Sex differences in the limit to deficit accumulation in late middle-aged and older Chinese people: results from the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Yang, Zhan; Song, Xiaowei; Yu, Pulin; Fang, Xianghua; Tang, Zhe; Peng, Dantao; Mitnitski, Arnold; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-06-01

    On average, as people age, they accumulate more health deficits and have an increased risk of death. The deficit accumulation-based frailty index (FI) can quantify health and its outcomes in aging. Previous studies have suggested that women show higher FI values than men and that the highest FI score (the "limit to frailty") occurs at a value of FI ~ 0.7. Even so, gender differences in the limit to frailty have not been reported. Data for this analysis were obtained from the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging that involved 3,257 community-dwelling Chinese people, aged 55+ years at baseline. The main outcome measure was 5-year mortality. An FI consisting of 35 health-related variables was constructed. The absolute and 99% FI limits were calculated for different age groups and analyzed by sex. The mean level of the FI increased with age and was lower in men than in women (F = 67.87, p < .001). The 99% FI limit leveled off slightly earlier with a relatively lower value in men (60 years; 0.44 ± 0.02) compared with that in women (65 years; 0.52 ± 0.04). The highest absolute FI value was 0.61 in men and 0.69 in women. In both groups, people with an FI greater than or equal to the 99% limit showed close to 100% mortality by 5 years. Compared with men, women appeared to better tolerate deficits in health, yielding both relatively lower mortality and higher limit values to the FI. Even so, the FI did not exceed 0.7 in any individual. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  16. Causes of death in older people autopsied.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Flávia Aparecida; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Lino, Ruy de Souza; Guimarães, Janaina Valadares; dos Reis, Marlene Antônia

    2009-08-01

    Studies of causes of death in autopsied older people are not common in Brazil. The aims were to compare demographic data and causes of death in elderly people autopsied in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s and to relate causes of death to age, sex, color, and body mass index. Data survey of the autopsy reports came from the Hospital de Clínicas of the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data were obtained from the autopsied individuals 60 years or older. Median age was 69 years (60-120 years) and was higher in the 1990s than in the 1970s (70.5 vs 68.0, P < .05) and higher in women (70 vs 68 years, P < .05). Men (66.8%) and white people (70.0%) predominated during the period. The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular (42%) and infectious (33.4%). The percentage of cardiovascular causes of death varied little over the 1970s (41.7%), 1980s (42.3%), and 1990s (42.9%), whereas that of infectious causes decreased (38.0%, 28.6%, and 28.6%, respectively) and that of neoplastic causes increased (10.3%, 12.6%, and 19.6%, respectively, P > .05). Most of the elderly (84.6%) presented a body mass index of less than 22 kg/m2 and malnutrition predominated in the 1980s (48%). Therefore, there was little percentage variation in cardiovascular-related deaths over the 3 decades while the percentage of neoplastic-related deaths increased. Infectious causes of death was associated with the lowest body mass index, and the greatest percentage of cardiovascular and neoplastic-related deaths were in women.

  17. Older people, personal hygiene, and skin care.

    PubMed

    Cowdell, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Skin health is essential for well being in older people. Personal hygiene is fundamental to skin health, but a lack of evidence exists about effective practices. An evidence base, disseminated through nursing education and patient health promotion, must be developed.

  18. Physical Activity among Older People and Related Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Ann; While, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the duration, intensity and type of physical activity undertaken by people aged 60 years and over in relation to their reported levels of participation in social activities and their perceptions of their neighbourhood. Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of older people attending two luncheon and eight social…

  19. Is the competence of Swedish Registered Nurses working in municipal care of older people merely a question of age and postgraduate education?

    PubMed

    Karlstedt, Michaela; Wadensten, Barbro; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Pöder, Ulrika

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that not only education but also personal aspects such as experience of working as a registered nurse (RN) and age can influence competence. The objective was to explore the educational and self-rated competence of RNs and their duties within the care of older people. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. All RNs in two counties in Sweden were asked to complete a written questionnaire: a study specific questionnaire with educational and work related questions using the Nurse Competence Scale. The response rate was 61% (n 344). Higher self-rated satisfaction with own professional competence was related to older age, more years after nursing education and possessing at least one postgraduate education in specialist nursing. Educational needs were related to younger age and fewer years since nursing graduation. Education within elder care, including education about drugs was rated the most urgently needed area of education. The most frequently reported tasks were found in the domain helping role, whereas ensuring quality was less present in their daily work. Educational level, age and years of experience had an impact on RNs' self-perceived competence, which is in accordance with previous descriptions of the concept competence. It seems imperative that RNs working in care of the old and with the demands placed on them are given the opportunity to take a postgraduate specialist education in order to gain a competence level in their desired area of work. It is also important that RNs working in care of the old get tailored education in line with the requirements the organisation places on them. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  20. Attitudes towards Older People and Managers' Intention to Hire Older Workers: A Taiwanese Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo; Kao, Shu-Fang; Hsieh, Ying-Hui

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine attitudinal barriers to the managerial intention to hire older workers (aged 60 and above). Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from a sample of managers with hiring power (N = 305). We found that (a) positive attitudes towards older people in general, perceived subjective norm, personal…

  1. Attitudes toward Older People and Coworkers' Intention to Work with Older Employees: A Taiwanese Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine attitudinal barriers to the employment of Taiwanese older workers (aged 60 and above). Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data using structured questionnaires from a sample of full-time employees (N = 258). We found that: (1) positive attitudes toward older people in general, perceived…

  2. Attitudes towards Older People and Managers' Intention to Hire Older Workers: A Taiwanese Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo; Kao, Shu-Fang; Hsieh, Ying-Hui

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine attitudinal barriers to the managerial intention to hire older workers (aged 60 and above). Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from a sample of managers with hiring power (N = 305). We found that (a) positive attitudes towards older people in general, perceived subjective norm, personal…

  3. Attitudes toward Older People and Coworkers' Intention to Work with Older Employees: A Taiwanese Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine attitudinal barriers to the employment of Taiwanese older workers (aged 60 and above). Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data using structured questionnaires from a sample of full-time employees (N = 258). We found that: (1) positive attitudes toward older people in general, perceived…

  4. Carotenoids and health in older people.

    PubMed

    Woodside, Jayne V; McGrath, Alanna J; Lyner, Natalie; McKinley, Michelle C

    2015-01-01

    As the proportion of older people increases, so will chronic disease incidence and the proportion of the population living with disability. Therefore, new approaches to maintain health for as long as possible in this age group are required. Carotenoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds found predominantly in fruit and vegetables that have been proposed to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Such properties may impact on the risk diseases which predominate in older people, and also ageing-related physiological changes. Working out the effect of carotenoid intake versus fruit and vegetable intake is difficult, and the strong correlation between individual carotenoid intakes also complicates any attempt to examine individual carotenoid health effects. Similarly, research to determine whether carotenoids consumed as supplements have similar benefits to increased dietary intake through whole foods, is still required. However, reviewing the recent evidence suggests that carotenoid intake and status are relatively consistently associated with reduced CVD risk, although β-carotene supplementation does not reduce CVD risk and increases lung cancer risk. Increased lycopene intake may reduce prostate cancer progression, with a potential role for carotenoids at other cancer sites. Lutein and zeaxanthin have a plausible role in the maintenance of eye health, whilst an association between carotenoid intake and cognitive and physical health appears possible, although research is limited to date. Given this accruing evidence base to support a specific role for certain carotenoids and ageing, current dietary advice to consume a diet rich in fruit and vegetables would appear prudent, and efforts maintained to encourage increased intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Longitudinal respiratory studies in older people

    PubMed Central

    Milne, J S

    1978-01-01

    Milne, J S (1978).Thorax, 33, 547-554. Longitudinal respiratory studies in older people. A random sample of older people in Edinburgh (215 men, 272 women aged 62-90 years) was examined with the MRC questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. The FEV1 and FVC were recorded. Spirograms were repeated after one and five years and the questions after five years, the sample by then having been reduced to 133 men and 148 women. After five years 7% of the surviving men and women had developed persistent cough and phlegm. This syndrome had disappeared in 12% of men and 2% of women. Dyspnoea had increased beyond grade 2 in 13% of men and 7% of women and had lessened only in 6% of women. One-quarter of male and one-seventh of female cigarette smokers had given up smoking, mostly in the first year. Nearly all who stopped were symptomless before and after. In those men who stopped smoking before the study began symptom prevalence was similar to that in those who continued smoking. Mean values of FEV1 and FVC declined as age increased, the decline being greater in FVC with resulting rise in FEV1%. Five-year differences in FEV1 and FVC were symmetrically distributed with mean differences increasing with age. Mean differences in FEV1 were 280-350 ml in men and 150-230 ml in women. Prediction equations from the first examinations remained usable for clinical work. Mean values of FEV1 and FVC at the first examination were smaller in those who died compared with survivors, whether symptoms were present or not. The prevalence of symptoms was greater in those who died. PMID:725823

  6. Comparison of anxiety as reported by older people with intellectual disabilities and by older people with normal intelligence.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Heidi; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2014-12-01

    Older people with intellectual disabilities (ID) may experience more and different symptoms of anxiety than older people with normal intelligence. (1) Is the reported severity of anxiety in this group similar to that in the general older population; (2) Are specific anxiety symptoms reported as frequently by both groups? Cross-sectional. Formal Dutch intellectual disability services and Dutch population-based study. One hundred fifty-four participants of the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disability study with mild or moderate ID (IQ <70), aged 55-85 years, and 2,917 participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam with normal intelligence, aged 55-85 years. The general anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Mean (standard deviation) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale total score of subjects with ID was significantly higher than that of subjects with normal intelligence (3.53 [3.03]) versus 2.53 [3.30]; p <0.01), whereas the percentage of scores above cutoff in both groups was similar. Four of 7 items were more often reported as present by subjects with ID: "tense or wound up feelings," "frightened feelings," "worrying thoughts," and "sudden feelings of panic." Older people with ID report more symptoms of anxiety than older people with normal intelligence. Tense feelings and worrying especially need more attention, because more than one-half of all older people with ID reported such symptoms. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychotherapeutic treatments for older depressed people.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K C M; Mottram, P G; Vassilas, C A

    2008-01-23

    effect indicated between the two types of psychotherapeutic treatment. Based on three trials with usable data, CBT was superior to active control interventions when using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (WMD -5.69, 95% CI -11.04 to -0.35), but equivalent when using the Geriatric Depression Scale (WMD -2.00, 95% CI -5.31 to 1.32). Only a small number of studies and patients were included in the meta-analysis. If taken on their own merit, the findings do not provide strong support for psychotherapeutic treatments in the management of depression in older people. However, the findings do reflect those of a larger meta-analysis that included patients with broader age ranges, suggesting that CBT may be of potential benefit.

  8. Inflammation and frailty measures in older people

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Ruth E; O’Mahony, M Sinead; Savva, George M; Calver, Brian L; Woodhouse, Ken W

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation in patients defined as frail by Fried’s phenotypic definition may be related to sarcopenia. This study aimed to investigate inflammation in older patients across different frailty criteria. Frailty status was determined in 110 patients aged over 75 years (mean 83.9 years) according to function (dependent, intermediate, independent); Fried (three or more items of exhaustion, weight loss, slow walking speed, low handgrip strength, low physical activity) and Frailty Index (a measure of accumulated deficits). With increasing patient frailty as defined by function and by Fried phenotype, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) increased significantly. Albumin was lowest in the frailest subjects by each definition. The greatest differences were seen between intermediate and dependent groups and between the pre-frail and frail. Adjustment for multiple covariates (age, sex, BMI category, smoking status, number of co-morbidities and number of prescribed medications) did not account for any of the observed differences in levels of inflammatory markers. The Frailty Index correlated significantly with log-transformed CRP (r= 0.221, P < 0.05), log-transformed IL-6 (r= 0.369, P < 0.01), TNF-α (r= 0.379, P < 0.01) and inversely with albumin (r=– 0.545, P < 0.01). This study provides further evidence linking inflammation and frailty in older people, an association that seems consistent across different frailty measures. PMID:19438806

  9. Web-Based Interventions Targeting Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Middle-Aged and Older People: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Beishuizen, Cathrien R L; Stephan, Blossom C M; van Gool, Willem A; Brayne, Carol; Peters, Ron J G; Andrieu, Sandrine; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka; Busschers, Wim B; Moll van Charante, Eric P; Richard, Edo

    2016-03-11

    Web-based interventions can improve single cardiovascular risk factors in adult populations. In view of global aging and the associated increasing burden of cardiovascular disease, older people form an important target population as well. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we evaluated whether Web-based interventions for cardiovascular risk factor management reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in older people. Embase, Medline, Cochrane and CINAHL were systematically searched from January 1995 to November 2014. Search terms included cardiovascular risk factors and diseases (specified), Web-based interventions (and synonyms) and randomized controlled trial. Two authors independently performed study selection, data-extraction and risk of bias assessment. In a meta-analysis, outcomes regarding treatment effects on cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, smoking status, weight and physical inactivity) and incident cardiovascular disease were pooled with random effects models. A total of 57 studies (N=19,862) fulfilled eligibility criteria and 47 studies contributed to the meta-analysis. A significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (mean difference -2.66 mmHg, 95% CI -3.81 to -1.52), diastolic blood pressure (mean difference -1.26 mmHg, 95% CI -1.92 to -0.60), HbA1c level (mean difference -0.13%, 95% CI -0.22 to -0.05), LDL cholesterol level (mean difference -2.18 mg/dL, 95% CI -3.96 to -0.41), weight (mean difference -1.34 kg, 95% CI -1.91 to -0.77), and an increase of physical activity (standardized mean difference 0.25, 95% CI 0.10-0.39) in the Web-based intervention group was found. The observed effects were more pronounced in studies with short (<12 months) follow-up and studies that combined the Internet application with human support (blended care). No difference in incident cardiovascular disease was found between groups (6 studies). Web-based interventions have

  10. Drug Misuse in Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffoul, Paul R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Drug misuse of prescription and OTC drugs was studied among 67 older subjects to determine the frequency of misuse and relationship to various psychosocial, medical and pharmacological factors. Drug misuse was found among 43 percent of subjects with number of prescribing physicians and number of pharmacies directly related to misuse. (Author)

  11. Access to mobile communications by older people.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Toan; Irizarry, Carol; Garrett, Rob; Downing, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    To investigate how older people effectively identify, select and learn to use mobile communications technologies to enhance communication and safety, and support independent living. One hundred and fifty-three older South Australians participated in a purpose-designed survey questionnaire. Older people relied on family and friends for information and advice (76%), and their children's assistance with buying (45%) and learning to use (48%) new technology. The most preferred learning method was face-to-face training (56%). Less than half (44%) were interested in trying out new designs/applications, functions and capabilities that could assist with independent living. The highest need was for personal security and emergencies (88%). Findings suggest that the family and friends of older people play an important role in identifying, selecting and learning to use mobile communication technologies. The safety and emergency capabilities of mobile communications technologies were more important than having functions that could assist with independent living. © 2014 ACOTA.

  12. Higher Lipoprotein (a) Levels Are Associated with Better Pulmonary Function in Community-Dwelling Older People - Data from the Berlin Aging Study II.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Nikolaus; Kassner, Ursula; Norman, Kristina; Goldeck, David; Eckardt, Rahel; Pawelec, Graham; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    Reduced pulmonary function and elevated serum cholesterol levels are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Currently, there is some controversy concerning relationships between cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides and lung function. However, most previous studies compared patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with healthy controls, and only a small number examined this relationship in population-based cohorts. Moreover, lipoprotein a [Lp(a)], another lipid parameter independently associated with cardiovascular diseases, appears not to have been addressed at all in studies of lung function at the population level. Here, we determined relationships between lung function and several lipid parameters including Lp(a) in 606 older community-dwelling participants (55.1% women, 68±4 years old) from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II). We found a significantly lower forced expiration volume in 1 second (FEV1) in men with low Lp(a) concentrations (t-test). This finding was further substantiated by linear regression models adjusting for known covariates, showing that these associations are statistically significant in both men and women. According to the highest adjusted model, men and women with Lp(a) levels below the 20th percentile had 217.3ml and 124.2ml less FEV1 and 239.0ml and 135.2ml less FVC, respectively, compared to participants with higher Lp(a) levels. The adjusted models also suggest that the known strong correlation between pro-inflammatory parameters and lung function has only a marginal impact on the Lp(a)-pulmonary function association. Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher Lp(a) levels are responsible for the increased CVD risk in people with reduced lung function, at least not in the group of community-dwelling older people studied here.

  13. Higher Lipoprotein (a) Levels Are Associated with Better Pulmonary Function in Community-Dwelling Older People – Data from the Berlin Aging Study II

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Nikolaus; Kassner, Ursula; Norman, Kristina; Goldeck, David; Eckardt, Rahel; Pawelec, Graham; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    Reduced pulmonary function and elevated serum cholesterol levels are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Currently, there is some controversy concerning relationships between cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides and lung function. However, most previous studies compared patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with healthy controls, and only a small number examined this relationship in population-based cohorts. Moreover, lipoprotein a [Lp(a)], another lipid parameter independently associated with cardiovascular diseases, appears not to have been addressed at all in studies of lung function at the population level. Here, we determined relationships between lung function and several lipid parameters including Lp(a) in 606 older community-dwelling participants (55.1% women, 68±4 years old) from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II). We found a significantly lower forced expiration volume in 1 second (FEV1) in men with low Lp(a) concentrations (t-test). This finding was further substantiated by linear regression models adjusting for known covariates, showing that these associations are statistically significant in both men and women. According to the highest adjusted model, men and women with Lp(a) levels below the 20th percentile had 217.3ml and 124.2ml less FEV1 and 239.0ml and 135.2ml less FVC, respectively, compared to participants with higher Lp(a) levels. The adjusted models also suggest that the known strong correlation between pro-inflammatory parameters and lung function has only a marginal impact on the Lp(a)-pulmonary function association. Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher Lp(a) levels are responsible for the increased CVD risk in people with reduced lung function, at least not in the group of community-dwelling older people studied here. PMID:26421427

  14. The welfare implications of disability for older people in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cullinan, John; Gannon, Brenda; O'Shea, Eamon

    2013-04-01

    Recent data analysed for Ireland suggest a strong link between disability status and household poverty, while there exists substantial evidence to suggest that disability is highly prevalent among persons of older age. Within this context, this paper estimates the welfare implications of disability for older people in Ireland. We define and estimate models of the private costs borne by households with older persons who have a disability in Ireland, both in general and by severity of illness or condition. Our modelling framework is based on the standard of living approach to estimating the cost of disability. The model quantifies the extra costs of living associated with disability and is estimated by comparing the standard of living of households with and without disabled members at a given income, controlling for other sources of variation. The analysis suggests that the estimated economic cost of disability for older people in Ireland is significant and varies by severity of disability, as well as by household type. The results also suggest that the cost of disability increases in proportionate terms as the number of people in the household decreases. Our results are important when considering the effectiveness of policies that aim to address the economic problems associated with disability for older people, suggesting that current policy in Ireland does not go far enough. They indicate that older people face a double jeopardy through age and disability, which is not reflected in official poverty rates and support the case for the introduction of disability-adjusted poverty payments.

  15. Physical activity in older people: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) in older people is critically important in the prevention of disease, maintenance of independence and improvement of quality of life. Little is known about the physical activity of the older adults or their compliance with current physical activity guidelines. Methods A systematic literature search of the published literature was conducted. Included were published reports of original research that independently reported: the PA level of non-institutional older adults (aged 60 years and over); and the proportion of older adults in the different samples who met PA recommendations or guidelines. The review was restricted to studies published since 2000 to provide a current picture of older adults’ PA levels. Results Fifty three papers were included in the review. The percentage of older adults meeting recommended physical activity ranged from 2.4 – 83.0% across the studies. Definitions of “recommended” physical activity in older adults varied across the studies as did approaches to measurement which posed methodological challenges to data analysis. Older age groups were less likely than the reference group to be regularly active, and women were less likely than men to achieve regular physical activity, especially leisure time physical activity, when measured by both subjective and objective criteria. Conclusion The review highlights the need for studies which recruit representative random samples of community based older people and employ validated measurement methods consistently to enable comparison of PA levels over time and between countries. PMID:23648225

  16. Older peoples' perspectives on time spent alone.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Mandy; Richard, Ashley; Williams, Shoshannah

    2017-06-01

    Large amounts of time spent alone by older people have been associated with loneliness and poor mental and physical health. There is a paucity of research, however, that examines time alone from an occupational perspective. In this exploratory study we explored the perspectives of older people on their time spent alone. A qualitative descriptive study design was selected. With the aim of maximising variation, five participants were recruited from retirement villages and seven participants who lived independently in the community. Participants recorded time spent alone in a time diary for three days as priming for a semi-structured in-depth interview. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Three key themes were identified: 'it is a matter of getting some balance'; 'keeping busy'; and 'the nights are the worst'. The study highlights the importance older people place on the need to manage time alone so that it is a positive and nourishing experience and to avoid experiencing extended periods of boredom potentially leading to loneliness. Older people utilise occupations to keep busy and achieve an individually acceptable level of time alone. Enabling older people to balance time spent alone by addressing barriers to participation in the community in addition to finding engaging occupations to occupy time has the potential to prevent boredom, loneliness and improve wellbeing. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  17. Carotid arterial stiffness and risk of incident cerebral microbleeds in older people: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie; Mitchell, Gary F; Bots, Michiel L; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Harris, Tamara B; Garcia, Melissa; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; van Buchem, Mark A; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J

    2015-08-01

    Age and high blood pressure are major risk factors for cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and arterial stiffness may be important. We investigated whether carotid arterial stiffness is associated with incidence and location of CMBs. In the prospective, population-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik study, 2512 participants aged 66 to 93 years underwent a baseline brain MRI examination and carotid ultrasound in 2002 to 2006 and returned for a repeat brain MRI in 2007 to 2011. Common carotid arterial stiffness was assessed using a standardized protocol and expressed as carotid arterial strain, distensibility coefficient, and Young elastic modulus. Modified Poisson regression was applied to relate carotid arterial stiffness parameters to CMB incidence. During a mean follow-up of 5.2 years, 463 people (18.4%) developed new CMBs, of whom 292 had CMBs restricted to lobar regions and 171 had CMBs in a deep or infratentorial region. After adjusting for age, sex, and follow-up interval, arterial stiffness measures were associated with incident CMBs (risk ratio per SD decrease in carotid arterial strain, 1.11 [95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.21]; per SD decrease in natural log-transformed distensibility coefficient, 1.14 [1.05-1.24]; and per SD increase in natural log-transformed Young elastic modulus, 1.13 [1.04-1.23]). These measures were also significantly associated with incident deep CMBs (1.18 [1.02-1.37]; 1.24 [1.08-1.42]; and 1.23 [1.07-1.42]) but not with lobar CMBs. When further adjusted for blood pressure and other baseline vascular risk factors, carotid plaque, prevalent CMBs, subcortical infarcts, and white matter hyperintensities, the associations persisted. Our findings support the hypothesis that localized increases in carotid arterial stiffness may contribute to the development of CMBs, especially in a deep location attributable to hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Factors associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression in five cohorts of community-based older people: the HALCyon (Healthy Ageing across the Life Course) Programme

    PubMed Central

    Gale, C. R.; Sayer, A. Aihie; Cooper, C.; Dennison, E. M.; Starr, J. M.; Whalley, L. J.; Gallacher, J. E.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Kuh, D.; Hardy, R.; Craig, L.; Deary, I. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Symptoms of anxiety and depression are common in older people, but the relative importance of factors operating in early and later life in influencing risk is unclear, particularly in the case of anxiety. Method We used data from five cohorts in the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) collaborative research programme : the Aberdeen Birth Cohort 1936, the Caerphilly Prospective Study, the Hertfordshire Ageing Study, the Hertfordshire Cohort Study and the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between factors from early and later life and risk of anxiety or depression, defined as scores of 8 or more on the subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of each. Results Greater neuroticism, poorer cognitive or physical function, greater disability and taking more medications were associated in cross-sectional analyses with an increased overall likelihood of anxiety or depression. Associations between lower social class, either in childhood or currently, history of heart disease, stroke or diabetes and increased risk of anxiety or depression were attenuated and no longer statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounding or mediating variables. There was no association between birth weight and anxiety or depression in later life. Conclusions Anxiety and depression in later life are both strongly linked to personality, cognitive and physical function, disability and state of health, measured concurrently. Possible mechanisms that might underlie these associations are discussed. PMID:21349224

  19. Attitudes toward older people and coworkers' intention to work with older employees: a Taiwanese study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Luo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine attitudinal barriers to the employment of Taiwanese older workers (aged 60 and above). Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data using structured questionnaires from a sample of full-time employees (N= 258). We found that: (1) positive attitudes toward older people in general, perceived subjective norm, and traditional Chinese cultural values were all related to stronger intentions to work with older employees; (2) the model derived from the theory of reasoned action emerged the best model accounting for behavioral intention among competing structural models. The associations of positive attitudes and subjective norm with intention were found after controlling for demographics, cultural values, and personal contact experiences with older people. Our results highlight the importance and urgency of more concerted research to inform public and organizational policies to better promote and manage the careers of older employees in an aging, economically developing society.

  20. ICT Interface Design for Ageing People and People with Dementia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Jonathan; Mulvenna, Maurice D.; Martin, Suzanne; Stephens, Sharon; Burns, William

    Ageing population trends, rising healthcare costs and social and digital inclusion are all factors in the background to the problem of older adults interacting with technology. Approaches to address "physical accessibility" and "access to technology" issues, as well as training for existing systems are evident, yet a usability issue still prevails. The primary aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the research and literature and discuss the differing contexts in which older people and people with dementia interact with computerised systems and their associated issues.

  1. Long-term healthy lifestyle patterns and tooth loss studied in a Swedish cohort of middle-aged and older people.

    PubMed

    Åstrøm, A N; Gülcan, F; Ekbäck, G; Ordell, S

    2015-11-01

    The promotion of a healthy lifestyle has become an issue of public health importance in the context of ageing populations and increasing prevalence of chronic diseases. (i) To estimate changes in use of fluoridated tooth paste, use of tooth picks, smoking and alcohol consumption and (ii) to examine whether experience with incident or prevalent tooth loss predict healthy lifestyle transitions from age 50 to 70. In 1992, 6346 individuals born in 1942 agreed to participate in a prospective cohort study and 3585 completed follow-up questionnaires in 1997, 2002, 2007 and 2012. Statistical analyses were conducted by chi-square statistics, Cochran's Q and logistic regression. In total, 15.7% and 74.0% reported incident (tooth loss only in 2012) and prevalent tooth loss (tooth loss in 1992 and 2012). Significant differences occurred between the 1992 and 2012 prevalence of using toothpicks (from 48.3% to 69.1%), smoking (from 26.9% to 10.1%) and alcohol consumption (from 41.5% to 50.5%), 29% and 15.6% increased use of toothpicks and alcohol consumption, whereas 15.5% stopped daily smoking. Increased use of fluoridated tooth paste, smoking cessation and failure to increase use of toothpicks was associated with prevalent tooth loss between age 50 and 70. This study revealed positive and negative trends in oral health behaviours over a 20-year period in persons aged 50 at baseline. Mixed support was obtained for the assumption that oral health promoting lifestyle transitions follow experience with tooth loss. Older people with tooth loss experience could benefit from targeted counselling aimed at coping with oral diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Family involvement in emergency department discharge education for older people.

    PubMed

    Palonen, Mira; Kaunonen, Marja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2016-11-01

    To report findings concerning family involvement in emergency department discharge education for older people. The current trend of population ageing in Western countries has caused an increase in emergency department visits. Due to the continuing improvement in the mental and physical status of older people, they are frequently discharged home. Proper discharge education enables older people and their families to better understand how they can cope with the medical issue at home. Given the lack of research, we know relatively little about the significance of family involvement in older people's emergency department discharge education. A descriptive qualitative design was used. Qualitative thematic interviews of seven older patients, five family members and fifteen nurses were conducted. Data were analysed using content analysis. Family involvement in discharge education was seen as turbulent. The experiences were twofold: family involvement was acknowledged, but there was also a feeling that family members were ostracised. Families were seen as a resource for nurses, but as obliged initiators of their own involvement. Our findings suggest that family members are not considered participants in emergency department care. For a family-friendly approach, actions should be taken on both individual and organisational levels. The findings support healthcare providers and organisation leaders in promoting family involvement in discharge education for older people. Families can be encouraged to be involved without feeling responsible for the interaction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Pressure ulcer prevention in frail older people.

    PubMed

    Barry, Maree; Nugent, Linda

    2015-12-16

    Pressure ulcers are painful and cause discomfort, have a negative effect on quality of life, and are costly to treat. The incidence and severity of preventable pressure ulcers is an important indicator of quality of care; it is essential that healthcare providers monitor prevalence and incidence rates to ensure that care strategies implemented are effective. Frail older people are at increased risk of developing pressure ulcers. This article discusses the complexities of preventing pressure ulcers in frail older people and emphasises the importance of structured educational programmes that incorporate effective clinical leadership and multidisciplinary teamwork.

  4. Caring for Older People. Public transport.

    PubMed Central

    Roper, T. A.; Mulley, G. P.

    1996-01-01

    Most older people are mobile and able to use public transport without any problems. Those who are hard of hearing or have poor vision and those with mobility problems need not be deterred from using public transport. Though the design and provision of suitable buses, taxis, and trains is not always optimum, many now have imaginative features to help older passengers. Travel by air and sea needs extra planning for disabled elderly people, but helpful advice is available and much can be done to enable even the most disabled traveller to make long journeys confidently and in comfort. Images p415-a Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:8761236

  5. Detecting dehydration in older people: useful tests.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lee; Bunn, Diane

    Dehydration is common in older people, leading to longer hospital stays and increased disability and mortality. Health professionals can diagnose water-loss dehydration by taking a blood sample and measuring serum osmolality, but a less-invasive test would be useful. Evidence that tests, clinical signs or questions tested to date are useful when screening for dehydration in older people is limited. This article looks at known risk factors, signs and test for dehydration, and outlines evidence on how useful they have proven to be. Part 2 describes how a care home has used a multicomponent strategy to improve hydration.

  6. Better Mental Health Care for Older People in India

    PubMed Central

    Shaji, K.S.; Kishore, N.R. Arun; Lal, K. Praveen; Pinto, Charles; Trivedi, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    Demographic aging will soon lead to a sudden increase in the number of older people with dementia and depression in India. We need to develop services to meet the mental health needs of the aged in the population. Geriatric Psychiatry section of IPS has initiated a process of consultations to address this emerging public health issue. Health professionals involved in the care of older people with mental health problems took part in focus group discussions Their opinion and suggestions regarding development of psychogeriatric services and research were gathered. Urgent action is needed to improve the existing low levels of public awareness about mental health problems of older people. Home based care needs to be supported through formal services in the community. If sensitised properly clinicians, can be more effective in managing depression and dementia at primary care level. Research initiatives can be facilitated by networking of researchers and active efforts at dissemination of important research findings. Community health workers could be trained to identify and provide help to older people with mental health problems and their carers. Community outreach programmes for elderly could be particularly relevant in the rural areas where as development of clinic based psycho-geriatric services may be feasible in urban settings. Good research can influence and shape policies which in turn can result in better mental health care for older people. PMID:21206797

  7. Better mental health care for older people in India.

    PubMed

    Shaji, K S; Kishore, N R Arun; Lal, K Praveen; Pinto, Charles; Trivedi, J K

    2004-10-01

    Demographic aging will soon lead to a sudden increase in the number of older people with dementia and depression in India. We need to develop services to meet the mental health needs of the aged in the population. Geriatric Psychiatry section of IPS has initiated a process of consultations to address this emerging public health issue. Health professionals involved in the care of older people with mental health problems took part in focus group discussions Their opinion and suggestions regarding development of psychogeriatric services and research were gathered. Urgent action is needed to improve the existing low levels of public awareness about mental health problems of older people. Home based care needs to be supported through formal services in the community. If sensitised properly clinicians, can be more effective in managing depression and dementia at primary care level. Research initiatives can be facilitated by networking of researchers and active efforts at dissemination of important research findings. Community health workers could be trained to identify and provide help to older people with mental health problems and their carers. Community outreach programmes for elderly could be particularly relevant in the rural areas where as development of clinic based psycho-geriatric services may be feasible in urban settings. Good research can influence and shape policies which in turn can result in better mental health care for older people.

  8. Myths about older people's use of information and communication technology.

    PubMed

    Wandke, Hartmut; Sengpiel, Michael; Sönksen, Malte

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses six myths common in the field of 'human-computer interaction (HCI) and older people'. These myths are widespread among computer scientists, engineers and programmers, as well as among the general public and even older individuals themselves. We can define these myths as follows. (1) Just wait and see. Future generations of older people will use computers without problems. This myth differs from those following, as it may lead to a (dangerous) conclusion of avoidance and inactivity by integrating myths 2-6. If the other myths are accepted as being true and one assumes that the problems will eventually solve themselves, it might not seem worthwhile to expend any effort on 'universal design' for older people's use of information and communication technology (ICT). However, we argue that if we do not actively and properly counteract these myths, we will perpetuate them and their grave consequences. (2) Older people are not interested in using computers. They are unaware of computer capabilities. (3) Older people consider computers as useless and unnecessary. (4) Older people lack the physical capabilities to use ICT. (5) Older people simply cannot understand interactive computing technology. (6) You can't teach an old dog new tricks. The problem of HCI for older people is that they do not learn to use new technologies and interaction techniques. In discussing these myths, we demonstrate that each one contains a grain of truth. However, the myths are improperly overgeneralized and, therefore, often wrong. Such myths are problematic. Designers and engineers often accept them as truths and neglect older users and/or apply information and communication technologies in an age-discriminating manner. Furthermore, the myths are problematic as they lead older people to avoid computer usage (i.e. a self-fulfilling prophecy). We present evidence to support the notion that these myths may often be largely - although not completely - wrong. We then demonstrate

  9. Physical Health Indicators Improve Prediction of Cardiovascular and All-cause Mortality among Middle-Aged and Older People: a National Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wei-Ju; Peng, Li-Ning; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of established methods for stratifying cardiovascular risk, for example, the Framingham risk score (FRS), may be improved by adding extra variables. This study evaluated the potential benefits of adding physical health indicators (handgrip strength, walking speed, and peak expiratory flow) to the FRS in predicting cardiovascular and all-cause mortality by using a nationwide population-based cohort study data. During median follow-up of 4.1 years, 67 of 911 study subjects had died. In Cox regression analysis, all additional physical health indicators, except walking speed, significantly predicted cardiovascular and all-cause mortality (P < 0.05). Compared with the conventional FRS, c statistics were significantly increased when dominant handgrip strength or relative handgrip strength (handgrip strength adjusted for body mass index), or combination with walking speed or peak expiratory flow were incorporated into the FRS prediction model, both in the whole cohort and also in participants who did not have prevalent cardiovascular diseases at baseline. In conclusion, dominant or relative handgrip strength are simple and inexpensive physical health indicators that substantially improve the accuracy of the FRS in predicting cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among middle-aged and older people. PMID:28079182

  10. Older people's experiences of dream coaching.

    PubMed

    Wadensten, Barbro

    2009-12-01

    Recalling and talking about dreams could initiate dream work among older people and provide an opportunity for self-confrontation and personal growth, which could in turn promote gerotranscendental development. The present article describes older people's opinions about participating in a dream-coaching group; it also briefly describes the theoretical foundation of dream coaching. The study aim was to investigate older people's experience of participating in a dream-coaching group based on Jungian psychology. A descriptive design was used. Retrospective interviews were explored using qualitative content analysis. The participants were satisfied with the arrangement of the dream-coaching groups. All participants believed that they had recalled their dreams and thought much more about their dreams during the period in which the dream-coaching group met. Three diverse appraisals of participating in a dream-coaching group, which had different effects on the participants, were identified: "An activity like any other activity," "An activity that led to deeper thoughts about the meaning of dreams," and "An activity that led to deeper thoughts both about the meaning of dreams and about how dreams can improve one's understanding of the life situation." It is possible to arrange dream-coaching groups for older people and could be a way to promote personal development using this type of intervention. The study provides some guidance as to how such a group could be organized, thus facilitating use of dream-coaching groups in gerontological care.

