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Sample records for older italian adults

  1. Emotion experience and frailty in a sample of Italian community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mulasso, Anna; Argiolu, Laura; Roppolo, Mattia; Azucar, Danny; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Frailty increases individual vulnerability to external stressors and involves high risk for adverse geriatric outcomes. To date, few studies have addressed the role of emotion perception and its association with frailty in aged populations. This cross-sectional study aimed to explore whether a significant association between frailty and emotional experience exists in a sample of Italian community-dwelling older adults. Our sample consisted of 104 older adults (age 76±8 years; 59.6% women) living in Piedmont, Italy. Frailty was measured using the Italian version of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI), and emotion perception was measured with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The Mini–Mental State Examination was used as a screening tool for cognitive functions (people with a score ≤20 points were excluded). One-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), adjusted for interesting variables, and post hoc tests were performed where appropriate. According to the TFI, 57.7% of participants resulted as frail. Analysis showed a significant greater severity of frailty in the low positive affect (PA) group compared to the high PA group. Similarly, those with high negative affect (NA) showed significantly higher levels of frailty than the low NA group. As expected, significant differences for frailty were also found among the groups composed of 1) people with high PA and low NA, 2) people with low PA or high NA, and 3) people with low PA and high NA. Post hoc tests showed a greater severity of frailty in the second and in the third groups compared to the first one. Lastly, robust participants aged >75 years showed higher levels of PA than the group aged between 60 and 75 years. These findings demonstrate that both PA and NA may influence frailty, giving new insights for the evaluation and prevention of frailty in older adults. PMID:29238176

  2. Affective Norms for Italian Words in Older Adults: Age Differences in Ratings of Valence, Arousal and Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Fairfield, Beth; Ambrosini, Ettore; Mammarella, Nicola; Montefinese, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In line with the dimensional theory of emotional space, we developed affective norms for words rated in terms of valence, arousal and dominance in a group of older adults to complete the adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian and to aid research on aging. Here, as in the original Italian ANEW database, participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance by means of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a paper-and-pencil procedure. We observed high split-half reliabilities within the older sample and high correlations with the affective ratings of previous research, especially for valence, suggesting that there is large agreement among older adults within and across-languages. More importantly, we found high correlations between younger and older adults, showing that our data are generalizable across different ages. However, despite this across-ages accord, we obtained age-related differences on three affective dimensions for a great number of words. In particular, older adults rated as more arousing and more unpleasant a number of words that younger adults rated as moderately unpleasant and arousing in our previous affective norms. Moreover, older participants rated negative stimuli as more arousing and positive stimuli as less arousing than younger participants, thus leading to a less-curved distribution of ratings in the valence by arousal space. We also found more extreme ratings for older adults for the relationship between dominance and arousal: older adults gave lower dominance and higher arousal ratings for words rated by younger adults with middle dominance and arousal values. Together, these results suggest that our affective norms are reliable and can be confidently used to select words matched for the affective dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance across younger and older participants for future research in aging. PMID:28046070

  3. Cancer in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Navigating Cancer Care > For Older Adults For Older Adults A full-text transcript is available. More than ... Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Aging and Cancer Cancer Care Decisions for ...

  4. Cognitive stimulation therapy in the Italian context: its efficacy in cognitive and non-cognitive measures in older adults with dementia.

    PubMed

    Capotosto, Emanuela; Belacchi, Carmen; Gardini, Simona; Faggian, Silvia; Piras, Federica; Mantoan, Vanessa; Salvalaio, Elisa; Pradelli, Samantha; Borella, Erika

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) has been shown to have significant benefits in enhancing cognitive functioning and improving the quality of life of people with mild to moderate dementia. The present study examines the efficacy of the Italian version of the therapy (CST-IT). Older adults with mild to moderate dementia (n = 39) were randomly assigned to two programs: one group participated in the CST-IT, consisting of 14 sessions (twice a week for 7 weeks) and the active control group took part in alternative general activities. The outcome measures were cognitive functioning (measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination-MMSE-, the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment scale-cognitive subscale, the backward digit span test, and a narrative language test); quality of life (Quality of life--Alzheimer's Disease scale); mood (Cornell scale for depression in dementia and the social and emotional loneliness scale); functional activities in daily living (Disability Assessment for Dementia); and behavior (neuropsychiatric inventory). After the intervention, only the CST-IT group maintained its MMSE score, while the control group displayed deterioration. The CST-IT group also performed better in some of the cognitive measures (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale and narrative language), mood measures (Cornell scale, social and emotional loneliness scale with a decrease in reported loneliness), and the Quality of life--Alzheimer's Disease scale. No other treatment effect was observed. The findings confirm the efficacy, at least in the short term, of the CST in sustaining cognitive functions and perceived quality of life in older adults with dementia in the Italian care setting as well. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Museums and Older Adults .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Elizabeth M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This issue contains articles on characteristics of the older adult population and how one museum program addressed them; an analysis of sensory changes in older adulthood and their implications for museum facilities and programing; what older adults can contribute to the museum; older adults as museum volunteers; and case studies of museum…

  6. Sepsis in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Theresa A; McKoy, June M

    2017-12-01

    Sepsis disproportionally affects older adults with more than 60% of sepsis diagnoses attributed to adults aged 65 years and older. Identifying, diagnosing, and treating sepsis in older individuals remain a challenge for clinicians, and few studies focus specifically on older adults with multiple medical comorbidities. Principles guiding management of sepsis for older adults are generally the same as in younger adults; however, unique considerations particularly pertinent to the care older adults include antimicrobial selection and dosing, delirium management, and goals of care discussions. Other factors, such as medical comorbidities, cognitive impairment, and functional status, impact outcomes more than age alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Older Adults and Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Older Adults and Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Generally, ... liver problems, osteoporosis, memory problems, and mood disorders. Drinking and Medications Many medications, such as the ones ...

  8. Depression - older adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... active and engaged. The most worrisome complication of depression is suicide. Men make up most suicides among older adults. ... such as 911) if you are thinking about suicide (taking your own ... and think they may have depression, contact their provider.

  9. Factors associated with self-reported use of dental health services among older Greek and Italian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Wright, Clive; Schofield, Margot; Calache, Hanny; Minichiello, Victor

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss utilization of dental health services by older Greek and Italian immigrants in Melbourne, Australia. Their study involved 374 Greek and 360 Italian adults who completed a questionnaire and received an oral examination. Nearly 41% of Greek and 45% of Italian respondents had used dental services in the previous year. As barriers to care, Greek participants most often cited waiting lists and waiting time in the office. Italian participants most often identified cost, length of waiting lists and language barriers. Multivariate analyses associated recent use of dental services with number of teeth, oral health knowledge, age and occupation before retirement for both groups, as well as living arrangements among Greek participants and perceived barriers among Italian participants. Findings highlight the need for oral health promotion programs targeted toward older adults from immigrant populations and reductions of the structural barriers that prevent these adults from seeking oral health care.

  10. Medications and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide ... Expert Search Search AAAAI Breadcrumb navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Medications and older adults Share | Medications and ...

  11. Dance for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)

  12. Depression in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... higher healthcare costs than non-depressed seniors. [5] Suicide Depression is a significant predictor of suicide in elderly ... 2] National Institute of Mental Health: “Older Adults: Depression and Suicide Fact Sheet.” Accessed August 1999. Netscape: http://www. ...

  13. Association Between Hormones and Metabolic Syndrome in Older Italian Men

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Marcello; Lauretani, Fulvio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Bandinelli, Stefania; Basaria, Shehzad; Ble, Alessandro; Egan, Josephine; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Najjar, Samer; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Valenti, Giorgio; Guralnik, Jack M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether low levels of testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and high levels of cortisol and leptin would be associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). DESIGN Cross-sectional. SETTING Population-based sample of older Italian men. PARTICIPANTS Four hundred fifty-two men aged 65 and older enrolled in the Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) study. MEASUREMENTS Complete data on testosterone, cortisol, DHEAS, SHBG, fasting insulin, IGF-1 and leptin. MS was defined according to Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. RESULTS MS was present in 73 men (15.8% of the sample). After adjusting for confounders, total testosterone (P<.05) and log (SHBG) (P<.001) were inversely associated, whereas log (leptin) was positively associated with MS (P<.001). Independent of age, log (SHBG) was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<.05) and negatively associated with abdominal obesity (P<.001) and triglycerides (P<.001). Log (leptin) was significantly associated with each component of MS. Cortisol, DHEAS, free and bioavailable testosterone, and IGF-1 were not associated with MS. Having three or more hormones in the lower (for hormones lower in MS) or the upper (for hormones higher in MS) quartile was associated with three times the risk of being affected by MS (odds ratio =2.8, 95% confidence interval =1.3–6.9) (P=.005), compared with not having this condition. CONCLUSION Total testosterone and SHBG are negatively and leptin is positively associated with MS in older men. Whether specific patterns of hormonal dysregulation predict the development of MS should be tested in longitudinal studies. PMID:17198487

  14. Association between hormones and metabolic syndrome in older Italian men.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; Lauretani, Fulvio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Bandinelli, Stefania; Basaria, Shehzad; Ble, Alessandro; Egan, Josephine; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Najjar, Samer; Jeffrey Metter, E; Valenti, Giorgio; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2006-12-01

    To determine whether low levels of testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and high levels of cortisol and leptin would be associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). Cross-sectional. Population-based sample of older Italian men. Four hundred fifty-two men aged 65 and older enrolled in the Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) study. Complete data on testosterone, cortisol, DHEAS, SHBG, fasting insulin, IGF-1 and leptin. MS was defined according to Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. MS was present in 73 men (15.8% of the sample). After adjusting for confounders, total testosterone (P < .05) and log (SHBG) (P < .001) were inversely associated, whereas log (leptin) was positively associated with MS (P < .001). Independent of age, log (SHBG) was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .05) and negatively associated with abdominal obesity (P < .001) and triglycerides (P < .001). Log (leptin) was significantly associated with each component of MS. Cortisol, DHEAS, free and bioavailable testosterone, and IGF-1 were not associated with MS. Having three or more hormones in the lower (for hormones lower in MS) or the upper (for hormones higher in MS) quartile was associated with three times the risk of being affected by MS (odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-6.9) (P = .005), compared with not having this condition. Total testosterone and SHBG are negatively and leptin is positively associated with MS in older men. Whether specific patterns of hormonal dysregulation predict the development of MS should be tested in longitudinal studies.

  15. Training for older adults.

    PubMed

    Hautier, C; Bonnefoy, M

    2007-07-01

    Aging is associated with a reduction in physical fitness, with loss of muscular force and endurance. Physical activity has been demonstrated to provide substantial health benefits and to maintain functional independence and improve quality of life in older adults. Resistance training has a significant effect on muscle mass and force whereas endurance training increases oxygen transport and consumption capacities. This article presents training methods used in the literature and their associated effects in order to adapt training protocols to older populations. To maximise benefits from adoption of a program to which the patient can adhere for long time, it is important to tailor the exercise prescription to the individual.

  16. Vaccines for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Worz, Chad; Martin, Caren McHenry; Travis, Catherine

    2017-09-01

    Several vaccine-preventable diseases-influenza, pneumonia, herpes zoster, and pertussis-threaten the health of older adults in the United States. Both the costs associated with treating these diseases and the potential to increase morbidity and mortality are high for this patient population. Pharmacists and other health care professionals play a significant role in ensuring the elderly patient receives the recommended vaccines at the recommended intervals.

  17. Obesity Prevention in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe

    2016-06-01

    The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented.

  18. The role of individual characteristics and physical frailty on health related quality of life (HRQOL): a cross sectional study of Italian community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between individual characteristics and HRQOL, and to identify which components of physical frailty measured according to Fried's criteria provided a better explanation of HRQOL. Two hundred and fifty-nine older adults (age 74±6 years; 69% were women) living in Piemonte Region were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic and medical characteristics were captured by self-reported questionnaires. Physical frailty was assessed using the five criteria of Fried: shrinking, weakness, poor endurance and energy, slowness, and low physical activity level. HRQOL was measured with the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), using both the mental (MCS) and the Physical Component Summary (PCS). Among individual characteristics, gender was the best predictor for SF-36, the MCS, and the PCS, with values of R(2) of 12.7%, 12.1%, and 8.8%, respectively. Among the five Fried's criteria, poor endurance and energy had the largest effect on HRQOL with values of ΔR(2) of 13.9% for SF-36, 13.4% for the MCS, and 9.4% for the PCS. Results highlighted the role of the individual characteristics and the single weight of the five components of physical frailty on HRQOL. This knowledge may give new insights about the relations between individual functioning and self-rated health, allowing the development of individualized and more effective preventive interventions for a healthy aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. AIDS and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allers, Christopher T.

    1990-01-01

    Older adults are finding themselves the neighbors of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients as well as the primary caregivers of infected adult children. Focuses on roles, issues, and conflicts older adults face in dealing with relatives or neighbors with AIDS. Case management and educational intervention strategies are also offered.…

  20. Dehydration in the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Miller, Hayley J

    2015-09-01

    Dehydration affects 20% to 30% of older adults. It has a greater negative outcome in this population than in younger adults and increases mortality, morbidity, and disability. Dehydration is often caused by water deprivation in older adults, although excess water loss may also be a cause. Traditional markers for dehydration do not take into consideration many of the physiological differences present in older adults. Clinical assessment of dehydration in older adults poses different findings, yet is not always diagnostic. Treatment of dehydration should focus on prevention and early diagnosis before it negatively effects health and gives rise to comorbidities. The current article discusses what has most thoroughly been studied; the best strategies and assessment tools for evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of dehydration in older adults; and what needs to be researched further. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(9), 8-13.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Clinical Interviewing with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…

  2. Effective communication with older adults.

    PubMed

    Daly, Louise

    2017-06-07

    Communication is an essential aspect of life, yet it can be taken for granted. Its centrality to being in the world and in professional practice often becomes evident when nurses and older adults encounter communication difficulties. The factors that can affect nurses' communication with older adults relate to the older adult, the nurse, sociocultural considerations and the environment, and the interactions between these factors. In adopting a person-centred approach to communicating with older adults, it is necessary to get to know the person as an individual and ensure communication meets their needs and abilities. Effective communication is essential in nursing practice and requires professional competence and engagement. This article can be used by nurses to support effective communication with older adults across the continuum of care.

  3. Group psychotherapy with older adults.

    PubMed

    Saiger, G M

    2001-01-01

    This article describes a psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy group for older adults conducted in an agency setting, highlighting the problems specific to such groups. The literature on such groups for older adults is reviewed. The issues discussed are the psychology of late life, diagnostic considerations, medical illness and dementia as complicating factors, the issue of caretaking, and the centrality of shame. A systems-oriented approach to understanding the group's success is suggested.

  4. Pain management in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Bridget; Sean Morrison, R

    2013-11-01

    Chronic pain is prevalent among older adults but is underrecognized and undertreated. The approach to pain assessment and management in older adults requires an understanding of the physiology of aging, validated assessment tools, and common pain presentations among older adults. To identify the overall principles of pain management in older adults with a specific focus on common painful conditions and approaches to pharmacologic treatment. We searched PubMed for common pain presentations in older adults with heart failure, end-stage renal disease, dementia, frailty, and cancer. We also reviewed guidelines for pain management. Our review encompassed 2 guidelines, 10 original studies, and 22 review articles published from 2000 to the present. This review does not discuss nonpharmacologic treatments of pain. Clinical guidelines support the use of opioids in persistent nonmalignant pain. Opioids should be used in patients with moderate or severe pain or pain not otherwise controlled but with careful attention to potential toxic effects and half-life. In addition, clinical practice guidelines recommend use of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with extreme caution and for defined, limited periods. An understanding of the basics of pain pathophysiology, assessment, pharmacologic management, and a familiarity with common pain presentations will allow clinicians to effectively manage pain for older adults. © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Older adults' perceptions of work.

    PubMed

    Bambrick, Patricia; Bonder, Bette

    2005-01-01

    Traditional definitions of work may not reflect the activities of older adults. A broader definition that incorporates non-economic as well as economic measures may better describe their participation in the labor force and the meanings they ascribe to these activities. Because productive activity has been linked to successful aging, it is important to understand how elders perceive work. Twenty-six community-residing older adults were interviewed over a two-year period. Participants were mostly female and represented diverse cultural, religious and educational backgrounds. All these individuals participated in some activities they perceived as work. Three themes emerged as describing their attributions of meaning or importance to productive activities: contribution to self-concept, giving back to community, and staying engaged. Findings suggest that the productive activities of older adults contribute to quality of life for them and have implications for society as well.

  6. Health Literacy and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chesser, Amy K.; Keene Woods, Nikki; Smothers, Kyle; Rogers, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this review was to assess published literature relating to health literacy and older adults. Method: The current review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses. Results: Eight articles met inclusion criteria. All studies were conducted in urban settings in the United States. Study sample size ranged from 33 to 3,000 participants. Two studies evaluated health-related outcomes and reported significant associations between low health literacy and poorer health outcomes. Two other studies investigated the impact of health literacy on medication management, reporting mixed findings. Discussion: The findings of this review highlight the importance of working to improve health care strategies for older adults with low health literacy and highlight the need for a standardized and validated clinical health literacy screening tool for older adults. PMID:28138488

  7. Catastrophic events and older adults.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Elizabeth; Dyer, Carmel B

    2010-12-01

    The plight of older adults during catastrophic events is a societal concern. Older persons have an increased prevalence of cognitive disorders, chronic illnesses, and mobility problems that limit their ability to cope. These disorders may result in a lack of mental capacity and the ability to discern when they should evacuate or resolve problems encountered during a catastrophe. Some older persons may have limited transportation options, and many of the elderly survivors are at increased risk for abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Recommendations for future catastrophic events include the development of a federal tracking system for elders and other vulnerable adults, the designation of separate shelter areas for elders and other vulnerable adults, and involvement of gerontological professionals in all aspects of emergency preparedness and care delivery, including training of frontline workers. Preparation through preevent planning that includes region-specific social services, medical and public health resources, volunteers, and facilities for elders and vulnerable adults is critical. Elders need to be protected from abuse and fraud during catastrophic events. A public health triage system for elders and other vulnerable populations in pre- and postdisaster situations is useful, and disaster preparedness is paramount. Communities and members of safety and rescue teams must address ethical issues before an event. When older adults are involved, consideration needs to be given to triage decision making, transporting those who are immobile, the care of older adults who receive palliative care, and the equitable distribution of resources. Nurses are perfectly equipped with the skills, knowledge, and training needed to plan and implement disaster preparedness programs. In keeping with the tradition of Florence Nightingale, nurses can assume several crucial roles in disaster preparedness for older adults. Nurses possess the ability to participate and lead community

  8. Teaching Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Henry G.; Briggs, Halaine S.

    1979-01-01

    Teachers must understand the physiological and psychological changes that occur in adulthood as a normal part of aging and recognize the implications that these changes have for the teaching-learning process in order to be sensitive to the unique needs and characteristics of adults over 50 as learners. (CT)

  9. Sleep Changes in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life ... CholesterolExercise-induced UrticariaDe Quervain’s Tenosynovitis Home Family Health Seniors Sleep Changes in Older Adults Sleep Changes in ...