  11. Frail Older People as Participants in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Nancye M.; Wilson, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the experience of interviewing frail older people in a research project investigating hip fracture risk factors. Specific methodological strategies to maximize participation and data quality and to facilitate the interview process related to participant inclusion criteria, initial approach, questionnaire format, and…

  12. Frail Older People as Participants in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Nancye M.; Wilson, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the experience of interviewing frail older people in a research project investigating hip fracture risk factors. Specific methodological strategies to maximize participation and data quality and to facilitate the interview process related to participant inclusion criteria, initial approach, questionnaire format, and…

  13. Education for Older People in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principi, Andrea; Lamura, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information on trends in formal and informal adult education in Italy, with a particular focus on the older learners (over 65). Main providers, programs, objectives/motivations, and financial and legal framework are described. In general, over-65-year-old people were found to be underrepresented in participation. They were…

  14. The Engagement of Older People in Civil Society Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principi, Andrea; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Frerichs, Frerich

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent international literature on the opportunities and restrictions experienced by older people to act as volunteers in civil society organizations. Our aim was to develop a conceptual framework applicable to the European ageing society. This aim was pursued through a computerized database search focused on studies analyzing…

  15. The Engagement of Older People in Civil Society Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principi, Andrea; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Frerichs, Frerich

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent international literature on the opportunities and restrictions experienced by older people to act as volunteers in civil society organizations. Our aim was to develop a conceptual framework applicable to the European ageing society. This aim was pursued through a computerized database search focused on studies analyzing…

  16. The role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people in rural areas of South Korea: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although the number of studies on anti-smoking interventions has increased, studies focused on identifying social contextual factors in rural areas are scarce. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people living in rural areas of South Korea. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design. Participants included 1,057 adults, with a mean age of 60.7 years, residing in rural areas. Information on participants' tobacco use, stress, social support, and social networks was collected using structured questionnaires. The chi-square test, the t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results The overall smoking prevalence in the study was 17.4% (men, 38.8%; women, 5.1%). Overall, stress was high among women, and social support was high among men. Smokers had high levels of social support (t = -2.90, p = .0038) and social networks (t = -2.22, p = .0271), as compared to non- and former smokers. Those in the high social support group were likely to be smokers (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.15-4.26). Women with moderate social ties were less likely to smoke (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.05-0.61). Conclusion There was a protective role of a moderate social network level among women, and a high level of social support was associated with smoking behaviors in rural areas. Findings suggest the need for a comprehensive understanding of the functions and characteristics of social contextual factors including social support and social networks in order to conduct more effective anti-smoking interventions in rural areas. PMID:20167103

  17. Transforming Practice with Older People through an Ethic of Care

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Lizzie; Barnes, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relevance of deliberative practices framed by feminist care ethics to social work practice with older people. It draws on two connected projects which brought together older people: practitioners and academics. The first was a participatory research project in which the significance of care to well-being in old age emerged. The second was a knowledge exchange project which generated learning resources for social care practice based on the research findings of the first project. Here we analyse selected transcripts of recordings from meetings of both projects to consider the ways that discussions about lived experiences and everyday lives demonstrate care through this dialogue. Using this analysis, we propose that care ethics can be useful in transforming relationships between older people and those working with them through the creation of hybrid spaces in which ‘care-full deliberation’ can happen. We argue that such reflective spaces can enable transformative dialogue about care and its importance to older people and offer a counterbalance to the procedurally driven environments in which much social work practice takes place and can support practice more attuned to the circumstances and concerns of older people. PMID:27559205

  18. Protein Requirements and Recommendations for Older People: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nowson, Caryl; O’Connell, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Declines in skeletal muscle mass and strength are major contributors to increased mortality, morbidity and reduced quality of life in older people. Recommended Dietary Allowances/Intakes have failed to adequately consider the protein requirements of the elderly with respect to function. The aim of this paper was to review definitions of optimal protein status and the evidence base for optimal dietary protein. Current recommended protein intakes for older people do not account for the compensatory loss of muscle mass that occurs on lower protein intakes. Older people have lower rates of protein synthesis and whole-body proteolysis in response to an anabolic stimulus (food or resistance exercise). Recommendations for the level of adequate dietary intake of protein for older people should be informed by evidence derived from functional outcomes. Randomized controlled trials report a clear benefit of increased dietary protein on lean mass gain and leg strength, particularly when combined with resistance exercise. There is good consistent evidence (level III-2 to IV) that consumption of 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein combined with twice-weekly progressive resistance exercise reduces age-related muscle mass loss. Older people appear to require 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein to optimize physical function, particularly whilst undertaking resistance exercise recommendations. PMID:26287239

  19. Determinants of Physical Health of Older People in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Cheshmberah, Azar; Hoseini, Mostafa; Shojaee Zadeh, Davood

    2014-01-01

    Background. Many of the older people are encountered with physical and mental health problems, chronic diseases, and also living conditions. We aimed to evaluate the disability scores and its associated factors among a sample of older people in Iran. Material and Methods. 330 people aged 60–70 years were interviewed about daily living activities and physical functioning using two standard questionnaires. Results. According to univariate analysis, aging 66–70 years, being employed, and receiving financial aids were associated with better ADL mean score (P < 0.05). Also, being between 66 and 70 years of age, males, being illiterate, being employed, and receiving financial aids were statistically related to higher SF-36 mean scores (P < 0.05). Multivariate analyses have shown that higher age and receiving financial aids were related to less need for help and being unemployed with salary was related to higher need for help. However, being illiterate, being employed, and receiving financial aids were significant related factors for better physical functioning. Conclusions. Physical health in old people is decreased not only by aging of people but also by other factors such as financial problems and also employment status could decrease physical health of old people regardless of aging. PMID:27379291

  20. What do older people think that others think of them, and does it matter? The role of meta-perceptions and social norms in the prediction of perceived age discrimination.

    PubMed

    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Lima, Maria Luísa; Abrams, Dominic; Swift, Hannah J; Bratt, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Psychological theories of aging highlight the importance of social context. However, very little research has distinguished empirically between older people's perception of how others in their social context perceive them (personal meta-perceptions) and the shared perceptions in society (societal meta-perceptions). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping and using a multilevel perspective, this article examines how well older people's perceptions of age discrimination (PAD) are predicted by (a) older people's personal meta-perceptions, (b) societal meta-perceptions, and (c) social norms of intolerance toward age prejudice. Aging meta-perceptions are differentiated into the cognitive and affective components of ageism. Multilevel analyses of data from the European Social Survey (Nover 70 years of age = 8,123, 29 countries; European Social Survey (ESS) Round 4 Data, 2008) confirmed that older people's personal meta-perceptions of negative age stereotypes and specific intergroup emotions (pity, envy, contempt) are associated with higher PAD. However, at the societal-level, only paternalistic meta-perceptions were consistently associated with greater PAD. The results show that a few meta-perceptions operate only as a psychological phenomenon in explaining PAD, some carry consonant, and others carry contrasting effects at the societal-level of analysis. This evidence extends previous research on aging meta-perceptions by showing that both the content of meta-perceptions and the level of analysis at which they are assessed make distinct contributions to PAD. Moreover, social norms of intolerance of age prejudice have a larger statistical effect than societal meta-perceptions. Social interventions would benefit from considering these differential findings. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Circadian temperature rhythms of older people

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Reynolds, C. F. 3rd; Kupfer, D. J.; Houck, P. R.

    1995-01-01

    This collection of studies had the aim of exploring whether older (77+ years) men and women have circadian body temperature rhythms different from those of younger adults. A total of 20 older men and 28 older women were compared with either 22 young men or 14 middle-aged men in four protocols; all but the first protocol using a subset of the sample. The four protocols were: 1) 24 h, and 2) 72 h data collections on a normal laboratory routine (sleeping at night); 3) between 36 h and 153 h of field data collection at home; and 4) 36 h of a constant conditions routine (wakeful bedrest under temporal isolation) in the laboratory. There was some evidence for an age-related phase advance in temperature rhythm, especially for the older men on a normal routine, though this was not present in the constant conditions protocol, where 5 of the older subjects showed major delays in the timing of the body temperature trough (10:00 or later). There was no statistically significant evidence from any of the protocols that older subjects generally had lower temperature rhythm amplitudes than younger adults. Only when older men were compared with younger men in 24-h rhythm amplitude by simple t-test did any comparison involving amplitude achieve statistical significance (p < 0.05).

  2. Circadian temperature rhythms of older people

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Reynolds, C. F. 3rd; Kupfer, D. J.; Houck, P. R.

    1995-01-01

    This collection of studies had the aim of exploring whether older (77+ years) men and women have circadian body temperature rhythms different from those of younger adults. A total of 20 older men and 28 older women were compared with either 22 young men or 14 middle-aged men in four protocols; all but the first protocol using a subset of the sample. The four protocols were: 1) 24 h, and 2) 72 h data collections on a normal laboratory routine (sleeping at night); 3) between 36 h and 153 h of field data collection at home; and 4) 36 h of a constant conditions routine (wakeful bedrest under temporal isolation) in the laboratory. There was some evidence for an age-related phase advance in temperature rhythm, especially for the older men on a normal routine, though this was not present in the constant conditions protocol, where 5 of the older subjects showed major delays in the timing of the body temperature trough (10:00 or later). There was no statistically significant evidence from any of the protocols that older subjects generally had lower temperature rhythm amplitudes than younger adults. Only when older men were compared with younger men in 24-h rhythm amplitude by simple t-test did any comparison involving amplitude achieve statistical significance (p < 0.05).

  3. Older People's Views of Advice about Falls Prevention: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yardley, L.; Donovan-Hall, M.; Francis, K.; Todd, C.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of older people's perceptions of falls prevention advice, and how best to design communications that will encourage older people to take action to prevent falls. Focus groups and interviews were carried out with 66 people aged 61-94 years recruited from a variety of settings, using falls…

  4. Older People's Views of Advice about Falls Prevention: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yardley, L.; Donovan-Hall, M.; Francis, K.; Todd, C.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of older people's perceptions of falls prevention advice, and how best to design communications that will encourage older people to take action to prevent falls. Focus groups and interviews were carried out with 66 people aged 61-94 years recruited from a variety of settings, using falls…

  5. The psychosocial impact of epilepsy in older people.

    PubMed

    Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Baker, Gus; Kerr, Mike

    2009-06-01

    Given a prevalence of 0.5-1%, the epilepsies belong to the most common of neuropsychiatric diseases. Many clinicians think of the epilepsies as an entity beginning in early in life. However, the peak incidence of epilepsy in the developed world is now in the age group beyond 60 years. This population has thus an increasing importance; and in this paper we review and summarize the specific aspects of the clinical presentation, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of older-age patients with epilepsy. In particular, we focus on the specific psychosocial impact that epilepsy has on the life of older people and their carers.

  6. Iron deficiency in older people: interactions between food and nutrient intakes with biochemical measures of iron; further analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Doyle, W; Crawley, H; Robert, H; Bates, C J

    1999-07-01

    To quantitatively investigate relationships between food consumption, nutrient intake and biochemical markers of iron status in a population of older people. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative population of men and women aged 65 y and over. Mainland Great Britain 1268 participants (651 men and 617 women) who provided both dietary intake and blood biochemistry. 986 were living in private households and 282 were living in residential or nursing homes. Intakes of alcohol, vitamin C, protein, haem and non-haem iron and fibre were positively associated with iron status. Consumption of meat, poultry and fish were positively associated with six measures of iron status, and vegetables and potatoes with four measures. Calcium, dairy foods and tea generally had a negative association with most measures of iron status. A varied diet containing meat, poultry and fish, vegetables and fruit, with a moderate intake of alcohol will make a positive contribution to the iron status of elderly people.

  7. Causes of homelessness among older people in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Rota-Bartelink, Alice; Lipmann, Bryan

    2007-06-01

    A comparative study of the causes of new episodes of homelessness among people aged 50 years and over has been undertaken in Australia, the United States and England. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect information on the circumstances and problems that contributed to homelessness. This paper presents the findings from Australia, where information was obtained from 125 older homeless people (aged 50+ years) and their key workers in Melbourne. All three participating nations followed identical research methodologies. The factors most frequently reported by respondents as contributing to their homelessness were problems with people with whom they lived, followed by physical and mental ill-health and problems associated with the housing itself. The most frequently reported factors by case workers were problems with alcohol, followed by physical and mental health factors. This study demonstrates a significant under-utilisation of housing and support services among recently homeless older people and provides evidence that people who had previously been homeless appear to be more resigned to their homelessness than do those who had not experienced homelessness before. Significant issues relating to depression and gambling were also noted. The findings support the need for more targeted, specialised services to be developed or improved such that older homeless people can readily gain access to them and for improved collaboration or information exchange among housing providers and welfare agencies.

  8. Depression in older people is underdiagnosed.

    PubMed

    Allan, Charlotte E; Valkanova, Vyara; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2014-05-01

    Depression is more common in old age than dementia yet is underdiagnosed and undertreated. It is important to recognise that patients may not always present in a typical way, features that may indicate depression include anxiety, a preoccupation with somatic symptoms, and a change in function. The presence of understandable triggers and causes should not deter GPs from offering treatment, as long as symptoms are pervasive and continuously persist beyond two weeks. Age-related disabilities and changes to physical health are major risk factors for depression in older people. Vascular diseases, including stroke, MI and diabetes increase the risk of depression, both through direct effects on the brain and the psychological effects. Likewise, dementia is a risk factor for depression. Psychological factors such as loneliness and loss of a valued role, as well as social factors related to retirement, bereavement and reduced independence may also increase the risk. Patients with a previous history of depression and anxiety disorders are at increased risk of depression in later life. Assessment and diagnosis are largely based on a careful history. This should focus on eliciting current features of depression, which have been present for at least two weeks, and are associated with a significant change in function. It is important to exclude organic disorders including anaemia, B12 and folate deficiency, and hypothyroidism that may mimic symptoms of depressive disorder. Referral to specialist mental health services is indicated in the following cases: diagnostic difficulty, poor response to treatment, psychotic symptoms, significant psychiatric comorbidity or a risk of self-neglect or suicide.

  9. Efficacy of myringoplasty in older people.

    PubMed

    Migirov, Lela; Lipschitz, Noga; Slonimsky, Guy; Yakirevitch, Arkadi; Wolf, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The aim of current investigation was to analyze the efficacy of myringoplasty in an elderly population. The medical records of 12 males and 9 females, aged 65-90 years (mean 70.7 years), who underwent myringoplasty between 2007 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed for age, gender, co-morbidities, perforation size and location, pre- and postoperative pure tone averages of air/bone thresholds at 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000 Hz, graft material, postoperative complications and surgical outcome. The most frequent co-morbidities included hypertension (n = 8), hyperlipidemia (n = 7), diabetes mellitus (n = 5) and ischemic heart disease (n = 4). Fifteen patients had two or more co-morbidities. All surgeries were performed via a trans-canal approach. Seventeen patients had central perforations and four patients had marginal perforations. Temporalis fascia, perichondrium or chondro-perichondrial graft and fat were used as grafting material in 9, 11 and 1 patient, respectively. The post-operative complications were infection (n = 4) and tragal seroma (n = 1). Surgical outcome was successful in 16/21 patients with graft take rates of 89, 72 and 0% for temporalis fascia, perichondrium/cartilage, and fat, respectively. Pre-operative audiometric data were available for all 21 patients; however, the post-operative data were available for only 15 of them. Myringoplasty in older people was a safe procedure with a 76.2% surgical success rate in the current study. The choice of graft material, perforation size, gender and associated co-morbidities had no significant effect on achieving an intact tympanic membrane and a dry ear. The audiometric results did not show significant changes following myringoplasty.

  10. Mental Health and Wellbeing and Lifelong Learning for Older People. NIACE Briefing Sheet 92

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This briefing sheet is about lifelong learning for people aged 50+ years and how participation in learning can help maintain and improve mental health and wellbeing in later life. There is no commonly agreed definition of "older" people, and clearly people age at different rates. However, by the mid 50s, for most people retirement is…

  11. Mental Health and Wellbeing and Lifelong Learning for Older People. NIACE Briefing Sheet 92

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This briefing sheet is about lifelong learning for people aged 50+ years and how participation in learning can help maintain and improve mental health and wellbeing in later life. There is no commonly agreed definition of "older" people, and clearly people age at different rates. However, by the mid 50s, for most people retirement is…

  12. Older People and Social Connectedness: How Place and Activities Keep People Engaged

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Irene H.; Shim, Janet K.; Martinez, Airin D.; Barker, Judith C.

    2012-01-01

    To understand how older adults perceive and navigate their neighborhoods, we examined the implications of activity in their neighborhoods for their health. We interviewed 38 adults (ages 62–85) who lived in San Francisco or Oakland, California. Seven key themes emerged: (1) people express a wide range of expectations for neighborliness, from “we do not bother each other” to “we have keys to each other's houses”, (2) social distance between “other” people impede a sense of connection, (3) ethnic differences in living arrangements affect activities and activity locations, (4) people try to stay busy, (5) people able to leave their homes do many activities outside their immediate residential neighborhoods, (6) access to a car is a necessity for most, and (7) it is unusual to plan for the future when mobility might become limited. Multiple locations influence older adults' health, including residential neighborhoods. Older adults value mobility, active lives, and social connections. PMID:22272374

  13. "Cultivating health": therapeutic landscapes and older people in northern England.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Christine; Gatrell, Anthony; Bingley, Amanda

    2004-05-01

    While gardening is seen, essentially, as a leisure activity it has also been suggested that the cultivation of a garden plot offers a simple way of harnessing the healing power of nature (The therapeutic garden, Bantam Press, London, 2000). One implication of this is that gardens and gardening activity may offer a key site of comfort and a vital opportunity for an individual's emotional, physical and spiritual renewal. Understanding the extent to which this supposition may be grounded in evidence underpins this paper. In particular, we examine how communal gardening activity on allotments might contribute to the maintenance of health and well being amongst older people. Drawing on recently completed research in northern England, we examine firstly the importance of the wider landscape and the domestic garden in the lives of older people. We then turn our attention to gardening activity on allotments. Based on the findings of our study, we illustrate the sense of achievement, satisfaction and aesthetic pleasure that older people can gain from their gardening activity. However, while older people continue to enjoy the pursuit of gardening, the physical shortcomings attached to the aging process means they may increasingly require support to do so. Communal gardening on allotment sites, we maintain, creates inclusionary spaces in which older people benefit from gardening activity in a mutually supportive environment that combats social isolation and contributes to the development of their social networks. By enhancing the quality of life and emotional well being of older people, we maintain that communal gardening sites offer one practical way in which it may be possible to develop a 'therapeutic landscape'.

  14. Chronic Illnesses and Depressive Symptoms Among Older People: Functional Limitations as a Mediator and Self-Perceptions of Aging as a Moderator.

    PubMed

    Han, Jina

    2017-05-01

    This research examined the mediation of functional limitations in the relationship between chronic illnesses and depressive symptoms among older Americans along with tests for the moderation of self-perceptions of aging. Data from the Health and Retirement Study (2008, 2010, and 2012) were used. Longitudinal mediation models were tested using a sample of 3,382 Americans who responded to psychosocial questions and were over 65 years old in 2008. Functional limitations mediated the linkage between chronic illnesses and depressive symptoms. Negative self-perceptions of aging exacerbated the effects of chronic illnesses on depressive symptoms. Health care professionals should be aware of depressive symptoms in older adults reporting chronic illnesses and particularly in those reporting functional limitations. To decrease the risk of depressive symptoms caused by chronic illnesses, negative self-perceptions of aging may need to be challenged.

  15. [Healthcare Services for Older People: From Fragmentation to Integration].

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Kung

    2015-10-01

    The percentage of people aged 65 years and older is estimated to exceed 20% of the total population in Taiwan, which makes Taiwan a "super-aged" country. This rapid demographic transition, unprecedented in human history, presents unique challenges. The health characteristics of older people differ fundamentally from their younger adult peers, especially in terms of the critical impact of disability on health. Therefore, special attention to the interrelationship between multimorbidity and disability is required in order to provide healthcare services that are appropriate and effective. The integrated care approach of Europe, which concurrently addresses the needs of health and social care, has become the important foundation of social security in the European Union. The healthcare services available to older people in Taiwan, including outpatient, inpatient and intermediate care, are far from satisfactory and extensively fragmented. For older people with multimorbidities and / or disabilities, these fragmented healthcare services result in inconvenient access to healthcare and impaired quality of care and quality of life. At present, Taiwan has developed various healthcare models such as integrated outpatient services, age-friendly healthcare facilities, post-acute care, and a 10-year long-term care program. However, the development of these healthcare models clearly demonstrates the need for service integration. Integrated care promotes seamless case management, which aims to provide smooth access for older people with multiple, complex care needs to essential services and comprehensive healthcare benefits. During the process, the integration of services per se should be prioritized over the prompt merging of departments or facilities. The development and success of integrated care depend on the complete understanding of and promotion by the frontline working staff.

  16. Sustainability literacy of older people in retirement villages.

    PubMed

    Xia, Bo; Zuo, Jian; Skitmore, Martin; Buys, Laurie; Hu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    With many developed countries experiencing the aging of the population, older people play a large role in contributing to environmental problems but also to environmental solutions. The purpose of this research is to understand the awareness and behavior of current older people living in retirement villages towards sustainability development. To achieve this, a sustainability literacy survey was conducted with 65 older residents of a private retirement village located 10 Km outside the Brisbane, Australia's central business district (CBD). Most of residents recognized the importance of environment protection and would like to lead a more environmentally friendly lifestyle. In addition, the majority were willing to pay higher prices for a living environment with sustainable features. The importance of positive social communications was emphasized with most residents having established good relationships with others in the village. The findings provide an important insight into consumer perspectives regarding the sustainable features that should and can be incorporated into the village planning and development.

  17. Sustainability Literacy of Older People in Retirement Villages

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Bo; Zuo, Jian; Skitmore, Martin; Buys, Laurie; Hu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    With many developed countries experiencing the aging of the population, older people play a large role in contributing to environmental problems but also to environmental solutions. The purpose of this research is to understand the awareness and behavior of current older people living in retirement villages towards sustainability development. To achieve this, a sustainability literacy survey was conducted with 65 older residents of a private retirement village located 10 Km outside the Brisbane, Australia's central business district (CBD). Most of residents recognized the importance of environment protection and would like to lead a more environmentally friendly lifestyle. In addition, the majority were willing to pay higher prices for a living environment with sustainable features. The importance of positive social communications was emphasized with most residents having established good relationships with others in the village. The findings provide an important insight into consumer perspectives regarding the sustainable features that should and can be incorporated into the village planning and development. PMID:25587448

  18. Competence in advanced older people nursing: development of 'nursing older people--competence evaluation tool'.

    PubMed

    Bing-Jonsson, Pia Cecilie; Bjørk, Ida Torunn; Hofoss, Dag; Kirkevold, Marit; Foss, Christina

    2015-03-01

    Community care is characterised by a move from institutionalised to home-based care, a large patient population with comorbidities including cognitive failure, and nurses who struggle to keep up with their many competence demands. No study has examined the competence of nurses based on present demands, and an instrument for this purpose is lacking. We conducted a Delphi study based in Norway to develop the substantial content of a new competence measurement instrument. We sought to reach consensus regarding which nursing staff competence is most relevant to meet the current needs of older patients. A total of 42 experts participated in three consecutive panel investigations. Snowball sampling was used. The experts were clinicians, leaders, teachers, researchers and relatives of older people who required nursing. In Round 1, all experts were interviewed individually. These data were analysed using meaning coding and categorisation. In Rounds 2 and 3, the data were collected using electronic questionnaires and analysed quantitatively with SPSS. The experts agreed that health promotion as well as disease prevention, treatment, palliative care, ethics and regulation, assessment and taking action, covering basic needs, communication and documentation, responsibility and activeness, cooperation, and attitudes towards older people were the most relevant categories of competence. The experts showed clear consensus regarding the most relevant and current competence for nurses of older people. Assuming that older people in need of health care have the same requirements across cultures, this study's findings could be used as a basis for international studies. Those who nurse older people require competence that is complex and comprehensive. One way to evaluate nursing competence is through evaluation tools such as the Nursing Older People--Competence Evaluation tool. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. HIV/AIDS prevention and care services and services for the aging: bridging the gap between service systems to assist older people.

    PubMed

    Linsk, Nathan L; Fowler, Jane P; Klein, Susan J

    2003-06-01

    The service systems for patients with or at risk for HIV infection/AIDS and for the aging must work together to address the needs of older adults who engage in HIV risk behaviors or who are HIV infected. Health and human service organizations miss opportunities for service integration in prevention, care, and supportive services. The authors illustrate critical issues and offer strategies to address these missed opportunities.

  20. Exercise for improving balance in older people.

    PubMed

    Howe, Tracey E; Rochester, Lynn; Neil, Fiona; Skelton, Dawn A; Ballinger, Claire

    2011-11-09

    In older adults, diminished balance is associated with reduced physical functioning and an increased risk of falling. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2007. To examine the effects of exercise interventions on balance in older people, aged 60 and over, living in the community or in institutional care. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 1), MEDLINE and EMBASE (to February 2011). Randomised controlled studies testing the effects of exercise interventions on balance in older people. The primary outcomes of the review were clinical measures of balance. Pairs of review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data from studies. Data were pooled where appropriate. This update included 94 studies (62 new) with 9,917 participants. Most participants were women living in their own home.Most trials were judged at unclear risk of selection bias, generally reflecting inadequate reporting of the randomisation methods, but at high risk of performance bias relating to lack of participant blinding, which is largely unavoidable for these trials. Most studies only reported outcome up to the end of the exercise programme.There were eight categories of exercise programmes. These are listed below together with primary measures of balance for which there was some evidence of a statistically significant effect at the end of the exercise programme. Some trials tested more than one type of exercise. Crucially, the evidence for each outcome was generally from only a few of the trials for each exercise category. 1. Gait, balance, co-ordination and functional tasks (19 studies of which 10 provided primary outcome data): Timed Up & Go test (mean difference (MD) -0.82 s; 95% CI -1.56 to -0.08 s, 114 participants, 4 studies); walking speed (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.43; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.75, 156 participants, 4 studies), and the Berg Balance Scale (MD 3

  1. Older people's conceptualization of elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Brian J; Killick, Campbell; O'Brien, Marita; Begley, Emer; Carter-Anand, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study used data from eight focus groups involving 58 people aged over 65 years in both urban and rural settings across Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Following training, four older people assisted in facilitation and analysis as peer researchers. Increasing lack of respect within society was experienced as abusive. The vulnerability of older people to abuse was perceived as relating to the need for help and support, where standing up for themselves might have repercussions for the person's health or safety. Emotional abusiveness was viewed as underpinning all forms of abuse, and as influencing its experienced severity. Respondents' views as to whether an action was abusive required an understanding of intent: some actions that professionals might view as abusive were regarded as acceptable if they were in the older person's best interests. Preventing abuse requires a wide-ranging approach including rebuilding respect for older people within society. Procedures to prevent elder abuse need to take into account the emotional impact of family relationships and intent, not just a description of behaviors that have occurred.

  2. 10 Hz flicker improves recognition memory in older people

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jonathan; Ramaswamy, Deepa; Oulhaj, Abderrahim

    2006-01-01

    Background 10 Hz electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha rhythms correlate with memory performance. Alpha and memory decline in older people. We wished to test if alpha-like EEG activity contributes to memory formation. Flicker can elicit alpha-like EEG activity. We tested if alpha-frequency flicker enhances memory in older people. Pariticpants aged 67–92 identified short words that followed 1 s of flicker at 9.0 Hz, 9.5 Hz, 10.0 Hz, 10.2 Hz, 10.5 Hz, 11.0 Hz, 11.5 Hz or 500 Hz. A few minutes later, we tested participants' recognition of the words (without flicker). Results Flicker frequencies close to 10 Hz (9.5–11.0 Hz) facilitated the identification of the test words in older participants. The same flicker frequencies increased recognition of the words more than other frequencies (9.0 Hz, 11.5 Hz and 500 Hz), irrespective of age. Conclusion The frequency-specificity of flicker's effects in our participants paralleled the power spectrum of EEG alpha in the general population. This indicates that alpha-like EEG activity may subserve memory processes. Flicker may be able to help memory problems in older people. PMID:16515710

  3. Preserving vision and promoting visual health in older people.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Janet

    2017-06-30

    Reduction in vision is not inevitable but a manageable consequence of getting older. Some physiological and disease processes associated with ageing may reduce vision and, in some cases, this reduction in vision cannot be treated. Much of it can be prevented, however. Prevention of visual loss is one of the keys to the maintenance of independence in older people. This article describes the main visual conditions associated with ageing and considers what can and should be done by the older person and their network of friends, relatives and carers to ensure that vision is maintained by the early detection and treatment of eye problems and that independence is maintained by putting strategies in place to help the person manage any untreatable vision loss.

  4. Training of Residential Social Care Staff to Meet the Needs of Older People with Intellectual Disabilities who Develop Age-Related Health Problems: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Northway, Ruth; Jenkins, Robert; Holland-Hart, Daniella

    2017-09-01

    Despite awareness of the age related health needs of people with intellectual disabilities little is known regarding how residential social care staff are prepared to meet such needs. Data were gathered via semi-structured interviews from 14 managers of supported living settings. Transcripts were thematically analysed. Staff may work in supported living settings with no prior experience of care work, and previous knowledge/experience of supporting people in relation to their health is not required. Whilst health related training is provided there is a lack of specific training regarding healthy ageing, and training seems to be reactive to changing needs of tenants meaning that proactive monitoring for changes in health status may not occur. Whilst some training is provided for residential social care staff in relation to health and ageing a more proactive approach is required which should include a focus on healthy ageing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic alterations in older people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Emily; Trenaman, Shanna C; Rockwood, Kenneth; Hilmer, Sarah N

    2017-06-01

    The number of people with dementia internationally is increasing. Older adults with dementia are prescribed multiple medications, both to treat dementia symptoms and to manage their other medical conditions. Dementia is correlated with increasing age and frailty; this provides insight into how the efficacy and toxicity of medications may be altered in people with dementia. Areas covered: This review discusses the current evidence of the alterations in pharmacokinetics that can occur with aging, frailty and in people with dementia. The evidence is presented via the four primary pharmacokinetic processes (absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination). Additionally, distribution into the brain, sex considerations and potential pharmacodynamic alterations in older people with dementia are discussed. Expert opinion: While the evidence is limited, people with dementia appear to be at a higher risk of toxicity of some medications due to altered pharmacokinetic processes and pharmacodynamics. There are a number of limitations to the research and there are still significant gaps in knowledge in this field. Proactive, ongoing review of the appropriateness of choice of medication, dose and whether or not a medication is required at all is necessary for achieving quality use of medications in people living with dementia.

  6. Training of Residential Social Care Staff to Meet the Needs of Older People with Intellectual Disabilities Who Develop Age-Related Health Problems: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northway, Ruth; Jenkins, Robert; Holland-Hart, Daniella

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite awareness of the age related health needs of people with intellectual disabilities little is known regarding how residential social care staff are prepared to meet such needs. Methods: Data were gathered via semi-structured interviews from 14 managers of supported living settings. Transcripts were thematically analysed.…

  7. Orthostatic hypotension and subjective sleep quality in older people.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Joanna E; Fan, Chie W; Kenny, Rose Ann; Lawlor, Brian A

    2012-01-01

    Poor sleep quality and orthostatic hypotension are common complaints in an older population, and both are related to factors such as polypharmacy and depression. However, it is not known whether there is a direct association between the two. Our objective is to investigate a potential association between orthostatic blood pressure response and subjective sleep quality in older people. A within-subjects, cross-sectional design embedded in a larger longitudinal study design. Participants were recruited from the community to visit the TRIL clinic at St James's Hospital, where they underwent a structured medical and psychosocial assessment. A total of 505 community dwelling adults aged 60+ (321 females, mean age 72.44) were participated in this study. Orthostatic blood pressure responses were recorded during an active stand using Finometer equipment, and health-related factors such as pain ratings, co-morbidities, polypharmacy, timed up and go, Mini-Mental State Examination score, body mass index, as well as depression, anxiety, age and gender, were also recorded. Self-reported sleep quality was also assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The results showed that timed up and go, polypharmacy, depression, anxiety, gender and delayed recovery of blood pressure at orthostasis were associated with subjective poor sleep quality. There is an association between subjective sleep quality and delayed recovery of blood pressure at orthostasis, independent of mental health or polypharmacy effects, in older adults. This link may have implications for the management of sleep disorders in older people.

  8. Association between low-grade albuminuria and frailty among community-dwelling middle-aged and older people: a cross-sectional analysis from I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Chin; Hsu, Chien-Yi; Chang, Ting-Yung; Huang, Po-Hsun; Liu, Li-Kuo; Chen, Liang-Kung; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Frailty is characterized by decreased physiological reserve and increased vulnerability to atherosclerosis and subsequent mortality. Recently, low-grade albuminuria has been proposed as an atherosclerotic risk factor. We aimed to investigate the relationship between low-grade albuminuria and frailty by using cross-sectional data among community-dwelling middle-aged and older people. Totally, 1,441 inhabitants of I-Lan County with normal urinary albumin excretion (urine albumin to urine creatinine ratio [UACR] <30 mg/g) were enrolled (677 men; mean age 63 ± 9 years, range from 50 to 91 years old). Assessment of frailty was based on the ‘Fried frailty phenotype’ criteria, including weight loss, grip strength, exhaustion, slowness and low physical activity. The study population was stratified into quartiles according to UACR levels. Age, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, insulin resistance, fasting glucose and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were increased with the increment of UACR (P for trend <0.05). The prevalence of prefrailty/frailty and its components increased across the UACR quartiles. A multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that UACR was independently associated with the likelihood of prefrailty/frailty (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.01–1.27). In conclusion, low-grade albuminuria is associated with the increased prevalence of prefrailty/frailty. PMID:28000719

  9. Could more than three million older people in England be at risk of alcohol-related harm? A cross-sectional analysis of proposed age-specific drinking limits.

    PubMed

    Knott, Craig S; Scholes, Shaun; Shelton, Nicola J

    2013-09-01

    to determine the impact of recently proposed age-specific alcohol consumption limits on the proportion and number of older people classified at risk of alcohol-related harm. nationally representative cross-sectional population data from the Health Survey for England (HSE). adults with valid alcohol consumption data, comprising 14,718 participants from 2003 and 14,939 from 2008. the prevalence of alcohol consumption in excess of existing and recently proposed consumption limits, plus associated population estimates. the number of individuals aged 65 or over and drinking in excess of daily recommended limits would have increased 2.5-fold to over 3 million in 2008 under age-specific recommendations proposed in a report from the Royal College of Psychiatrists, equating to an at-risk population 809,000 individuals greater than found within the 16-24 age group during the same year. Suggested revisions to existing binge drinking classifications would have defined almost 1,200,000 people aged 65 or over as hazardous consumers of alcohol in 2008-a 3.6-fold increase over existing definitions. age-specific drinking recommendations proposed in the Royal College of Psychiatrists Report would increase the number of older drinkers classified as hazardous alcohol consumers to a level greater than found among young adults aged 16-24.

  10. [Quality of life for older people under oncological treatment].

    PubMed

    Ishitani, K; Murakami, S; Kishi, A

    1992-09-01

    Recently, an argument over the medical treatment of older patients has arisen in the field of clinical oncology. In the past oncological treatment has been geared to young and middle-aged people. Currently, oncological treatment takes the peculiarities of older people into consideration. Firstly, it highlights the multidimensionality of Quality of Life (QOL) as an important element, with subjectivity the second element. This notion has gained a worldwide consensus. The domain of "multidimensionality" consists of: 1. Physical status and functional abilities 2. Psychological status and well-being 3. Social interaction 4. Economic status and factors With these factors in mind, different questions are asked, depending on the condition of each patient, in order to let the patient form his/her own judgment on possible medical treatment. However, it is sometimes difficult for older people to make such judgments due to problems such as depression or their diminishing mental ability. Also, it is impossible to define life satisfaction indiscriminately without regard to individual outlook. QOL for older people is generally characterized by "individuality" which includes: 1) A person's integrity; 2) independence; and 3) autonomy. Though these elements are taken into account in adopting the above-mentioned methodology, the field of clinical oncology's two concepts of QOL still apply in principle. Flexibility to put emphasis on different elements of the domain will be necessary. Even though QOL for older people is a matter of subjective judgment, the "sound judgment of professionals" (objective and scientific judgment of caregivers) can be adopted in cases when there is difficulty in communication.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Robotic and Sensor Technologies for Mobility in Older People.

    PubMed

    Penteridis, Lazaros; D'Onofrio, Grazia; Sancarlo, Daniele; Giuliani, Francesco; Ricciardi, Francesco; Cavallo, Filippo; Greco, Antonio; Trochidis, Ilias; Gkiokas, Alexander

    2017-06-28

    Maintaining independent mobility is fundamental to independent living and to the quality of life of older people. Robotic and sensor technologies may offer a lot of potential and can make a significant difference in the lives of older people and to their primary caregivers. The aim of this study was to provide a presentation of the methods that are used up till now for analysis and evaluation of human mobility utilizing sensor technologies and to give the state of the art in robotic platforms for supporting older people with mobility limitations. The literature was reviewed and systematic reviews of cohort studies and other authoritative reports were identified. The selection criteria included (1) patients with age ≥60 years; (2) patients with unstable gait, with or without recurrent falls; (3) patients with slow movements, short strides, and little trunk movement; (4) sensor technologies that are currently used for mobility evaluation; and (5) robotic technologies that can serve as a supporting companion for older people with mobility limitations. One hundred eighty-one studies published up until February 2017 were identified, of which 36 were included. Two categories of research were identified from the review regarding the robot and sensor technologies: (1) sensor technologies for mobility analysis and (2) robots for supporting older people with mobility limitations. Potential for robotic and sensor technologies can be taken advantage of for evaluation and support at home for elder persons with mobility limitations in an automated way without the need of the physical presence of any medical personnel, reducing the stress of caregivers.

  12. What Do Older People Learn from Young People? Intergenerational Learning in "Day Centre" Community Settings in Malta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiteri, Damian

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses what motivates older people to attend "day centres" in Malta and what they believe that they derive from young people who carry out their placements at these day "centres" These young people, who are aged 16-17, attend a vocational college in Malta and are studying health and social care. The study is based…

  13. What Do Older People Learn from Young People? Intergenerational Learning in "Day Centre" Community Settings in Malta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiteri, Damian

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses what motivates older people to attend "day centres" in Malta and what they believe that they derive from young people who carry out their placements at these day "centres" These young people, who are aged 16-17, attend a vocational college in Malta and are studying health and social care. The study is based…

  14. How Older People Position Their Late-Life Childlessness: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ruth E. S.; Wiles, Janine L.

    2013-01-01

    This research explored how older people describe their paths to late-life childlessness. In-depth accounts from 38 childless older people, age 63-93, highlight the complex journeys and diverse meanings of childlessness for male and female participants, single and partnered, including some who had outlived children. Positioning theory is used to…

  15. Older People Becoming Successful ICT Learners over Time: Challenges and Strategies through an Ethnographical Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayago, Sergio; Forbes, Paula; Blat, Josep

    2013-01-01

    A growing ageing population and an increasing reliance on information and communication technologies (ICT) to conduct activities associated with daily living means that addressing how older people learn to use ICT is timely and important. By drawing on a four-year ethnographical study with 420 older people in two different environments, this paper…

  16. Not Quite Color Blind: Ethnic and Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Older People among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Houck, Margaret M.; Olatosi, Bankole A.

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward older people can influence how they are treated and their cognitive and physical health. The populations of the United States and many other countries have become more ethnically diverse, and are aging. Yet little research examines how ethnic diversity affects attitudes toward older people. Our study addresses this research gap.…

  17. Older People Becoming Successful ICT Learners over Time: Challenges and Strategies through an Ethnographical Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayago, Sergio; Forbes, Paula; Blat, Josep

    2013-01-01

    A growing ageing population and an increasing reliance on information and communication technologies (ICT) to conduct activities associated with daily living means that addressing how older people learn to use ICT is timely and important. By drawing on a four-year ethnographical study with 420 older people in two different environments, this paper…

  18. Not Quite Color Blind: Ethnic and Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Older People among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Houck, Margaret M.; Olatosi, Bankole A.