  10. Visuomotor Binding in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the…

  11. Faith Development in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulik, Richard N.

    1988-01-01

    Introduces the faith development paradigm of James Fowler, describing six stages of faith development: intuitive-projective faith, mythic-literal faith, synthetic-conventional faith, individuating-reflective faith, conjunctive faith, and universalizing faith. Reviews one research project in which Fowler's paradigm was applied to older adults.…

  12. Representational momentum in older adults.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Andrea S; Jakobson, Lorna S

    2011-10-01

    Humans have a tendency to perceive motion even in static images that simply "imply" movement. This tendency is so strong that our memory for actions depicted in static images is distorted in the direction of implied motion - a phenomenon known as representational momentum (RM). In the present study, we created an RM display depicting a pattern of implied (clockwise) rotation of a rectangle. Young adults viewers' memory of the final position of the test rectangle was biased in the direction of continuing rotation, but older adults did not show a similar memory bias. We discuss several possible explanations for this group difference, but argue that the failure of older adults to shown an RM effect most likely reflects age-related changes in areas of the brain involved in processing real and implied motion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sexuality in the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Morton, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Sexuality is an important part of a person's life continuing into older age. Physiologic changes that occur with aging can affect sexual function and may be exacerbated by comorbid disease. To diagnose sexual dysfunction, providers must obtain a thorough history and physical examination, including psychosocial factors. The causes of sexual dysfunction along with patient preferences within the patient's social system serve as the foundation for developing person-centered strategies to address these concerns. To improve care of older adults with sexual concerns, providers should initiate discussions with, listen to, and work with patients to create a comprehensive management plan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Changing Medical Students' Attitudes toward Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Ernest; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Gilbert, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Given the growth in the number of older adults and the ageist attitudes many in the health care profession hold, interventions aimed at improving health professionals' attitudes toward older adults are imperative. Vital Visionaries is an intergenerational art program designed to improve medical students' attitudes toward older adults. Participants…

  15. Nutrition Goals for Older Adults: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwath, Caroline C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses specific goals of nutrition education for older adults and high-risk groups within the elderly population through review of three crucial areas: current knowledge of eating patterns, nutrient intake, and supplement use of older adults; existing information on multiple influences on eating habits of older adults; and potential benefits…

  16. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  17. Intakes of whole grain in an Italian sample of children, adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Sette, Stefania; D'Addezio, Laura; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Hopkins, Sinead; Le Donne, Cinzia; Ferrari, Marika; Mistura, Lorenza; Turrini, Aida

    2017-03-01

    There is wide evidence that regular consumption of whole grain foods may reduce the risk of chronic diseases. The aim of this work was to quantify the intake of whole grains and identify main dietary sources in the Italian population. Whole grain intakes were calculated in a sample of 2830 adults/older adults and of 440 children/adolescents from the last national survey INRAN-SCAI 2005-06. Food consumption was assessed from a 3-day food record. The whole grain content of foods was estimated mainly from quantitative ingredient declarations on labels. Mean whole grain intakes were 3.7 g/day in adults/older adults and 2.1 g/day in children/adolescents. Overall, 23 % of the sample reported consumption of whole grain foods during the survey, among which mean whole grain intakes ranged from 6.0 g/day in female children to 19.1 g/day in female older adults. The main sources of whole grains were breakfast cereals in children/adolescents (32 %) and bread in adults/older adults (46 %). Consumption of whole grain among adults was associated with significantly higher daily intakes and adequacy of dietary fibre, several vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B 6 ) and minerals (iron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium) compared to non-consumption. Among children, whole grain intake was associated with significantly higher intakes of iron and magnesium. The study reveals very low whole grain intakes across all age groups of the Italian population. Considering the positive association in consumers between whole grain intakes and fibre and micro-nutrient intakes, public health strategies to increase whole grain consumption should be considered.

  18. Cochlear Implantation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Frank R.; Chien, Wade W.; Li, Lingsheng; Niparko, John K.; Francis, Howard W.

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear implants allow individuals with severe-to-profound hearing loss access to sound and spoken language. The number of older adults in the United States who are potential candidates for cochlear implantation is approximately 150,000 and will continue to increase with the aging of the population. Should cochlear implantation (CI) be routinely recommended for these older adults, and do these individuals benefit from CI? We reviewed our 12 year experience with cochlear implantation in adults ≥60 years (n = 445) at Johns Hopkins to investigate the impact of CI on speech understanding and to identify factors associated with speech performance. Complete data on speech outcomes at baseline and 1 year post-CI were available for 83 individuals. Our results demonstrate that cochlear implantation in adults ≥60 years consistently improved speech understanding scores with a mean increase of 60. 0% (S. D. 24. 1) on HINT sentences in quiet . The magnitude of the gain in speech scores was negatively associated with age at implantation such that for every increasing year of age at CI the gain in speech scores was 1. 3 percentage points less (95% CI: 0. 6 – 1. 9) after adjusting for age at hearing loss onset. Conversely, individuals with higher pre-CI speech scores (HINT scores between 40–60%) had significantly greater post-CI speech scores by a mean of 10. 0 percentage points (95% CI: 0. 4 – 19. 6) than those with lower pre-CI speech scores (HINT <40%) after adjusting for age at CI and age at hearing loss onset. These results suggest that older adult CI candidates who are younger at implantation and with higher preoperative speech scores obtain the highest speech understanding scores after cochlear implantation with possible implications for current Medicare policy. Finally, we provide an extended discussion of the epidemiology and impact of hearing loss in older adults. Future research of CI in older adults should expand beyond simple speech outcomes to take into

  19. Vision Loss in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Allen L; Rojas-Roldan, Ledy; Coffin, Janis

    2016-08-01

    Vision loss affects 37 million Americans older than 50 years and one in four who are older than 80 years. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concludes that current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in adults older than 65 years. However, family physicians play a critical role in identifying persons who are at risk of vision loss, counseling patients, and referring patients for disease-specific treatment. The conditions that cause most cases of vision loss in older patients are age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, ocular complications of diabetes mellitus, and age-related cataracts. Vitamin supplements can delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor can preserve vision in the neovascular form of macular degeneration. Medicated eye drops reduce intraocular pressure and can delay the progression of vision loss in patients with glaucoma, but adherence to treatment is poor. Laser trabeculoplasty also lowers intraocular pressure and preserves vision in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, but long-term studies are needed to identify who is most likely to benefit from surgery. Tight glycemic control in adults with diabetes slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, but must be balanced against the risks of hypoglycemia and death in older adults. Fenofibrate also slows progression of diabetic retinopathy. Panretinal photocoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for diabetic retinopathy, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors slow vision loss resulting from diabetic macular edema. Preoperative testing before cataract surgery does not improve outcomes and is not recommended.

  20. Bacterial Pneumonia in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Henig, Oryan; Kaye, Keith S

    2017-12-01

    The incidence of pneumonia increases with age, and is particularly high in patients who reside in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Mortality rates for pneumonia in older adults are high and have not decreased in the last decade. Atypical symptoms and exacerbation of underlying illnesses should trigger clinical suspicion of pneumonia. Risk factors for multidrug-resistant organisms are more common in older adults, particularly among LTCF residents, and should be considered when making empiric treatment decisions. Monitoring of clinical stability and underlying comorbid conditions, potential drug-drug interactions, and drug-related adverse events are important factors in managing elderly patients with pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults

    PubMed Central

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Methods Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1st of September 2013 and 31st of March 2014. Results Mean age of respondents was 66.42± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants’ medical ailments (65%), partners’ failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. Conclusion There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient. PMID:26977224

  2. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults.

    PubMed

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1(st) of September 2013 and 31(st) of March 2014. Mean age of respondents was 66.42 ± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants' medical ailments (65%), partners' failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient.

  3. Osteoporotic fractures in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Saag, Kenneth G.

    2007-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are emerging as a major public health problem in the aging population. Fractures result in increased morbidity, mortality and health expenditures. This article reviews current evidence for the management of common issues following osteoporotic fractures in older adults including: (1) thromboembolism prevention; (2) delirium prevention; (3) pain management; (4) rehabilitation; (5) assessing the cause of fracture; and (6) prevention of subsequent fractures. Areas for practice improvement and further research are highlighted. PMID:16979533

  4. Bilingualism and Aging: Reversal of the Cognate Advantage in Older Bilingual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyambalapitiya, Samantha; Chenery, Helen J.; Copland, David A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate cognate/noncognate processing distinctions in young adult bilinguals and examined whether the previously reported cognate facilitation effect would also be demonstrated in older adult bilinguals. Two groups of Italian-English bilingual participants performed lexical decisions in repetition priming experiments.…

  5. Preserving mobility in older adults.

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, D M

    1997-01-01

    Age-related loss of strength contributes to impaired mobility and increases the risk of falls. Recent research has focused on 2 approaches to preventing age-related loss of strength--promoting physical activity and exercise (especially strength training) and using trophic factors to enhance muscle performance. Epidemiologic evidence strongly supports a role of regular physical activity in successful aging by preserving muscle performance, promoting mobility, and reducing fall risk. Randomized controlled trials provide convincing evidence that strength and endurance training improve muscle performance in older adults. Evidence is rapidly accumulating from randomized trials that endurance, strength, and balance training promote mobility and reduce fall risk, though exercise effects differ according to the type of exercise, details of the exercise program, and the target group of older adults. Because lifetime regular physical activity is recommended for all older adults, a reasonable strategy (especially for weak adults) is an activity program that includes strength training. In contrast, insufficient evidence exists to recommend the long-term use of trophic factors to preserve muscular performance. An intervention that merits additional study is avoiding the use of psychoactive drugs because drugs like benzodiazepines appear to be risk factors for inactivity and may have unrecognized direct effects on muscular performance. Because chronic illness is a risk factor for inactivity and disuse muscle atrophy, randomized trials comparing strength training with other interventions would be useful in understanding whether strength training has advantages in preserving muscle performance and improving health-related quality of life in a variety of chronic illnesses such as depressive illness. PMID:9348757

  6. Helping Older Adults Adjust to Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sink, Clay V.; D'Abrosca, Louis A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses some of the fears and anxieties of automation held by older adults. Teaching techniques that aid the older adult learning process are suggested. The article also contains an interview with Anna M. Tucker, director of the Rhode Island Department of Elderly Affairs, concerning the elder adult's fear of automation. (CT)

  7. Pulmonary issues in the older adult.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Delia E

    2014-03-01

    This article elicits why critical care nurses need to become aware of the pulmonary issues of older adults. The population of older adults is increasing. Older adults undergo anatomic and physiologic changes of the protective mechanisms of the pulmonary system. These changes alter the rate and effort of breathing. Speech is slowed because of expiratory strength effort. Cognition changes may be the only indication of impaired oxygenation. Bedside nursing care provides protection from pulmonary complications. Health behaviors of smoking cessation, oral hygiene, and exercise promote pulmonary health even in older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Attitudes of neurology specialists toward older adults.