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward older people can influence how they are treated and their cognitive and physical health. The populations of the United States and many other countries have become more ethnically diverse, and are aging. Yet little research examines how ethnic diversity affects attitudes toward older people. Our study addresses this research gap.…

  19. The Representation of Older People in East Asian Television Advertisements.

    PubMed

    Prieler, Michael; Ivanov, Alex; Hagiwara, Shigeru

    2016-11-15

    In this study, 432 television advertisements from Hong Kong, Japan, and South Korea were analyzed to determine their representations of older people. Findings demonstrate that in East Asian advertisements, older people are highly underrepresented, appear in major roles, mostly alongside younger people, and older men clearly outnumber older women. The other variables investigated (i.e., setting and product categories) led to no conclusive findings for the three societies. In short, our study, employing ethnolinguistic vitality theory to analyze television advertisements, demonstrates how East Asian societies greatly marginalize older people. Potential effects of such representations are discussed using social cognitive theory and cultivation theory.

  20. The Market for Community Services for Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hereford, Russell W.

    The Supportive Services Program for Older Persons is designed to demonstrate that a private market for home and community-based health related services can be developed in response to the demand expressed by older people and their families. The objective of the program is to expand the service options available to older people by letting market…

  1. Perceptions of disaster preparedness among older people in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Myoungran; Lee, Mijung; Tullmann, Dorothy

    2016-03-01

    Older people are a major vulnerable population. During disasters, given their physical frailty, lower social status, loss of medications and medical care, the vulnerability of older people increases. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of older people in Korea on various aspects of disaster preparedness to better understand their special needs and to facilitate appropriate disaster planning. The study was qualitative and used focus group interviews with 12 older people in one major city and one rural area of South Korea. Four themes were identified by the analysis of the interviews: defenceless state, reality of accepting limitations, strong will to live, importance of disaster preparedness governmental efforts for the older people. Findings indicated that preparation of shelters and transportation was critical to help older people survive in times of disasters and suggested that there should be active involvement of the government in terms of disaster planning, managing and preparing older people for disasters. In addition, healthy older people can be assets to disaster relief efforts by providing practical and emotional support for the most fragile older people. Older people can also provide knowledge of their special needs to the government to improve their disaster response policy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Risk factors for hip fracture among institutionalised older people.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian Sheng; Sambrook, Philip N; Simpson, Judy M; Cameron, Ian D; Cumming, Robert G; Seibel, Markus J; Lord, Stephen R; March, Lyn M

    2009-07-01

    risk factors for hip fracture in community-dwelling individuals have been extensively studied, but there have been fewer studies of institutionalised older people. a total of 1,894 older people (1,433 females, 461 males; mean age 86 years, SD 7.1 years) were recruited from 52 nursing homes and 30 intermediate-care nursing care facilities in Australia during March 1999 and February 2003. We assessed clinical risk factors for hip fracture and skeletal fragility by calcaneus broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) at baseline and then followed up for fracture for 4 years. Hip fractures were validated by x-ray reports. Survival analysis with age as a time-dependent covariate was used to analyse the data. during a mean follow-up period of 2.65 years (SD 1.38), 201 hip fractures in 191 residents were recorded, giving an overall hip fracture incidence rate of 4.0% per person year (males 3.6% and females 4.1%). Residents living in intermediate-care hostels had a higher crude hip fracture rate (4.6% vs. 3.0%) than those living in high-care nursing homes. In multivariate analysis, an increased risk of hip fracture was significantly associated with older age, cognitive impairment, a history of fracture since age 50, lower body weight, longer lower leg length and poorer balance in intermediate-care hostel residents, but not with lower BUA. institutionalised older people, who are at a higher risk of hip fracture than community-dwelling individuals, have differences in some risk factors for hip fracture that should be considered in targeting intervention programs.

  3. Technology and "natural death": a study of older people.

    PubMed

    Seymour, J

    2003-10-01

    This paper reports a qualitative study in which the aim was to examine older peoples' beliefs and risk perceptions regarding the use of innovative health technologies in end-of-life care and to relate these beliefs to their ideas about 'natural death'. Pictures, story boards and media extracts were used during interviews and focus groups, and the research team was assisted by an advisory group which included participants. Seventy-seven older people from three age cohorts (65-74; 75-84; 85 years and over) and from three contrasting areas of Sheffield, UK took part. Key messages are for the need to ensure that 'life prolonging' and 'basic care' technologies are provided in ways that respect a variety of understandings about love, comfort, obligation and burden during dying. The study highlights: the role that older people have in caring for the dying and their needs for support and training; information needs about issues of ethics, clinical practice and advance care planning; and the willingness of older research participants to discuss these matters and to enjoy the process of so doing. Developing a programme of public education and information was identified as an issue which should be addressed urgently if older people and their family carers are to be better equipped to make informed choices about these aspects of care. The study draws together issues previously considered under the largely separate remits of palliative care and gerontology. It is being used to provide advice on palliative and end-of-life care, especially to nursing and medical practitioners and to voluntary sector organisations as they begin to assess the need for action in this field.

  4. Delusion-like experiences in older people with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Gerard J; Steele, Sarah J; Pachana, Nancy A

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the occurrence of psychotic or quasi-psychotic experiences in older people with anxiety disorders. We used a cross-sectional national probability sample of community-residing individuals to investigate the prevalence and correlates of delusion-like experiences in older people with DSM-IV anxiety disorders. The 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being (NSMHWB) included 1,905 persons between the ages of 65 and 85 years. Anxiety disorder diagnoses were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI v3). Participants were asked about three types of delusion-like experiences: thought control or interference, special meaning, and special powers. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between a 12-month history of any anxiety disorder and the presence of these delusion-like experiences, adjusting for several potential confounders. Eighty-two of 1,905 (4.3%) older people met criteria for an anxiety disorder over the previous 12 months. Of these, six reported delusion-like experiences, whereas the prevalence of these experiences among older people without anxiety disorder was 26/1,822 (7.3% vs. 1.4%; χ(2) = 16.5; p = 0.000). In a logistic regression model, male gender (OR 0.38; p = 0.019), separated marital status (OR 4.86; p = 0.017), and the presence of anxiety disorder (OR 5.33; p = 0.001) were independently associated with delusion-like experiences, whereas MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination) score, general medical conditions and affective disorder were not. In this cross-sectional study, self-reported delusion-like experiences occurred at increased prevalence among community-residing older persons with anxiety disorder. More work is needed to clarify the nature and significance of these findings.

  5. Attitudes towards caring for older people: literature review and methodology.

    PubMed

    Kydd, Angela; Wild, Deidre

    2013-04-01

    Care of older people is often referred to as a 'Cinderella' service and is not seen as an attractive career option in health care, but with the global population continuing to age, caring for this group will become increasingly important. This article outlines the literature that formed the basis for two studies investigating the attitudes of healthcare staff towards working with older people, including respondents' perceptions of other healthcare professionals' attitudes toward this important area of work. The Multifactorial Attitudes Questionnaire was designed to examine five major themes identified from the literature: ageism; learning environment; working environment; professional esteem; and specialist status. This study is presented in two parts: this article discusses the literature and the design of the questionnaire. The second article, to be published in a subsequent issue of the journal, presents the results from two studies done in Scotland, the first in 1999, with a replication study in 2009.

  6. Can older people remember medication reminders presented using synthetic speech?

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, Maria K; Johnson, Christine; Campbell, Pauline E; DePlacido, Christine G; McKinstry, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Reminders are often part of interventions to help older people adhere to complicated medication regimes. Computer-generated (synthetic) speech is ideal for tailoring reminders to different medication regimes. Since synthetic speech may be less intelligible than human speech, in particular under difficult listening conditions, we assessed how well older people can recall synthetic speech reminders for medications. 44 participants aged 50–80 with no cognitive impairment recalled reminders for one or four medications after a short distraction. We varied background noise, speech quality, and message design. Reminders were presented using a human voice and two synthetic voices. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Reminder recall was satisfactory if reminders were restricted to one familiar medication, regardless of the voice used. Repeating medication names supported recall of lists of medications. We conclude that spoken reminders should build on familiar information and be integrated with other adherence support measures. PMID:25080534

  7. Costs of formal care for frail older people in England: the resource implications study of the MRC cognitive function and ageing study (RIS MRC CFAS).

    PubMed

    McNamee, P; Gregson, B A; Buck, D; Bamford, C H; Bond, J; Wright, K

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to quantify service use and costs of supporting frail older people at home in the community, using data collected in a longitudinal multicentre stratified randomised study for 1055 mentally frail, physically frail, and mentally and physically frail subjects. Average costs per person per week were found to total 64.45 Pounds Sterling, with a small number of services accounting for a large proportion of the total costs. The level of services offered by the nonstatutory voluntary and private sectors was found to be small. To highlight issues for policy makers, the extent of cost variations between a number of different subgroups were calculated. These bivariate analyses revealed substantial variation in costs, especially according to household structure, type of frailty, whether admission to continuing care accommodation occurred and survival. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that 26% of the variation in log average weekly costs could be explained by a number of socio-demographic and health status variables. A particularly close relationship was observed between costs and whether admission to continuing care accommodation occurred, highlighting a need for policy-makers to examine the nature and scale of provision of alternative community based care packages. The results demonstrate that descriptive cost data such as those presented can provide information useful to the planning process, enabling more informed choices to be made over the provision of services for particular groups of people.

  8. A study of relationships between bone-related vitamins and minerals, related risk markers, and subsequent mortality in older British people: the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of People Aged 65 Years and Over.

    PubMed

    Bates, C J; Hamer, M; Mishra, G D

    2012-02-01

    Follow-up of a British national survey of older people found that in men, all-cause mortality was predicted by baseline plasma concentrations of phosphorus, albumin, creatinine and α1-antichymotrypsin, and food energy intake and in women by plasma alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, α1-antichymotrypsin, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (marginally), and phosphorus intake. Predictive power, for all-cause mortality, of bone-related vitamin and mineral indices and intakes, measured at baseline (primary objective), was studied in the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey (community-living subset) of People Aged 65 Years and Over. A secondary objective was to identify cross-sectional relationships between indices at baseline to help explain mortality predictions. Mortality status was recorded for 1,054 (mean age 76.6 ± 7.4 years, 49.0% female) participants from baseline survey in 1994/1995 until September 2008. Seventy-four per cent of male and 62% of female participants died. Cox proportional hazards models were used to relate baseline nutrient and risk marker estimates to subsequent survival. Results below 1.0 signified lower risk at greater nutrient (status or intake) values and vice versa. In both sexes, all-cause mortality was significantly predicted by body weight and mid-upper arm circumference. In men, it was predicted by baseline plasma concentrations (per SD) of: phosphorus (hazard ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.30), albumin (hazard ratio 0.84, 95% CI = 0.74-0.94), creatinine (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% CI = 1.08-1.33) and α(1)-antichymotrypsin (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% CI = 1.11-1.33). In women, it was predicted by plasma albumin (hazard ratio 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72-0.96), alkaline phosphatase (hazard ratio 1.08, 95% CI = 1.01-1.16), creatinine (hazard ratio 1.37, 95% CI = 1.13-1.66), α(1)-antichymotrypsin (hazard ratio 1.27, 95% CI = 1.11-1.45) and marginally by 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI = 0

  9. Perceptions of older people among Chinese adolescents: conceptual and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    So, Ka Man; Shek, Daniel T L

    2011-01-01

    Ageism against older people exists worldwide almost among all age groups and adolescents are of no exception. Numerous studies with specific reference to adolescents of different age, gender, educational level, socioeconomic background, knowledge about aging and experiences with older people showed that they had different perceptions of and attitudes toward older people, but such findings are not entirely conclusive. The situation of Hong Kong is even more confused as there are few studies examining this topic. It is argued that the conflicting findings are largely due to conceptual and methodological problems in the studies. This paper examines the conceptual and methodological issues in this area and outlines suggestions for future research.

  10. Detection of mild cognitive impairment in people older than 65 years of age and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors (DECRIVAM)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies centered on the detection of cognitive impairment and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in elderly people have gained special relevance in recent years. Knowledge of the cardiovascular risk factors that may be associated to cognitive impairment could be very useful for introducing treatments in early stages - thereby possibly contributing to improve patient quality of life. The present study explores cognitive performance in people over 65 years of age in Salamanca (Spain), with special emphasis on the identification of early symptoms of cognitive impairment, with the purpose of detecting mild cognitive impairment and of studying the relationships between this clinical situation and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods/Design A longitudinal study is contemplated. The reference population will consist of 420 people over 65 years of age enrolled through randomized sampling stratified by healthcare area, and who previously participated in another study. Measurement: a) Sociodemographic variables; b) Cardiovascular risk factors; c) Comorbidity; d) Functional level for daily life activities; and e) Study of higher cognitive functions based on a neuropsychological battery especially adapted to the evaluation of elderly people. Discussion We hope that this study will afford objective information on the representative prevalence of cognitive impairment in the population over 65 years of age in Salamanca. We also hope to obtain data on the relationship between cognitive impairment and cardiovascular risk factors in this specific population group. Based on the results obtained, we also will be able to establish the usefulness of some of the screening tests applied during the study, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination and the 7 Minute Screen test. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01327196 PMID:21708036

  11. Draw a Young and an Older Person: Schoolchildren's Images of Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Feliciano; Faba, Josep

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore stereotypes of older people as expressed in drawings by a sample of primary school children. Sixty children from fourth to sixth grades (30 boys and 30 girls aged 9 to 12 years) were asked to draw a young man, a young woman, an old man, and an old woman. The drawings were content analyzed. Children in our…

  12. Frailty, body mass index, and abdominal obesity in older people.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Ruth E; Lang, Iain A; Llewellyn, David J; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2010-04-01

    Frailty has been conceptualized as a wasting disorder with weight loss as a key component. However, obesity is associated with disability and with physiological markers also recently linked with frailty, for example, increased inflammation and low antioxidant capacity. We aimed to explore the relationship between frailty and body mass index (BMI) in older people. Data were from 3,055 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older who participated in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Frailty was defined both by an index of accumulated deficits and by the Fried phenotype. BMI was divided into five categories, and waist circumference 88 cm or more (for women) and 102 cm or more (for men) was defined as high. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, wealth, level of education, and smoking status. The association between BMI and frailty showed a U-shaped curve. This relationship was consistent across different frailty measures. The lowest frailty index (FI) scores and lowest prevalence of Fried frailty were in those with BMI 25-29.9. At each BMI category, and using either measure of frailty, those with a high waist circumference were significantly more frail. Both the phenotypic definition of frailty and the FI show increased levels of frailty among those with low and very high BMIs. In view of the rise in obesity in older populations, the benefits and feasibility of diet and exercise for obese older adults should be a focus of urgent inquiries. The association of frailty with a high waist circumference, even among underweight older people, suggests that truncal obesity may be an additional target for intervention.

  13. Financial inequality and gender in older people.

    PubMed

    Vlachantoni, Athina

    2012-06-01

    Gender inequalities in the financial resources in later life result from the combined effect of women's atypical life courses, which include interrupted employment records and periods of care provision, and the fact that pension systems have generally been slow in mitigating 'diversions' from continuous and full-time working lives. Gender differentials in financial resources can often result in a greater likelihood of facing poverty for older women compared to older men, and such risk can be experienced for longer periods for women, as a result of their higher life expectancy on average. For example, across the EU-27, 16% of men compared to 23% of women aged 65 and over faced a poverty risk, and at age 65, men can expect to live another 17 years on average, while women another 21 years. Although modern pension systems are increasingly recognising the diversity of women's patterns of paid and unpaid work, for example by accounting for periods of childcare in the calculation of the state pension, research continues to show a 'penalty' for women who have spent significant periods of their life providing care to children or dependent adults in and outside the household. Reducing such penalty is particularly important as population ageing and an increasing demand for formal and informal care are likely to present challenges with critical policy implications for societies and individuals alike.

  14. Guidance on the management of pain in older people.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Aza; Adams, Nicola; Bone, Margaret; Elliott, Alison M; Gaffin, Jean; Jones, Derek; Knaggs, Roger; Martin, Denis; Sampson, Liz; Schofield, Pat

    2013-03-01

    This guidance document reviews the epidemiology and management of pain in older people via a literature review of published research. The aim of this document is to inform health professionals in any care setting who work with older adults on best practice for the management of pain and to identify where there are gaps in the evidence that require further research. The assessment of pain in older people has not been covered within this guidance and can be found in a separate document (http://www.britishpainsociety.org/pub_professional.htm#assessmentpop). Substantial differences in the population, methods and definitions used in published research makes it difficult to compare across studies and impossible to determine the definitive prevalence of pain in older people. There are inconsistencies within the literature as to whether or not pain increases or decreases in this age group, and whether this is influenced by gender. There is, however, some evidence that the prevalence of pain is higher within residential care settings. The three most common sites of pain in older people are the back; leg/knee or hip and 'other' joints. In common with the working-age population, the attitudes and beliefs of older people influence all aspects of their pain experience. Stoicism is particularly evident within this cohort of people. Evidence from the literature search suggests that paracetamol should be considered as first-line treatment for the management of both acute and persistent pain, particularly that which is of musculoskeletal origin, due to its demonstrated efficacy and good safety profile. There are few absolute contraindications and relative cautions to prescribing paracetamol. It is, however, important that the maximum daily dose (4 g/24 h) is not exceeded. Non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be used with caution in older people after other safer treatments have not provided sufficient pain relief. The lowest dose should be provided

  15. PATTERNS OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENT USAGE IN DEMOGRAPHICALLY DIVERSE OLDER PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Kishiyama, Shirley S.; Leahy, Marjorie J.; Zitzelberger, Tracy A.; Guariglia, Robin; Zajdel, Daniel P.; Calvert, James F.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Oken, Barry S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To analyze dietary supplement usage data from 494 older adults, aged 65 to 101 years. Setting Community dwellers living independently of institutionalized care. Design All dietary supplements, including botanicals, were recorded to aid in assessing the health status of older adults. Participants 1) 224 individuals enrolled in a study that follows the health of persons 85 years and older (oldest-old) in Klamath County, a non-metropolitan area in southern Oregon: 2) 134 participants of oldest-old age living in the metropolitan Portland area, enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of GBE biloba extract (GBE) for dementia prevention: and 3) 136 participants, ages 65–85 years (young-old), also of the Portland area, enrolled in a study of the effects of yoga and exercise on cognition. Measurements Data verified from labels, not from self-report. Results Of the participants, 70.6% used dietary supplements. Women took supplements more often than men, and usage decreased with age. A greater percentage, 67.4%, of the non-metropolitan oldest-old took supplements, compared to 56.7% of the metropolitan oldest-old. The greatest usage, 89.7%, was in the metropolitan young-olds. All of these percentages exceed those for comparable age groups in national representative surveys. Conclusions Dietary supplement usage by older adults in these studies in Oregon exceeded that in other reports and may reflect high interest in complementary and alternative medicine. This report confirms the results of other studies showing that elderly adults, particularly women, use dietary supplements more than other segments of the US population. Researchers and clinicians should be aware of this pattern and potential conflicts with research design or treatment regimen intended for older people. PMID:15945136

  16. Genome-wide studies of verbal declarative memory in nondemented older people: the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium.

    PubMed

    Debette, Stéphanie; Ibrahim Verbaas, Carla A; Bressler, Jan; Schuur, Maaike; Smith, Albert; Bis, Joshua C; Davies, Gail; Wolf, Christiane; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chibnik, Lori B; Yang, Qiong; deStefano, Anita L; de Quervain, Dominique J F; Srikanth, Velandai; Lahti, Jari; Grabe, Hans J; Smith, Jennifer A; Priebe, Lutz; Yu, Lei; Karbalai, Nazanin; Hayward, Caroline; Wilson, James F; Campbell, Harry; Petrovic, Katja; Fornage, Myriam; Chauhan, Ganesh; Yeo, Robin; Boxall, Ruth; Becker, James; Stegle, Oliver; Mather, Karen A; Chouraki, Vincent; Sun, Qi; Rose, Lynda M; Resnick, Susan; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Kirin, Mirna; Wright, Alan F; Jonsdottir, Maria K; Au, Rhoda; Becker, Albert; Amin, Najaf; Nalls, Mike A; Turner, Stephen T; Kardia, Sharon L R; Oostra, Ben; Windham, Gwen; Coker, Laura H; Zhao, Wei; Knopman, David S; Heiss, Gerardo; Griswold, Michael E; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Vitart, Veronique; Hastie, Nicholas D; Zgaga, Lina; Rudan, Igor; Polasek, Ozren; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Schofield, Peter; Choi, Seung Hoan; Tanaka, Toshiko; An, Yang; Perry, Rodney T; Kennedy, Richard E; Sale, Michèle M; Wang, Jing; Wadley, Virginia G; Liewald, David C; Ridker, Paul M; Gow, Alan J; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M; Porteous, David; Liu, Xuan; Thomson, Russell; Armstrong, Nicola J; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Assareh, Arezoo A; Kochan, Nicole A; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Eriksson, Johan G; Vogler, Christian; van Swieten, John C; Shulman, Joshua M; Beiser, Alexa; Rotter, Jerome; Schmidt, Carsten O; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Nöthen, Markus M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Attia, John; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Amouyel, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Amieva, Hélène; Räikkönen, Katri; Garcia, Melissa; Wolf, Philip A; Hofman, Albert; Longstreth, W T; Psaty, Bruce M; Boerwinkle, Eric; DeJager, Philip L; Sachdev, Perminder S; Schmidt, Reinhold; Breteler, Monique M B; Teumer, Alexander; Lopez, Oscar L; Cichon, Sven; Chasman, Daniel I; Grodstein, Francine; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Tzourio, Christophe; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Bennett, David A; Ikram, M Arfan; Deary, Ian J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Launer, Lenore; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Seshadri, Sudha; Mosley, Thomas H

    2015-04-15

    Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragraph or word list delayed recall in 19 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, comprising 29,076 dementia- and stroke-free individuals of European descent, aged ≥45 years. Replication of suggestive associations (p < 5 × 10(-6)) was sought in 10,617 participants of European descent, 3811 African-Americans, and 1561 young adults. rs4420638, near APOE, was associated with poorer delayed recall performance in discovery (p = 5.57 × 10(-10)) and replication cohorts (p = 5.65 × 10(-8)). This association was stronger for paragraph than word list delayed recall and in the oldest persons. Two associations with specific tests, in subsets of the total sample, reached genome-wide significance in combined analyses of discovery and replication (rs11074779 [HS3ST4], p = 3.11 × 10(-8), and rs6813517 [SPOCK3], p = 2.58 × 10(-8)) near genes involved in immune response. A genetic score combining 58 independent suggestive memory risk variants was associated with increasing Alzheimer disease pathology in 725 autopsy samples. Association of memory risk loci with gene expression in 138 human hippocampus samples showed cis-associations with WDR48 and CLDN5, both related to ubiquitin metabolism. This largest study to date exploring the genetics of memory function in ~40,000 older individuals revealed genome-wide associations and suggested an involvement of immune and ubiquitin pathways. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-wide Studies of Verbal Declarative Memory in Nondemented Older People: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Debette, Stéphanie; Ibrahim Verbaas, Carla A.; Bressler, Jan; Schuur, Maaike; Smith, Albert; Bis, Joshua C.; Davies, Gail; Wolf, Christiane; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chibnik, Lori B.; Yang, Qiong; deStefano, Anita L.; de Quervain, Dominique J.F.; Srikanth, Velandai; Lahti, Jari; Grabe, Hans J.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Priebe, Lutz; Yu, Lei; Karbalai, Nazanin; Hayward, Caroline; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Petrovic, Katja; Fornage, Myriam; Chauhan, Ganesh; Yeo, Robin; Boxall, Ruth; Becker, James; Stegle, Oliver; Mather, Karen A.; Chouraki, Vincent; Sun, Qi; Rose, Lynda M.; Resnick, Susan; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Kirin, Mirna; Wright, Alan F.; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Au, Rhoda; Becker, Albert; Amin, Najaf; Nalls, Mike A.; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Oostra, Ben; Windham, Gwen; Coker, Laura H.; Zhao, Wei; Knopman, David S.; Heiss, Gerardo; Griswold, Michael E.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Vitart, Veronique; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Zgaga, Lina; Rudan, Igor; Polasek, Ozren; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Schofield, Peter; Choi, Seung Hoan; Tanaka, Toshiko; An, Yang; Perry, Rodney T.; Kennedy, Richard E.; Sale, Michèle M.; Wang, Jing; Wadley, Virginia G.; Liewald, David C.; Ridker, Paul M.; Gow, Alan J.; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David; Liu, Xuan; Thomson, Russell; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Assareh, Arezoo A.; Kochan, Nicole A.; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Eriksson, Johan G.; Vogler, Christian; van Swieten, John C.; Shulman, Joshua M.; Beiser, Alexa; Rotter, Jerome; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Attia, John; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Amouyel, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Amieva, Hélène; Räikkönen, Katri; Garcia, Melissa; Wolf, Philip A.; Hofman, Albert; Longstreth, W.T.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; DeJager, Philip L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Breteler, Monique M.B.; Teumer, Alexander; Lopez, Oscar L.; Cichon, Sven; Chasman, Daniel I.; Grodstein, Francine; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Tzourio, Christophe; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Bennett, David A.; Ikram, Arfan M.; Deary, Ian J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Launer, Lenore; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Seshadri, Sudha; Mosley, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. METHODS We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragraph or word list delayed recall in 19 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, comprising 29,076 dementia-and stroke-free individuals of European descent, aged ≥45 years. Replication of suggestive associations (p < 5 × 10−6) was sought in 10,617 participants of European descent, 3811 African-Americans, and 1561 young adults. RESULTS rs4420638, near APOE, was associated with poorer delayed recall performance in discovery (p = 5.57 × 10−10) and replication cohorts (p = 5.65 × 10−8). This association was stronger for paragraph than word list delayed recall and in the oldest persons. Two associations with specific tests, in subsets of the total sample, reached genome-wide significance in combined analyses of discovery and replication (rs11074779 [HS3ST4], p = 3.11 × 10−8, and rs6813517 [SPOCK3], p = 2.58 × 10−8) near genes involved in immune response. A genetic score combining 58 independent suggestive memory risk variants was associated with increasing Alzheimer disease pathology in 725 autopsy samples. Association of memory risk loci with gene expression in 138 human hippocampus samples showed cis-associations with WDR48 and CLDN5, both related to ubiquitin metabolism. CONCLUSIONS This largest study to date exploring the genetics of memory function in ~ 40,000 older individuals revealed genome-wide associations and suggested an involvement of immune and ubiquitin pathways. PMID:25648963

  18. Exploring the Housing Needs of Older People in Standard and Sheltered Social Housing

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Siobhan; Kenny, Lorna; Day, Mary Rose; O’Connell, Cathal; Finnerty, Joe; Timmons, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Our home can have a major impact on our physical and mental health; this is particularly true for older people who may spend more time at home. Older people in social (i.e., public) housing are particularly vulnerable. Housing options for older people in social housing include standard design dwellings or specially designed “sheltered housing.” The most suitable housing model should be identified, with older people consulted in this process. Method: Survey of older people (aged ≥60) living in standard or sheltered social housing. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS Version 22. Results: Overall, 380 surveys were returned (response rate = 47.2%). All older people had similar housing needs. Those in sheltered housing were more satisfied with the physical home design and reported more positive outcomes. Older people in standard housing were less likely to have necessary adaptations to facilitate aging-in-place. Discussion: Older people in standard housing reported more disability/illnesses, are worried about the future, and felt less safe at home. However, few wanted to move, and very few viewed sheltered housing as an alternative, suggesting limited knowledge about their housing options. Future social housing designs should be flexible, that is, adaptable to the needs of the tenants over time. PMID:28491914

  19. [Living conditions of aging and old people in Germany].

    PubMed

    Tesch-Römer, C; Wurm, S

    2006-06-01

    This contribution aims to convey a general overview of the living conditions of aging and old people in Germany. It introduces a series of contributions devoted to the topic "health in old age" and focuses on older people as a very heterogeneous group in society. Who exactly are these older people? We start by discussing the definition of "old age" as a stage of life and the distinction between a "third" and "fourth" age. This is followed by a presentation of some facts describing demographic change at the population level. The main body of the contribution looks at households and housing, family relations and social integration, income, life satisfaction and the health of older people. The two waves of the German Aging Survey, a representative study of persons in the second half of life undertaken in 1996 and 2000, provide the empirical base for the paper.

  20. Factors related to tinnitus and hyperacusis handicap in older people.

    PubMed

    Aazh, Hashir; Lammaing, Karen; Moore, Brian C J

    2017-09-01

    The aim was to assess factors related to tinnitus and hyperacusis handicap in older people. Retrospective cross-sectional. Data were gathered for 184 patients with an average age of 69 years. Tinnitus handicap as measured via the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) was significantly predicted by tinnitus annoyance as measured via the visual analogue scale (VAS) (regression coefficient, b = 2.9, p < 0.001) and the effect of tinnitus on the patient's life as measured via the VAS (b = 3.9, p < 0.001). Hyperacusis handicap as measured via the Hyperacusis Questionnaire (HQ) was significantly predicted by the score on the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) (b = 0.8, p < 0.001) and to a small extent by the THI score (b = 0.07, p = 0.048). Insomnia scores as measured via the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were significantly predicted by scores on the depression subscale of the HADS (b = 0.46, p = 0.007). Since tinnitus annoyance significantly predicts tinnitus handicap, it is important to explore factors associated with annoyance that may be useful in designing appropriate rehabilitative interventions aimed at reducing tinnitus handicap in older people. Future studies should explore whether hyperacusis and insomnia in older people with tinnitus need to be managed in conjunction with treatment for depression.

  1. Older people's use of powered wheelchairs for activity and participation.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Ase; Iwarsson, Susanne; Ståhle, Agneta

    2004-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate outcomes of older people's use of powered wheelchairs and risk factors for negative outcomes. The study was a cross-sectional interview-study including 111 powered wheelchair users over 65 years of age. All participants used their powered wheelchair in the summer; nearly all users regarded it as important and found that it gave them independence. The wheelchair made activity and participation possible for the users. The most frequent activity in the summer was going for a ride, and in the winter it was shopping. However, some could not use the wheelchair for visits, and supplementary travel modes are called for. Users who could not walk at all or who could not transfer without assistance were more likely not to be able to carry out prioritized activities. Furthermore, other risk factors for negative outcomes and need for further research were identified. The use of powered wheelchairs is a relevant societal intervention in relation to older people with limited walking ability in order to make activity and participation possible. It is likely that a larger proportion of older people could benefit from this intervention, in particular if current practices are improved taking activity and participation outcomes into consideration.

  2. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  3. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  4. The Problems of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Older People

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Barbara J

    2012-01-01

    This report reviews evidence on disorders related to inadequate vitamin D repletion in older people. Vitamin D is as essential for bone health in adults as in children, preventing osteomalacia and muscle weakness and protecting against falls and low-impact fractures. Vitamin D is provided by skin synthesis by UVB-irradiation from summer sunshine and to a small extent by absorption from food. However, these processes become less efficient with age. Loss of mobility or residential care restricts solar exposure. Reduced appetite and financial problems often add to these problems. Thus, hypovitaminosis D is common world-wide, but is more common and more severe in older people. Non-classical effects of vitamin D, depending on serum circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, are present in most non-bony tissues; disorders associated with hypovitaminosis D include increased risks of sepsis [bacterial, mycobacterial and viral], cardiovascular and metabolic disorders [e.g. hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, acute vascular events, dementia, stroke and heart failure]. Many cancer risks are associated with vitamin D inadequacy, though causality is accepted only for colo-rectal cancer. Maintenance of repletion in healthy older people requires intakes of ≥800IU/day [20μg], as advised by the Institute of Medicine [IOM], but achieving such intakes usually requires supplementation. Excessive intakes are dangerous, especially in undiagnosed primary hyperparathyroidism or sarcoidosis, but the IOM finds doses <4000 IU/day are safe. Many experts suggest that ≥1000–2000 IU [25–50μg] of vitamin D daily is necessary for older people, especially when independence is lost, or hypovitaminosis D could add to the clinical problem[s]. Much higher doses than these are needed for treatment of established deficiency or insufficiency. PMID:23185713

  5. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in healthy older people.

    PubMed

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2014-06-01

    Worse cognitive performance in older people has been associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation (in particular, higher cortisol levels). Analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) is a novel method to measure long-term cortisol exposure, and its relationship with cognition in healthy older people has not yet been studied. We investigated whether HCC (measured in hair scalp) and diurnal salivary cortisol levels (awakening, 30min after awakening, and evening, across two days) were related to cognitive performance (assessed with the Trail-making Test A and B, Digit Span Forward and Backward, word list-RAVLT and Stories subtest of the Rivermead) in 57 healthy older people (mean age=64.75 years, SD=4.17). Results showed that lower HCC were consistently related to worse working memory, learning, short-term verbal memory (RAVLT first trial and immediate recall) and long-term verbal memory. In contrast, higher mean levels and higher diurnal area under the curve of diurnal salivary cortisol were related to worse attention and short-term verbal memory (immediate story recall), respectively. Interestingly, a higher ratio of mean levels of diurnal salivary cortisol over HCC were related to worse performance on working memory and short-term verbal memory, suggesting that those individuals with lower long-term cortisol exposure might be more vulnerable to the negative effect of HPA-axis dysregulation on these cognitive processes. Our findings suggest that both low long-term cortisol exposure and a possible dysregulation of the diurnal rhythm of the HPA-axis may account, at least in part, for the inter-individual variability in cognitive performance in healthy older people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. How Do Family Caregivers of Older People Give Up Caregiving?

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Peyrovi, Hamid; Joolaee, Soodabeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Population aging has social, economic and political consequences. Most family caregivers prefer to care for their family member older person with chronic disease at home. Despite traditional culture within Iranian families, in some cases, hospitalization of the elderly in nursing home is inevitable, and this affects the old person and his/her family. The aim of this study was to explain how Iranian family cargivers give up caring their older person with chronic condition at home. Methods A grounded theory approach was used to conduct the study. The study setting included four nursing homes under the auspices of Iran Welfare Organization. Fourteen participants were recruited through purposive sampling. Data were collected from December 2010 to March 2011 by Semi-structured interviews lasting about 17 to 95 minutes (average 52 minutes). Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Three main categories appeared at the end of the analysis: “going out of the road of usual life”, “challenge of meeting older person, family and caregivers care needs”, and “the appearance of inconstancy in the family”. They explained exclusively how family caregivers of old people give up caregiving. Conclusion Health care providers are recommended to become familiar with challenges of family caregivers in taking care of older person with chronic disease at home, and then organize their supportive and consulting actions according to family situations in order to improve the life quality of older person and family caregivers. PMID:26171407

  7. Engaging older people with English as a second language and frail older people in physical activity.

    PubMed

    Stickney, Beth; Vilshanskaya, Olga

    2005-08-01

    Despite growing awareness of the benefits of physical activity for older people, some population subgroups remain particularly hard to engage, especially those with English as a second language (ESL) and frail older people. A qualitative investigation of an existing community-based physical activity provider - Active Involved Mature (AIM)--was undertaken, including in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 12 key partners and nine class instructors, and focus groups with 58 class participants. Health benefits and social factors were strong incentives for participation among both ESL and frail groups. Some differences were evident between these two groups in their needs and strategies reported as addressing these needs. Partners described AIM as a quality service with a commitment to working with groups in need, responsive to the local community and with a good track record of collaborative work. Specific strategies targeted engagement and long-term participation. Social and environmental strategies, in addition to cognitive and behavioural approaches, supported participation of ESL and frail older people in AIM's group-based physical activity classes. Development of community and organisational partnerships, targeting to group needs (for ESL groups) and tailoring to individual requirements (for frail participants) were also seen as key features for success. These program elements are supported by, and grounded in, current health promotion and behavioural theory.

  8. Why do older people report fewer headaches?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Elaine; Boardman, Helen F; Croft, Peter R

    2005-01-01

    We have previously confirmed a clear decline in headache prevalence with increasing age. This parallels the pattern in other painful conditions but the age-related decline in prevalence is greater for headache. To investigate whether the decline in headache prevalence with age was associated with the elimination of work-related factors, increases in other health problems or concomitant use of pain-relieving medicines. We discuss these and other possible explanations from the literature. Cross-sectional postal survey to a random sample of 5,000 adults with follow-up by (i) consultations with general practitioners and prescriptions issued during the 12 months subsequent to the survey and (ii) a follow-up postal survey at 12 months. Headache prevalence was similar in working and retired respondents within age strata. Headache sufferers were more likely to consult their general practitioner for any reason (excluding headache) compared with non-sufferers and this was true for each age group. Headache sufferers were also more likely to be frequent consulters compared with non-sufferers in all except the oldest age group (age 66 years and over) where there was no difference. There was a clear increase in prescriptions for analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs issued with increasing age. There was no difference in the percentage of daily medication users among headache sufferers compared with non-sufferers. Neither retirement from work nor the presence of other health problems account for the decline in headache prevalence with age. Whilst the data on concomitant use of pain-relieving medicines suggest this is also not a major factor in the age-related decline, the high use of such medicines in older age groups means we cannot rule out a link. Evidence from the literature suggests that there may be a number of age-related factors involved including changes in reporting of headache, biochemical changes, and the development of strategies to prevent and manage

  9. Interventions targeting social isolation in older people: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Targeting social isolation in older people is a growing public health concern. The proportion of older people in society has increased in recent decades, and it is estimated that approximately 25% of the population will be aged 60 or above within the next 20 to 40 years. Social isolation is prevalent amongst older people and evidence indicates the detrimental effect that it can have on health and wellbeing. The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to alleviate social isolation and loneliness in older people. Methods Relevant electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, ASSIA, IBSS, PsycINFO, PubMed, DARE, Social Care Online, the Cochrane Library and CINAHL) were systematically searched using an extensive search strategy, for randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies published in English before May 2009. Additional articles were identified through citation tracking. Studies were included if they related to older people, if the intervention aimed to alleviate social isolation and loneliness, if intervention participants were compared against inactive controls and, if treatment effects were reported. Two independent reviewers extracted data using a standardised form. Narrative synthesis and vote-counting methods were used to summarise and interpret study data. Results Thirty two studies were included in the review. There was evidence of substantial heterogeneity in the interventions delivered and the overall quality of included studies indicated a medium to high risk of bias. Across the three domains of social, mental and physical health, 79% of group-based interventions and 55% of one-to-one interventions reported at least one improved participant outcome. Over 80% of participatory interventions produced beneficial effects across the same domains, compared with 44% of those categorised as non-participatory. Of interventions categorised as having a theoretical basis, 87% reported beneficial effects across

  10. Informing the debate on oral health care for older people: a qualitative study of older people's views on oral health and oral health care.