    PubMed

    Seferoğlu, Meral; Yıldız, Demet; Pekel, Nilüfer Büyükkoyuncu; Güneş, Aygül; Yıldız, Abdülmecit; Tufan, Fatih

    2017-08-01

    Attitude of healthcare providers toward older people is very important in the aging world. Neurologists contact older adults very frequently. We aimed to investigate the attitudes of neurologists toward older adults. We recorded participants age; sex; duration of clinical practice in neurology; existence of older adult relatives; and history of geriatrics education, nursing home visits, older adult patient density in their clinical practice, and participation in voluntary public activities. UCLA Geriatrics Attitude Scale was used to evaluate participants' attitudes. A total of 100 neurologists participated in this study. Seventy-seven percent had positive, 3 % had neutral, and 20 % had negative attitudes. Twenty-seven percent of the participants had history of geriatrics education, and these participants tended to have a higher rate of positive attitudes. Neurologists with positive attitudes tended to be older than those with negative attitudes. Participants with history of living with older adult relatives had lower rates of positive attitudes. The most common diagnoses of the patients the participants encountered were stroke and dementia. Independent factors associated with positive attitudes were history of geriatrics education and older age. History of living with older relatives tended to have a negative effect. Most of the negative items of the attitude scale were associated with the natural course and behavior of the common diseases in neurology practice. Generalization of geriatrics education may translate into a better understanding and improved care for older patients. Development of instruments and implementation of qualitative studies to assess attitudes of neurologists toward older adults are needed.

  9. Treating older adults with cancer: geriatric perspectives.

    PubMed

    Klepin, Heidi D; Rodin, Miriam; Hurria, Arti

    2015-01-01

    The proportion of older adults (age 65 and older) in oncology practices continues to increase. Older adults present with unique issues that complicate management decisions and evidence from randomized clinical trials to inform management of these patients is lacking. Despite this, principles of geriatric medicine need to be incorporated into oncology practice to provide optimal individualized care to patients. There is increasing evidence from observational studies that geriatric assessment (GA) strategies can be applied in oncology, can help predict treatment outcomes, and can inform supportive care management for older adults. In this review, we discuss the principles of GA and their use in older adults with cancer. In addition, considerations on when to refer to a geriatrician and issues related to management of vulnerable older adults will be addressed.

  10. Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

  11. Training Older Adults to Access Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.; Bertera, Robert L.; Morgan, Russell; Wuertz, Ellen; Attey, Alfred M. O.

    2007-01-01

    Many older adults do not use health information available on the Internet. Older adults residing in affordable housing were taught to use the NIHSeniorHealth.gov Web site. Participants were predominantly African American women with limited education and income (N = 42). Outcomes included changes in computer and health Web site navigation skills.…

  12. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  13. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Older Adults' Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, M. Dianne; Toth, Ellen L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined knowledge, attitudes, and opinions of 60 older adults about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Most had little or no accurate knowledge of CPR. Knowledge deficits and misconceptions of older adults should be addressed so that they may become informed and active participants in CPR decision-making process. (BF)

  14. Older Adults Have Difficulty in Decoding Sarcasm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Louise H.; Allen, Roy; Bull, Rebecca; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Channon, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Younger and older adults differ in performance on a range of social-cognitive skills, with older adults having difficulties in decoding nonverbal cues to emotion and intentions. Such skills are likely to be important when deciding whether someone is being sarcastic. In the current study we investigated in a life span sample whether there are…

  15. Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Presents the American Psychological Association Guidelines for psychological practice with older adults. The present document is intended to assist psychologists in evaluating their own readiness for working clinically with older adults and in seeking and using appropriate education and training to increase their knowledge, skills, and experience…

  16. Health Contract with Sedentary Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David; Rhodes, Darson

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Health educators used health contracts with sedentary older adults for the purpose of increasing exercise or physical activity. Design and Methods: Two health educators helped 25 sedentary older adults complete health contracts, and then they conducted follow-up evaluations. The percentage of scheduled exercise sessions successfully…

  17. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  18. Changing Students' Stereotypes of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; Maruyama, LaRae

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that university students tend to hold negative attitudes about older adults. However, there is some evidence to suggest that these ageist attitudes can be challenged and changed through curricular intervention. The current study was designed to determine whether the "Activities of Older Adults" exercise as part of a…

  19. Scoping review report: obesity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Decaria, J E; Sharp, C; Petrella, R J

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk for early death, heart disease and stroke, disability and several other comorbidities. Although there is concern about the potential burden on health-care services with the aging demographic and the increasing trend of obesity prevalence in older adults, evidence on which to base management strategies is conflicting for various reasons. The analytic framework for this review is based on a scoping review methodology, and was conducted to examine what is known about the diagnosis, treatment and management of obesity in older adults. A total of 492 relevant research articles were identified using PubMed, Scirus, EBSCO, Clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane Reviews and Google Scholar. The findings of this review indicate that the current WHO (World Health Organization)-recommended body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio obesity thresholds for the general adult population may not be appropriate for older adults. Alternatively, weight change or physical fitness may be more useful measures of mortality and health risk in obese older adults. Furthermore, although obesity in older adults is associated with several disorders that increase functional disability, epidemiological evidence suggests that obesity is protective against mortality in seniors. Consequently, the trend toward increasing prevalence of obesity in older adults will lead to an increase in unhealthy life years and health-care costs. The findings from this review also suggest that treatment strategies for obese older adults should focus on maintaining body weight and improving physical fitness and function rather than weight loss, and that a combination of aerobic and resistance exercise appears to be the most effective strategy. In conclusion, this review demonstrates the need for more research to clarify the definition of obesity in older adults, to establish criteria for evaluating when to treat older adults for obesity, and to develop effective

  20. Perceptions of exercise screening among older adults.

    PubMed

    Stathokostas, Liza; Petrella, Andrea F M; Blunt, Wendy; Petrella, Robert J

    2018-06-01

    Prephysical activity screening is important for older adults' participating in physical activity. Unfortunately, many older adults face barriers to exercise participation and thus, may not complete proper physical activity screening. The purpose of this project was to conduct a thematic analysis of perceptions and experiences of community-dwelling older adults regarding prephysical activity screening (i.e., Get Active Questionnaire (GAQ) and a standardized exercise stress test). A convenience sample of adults (male n = 58, female n = 54) aged 75 ± 7 years living in the City of London, Ontario, Canada, was used. Participants completed a treadmill stress test and the GAQ at a research laboratory for community-based referrals. One week later, participants completed the GAQ again and were asked questions by a research assistant about their perceptions of the screening process. Thematic analysis of the responses was conducted. The results indicated that older adults view physical activity screening as acceptable, but not always necessary. Also, the experiences expressed by this sample of older adults indicated that physical activity screening can contribute to continued confidence (through reassurance) and can contribute to increased motivation (through yearly fitness results) in exercise participation. In conclusion, older adults may perceive screening as supportive in exercise adoption, if screening is simple, convenient, and supports older adults' motivation and confidence to exercise.

  1. Habitual attention in older and young adults.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Koutstaal, Wilma; Twedell, Emily L

    2016-12-01

    Age-related decline is pervasive in tasks that require explicit learning and memory, but such reduced function is not universally observed in tasks involving incidental learning. It is unknown if habitual attention, involving incidental probabilistic learning, is preserved in older adults. Previous research on habitual attention investigated contextual cuing in young and older adults, yet contextual cuing relies not only on spatial attention but also on context processing. Here we isolated habitual attention from context processing in young and older adults. Using a challenging visual search task in which the probability of finding targets was greater in 1 of 4 visual quadrants in all contexts, we examined the acquisition, persistence, and spatial-reference frame of habitual attention. Although older adults showed slower visual search times and steeper search slopes (more time per additional item in the search display), like young adults they rapidly acquired a strong, persistent search habit toward the high-probability quadrant. In addition, habitual attention was strongly viewer-centered in both young and older adults. The demonstration of preserved viewer-centered habitual attention in older adults suggests that it may be used to counter declines in controlled attention. This, in turn, suggests the importance, for older adults, of maintaining habit-related spatial arrangements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Weight perception among Italian adults, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Odone, Anna; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Colombo, Paolo; Bosetti, Cristina; La Vecchia, Carlo; Galeone, Carlotta

    2014-03-01

    Underweight, overweight and obesity are associated with increased mortality from several chronic diseases, including cancer. Self body weight misperceptions affect weight control. We monitored weight perception in Italy on a total of 14 135 individuals (6834 men, 7301 women), representative of the Italian adult population with available information on body mass index (BMI) derived by self-reported height and weight. Differences in misperception of BMI categories across subpopulations were analysed using unconditional multiple logistic regression models after adjustment for a number of covariates. Overall, 66.4% of individuals accurately perceived, 21.0% underestimated and 12.6% overestimated their category of BMI. In men, 27.2% underestimated and 5.0% overestimated their BMI category the corresponding estimates for women were 15.3% and 19.6%, respectively. The large majority of underweight (64.3%) and obese individuals (93.1%) overestimated and underestimated their weight, respectively. Overall, 13.5% of Italians misperceived (8.9% underestimated and 4.6% overestimated) their BMI category by more than 2 kg/m. By multivariate analysis, we observed significant differences in terms of sex, education, geographic area, marital status, smoking and drinking habit, year of survey and BMI category. In conclusion, misperception of body weight is frequent in Italy, paralleling findings from other countries with more unfavourable overweight and obesity patterns. The fact that one out of three Italian adults misperceive their weight is of great concern and indicates that media intervention campaigns aimed at explaining measurement and correct interpretation of BMI are required.