    PubMed

    Borreani, E; Jones, K; Scambler, S; Gallagher, J E

    2010-03-01

    Older people represent a growing and diverse section of the population. As age increases, people are more likely to experience health and mobility problems and be at higher risk of developing oral disease. Nevertheless, few older people utilise primary oral healthcare services. It is therefore important to understand the value older people place on oral health and dental services to inform providers and planners of oral health care. This research was conducted as part of a study to identify potential ways of minimising barriers to oral health care in older people. To explore perceptions of oral health and oral healthcare services amongst older people living in a socially deprived inner city area and how these are related to service utilisation. A qualitative approach was utilised to explore the range of issues related to older people's perceptions of oral health and their views on health care. This involved a combination of focus groups and semi-structured individual interviews with older people and their carers. Data analysis was conducted using the Framework approach. * Thirty-nine older people and/or their carers participated in focus groups. * Oral health perception: Oral health was associated with the presence of natural teeth, the absence of pain, practical/social functioning, preferably supported by positive assessment by a dentist. * Oral health life-course: Older people have a long and complex dental history. Past negative experiences with oral health care, especially in childhood, strongly influenced present attitudes towards dentistry and dental personnel. * Citizenship and right to health care: There was a strong perception that, as 'British citizens', older people should have a right to free health care and that the National Health Service (NHS) should support them in this phase of their life. The oral health life-course of older people is an important influence on their perceptions of oral health and dental attendance. They consider oral health of

  11. Pain in older people with cancer: attitudes and self-management strategies.

    PubMed

    Chatwin, J; Closs, J; Bennett, M

    2009-03-01

    Cancer is predominantly a disease of older people. It is also frequently a painful condition. However, the ageing process brings with it any number of other painful conditions, so it can be difficult to quantify the number of older people who are in pain solely because of cancer. In this article, we present a review of the literature concerning issues specifically related to the management of pain in older people. Three main areas are considered: the use of analgesics; the attitudes of older people in relation to pain management and their utilization of pain management strategies. We suggest that although a great deal is known about the efficacy of analgesia, there is relatively little information relating to the subjective experience of older individuals as they engage with treatment processes. This is important because social, psychological and cultural factors can have a significant influence on the effective management of cancer pain in this age group.

  12. The remarkable improvements in survival at older ages.

    PubMed

    Vaupel, J W

    1997-12-29

    The belief that old-age mortality is intractable remains deeply held by many people. Remarkable progress, however, has been made since 1950, and especially since 1970, in substantially improving survival at older ages, even the most advanced ages. The pace of mortality improvement at older ages continues to be particularly rapid in Japan, even though mortality levels in Japan are lower than elsewhere. The progress in improving survival has accelerated the growth of the population of older people and has advanced the frontier of human survival substantially beyond the extremes of longevity attained in pre-industrial times. Little, however, is known about why mortality among the oldest-old has been so plastic since 1950. The little that is known has largely been learned within the past few years. New findings, especially concerning genetic factors that influence longevity, are emerging at accelerating rate.

  13. [Global self-rated health and mortality in older people].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ximena; Huerta, Martín; Albala, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    To explore the association between global self-rated health and mortality in older people. A systematic review was performed. The inclusion criteria were longitudinal studies that assessed self-rated health with a single general question and samples of community-dwelling persons aged 60 years or more. Electronic databases were searched and references were reviewed. We selected 18 studies published between 1993 and 2011. Six out of seven studies that analyzed men and women found a higher risk of dying among persons who rated their health as poor; the most frequent covariables were age, gender, chronic diseases, and functional status. Half of the studies that analyzed only men or women found a significant association. The effect of self-reported health on mortality was observed among people younger than 75 years. Results were not dependent on the length of follow-up. The results confirm previous findings suggesting that a negative self-rating of general health predicts mortality. The mechanisms through which this indicator may predict mortality among older people could differ in men and women and need to be elucidated. The role of depression should be investigated, considering that the effect of self-rated health on mortality was not present when depression was included. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of digital engagement on the quality of life of older people.

    PubMed

    Damant, Jacqueline; Knapp, Martin; Freddolino, Paul; Lombard, Daniel

    2016-02-25

    It is often asserted that older people's quality of life (QOL) is improved when they adopt information and communication technology (ICT) such as the Internet, mobile phones and computers. Similar assumptions are made about older people's use of ICT-based care such as telecare and telehealth. To examine the evidence around these claims, we conducted a scoping review of the academic and grey literature, coving the period between January 2007 and August 2014. A framework analysis approach, based on six domains of QOL derived from the ASCOT and WHOQOL models, was adopted to deductively code and analyse relevant literature. The review revealed mixed results. Older people's use of ICT in both mainstream and care contexts has been shown to have both positive and negative impacts on several aspects of QOL. Studies which have rigorously assessed the impact of older people's use of ICT on their QOL mostly demonstrate little effect. A number of qualitative studies have reported on the positive effects for older people who use ICT such as email or Skype to keep in touch with family and friends. Overall, the review unearthed several inconsistencies around the effects of older people's ICT use on their QOL, suggesting that implicit agreement is needed on the best research methods and instrumentation to adequately describe older people's experiences in today's digital age. Moreover, the available evidence does not consider the large number of older people who do not use ICT and how non-use affects QOL.

  15. Older people in Canada: their victimization and fear of crime.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Stephanie

    2011-09-01

    Older people are more affected by fear of crime and the possibility of victimization, despite their being at lower risk of harm, than any other population group in Canada. Crime, victimization, and fear are not experienced uniformly among older Canadian citizens and residents, partly because older people do not form a homogeneous group. Being part of an ethnic, religious, or sexual minority, or being mentally frail, can have an impact on an individual's perceptions and experience of risk. This analysis explores older people's victimization and fear of crime, while it highlights the lack of consistency in the available data.

  16. Media portrayal of older people as illustrated in Finnish newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Sanna; Salminen, Leena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Media portrayals of older people, such as those in newspapers, both inform and reflect public attitudes. By becoming aware of culturally influenced attitudes about older people, and how these attitudes are reflected in the ways older people are viewed, treated, and cared for in society, the healthcare profession can better understand how to provide high-quality care. By applying an ethnographic approach in textual reality, this paper explores how newspaper articles focusing on health portray older people in society, using Finland as an example. The data consist of articles selected from three of the main Finnish daily newspapers during a 3-month period in the spring of 2012. The findings show that, overall, the society regards older people and their care as important. However, there were suggestions of paternalistic attitudes towards older people. Furthermore, the perceptions regarding different groups of older people could lead to the possibility of inequality. The media portrayals of older people worldwide seem to share similarities, although the findings of this study are particularly in accordance with the cultural attributes of the Nordic countries and societies. PMID:25261872

  17. Using Observation for Reflective Practice with Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Mark; Heycox, Karen

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the use of observation for reflective practice with older people, particularly the benefits and challenges of this learning tool. It outlines a study with 26 third-year Bachelor of Social Work students who undertook an elective course on reflective practice with older people. Using qualitative document analysis, the authors…

  18. Physical Activity among Older People Living Alone in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu; While, Alison E; Hicks, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate physical activity among older people living alone in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, and key factors contributing to their physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered in nine communities in Shanghai, using a stratified random cluster sample: 521 community-dwelling older people…

  19. Physical Activity among Older People Living Alone in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu; While, Alison E; Hicks, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate physical activity among older people living alone in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, and key factors contributing to their physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered in nine communities in Shanghai, using a stratified random cluster sample: 521 community-dwelling older people…

  20. Alcohol service provision for older people in an area experiencing high alcohol use and health inequalities.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Karen E; Ling, Jonathan; Wilson, Graeme B; Crosland, Ann; Kaner, Eileen F S; Haighton, Catherine A

    2016-03-01

    UK society is ageing. Older people who drink alcohol, drink more than those from previous generations, drink more frequently than other age groups and are more likely to drink at home and alone. Alcohol problems in later life however are often under-detected and under-reported meaning older people experiencing alcohol problems have high levels of unmet need. This study sought to identify existing services within South of Tyne, North East England to capture the extent of service provision for older drinkers and identify any gaps. The Age UK definition of 'older people' (aged 50 and over) was used. Services were contacted by telephone, managers or their deputy took part in semi-structured interviews. Forty six service providers were identified. Only one provided a specific intervention for older drinkers. Others typically provided services for age 18+. Among providers, there was no definitive definition of an older person. Data collection procedures within many organisations did not enable them to confirm whether older people were accessing services. Where alcohol was used alongside other drugs, alcohol use could remain unrecorded. To enable alcohol services to meet the needs of older people, greater understanding is needed of the patterns of drinking in later life, the experiences of older people, the scale and scope of the issue and guidance as to the most appropriate action to take. An awareness of the issues related to alcohol use in later life also needs to be integrated into commissioning of other services that impact upon older people. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  1. Defining pastoral care for older people in residential care.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Lesley; Cioffi, Jane; Fleming, Andrew; LeMiere, Jenny

    2011-02-01

    The concept and definition of pastoral care in aged care remains ambiguous. This paper reports on the defining characteristics and meaning of pastoral care from the perspective of older recipients, their family members and pastoral care workers. Using a qualitative descriptive approach semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 pastoral care workers and 11 older people. Transcribed data were analysed using NVivo software and coded for emerging themes. The defining characteristics of pastoral care that emerged from analysis of transcribed interviews were: a trusting relationship, spiritual support, emotional support and practical support. Findings also portray the role of the pastoral care worker as spiritual guide, confidante, and emotional and practical supporter acting within a trusting relationship. Future studies should confirm these results by exploring the perceptions of experts in the field of pastoral care.

  2. Intersectoral interagency partnerships to promote financial capability in older people.

    PubMed

    Hean, Sarah; Fenge, Lee Ann; Worswick, Louise; Wilkinson, Charlie; Fearnley, Stella

    2012-09-01

    From the second quarter of 2008, the UK economy entered a period of economic decline. Older people are particularly vulnerable during these times. To promote ways in which older people can be better supported to maintain their financial well-being, this study explored the sources older people utilize to keep themselves financially informed. Interviews with older people (n = 28) showed that older people access trusted sources of information (e.g. healthcare professionals) rather than specialist financial information providers (e.g. financial advisors) which highlighted the need for interagency working between financial services in the private, public and voluntary sectors. An example of how such interagency partnerships might be achieved in practice is presented with some recommendations on directions for future research into interagency working that spans public, private and voluntary sectors.

  3. Relative Handgrip Strength Is a Simple Indicator of Cardiometabolic Risk among Middle-Aged and Older People: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wei-Ju; Peng, Li-Ning; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2016-01-01

    Background Muscle strength may play an important role in cardiovascular health. The study was intended to evaluate the association between cardiometabolic risk, risk of coronary artery disease and handgrip strength by using the relative handgrip strength. Materials and Methods Data of 927 Taiwanese aged 53 years and older (510 men and 417 women) were retrieved from a nationwide representative population-based cohort cross-sectional study in 2006. All participants were interviewed face-to-face and received measures of anthropometry, dominant handgrip strength, relative handgrip strength (summation of both handgrip strength divided by body mass index) and serum biomarkers. Results Multivariate linear regression analysis showed the significant association between relative handgrip strength and favorable cardiometabolic risk factors including blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol to high density cholesterol(HDL-C) ratio, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), uric acid, Framingham risk score in men, and HDL-C, fasting glucose, HbA1c, log hsCRP in women. Dominant hand grip strength was only associated with log hsCRP in women. (p<0.05 for all), but was not significant associated with all cardiovascular biomarkers and FRS in both sex. Conclusions Joint with handgrip strength and body size, as relative handgrip strength, may be a better tool to capture conceptual concomitant health, which may be a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-use tool when targeting cardiovascular health in public health level. PMID:27559733

  4. Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Samuel R; Ballinger, Claire; Phillips, Judith E; Newton, Rita

    2013-11-18

    Falls are a major threat to older people's health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people's experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Forty-four adults aged 65 - 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people.

  5. Omega 3 fatty acids and cognitive health in older people.

    PubMed

    Dangour, Alan D; Andreeva, Valentina A; Sydenham, Emma; Uauy, Ricardo

    2012-06-01

    Oily fish and other sources of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPs) have been proposed as protective against dementia and age related cognitive impairment. The basic mechanisms underlying these proposed benefits have been postulated and experimental studies supporting the plausibility of the putative effects have been published. Observational epidemiological and case control studies also largely support a protective role of fish consumption on cognitive function with advancing age, albeit with important unexplained heterogeneity in findings. In this review we report the findings of the latest Cochrane review on the benefits of n-3 LCP supplementation on cognitive function among cognitively healthy older people and expand the review by including trials conducted with individuals with prevalent poor cognitive function or dementia. We identified seven relevant trials, four among cognitively healthy older people, and three among individuals with pre-existing cognitive decline or dementia, and overall conclude that there is no evidence to support the routine use of n-3 LCPs supplements for the prevention, or amelioration, of cognitive decline in later life. We identified several challenges in the design of intervention studies for the prevention of dementia and cognitive decline in older people that require careful consideration especially in recruitment and retention in long-term trials. Whether the lack of agreement in findings from mechanistic and observational data and from intervention studies reflects a real absence of benefit on cognitive function from n-3 LCP supplementation, or whether it reflects intrinsic limitations in the design of published studies remains open to question.

  6. Mental health issues and discrimination among older LGBTI people.

    PubMed

    Tinney, Jean; Dow, Briony; Maude, Phillip; Purchase, Rachel; Whyte, Carolyn; Barrett, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    LGBT is an acronym used to describe people from diverse sexual orientation or gender identity, people that are gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender. LGBT people do not constitute a single group nor does each individual "group" constitute a homogeneous unity. However, as higher rates of depression and/or anxiety have been observed in older LGBT people, compared to their heterosexual counterparts (Guasp, 2011) there is a need to raise the profile of mental health issues amongst these groups. The additional letter I is also often included in the acronym LGBTI as intersex people are often included as another gender diverse group. However, there is very little research that includes intersex people and none on older intersex people's mental health so this editorial is restricted to consideration of older LGBT people.

  7. A memory clinic for older people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hassiotis, A; Strydom, A; Allen, K; Walker, Z

    2003-11-01

    Cognitive decline in older people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is often under-recognized. Following the publication of the National Service Framework for Older People and the white paper Valuing People, older people with intellectual disabilities of all aetiologies should have access to a systematic assessment of their cognitive function in order to detect decline in cognition and adaptive skills and implement appropriate treatments as early as possible. The development of a memory clinic for older people with ID is described, including instruments used and characteristics of attendees. Such projects are in line with current UK government policies and can contribute to the improvement of standards of care and support research in this vulnerable group of people.

  8. Stereotypes and attitudes toward older people among children transitioning from middle childhood into adolescence: Time matters.

    PubMed

    Teater, Barbra; Chonody, Jill M

    2017-01-01

    Ageism is fueled by stereotypes and negative attitudes about aging and older adults, which can lead to individual-level prejudice and discrimination. Through survey methodology, this study explored stereotypes and ageist beliefs of youth transitioning from middle childhood into adolescence (age 11-13 years) (N = 69) in the southwest of England. The results indicate that positive more than negative stereotypes were acknowledged, and more positive stereotyping was positively correlated with more positive attitudes toward older adults. Contact with older adults and age that one considers "old" were significant in predicting attitudes toward older people. The results suggest that time matters, in terms of contact with an older adult and time to reach "old age" in shaping youths' attitudes and stereotypes. Intergenerational and educational programs that seek to address aging myths and increase contact between youth and older adults are discussed as ways to improve attitudes amongst youth transitioning from middle childhood into adolescence.

  9. Aging With Disability for Midlife and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Verbrugge, Lois M; Latham, Kenzie; Clarke, Philippa J

    2017-07-01

    This analysis brings "aging with disability" into middle and older ages. We study U.S. adults ages 51+ and ages 65+ with persistent disability (physical, household management, personal care; physical limitations, instrumental activities of daily living [IADLs], activities of daily living [ADLs]), using Health and Retirement Study data. Two complementary approaches are used to identify persons with persistent disability, one based directly on observed data and the other on latent classes. Both approaches show that persistent disability is more common for persons ages 65+ than ages 51+ and more common for physical limitations than IADLs and ADLs. People with persistent disability have social and health disadvantages compared to people with other longitudinal experiences. The analysis integrates two research avenues, aging with disability and disability trajectories. It gives empirical heft to government efforts to make aging with disability an age-free (all ages) rather than age-targeted (children and youths) perspective.

  10. Food safety and older people: the Kitchen Life study.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Angela; Wills, Wendy; Meah, Angela; Short, Frances

    2014-05-01

    Foodborne illness (FBI) is a major public health problem in the UK. Recent increases in cases of listeriosis in older people have focused attention on consumer food-related practices. Previous studies highlight poor relationships between what people know, what they say they do and what they actually do in the kitchen. The aim of the Kitchen Life study was to examine what actually happens in the domestic kitchen to assess whether and how this has the potential to influence food safety in the home. Drawing on a qualitative ethnographic approach, methods included a kitchen tour, photography, observation, video observation, informal interviews and diary methods. Ten households with older people (aged 60+) were recruited across the UK. It was found that trust in the food supply, use of food-labelling (including use-by dates), sensory logics (such as the feel or smell of food) and food waste were factors with the potential to influence risk of foodborne illness. Practices shifted with changing circumstances, including increased frailty, bereavement, living alone, receiving help with care and acquiring new knowledge, meaning that the risk of and vulnerability to foodborne illness is not straightforward.

  11. Health and functional status among older people with HIV/AIDS in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the health and functional status of older people who either themselves are HIV infected or are affected by HIV and AIDS in the family. This aim of this study was to describe health among older people in association with the HIV epidemic. Methods The cross-sectional survey consisted of 510 participants aged 50 years and older, equally divided into five study groups including; 1) HIV infected and on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least 1 year; 2) HIV infected and not yet eligible for ART; 3) older people who had lost a child due to HIV/AIDS; 4) older people who have an adult child with HIV/AIDS; 5) older people not known to be infected or affected by HIV in the family. The participants were randomly selected from ongoing studies in a rural and peri-urban area in Uganda. Data were collected using a WHO standard questionnaire and performance tests. Eight indicators of health and functioning were examined in an age-adjusted bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results In total, 198 men and 312 women participated. The overall mean age was 65.8 and 64.5 years for men and women respectively. Men had better self-reported health and functional status than women, as well as lower self-reported prevalence of chronic diseases. In general, health problems were common: 35% of respondents were diagnosed with at least one of the five chronic conditions, including 15% with depression, based on algorithms; 31% of men and 35% of women had measured hypertension; 25% of men and 21% of women had poor vision test results. HIV-positive older people, irrespective of being on ART, and HIV-negative older people in the other study groups had very similar results for most health status and functioning indicators. The main difference was a significantly lower BMI among HIV-infected older people. Conclusion The systematic exploration of health and well being among older people, using eight self-reported and objective health indicators

  12. Body composition and frailty profiles in Brazilian older people: Frailty in Brazilian Older People Study-FIBRA-BR.

    PubMed

    Ferriolli, Eduardo; Pessanha, Fernanda Pinheiro Amador Dos Santos; Moreira, Virgílio Garcia; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Lourenço, Roberto Alves

    2017-07-01

    To determine the association between body composition and frailty in older Brazilian subjects. This is a Cross-sectional study called FIBRA-BR and developed in community Brazilian aged ≥65 (n=5638). Frailty was assessed according to Fried et al. definition and body composition was determined by BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio. The lowest prevalence of frailty was observed in subjects with BMI between 25.0 and 29.9kg/m(2). Subjects with a BMI <18.5 and those with elevated WC presented a higher risk of frailty compared to eutrophic subjects (odds ratio (OR)=3.10; 95% CI: 2.06-4.67) and (OR=1.15; 95% CI: 1.03-1.27), respectively. Being overweight was protective for pre-frailty (OR=0.48; 95% CI: 0.4-0.58) and frailty (OR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.67-0.9). Obese older people presented a higher risk of pre-frailty only (OR=1.29; 95% CI: 1.09-1.51). Older people with high WC showed a greater proportion of frailty regardless of the BMI range. Undernutrition is associated with pre-frailty and frailty in Brazilian elderly subjects, whereas obesity is associated only with pre-frailty. Overweight seems to have a protective effect against the syndrome. The excess of abdominal fat is associated with both profiles independent of the BMI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Age Consciousness and Political Mobilization of Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arthur H.; And Others

    Shared group consciousness among individuals of ascriptively deprived social categories acts to mobilize strongly identified group members, suggesting that old age identifiers among elderly Americans should also participate in politics at higher rates than those found for non-identified older people. Survey data from both the 1972 and 1976…

  14. 'Growing Old' in Shelters and 'On the Street': Experiences of Older Homeless People.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Amanda; Sussman, Tamara; Barken, Rachel; Bourgeois-Guérin, Valerie; Rothwell, David

    2016-01-01

    Homelessness among older people in Canada is both a growing concern, and an emerging field of study. This article reports thematic results of qualitative interviews with 40 people aged 46 to 75, carried out as part of a mixed-methods study of older people who are homeless in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Our participants included people with histories of homelessness (n = 14) and persons new to homelessness in later life (n = 26). Interviews focused on experiences at the intersections of aging and homelessness including social relationships, the challenges of living on the streets and in shelters in later life, and the future. This article outlines the 5 main themes that capture the experience of homelessness for our participants: age exacerbates worries; exclusion and isolation; managing significant challenges; shifting needs and realities; and resilience, strength, and hope. Together, these findings underscore the need for specific programs geared to the unique needs of older people who are homeless.

  15. Older people and attachment to things, places, pets, and ideas.

    PubMed

    Cookman, C A

    1996-01-01

    A model of older adult to environment interactions is proposed that moves beyond the perspective of environment as safety hazard to environment as supportive resource the framework encourages health professionals to look for ways to incorporate positive environmental influences into individualized plans of care with older adults. Research is reviewed on the attachments formed by older adults to things, places, companion animals, ideas, and beliefs-which alongside people-to-people attachments comprise the "attachment structure." Research on attachments of older people to environmental objects identifies important sources of security, belonging, and self-identity. Further research is needed to define the nature of environmental connections in later life, their developmental characteristics, and their potential to influence the health of older people.

  16. Older people dying with dementia: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Meeussen, Koen; Van den Block, Lieve; Echteld, Michael; Boffin, Nicole; Bilsen, Johan; Van Casteren, Viviane; Deliens, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Large-scale nationwide data describing the end-of-life characteristics of older people with dementia are lacking. This paper describes the dying process and end-of-life care provided to elderly people with mild or severe dementia in Belgium. It compares with elderly people dying without dementia. A nationwide retrospective mortality study was conducted, via representative network of general practitioners (GPs) in 2008 in Belgium, with weekly registration of all deaths (aged ≥ 65) using a standardized form. GPs reported on diagnosis and severity of dementia, aspects of end-of-life care and communication, and on the last week of life in terms of symptoms that caused distress as judged by the GP, and the patients' physical and cognitive abilities. Thirty-one percent of our sample (1,108 deaths) had dementia (43% mildly, 57% severely). Of those, 26% died suddenly, 59% in care home, and 74% received palliative treatment, versus 37%, 19%, and 55% in people without dementia. GP-patient conversations were less frequent among those with (45%) than those without (73%) dementia, and 11% of both groups had a proxy decision-maker. During the last week of life, physical and psychological distress was common in both groups. Of older people with dementia, 83% were incapable of decision-making and 83% were bedridden; both significantly higher percentages than found in the group without dementia (24% and 52%). Several areas of end-of-life care provision could be improved. Early communication and exploration of wishes and appointment of proxy decision-makers are important components of an early palliative care approach which appears to be initiated too infrequently.

  17. Older people's views of a good death in heart failure: implications for palliative care provision.

    PubMed

    Gott, M; Small, Neil; Barnes, Sarah; Payne, Sheila; Seamark, David

    2008-10-01

    Palliative care in the UK has been developed to meet the needs of predominantly middle aged and younger old people with cancer. Few data are available regarding the extent to which services respond to the specific needs of an older group of people with other illnesses. This paper draws on in-depth interviews conducted with 40 people (median age 77) with advanced heart failure and poor prognosis to explore the extent to which older people's views and concerns about dying are consistent with the prevalent model of the 'good death' underpinning palliative care delivery. That prevalent model is identified as the "revivalist" good death. Our findings indicate that older people's views of a 'good death' often conflict with the values upon which palliative care is predicated. For example, in line with previous research, many participants did not want an open awareness of death preceded by acknowledgement of the potential imminence of dying. Similarly, concepts of autonomy and individuality appeared alien to most. Indeed, whilst there was evidence that palliative care could help improve the end of life experiences of older people, for example in initiating discussions around death and dying, the translation of other aspects of specialist palliative care philosophy appear more problematic. Ultimately, the study identified that improving the end of life experiences of older people must involve addressing the problematised nature of ageing and old age within contemporary society, whilst recognising the cohort and cultural effects that influence attitudes to death and dying.

  18. Perceived age discrimination in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rippon, Isla; Kneale, Dylan; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: to examine perceived age discrimination in a large representative sample of older adults in England. Methods: this cross-sectional study of over 7,500 individuals used data from the fifth wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a longitudinal cohort study of men and women aged 52 years and older in England. Wave 5 asked respondents about the frequency of five everyday discriminatory situations. Participants who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. Results: approximately a third (33.3%) of all respondents experienced age discrimination, rising to 36.8% in those aged 65 and over. Perceived age discrimination was associated with older age, higher education, lower levels of household wealth and being retired or not in employment. The correlates of age discrimination across the five discriminatory situations were similar. Conclusion: understanding age discrimination is vital if we are to develop appropriate policies and to target future interventions effectively. These findings highlight the scale of the challenge of age discrimination for older adults in England and illustrate that those groups are particularly vulnerable to this form of discrimination. PMID:24077751

  19. Barriers to providing palliative care for older people in acute hospitals.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Clare; Cobb, Mark; Gott, Merryn; Ingleton, Christine

    2011-03-01

    the need for access to high-quality palliative care at the end of life is becoming of increasing public health concern. The majority of deaths in the UK occur in acute hospitals, and older people are particularly likely to die in this setting. However, little is known about the barriers to palliative care provision for older people within acute hospitals. to explore the perspectives of health professionals regarding barriers to optimal palliative care for older people in acute hospitals. fifty-eight health professionals participated in eight focus groups and four semi-structured interviews. participants identified various barriers to palliative care provision for older people, including attitudinal differences to the care of older people, a focus on curative treatments within hospitals and a lack of resources. Participants also reported differing understandings of whose responsibility it was to provide palliative care for older people, and uncertainly over the roles of specialist and generalist palliative care providers in acute hospitals. numerous barriers exist to the provision of high-quality palliative care for older people within acute hospital settings. Additional research is now required to further explore age-related issues contributing to poor access to palliative care.

  20. Powerlessness of older people in Hong Kong: a political economy analysis.

    PubMed

    Kam, Ping-kwong

    2003-01-01

    Gerontologists agree that old age can be associated with an increase in powerlessness both in the personal domain and in the social and political fields. This paper is an attempt to understand the concept of powerlessness in old age within a political economy theoretical framework. The paper argues that the powerlessness of older people is not biologically determined. Rather, it is socially constructed. It has its roots in the social, economic, and political structure of society. For this reason, the paper argues that (a) the capitalist economic system discriminates against and marginalizes older people in the labor market. The current unfavorable economic climate will make the economic situation of older people worse. (b) The residual welfare system does not counteract the unfavorable impact of the economic system. Rather, it deprives older people of the necessary financial resources and social service supports that would enable them to lead independent and dignified lives. (c) The authoritarian political system creates adverse conditions that make it very difficult for older people to participate in the decision-making process on issues that affect their lives, as well as on broader political issues that affect the whole of society. It is the interplay among these economic, social, and political forces in Hong Kong that creates the political economy of powerlessness in old age and prevents older people from using their powers to master and control their lives.

  1. Ageing and People with Learning Disabilities: In Search of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are now living into older age. This study aims to examine the state of knowledge about their lives and the challenges that ageing has for both family carers and policymakers and practitioners. Materials and Methods: The article synthesises existing research in the fields of learning…

  2. Ageing and People with Learning Disabilities: In Search of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are now living into older age. This study aims to examine the state of knowledge about their lives and the challenges that ageing has for both family carers and policymakers and practitioners. Materials and Methods: The article synthesises existing research in the fields of learning…

  3. Minimising barriers to dental care in older people

    PubMed Central

    Borreani, Elena; Wright, Desmond; Scambler, Sasha; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2008-01-01

    Background Older people are increasingly retaining their natural teeth but at higher risk of oral disease with resultant impact on their quality of life. Socially deprived people are more at risk of oral disease and yet less likely to take up care. Health organisations in England and Wales are exploring new ways to commission and provide dental care services in general and for vulnerable groups in particular. This study was undertaken to investigate barriers to dental care perceived by older people in socially deprived inner city area where uptake of care was low and identify methods for minimising barriers in older people in support of oral health. Methods A qualitative dual-methodological approach, utilising both focus groups and individual interviews, was used in this research. Participants, older people and carers of older people, were recruited using purposive sampling through day centres and community groups in the inner city boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham in South London. A topic guide was utilised to guide qualitative data collection. Informants' views were recorded on tape and in field notes. The data were transcribed and analysed using Framework Methodology. Results Thirty-nine older people and/or their carers participated in focus groups. Active barriers to dental care in older people fell into five main categories: cost, fear, availability, accessibility and characteristics of the dentist. Lack of perception of a need for dental care was a common 'passive barrier' amongst denture wearers in particular. The cost of dental treatment, fear of care and perceived availability of dental services emerged to influence significantly dental attendance. Minimising barriers involves three levels of action to be taken: individual actions (such as persistence in finding available care following identification of need), system changes (including reducing costs, improving information, ensuring appropriate timing and location of care, and good patient

  4. [Dissertations 25 year after date 41. Older people's adaptability].

    PubMed

    de Baat, C; Gerritsen, A E; van der Putten, G J; van der Maarel-Wierink, C D

    2015-09-01

    In 1990, the thesis 'Removable complete dentures in older people, an issue dealing with adaptability?' was published. Among other things, this thesis aimed at finding a method of measuring older people's adaptability to removable complete dentures. Its conclusion was that a subscale of the "Beoordelingsschaal voor Oudere Patiënten" (Rating scale for older patients) had predictive value. Subsequently, only a few research projects on this topic have been carried out. They dealt with demonstrated adaptation achieved after treatment, the realised adaptation. The results were disappointing. Ever since the availability of endosseous oral implants, research into adaptability to conventional removable complete dentures seems less relevant. During the last decades, inquiries into a method of measuring treatment effectiveness has focused on older people's quality of life and general health condition. However, to assess with respect to oral health care an older person's general health condition and load-taking capacity adequately, some experience is indispensable.

  5. Can older people remember medication reminders presented using synthetic speech?

    PubMed

    Wolters, Maria K; Johnson, Christine; Campbell, Pauline E; DePlacido, Christine G; McKinstry, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Reminders are often part of interventions to help older people adhere to complicated medication regimes. Computer-generated (synthetic) speech is ideal for tailoring reminders to different medication regimes. Since synthetic speech may be less intelligible than human speech, in particular under difficult listening conditions, we assessed how well older people can recall synthetic speech reminders for medications. 44 participants aged 50-80 with no cognitive impairment recalled reminders for one or four medications after a short distraction. We varied background noise, speech quality, and message design. Reminders were presented using a human voice and two synthetic voices. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Reminder recall was satisfactory if reminders were restricted to one familiar medication, regardless of the voice used. Repeating medication names supported recall of lists of medications. We conclude that spoken reminders should build on familiar information and be integrated with other adherence support measures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.comFor numbered affiliations see end of article.

  6. Epidemiology of Falls in Older Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Nancye May

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, falls among older people are a public health concern because of their frequency and adverse consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, as well as their impact on health system services and costs. This epidemiological review outlines the public health burden of falls and fall-related injuries and the impact of…

  7. Epidemiology of Falls in Older Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Nancye May

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, falls among older people are a public health concern because of their frequency and adverse consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, as well as their impact on health system services and costs. This epidemiological review outlines the public health burden of falls and fall-related injuries and the impact of…

  8. Demographic and health status differences among people aged 45 or older with and without functional difficulties related to increased confusion or memory loss, 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lynda A; Deokar, Angela; Edwards, Valerie J; Bouldin, Erin D; Greenlund, Kurt J

    2015-03-05

    We examined the demographic and health characteristics of people aged 45 years or older in 21 states with self-reported increased confusion or memory loss (ICML) (n = 10,583) by whether or not they also reported functional difficulties related to ICML. We used data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System optional module on impact of cognitive impairment. After adjusting for demographic differences, we found that respondents with ICML and functional difficulties were significantly more likely than those with ICML and no functional difficulties to report frequent poor physical health, frequent poor mental health, limited activity due to poor physical or mental health, and a need for more help. Further understanding of the implications for long-term services and supports is needed.

  9. Interrelations of stress, optimism and control in older people's psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Bretherton, Susan Jane; McLean, Louise Anne

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the influence of perceived stress, optimism and perceived control of internal states on the psychological adjustment of older adults. The sample consisted of 212 older adults, aged between 58 and 103 (M = 80.42 years, SD = 7.31 years), living primarily in retirement villages in Melbourne, Victoria. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, Perceived Control of Internal States Scale and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life-Bref. Optimism significantly mediated the relationship between older people's perceived stress and psychological health, and perceived control of internal states mediated the relationships among stress, optimism and psychological health. The variables explained 49% of the variance in older people's psychological adjustment. It is suggested that strategies to improve optimism and perceived control may improve the psychological adjustment of older people struggling to adapt to life's stressors. © 2014 ACOTA.

  10. Older People as a Developing Market for Cultural Heritage Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Anna; Zipsane, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Is it morally acceptable for the heritage sector to see the growing population of senior citizens as a developing market? Jamtli is an open air museum in the north of Sweden. The main target group is families with children, but an increasing number of activities for older adults are being offered. The growing population of older people is a…

  11. Reluctant Learners: Social Work Students and Work with Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Studies show that social work students prefer work with children and families over older people. The Repertory Grid Technique was used with 13 students to provide a structure for reflection on attitudes. Dialog about work with older adults was stimulated. (SK)

  12. Older People as a Developing Market for Cultural Heritage Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Anna; Zipsane, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Is it morally acceptable for the heritage sector to see the growing population of senior citizens as a developing market? Jamtli is an open air museum in the north of Sweden. The main target group is families with children, but an increasing number of activities for older adults are being offered. The growing population of older people is a…

  13. A Drama Project about Older People's Intimacy and Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Couchman, Wendy; Webster, Maxine; Avery, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an intergenerational project developed in partnership between a social work degree program and an Older People's Theatre group. Bringing together a small group of students, older actors, and film makers, methods from drama and the arts were utilised to explore the topic of intimacy and sexuality in later life. The project…

  14. Getting help quickly: older people and community worker perspectives of contingency planning for falls management.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Kimberly; Murray, Carolyn M; Kumar, Saravana

    2016-11-10

    Older people living in the community need to plan for getting help quickly if they have a fall. In this paper planning for falls is referred to as contingency planning and is not a falls prevention strategy but rather a falls management strategy. This research explored the perspectives of older people and community workers (CWs) about contingency planning for a fall. Using a qualitative descriptive approach, participants were recruited through a community agency that supports older people. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven older people (67-89 years of age) and a focus group was held with seven workers of mixed disciplines from the same agency. Older people who hadn't fallen were included but were assumed to be at risk of falls because they were in receipt of services. Thematic analysis and concept mapping combined the data from the two participant groups. Four themes including preconceptions about planning ahead for falling, a fall changes perception, giving, and receiving advice about contingency plans and what to do about falling. Both CWs and older people agree contingency planning requires understanding of individual identity and circumstances. CWs have limited knowledge about contingency planning and may be directive, informative, or conservative. Implications for Rehabilitation Falls can result in serious consequences for older people. There is an evidence-practice gap as availability of and access to contingency planning does not necessarily mean older people will use it in a falls emergency. Older people prefer community workers to be directive or informative about contingency planning options but they do want choice and control. Increased community workers knowledge of, and collaborative decision-making about, contingency planning may promote patient-centered services and assist in closing the evidence-practice gap.

  15. Validity and reliability of the modified Chinese version of the Older People's Quality of Life Questionnaire (OPQOL) in older people living alone in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Hicks, Allan; While, Alison E

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to test the validity and reliability of a modified Chinese version of the OPQOL among older people living alone in China. China has an ageing population with an increasing number of older people living alone who may have a poorer quality of life (QoL) in the light of the traditional culture of collectivism and filial piety. An appropriate instrument is important to assess their QoL. The Older People's Quality of Life Questionnaire (OPQOL) was developed directly from the views of older people and has been validated in England. There has been no psychometric evaluation of the scale in China. The OPQOL was translated and modified prior to being administered to a stratified random cluster sample of 521 older people living alone. Validity was assessed through convergent validity, discriminant validity and construct validity. Reliability was assessed through internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Exploratory factor analysis indicated eight factors accounting for 63.77% of the variance. The convergent validity was supported by moderate correlations with functional ability, social support and loneliness with Spearman's rho of -0.50, 0.49 and -0.53, respectively. The discriminant validity was confirmed by differentiating QoL scores between the depressed and non-depressed groups. The Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.90 for the total scale and over 0.70 for most of its dimensions. The 2-week test-retest reliability ranged from 0.53 to 0.87. The modified Chinese version of the Older People's Quality of Life has acceptable validity and reliability as a useful instrument to measure the QoL of older people living alone in China. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Generic Residential Services for Older People in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, D. J.; Ryrie, I.; Wright, S.

    2004-01-01

    Background: As part of a UK programme of work focusing on older people with intellectual disabilities, the circumstance of those who reside in generic services for older people were investigated. Materials and methods: Questionnaires were sent to 2570 residential and nursing homes in 53 local authorities across the UK. Results: Five hundred and…

  17. Improving oral health for older people in the home care setting: An exploratory implementation study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Adrienne; Kitson, Alison; Harvey, Gill

    2016-12-01

    To explore how home care providers can support older people to maintain good oral health through implementing a model called Better Oral Health in Home Care (BOHHC). A mixed method, pre- to post-implementation design was used. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework informed the model's implementation process. High levels of dental need were identified at pre-implementation. Older people self-reported significant oral health improvements following the introduction of tailored home care strategies by care workers, who in turn reported a better understanding and knowledge of the importance of oral care for older people. The BOHHC Model provided an evidence-based approach for community-based prevention and early detection of oral health problems. Improving oral health for older people in the home care setting has significant practice and policy implications which require ongoing intersectoral facilitation involving aged care, vocational health education and dental sectors. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  18. Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Ayumu; Funato, Hiroki; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Abe, Noriaki; Yagi, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Hirose, Kahori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (p<0.05). Among 10 subjects, one scored 1-3 using the four evaluation criteria. Overall, no aspiration occurred and a significant improvement in the swallowing function score was observed (p<0.05) after taking the ginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function.