  3. Suicide in older adults: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Conejero, Ismael; Olié, Emilie; Courtet, Philippe; Calati, Raffaella

    2018-01-01

    Suicidal behavior in older adults (65 years old and over) is a major public health issue in many countries. Suicide rates increase during the life course and are as high as 48.7/100,000 among older white men in the USA. Specific health conditions and stress factors increase the complexity of the explanatory model for suicide in older adults. A PubMed literature search was performed to identify most recent and representative studies on suicide risk factors in older adults. The aim of our narrative review was to provide a critical evaluation of recent findings concerning specific risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among older people: psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders, social exclusion, bereavement, cognitive impairment, decision making and cognitive inhibition, physical illnesses, and physical and psychological pain. We also aimed to approach the problem of euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide in older adults. Our main findings emphasize the need to integrate specific stress factors, such as feelings of social disconnectedness, neurocognitive impairment or decision making, as well as chronic physical illnesses and disability in suicide models and in suicide prevention programs in older adults. Furthermore, the chronic care model should be adapted for the treatment of older people with long-term conditions in order to improve the treatment of depressive disorders and the prevention of suicidal thoughts and acts. PMID:29719381

  4. Antidepressant-Induced Hyponatremia in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Viramontes, Terry S; Truong, Havan; Linnebur, Sunny A

    2016-03-01

    To describe the prevalence of hyponatremia in older adults related to antidepressive agents and identify potential alternative options in older adults with a low-baseline serum sodium concentration and/or when a patient has experienced hyponatremia as a result of taking an antidepressant. A PubMed search was conducted on November 10, 2015. Search terms included: antidepressive agents, antidepressive agents second-generation, bupropion, citalopram, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, hyponatremia, milnacipran, mirtazapine, paroxetine, reboxetine, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, sertraline, trazodone, venlafaxine, and vilazodone. Filters included English language. A search of product labeling was also conducted. Out of 363 results, 124 publications were identified and reviewed along with 11 additional references. Publications were chosen based on relevance to the review: case reports of patients 60 years of age or older or clinical investigations of the association between hyponatremia and antidepressants in older adults. Hyponatremia was counted as an adverse effect if an antidepressant was the likely cause of hyponatremia, and hyponatremia was resolved after withdrawal. Antidepressant-induced hyponatremia in older adults is fairly common. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and mirtazapine were implicated in the majority of the case reports and clinical studies evaluating older adults. Bupropion, trazodone, and tricyclic antidepressants were implicated less often in the same literature. Given its unique mechanism of action, bupropion may be the most appropriate antidepressant for older adults at risk for antidepressant-induced hyponatremia.

  5. Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations in Medical Research: Perceptions and Experiences of Older Italians, Their Families, Ethics Administrators and Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Hughson, Jo-anne; Parker, Anna; Bresin, Agnese; Hajek, John; Knoch, Ute; Phan, Tuong Dien; Story, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-participation of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) patients in medical research remains a problem in migrant and refugee destination countries such as Australia. The aims of this study were to explore i) CALD persons’ perceptions and experiences of the medical system and medical research, in this case, older Italian Australians; and ii) the views of research professionals on CALD patient participation in medical research. Design and Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, in 2015 utilising in-depth interviews and focus groups with four stakeholder groups: older Italian Australians (n=21); adult children of older Italian Australians (n=10); hospital Human Research Ethics Committee administrators (n=4); and clinical researchers (n=4). The data were analysed for content and thematic analysis. Results Themes for the CALD and family group were getting by in medical interactions; receptivity to medical research: testing the waters; and, receptivity to technology for support: passive versus active. Themes for the researcher and HREC groups about CALD patient participation in research were: exclusion; cultural factors; and e-consent. Conclusions Our findings from four stakeholder perspectives and experiences confirm that there were considerable cultural, linguistic, and resourcing barriers hindering the participation of older Italian-Australians in medical research. Furthermore, our findings showed that in this study setting there were few enabling strategies in place to address these barriers despite the national ethics guidelines for equitable participation in research. The findings informed the creation of a multimedia tool whose purpose is to address and improve representation of CALD groups in clinical research. Significance for public health Many people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds remain excluded from medical research such as clinical trials due to a range of language and

  6. Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations in Medical Research: Perceptions and Experiences of Older Italians, Their Families, Ethics Administrators and Researchers.

    PubMed

    Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Hughson, Jo-Anne; Parker, Anna; Bresin, Agnese; Hajek, John; Knoch, Ute; Phan, Tuong Dien; Story, David

    2016-04-26

    Low-participation of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) patients in medical research remains a problem in migrant and refugee destination countries such as Australia. The aims of this study were to explore i) CALD persons' perceptions and experiences of the medical system and medical research, in this case, older Italian Australians; and ii) the views of research professionals on CALD patient participation in medical research. A qualitative study was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, in 2015 utilising in-depth interviews and focus groups with four stakeholder groups: older Italian Australians (n=21); adult children of older Italian Australians (n=10); hospital Human Research Ethics Committee administrators (n=4); and clinical researchers (n=4). The data were analysed for content and thematic analysis. Themes for the CALD and family group were getting by in medical interactions; receptivity to medical research: testing the waters; and, receptivity to technology for support: passive versus active. Themes for the researcher and HREC groups about CALD patient participation in research were: exclusion; cultural factors; and e-consent. Our findings from four stakeholder perspectives and experiences confirm that there were considerable cultural, linguistic, and resourcing barriers hindering the participation of older Italian-Australians in medical research. Furthermore, our findings showed that in this study setting there were few enabling strategies in place to address these barriers despite the national ethics guidelines for equitable participation in research. The findings informed the creation of a multimedia tool whose purpose is to address and improve representation of CALD groups in clinical research. Significance for public healthMany people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds remain excluded from medical research such as clinical trials due to a range of language and cultural factors that can be amplified when this population

  7. Sarcopenia, Frailty, and Diabetes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Populations are aging and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing tremendously. The number of older people with diabetes is increasing unexpectedly. Aging and diabetes are both risk factors for functional disability. Thus, increasing numbers of frail or disabled older patients with diabetes will increase both direct and indirect health-related costs. Diabetes has been reported as an important risk factor of developing physical disability in older adults. Older people with diabetes have lower muscle mass and weaker muscle strength. In addition, muscle quality is poorer in diabetic patients. Sarcopenia and frailty have a common soil and may share a similar pathway for multiple pathologic processes in older people. Sarcopenia is thought to be an intermediate step in the development of frailty in patients with diabetes. Thus, early detection of sarcopenia and frailty in older adults with diabetes should be routine clinical practice to prevent frailty or to intervene earlier in frail patients. PMID:27098509

  8. Oral health promotion programme for older migrant adults.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Calache, Hanny; Wright, Clive; Schofield, Margot; Minichiello, Victor

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a community-based oral health promotion programme on the use of oral health services, oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices of older Greek and Italian adults attending community clubs and living in Melbourne, Australia. The oral health promotion intervention consisted of three components: a series of oral health seminars, held at the clubs in the participants' native languages, the provision of oral health care products, and the production of oral health information sheets. The intervention programme was known as the Oral Health Information Seminars/Sheets (ORHIS). The content of each session was determined following suggestions and findings from the data collected. A pre-test-post-test non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design was chosen to evaluate the intervention. A total of 520 independent-living older adults, members of Greek or Italian social clubs participated in this evaluation. Participants who took part in the intervention responded with higher levels of achievement than those in the control groups. After controlling for baseline variables, experimental groups were significantly more likely than the control groups at post-test to have improved oral health attitudes, oral health knowledge, and self-assessed physical health status, as well as, self-reported oral hygiene practices and use of oral health services. The ORHIS approach was successful within the setting of social clubs, and highly acceptable to these communities. As such, it represents a helpful approach for the design of (oral) health interventions in older adults. Further research is required to test the long-tem impact including the economic evaluation of the ORHIS approach.

  9. Framing Effects in Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunghan; Goldstein, David; Hasher, Lynn; Zacks, Rose T.

    2006-01-01

    A growing literature on decision making in older adults suggests that they are more likely to use heuristic processing than are younger adults. We assessed this tendency in the context of a framing effect, a decision-making phenomenon whereby the language used to describe options greatly influences the decision maker’s choice. We compared decision making under a standard (“heuristic”) condition and also under a “justification” condition known to reduce reliance on heuristics. In the standard condition, older adults were more susceptible than younger adults to framing but the two groups did not differ when participants were asked to provide a justification. Thus, although older adults may spontaneously rely more on heuristic processing than younger adults, they can be induced to take a more systematic approach to decision making. PMID:15980289

  10. Framing effects in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghan; Goldstein, David; Hasher, Lynn; Zacks, Rose T

    2005-07-01

    A growing literature on decision making in older adults suggests that they are more likely to use heuristic processing than are younger adults. We assessed this tendency in the context of a framing effect, a decision-making phenomenon whereby the language used to describe options greatly influences the decision maker's choice. We compared decision making under a standard ("heuristic") condition and also under a "justification" condition known to reduce reliance on heuristics. In the standard condition, older adults were more susceptible than younger adults to framing but the two groups did not differ when participants were asked to provide a justification. Thus, although older adults may spontaneously rely more on heuristic processing than younger adults, they can be induced to take a more systematic approach to decision making.

  11. Stroke: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... more. Stroke and Other Medical Conditions : Stroke and Cardiovascular Disease An older person may have one or more cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease , high blood pressure ( ...

  12. Advances in Psychotherapy for Depressed Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Raue, Patrick J; McGovern, Amanda R; Kiosses, Dimitris N; Sirey, Jo Anne

    2017-09-01

    We review recent advances in psychotherapies for depressed older adults, in particular those developed for special populations characterized by chronic medical illness, acute medical illness, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk factors. We review adaptations for psychotherapy to overcome barriers to its accessibility in non-specialty settings such as primary care, homebound or hard-to-reach older adults, and social service settings. Recent evidence supports the effectiveness of psychotherapies that target late-life depression in the context of specific comorbid conditions including COPD, heart failure, Parkinson's disease, stroke and other acute conditions, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk. Growing evidence supports the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of psychotherapy modified for a variety of health care and social service settings. Research supports the benefits of selecting the type of psychotherapy based on a comprehensive assessment of the older adult's psychiatric, medical, functional, and cognitive status, and tailoring psychotherapy to the settings in which older depressed adults are most likely to present.

  13. Population Health Management for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tkatch, Rifky; Musich, Shirley; MacLeod, Stephanie; Alsgaard, Kathleen; Hawkins, Kevin; Yeh, Charlotte S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The older adult population is expanding, living longer, with multiple chronic conditions. Understanding and managing their needs over time is an integral part of defining successful aging. Population health is used to describe the measurement and health outcomes of a population. Objectives: To define population health as applied to older adults, summarize lessons learned from current research, and identify potential interventions designed to promote successful aging and improved health for this population. Method: Online search engines were utilized to identify research on population health and health interventions for older adults. Results: Population health management (PHM) is one strategy to promote the health and well-being of target populations. Interventions promoting health across a continuum tend to be disease, risk, or health behavior specific rather than encompassing a global concept of health. Conclusion: Many existing interventions for older adults are simply research based with limited generalizability; as such, further work in this area is warranted. PMID:28680938

  14. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... effective ways to reduce anxiety levels. Non-medication therapies are a good way to start. These can ...

  15. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... treatments for depression. These include antidepressant medications, talk therapy with a psychologist or counselor, and cognitive-behavioral ...

  16. Older Adults' Knowledge of Internet Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Galen A.; Hough, Michelle G.; Mazur, Elizabeth; Signorella, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    Older adults are less likely to be using computers and less knowledgeable about Internet security than are younger users. The two groups do not differ on trust of Internet information. The younger group shows no age or gender differences. Within the older group, computer users are more trusting of Internet information, and along with those with…

  17. Crying and Depression Among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastrup, Janice L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Self-reports of frequency of crying episodes are described for two nonclinical samples of younger and older adult men and women. Comparison of samples revealed no evidence for either a decreased or increased frequency of crying among the older sample. Crying episodes function as an adaptive coping response to and should not be automatically…

  18. Frailty and food insecurity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Castrejón-Pérez, Roberto Carlos; Wynne-Bannister, Emma; García-Peña, Carmen

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the current work was to determine the association between food insecurity and frailty in older adults, within the context of a country with accelerated ageing and nutritional problems. Cross-sectional analysis of a representative nationwide survey on health and nutrition. Mexican nationwide survey. A sample of 7108 adults aged 60 years or older living in communities, representative of Mexican older adults. Multivariate regression and descriptive analyses of food insecurity and frailty were performed. From a total of 7108 adults aged 60 years or older, with a mean age of 70·7 years, most (54·7 %) were women. Food security categories were: 26·3 % had food security, 40·3 % had mild food insecurity, 20·5 % had moderate food insecurity and 12·9 % had severe food insecurity. Food insecurity categories were associated with frailty, with the severe category having the highest odds ratio of 2·41 (95 % CI 2·03, 2·86; P<0·001) after adjustment for confounding factors. According to our results, food insecurity is associated to frailty, which in turn is a condition that renders the older adult at a higher risk of developing adverse outcomes. Targeted food programmes for older adults with a high risk of having food insecurity or of being frail may improve health in this population group.

  19. Pulmonary hypertension in older adults.

    PubMed

    McArdle, John R; Trow, Terence K; Lerz, Kathryn

    2007-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a frequently encountered problem in older patients. True idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension can also be seen and requires careful exclusion in older patients. Institution of therapies must be tempered with an appreciation of individual comorbidities and functional limitations that may affect patients' ability to comply and benefit from the complex treatments available for pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article reviews the existing data on the various forms of pulmonary hypertension presenting in older patients and on appropriate therapy in this challenging population.

  20. Travel immunization update for older adults.

    PubMed

    Spain, Margaret P; Edlund, Barbara J

    2010-04-01

    Older Americans are among the most widely traveled group in our society. Recent trends point to more international travel, more travel to Third World countries, and more travel by older adults with significant health problems. Regardless of the reason for travel, older adults need to plan for healthy travel. Primary care providers need to inquire at routine visits if patients have plans for international travel. If travel to other countries or regions is being considered, patients must be advised of the importance of early travel preparation. To begin with, older adults should be up to date on all routine immunizations. Those planning on international travel may need additional required and/or recommended immunizations, depending on the individual's health status, travel itinerary, length of stay, and health risks associated with destination sites. Primary care providers should be knowledgeable about travel medicine resources in the community to make referrals for travelers requiring additional immunizations and health information. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Coping and health in older adults.

    PubMed

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2008-02-01

    Although coping has been shown to influence physical health in younger populations, whether coping affects health in older adults appears to depend upon how coping and health are conceptualized. This article reviews recent literature on coping and health in older adults in three areas. First, we discuss coping's distinct relevance to health in older adults. Second, we describe ways in which coping may differ between older and younger populations. Third, we detail recent and notable findings of coping's specific effects on biomedical health and health in general. The recent literature suggests that coping may be a developmental and multifaceted process. Positive coping strategies may have positive and even protective effects on health, whereas negative strategies may have negative effects.

  2. Physical activity guidelines for older adults.

    PubMed

    Elsawy, Bassem; Higgins, Kim E

    2010-01-01

    Few older adults in the United States achieve the minimum recommended amount of physical activity. Lack of physical activity contributes to many chronic diseases that occur in older adults, including heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, lung disease, Alzheimer disease, hypertension, and cancer. Lack of physical activity, combined with poor dietary habits, has also contributed to increased obesity in older persons. Regular exercise and increased aerobic fitness are associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality and morbidity, and are proven to reduce disease and disability, and improve quality of life in older persons. In 2008, The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services released guidelines to provide information and guidance on the amount of physical activity recommended to maintain health and fitness. For substantial health benefits, the guidelines recommend that most older adults participate in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, or an equivalent combination of each per week. Older adults should also engage in strengthening activities that involve all major muscle groups at least two days a week. Those at risk of falling should add exercises that help maintain or improve balance. Generally healthy adults without chronic health conditions do not need to consult with a physician before starting an exercise regimen. (c) 2010 American Academy of Family Physicians.

  3. Young and Older Adults' Reading of Distracters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; Mcdowd, Joan; Metcalf, Kim; Liu, Chiung-Ju

    2008-01-01

    Eye-tracking technology was employed to examine young and older adults' performance in the reading with distraction paradigm. Distracters of 1, 2, and 4 words that formed meaningful phrases were used. There were marked age differences in fixation patterns. Young adults' fixations to the distracters and targets increased with distracter length.…

  4. Evaluation of Verbal Behavior in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Amy C.; Fuqua, Wayne; Merritt, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 5% of older adults have a dementia diagnosis, and language deterioration is commonly associated with this disorder (Kempler, 2005). Several instruments have been developed to diagnose dementia and assess language capabilities of elderly adults. However, none of these instruments take a functional approach to language assessment as…

  5. Urinary tract infection in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults. PMID:24391677

  6. Candidacy for Kidney Transplantation of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Grams, Morgan E.; Kucirka, Lauren M.; Hanrahan, Colleen F.; Montgomery, Robert A.; Massie, Allan B.; Segev, Dorry L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To develop a prediction model for kidney transplantation (KT) outcomes specific to older adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and to use this model to estimate the number of excellent older KT candidates who lack access to KT. DESIGN Secondary analysis of data collected by the United Network for Organ Sharing and U.S. Renal Disease System. SETTING Retrospective analysis of national registry data. PARTICIPANTS Model development: Medicare-primary older recipients (aged ≥ 65) of a first KT between 1999 and 2006 (N = 6,988). Model application: incident Medicare-primary older adults with ESRD between 1999 and 2006 without an absolute or relative contraindication to transplantation (N = 128,850). MEASUREMENTS Comorbid conditions were extracted from U.S. Renal Disease System Form 2728 data and Medicare claims. RESULTS The prediction model used 19 variables to estimate post-KT outcome and showed good calibration (Hosmer–Lemeshow P = .44) and better prediction than previous population-average models (P < .001). Application of the model to the population with incident ESRD identified 11,756 excellent older transplant candidates (defined as >87% predicted 3-year post-KT survival, corresponding to the top 20% of transplanted older adults used in model development), of whom 76.3% (n = 8,966) lacked access. It was estimated that 11% of these candidates would have identified a suitable live donor had they been referred for KT. CONCLUSION A risk-prediction model specific to older adults can identify excellent KT candidates. Appropriate referral could result in significantly greater rates of KT in older adults. PMID:22239290

  7. The secrets of highly active older adults.

    PubMed

    Franke, Thea; Tong, Catherine; Ashe, Maureen C; McKay, Heather; Sims-Gould, Joanie

    2013-12-01

    Although physical activity is a recognized component in the management of many chronic diseases associated with aging, activity levels tend to progressively decline with increasing age (Manini & Pahor, 2009; Schutzer & Graves, 2004). In this article we examine the key factors that facilitate physical activity in highly active community-dwelling older adults. Using a strengths based approach, we examined the factors that facilitated physical activity in our sample of highly active older adults. Twenty-seven older adults participated in face-to face interviews. We extracted a sub-sample of 10 highly active older adults to be included in the analyses. Based on a framework analysis of our transcripts we identified three factors that facilitate physical activity in our sample, these include: 1) resourcefulness: engagement in self-help strategies such as self-efficacy, self-control and adaptability; 2) social connections: the presence of relationships (friend, neighborhood, institutions) and social activities that support or facilitate high levels of physical activity; and 3) the role of the built and natural environments: features of places and spaces that support and facilitate high levels of physical activity. Findings provide insight into, and factors that facilitate older adults' physical activity. We discuss implications for programs (e.g., accessible community centers, with appropriate programming throughout the lifecourse) and policies geared towards the promotion of physical activity (e.g., the development of spaces that facilitate both physical and social activities). © 2013.