  19. Comparative effectiveness of different chemotherapeutic regimens on survival of people aged 66 and older with stage III colon cancer: a "real world" analysis using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Fei-Yuan; Mullins, C Daniel; Onukwugha, Ebere; Pandya, Naimish; Hanna, Nader

    2011-09-01

    To compare the effectiveness and utilization trends of irinotecan (IRI)-based and oxaliplatin (OX)-based regimens with those of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (5FU/LV) alone in people aged 66 and older with Stage III colon cancer. Retrospective cohort study. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data. People with Stage III surgically resected colon cancer who received adjuvant chemotherapy were categorized into 5FU/LV-alone (n = 3,581), OX-based regimen (n = 814), and IRI-based regimen (n = 219) subgroups. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models examined the effect of chemotherapies on overall survival, colon cancer-specific survival, and non-colon cancer-specific survival. Use of the OX-based regimen increased, and use of the 5FU/LV-alone and IRI-based regimens decreased over time. OX was statistically significantly associated with longer overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.62-0.86, P < .001) and colorectal cancer-specific survival (HR = 0.39, 95% CI, 0.28-0.55, P < .001) than 5FU/LV alone. There was a greater risk of overall mortality (HR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.14-1.67, P<.001) and cancer-specific mortality (HR = 1.92, 95% CI=1.49-2.47, P < .001) associated with IRI than with 5FU/LV. The superiority of OX on survival was found in participants aged 66 to 79 but not in those aged 80 and older. This "real world" comparative effectiveness research extends randomized controlled trial results by documenting the relative survival benefit of OX in older adults with Stage III colon cancer. The associated shift in treatment away from 5FU/LV alone or IRI toward OX is consistent with evidence-based medicine from real-world outcomes research. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Considering the benefits of egg consumption for older people at risk of sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alison; Gray, Juliet

    2016-06-01

    Sarcopenia is an important health issue for older people. It is closely linked with frailty and malnutrition and can significantly reduce both health and quality of life for those affected. Sarcopenic decline in muscle mass can start as early as the fourth and fifth decade of life, so the maintenance of muscle mass throughout adulthood, through regular physical activity and a balanced diet, should be an important consideration in reducing the risk of sarcopenia in older age. Maintaining regular exercise throughout older age remains key to the treatment of sarcopenia, as does an adequate intake of nutrients, including high-quality protein and vitamin D. A significant proportion of older people fail to meet the recommended requirements for protein; it has also been suggested that the requirements in existing recommendations could be higher. Evidence is emerging that an adequate intake of protein at each meal may be required to optimise muscle synthesis in older people. Eggs are an inexpensive, widely available and easily digestible source of high-quality protein and contain a significant proportion of leucine, an amino acid that is important for muscle synthesis, as well as many other nutrients of significance for older people, including vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids. For many older people, eggs are a familiar and acceptable protein food at breakfast and other meals. Encouraging both those approaching older age and older people to include eggs more frequently, as part of a healthy, balanced diet and in addition to physical activity, could help them maintain their muscle strength and function, thereby preserving their functional capacity and reducing morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs associated with sarcopenia.

  1. 'Living within your limits': activity restriction in older people experiencing chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Mackichan, Fiona; Adamson, Joy; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2013-11-01

    although maintaining activity is key to successful pain management, and important to health and wellbeing, it is known that older people in pain frequently alter or reduce activity levels. A 'fear-avoidance' model is often used to explain avoidance of activity in the face of pain. However, this model is not intended to take account of the wider context in which activity changes take place, nor older people's own explanations for their behaviour. to investigate the reasons why older people in the community adjust their activity levels when living with chronic pain. thirty-one people aged between 67 and 92 were purposively sampled from respondents to a community-based cross-sectional survey. All participants had reported long-term pain and were interviewed about this. Data were collected and analysed using a qualitative constructivist grounded theory approach. explanations for deliberative reduction or ceasing of activities reflected a desire to prevent pain exacerbation, thereby avoiding medical intervention. It also reflected a desire to safeguard autonomy in the face of pain in older age. Restrictions were often rationalised as normal in older age, although co-existing accounts of perseverance and frustration with limitation were also evident. a rational desire to avoid pain exacerbation and medical intervention motivated restrictions to activity. However, deliberative limitation of activity has the potential to compromise autonomy by increasing social isolation and de-conditioning. Supporting older people with pain to be active requires sensitivity to the function of activity restriction, especially as a means of preventing deterioration.

  2. Factors influencing nurses' readiness to care for hospitalised older people.

    PubMed

    Baumbusch, Jennifer; Leblanc, Marie-Eve; Shaw, Maureen; Kjorven, Mary

    2016-06-01

    To gain a better understanding of nurses' perspectives on factors that influence their readiness to provide appropriate care for hospitalised older people. Hospitals have consistently been criticised for failing to address the unique, complex needs of older people. Research suggests that multiple issues have led to this situation, including a lack of educational preparation for nurses, limited attention to environmental factors, and an absence of organisational preparedness that ensures hospitals are adapted to meet the needs of older people. An exploratory, qualitative approach was used. Forty-one Registered Nurses participated (24 point-of-care nurses; 17 organisational leaders). Six focus groups and one individual interview were conducted. Thematic data analysis was employed to generate the main study findings. An overarching theme of 'Poor Fit' emerged. While participants identified the shifting needs of patients towards more complex and relational care, the broader organisational and societal contexts were, largely, unchanging. This resulted in nurses recognising the factors needed to be ready to care for older patients and their families, but working in hospitals that were not suited to these needs. The findings identify factors at the point-of-care, the organisational level, and in broader societal attitudes that shape nurses' readiness to care for hospitalised older people. However, many of these factors are modifiable and care for older people could be improved through quality improvement initiatives and nursing leadership. This study offers insight into ways to re-imagine nursing care that can be responsive to older people's complex needs in hospitals. With a growing contingent of hospitalised older people, it is imperative that nurses, who comprise the largest workforce in this setting, be included in the planning and delivery of healthcare services to ensure readiness to meet the needs of this population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Older People with Visual Impairment: Clinical Management and Care Watkinson Susan Older People with Visual Impairment: Clinical Management and Care 176pp £25 M&K Publishing 9781905539451 1905539452 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    ISSUES SURROUNDING the diagnosis, care and treatment of older people with visual impairment are examined in this book. It begins with a useful overview of ageing and the needs of older people. The second chapter considers demographics and health policy and care post-Francis and the chief nursing officer for England's strategy for compassionate care, including the 6Cs.

  4. Are Young People Biased against Older Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    1980-01-01

    Elementary school students and university students indicated they preferred younger male and female (under 35) to older teachers. Personality and competence were given as reasons for their preferences by sixth graders and university students. Younger children gave no explanation nor did they indicate teacher appearance or resemblance to well-known…

  5. Are Young People Biased against Older Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    1980-01-01

    Elementary school students and university students indicated they preferred younger male and female (under 35) to older teachers. Personality and competence were given as reasons for their preferences by sixth graders and university students. Younger children gave no explanation nor did they indicate teacher appearance or resemblance to well-known…

  6. ICT and Older People: Beyond Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Encuentra, Eulalia; Pousada, Modesta; Gomez-Zuniga, Beni

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the use that older, regular users of computers make of information and computer technology in their daily lives. Opinions from such users were obtained regarding what they want these technologies to offer them in the future. By means of a discussion group and an online questionnaire, our critical case examined a group of mature…

  7. Managing constipation in older people in hospital.

    PubMed

    Wessel-Cessieux, Elizabeth

    Constipation is a distressing disorder that is common among older patients in hospital. It is often underdiagnosed and undertreated, and can lead to increased morbidity and prolonged hospital stays. In most cases this common problem can be treated successfully if the correct management plan is adopted. This article reviews the prevention and management strategies available to address the issue.

  8. Caring for older people with an intellectual disability: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Innes, Anthea; McCabe, Louise; Watchman, Karen

    2012-08-01

    This review critically evaluates the available research literature on aging among people with an intellectual disability. 42 papers meeting the review inclusion criteria are presented under three themes: studies with a service user perspective (13), studies of carers of older people with ID (14) and studies of service provision for older people with ID (15). User view specific findings relate to concerns about accommodation; experiences of services; and perceptions of aging; with a common underlying finding from all user focused themes that of unmet need. Carer specific findings relate to fear of the future; experiences of older carers; and planning for the future. Services themes reflect the debate over specialist or generalist services as people age; accommodation; retirement from day services; and staff training. Overall this review reveals a lack of robust research evidence concerning the lives of older people with ID and a need for more research that directly engages with older people with ID and their carers. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Participation of older people in preauthorization trials of recently approved medicines.

    PubMed

    Beers, Erna; Moerkerken, Dineke C; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Egberts, Toine C G; Jansen, Paul A F

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the inclusion of older people in clinical trials of recently authorized medicines, evaluating adherence to the 20-year-old International Conference of Harmonisation (ICH) guideline on geriatrics (E7). Observational. European public assessment reports, published clinical trials, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Individuals aged 65 and older and 75 and older. Number and proportion of randomized participants and all exclusion criteria of studies involving diseases characteristically associated with aging (venous thromboembolism, osteoporosis, atrial fibrillation) and diseases not unique to older adults (type 2 diabetes mellitus, depression, bipolar disorder, epilepsy). In 114 Phase II and III trials of 12 medicines, 43.1% of participants were aged 65 and older, and 16.1% were aged 75 and older. In trials involving diseases characteristically associated with ageing, 57% were aged 65 and older; 22% were aged 75 and older. In trials involving diseases not unique to old age, 9% were aged 65 and older, and 1% were aged 75 and older. Upper age limits were applied in 30.7% of the trials; the frequency did not differ between larger (sample size ≥ 500) and smaller trials (P = .36), although it was significantly lower in trials involving diseases characteristically associated with aging (18.0%) than in trials of diseases not unique to old age (45.3%; P = .002). Age-sensitive exclusion criteria, based on comorbidity (75.4%), concomitant medication (71.9%), and other criteria correlated with age (60.5%) were applied more frequently in larger trials (P < .02). Studies of diseases not uniquely associated with old age included an unacceptably low proportion of older people, contrary to the recommendations of the ICH E7 guideline. Although the proportion of older participants in trials of diseases characteristically associated with aging was appropriate for certain medicines, the use of age-sensitive exclusion criteria limits

  10. Factors associated with variations in older people's use of community-based continence services.

    PubMed

    Peters, Tim J; Horrocks, Sue; Stoddart, Helen; Somerset, Maggie

    2004-01-01

    Many people who have urinary incontinence and who may benefit from healthcare and professional advice do not currently access UK National Health Service services, even though effective treatments are available in the community. Older people have an increased prevalence of incontinence and a correspondingly increased need for continence services. Therefore, increasing older people's access to continence services has the potential to reduce inequalities and improve quality of life. The present study aimed to identify older people with urinary incontinence living in the community, to describe and compare the characteristics of users and non-users of continence services, and to identify factors which prevent older people seeking help. A cross-sectional postal survey of patients aged over 65 years registered with four general practices in an urban area found an overall prevalence of 39% of older people with urinary incontinence, only 15% of whom had accessed services. Two-thirds of respondents who reported that they experienced urinary leakage several times per week to all the time, and up to two-thirds of those reporting leakage of moderate or large volumes of leakage had not accessed services. The majority of older people are in regular contact with health professionals, and the greatest single influence on use of services was that of being asked whether there were continence problems by a health professional. Being married or having a partner, experiencing less pain generally, and suffering relatively high frequency and volumes of urinary leakage also appeared to be associated independently with continence service use. In conclusion, there appears to be considerable unmet need for continence services. Health professionals should be aware that incontinence is an important health problem for older people, and by asking older people specifically about urinary leakage, they could reduce inequalities in use of services.

  11. Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Falls are a major threat to older people’s health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people’s experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. Methods We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Results Forty-four adults aged 65 – 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. Conclusions This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people. PMID:24245830

  12. KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES OF HEALTH CARE SCIENCE STUDENTS TOWARD OLDER PEOPLE.

    PubMed

    Milutinović, Dragana; Simin, Dragana; Kacavendić, Jelena; Turkulov, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Education of health science students in geriatrics is important in order to provide optimal care for the growing number of elderly people because it is the attitudes of health professionals toward the elderly that play the key role in the quality of care provided. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care science students towards ageing and care for the elderly. The present cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 130 students (medical, nursing and special education and rehabilitation) of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad. The students were divided into two groups. The first group (E) included students having been taught geriatrics and nursing older adults and the other group (C) included students who had not been trained in this subject. The authors used Palmore's facts on Ageing Quiz for the knowledge evaluation and Kogan's Attitude toward Older People Scale for the attitude evaluation. The results of Facts on Aging Quiz showed the average level of students' knowledge and statistically significant difference between E and C group. The analysis of Kogan's Attitudes toward Old People Scale showed that both groups had neutral attitudes toward older people. Furthermore, a positive correlation between students' knowledge and attitudes was found. There is increasing evidence on the correlation between education, knowledge and attitudes toward older people which suggests that by acquiring better insights into all aspects of ageing through their education the students develop more positive attitudes and interest in working with older adults.

  13. Promoting personalization in social care services for older people.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chengqiu; Hughes, Jane; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Chester, Helen; Challis, David

    2012-01-01

    This article presents findings on 4 themes associated with the personalization of social care for older people: integration of health and social care services; initiatives that prevent the need for more costly interventions; services to maintain people at home; and systems that promote choice, control, and flexibility. The quantitative study utilized data from a national postal survey conducted in England. Findings suggest variable progress regarding the range and style of support available to older people. These are discussed in the context of service integration, community-based services, and consumer-directed care. Implications for service development and future research are highlighted.

  14. A brighter future for older people.

    PubMed

    2001-05-01

    There was a cartoon in a recent issue of Private Eye in which a doctor was telling an older woman: 'Under the new charter, elderly patients will not be treated differently by the NHS - they'll be treated just as badly as everyone else.' If you overlooked the fact that the woman's slightly dotty hat and nervous clutching of her handbag were the cartoonist's clumsy way of indicating her advancing years, there was a certain ironic wit in the caricature.

  15. Why do some people look older than they should?

    PubMed

    Bulpitt, C J; Markowe, H L; Shipley, M J

    2001-09-01

    As a component of studies on biological age, the age of subjects from their appearance (perceived age) was estimated. To determine the factors associated with looking older. Cross sectional study of London civil servants (318 men, 129 women) in the Department of the Environment study. Perceived age was recorded by an observer and the difference between this age and chronological age was analysed according to 20 different variables. Men had an average perceived age of 0.37 years older than their actual age and women a perceived age of 0.54 years younger. In men, looking older was related to greying of the hair, grade of arcus senilis, and grade of baldness. Less expected, looking older was positively related to total serum cholesterol (p=0.03) and blood haemoglobin (p<0.01). In women, looking older was related to greying of the hair, positively to blood erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and negatively to serum bilirubin (p=0.01). Looking older was not related to alcohol consumption, employment grade, serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, albumin, and calcium in either sex. The relationships between looking older and total cholesterol and haemoglobin in men and ESR and bilirubin in women, require further investigation.

  16. Why do some people look older than they should?

    PubMed Central

    Bulpitt, C; Markowe, H; Shipley, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—As a component of studies on biological age, the age of subjects from their appearance (perceived age) was estimated.
OBJECTIVE—To determine the factors associated with looking older.
METHODS—Cross sectional study of London civil servants (318 men, 129 women) in the Department of the Environment study. Perceived age was recorded by an observer and the difference between this age and chronological age was analysed according to 20 different variables.
RESULTS—Men had an average perceived age of 0.37 years older than their actual age and women a perceived age of 0.54 years younger. In men, looking older was related to greying of the hair, grade of arcus senilis, and grade of baldness. Less expected, looking older was positively related to total serum cholesterol (p=0.03) and blood haemoglobin (p<0.01). In women, looking older was related to greying of the hair, positively to blood erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and negatively to serum bilirubin (p=0.01). Looking older was not related to alcohol consumption, employment grade, serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, albumin, and calcium in either sex.
CONCLUSION—The relationships between looking older and total cholesterol and haemoglobin in men and ESR and bilirubin in women, require further investigation.
 PMID:11524516

  17. Mental Health and Social Care Needs of Older People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strydom, Andre; Hassiotis, Angela; Livingston, Gill

    2005-01-01

    Background: Older people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are a growing population but their age-related needs are rarely considered and community services are still geared towards the younger age group. We aimed to examine the mental health and social care needs of this new service user group. Methods: We identified all adults with ID without…

  18. "I had a good time when I was young": Interpreting descriptions of continuity among older people.

    PubMed

    Breheny, Mary; Griffiths, Zoë

    2017-04-01

    Messages describing how best to age are prominent in gerontological theory, research and the media. These prescriptions for ageing may foster positive experiences in later life; however, they may also obscure the social and situated nature of expectations for ageing well. Continuity Theory proposes ageing well is achieved through continuity of activity and stability of relationships and identity over the life course. Continuity seems adaptive, yet prioritising continuity may not match the expectations, desires and realities of older people. To understand continuity among older people, the present study used interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to analyse transcripts from eleven participants over the age of 79 years. Continuity was important for older people in this study, who described a range of practices that supported internal and external continuity. Participants acknowledged both positive and negative changes in roles and obligations as they aged which impacted on continuity of identity. Continuity of identity was linked both to being 'just like always' and 'just like everyone else'. Examining these accounts shows how they are tied to expectations that older people should both maintain earlier patterns of behaviour while also negotiating changing social expectations for behaviour that are linked to age. These tensions point to the balance between physical, environmental and interpersonal change and the negotiation of social expectations which together structure possibilities for ageing well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mental Health and Social Care Needs of Older People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strydom, Andre; Hassiotis, Angela; Livingston, Gill

    2005-01-01

    Background: Older people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are a growing population but their age-related needs are rarely considered and community services are still geared towards the younger age group. We aimed to examine the mental health and social care needs of this new service user group. Methods: We identified all adults with ID without…

  20. Older People Who Stutter: Barriers to Communication and Perceptions of Treatment Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker-Katz, Geraldine; Lincoln, Michelle; McCabe, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the experience of stuttering for people over 55 years of age. Recent research has established that the same types of stuttering behaviours, cognitions, and emotional consequences experienced during young adulthood persist into older age. Aims: The aims were to investigate perceptions of limitations to activity and…

  1. Older People Who Stutter: Barriers to Communication and Perceptions of Treatment Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker-Katz, Geraldine; Lincoln, Michelle; McCabe, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the experience of stuttering for people over 55 years of age. Recent research has established that the same types of stuttering behaviours, cognitions, and emotional consequences experienced during young adulthood persist into older age. Aims: The aims were to investigate perceptions of limitations to activity and…

  2. Perception of vulnerability to HIV infection among older people in Nairobi, Kenya: a need for intervention.

    PubMed

    Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria

    2013-03-01

    It is evident that sexual activity tends to decrease with age. Nonetheless, it is still prevalent enough to be considered a risk factor for the spread of HIV among older people. This paper uses quantitative data for 2053 individuals to examine HIV risk perception and correlates of perceived risk among older people aged 50 years and older living in Nairobi slums. It emerged that a majority of older people did not consider themselves at risk of infection. Of those who felt at risk, a greater proportion sensed only a small chance of contracting HIV. Women cited 'no sexual activity' while men mentioned 'having only one and/or a faithful sexual partner' as the primary reasons for perceiving minimal risk of HIV infection. There were no differences by sex in the basis for perceiving moderate-to-great risk of infection. Religion is a key factor in risk perception with Muslims perceiving higher levels of risk and, conversely, devotees irrespective of faith perceiving lower levels of risk. Older people willing to be tested for HIV had a decreased likelihood of perceived risk compared with those unwilling to be tested. This paper recommends evaluation of older people's perception of risk in order to better inform interventions aimed at minimizing their vulnerability to HIV infection.

  3. The Dynamic Relationship Between Cognitive Function and Positive Well-Being in Older People: A Prospective Study Using the English Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that having a stronger sense of positive well-being may be a potential resource for healthier aging as represented by slower physical decline, reduced risk of frailty and longer survival. However, it is unclear whether positive well-being is protective of another crucial component of healthy aging, cognitive function, or whether it has a bidirectional relationship with cognitive function. We use multilevel models with within-person centering to estimate the within- and between-person association between cognitive function and positive well-being in 4 waves of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), (N = 10985, aged 50–90 years at wave 1). Our findings show that, although most variation in cognitive function was explained by age, and most variation in well-being was explained by depression, small but significant associations between cognition and well-being remained after variation in age and depression were controlled. In models where cognition was the outcome, the association was mainly because of variation in mean levels of well-being between persons. In models where well-being was the outcome, the association was mainly because of within-person fluctuation in cognitive test performance. Exercise and depression were the most important moderating influences on the association between cognition and positive well-being. Depression had greater effect upon this association for those with higher well-being, but exercise protected cognitive performance against the adverse effects of lower well-being. PMID:24955999

  4. Middle-Aged and Older Adult Health Care Selection.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Scott R; Erickson, Lance D; Call, Vaughn R A; McKnight, Matthew L

    2017-04-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of primary-care physician (PCP) bypass among rural middle-aged and older adults. Bypass is a behavior where people travel beyond local providers to obtain health care. This article applies a precise Geographic Information System (GIS)-based measure of bypass and examines the role of community and non-health-care-related characteristics on bypass. Our results indicate that bypass behavior among rural middle-aged and older adults is multifaceted. In addition to the perceived quality of local primary care, dissatisfaction with local services, such as shopping, creates an effect that increases the likelihood of bypass, whereas strong community ties decrease the likelihood of bypass. The results suggest that the "outshopping theory," where respondents select services in larger regional economic centers rather than local "mom and pop" providers, now extends to older adult health care selection.

  5. Self-rated health and associated factors among older people living alone in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; While, Alison E; Hicks, Allan

    2015-04-01

    Self-rated health is a reliable and important health measure related to older people's mortality and quality of life. Few studies regarding the self-rated health of older people living alone have been carried out in Mainland China. The present study aimed to investigate the self-rated health of older people living alone in Shanghai and its associated factors. A stratified random cluster sample of 521 community-dwelling older people living alone in Shanghai completed structured questionnaires through face-to-face interviews. The data collected included self-rated health, physical health, depression, functional ability, physical activity, health services satisfaction, loneliness, social support and sociodemographic variables. More than two-fifths of the participants (43.2%) reported good self-rated health. Multinomial logistic regression analyses found that chronic disease, acute disease, functional ability, satisfaction with health services, depression and age were predictors of self-rated health. Identifying factors associated with the self-rated health of older people living alone could inform the delivery of appropriate health and social care interventions to promote older people's health. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Therapeutic effects of an indoor gardening programme for older people living in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Tse, Mimi Mun Yee

    2010-04-01

    To explore the activities of daily living and psychological well-being of older people living in nursing homes and also to examine the effectiveness of a gardening programme in enhancing socilaisation and life satisfaction, reducing loneliness and promoting activities of daily living for older people living in nursing homes. Life in nursing homes can mean very limited physical and social activity, leading to further decline in function for many older people. This was a quasi-experimental pre and posttest control group design. Older people from nursing homes were invited to join the eight week indoor gardening programme (experimental group), while older people in other nursing homes were treated as the control group; they received regular care without the eight week indoor gardening programme. There were 26 older people (25 female and one male; mean age 85 years) in the experimental group and 27 (20 female and seven male; mean age 82 years) in the control group. Demographic data including age, gender, educational level and financial situation were collected, in addition to information regarding life satisfaction, loneliness, physical activity and social network situation, before and after the eight week indoor gardening programme for both the experimental and control groups. Also, details of experimental group subjects' experience of the indoor gardening programme were elicited using open-ended questions. There were significant improvements in life satisfaction and social network and a significant decrease in perception of loneliness for older people in the experimental group after the eight week indoor gardening programme, while the activities of daily living were unchanged for both groups after the programme. Given the positive effects of gardening activities, it is suggested that they be promoted more widely among nursing home residents.

  7. Older and incarcerated: policy implications of aging prison populations.

    PubMed

    Psick, Zachary; Simon, Jonathan; Brown, Rebecca; Ahalt, Cyrus

    2017-03-13

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the policy Implications of aging prison populations. Design/methodology/approach An examination of the worldwide aging trend in prison and its implications for correctional policy, including an examination of population aging in California prisons as a case example of needed reform. Findings Prison populations worldwide are aging at an unprecedented rate, and age-related medical costs have had serious consequences for jurisdictions struggling to respond to the changes. These trends are accompanied by a growing body of evidence that old age is strongly correlated with desistance from criminal behavior, suggesting an opportunity to at least partially address the challenges of an aging prison population through early release from prison for appropriate persons. Originality/value Some policies do exist that aim to reduce the number of older, chronically ill or disabled and dying people in prison, but they have not achieved that goal on a sufficient scale. An examination of the situation in California shows that recognizing how the healthcare needs of incarcerated people change as they age - and how aging and aging-related health changes often decrease an older person's likelihood of repeat offense - is critical to achieving effective and efficient policies and practices aimed at adequately caring for this population and reducing their numbers in prisons when appropriate.

  8. Impact of prescribed medications on patient safety in older people

    PubMed Central

    Anathhanam, Sujo; Powis, Rachel A.; Robson, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate prescribing for older adults presents unique challenges to the prescriber. An understanding of the scale of the problems and contributing factors is essential when designing interventions to improve patient safety. The altered pharmacology of ageing, the existence of multiple medical conditions and the exclusion of elderly patients from many trials render this subgroup of the population particularly vulnerable to underprescribing and overprescribing. Adverse drug events are common, causing significant morbidity and mortality as well as having economic implications. ‘High-risk’ medications such as opioids, anticoagulants and antipsychotics can have benefits in this group of patients but strategies to optimize their safety are required. Tools exist that help to identify those at risk of adverse drug reactions and to screen for inappropriate prescribing. Developments in information technology are ongoing, and it is hoped that these may enhance the process of medication reconciliation across healthcare transitions and alert the prescriber to potential adverse drug events. This review addresses commonly encountered issues when prescribing for older people, considers strategies to improve medication safety and offers a list of ‘top tips’ to aid the clinician. PMID:25083234

  9. Is there an independent somatic symptom dimension in older people?

    PubMed

    Wijeratne, Chanaka; Hickie, Ian; Davenport, Tracey

    2006-08-01

    In explaining the dimensions underlying nonpsychotic symptom reporting, traditional psychiatric paradigm has advocated a hierarchical model in which somatic symptoms are subsumed within two correlated psychological dimensions. A more recent alternate view is that somatic symptoms may be clearly separated from typical anxiety and depression symptoms if somatic symptoms are adequately recorded. The main aim of this study is to determine whether discrete somatic dimension(s) could be derived in older people. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the factor structure underlying the responses of 10662 ambulatory primary care patients, aged 60 years and over, who completed the 34-item SPHERE (Somatic and Psychological HEalth REport) questionnaire of somatic and psychological symptoms. In addition, weighted factor scores were compared according to whether there was a physical or psychological reason for presentation to a doctor. A clinically interpretable four-factor solution, consisting of mood, cognitive, musculoskeletal, and fatigue symptoms, was derived. When factor analysis was repeated by gender, the only difference was that mood, cognitive, and pain-fatigue factors were derived in males. In the overall sample, all factor scores were higher in patients with a purely psychological reason for presentation. Somatic symptoms could be measured independently of psychological symptoms in the current sample of older primary care patients.

  10. Self-determination and older people--a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Ekelund, Christina; Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve; Eklund, Kajsa

    2014-03-01

    Self-determination has emerged as an important concept within health care, used to emphasize clients' control and independence as they participate in rehabilitation. To strengthen clients' self-determination is a central aim in occupational therapy. However, there is a lack of a clear definition of self-determination concerning community-dwelling older people. The definition should be flexible in different contexts, such as cultural. To define and clarify the concept of self-determination in relation to community-dwelling frail older people. Walker & Avant's analysis procedure was carried out to identify textual attributes to the concept of self-determination, supplemented by a content analysis of 21 articles that were used to define and further justify the textual attributes. Self-determination was used in diverse contexts for community-dwelling older people, concerning: decision-making in everyday life, professionals' views, health, and legal/ethical rights. Different textual attributes were identified, to propose a conceptual definition of self-determination in relation to community-dwelling frail older people: A process in which a person has control and legal/ethical rights, and has the knowledge and ability to make a decision of his/her own free choice. This concept analysis has contributed to clarifying the concept for the convenience of research with community-dwelling frail older people.

  11. The disaster flood experience: Older people's poetic voices of resilience.

    PubMed

    Miller, Evonne; Brockie, Lauren

    2015-08-01

    This paper explores the experiences of older community-dwelling Australians evacuated from their homes during the 2011 and 2013 Queensland floods, applying the novel creative methodology of poetic inquiry as an analysis and interpretative tool. As well as exploring how older adults managed during a natural disaster, the paper documents the process and potential of poetic inquiry in gerontological research. The first and second poems highlight the different social resources older people have to draw on in their lives, especially during a crisis. Poem 1 ("Nobody came to help me") illustrates how one older resident felt all alone during the flood, whereas Poem 2 ("They came from everywhere"), Poem 3 ("The Girls") and Poem 5 ("Man in Blue Shirt") shows how supported--from both family and the wider community--other older residents felt. Poem 4 ("I can't swim") highlights one participant's fear as the water rises. To date, few studies have explicitly explored older adult's disaster experience, with this paper the first to utilise a poetic lens. We argue that poetic presentation enhances understanding of older residents' unique experiences during a disaster, and may better engage a wider audience of policy-makers, practitioners, the general community and older people themselves in discussion about, and reflection on, the impact and experience of disasters.

  12. Epidemiology of ambulance responses to older people who have fallen in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Paul M; Bendall, Jason C; Patterson, Jillian; Tiedemann, Anne; Middleton, Paul M; Close, Jacqueline Ct

    2013-09-01

    To quantify the size and scope of the operational burden for a large ambulance service arising from older people who have fallen and to describe this population. Retrospective analysis of ambulance records from New South Wales, Australia for emergency calls classified as 'falls' in the period 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2009. There were 42 331 responses to people aged 65 years or older, constituting 5.1% of total emergency workload. The median age of patients was 83 (interquartile range 76-87) and 62% were women. The transport rate was 76%. Transport to hospital was more likely during the day (odds ratio (OR) 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-1.9) and on weekends (OR 1.06, 95%CI 1.0-1.1). Falls by older people constitute approximately 5% of all emergency responses, of which one quarter are not transported to emergency department (ED) after paramedic assessment. Increasing the sophistication of ambulance dispatch processes to older people who have fallen, and continuing with the development of new models of care aimed at decreasing unnecessary transports to the EDs, should be a priority when planning ambulance service delivery for older people who have fallen. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2012 ACOTA.

  13. Bioimpedance-Derived Phase Angle and Mortality Among Older People.

    PubMed

    Genton, Laurence; Norman, Kristina; Spoerri, Adrian; Pichard, Claude; Karsegard, Véronique L; Herrmann, François R; Graf, Christophe E

    2017-04-01

    Phase angle measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) may be a marker of health state. This historical cohort study of prospectively collected BIA measurements aims to investigate the link between phase angle and mortality in older people and evaluate whether a phase angle cutoff can be defined. We included all adults aged ≥65 years who underwent a BIA measurement by the Nutriguard(®) device at the Geneva University Hospitals. We retrieved retrospectively the phase angle and comorbidities at the last BIA measurement and mortality until December 2012. We calculated phase angle standardized for sex, age, and body mass index (BMI), using reference values determined with the same brand of BIA device. Sex-specific and standardized phase angle were categorized into quartiles. The association of mortality with sex-specific or standardized phase angle was evaluated through univariate and multivariate Cox regression models, Kaplan-Meier curves, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. We included 1307 (38% women) participants, among whom 628 (44% women) died. In a multivariate Cox regression model adjusted for comorbidities and setting of measurement (ambulatory vs. hospitalized), the protective effect against mortality increased progressively as the standardized phase angle quartile increased (HR 0.71 [95% CI 0.58, 0.86], 0.53 [95% CI 0.42, 0.67], and 0.32 [95% CI 0.23, 0.43]). The discriminative value of continuous standardized phase angle, assessed as the area under the ROC curve, was 0.72 (95%CI 0.70, 0.75). We could not define an acceptable phase angle cutoff for individual prediction of mortality (LK), based on sensibility and specificity values. This study shows the association of phase angle and mortality in older patients, independent of age, sex, comorbidities, BMI categories, and setting of measurement.

  14. Families, social life, and well-being at older ages.

    PubMed

    Waite, Linda; Das, Aniruddha

    2010-01-01

    As people age, many aspects of their lives tend to change, including the constellation of people with whom they are connected, their social context, their families, and their health--changes that are often interrelated. Wave I of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) has yielded rich information on intimate ties, especially dyads and families, and on social connections generally. Combined with extensive biological and other health measures, NSHAP enables researchers to address key questions on health and aging. We begin with recent findings on intimate dyads, then move to social participation, and finally to elder mistreatment. Among dyads, we find that whereas sexual activity drops sharply with age for both women and men, gender differences in partner loss as well as psychosocial and normative pressures constrain women's sex more than men's. However, surviving partnerships tend to be emotionally and physically satisfying and are marked by relatively frequent sex. In contrast to sex, nonsexual intimacy is highly prevalent at older ages, especially among women. Older adults are also socially resilient--adapting to the loss of social ties by increasing involvement with community and kin networks. Despite these social assets, older adults remain vulnerable to mistreatment. Overall, these findings yield a mixed picture of gender-differentiated vulnerabilities balanced by proactive adaptation and maintenance of social and dyadic assets.

  15. Protective factors in patients aged over 65 with stroke treated by physiotherapy, showing cognitive impairment, in the Valencia Community. Protection Study in Older People (EPACV)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Family function may have an influence on the mental health deterioration of the caregivers of dependent family members and it could have a varying importance on the care of dependents. Little attention has been paid to the preparation of minor stroke survivors for the recovery trajectory or the spouse for the caregiving role. Therefore, this study protocol intends to analyze the influence of family function on the protection of patients with stroke sequels needing physiotherapy in the family environment. Methods/Design This is an analytical observational design, prospective cohort study and using a qualitative methodology by means of data collected in the “interviews of life”. The study will be carried out by the Rehabilitation Service at Hospital of Elda in the Valencia Community. All patients that have been diagnosed with stroke and need physiotherapy treatment, having a dependency grade assigned and consent to participate in the study, will undergo a monitoring of one year in order to assess the predictive factors depending on the dependence of the people affected. Discussion Our research aims to analyze the perception of caregivers, their difficulties to work, and the influence of family function. Moreover, it aims to register the perception of the patients with stroke sequel over the care received and whether they feel protected in their family environment. PMID:23039063

  16. Social network characteristics and salivary cortisol in healthy older people.

    PubMed

    Lai, Julian C L; Chong, Alice M L; Siu, Oswald T; Evans, Phil; Chan, Cecilia L W; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2012-01-01

    Psychobiological research on aging in humans has been confounded by individual differences that have not been adequately characterized in the literature. This paper is an attempt to shed light on this issue by examining the impact of social network characteristics predictive of successful aging on salivary cortisol among 78 older Chinese people in Hong Kong. Eight salivary cortisol samples were collected each day for two consecutive days from immediately after awakening to 12 hours later. Two components of the cortisol diurnal cycle, response to awakening and diurnal decline, were examined in relation to social network characteristics including size, emotional support, and cultivation. ANOVAs with repeated measured were run to examine influences of the three social network characteristics on the cortisol awakening response and diurnal decline, with the effects of gender, age, socioeconomic status, and waking time controlled. Results indicated that those who spent more time and effort in developing and strengthening their social ties (i.e., those high in "cultivation") exhibited a significantly greater rise in cortisol in the morning and a significantly steeper decline over the day, thus attesting to more effective activation and deactivation of the HPA axis. Network cultivation reflected a positive motivation to nurture social relationships more than the other two network characteristics. Its effect on cortisol might stem from the positivity underlying the motivation.

  17. Optimizing footwear for older people at risk of falls.

    PubMed

    Menant, Jasmine C; Steele, Julie R; Menz, Hylton B; Munro, Bridget J; Lord, Stephen R

    2008-01-01

    Footwear influences balance and the subsequent risk of slips, trips, and falls by altering somatosensory feedback to the foot and ankle and modifying frictional conditions at the shoe/floor interface. Walking indoors barefoot or in socks and walking indoors or outdoors in high-heel shoes have been shown to increase the risk of falls in older people. Other footwear characteristics such as heel collar height, sole hardness, and tread and heel geometry also influence measures of balance and gait. Because many older people wear suboptimal shoes, maximizing safe shoe use may offer an effective fall prevention strategy. Based on findings of a systematic literature review, older people should wear shoes with low heels and firm slip-resistant soles both inside and outside the home. Future research should investigate the potential benefits of tread sole shoes for preventing slips and whether shoes with high collars or flared soles can enhance balance when challenging tasks are undertaken.

  18. Care for suicidal older people: current clinical–ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Vanlaere, Linus; Bouckaert, Filip; Gastmans, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This article opens by reviewing the state of the knowledge on the most current worldwide facts about suicide in older people. Next, a number of values that have a role in this problem are considered. Having a clear and current understanding of suicide and of the related self‐held and social values forms the framework for a number of clinical–ethical recommendations for care practice. An important aspect of caring for older people with suicidal tendencies is to determine whether their primary care fosters self‐esteem and affirms their dignity. In addition to providing a timely and appropriate diagnosis and treatment of suicidality, the caregiver is responsible for helping the patient to cope with stressful conditions, and for treating the patient with respect and consideration, thereby supporting the patient's dignity and giving the patient a reason to live. Paying attention to these central points will foster caring contact with suicidal older people. PMID:17601861

  19. Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections in older people.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, Alison

    2017-02-28

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in older people, with the prevalence increasing with age in both sexes. UTI is a frequent reason for emergency admission to hospital. There are many conditions that contribute to older people being more at risk of UTI and the main preventive strategy is to avoid the use of indwelling urethral catheters. Where an indwelling catheter is inserted its continued use should be regularly reviewed and the catheter removed, especially if the reason for insertion is incontinence and the person becomes additionally incontinent of faeces. Diagnosis of UTI can be complex because older people do not always exhibit the signs and symptoms commonly associated with UTI. Diagnosis can be further complicated by a person's inability to provide a comprehensive history and by difficulties obtaining an uncontaminated, 'clean catch' urine specimen. Antibiotic therapy should not be used routinely for people with asymptomatic bacteriuria and, where antibiotics are required, healthcare professionals should follow local prescribing guidelines.

  20. A randomised controlled study of the effects of music on sleep quality in older people.

    PubMed

    Chan, Moon Fai

    2011-04-01

    To determine the effect of music on sleep quality in older people. Sleep disturbance is common in older people and its impacts on older adults along with its conventional treatment merit our attention as our population ages. Conventional pharmacological method might result dependence and impairment in psychomotor and cognitive function. Listening to music, which is a non-pharmacological method, might promote relaxation, induce distraction responses and promote sleep quality. A randomised controlled study. The study was conducted from December 2006-January 2007. Forty-two older people (21 using music and 21 controls) completed the study in Hong Kong. Physiological (blood pressure and heart rate) and sleep quality variables were collected once a week for one month. For all vital signs' results, no significant differences were found between both music and control groups within the four weeks. In the music group, there was statistically significant reduction in sleep scores at week 4. In control group, there was no statistically significant improvement of sleep scores in the four weeks. However, no significant difference was found between groups over the four weeks. Whilst there were no statistical differences between groups, there was some indication that music yielder higher improvement on sleep scores, which are worthier of further investigation in larger trials. The implication of this study is that music listening can help nurses build therapeutic relationships with older people. Nurses are recommended to use music as part of their holistic caring for older people. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Advertising Representations of Older People in the United Kingdom and Taiwan: A Comparative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Cross-cultural studies of advertising representations of older people are relatively scarce. This article aims to fill in this gap via a comparison between Taiwan and the United Kingdom, employing a combination of quantitative content analysis and the qualitative grounded theory method. The content-analysis phase reveals underrepresentation of older people in both countries' advertising contexts, as well as representational differences between Taiwan and the United Kingdom in terms of older characters' role salience, the products, physical settings, and social networks they are associated with. The grounded-theory phase yields nine prototypes of older people along with subcategories to conceptualize the qualities of older people as they appear in TV ads in these countries. The findings are discussed in relation to the stereotyping of older people and transformed into hypothetical statements to be modified in future research. In conclusion, the Confucian tradition of filial piety is still found to be important in explaining the observed cross-cultural differences, but the emergence of new norms about aging in Taiwanese advertising also suggests that this tradition may be in decline.

  2. Pharmaceutical strategies towards optimising polypharmacy in older people.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Carmel M; Cadogan, Cathal A; Patton, Deborah; Ryan, Cristín A

    2016-10-30

    This paper focuses on the issue of polypharmacy in older people and potential pharmaceutical strategies to optimize the use of multiple medicines. Although polypharmacy has long been viewed negatively, increasing emphasis is being placed on the difference between appropriate and inappropriate polypharmacy. This is largely being driven by the increasing prevalence of multimorbidity and the use of evidence-based guidelines. In this paper, we outline a number of key considerations that are pertinent to optimizing polypharmacy, notably prescribing appropriate polypharmacy, pharmaceutical formulations, the involvement of older people in clinical trials and patient adherence. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring the value of older people's production: a diary study.

    PubMed

    Sahlen, Klas-Göran; Löfgren, Curt; Brodin, Håkan; Dahlgren, Lars; Lindholm, Lars

    2012-01-09

    The productive capacity of retired people is usually not valued. However, some retirees produce much more than we might expect. This diary-based study identifies the activities of older people, and suggests some value mechanisms. One question raised is whether it is possible to scale up this diary study into a larger representative study. Diaries kept for one week were collected among 23 older people in the north of Sweden. The texts were analysed with a grounded theory approach; an interplay between ideas and empirical data. Some productive activities of older people must be valued as the opportunity cost of time or according to the market value, and others must be valued with the replacement cost. In order to make the choice between these methods, it is important to consider the societal entitlement. When there is no societal entitlement, the first or second method must be used; and when it exists, the third must be used. An explicit investigation of the content of the entitlement is needed to justify the choice of valuation method for each activity. In a questionnaire addressing older people's production, each question must be adjusted to the type of production. In order to fully understand this production, it is important to consider the degree of free choice to conduct an activity, as well as health-related quality of life.

  4. Measuring the value of older people's production: a diary study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The productive capacity of retired people is usually not valued. However, some retirees produce much more than we might expect. This diary-based study identifies the activities of older people, and suggests some value mechanisms. One question raised is whether it is possible to scale up this diary study into a larger representative study. Methods Diaries kept for one week were collected among 23 older people in the north of Sweden. The texts were analysed with a grounded theory approach; an interplay between ideas and empirical data. Results Some productive activities of older people must be valued as the opportunity cost of time or according to the market value, and others must be valued with the replacement cost. In order to make the choice between these methods, it is important to consider the societal entitlement. When there is no societal entitlement, the first or second method must be used; and when it exists, the third must be used. Conclusions An explicit investigation of the content of the entitlement is needed to justify the choice of valuation method for each activity. In a questionnaire addressing older people's production, each question must be adjusted to the type of production. In order to fully understand this production, it is important to consider the degree of free choice to conduct an activity, as well as health-related quality of life. PMID:22230745

  5. Food intake and nutritional status of hospitalised older people.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques; Leandro-Merhi, Vânia Aparecida

    2011-09-01

    Disease is influenced by the nutritional status of the individual. We have assessed the relationship between nutritional status and food intake among recently hospitalised older people. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 240 older people in a hospital that provides care for the public and private healthcare systems. Nutritional status was classified by the MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment) into: malnourished, risk of malnutrition and without malnutrition. Food intake was estimated by the reported food intake during a typical day. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the medians and the correlation coefficient of Spearman to verify the relationship between the consumption of energy, protein and vitamin C and MNA scores. 33.8% were classified as adequate regarding nutritional status; 37.1% were classified as being at risk of malnutrition and 29.1% were classified as malnourished. The malnourished individuals reported significantly less energy and nutrient intake than those at risk of malnutrition or those without malnutrition (P = 0.001). Not all nutrient intake, just some (iron, cholesterol and fibre), were lower in malnourished people. Deterioration of the nutritional status of older people is accompanied by a reduction in energy and some nutrient intake. The investigation of food intake in older people could provide important information about nutritional risk. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Does baseline depression increase the risk of unexplained and accidental falls in a cohort of community-dwelling older people? Data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA).

    PubMed

    Briggs, Robert; Kennelly, Sean P; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2017-08-02

    Depression independently increases the risk of falls in older people, but the mechanism for this relationship, as well as the specific falls type involved, remains unclear. Accidental falls (AFs) are due to slips or trips, while the cause of unexplained falls (UFs) is not immediately apparent and can include unrecognised syncope. This longitudinal study examines the relationship between baseline depression and subsequent falls, both accidental and unexplained, at 2-year follow-up in a cohort of community dwelling adults aged ≥50 years. Baseline depression was defined as a score ≥16 on The Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. At follow-up, participants were assessed regarding falls since last interview. One-third (228/647) of the depressed group had fallen at follow-up, compared with 22% (1388/6243) of the nondepressed group (P < .001). Multiple logistic regression models demonstrated that depression was associated with an odds ratio of 1.58 (1.31-1.89) P < .001; 1.24 (1.00-1.52), P = .046; and 1.89 (1.45-2.46), P < .001 for total falls, AFs and UFs, respectively, after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants with depression who fell were more likely to have prior falls, functional impairment and slower gait when compared with depressed participants who did not fall. The risk of falls associated with depression in older adults is more marked for UFs, with the association for AFs approaching borderline significance only. This finding is important because UFs require focused clinical assessment with attention to potential causes such as cardiac arrhythmia or orthostatic hypotension. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Do older people with visual impairment and living alone in a rural developing country report greater difficulty in managing stairs?

    PubMed

    Hairi, Noran N; Bulgiba, Awang; Peramalah, Devi; Mudla, Izzuna

    2013-01-01

    Managing stairs is a challenging activity of daily living (ADL) for older people. This study aims to examine the association between visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone and those living with others. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted in rural Malaysia from 2007 till 2008. Seven hundred and sixty five older people aged 60 years and over underwent eye examination for visual impairment. Visual acuity criteria were used to define visual impairment. Presenting visual acuity was assessed using a standard metric Snellen Chart of E type. Difficulty in managing stairs was measured according to a question drawn from the Barthel Index which asks "do you need help in climbing stairs". Overall, the prevalence of difficulty in managing stairs among older people in our population was 135 (18.3%, 95% CI 15.7-21.2). After adjusting for important confounders the odds ratio (OR) for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone was 5.04 (95% CI 2.27, 10.62). Among older people living with others, the adjusted OR for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs was 3.10 (95% CI 1.52, 6.80). In a sample of older people aged 60 years and over, those living alone with visual impairment had greater difficulty in managing stairs than those living with others. Identification of these groups of older people is useful for targeting interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ageism and overestimation of cognitive difficulties in older people: a review.

    PubMed

    Marquet, Manon; Missotten, Pierre; Adam, Stéphane

    2016-06-01

    Stigmatization related to age (i.e., ageism) is a widespread phenomenon in the modern industrial societies where older people are perceived as cognitively incompetent. Therefore negative stereotypes about age-related cognitive decline may have a detrimental influence on older adults on their cognitive performance. The aim of the present review is to understand how stereotypes can influence the performance of the elderly on cognitive tests. We first describe the stereotype threat phenomenon by providing an overview of situations likely to produce stereotype threat, as well as contextual and personal characteristics that moderate its effects. Possible mechanisms underlying these influences on cognitive performance are also presented. Secondly, we address self-stereotyping, which explains long-term negative effects of stereotypes and their unconscious influence on older adults' cognitive performance. However, some age stereotypes have also positive effects on aged people, as shown by some studies describing such beneficial effects of positive stereotypes on cognitive performance. Finally we try to understand why negative age stereotyping has a much stronger influence on important behavioral outcomes among older adults than does positive age stereotyping. Given all these results, we examine how negative age stereotypes may impact older adults' cognitive performance in real-world settings such as during a cognitive assessment.

  9. Older people in the field of medication.

    PubMed

    2002-07-01

    Focus group methodology is becoming ever more popular in healthcare research. In this Finnish study, five focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 34 participants whose ages ranged from 65 to 85. Each group was facilitated by two researchers and the discussions were tape-recorded. Analysis of the data employed the concepts developed by Pierre Bourdieu.

  10. Fall prevention services for older Aboriginal people: investigating availability and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Lukaszyk, Caroline; Coombes, Julieann; Keay, Lisa; Sherrington, Catherine; Tiedemann, Anne; Broe, Tony; Lovitt, Lorraine; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-12-14

    Falls and fall-related injury are emerging issues for older Aboriginal people. Despite this, it is unknown whether older Aboriginal people access available fall prevention programs, or whether these programs are effective or acceptable to this population. To investigate the use of available fall prevention services by older Aboriginal people and identify features that are likely to contribute to program acceptability for Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A questionnaire was distributed to Aboriginal and mainstream health and community services across NSW to identify the fall prevention and healthy ageing programs currently used by older Aboriginal people. Services with experience in providing fall prevention interventions for Aboriginal communities, and key Aboriginal health services that delivered programs specifically for older Aboriginal people, were followed up and staff members were nominated from within each service to be interviewed. Service providers offered their suggestions as to how a fall prevention program could be designed and delivered to meet the health and social needs of their older Aboriginal clients. Of the 131 services that completed the questionnaire, four services (3%) had past experience in providing a mainstream fall prevention program to Aboriginal people; however, there were no programs being offered at the time of data collection. From these four services, and from a further five key Aboriginal health services, 10 staff members experienced in working with older Aboriginal people were interviewed. Barriers preventing services from offering appropriate fall prevention programs to their older Aboriginal clients were identified, including limited funding, a lack of available Aboriginal staff, and communication difficulties between health services and sectors. According to the service providers, an effective and acceptable fall prevention intervention would be evidence based, flexible, community-oriented and social

  11. Revisiting the Role of Neighbourhood Change in Social Exclusion and Inclusion of Older People

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Victoria F.; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Rose, Damaris

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To explore how older people who are “aging in place” are affected when the urban neighbourhoods in which they are aging are themselves undergoing socioeconomic and demographic change. Methods. A qualitative case study was conducted in two contrasting neighbourhoods in Montréal (Québec, Canada), the analysis drawing on concepts of social exclusion and attachment. Results. Participants express variable levels of attachment to neighbourhood. Gentrification triggered processes of social exclusion among older adults: loss of social spaces dedicated to older people led to social disconnectedness, invisibility, and loss of political influence on neighbourhood planning. Conversely, certain changes in a disadvantaged neighbourhood fostered their social inclusion. Conclusion. This study thus highlights the importance of examining the impacts of neighbourhood change when exploring the dynamics of aging in place and when considering interventions to maintain quality of life of those concerned. PMID:22013528

  12. Revisiting the role of neighbourhood change in social exclusion and inclusion of older people.

    PubMed

    Burns, Victoria F; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Rose, Damaris

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To explore how older people who are "aging in place" are affected when the urban neighbourhoods in which they are aging are themselves undergoing socioeconomic and demographic change. Methods. A qualitative case study was conducted in two contrasting neighbourhoods in Montréal (Québec, Canada), the analysis drawing on concepts of social exclusion and attachment. Results. Participants express variable levels of attachment to neighbourhood. Gentrification triggered processes of social exclusion among older adults: loss of social spaces dedicated to older people led to social disconnectedness, invisibility, and loss of political influence on neighbourhood planning. Conversely, certain changes in a disadvantaged neighbourhood fostered their social inclusion. Conclusion. This study thus highlights the importance of examining the impacts of neighbourhood change when exploring the dynamics of aging in place and when considering interventions to maintain quality of life of those concerned.

  13. The importance of 'approaching' older people: a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte; Berterö, Carina

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe the ethical values in caring encounters as experienced by older patients in their daily interaction with nurses in wards for older people. Ethical values and morals are important aspects that influence the quality of care. Empirical observational study including follow-up interviews. Twenty-two older patients participated voluntarily in this study. Constant comparative analysis, the core foundation of grounded theory was used. Five categories: being addressed, receiving respect, desiring to participate, increasing self-determination and gaining self-confidence formed the bases for the core category. APPROACHING: Approaching concerns how people become closer to each other in a physical space. It also includes how people become closer to each other in a dialogue, involving verbal or bodily communication. Approaching indicates the ethical values that guide nurses in their caring encounters with older patients. These values are noted by the patient and have an individual value as well as leading to improved quality of their care. The older patient will be confident and satisfied with the caring encounter if the desired components in the nurse's approaching are exhibited. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Emergency care for older people in India.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Increasing longevity has been hailed as a triumph of medicine in recent years. With increasing life expectancy all over the world, ageing has been seen to outpace social and economic development in many countries. Declining mortality rates and total fertility rates result in an increase in the proportion of elderly individuals. The impact of the ageing population is felt less in the developed world, and it has been estimated that by the year 2050 over 80% of the elderly world population would be living in the developing world. Despite a higher life expectancy in developing nations, there has also been an increase in the risk of having chronic ailments during the increased years; a reflection of life-long accumulation of risk factors.1.

  15. [Assessment of life expectancy in older people].

    PubMed

    Vaucher, Yves; Monod, Stéfanie; Büla, Christophe; Rochat, Stéphane

    2012-11-07

    Evaluation of the remaining life expectancy in elderly persons plays an important role in their care, most importantly when treatments are associated with severe side effects or when they reduce the quality of life. Prognostic scores, incorporating the functional status in addition to age and comorbidities, enable evaluation of the mortality risk during different periods of time. Despite some limitations, these scores are useful in establishing individualized treatment plans.

  16. Ageing with HIV: newly diagnosed older adults in Italy.

    PubMed

    Orchi, N; Balzano, R; Scognamiglio, P; Navarra, A; De Carli, G; Elia, P; Grisetti, S; Sampaolesi, A; Giuliani, M; De Filippis, A; Puro, V; Ippolito, G; Girardi, E

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of HIV/AIDS among people in midlife and late adulthood has been increasing in Western countries over the last decade. We analyzed data from a prospective, observational multi-centre study on individuals newly diagnosed with HIV between January 2004 and March 2007 in 10 public counselling and testing sites in Latium, Italy. At diagnosis, routine demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data are recorded, and patients are asked to complete a questionnaire investigating socio-demographic and psycho-behavioural aspects. To analyze the association of individual characteristics with age, we compared older adults (> or = 50 years) with their younger counterpart (18-49 years). To adjust for potential confounding effect of the epidemiological, clinical and behavioural characteristics, to identify factors associated with older age at HIV diagnosis, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Overall, 1073 individuals were identified, 125 of whom (11.6%) were aged 50 years or above. The questionnaire was completed by 41% (440/1073). Compared with their younger counterparts, a higher proportion of older patients were males, born in Italy, reported heterosexual or unknown HIV risk exposure, were never tested for HIV before and were in a more advanced stage of HIV infection at diagnosis. In addition, older adults had a lower educational level and were more frequently living with their partners or children. With respect to psycho-behavioural characteristics, older patients were more likely to have paid money for sex and have never used recreational drugs. Interestingly, no differences were found regarding condom use, which was poor in both age groups. These findings may have important implications for the management of older adults with HIV, who should be targeted by appropriate public health actions, such as opportunistic screening and easier access to healthcare. Moreover, strategies including information on HIV and prevention of risk

  17. Measures for Assessing Student Attitudes toward Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xiaoping; Bryant, Christina; Boldero, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Measuring medical and allied health students' attitudes towards older people has been identified as an important research area. The present study compared the use of implicit and explicit attitude measures. Sixty-five undergraduates completed one explicit measure, the Fraboni Scale of Ageism (FSA), (Fraboni, Saltstone, & Hughes, 1990) and one…

  18. The Life-Course Origins of Mastery among Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlin, Leonard I.; Nguyen, Kim B.; Schieman, Scott; Milkie, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we aim to identify the sources of mastery--the understanding that individuals hold about their ability to control the circumstances of their lives. The sample for our inquiry was drawn from the Medicare beneficiary files of people 65 and older living in Washington, DC, and two adjoining Maryland counties. We find that past…

  19. Measures for Assessing Student Attitudes toward Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xiaoping; Bryant, Christina; Boldero, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Measuring medical and allied health students' attitudes towards older people has been identified as an important research area. The present study compared the use of implicit and explicit attitude measures. Sixty-five undergraduates completed one explicit measure, the Fraboni Scale of Ageism (FSA), (Fraboni, Saltstone, & Hughes, 1990) and one…

  20. Financial Literacy and Older People Moving On. NIACE Briefing Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

    In the United Kingdom, the increasing sophistication of money management and financial services' increasing reliance on information and computer technology (ICT) have made financial literacy education particularly important for older people, who are less likely to be engaged in the ICT revolution and more likely to be living on a low income.…

  1. Social Exclusion and Older People: Exploring the Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Chris; Scharf, Thomas; Kingston, Paul; Smith, Allison E.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of social exclusion on older people has not been examined. Three issues regarding their participation in community life can be discerned: (1) participation and integration beyond the labor market; (2) spatial segregation, including geographic, economic, and social isolation; and (3) exclusion through withdrawal of institutions from…

  2. Social Exclusion and Older People: Exploring the Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Chris; Scharf, Thomas; Kingston, Paul; Smith, Allison E.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of social exclusion on older people has not been examined. Three issues regarding their participation in community life can be discerned: (1) participation and integration beyond the labor market; (2) spatial segregation, including geographic, economic, and social isolation; and (3) exclusion through withdrawal of institutions from…

  3. Public Library Services to Older People in Pennsylvania: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling-nam, Leo Ip

    The purpose of this study was to establish a profile of services to older people in Pennsylvania public libraries. A survey was distributed to 50 district library centers and headquarters of the state library and 50 independent public libraries. The response rate was 65%. Major findings of the study were the following: (1) 66.15% of respondents…

  4. Full-Timing: A Housing Alternative for Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwigsen, Gail; Null, Roberta

    Full-timing, living year-round in a recreational vehicle, may be a viable housing alternative for older people. Full-timers can enjoy life in recreational vehicles that are modern, convenient, and well-built. Full-timing can be as expensive or as economical as the individual circumstances are. The economic benefits of full-timing increase when the…

  5. The Life-Course Origins of Mastery among Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlin, Leonard I.; Nguyen, Kim B.; Schieman, Scott; Milkie, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we aim to identify the sources of mastery--the understanding that individuals hold about their ability to control the circumstances of their lives. The sample for our inquiry was drawn from the Medicare beneficiary files of people 65 and older living in Washington, DC, and two adjoining Maryland counties. We find that past…

  6. Balance-Boosting Footwear Tips for Older People

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Learn About Feet » Tips for Healthy Feet Balance-Boosting Footwear Tips for Older People Balance in all aspects of life is a good ... mental equilibrium isn't the only kind of balance that's important in life. Good physical balance can ...

  7. Acute care management of older people with dementia: a qualitative perspective.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Wendy; Borbasi, Sally; Wallis, Marianne; Olorenshaw, Rachel; Gracia, Natalie

    2011-02-01

    This Australian study explored management for older people with dementia in an acute hospital setting. As the population ages, increasing numbers of older people with dementia are placed into an acute care hospital to manage a condition other than dementia. These people require special care that takes into account the unique needs of confused older people. Current nursing and medical literature provides some direction in relation to best practice management; however, few studies have examined this management from the perspective of hospital staff. A descriptive qualitative approach was used. Data were collected using semi-structured audio-taped interviews with a cross section of thirteen staff that worked in acute medical or surgical wards in a large South East Queensland, Australia Hospital. Analysis of data revealed five subthemes with the overarching theme being paradoxical care, in that an inconsistent approach to care emphasised safety at the expense of well-being and dignity. A risk management approach was used rather than one that incorporated injury prevention as one facet of an overall strategy. Using untrained staff to sit and observe people with dementia as a risk management strategy does not encourage an evidence-based approach. Staff education and environmental resources may improve the current situation so that people with dementia receive care that takes into account their individual needs and human dignity. Nurses can assist older people with dementia by encouraging evidence-based care practices to become the part of hospital policy. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Assessing dietary quality of older Chinese people using the Chinese Diet Balance Index (DBI).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Hall, John; Byles, Julie; Shi, Zumin

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have applied the Chinese Diet Balance Index (DBI) in evaluating dietary quality for Chinese people. The present cross-sectional study assessed dietary quality based on DBI for older people, and the associated factors, in four socioeconomically distinct regions in China. The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) involves 2745 older Chinese people, aged 60 or over, from four regions (Northeast, East Coast, Central and West) in 2009. Dietary data were obtained by interviews using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Four indicators: Total Score (TS), Lower Bound Score (LBS), Higher Bound Score (HBS) and Diet Quality Distance (DQD) from DBI were calculated for assessing dietary quality in different aspects. 68.9% of older people had different levels of excessive cereals intake. More than 50% of older people had moderate or severe surplus of oil (64.9%) and salt (58.6%). Intake of vegetables and fruit, milk and soybeans, water, and dietary variety were insufficient, especially for milk and soybeans. 80.8% of people had moderate or severe unbalanced diet consumption. The largest differences of DQD scores have been found for people with different education levels and urbanicity levels. People with higher education levels have lower DQD scores (p<0.001), and people living in medium and low urbanicity areas had 2.8 and 8.9 higher DQD scores than their high urbanicity counterparts (p<0.001). Also, significant differences of DQD scores have been found according to gender, marital status, work status and regions (p<0.001). DBI can reveal problems of dietary quality for older Chinese people. Rectifying unbalanced diet intake may lead to prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Dieticians and health care professionals need to increase dissemination and uptake of nutrition education, with interventions targeted at regions of lower socioeconomic status.

  9. The assessment and management of pain among older people in care homes: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Cowan, David T; Fitzpatrick, Joanne M; Roberts, Julia D; While, Alison E; Baldwin, Julie

    2003-03-01

    Pain is highlighted as a significant, yet neglected problem among older people, particularly in long-term care settings. The effects of inadequate assessment and treatment of pain among older people may lead to multiple problems. Problems arise due to cognitive impairment of clients and inadequate assessment by healthcare professionals. Analgesics are under-used and there is a need for improved education of both healthcare professionals and older people regarding attitudes to pain and ageing. Research is needed into the prevalence of pain among older people in United Kingdom (UK) care homes, how best to further educate healthcare professionals regarding pain management and how to enable older people to be facilitative partners in this process.

  10. Measuring the Knowledge and Attitudes of Health Care Staff toward Older People: Sensitivity of Measurement Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, David T.; Fitzpatrick, Joanne M.; Roberts, Julia D.; While, Alison E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the sensitivity of instruments used to measure knowledge and attitudes toward older people. Existing standardized measurement instruments are reviewed, including a detailed examination of Palmore's Facts on Ageing Quiz (FAQ). A recent study conducted by the research team into the knowledge and attitudes of support workers…

  11. Selective Attention in Web Forms: An Exploratory Case Study with Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayago, Sergio; Guijarro, Jose-Maria; Blat, Josep

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study aimed to identify which ways of marking required and optional fields help older people fill in web forms correctly. Drawing on a pilot study and selective attention research in ageing, modified versions of widely used forms were created, in which standard asterisks were replaced with one of three…

  12. Employment Status and Perceived Health Status in Younger and Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…

  13. Selective Attention in Web Forms: An Exploratory Case Study with Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayago, Sergio; Guijarro, Jose-Maria; Blat, Josep

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study aimed to identify which ways of marking required and optional fields help older people fill in web forms correctly. Drawing on a pilot study and selective attention research in ageing, modified versions of widely used forms were created, in which standard asterisks were replaced with one of three…

  14. Attitudes of Students in Health Professions toward Caring for Older People: Needed Curricula Revisions in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajemilehin, Boluwaji Reuben

    2004-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the conceptions and misconceptions students in health professions have regarding older people. The research was conducted in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The findings revealed that students in health professions, as a whole, demonstrated a high degree of stereotypic misconceptions and poor knowledge about aging and older…

  15. Leading Groups of Older People: A Description and Evaluation of the Education of Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitkala, Kaisu H.; Blomquist, L.; Routasalo, P.; Saarenheimo, M.; Karvinen, E.; Oikarinen, U.; Mantyranta, T.

    2004-01-01

    With the substantial growth of an aging population, professionals in gerontology need to know how to work with groups of older people. Group work has become a popular means of helping the elderly, for example, to cope with losses (support groups) and to engage in social activities with peers (groups in day centers) as well as to support caregivers…

  16. The Meaning of Learning Piano Keyboard in the Lives of Older Chinese People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Sicong; Southcott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Across the globe populations are ageing and living longer. Older people seek meaningful ways of occupying and enjoying their later years. Frequently, this takes the form of learning a new skill, in this case playing the piano keyboard. From the initial act of commitment to learning comes a raft of related aspects that influence the learner, their…

  17. Employment Status and Perceived Health Status in Younger and Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…

  18. Older people should be given practical support to effectively manage their stomas.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Trudi

    People who have had a stoma for many years and managed it effectively may encounter problems as they grow older as a result of physical and/or cognitive impairment. This article outlines some of the problems the ageing process can cause and offers potential management strategies.

  19. The Meaning of Learning Piano Keyboard in the Lives of Older Chinese People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Sicong; Southcott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Across the globe populations are ageing and living longer. Older people seek meaningful ways of occupying and enjoying their later years. Frequently, this takes the form of learning a new skill, in this case playing the piano keyboard. From the initial act of commitment to learning comes a raft of related aspects that influence the learner, their…

  20. Distribution and correlates of plantar hyperkeratotic lesions in older people

    PubMed Central

    Spink, Martin J; Menz, Hylton B; Lord, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Background Plantar hyperkeratotic lesions are common in older people and are associated with pain, mobility impairment and functional limitations. However, little has been documented in relation to the frequency or distribution of these lesions. The aim of this study was to document the occurrence of plantar hyperkeratotic lesions and the patterns in which they occur in a random sample of older people. Methods A medical history questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 301 people living independently in the community (117 men, 184 women) aged between 70 and 95 years (mean 77.2, SD 4.9), who also underwent a clinical assessment of foot problems, including the documentation of plantar lesion locations, toe deformities and the presence and severity of hallux valgus. Results Of the 301 participants, 180 (60%) had at least one plantar hyperkeratotic lesion. Those with plantar lesions were more likely to be female (χ2 = 18.75, p < 0.01; OR = 2.86), have moderate to severe hallux valgus (χ2 = 6.15, p < 0.02; OR = 2.95), a larger dorsiflexion range of motion at the ankle (39.4 ± 9.3 vs 36.3 ± 8.4°; t = 2.68, df = 286, p < 0.01), and spent more time on their feet at home (5.1 ± 1.0 vs 4.8 ± 1.3 hours, t = -2.46, df = 299, p = 0.01). No associations were found between the presence of plantar lesions and body mass index, obesity, foot posture, dominant foot or forefoot pain. A total of 53 different lesions patterns were observed, with the most common lesion pattern being "roll-off" hyperkeratosis on the medial aspect of the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ), accounting for 12% of all lesion patterns. "Roll-off" lesions under the 1st MPJ and interphalangeal joint were significantly associated with moderate to severe hallux valgus (p < 0.05), whereas lesions under the central MPJs were significantly associated with deformity of the corresponding lesser toe (p < 0.05). Factor analysis indicated that 62% of lesion patterns could be grouped under three broad

  1. Older people and digital disengagement: a fourth digital divide?

    PubMed

    Olphert, Wendy; Damodaran, Leela

    2013-01-01

    Digital technologies are becoming more pervasive in all areas of society. Enabling everyone to have access and capability to use the Internet and associated digital technologies, summed up in the term 'digital inclusion', is seen to have wide-ranging benefits to the individual, to the economy and to society. For older people, being digitally included can help them to maintain their independence, social connectedness and sense of worth in the face of declining health or limited capabilities, as well as also offering new opportunities to improve their quality of life. At present however, access to the technology and to the benefits is not equally distributed either between or within nations, and older people tend to be on the 'wrong' side of what is termed the 'digital divide'. Governments globally are developing strategies to promote digital inclusion and indeed Internet uptake is increasing steadily, including amongst older people. However, such strategies have focussed on getting people online, and there appears to be an assumption that once someone is online they will remain 'digitally engaged'. In fact statistics show that some users give up using the Internet, and there is emerging evidence that older people are more vulnerable to the factors which can lead to this outcome. The authors see this phenomenon as a potential but largely unrecognised 'fourth digital divide' which has serious implications for social inclusion. The objectives of this article are (a) to raise awareness of the phenomenon of digital disengagement by considering some of the emerging evidence, (b) to explore some of the potential implications of not recognising and therefore not addressing the needs of the digitally disengaged older population, and (c) to reveal the prevailing gap in knowledge which future research should address.

  2. Falling off the bandwagon? Exploring the challenges to sustained digital engagement by older people.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, L; Olphert, C W; Sandhu, J

    2014-01-01

    This study examines older people's use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and identifies the factors which can prevent or promote their sustained use. A mixed methods approach was adopted. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by a survey of 323 older ICT users (aged ≥50 years) between 2011 and 2012. These data were supplemented by qualitative data obtained through in-depth interviews, focus groups and storytelling. Quantitative data were analysed using PASW including bivariate and multivariate analyses. Qualitative data were analysed using an inductive, thematic approach. The findings show that, contrary to some stereotypes, many older people are enthusiastic, competent and confident users of ICTs. However, they report a range of challenges in reaching and maintaining this situation. These include technological complexity and change, age-related capability changes and a lack of learning and support mechanisms. Intrinsic motivation and social support are important in enabling older people to overcome these challenges. Getting older people online has been a high priority in many countries over the past decade. However, little attention has been paid to whether and how their usage can be sustained over time. We discuss the implications of the findings for policy and practice.

  3. Yearly transitions of disability profiles in older people living at home.

    PubMed

    Raîche, Michel; Hébert, Réjean; Dubois, Marie-France; Gueye, N'deye Rokhaya; Dubuc, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Planning home services for older people requires extensive knowledge about the progression of disabilities. Disability-based case-mix classifications identify meaningful groups of older people; yet transitions between profiles are mostly unknown. Disability was assessed annually over four years with the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF) in 1410 older people at risk of functional decline aged 75 and over and living at home. The SMAF generates a case-mix classification of 14 Iso-SMAF profiles with progressive mean disability levels. Transitions made by older people were analyzed using a continuous-time, multi-state Markov model to estimate the probabilities of annual transitions into and out of each profile as well as the mean sojourn time in each profile. The probability of staying in a profile tended to decrease as profile severity increased. For profiles 5 and above, recovery to mild profiles 1, 2 and 3 was low, while annual probabilities of death and institutionalization were high (>0.10). The lower disability profiles (1 and 2) evidenced a mean profile sojourn time of over two years, contrary to sojourn times of 18 months or less with the other profiles. The probabilities are identifiable, indicating that a disability-based classification can characterize progression in older people. Since the required resources and costs are known for each profile, these probabilities are very helpful in planning home services for elderly populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inter-generational family support provided by older people in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Schröder-Butterfill, Elisabeth

    2004-07-01

    Most social research on ageing in Asia has focused on the support provided by adult children to their parents, and thereby suggests that as a matter of course older people are in need of support. This paper offers a different perspective. Drawing on ethnographic and quantitative data from a village in East Java, it examines the extent of older people's dependence on others and highlights the material and practical contributions that they make to their families. It is shown that only a minority of older people are reliant on children or grandchildren for their daily survival. In the majority of cases, the net flow of inter-generational support is either downwards - from old to young - or balanced. Far from merely assisting with childcare and domestic tasks, older people are often the economic pillars of multi-generational families. Pension and agricultural incomes serve to secure the livelihoods of whole family networks, and the accumulated wealth of older parents is crucial for launching children into economic independence and underwriting their risks. Parental generosity does not generally elicit commensurate reciprocal support when it is needed, leaving many people vulnerable towards the end of their lives.

  5. What are older people prepared to do to avoid falling? A qualitative study in London.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Janet M; Darwin, Cressida; Marsh, Nicola

    2003-04-01

    Falls prevention strategies form a significant part of recent government policy relating to older people. In this article we report a qualitative study to examine the extent to which older people are willing to adopt any of the following strategies in order to avoid falling; balance and lower limb strengthening exercises, home safety advice, and 'taking care'. A sample of community-dwelling inpatients who were more or less afraid of falling were interviewed. Some older people blamed their own unsafe behaviour rather than hazards in their home for falls, so taking care (moving slowly, holding on, being vigilant to and avoiding danger) was a widespread strategy. The benefits of exercise in falls prevention were poorly understood and there was little enthusiasm for exercising especially if it was perceived to be inappropriate in old age or painful. Awareness of home hazards and taking measures against them was common but home visits tended to be regarded as intrusive. Inadequate negotiation about adaptations was widespread and led to resentment and unwillingness to cooperate. Building on the widespread 'taking care' strategy may help educated older people in safe behaviour. Health professionals should encourage older people to exercise and when making home safety visits should confer with their clients, taking their preferences about adaptations into account.

  6. Using narratives to understand older people's decision-making processes.

    PubMed

    Tetley, Josephine; Grant, Gordon; Davies, Susan

    2009-09-01

    Despite the availability of health and social care services designed to support people in their own homes, older people often underuse or refuse these services. It is now acknowledged that this phenomenon contributes to older people being admitted to hospital and long-term care in circumstances that could be avoided. To understand how the uptake of supportive and preventative services can be improved, the first author, supervised by the second and third authors, developed a constructivist inquiry to explore what factors enhance or bar service use. This article describes how narratives were used not only to help identify decision- and choice-making influences, but also as a way of enhancing the hermeneutic processes associated with constructivism.

  7. Smart technologies to enhance social connectedness in older people who live at home.

    PubMed

    Morris, Meg E; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Kurowski, William; Miller, Kimberly J; Pearce, Alan J; Santamaria, Nick; Long, Maureen; Ventura, Cameron; Said, Catherine M

    2014-09-01

    To examine the effectiveness of smart technologies in improving or maintaining the social connectedness of older people living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of research articles published between 2000 and 2013. Article screening, data extraction and quality assessment (using the Downs and Black checklist) were conducted by two independent researchers. Eighteen publications were identified that evaluated the effect of smart technologies on dimensions of social connectedness. Fourteen studies reported positive outcomes in aspects such as social support, isolation and loneliness. There was emerging evidence that some technologies augmented the beneficial effects of more traditional aged-care services. Smart technologies, such as tailored internet programs, may help older people better manage and understand various health conditions, resulting in subsequent improvements in aspects of social connectedness. Further research is required regarding how technological innovations could be promoted, marketed and implemented to benefit older people. © 2014 ACOTA.

  8. Herpes zoster correlates with increased risk of Parkinson's disease in older people

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Lin, Hsien-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Little is known on the relationship between herpes zoster and Parkinson's disease in older people. This study aimed to explore whether herpes zoster could be associated with Parkinson's disease in older people in Taiwan. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the claim data of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 10,296 subjects aged 65 years and older with newly diagnosed herpes zoster as the herpes zoster group and 39,405 randomly selected subjects aged 65 years and older without a diagnosis of herpes zoster as the nonherpes zoster group from 1998 to 2010. Both groups were followed up until subjects received a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. This follow-up design would explore whether subjects with herpes zoster were at an increased risk of Parkinson's disease. Relative risks were estimated by adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using the multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model. The incidence of Parkinson's disease was higher in the herpes zoster group than that in the nonherpes zoster group (4.86 vs 4.00 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI 1.14, 1.29). After adjustment for confounding factors, the multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model revealed that the adjusted HR of Parkinson's disease was 1.17 for the herpes zoster group (95% CI 1.10, 1.25), compared with the nonherpes zoster group. Older people with herpes zoster confer a slightly increased hazard of developing Parkinson's disease when compared to those without herpes zoster. We think that herpes zoster correlates with increased risk of Parkinson's disease in older people. When older people with herpes zoster seek help, clinicians should pay more attention to the development of the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease. PMID:28207515

  9. [A Community-Based Experience Model of Mental-Social Health Promotion for Older People in Taichung City].