  8. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults.

    PubMed

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L

    2014-06-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In 2 studies, we examined whether considering older adults' preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively- as opposed to negatively-framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Guidelines for psychological practice with older adults.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The "Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Older Adults" are intended to assist psychologists in evaluating their own readiness for working with older adults and in seeking and using appropriate education and training to increase their knowledge, skills, and experience relevant to this area of practice. The specific goals of these professional practice guidelines are to provide practitioners with (a) a frame of reference for engaging in clinical work with older adults and (b) basic information and further references in the areas of attitudes, general aspects of aging, clinical issues, assessment, intervention, consultation, professional issues, and continuing education and training relative to work with this group. The guidelines recognize and appreciate that there are numerous methods and pathways whereby psychologists may gain expertise and/or seek training in working with older adults. This document is designed to offer recommendations on those areas of awareness, knowledge, and clinical skills considered as applicable to this work, rather than prescribing specific training methods to be followed. The guidelines also recognize that some psychologists will specialize in the provision of services to older adults and may therefore seek more extensive training consistent with practicing within the formally recognized specialty of Professional Geropsychology (APA, 2010c). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Vaccine preferences and acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Eilers, R; de Melker, H E; Veldwijk, J; Krabbe, P F M

    2017-05-15

    Expanding vaccination programs for the older population might be important as older adults are becoming a larger proportion of the general population. The aim of this study is to determine the relative importance of vaccine and disease specific characteristics and acceptance for Dutch older adults, including pneumococcal disease, herpes zoster, pertussis vaccination, and influenza vaccination. A discrete choice experiment was conducted to generate choice data that was analyzed using a mixed multinomial logit statistical model. Important factors that were associated with vaccination acceptance in older adults are high mortality risk of the infectious disease, high susceptibility of getting the infectious disease, and high vaccine effectiveness. Age, influenza vaccination in 2013 and self-perceived health score were identified as personal factors that affect vaccine preference. Potential vaccination rates of older adults were estimated at 68.1% for pneumococcal vaccination, 58.1% for herpes zoster vaccination, 53.9% for pertussis vaccination and 54.3% for influenza vaccination. For persons aged 50-65, potential vaccination rates were estimated at 58.1% for pneumococcal vaccination, 49.5% for herpes zoster vaccination, 43.9% for pertussis vaccination and 42.2% for influenza vaccination. For persons aged 65 and older, these were respectively 76.2%, 67.5%, 57.5% and 65.5%. Our results suggest that older adults are most likely to accept pneumococcal vaccination of the four vaccines. Information provision accompanied with the implementation of a new vaccine has to be tailored for the individual and the vaccine it concerns. Special attention is needed to ensure high uptake among persons aged 50-65years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hypothyroidism: challenges when treating older adults.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Tamera

    2013-01-01

    Hypothyroidism frequently affects older adults' general sense of health, their cognitive abilities, and quality of life. Management decisions regarding when to start treatment and at what dosage to begin medication are influenced by both laboratory values and patient symptoms. Although specific guidelines regarding management of hypothyroidism in older adults do not exist, general recommendations include initiating hormone replacement with levothyroxine (Levoxyl(®), Synthroid(®), and others) at 12.5 mcg to 25 mcg and titrating the dose slowly based on response at 6-week intervals. Multiple medications and certain foods can interact with levothyroxine; therefore, the best dosage time is when a person is fasting or 4 hours postprandial. Using a consistent brand-name drug for hormone replacement with levothyroxine is important due to variations in the active ingredient in generic formulations. Providers need to be aware of the prevalence of hypothyroidism and management issues when caring for older adults. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Improved Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Daniel E.; Alexander, Karen; Brindis, Ralph G.; Curtis, Anne B.; Maurer, Mathew; Rich, Michael W.; Sperling, Laurence; Wenger, Nanette K.

    2016-01-01

    Longevity is increasing and the population of older adults is growing. The biology of aging is conducive to cardiovascular disease (CVD), such that prevalence of coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, arrhythmia and other disorders are increasing as more adults survive into old age.  Furthermore, CVD in older adults is distinctive, with management issues predictably complicated by multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty and other complexities of care that increase management risks (e.g., bleeding, falls, and rehospitalization) and uncertainty of outcomes.  In this review, state-of-the-art advances in heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, transcatheter aortic valve replacement, atrial fibrillation, amyloidosis, and CVD prevention are discussed.  Conceptual benefits of treatments are considered in relation to the challenges and ambiguities inherent in their application to older patients. PMID:26918183

  13. Older Adult Falls: Effective Approaches to Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Dellinger, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The issue of older adult falls combines a problem with high incidence and high injury susceptibility with an increasing population at risk. A firm understanding of both fall risk factors and effective strategies is required to reduce risk and prevent these injuries. Recent Findings Each year, 28.7% of older adults aged ≥65 sustain a fall. At the national level, this represents 29 million falls resulting in 27,000 deaths and 7 million injuries requiring medical treatment or restricted activity for at least 1 day. There are several strategies that have been shown to effectively reduce the risk or the incidence of falls. Summary More than 90% of older adults see a medical provider at least once a year providing an opportunity to identify and address fall risk factors. Comprehensive fall prevention in the primary care setting is both feasible and practical. PMID:28845383

  14. Assessing older adults in civil litigation cases.

    PubMed

    Kohutis, Eileen A

    With the population aging, the legal and mental health systems need to be prepared for cases that involve older adults beyond the customary matters of guardianship and competency. Assessing older adults with the current tests raises concerns because these measures may not be adequately normed for this age group. Malingering, factitious disorders, and somatoform disorders are discussed due to health-related issues of normal aging. These topics complicate the assessment procedure and need consideration because they may affect the claimant's performance or symptom presentation. Although claims of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common in civil litigation cases, it can be additionally complex in older adults. The evaluator needs to weigh not only factors related to the normal biological process of aging but also those that are attendant with the litigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cohabitation among older adults: a national portrait.

    PubMed

    Brown, Susan L; Lee, Gary R; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck

    2006-03-01

    Older adults are increasingly likely to experience cohabitation, or living together unmarried in an intimate, heterosexual union. In order to begin building a conceptual framework, we provide a descriptive portrait of older adult cohabitors, emphasizing how they compare to older remarrieds and unpartnereds. We used data from both Census 2000 and the 1998 Health and Retirement Study ( HRS; Health and Retirement Study, 1998) to estimate the size and composition of the cohabiting population aged 51 and older. Also, using HRS data, we estimated multinomial logistic regression models to identify the correlates associated with cohabitation and remarriage (vs being unpartnered) among women and men who were previously married. More than 1 million older adults, composing 4% of the unmarried population, currently cohabit. About 90% of these individuals were previously married. We identify significant differences among cohabitors, remarrieds, and unpartnereds across several dimensions, including sociodemographic characteristics, economic resources, physical health, and social relationships. Cohabitors appear to be more disadvantaged than remarrieds, and this is especially evident for women. Older cohabitors differ from individuals of other marital statuses, and therefore future work on marital status should explicitly incorporate cohabitation.

  16. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy with Older Adults: Rationale and Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Andrew J.; Wetherell, Julie Loebach

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the population. With these changing demographics, mental health professionals will be seeing more older clients. Additionally, older adults are an underserved population in that most older adults in need of mental health services do not receive treatment. Thus, it is essential that treatments for…

  17. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In two studies, we examined whether considering older adults’ preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively as opposed to negatively framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PMID:24956001

  18. Effective communication and counseling with older adults.

    PubMed

    Giordano, J A

    2000-01-01

    Age-sensitive communication skills must be developed to achieve greater effectiveness in assisting older adults. These skills should be guided by research findings on the development changes related to normal aging. A listening-responding technique is presented outlining six principles that can be applied in a wide variety of situations. These principles are governed by the intention to preserve self-esteem and to clarify the needs of elderly clients. By using this approach with the older adult, the practitioner will achieve an effective communication process that generates accurate information, supports self-determination, and achieves a therapeutic process.

  19. Exercise in the healthy older adult.

    PubMed

    Karani, R; McLaughlin, M A; Cassel, C K

    2001-01-01

    Habitual exercise provides numerous health benefits to the older adult. While dynamic aerobic activities increase stamina and lung capacity, isometric or resistance training improves muscle strength and endurance. Long-term benefits of continued exercise include a decreased risk of death from heart disease, enhanced balance and mobility, a decreased risk of diabetes, and an improvement in depressive symptoms. While the hazards of exercise relate predominantly to extremes of intensity and duration, all older adults should consult with a physician before beginning a new activity program. A prescription for exercise should include both aerobic and resistance training components, and frequent follow-up to improve adherence is highly recommended. (c)2001 CVRR, Inc.

  20. Optimal management of ADHD in older adults.

    PubMed

    Torgersen, Terje; Gjervan, Bjorn; Lensing, Michael B; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    The manifestation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among older adults has become an interesting topic of interest due to an increasing number of adults aged 50 years and older (≥50 years) seeking assessment for ADHD. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research on ADHD in older adults, and until recently only a few case reports existed. A systematic search was conducted in the databases Medline/PubMed and PsycINFO in order to identify studies regarding ADHD in adults ≥50 years. ADHD persists into older ages in many patients, but the prevalence of patients fulfilling the criteria for the diagnosis at age ≥50 years is still unknown. It is reason to believe that the prevalence is falling gradually with age, and that the ADHD symptom level is significantly lower in the age group 70-80 years than the group 50-60 years. There is a lack of controlled studies of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years, but this review suggests that many patients aged ≥50 years experience beneficial effects of pharmacological treatment. The problem with side effects and somatic complications may rise to a level that makes pharmacotherapy for ADHD difficult after the age of 65 years. Physical assessment prior to initiation of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years should include a thorough clinical examination, and medication should be titrated with low doses initially and with a slow increase. In motivated patients, different psychological therapies alone or in addition to pharmacotherapy should be considered. It is essential when treating older adult patients with ADHD to provide good support based on knowledge and understanding of how ADHD symptoms have affected health, quality of life, and function through the life span. Individualized therapy for each elderly patient should be recommended to balance risk-benefit ratio when pharmacotherapy is considered to be a possible treatment.