    PubMed

    Tsay, Shwu-Feng; Hsu, Yuan-Nian; Chen, Shu-Fen; Shen, Shu-Hua; Lin, Hsiang-Yi

    2015-08-01

    Active ageing is one of the most important issues taken up by the WHO in regard to ageing societies. "Prolonging Healthy Life Expectance" and "Decreasing the Depression Rate Among Older People" are critical indicators for "2020 Healthy People in Taiwan". This paper conducts a trial run of the program planning and evaluation of mental-social health promotion using focus group research that surveys 29 administrative districts and a depression survey that randomly samples older individuals in Taichung City. We also introduce how we apply local characteristics to develop the 3-level and innovative-action plans to meet the needs of self-identity and social participation for older people. For example, the "Learning Mobile Classroom" program promotes health promotion using activities that are tailored to the lifestyle and culture characteristics of target individuals. Another example is the "Seniors Show", which uses community groups and annual active-ageing shows to promote a positive concept of aging and to promote social participation for older people. Finally, the "Navigator APP of Active Ageing", created using a geographic information system, addresses the resource information needs of older people. This experience in Taichung City uniquely empowers older people, allowing them to take the initiative to make a difference not only for mental-social wellness but also for the hope of life and for graceful ageing.

  10. Age and Adaptation: Stronger Decision Updating about Real World Risks in Older Age.

    PubMed

    Rolison, Jonathan J; Wood, Stacey; Hanoch, Yaniv

    2017-01-17

    In later life, people are faced with a multitude of risky decisions that concern their health, finance, and personal security. Older adults often exercise caution in situations that involve risk. In this research, we asked whether older adults are also more responsive to warnings about potential risk. An answer to this question could reveal a factor underlying increased cautiousness in older age. In Study 1, participants decided whether they would engage in risky activities (e.g., using an ATM machine in the street) in four realistic scenarios about which participants could be expected to have relevant knowledge or experience. They then made posterior decisions after listening to audio extracts of real reports relevant to each activity. In Study 2, we explored the role that emotions play in decision updating. As in Study 1, participants made prior and posterior decisions, with the exception that for each scenario the reports were presented in their original audio format (high emotive) or in a written transcript format (low emotive). Following each posterior decision, participants indicated their emotional valence and arousal responses to the reports. In both studies, older adults engaged in fewer risky activities than younger adults, indicative of increased cautiousness in older age, and exhibited stronger decision updating in response to the reports. Older adults also showed stronger emotional responses to the reports, even though emotional responses did not differ for audio and written transcript formats. Finally, age differences in emotional responses to the reports accounted for age differences in decision updating.

  11. Nurses' and Physicians' Perceptions of Older People and Attitudes towards Older People: Ageism in a Hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Polat, Ulkü; Karadağ, Ayişe; Ulger, Zekeriya; Demir, Nevra

    2014-06-27

    Abstract Nurses and physicians provide health care for a growing number of older people as a result of the rapid increase in the life expectancies of older people. Health professionals' negative attitudes towards older people affect the quality of health care offered to these individuals. The sample for this study included 110 nurses and 57 physicians working in the medical and surgical clinics of a university hospital. A questionnaire form and the Ageism Attitude Scale (AAS) were used to collect the data. A 5-point Likert-type format was utilised for the AAS. The AAS total mean score was 80.02±2.64 for nurses and 83.17±9.09 for physicians. The difference between these mean scores was statistically significant (p<0.05). For the AAS subdimension "limiting the life of the older people", the physicians' score (35.14±6.22) was significantly higher than the nurses' score (33.22±3.59). In this study, nurses' and physicians' attitudes, approaches, and considerations were found to be generally positive.

  12. Nurses' and physicians' perceptions of older people and attitudes towards older people: Ageism in a hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Polat, Ulkü; Karadaǧ, Ayişe; Ulger, Zekeriya; Demir, Nevra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nurses and physicians provide health care for a growing number of older people as a result of the rapid increase in the life expectancies of older people. Health professionals' negative attitudes towards older people affect the quality of health care offered to these individuals. The sample for this study included 110 nurses and 57 physicians working in the medical and surgical clinics of a university hospital. A questionnaire form and the Ageism Attitude Scale (AAS) were used to collect the data. A five-point Likert-type format was utilised for the AAS. The AAS total mean score was 80.02 ± 2.64 for nurses and 83.17 ± 9.09 for physicians. The difference between these mean scores was statistically significant (p < 0.05). For the AAS sub-dimension 'limiting the life of the older people,' the physicians' score (35.14 ± 6.22) was significantly higher than the nurses' score (33.22 ± 3.59). In this study, nurses' and physicians' attitudes, approaches, and considerations were found to be generally positive.

  13. Nail disorders in older people, and aspects of their pharmaceutical treatment.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2016-10-30

    The aim of this paper was to explore how aging influences the nail unit, its disorders and its response to treatment, and to identify some of the age-related gaps in the ungual drug delivery literature. Aging causes obvious changes to the nail, some of which are inherently due to old age, while others are due to diseases/conditions which become more prevalent as we age. Alterations in the nail plate's colour, contour, thickness, fragility, surface features, cell size, chemical composition and growth rate are some of the changes, with toenails and fingernails showing different effects. With respect to disease, the incidence of onychomycosis - the most common nail disorder - is considerably higher in older people. Similarly, brittle nails become more common as we age. In contrast, the literature about aging and the incidence of nail psoriasis is inconclusive, although, it is clear that as one gets older, the negative impact of nail psoriasis on one's quality of life decreases. Pharmaceutical treatment of the diseases comprises local and systemic therapies, sometimes in combination. Systemic therapies have the inherent disadvantages of adverse systemic effects, drug interactions and the need for monitoring, disadvantages which are especially problematic for older people who are more likely to suffer from co-morbidities and be on other medications. Topical therapy avoids such disadvantages. However, the success rates of commercially available preparations are low, and older people may need help with their application. It is also proposed that regular inspection and grooming of nails should become part of routine care of older people, as these would provide opportunities to identify and treat any problems at an earlier stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. "Healthy Aging at Older Ages: Are Income and Education Important?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Neil J.; Denton, Frank T.; Robb, A. Leslie; Spencer, Byron G.

    2004-01-01

    Being higher on the socio-economic scale is correlated with being in better health, but is there is a causal relationship? Using 3 years of longitudinal data for individuals aged 50 and older from the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we study the health transitions for those who were in good health in the first year, focusing…

  15. Depression among older people in Europe: the EURODEP studies

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, John RM; Beekman, Aartjan TF; Braam, Arjan W; Dewey, Michael E; Delespaul, Philippe; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Hooijer, Christopher; Lawlor, Brian A; Kivela, Sirkka-Liisa; Lobo, Anthony; Magnusson, Halgrimur; Mann, Anthony H; Meller, Ingeborg; Prince, Martin J; Reischies, Friedel; Roelands, Marc; Skoog, Ingmar; Turrina, Cesare; deVries, Marten W; Wilson, Kenneth CM

    2004-01-01

    The data from nine centres in Europe which had used the Geriatric Mental Scale (GMS) AGECAT were analysed to compare prevalence of diagnoses in subjects aged 65 years and over living in the community. Levels of depressive illness were: Iceland 8.8%, Liverpool 10.0%; Zaragoza 10.7%; Dublin 11.9%; Amsterdam 12.0%; Berlin 16.5%; London 17.3%; Verona 18.3% and Munich 23.6%. Taking all levels of depression, five high (Amsterdam, Berlin, Munich, London and Verona) and four low (Dublin, Iceland, Liverpool, Zaragoza) scoring centres were identified. Meta-analysis of all 13,808 subjects yielded a mean level of depression of 12.3% (95% CI 11.8-12.9), 14.1% for women (95% CI 13.5-14.8) and 8.6% for men (95% CI 7.9-9.3). Symptom levels varied between centres: 40% of the total study population in Amsterdam reported depressive mood against only 26% in Zaragoza. To incorporate studies from other centres using other methods for depression identification, the EURO-D scale was developed from 12 items of the GMS and validated against other scales and expert diagnosis. A two factor solution emerged, an 'affective suffering factor' and a 'motivation factor'. The EURO-D scale was applied to 14 population based surveys. Depression score tended to increase with age unlike levels of prevalence of depression. Large between centre differences were evident in levels of depression unexplained by age, gender or marital status. These data show that depressive illness defined as suitable for intervention is common among older people in Europe. Opportunities for effective treatment are almost certainly being lost. Levels of depressive symptoms vary significantly between high and low scoring centres, prompting the next phase of this study, an examination of risk factors in Europe. PMID:16633454

  16. Investigating polypharmacy and drug burden index in hospitalised older people.

    PubMed

    Best, O; Gnjidic, D; Hilmer, S N; Naganathan, V; McLachlan, A J

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the changes in polypharmacy and the drug burden index (DBI) occurring during hospitalisation for older people. The secondary aim was to examine the associations of these two measures with the length of hospital stay and admission for falls or delirium. A retrospective analysis of patients' medical records was undertaken at a large university teaching hospital (Sydney, Australia) for patients with the age of ≥ 65 years and admitted under the care of the geriatric medicine or rehabilitation teams. Polypharmacy was defined as the use of more than five regular medications. The DBI measures exposure to drugs with anticholinergic and sedative effects. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the associations between polypharmacy and DBI with outcome measures. Data are presented using odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. A total of 329 patients was included in this study. The mean (± standard deviation) age of the population was 84.6 ± 7.0 years, 62% were female and 40% were admitted from residential aged-care facilities. On admission, polypharmacy was observed in 60% of the cohort and DBI exposure for 50%. DBI and polypharmacy exposure decreased during hospitalisation, but only the number of medications taken decreased by a statistically significant margin (P = 0.02). Patients with a high DBI (≥ 1) were approximately three times more likely to be admitted for delirium than those with no DBI exposure (odds ratio, 2.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-6.51). In the present study, DBI was associated with an increased risk of hospital admission for delirium only. Polypharmacy was not associated with any of the clinical measures. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  17. Primary Sarcopenia in Older People with Normal Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Yadigar, S; Yavuzer, H; Yavuzer, S; Cengiz, M; Yürüyen, M; Döventaş, A; Erdinçler, D S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of primary sarcopenia in older patients with normal nutrition and to assess the relationships between the primary sarcopenia with anthropometric measurements. In this prospective clinical cross-sectional study, six-hundred patients who applied to Polyclinic of Geriatrics between dates 2010 and 2011 have been evaluated. The 386 patients who were supposed to have potential secondary sarcopenia were excluded from the study. Age, gender, weight, height, BMI, calf and waist circumference, ongoing medications, additional diseases of the 214 patients included in the study have been surveyed. The sarcopenia criteria of EWSGOP have been applied. Two hundred fourteen cases included in the study were composed of 148 female and 66 male subjects. Mean age was 71.8 ± 2.1 years. Sarcopenia was detected in 105 (49%) subjects while 109 (51%) were normal. Sixty-four female (61%) and 41 (39%) male subjects were sarcopenic. Normal group included 84 female (77%) and 25 male (23%) subjects. Incidence of sarcopenia was found higher in the female patients (p<0.001). No statistically significant difference was detected between sarcopenic and normal groups with respect to age, height, weight, calf circumference and evaluation tests. Waist circumference was higher in the sarcopenic group than the normal group (p=0.02). When both groups were analyzed for BMI; 53 (51%) of the 105 sarcopenic patients had BMI over 30 kg/m2 while 29 (27%) and 23 (22%) patients had BMI of 25-30 kg/m2 and below 25 kg/m2, respectively. Incidence of sarcopenia was significantly higher in the group with BMI over 30 kg/m2 when compared with the groups with BMI of 25-30 kg/m2 and below 25 kg/m2 (p=0.01). Sarcopenia that makes older people physically dependent and decreases their quality of life that receive sufficient nutritional support and are also obese should be comprehensively investigated with respect to presence of sarcopenia.

  18. Older peoples' narratives of use and misuse of alcohol and psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Aud; Helvik, Anne-Sofie; Engedal, Knut; Sørlie, Venke Marion

    2016-09-01

    Studies revealed that misuse of drugs and alcohol is an increasing phenomenon among older people (aged 65 years and above), and we know that such misuse is a risk factor for mortality and morbidity. Furthermore, we do not know to what extent older people have experiences, understanding and knowledge about the use and misuse of alcohol and psychotropic drugs. To investigate older peoples' experiences with and reflections on the use and misuse of alcohol and psychotropic drugs among older people. Qualitative interviews with 16 older people were performed during 2013 and 2014. The sample included informants aged from 65 to 92 years from 11 municipalities. The data were analysed by using the phenomenological hermeneutic method. The first theme that arose from the informants' narratives was to be a part of a culture in change that details the informants' experiences with and reflections on the cultural changes regarding the use and misuse of alcohol and psychotropic drugs. This theme is divided into three subthemes: to use and attitudes toward use, to trivialise use and risks of use, and to disclaim responsibility for use and misuse. The second theme, to explain use and misuse involved reasons for the use and misuse of alcohol and psychotropic drugs. It included the subthemes: to be afraid, to be lonely, and to be informed. The study revealed that most informants had experiences with the use of alcohol and psychotropic drugs, but disclaimed any challenges with their use. The use was trivialised and seen as something older people just do. They disclaimed responsibility for their own psychotropic use as their general practitioners were defined as the responsible persons. Moreover, the study showed that the informants had poor knowledge about the risk of use and misuse of alcohol and psychotropic drugs. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  19. Older people's experience of proactive welfare rights advice: qualitative study of a South Asian community.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Suzanne; Mackintosh, Joan

    2009-02-01

    Many older people in the UK require means-tested and health-related benefits to supplement low incomes in retirement and pay for additional resources required to cope with ill-health. Ethnic minority older people have lower uptake of welfare services than white older people. This study investigated routes to the service, barriers to claiming and explored the impact of additional financial resources among ethnic minority elders by evaluating a novel welfare rights advice service which facilitated access to state benefit entitlements. Qualitative study using data from one-to-one interviews with ethnic minority elders from Newcastle upon Tyne, UK analysed using the Framework method. Participants were recruited to this study from among ethnic minority elders attending a full benefits assessment offered by Newcastle Welfare Rights Service. Twenty-two South Asian participants aged between 50 and 81 were interviewed. Nineteen participants were above state retirement age, 15 of whom were on means-tested state benefits. Knowledge of state entitlements was extremely low. Sixteen qualified for non-means-tested health benefits; six qualified for further means-tested state benefits. Additional resources had a considerable impact on participants and their families. Participants could better afford essential items such as food, bills, shoes, clothes and 'one off' payments. Less stress, increased independence and better quality of life were reported. Welfare rights advice also had a positive impact on carers, none of whom knew what they or their relatives were entitled to. As with older people of all backgrounds, facilitating access to state benefit entitlements with appropriate services is an important way of increasing the resources of ethnic minority older people on low incomes and/or in poor health. Such services can also significantly improve quality of life for carers. As the numbers of ethnic minority older people will rise over the next few decades, it is necessary to meet

  20. Predictors of the quality of life of older people with heart failure recruited from primary care.

    PubMed

    Gott, Merryn; Barnes, Sarah; Parker, Chris; Payne, Sheila; Seamark, David; Gariballa, Salah; Small, Neil

    2006-03-01

    Current understanding of quality of life in heart failure is largely derived from clinical trials. Older people, women and those with co-morbidities are underrepresented in these. Little is known about factors predictive of quality of life amongst older people with heart failure recruited from community settings. To identify factors predictive of quality of life amongst older people recruited from community settings. prospective questionnaire survey. General practice surgeries located in four areas of the UK: Bradford, Barnsley, East Devon and West Hampshire. A total of 542 people aged >60 years with heart failure. Participants completed a postal questionnaire, which included a disease-specific measure (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire), a generic quality-of-life measure (SF-36) and sociodemographic information. A multiple linear regression analysis identified the following factors as predictive of decreased quality of life: being female, being in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III or IV, showing evidence of depression, being in socioeconomic groups III-V and experiencing two or more co-morbidities. Older age was associated with decreased quality of life, as measured by a generic health-related quality-of-life tool (the SF-36 mental and physical health functioning scales) but not by a disease-specific tool (the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire). Findings from the study suggest that quality of life for older people with heart failure can be described as challenging and difficult, particularly for women, those in a high NYHA class, patients showing evidence of depression, patients in socioeconomic groups III-V, those experiencing two or more co-morbidities and the 'oldest old'. Such information can help clinicians working with older people identify those at risk of reduced quality of life and target interventions appropriately.

  1. Views of family carers and older people of information technology.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Nils-Bertil; Hanson, Elizabeth; Magnusson, Lennart

    This article is the second in a series of four describing recent developments in Sweden aimed at promoting partnerships between older people, their families and formal service providers. The last article (Vol 11(11): 759-63) described the development of an information and communication technology (ICT) project ACTION -- Assisting Carers using Telematics Interventions to meet Older persons' Needs -- and focused on the use of CT to help family carers to be more prepared for their caregiving role. This article focuses on the concept of usability within the ACTION project and the importance of working closely with participants in order to create an information and communication service that is both acceptable and of direct benefit to family members in their everyday caring situations. Nielsen's (1993) Model of Usability is described within the overall context of the project and is used as a framework for the cycle of development and testing that underpin ACTION. A variety of research methods are highlighted, with a central theme being that of user involvement, with particular reference to the USERfit approach (Poulson et al, 1996). The education and training of older people and their family carers to use the ACTION technology is outlined and examples are given of the empowering effects of the use of the service and its user-driven focus. Recommendations for the further technical development of ACTION are firmly based on the comments and suggestions provided by older people and the family carers themselves.

  2. Influence of psychosocial factors on the energy and protein intake of older people on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Lina; Hickson, Mary; Brown, Edwina A

    2013-09-01

    To explore the relationship between nutritional parameters and psychosocial factors in older people on dialysis. A cross-sectional observational study in prevalent older people on hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). A secondary analysis from a quality of life study in older people (Broadening Options for Long-term Dialysis in the Elderly). One-hundred and six patients 65 years of age or older and on dialysis for at least 90 days were purposively recruited (HD patients matched to PD patients by age, sex, dialysis vintage, ethnicity and Index of Deprivation). Half were on HD, the mean age was 72.7 years, 72% were male, 92% were from a White ethnic background, and 26% had diabetes. The patients attended one visit at which they completed nutritional assessments (3-day food diary, subjective global assessment, handgrip strength, and body mass index) and questionnaires: Short Form-12 (SF-12), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Mini Mental State Exam, and social networks. The differences in nutritional parameters between patients on PD and HD were determined by univariate analyses, and the relationships between nutritional intake and demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables were determined by multivariate analyses. There was no difference in the energy and protein intake and nutritional status between older people on HD and PD. For the whole sample, multivariate analyses found that lower energy intake was related to fewer social networks (P = .002) and lower SF-12 Physical Component Scale (PCS) scores (P = .021). A lower protein intake was related to worsening Index of Deprivation scores (P = .028) and an interaction between SF-12 PCS and presence of possible depression (P = .015). Energy and protein intake in older people (regardless of modality) appears to be independently associated with psychosocial variables. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Family, Close Relatives, Friends: Life Satisfaction among Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sener, Arzu; Oztop, Hulya; Dogan, Nuri; Guven, Seval

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influence of socioeconomic (age, education, marital status, income, and health) and demographic variables and the quantity and quality of relationships with adult children, grandchildren, siblings and friends on life satisfaction of the elderly. Participants were 200 persons older than 60 years of age. Hierarchical…

  4. Family, Close Relatives, Friends: Life Satisfaction among Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sener, Arzu; Oztop, Hulya; Dogan, Nuri; Guven, Seval

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influence of socioeconomic (age, education, marital status, income, and health) and demographic variables and the quantity and quality of relationships with adult children, grandchildren, siblings and friends on life satisfaction of the elderly. Participants were 200 persons older than 60 years of age. Hierarchical…

  5. Heat-health behaviours of older people in two Australian states.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Alana; Bi, Peng; Pisaniello, Dino; Nitschke, Monika; Tucker, Graeme; Newbury, Jonathan; Kitson, Alison; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Avery, Jodie; Zhang, Ying; Kelsall, Liza

    2015-03-01

    A major heatwave occurred in Australia in early 2009 with considerable and varied health impacts in South Australia (SA) and Victoria. The aim of this study was to investigate the heat-adaptive behaviours of older people in these states. A computer-assisted telephone survey of 1000 residents of SA and Victoria aged 65 years or older was conducted at the end of summer 2010-2011. The majority of respondents reported undertaking heat-adaptive behaviours. In SA, there was a significantly higher proportion of households with air conditioning compared to Victoria, and a higher recall of heat-health messages. In both states, self-reported morbidity during heatwaves was higher in women, persons with poorer health and those with cardiovascular conditions. An increase in global temperatures in conjunction with an ageing population is a concern for public health. Our findings suggest acclimatisation to hot weather may influence behaviours and health outcomes in older people. © 2014 ACOTA.

  6. Acute stress and working memory in older people.

    PubMed

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that acute stress affects working memory (WM) in young adults, but the effect in older people is understudied. As observed in other types of memory, older people may be less sensitive to acute effects of stress on WM. We performed two independent studies with healthy older men and women (from 55 to 77 years old) to investigate the effects of acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and cortisol on WM. In study 1 (n = 63), after the TSST women (but not men) improved their performance on Digit Span Forward (a measure of the memory span component of WM) but not on Digit Span Backward (a measure of both memory span and the executive component of WM). Furthermore, in women, cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing showed a positive association with the memory span component of WM before and after the TSST, and with the executive component of WM only before the stress task. In study 2 (n = 76), although participants showed a cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) response to the TSST, stress did not affect performance on Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS; a task that places a high demand on the executive component of WM). Cortisol and sAA were not associated with WM. The results indicate that circulating cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing, and not the stress response, affect memory span in older women, and that stress and the increase in cortisol levels after stress do not affect the executive component of WM in older men and women. This study provides further evidence that older people may be less sensitive to stress and stress-induced cortisol response effects on memory processes.

  7. Relocation at older age: results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A. Matthew; Barnes, Linda E.; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background Community environment might play an important role in supporting ageing in place. This paper aims to explore relocation at older age and its associations with individual and community level factors. Methods The postcodes of the 2424 people in the year-10 interview of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS) in England were mapped onto Enumeration Districts and linked to their corresponding Townsend deprivation score and the 2011 rural/urban categories. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted to examine the influence of the baseline individual (age, gender, education and social class) and community (rural/urban categories and area deprivation) level factors on relocation over 10 years. Results One-third of people moved residence after the age of 65 years and over. Older age, low education, low social class and living in rural areas at baseline were associated with higher probability of moving later in life. The likelihood of relocation in later life increased from least to most deprived areas (odds ratio: 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 2.8). Conclusions Urban/rural contexts and area deprivation are associated with relocation at older age and indicate that community environment may be relevant to ageing in place. PMID:25922369

  8. Prevalence of Mental Disorders Among Older Chinese People in Tianjin City.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guangming; Chen, Gong; Zhou, Qin; Li, Ning; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    Population aging is accelerating across the world, and older people have a higher risk of mental disorders. Most studies focus on one mental disorder, and only report the current prevalence. Besides, these studies use screening scales for symptoms of mental disorders, which may induce biased results. In this study, we used data for diagnoses based on SCID that had been administered by trained psychiatrists to explore the 1-month and lifetime prevalence of mental disorders among a Chinese aged cohort. Data for this study was derived from the Tianjin Mental Health Survey. Participants were first screened using a General Health Questionnaire and 9 additional items on other risk factors for mental disorders, and then diagnosed with the Chinese version of Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) Axis I disorders. A total of 3,325 people aged 60 and above had valid information, and 1,486 completed the SCID interview. The weighted 1-month prevalence of mental disorders was 14.27%, whereas the lifetime prevalence of mental disorders was 24.20%. Most of these participants were female, older, currently not married, of lower education level, and with poor family economic status. Organic mental disorders had the highest 1-month prevalence (4.45%), whereas mood disorder was highest for the lifetime prevalence (9.75%). Older Chinese people had a high prevalence of mental disorders. Further research and health services innovations are needed to address the high prevalence in these subgroups among older people.

  9. Pathways into chronic multidimensional poverty amongst older people: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J

    2016-03-07

    The use of multidimensional poverty measures is becoming more common for measuring the living standards of older people. However, the pathways into poverty are relatively unknown, nor is it known how this affects the length of time people are in poverty for. Using Waves 1 to 12 of the nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, longitudinal analysis was undertaken to identify the order that key forms of disadvantage develop - poor health, low income and insufficient education attainment - amongst Australians aged 65 years and over in multidimensional poverty, and the relationship this has with chronic poverty. Path analysis and linear regression models were used. For all older people with at least a Year 10 level of education attainment earlier mental health was significantly related to later household income (p = 0.001) and wealth (p = 0.017). For all older people with at less than a Year 10 level of education attainment earlier household income was significantly related to later mental health (p = 0.021). When limited to those in multidimensional poverty who were in income poverty and also had poor health, older people generally fell into income poverty first and then developed poor health. The order in which income poverty and poor health were developed had a significant influence on the length of time older people with less than a Year 10 level of education attainment were in multidimensional poverty for. Those who developed poor health first then fell into income poverty spend significantly less time in multidimensional poverty (-4.90, p < .0001) than those who fell into income poverty then developed poor health. Knowing the order that different forms of disadvantage develop, and the influence this has on poverty entrenchment, is of use to policy makers wishing to provide interventions to prevent older people being in long-term multidimensional poverty.

  10. A comparison of the factors influencing life satisfaction between Korean older people living with family and living alone.

    PubMed

    Shin, S H; Sok, S R

    2012-06-01

    As the global population of older people continuously increases, many countries are beginning to experience health problems associated with older age. These countries may be interested in knowing and understanding the health problems experienced by the older Korean population, which is projected to age the most rapidly. This study aimed to compare and examine the factors that influence the life satisfaction between older people living with their family and those living alone. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. The participants comprised a total 300 older Koreans (150 living with their family, 150 living alone) aged 65 years or over who met the eligibility criteria. All measures were self-administered. Data were analysed using the SAS statistical software program version 6.12 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The older people living with their family were better than the older people living alone in perceived health status, self-esteem, depression and life satisfaction. Perceived health status, self-esteem, depression, age and monthly allowance were found to be the factors related to the life satisfaction of older people living with their family and those living alone. The factors that were found to have the greatest influence on the life satisfaction of older people living with their family and those living alone were depression and perceived health, respectively. This study may help healthcare providers to understand the factors that can influence the life satisfaction among older people living with their family and living alone in Korea. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  11. Images of older people in UK magazine advertising: toward a typology.

    PubMed

    Williams, Angie; Wadleigh, Paul Mark; Ylänne, Virpi

    2010-01-01

    The use of images of older people in the British advertising media has been under-researched to date. Further, previous research in any country has tended to examine such images from an a priori framework of general impressions and stereotypes of older people. This study addresses these issues with British consumers' (n = 106) impressions, trait ascriptions, and similarity-between-images ratings of a representative sample of U.K. magazine advertisements featuring older characters. After a series of sorting task laboratory sessions, multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analyses revealed four clearly defined groups representing types of portrayals. These types emerged from the advertisements and from the views of the consumers themselves. These emergent groupings are: (1) Frail and Vulnerable, (2) Happy and Affluent, (3) Mentors, (4) Active and Leisure-oriented older adults. These groupings seem to be a logical context-appropriate derivation from previous findings on generally held stereotypes of older persons. It is argued that the groupings have the potential to contribute to a reliable typology of advertising portrayals of older people, with potential heuristic leverage in social scientific research of intergenerational communication, lifespan concerns, and the aging process.

  12. Anabolic steroids for rehabilitation after hip fracture in older people.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Vaqas; van den Berg, Maayken E L; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria

    2014-10-06

    Hip fracture occurs predominantly in older people, many of whom are frail and undernourished. After hip fracture surgery and rehabilitation, most patients experience a decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. They may have similar effects in older people who are recovering from hip fracture. To examine the effects (primarily in terms of functional outcome and adverse events) of anabolic steroids after surgical treatment of hip fracture in older people. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (10 September 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2013 Issue 8), MEDLINE (1946 to August Week 4 2013), EMBASE (1974 to 2013 Week 36), trial registers, conference proceedings, and reference lists of relevant articles. The search was run in September 2013. Randomised controlled trials of anabolic steroids given after hip fracture surgery, in inpatient or outpatient settings, to improve physical functioning in older patients with hip fracture. Two review authors independently selected trials (based on predefined inclusion criteria), extracted data and assessed each study's risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements. Only very limited pooling of data was possible. The primary outcomes were function (for example, independence in mobility and activities of daily living) and adverse events, including mortality. We screened 1290 records and found only three trials involving 154 female participants, all of whom were aged above 65 years and had had hip fracture surgery. All studies had methodological shortcomings that placed them at high or unclear risk of bias. Because of this high risk of bias, imprecise results and likelihood of publication bias, we judged the quality of the evidence for all primary outcomes to

  13. Anabolic steroids for rehabilitation after hip fracture in older people.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Vaqas; Berg, Maayken E L van den; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Hip fracture occurs predominantly in older people, many of whom are frail and undernourished. After hip fracture surgery and rehabilitation, most patients experience a decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. They may have similar effects in older people who are recovering from hip fracture. To examine the effects (primarily in terms of functional outcome and adverse events) of anabolic steroids after surgical treatment of hip fracture in older people. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register (10 September 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2013 Issue 8), MEDLINE (1946 to August Week 4 2013), EMBASE (1974 to 2013 Week 36), trial registers, conference proceedings, and reference lists of relevant articles. The search was run in September 2013.Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials of anabolic steroids given after hip fracture surgery, in inpatient or outpatient settings, to improve physical functioning in older patients with hip fracture.Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently selected trials (based on predefined inclusion criteria), extracted data and assessed each study's risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements. Only very limited pooling of data was possible. The primary outcomes were function (for example, independence in mobility and activities of daily living) and adverse events, including mortality. We screened 1290 records and found only three trials involving 154 female participants, all of whom were aged above 65 years and had had hip fracture surgery. All studies had methodological shortcomings that placed them at high or unclear risk of bias. Because of this high risk of bias, imprecise results and likelihood of publication bias

  14. Development of a Frailty Index for Older People with Intellectual Disabilities: Results from the HA-ID Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoufour, Josje D.; Mitnitski, Arnold; Rockwood, Kenneth; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Echteld, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although there is no strict definition of frailty, it is generally accepted as a state of high vulnerability for adverse health outcomes at older age. Associations between frailty and mortality, dependence, and hospitalization have been shown. We measured the frailty level of older people with intellectual disabilities (ID).…

  15. Development of a Frailty Index for Older People with Intellectual Disabilities: Results from the HA-ID Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoufour, Josje D.; Mitnitski, Arnold; Rockwood, Kenneth; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Echteld, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although there is no strict definition of frailty, it is generally accepted as a state of high vulnerability for adverse health outcomes at older age. Associations between frailty and mortality, dependence, and hospitalization have been shown. We measured the frailty level of older people with intellectual disabilities (ID).…

  16. Economic evaluation of health promotion for older people-methodological problems and challenges.

    PubMed

    Huter, Kai; Kocot, Ewa; Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Dubas-Jakóbczyk, Katarzyna; Rothgang, Heinz

    2016-09-05

    comparability of effects across different age groups. In particular, the limitations of the widely used QALY for older people are discussed and recently developed alternatives are presented. The key conclusion of the article is that a comparison of the effects of different health promotion initiatives between different age groups by means of economic evaluation is not recommendable. Taking into account the complex outcomes of health promotion interventions it has to be accepted that the outcomes of these interventions will often not be comparable with clinical interventions and have to be assessed differently.

  17. Inter-generational family support provided by older people in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    SCHRÖDER-BUTTERFILL, ELISABETH

    2007-01-01

    Most social research on ageing in Asia has focused on the support provided by adult children to their parents, and thereby suggests that as a matter of course older people are in need of support. This paper offers a different perspective. Drawing on ethnographic and quantitative data from a village in East Java, it examines the extent of older people’s dependence on others and highlights the material and practical contributions that they make to their families. It is shown that only a minority of older people are reliant on children or grandchildren for their daily survival. In the majority of cases, the net flow of inter-generational support is either downwards – from old to young – or balanced. Far from merely assisting with childcare and domestic tasks, older people are often the economic pillars of multi-generational families. Pension and agricultural incomes serve to secure the livelihoods of whole family networks, and the accumulated wealth of older parents is crucial for launching children into economic independence and underwriting their risks. Parental generosity does not generally elicit commensurate reciprocal support when it is needed, leaving many people vulnerable towards the end of their lives. PMID:23750060

  18. Social Inequality and Visual Impairment in Older People.

    PubMed

    Whillans, Jennifer; Nazroo, James

    2016-02-03

    Visual impairment is the leading cause of age-related disability, but the social patterning of loss of vision in older people has received little attention. This study's objective was to assess the association between social position and onset of visual impairment, to empirically evidence health inequalities in later life. Visual impairment was measured in 2 ways: self-reporting fair vision or worse (moderate) and self-reporting poor vision or blindness (severe). Correspondingly, 2 samples were drawn from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA). First, 7,483 respondents who had good vision or better at Wave 1; second, 8,487 respondents who had fair vision or better at Wave 1. Survival techniques were used. Cox proportional hazards models showed wealth and subjective social status (SSS) were significant risk factors associated with the onset of visual impairment. The risk of onset of moderate visual impairment was significantly higher for the lowest and second lowest wealth quintiles, whereas the risk of onset of severe visual impairment was significantly higher for the lowest, second, and even middle wealth quintiles, compared with the highest wealth quintile. Independently, lower SSS was associated with increased risk of onset of visual impairment (both measures), particularly so for those placing themselves on the lowest rungs of the social ladder. The high costs of visual impairment are disproportionately felt by the worst off elderly. Both low wealth and low SSS significantly increase the risk of onset of visual impairment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Reducing emergency bed-days for older people? Network governance lessons from the 'Improving the Future for Older People' programme.

    PubMed

    Sheaff, Rod; Windle, Karen; Wistow, Gerald; Ashby, Sue; Beech, Roger; Dickinson, Angela; Henderson, Catherine; Knapp, Martin

    2014-04-01

    In 2007, the UK government set performance targets and public service agreements to control the escalation of emergency bed-days. Some years earlier, nine English local authorities had each created local networks with their health and third sector partners to tackle this increase. These networks formed the 'Improving the Future for Older People' initiative (IFOP), one strand of the national 'Innovation Forum' programme, set up in 2003. The nine sites set themselves one headline target to be achieved jointly over three years; a 20 per cent reduction in the number of emergency bed-days used by people aged 75 and over. Three ancillary targets were also monitored: emergency admissions, delayed discharges and project sustainability. Collectively the sites exceeded their headline target. Using a realistic evaluation approach, we explored which aspects of network governance appeared to have contributed to these emergency bed-day reductions. We found no simple link between network governance type and outcomes. The governance features associated with an effective IFOP network appeared to suggest that the selection and implementation of a small number of evidence-based services was central to networks' effectiveness. Each service needed to be coordinated by a network-based strategic group and hierarchically implemented at operational level by the responsible network member. Having a network-based implementation group with a 'joined-at-the-top' governance structure also appeared to promote network effectiveness. External factors, including NHS incentives, health reorganisations and financial targets similarly contributed to differences in performance. Targets and financial incentives could focus action but undermine horizontal networking. Local networks should specify which interventions network structures are intended to deliver. Effective projects are those likely to be evidence based, unique to the network and difficult to implement through vertical structures alone

  20. White matter hyperintensities are an independent predictor of physical decline in community-dwelling older people.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jacqueline J J; Delbaere, Kim; Close, Jacqueline C T; Sachdev, Perminder; Wen, Wei; Brodaty, Henry; Lord, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    Ageing is associated with physical disability, but little is known about the influence of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on physical function decline in older people. To investigate the role of WMHs as a predictor of decline in physical function in cognitively intact older people. 287 community-dwelling people aged 70-90 years underwent the Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA) and assessments of total and regional WMH volumes, cognitive function and comorbidities. Participants underwent reassessment of the PPA 12 months later, and those in the top quartile for increases in PPA scores over the year were regarded as having declined physically. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that people with WMH volumes in the 4th quartile showed greater physical decline (odds ratio 3.02, 95% confidence interval 1.02-8.95) while controlling for age, baseline physical function, general health, physical activity and cognitive function. Subsequent univariate analyses indicated that WMHs in the deep fronto-parietal and periventricular parieto-occipital regions had the strongest associations with physical decline. These findings indicate that WMHs are an independent predictor of decline in physical function and suggest that interventions that focus on preventing the development or progression of white matter lesions may help preserve physical function in older people. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Free bus passes, use of public transport and obesity among older people in England.

    PubMed

    Webb, Elizabeth; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Millett, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    All residents of England aged 60 years and older became entitled to free travel on local buses on 1 April 2006. This study examines the impact of this policy on public transport use, a mode of active transport and levels of obesity. Logistic regression analyses using three waves of data (2004, 2006 and 2008) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Our main outcome measures were changes in self-reported public transport use, body mass index, waist circumference and obesity. Eligibility for free bus travel was associated with increased use (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.51, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.00) of public transport among older people. Older people who used public transport had reduced odds of being obese in 2008 compared with those who did not (AOR 0.75, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.86), as did those who were eligible for free local bus travel (AOR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.97). Older people who used public transport had reduced odds of becoming obese between 2004 and 2008 (AOR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.98). The introduction of free bus travel for older residents of England appears to have increased public transport use and may have conferred a protective effect against obesity.

  2. What Do Older People Think That Others Think of Them, and Does It Matter? The Role of Meta-Perceptions and Social Norms in the Prediction of Perceived Age Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Psychological theories of aging highlight the importance of social context. However, very little research has distinguished empirically between older people’s perception of how others in their social context perceive them (personal meta-perceptions) and the shared perceptions in society (societal meta-perceptions). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping and using a multilevel perspective, this article examines how well older people’s perceptions of age discrimination (PAD) are predicted by (a) older people’s personal meta-perceptions, (b) societal meta-perceptions, and (c) social norms of intolerance toward age prejudice. Aging meta-perceptions are differentiated into the cognitive and affective components of ageism. Multilevel analyses of data from the European Social Survey (Nover 70 years of age = 8,123, 29 countries; European Social Survey (ESS) Round 4 Data, 2008) confirmed that older people’s personal meta-perceptions of negative age stereotypes and specific intergroup emotions (pity, envy, contempt) are associated with higher PAD. However, at the societal-level, only paternalistic meta-perceptions were consistently associated with greater PAD. The results show that a few meta-perceptions operate only as a psychological phenomenon in explaining PAD, some carry consonant, and others carry contrasting effects at the societal-level of analysis. This evidence extends previous research on aging meta-perceptions by showing that both the content of meta-perceptions and the level of analysis at which they are assessed make distinct contributions to PAD. Moreover, social norms of intolerance of age prejudice have a larger statistical effect than societal meta-perceptions. Social interventions would benefit from considering these differential findings. PMID:27831711

  3. Pedestrian and motorized mobility scooter safety of older people.

    PubMed

    Jancey, Jonine; Cooper, Lisa; Howat, Peter; Meuleners, Lynn; Sleet, David; Baldwin, Grant

    2013-01-01

    After driving, walking is older adults' second most preferred mode of transport and preferred recreational activity. This leads to greater exposure to traffic, increasing their risk of pedestrian-vehicle crashes, with older adults being more likely to die as a pedestrian compared to when using other modes of transport. However, less focus has been placed on this particularly vulnerable group. This review summarizes issues associated with older adult pedestrian and motorized mobility scooters (MMS) safety and interventions that have been conducted. A literature search was undertaken from PubMed, MUARC publications, the Curtin University Library Catalogue, and Google Scholar. Keywords included older pedestrians, older adult road injury, mobility scooter injury, and injury prevention. Publications from 2000 and later were used, unless an earlier publication had significant relevance and worth. Maintaining older adults' mobility and independence during a time of decreasing physical and mental capacity is a priority. Walking provides a key mode of transport that needs to be given higher priority within the road environment by policy makers, transport planners, and drivers. Therefore, governments need to consider appropriate and comprehensive urban planning and road safety policies that accommodate active aging to provide pedestrians and MMS users with environments that facilitate active living and safe transport. In addition, there is a need for community programs that raise awareness about safe road crossing for this growing vulnerable age group.

  4. Evaluation of older Chinese people's macronutrient intake status: results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Byles, Julie E; Shi, Zumin; Hall, John J

    2015-01-14

    Little is known about the macronutrient intake status of older Chinese people. The present study evaluated the macronutrient intake status of older Chinese people (aged ≥ 60 years), investigated whether they had intake levels that met the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and explored the associations between macronutrient intakes and age groups, sex, education levels, work status, BMI groups, urbanicity levels and four socio-economic regions of China (Northeast, East Coast, Central and Western). Dietary intake data of 2746 older Chinese with complete dietary intake data in the Longitudinal China Health and Nutrition Survey (2009 wave) carried out across four diverse regions were analysed. Dietary intake data were obtained by interviews using 24 h recalls over three consecutive days. The MUFA:SFA ratios were calculated based on the Chinese Food Composition Table. Less than one-third of the older Chinese people included in the present study had intake levels meeting the adequate intake for carbohydrate-energy and fat-energy; less than one-fifth had intake levels meeting the recommended nutrient intake for protein-energy; and more than half of the older people had fat-energy intakes higher than the DRI. There were strong associations between the proportions of energy from the three macronutrients and education levels, urbanicity levels and the four socio-economic regions of China, with older people living in the East Coast region having different patterns of macronutrient-energy intakes when compared with those living in the other three regions. Macronutrient intakes across different urbanicity levels in the four regions revealed considerable geographical variations in dietary patterns, which will affect the risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Clinical interventions and public health policies should recognise these regional differences in dietary patterns.

  5. Association of sleep-wake habits in older people with changes in output of circadian pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, C. A.; Dumont, M.; Duffy, J. F.; Steinberg, J. D.; Richardson, G. S.; Brown, E. N.; Sanchez, R.; Rios, C. D.; Ronda, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Many elderly people complain of disturbed sleep patterns but there is not evidence that the need to sleep decreases with age; it seems rather that the timing and consolidation of sleep change. We tried to find out whether there is a concurrent change in the output of the circadian pacemaker with age. The phase and amplitude of the pacemaker's output were assessed by continuous measurement of the core body temperature during 40 h of sustained wakefulness under constant behavioural and environmental conditions. 27 young men (18-31 years) were compared with 21 older people (65-85 years; 11 men, 10 women); all were healthy and without sleep complaints. The mean amplitude of the endogenous circadian temperature oscillation (ECA) was 40% greater in young men than in the older group. Older men had a lower mean temperature ECA than older women. The minimum of the endogenous phase of the circadian temperature oscillation (ECP) occurred 1 h 52 min earlier in the older than in the young group. Customary bedtimes and waketimes were also earlier in the older group, as was their daily alertness peak. There was a close correlation between habitual waketime and temperature ECP in young men, which may lose precision with age, especially among women. These findings provide evidence for systematic age-related changes in the output of the human circadian pacemaker. We suggest that these changes may underlie the common complaints of sleep disturbance among elderly people. These changes could reflect the observed age-related deterioration of the hypothalamic nuclei that drive mammalian circadian rhythms.

  6. Association of sleep-wake habits in older people with changes in output of circadian pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, C. A.; Dumont, M.; Duffy, J. F.; Steinberg, J. D.; Richardson, G. S.; Brown, E. N.; Sanchez, R.; Rios, C. D.; Ronda, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Many elderly people complain of disturbed sleep patterns but there is not evidence that the need to sleep decreases with age; it seems rather that the timing and consolidation of sleep change. We tried to find out whether there is a concurrent change in the output of the circadian pacemaker with age. The phase and amplitude of the pacemaker's output were assessed by continuous measurement of the core body temperature during 40 h of sustained wakefulness under constant behavioural and environmental conditions. 27 young men (18-31 years) were compared with 21 older people (65-85 years; 11 men, 10 women); all were healthy and without sleep complaints. The mean amplitude of the endogenous circadian temperature oscillation (ECA) was 40% greater in young men than in the older group. Older men had a lower mean temperature ECA than older women. The minimum of the endogenous phase of the circadian temperature oscillation (ECP) occurred 1 h 52 min earlier in the older than in the young group. Customary bedtimes and waketimes were also earlier in the older group, as was their daily alertness peak. There was a close correlation between habitual waketime and temperature ECP in young men, which may lose precision with age, especially among women. These findings provide evidence for systematic age-related changes in the output of the human circadian pacemaker. We suggest that these changes may underlie the common complaints of sleep disturbance among elderly people. These changes could reflect the observed age-related deterioration of the hypothalamic nuclei that drive mammalian circadian rhythms.

  7. Randomized Trial of Social Rehabilitation and Integrated Health Care for Older People with Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Mueser, Kim T.; Pratt, Sarah I.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Swain, Karin; Forester, Brent; Cather, Corinne; Feldman, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective The Helping Older People Experience Success (HOPES) program was developed to improve psychosocial functioning and reduce long-term medical burden in older people with severe mental illness (SMI) living in the community. HOPES includes 1-year intensive skills training and health management, followed by a 1-year maintenance phase. To evaluate effects of HOPES on social skills and psychosocial functioning, a randomized controlled trial was conducted with 183 older adults with SMI (58% schizophrenia-spectrum) age 50 and older at 3 sites who were assigned to HOPES or treatment as usual (TAU) with blinded follow-up assessments at baseline and 1- and 2-year follow-up. Results Retention in the HOPES program was high (80%). Intent-to-treat analyses showed significant improvements for older adults assigned to HOPES compared to TAU in performance measures of social skill, psychosocial and community functioning, negative symptoms, and self-efficacy, with effect sizes in the moderate (.37-.63) range. Exploratory analyses indicated that men improved more than women in the HOPES program, whereas benefit from the program was not related to psychiatric diagnosis, age, or baseline levels of cognitive functioning, psychosocial functioning, or social skill. Conclusions The results support the feasibility of engaging older adults with SMI in the HOPES program, an intensive psychiatric rehabilitation intervention that incorporates skills training and medical case management, and improves psychosocial functioning in this population. Further research is needed to better understand gender differences in benefit from the HOPES program. PMID:20658812

  8. Factors affecting institutionalized older peoples' self-perceived dry mouth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Chia; Chu, Chiao-Lee; Ho, Ching-Sung; Lan, Shou-Jen; Chen, Wen-Yi; Liang, Yia-Wung; Hsieh, Yen-Ping

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting institutionalized older peoples' self-perceived dry mouth. This cross-sectional study was conducted on elderly residents at 22 long-term care facilities. A total of 165 questionnaires were returned from 13 senior citizen welfare institutions (SCWIs) and nine nursing homes. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data obtained. The results showed that the type of long-term care (LTC) facility, regular oral examinations, wearing dentures, and the ability to chew sticky foods affected self-perceived dry mouth. This study determined an association between the type of LTC facility where the participants lived and self-perceived dry mouth. The results indicated the importance of providing oral care in order to improve and prevent dry mouth among institutionalized older people living in SCWIs who do not undergo regular oral examinations, wear dentures, and have difficulty chewing sticky foods.

  9. Older people's participation in extra-cost disability benefits.

    PubMed

    Zantomio, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The targeting of an UK extra-cost disability benefit for older people, Attendance Allowance, is analyzed using longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey. First, a binary model of benefit participation is used to investigate whether receipt is responsive to the onset of disability. Second, matching estimators are used to evaluate the consequences of missed participation on later financial wellbeing. Results indicate that participation is highly responsive to the onset of disability, although the chance of delays in receipt emerges. Personal characteristics unrelated to eligibility also appear to influence benefit receipt, translating into sizeable differences in the amount of cash support received. The comparison of recipients with observationally equivalent non-recipients confirms that timely participation reduces disabled older people's financial strain.

  10. Diagnosing and treating urinary tract infections in older people.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Kirsty

    2015-05-01

    Even though diagnosing and treating urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older people can be difficult, it is essential to prevent reduction in the patients' wellbeing. Near-patient testing can be useful, but guidelines on this discuss the use of urine dipstick testing and laboratory culture in some detail. In addition, there are significant differences in the management of males and females, those with recurrent infections, and those with catheters. Community nurses are well placed to assess and manage this common condition, implementing correct treatment and resolution, owing to the close relationships they cultivate with service users. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of UTIs in older people, highlighting the differentials and red flags that need to be addressed urgently.

  11. Toward a conceptual definition of frail community dwelling older people.

    PubMed

    Gobbens, Robbert J; Luijkx, Katrien G; Wijnen-Sponselee, Maria T; Schols, Jos M

    2010-01-01

    In order to be able to identify frail community-dwelling older people, a reliable and valid definition of the concept of frailty is necessary. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature on conceptual and operational definitions of frailty, and to determine which definitions are most appropriate for identifying frail community-dwelling older people. Therefore, a computerized search was performed in the PubMed database, Web of Science and PsychInfo. A successful definition of frailty reflects a multidimensional approach, makes clear its dynamic state, predicts adverse outcomes, does not include disease, comorbidity or disability, and meets the criterion of practicability. None of the current conceptual and operational definitions meet these criteria. In this article a new integral conceptual definition of frailty is proposed which meets the criteria of a successful definition. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The life-course origins of mastery among older people.

    PubMed

    Pearlin, Leonard I; Nguyen, Kim B; Schieman, Scott; Milkie, Melissa A

    2007-06-01

    In this article, we aim to identify the sources of mastery--the understanding that individuals hold about their ability to control the circumstances of their lives. The sample for our inquiry was drawn from the Medicare beneficiary files of people 65 and older living in Washington, DC, and two adjoining Maryland counties. We find that past circumstances, particularly those reflecting status attainment and early exposure to intractable hardships, converge with stressors experienced in late life to influence elders' level of mastery. The impact of past conditions, however, does not necessarily directly affect the current mastery of older people. Instead, the effect of prior experiences on current mastery is mediated by what we refer to as life-course mastery: one's belief that one has directed and managed the trajectories that connect one's past to the present. Our analyses show that life-course mastery largely serves as the mediating channel through which individuals connect their past to their present.

  13. Loneliness and social support of older people living alone in a county of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Hicks, Allan; While, Alison E

    2014-07-01

    China has an ageing population with the number of older people living alone increasing. Living alone may increase the risk of loneliness of older people, especially for those in China where collectivism and filial piety are emphasised. Social support may fill the need for social contacts, thereby alleviating loneliness. However, little is known about loneliness and social support of older people living alone in China. This study investigated loneliness and social support of older people living alone, by conducting a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with a stratified random cluster sample of 521 community-dwelling older people living alone in a county of Shanghai. Data were collected from November 2011 to March 2012. The instruments used included the UCLA Loneliness Scale version 3 and the Social Support Rate Scale. The participants reported a moderate level of loneliness. Their overall social support level was low compared with the Chinese norm. Children were the major source of objective and subjective support. Of the participants, 53.9% (n = 281) and 47.6% (n = 248) asked for help and confided when they were in trouble, but 84.1% (n = 438) never or rarely attended social activities. The level of loneliness and social support differed among the participants with different sociodemographic characteristics. There were negative correlations between loneliness and overall social support and its three dimensions. The findings suggest that there is a need to provide more social support to older people living alone to decrease their feelings of loneliness. Potential interventions include encouraging more frequent contacts from children, the development of one-to-one 'befriending' and group activity programmes together with identification of vulnerable subgroups.

  14. The effects of music therapy for older people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Wall, Michelle; Duffy, Anita

    The aim of this literature review is to explore how music therapy influences the behaviour of older people with dementia. Music therapy is often informally used in residential care units to enhance communication, emotional, cognitive and behavioural skills in elderly patients diagnosed with dementia both nationally and internationally. However, in Ireland the benefits of music therapy have not been fully recognized. Many studies have been carried out to establish the effectiveness of music therapy on the behaviour of older people with dementia with positive findings. Music therapy should be welcomed into care of the elderly settings in Ireland and elsewhere; however, more research is required to validate the effects of this therapy as a holistic tool to build altruistic connections between carers and clients. A comprehensive review of nursing literature using the online databases CINAHL, PsycINFO and MEDLINE were carried out. The search was limited to articles in the English language and peer-reviewed journals dating 2003-2009. Thirteen studies were reviewed and the majority of these studies reported that music therapy influenced the behaviour of older people with dementia in a positive way by reducing levels of agitation. The research further identified a positive increase in participants' mood and socialization skills, with carers having a significant role to play in the use of music therapy in care of the elderly nursing. However, methodological limitations were apparent throughout each of the studies reviewed. With reference to clinical practice, the authors recommend the undertaking of further research to explore the effects of music therapy on the behaviour and wellbeing of older people with dementia.

  15. The involvement of Spanish older people in nondegree educational programs: reasons for and barriers to participation.

    PubMed

    Villar, Feliciano; Celdrán, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the reasons older Spanish people participate in nondegree educational programs and the barriers they may face when they want to do so. Data were drawn from the 2007 Survey on Adults' Involvement in Learning Activities (Encuesta sobre la Participación de la Población Adulta en Actividades de Aprendizaje: EADA) and correspond to a nationally representative sample of Spanish people aged between 60 and 74 years old (n=4,559). Overall, only 8.7% of the sample participated in a nondegree educational program. Predictors of participation were being a woman, being younger, having a higher educational level, and being employed. The most frequent reason given for participation was of an intrinsic nature (e.g., interest in the topic), although instrumental motives (e.g., utility of the content for daily life) were more common than suggested by previous research. As for barriers to participation, the vast majority of older people (95.6% of those who did not participate) did not even express a desire to participate. The most frequent barriers were internal (e.g., age/health restrictions). This kind of barrier was ascribed a greater importance by older and less educated groups as well as by those who participate less in cultural activities. Policies to promote older people's participation in nonformal educational activities are discussed in light of the data.

  16. The relationship between housing and heat wave resilience in older people.

    PubMed

    Loughnan, Margaret; Carroll, Matthew; Tapper, Nigel J

    2015-09-01

    Older people have justifiably been highlighted as a high-risk group with respect to heat wave mortality and morbidity. However, there are older people living within the community who have developed adaptive and resilient environments around their home that provide some protection during periods of extreme heat. This study investigated the housing stock and self-reported thermal comfort of a group of older people living in a regional town in Australia during the summer of 2012. The results indicated that daily maximum living room temperature was not significantly correlated with outdoor temperature, and daily minimum living room temperature was very weakly correlated with outdoor temperature. Residents reported feeling comfortable when indoor temperature approximated 26 °C. As living room temperature increased, indoor thermal comfort decreased. Significant differences between indoor temperatures were noted for homes that were related to house characteristics such as the age of the house, the number of air-conditioning units, the pitch of the roof, home insulation and the number of heat-mitigation modifications made to the home. Brick veneer homes showed smaller diurnal changes in temperature than other building materials. With population ageing and the increasing focus on older people living in the community, the quality of the housing stock available to them will influence their risk of heat exposure during extreme weather.

  17. Paranoid symptoms and hallucinations among the older people in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Östling, Svante; Bäckman, Kristoffer; Waern, Margda; Marlow, Thomas; Braam, Arjan W; Fichter, Manfred; Lawlor, Brian A; Lobos, Antonio; Reischies, Friedel M; Copeland, John R M; Skoog, Ingmar

    2013-06-01

    It is not clear whether the prevalence of psychosis increases with age. We studied the age-specific prevalence of psychotic symptoms in older people in Western Europe. Older people without dementia (age 65-104 years, N = 8762) from the western part of Europe in the EURODEP concerted action took part in psychiatric examinations. In total, 2.4% of the men and 2.9% of the women had psychotic symptoms. Using a multilevel logistic regression model that included gender and age as a continuous variable, we found that a 5-year increase in age increased the prevalence of psychotic symptoms (odds ratio 1.2 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.3, p = 0.001). A second multilevel regression model showed that wishing to be dead, depressed mood, functional disability, not being married and cognitive impairment measured with Mini mental state examination were all associated with psychotic symptoms whereas gender was not. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms in non-demented older people increases with age, and these symptoms are associated with other psychopathology, social isolation and problems with daily living. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Patterns of Somatic Diagnoses in Older People with Intellectual Disability: A Swedish Eleven Year Case-Control Study of Inpatient Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Magnus; Ahlström, Gerd; Kristensson, Jimmie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about diagnoses patterns in older people with intellectual disabilities is limited. Methods: The case group (n = 7936) comprised people with intellectual disabilities aged 55 years and older. The control group (n = 7936) was age matched and sex matched. Somatic inpatient diagnoses (2002-2012) were collected retrospectively.…

  19. Patterns of Somatic Diagnoses in Older People with Intellectual Disability: A Swedish Eleven Year Case-Control Study of Inpatient Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Magnus; Ahlström, Gerd; Kristensson, Jimmie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about diagnoses patterns in older people with intellectual disabilities is limited. Methods: The case group (n = 7936) comprised people with intellectual disabilities aged 55 years and older. The control group (n = 7936) was age matched and sex matched. Somatic inpatient diagnoses (2002-2012) were collected retrospectively.…

  20. Interventions to optimise prescribing for older people in care homes.

    PubMed

    Alldred, David P; Raynor, David K; Hughes, Carmel; Barber, Nick; Chen, Timothy F; Spoor, Pat

    2013-02-28

    There is a substantial body of evidence that prescribing for care home residents is suboptimal and requires improvement. Consequently, there is a need to identify effective interventions to optimise prescribing and resident outcomes in this context. The objective of the review was to determine the effect of interventions to optimise prescribing for older people living in care homes. We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), The Cochrane Library (Issue 11, 2012); Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Cochrane Library (Issue 11, 2012); MEDLINE OvidSP (1980 on); EMBASE, OvidSP (1980 on); Ageline, EBSCO (1966 on); CINAHL, EBSCO (1980 on); International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, OvidSP (1980 on); PsycINFO, OvidSP (1980 on); conference proceedings in Web of Science, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - SSH & Science, ISI Web of Knowledge (1990 on); grey literature sources and trial registries; and contacted authors of relevant studies. We also reviewed the references lists of included studies and related reviews (search period November 2012). We included randomised controlled trials evaluating interventions aimed at optimising prescribing for older people (aged 65 years or older) living in institutionalised care facilities. Studies were included if they measured one or more of the following primary outcomes, adverse drug events; hospital admissions;mortality; or secondary outcomes, quality of life (using validated instrument); medication-related problems; medication appropriateness (using validated instrument); medicine costs. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts, assessed studies for eligibility, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. A narrative summary of results was presented. The eight included studies involved 7653 residents in 262 (range 1 to 85) care homes in six countries. Six studies were cluster

  1. Caring for the new uninsured: Hospital charity care for older people without coverage.

    PubMed

    DeLia, Derek

    2006-12-01

    Despite near-universal coverage through Medicare, a number of elderly residents in the United States do not have health insurance coverage. To the author's knowledge, this study is the first to document trends in the use of hospital charity care by uninsured older people. Data from the New Jersey Charity Care Program, which subsidizes hospitals for services provided to low-income uninsured people, were used to analyze trends in charity care utilization by older people from 1999 to 2004. Charity care charges are standardized to uniform Medicaid reimbursement rates and inflation adjusted using the Medical Care Consumer Price Index. From 1999 to 2004, use of charity care by older people grew much faster than it did for younger patients. As a result, older people now account for a greater share of hospital charity care in New Jersey than children. Elderly users of charity care generated higher costs per patient than their younger counterparts. Cost differences were especially salient at the upper end of the distribution, where high-cost elderly patients used significantly more resources than high-cost patients in other age groups. These results highlight an emerging source of strain on the healthcare safety net and point to a growing population of uninsured residents who have costly and complex medical needs. Similar experiences are likely to be found in other states, especially those that have growing populations of elderly immigrants who are likely to lack health insurance.

  2. Older people with dysphagia: transitioning to texture-modified food.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Sandra; Crichton, Jonathan

    Older people with dysphagia are at high risk of malnutrition. To maintain safe oral and nutritional intake, solid food may be texture-modified. Little is known about the transition experiences of older people who move from normal to texture-modified foods. The aim of this study was to describe residents' experiences as they transitioned from normal food to texture-modified food. The study used a qualitative descriptive design and individual interviews were conducted with a study group of 28 participants (residents, family members, nursing and care staff, and speech and language therapists). The interviews were thematically analysed. The findings suggest that transition creates the risk of distress, reducing eating to a matter of necessity and hunger, and that the process is perceived as abrupt, and characterised by lack of communication and awareness of the need for change. A key finding is that the language used during transition can be adversely affected by the management of risk. This language promotes a culture of care that emphasises the limitations of residents, reduces their motivation to eat and hinders the delivery of person-centred care. The findings suggest that care facilities for older people need to revisit their dysphagia management protocols to ensure that they support a person-centred approach for recipients of texture-modified food.

  3. Attitudes toward and willingness to work with older people among undergraduate nursing students in a public university in Sri Lanka: A cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Sarath; Athukorala, Yamuna; Siop, Sidiah

    2016-01-01

    With the increased number of older people globally, caring for older people has become a challenge for many countries. Nurses have a pivotal role in providing quality care for older people and care is affected by their attitudes. The preparation of nurses to deliver quality care needs to be instilled during their studying in the Schools of Nursing. To examine the attitudes of nursing students toward and their willingness to work with older people in Sri Lanka. A purposive sample of 98 first to fourth year undergraduate nursing students in the Department of Nursing, University of Peradeniya completed a self-administered questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic variables, Kogan's Attitudes toward Older People Scale, and questions related to willingness to work with older people. Fifty percent of the respondents (n=49) held slightly positive attitudes toward older people while 45% (n=44) held slightly negative attitudes. About one-third of the respondents (29.9%, n=29) selected the elderly group as the least preferred group for their future career from the categorized seven age groups. Only 5.1% (n=5) of the respondents ranked the elderly group as the first preferred group. There was a significant difference in attitudes between students who lived with older people and students who did not live with older people (t=2.565, p=.012). There was a positive relationship between attitudes and preference for working with older people (r=.342, p=.001). Nursing students have moderately positive attitudes toward older people; however, they show little interest in working with older people. Living with older people develops positive attitudes of young people toward older people. Attitudes are related to the selection in area of specialty in nursing. Nursing curricula need to include Gerontological Nursing as a major area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct and extended intergenerational contact and young people's attitudes towards older adults.

    PubMed

    Drury, Lisbeth; Hutchison, Paul; Abrams, Dominic

    2016-09-01

    Research suggests that positive intergenerational contact can improve young people's attitudes towards older adults. However, today's age-segregated society may not provide ample opportunities for positive contact between younger and older adults to occur on a regular basis. In three studies, we investigated whether the positive attitudinal outcomes associated with direct contact might also stem from a more indirect form of intergenerational relationship: extended contact. In Study 1 (N = 70), extended contact was associated with more positive attitudes towards older adults even when controlling for direct intergenerational contact (contact frequency and contact quality). In Study 2 (N = 110), the positive effects of direct and extended contact on young people's age-related attitudes were mediated by reductions in intergroup anxiety and ageing anxiety. The mediational effects of intergroup anxiety were replicated in Study 3 (N = 95) and ingroup norms additionally emerged as a mediator of the positive effects of extended contact on young people's attitudes towards older adults. Discussion focuses on the implications for strategies aimed at tackling ageism.

  5. Non-verbal communication of the residents living in homes for the older people in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Zaletel, Marija; Kovacev, Asja Nina; Sustersic, Olga; Kragelj, Lijana Zaletel

    2010-09-01

    Aging of the population is a growing problem in all developed societies. The older people need more health and social services, and their life quality in there is getting more and more important. The study aimed at determining the characteristics of non-verbal communication of the older people living in old people's homes (OPH). The sample consisted of 267 residents of the OPH, aged 65-96 years, and 267 caregivers from randomly selected twenty-seven OPH. Three types of non-verbal communication were observed and analysed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In face expressions and head movements about 75% older people looked at the eyes of their caregivers, and about 60% were looking around, while laughing or pressing the lips together was rarely noticed. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among different age groups was observed in dropping the eyes (p = 0.004) and smiling (0.008). In hand gestures and trunk movements, majority of older people most often moved forwards and clenched fingers, while most rarely they stroked and caressed their caregivers. The differences between genders were statistically significant in leaning on the table (p = 0.001), and changing the position on the chair (0.013). Statistically significant differences among age groups were registered in leaning forwards (p = 0.006) and pointing to the others (p = 0.036). In different modes of speaking and paralinguistic signs almost 75% older people spoke normally, about 70% kept silent, while they rarely quarrelled. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among age groups was observed in persuasive speaking (p = 0.007). The present study showed that older people in OPH in Slovenia communicated significantly less frequently with hand gestures and trunk movements than with face expressions and head movements or different modes of speaking

  6. First- and third-person perceptions of images of older people in advertising: an inter-generational evaluation.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tom; Umphery, Don

    2006-01-01

    With the baby boomers increasing in age, the number of older Americans is projected to increase to 82 million by 2050, an increase of 225% from the year 2000. But despite their growing numbers, older individuals continue to face negative attitudes toward them, their way of thinking, and their abilities. These negative attitudes result from the assumption that older people have diminished physical and mental abilities, when in fact, today's older adults are more active and in better physical and mental health than those in any previous generation. This study examines the relationship between first- and third-person perceptions and positive and negative images by determining how older people and younger people perceive each other. More specifically, when older and younger individuals look at positive and negative images of older people in advertisements, what is their perception of the effects those images will have on the other generation? Our findings show that both first- and third-person effects exist and that their perceptions depend on whether the images in the advertisements are positive or negative. The results also indicate that young people rely on the stereotypes they hold of older people when making their perceptions.

  7. Resting metabolic rate and anthropometry in older people: a comparison of measured and calculated values.

    PubMed

    Reidlinger, D P; Willis, J M; Whelan, K

    2015-02-01

    Accurate assessment of energy expenditure and anthropometry in older people is important for targeted nutritional support. The present study aimed to compare measured and calculated resting metabolic rate (m-RMR and c-RMR) and measured, calculated and estimated weight and height in older people aged ≥70 years. Participants were healthy older people aged ≥70 years. Indirect calorimetry using a ventilated hood calorimeter was performed for 30 min on fasted participants, and was compared with c-RMR, as calculated using six commonly used equations. Measured, calculated and estimated height and weight were compared. Subjects comprised 14 males and 20 females and mean (SD) m-RMR was 5243 (845) kJ day(-1) [1253 (202) kcal day(-1) ]. The Mifflin St-Jeor equation was the most consistently accurate, with the smallest mean difference between m-RMR and c-RMR of 58 (553) kJ day(-1) [14 (132) kcal day(-1) ] and c-RMR was within 10% of m-RMR in the greatest number of participants (n = 24; 70%). The Schofield equation was among the least accurate in this age group. In older males, self-reported height and weight were accurate, whereas, in females or those unable to self-report height, ulna length was the most accurate alternative to measured height. Current equations used to calculate RMR in older people have inaccuracies, although the Mifflin St-Jeor equation was most accurate. Future studies should investigate the validity, reliability, cost and practicality of using fat free mass as an item in novel equations to calculate RMR in this age group. Self-reported height and weight in males, and height calculated from ulna length in females, were the most accurate alternatives to measured values in the present study. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  8. Healthy Aging in Community for Older Lesbians.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Judith B; Putney, Jennifer M; Shepard, Bonnie L; Sass, Samantha E; Rudicel, Sally; Ladd, Holly; Cahill, Sean

    2016-04-01

    In Boston and Outer Cape, Massachusetts, we explored the expectations of lesbians 60 years and older regarding healthy aging and community importance. Focus groups were conducted with participants after completing an anonymous demographic questionnaire. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes and identify how they varied by urban versus rural settings. Group discussions focused on community, finances, housing, and healthcare. Primary concerns included continued access to supportive and lesbian communities as a source of resilience during aging. Concerns about discrimination and isolation mirror themes found in national research. The study findings suggest a need for more research into the housing and transportation needs of lesbians approaching later life, with a focus on how those needs relate to affordability, accessibility, and proximity to social support and healthcare. These findings also suggest the need for substantial investments in strengthening the LGBT-related cultural competence of providers of services for the elderly.

  9. Healthy Aging in Community for Older Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Putney, Jennifer M.; Shepard, Bonnie L.; Sass, Samantha E.; Rudicel, Sally; Ladd, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: In Boston and Outer Cape, Massachusetts, we explored the expectations of lesbians 60 years and older regarding healthy aging and community importance. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with participants after completing an anonymous demographic questionnaire. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes and identify how they varied by urban versus rural settings. Results: Group discussions focused on community, finances, housing, and healthcare. Primary concerns included continued access to supportive and lesbian communities as a source of resilience during aging. Conclusion: Concerns about discrimination and isolation mirror themes found in national research. The study findings suggest a need for more research into the housing and transportation needs of lesbians approaching later life, with a focus on how those needs relate to affordability, accessibility, and proximity to social support and healthcare. These findings also suggest the need for substantial investments in strengthening the LGBT-related cultural competence of providers of services for the elderly. PMID:27046541

  10. The Effect of Aging Awareness Training on Knowledge of, and Attitudes towards, Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Mahoney, Berenice

    2003-01-01

    Before and 1 month after age awareness workshops, 200 British participants took the Palmore Aging Quiz and Fraboni Scale of Ageism. Palmore scores significantly improved but Fraboni scores were unchanged. Results suggest that increased awareness improves factual knowledge but does not change attitudes toward aging and older people. (Contains 18…

  11. Acute stress does not impair long-term memory retrieval in older people.

    PubMed

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Puig-Perez, Sara; Salvador, Alicia

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that stress-induced cortisol increases impair memory retrieval in young people. This effect has not been studied in older people; however, some findings suggest that age-related changes in the brain can affect the relationships between acute stress, cortisol and memory in older people. Our aim was to investigate the effects of acute stress on long-term memory retrieval in healthy older people. To this end, 76 participants from 56 to 76 years old (38 men and 38 women) were exposed to an acute psychosocial stressor or a control task. After the stress/control task, the recall of pictures, words and stories learned the previous day was assessed. There were no differences in memory retrieval between the stress and control groups on any of the memory tasks. In addition, stress-induced cortisol response was not associated with memory retrieval. An age-related decrease in cortisol receptors and functional changes in the amygdala and hippocampus could underlie the differences observed between the results from this study and those found in studies performed with young people.

  12. Older People and Their Attitude to the Use of Information and Communication Technologies--A Review Study with Special Focus on the Czech Republic (Older People and Their Attitude to ICT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimova, Blanka; Simonova, Ivana; Poulova, Petra; Truhlarova, Zuzana; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Rising standards of living and good quality health care have contributed to people living longer. According to the Eurostat agency (Benácová & Valenta, 2009), in the next 50 years there will be twice as many older people worldwide. The aging process, however, brings about new economic and social issues. Therefore, there is constant effort to…

  13. Older People and Their Attitude to the Use of Information and Communication Technologies--A Review Study with Special Focus on the Czech Republic (Older People and Their Attitude to ICT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimova, Blanka; Simonova, Ivana; Poulova, Petra; Truhlarova, Zuzana; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Rising standards of living and good quality health care have contributed to people living longer. According to the Eurostat agency (Benácová & Valenta, 2009), in the next 50 years there will be twice as many older people worldwide. The aging process, however, brings about new economic and social issues. Therefore, there is constant effort to…

  14. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and cognition in older people.

    PubMed

    Ojala, Anna K; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Tilvis, Reijo S; Strandberg, Timo E

    2016-01-01

    high TSH concentrations and cognitive decline are both very common among older people and could be linked. to assess cognition in our cohort of 335 home-dwelling older people (75 years and older) and to cross-sectionally relate the results to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. Our special focus was on the upper normal TSH range and subclinical hypothyroidism. cognitive performance was evaluated using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease neuropsychological battery (CERAD-nb). The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale was used to evaluate severity of cognitive disorder. The APOEε4 genotype was also defined. Subjects were divided into quartiles based on the TSH concentrations, and results were compared between these groups. expected relations were observed between CERAD domains and both educational level and APOEε4 genotype. Female sex significantly associated with better performance in Boston naming (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.27-0.85). In the whole cohort, higher TSH concentrations tended to associate with better scores in most parts of the CERAD-nb tests, but differences were not statistically significant. However, subjects with the highest TSH concentration (90th TSH percentile, range 4.14-14.4 mU/l) had better CDR scores compared with subjects with the lowest TSH concentration (10th percentile, range 0.001-0.63 mIU/l; OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.014-0.76). our results do not support the notion that higher TSH concentrations, not even in the range of subclinical hypothyroidism, would adversely affect cognition among older people. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Managing 'shades of grey': a focus group study exploring community-dwellers' views on advance care planning in older people.

    PubMed

    Michael, Natasha; O'Callaghan, Clare; Sayers, Emma

    2017-01-13

    Community-dwelling consumers of healthcare are increasing, many aging with life-limiting conditions and deteriorating cognition. However, few have had advance care planning discussions or completed documentation to ensure future care preferences are acted upon. This study examines the awareness, attitudes, and experiences of advance care planning amongst older people and unrelated offspring/caregivers of older people residing in the community. Qualitative descriptive research, which included focus groups with older people (55+ years) and older people's offspring/caregivers living in an Australian city and surrounding rural region. Data was analysed using an inductive and comparative approach. Sampling was both convenience and purposive. Participants responded to web-based, newsletter or email invitations from an agency, which aims to support healthcare consumers, a dementia support group, or community health centres in areas with high proportions of culturally and linguistically diverse community-dwellers. Eight focus groups were attended by a homogenous sample of 15 older people and 27 offspring/caregivers, with 43% born overseas. The overarching theme, 'shades of grey': struggles in transition, reflects challenges faced by older people and their offspring/caregivers as older people often erratically transition from independence and capacity to dependence and/or incapacity. Offspring/caregivers regularly struggled with older people's fluctuating autonomy and dependency as older people endeavoured to remain at home, and with conceptualising "best times" to actualise advance care planning with substitute decision maker involvement. Advance care planning was supported and welcomed, x advance care planning literacy was evident. Difficulties planning for hypothetical health events and socio-cultural attitudes thwarting death-related discussions were emphasised. Occasional offspring/caregivers with previous substitute decision maker experience reported distress related

  16. Understanding of Placebo Controls Among Older People With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Laura B; Palmer, Barton W; Keehan, Monique

    2006-01-01

    Research protocols frequently necessitate procedures or design elements that differ from those used in routine clinical care. An example is the inclusion of a placebo arm in many randomized clinical trials. Because there are risks to taking a placebo when one has a chronic disorder such as schizophrenia, ascertaining how well people with severe mental illness understand placebos is an important task for empirical research ethics. We investigated whether schizophrenia patients' understanding of placebo controls could be improved with a brief educational intervention. We randomized 49 middle-aged and older patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder to receive either (1) a routine explanation of placebos in the context of consent for a hypothetical double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, or (2) the consent for the hypothetical trial plus a brief educational module explaining placebos in more depth. Understanding of placebos was assessed with a 12-item questionnaire, and we examined demographic, clinical, neurocognitive, and decision-making correlates of understanding of placebos. Those participants who received the intervention obtained higher scores on the placebo post-test compared to those who received the standard information alone. Performance on the placebo post-test was positively correlated with measures of decisional capacity and neurocognitive abilities and negatively correlated with severity of negative symptoms, but it showed no relationship with positive or general symptoms. Some participants interpreted the common phrase “sugar pill” as relating somehow to diabetes. We conclude that the level of understanding of important research design–related information is not static but may be influenced by how investigators approach the consent process. PMID:16177271

  17. Knowledge and attitudes of doctors toward the sexuality of older people in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Sultan; Demir, Basaran; Eker, Engin; Karim, Salman

    2008-10-01

    Few studies have looked at healthcare professionals' knowledge of and attitudes to later life sexuality in both Western and Eastern cultures. Here we examine the attitudes and knowledge of Turkish medical doctors toward sexuality in older people. Eighty-seven doctors, from various specialties, who were directly involved in the care of older people, were contacted by post and asked to complete the Turkish version of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS). A majority of physicians indicated that they had limited information and knowledge regarding sexual health issues in older people (69%). Although a small percentage (14.5%) reported that they "always" discuss sexuality and sexual problems with older patients, the majority (69%) indicated that they "sometimes" raise questions about sexuality with these patients. A high percentage (81%) stated that they would be helpful and receptive should an elderly patient initiate a discussion about sexual issues. Most participants (77%) thought that the patient's gender was of no importance when taking a sexual history. Overall, the responses to ASKAS showed that physicians had limited knowledge but their attitude was positive toward sexuality in the elderly. Female physicians had less knowledge than males and had more negative attitudes t