  1. Anticipatory Motor Planning in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Kathrin; Weigelt, Matthias; Stöckel, Tino

    2017-05-01

    The end-state comfort (ESC) effect represents an efficiency constraint in anticipatory motor planning. Although young adults usually avoid uncomfortable postures at the end of goal-directed movements, newer studies revealed that children's sensitivity for ESC is not fully in place before the age of 10 years. In this matter, it is surprising that nothing is known about the development of the ESC effect at older ages. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the development of anticipatory motor planning in older adults. In 2 experiments, a total of 119 older adults (from 60 to 80 years old) performed in an unimanual (Experiment 1) and a bimanual version (Experiment 2) of the bar-transport-task. Across both experiments, the propensity of the ESC effect was significantly lower in the old-old (71-80 years old) as compared with the young-old (60-70 years old) participants. Although the performance of the young-old participants in the unimanual and bimanual task was comparable to what has been reported for young adults, the performance of the old-old participants was rather similar to the behavior of children younger than 10 years. Thus, for the first time, evidence is provided for the decrease of the ESC effect in older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Psychological resilience in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Gooding, P A; Hurst, A; Johnson, J; Tarrier, N

    2012-03-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate psychological resilience in the older adults (>64 years) compared with that of the young ones (<26 years). Questionnaire measures of depression, hopelessness, general health and resilience were administered to the participants. The resilience measure comprised three sub-scales of social support, emotional regulation and problem solving. The older adults were the more resilient group especially with respect to emotional regulation ability and problem solving. The young ones had more resilience related to social support. Poor perceptions of general health and low energy levels predicted low levels of resilience regardless of age. Low hopelessness scores also predicted greater resilience in both groups. Experiencing higher levels of mental illness and physical dysfunction predicted high resilience scores especially for the social support resilience scale in the older adults. The negative effects of depression on resilience related to emotional regulation were countered by low hopelessness but only in the young adults. These results highlight the importance of maintaining resilience-related coping skills in both young and older adults but indicate that different psychological processes underlie resilience across the lifespan. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

  4. Independent older adults perspectives on oral health.

    PubMed

    Khabra, K K; Compton, S M; Keenan, L P

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore oral health experiences from the perspective of older adults' living in community dwellings. The two objectives of this study were to identify facilitators and barriers to oral health care, and to determine how utilization of oral health services compares to utilization of other healthcare services. An interpretive descriptive methodology was employed with a purposive sample of 12 adults, aged 70 years or older. The inclusion criterion was English-speaking seniors residing in community dwellings. Community dwellings were defined as any housing outside of long-term care or other supportive living facilities. Semi-structured interviews were 30-80 min, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers participated in the comparative analysis process to develop codes, generate categories, interpret patterns and construct themes. Three central themes surfacing from the data were as follows: life course influences on oral health, transparency in delivery of oral health services and interrelationships between oral health and overall health. Older adults in this study emphasized the value of establishing collaborative and trusting relationships between oral health practitioners and older adults. Oral health practitioners should be clear and transparent when communicating information about oral health costs and be cognizant of different circumstances from childhood to older adulthood that inhibit or promote routine utilization of oral health services. Including oral health services as part of interdisciplinary care teams could help promote understandings of the reciprocal relationship between oral health and general health and improve oral health status for older adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Older adults challenged financially when adult children move home.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Steven P; Padilla-Frausto, D Imelda

    2014-02-01

    This policy brief looks at the financial burdens imposed on older Californians when adult children return home, often due to a crisis not of their own making, to live with their parents. The findings show that on average in California, the amount of money that older adults need in order to maintain a minimally decent standard of living while supporting one adult child in their home increases their expenses by a minimum of 50 percent. Low-income older adults are usually on fixed incomes, so helping an adult child can provide the child with a critical safety net but at the cost of the parents' own financial well-being. Policy approaches to assisting this vulnerable population of older adults include implementing reforms to increase Supplemental Security Income (SSI), improving the availability of affordable housing, assuring that all eligible nonelderly adults obtain health insurance through health care reform's expansion of Medi-Cal and subsidies, and increasing food assistance through SNAP and senior meal programs.

  6. Older Adults' Perceptions of Home Telehealth Services

    PubMed Central

    Brenčič, Maja Makovec; Trkman, Peter; de Leonni Stanonik, Mateja

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The success of home telemedicine depends on end-user adoption, which has been slow despite rapid advances in technological development. This study focuses on an examination of significant factors that may predict the successful adoption of home telemedicine services (HTS) among older adults. Based on previous studies in the fields of remote patient monitoring, assisted living technologies, and consumer health information technology acceptance, eight factors were identified as a framework for qualitative testing. Twelve focus groups were conducted with an older population living in both urban and rural environments. The results reveal seven predictors that play an important role in perceptions of HTS: perceived usefulness, effort expectancy, social influence, perceived security, computer anxiety, facilitating conditions, and physicians' opinion. The results provide important insights in the field of older adults' acceptance of HTS, with guidelines for the strategic planning, developing, and marketing of HTS for the graying market. PMID:23931702

  7. Optimizing Tailored Health Promotion for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Marcus-Varwijk, Anne Esther; Koopmans, Marg; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Seidell, Jacob C.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Smits, Carolien H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study explores older adults’ perspectives on healthy living, and their interactions with professionals regarding healthy living. This perspective is necessary for health professionals when they engage in tailored health promotion in their daily work routines. Method: In a qualitative study, 18 semi-structured interviews were carried out with older adults (aged 55-98) living in the Netherlands. The framework analysis method was used to analyze the transcripts. Results: Three themes emerged from the data—(a) healthy living: daily routines and staying active, (b) enacting healthy living: accepting and adapting, (c) interaction with health professionals with regard to healthy living: autonomy and reciprocity. Discussion: Older adults experience healthy living in a holistic way in which they prefer to live active and independent lives. Health professionals should focus on building an equal relationship of trust and focus on positive health outcomes, such as autonomy and self-sufficiency when communicating about healthy living. PMID:28138485

  8. Community College Older Adult Program Development Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getskow, Veronica

    This guide provides information and suggestions for developing programs that meet the needs of older adults at community colleges. Recommended procedures are presented for the following stages of program development: (1) leadership influences, highlighting the process of hiring effective leaders, key leadership skills, and leaders'…

  9. Mobility in Older Adults: A Comprehensive Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Sandra C.; Porter, Michelle M.; Menec, Verena H.

    2010-01-01

    Mobility is fundamental to active aging and is intimately linked to health status and quality of life. Although there is widespread acceptance regarding the importance of mobility in older adults, there have been few attempts to comprehensively portray mobility, and research has to a large extent been discipline specific. In this article, a new…

  10. Filipino older adults' beliefs about exercise activity.

    PubMed

    Ceria-Ulep, Clementina D; Serafica, Reimund C; Tse, Alice

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how the older traditional Filipino adults 65 years old and above living in Honolulu, Hawaii, describe their beliefs regarding exercise activity. The location of this research setting is unique because a blending of traditional Filipino culture exists within an acculturated social setting. The Filipino older adults who have relocated to this U.S. location may have also stayed close to their own cultural traditions. A perception of exercise activity was generated through the lens of 47 participants using qualitative methodology. While focusing on the older adults' beliefs about exercise activity, it became evident that exercise may have been seen as a proxy measure of physical activity. The study revealed four main domains: balancing barriers against benefits; engaging capabilities; intervening factors; and defining exercise. The data suggest that the four themes are juxtaposed among each other, with overarching social obligations to the kin group governing the older adults' engagement in what constitutes structured exercise by Western definition. Further investigation is needed to conceptualize what types of physical activities traditional Filipino elders perceive as exercise, and whether these activities fall into the Western definition of exercise. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Services for Older Adults: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumme, Debbie

    This curriculum guide contains materials for a course that provides occupationally specific training designed to develop knowledge and skills for employment in the area of services for older adults. Contents include an introduction, the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) covered; sample course outlines; instructional strategies organized…

  12. Attitudes toward Advertisements of the Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, M.; Moliner, M. A.; Sanchez, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we will analyze the attitude of older adults to advertisements, differentiating between advertisements that contain rhetorical figures (trope ads) and those that do not (explicit ads). We will also study their attitude toward the brand advertised according to their degree of involvement with the product. In the course of the…

  13. The Learning Needs of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, Nola; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with 17 older adults about learning needs and barriers resulted in a questionnaire completed by 160 elders. Most important needs were associated with transportation, health, and safety. Physical disabilities were the chief barrier. They felt most confident addressing health, safety, leisure, and transportation needs but not…

  14. Sensory-Cognitive Interactions in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Humes, Larry E.; Young, Levi A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To review evidence regarding sensory and cognitive interactions in older adults published since 2009, the approximate date of the most recent reviews on this topic. Design Following an electronic database search of articles published in English since 2009 on measures of hearing and cognition or vision and cognition in older adults, a total of 437 articles were identified. Screening by title and abstract for appropriateness of topic and for articles presenting original research in peer-reviewed journals reduced the final number of articles reviewed to 34. These articles were qualitatively evaluated and synthesized with the existing knowledge base. Results Additional evidence has been obtained since 2009 associating declines in vision, hearing, or both with declines in cognition among older adults. The observed sensory-cognitive associations are generally stronger when more than one sensory domain is measured and when the sensory measures involve more than simple threshold sensitivity. Conclusions Evidence continues to accumulate supporting a link between decline in sensory function and cognitive decline in older adults. PMID:27355770

  15. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of dementia, in particular Alzheimer’s disease, is increasing with the expansion of the older adult population. In the absence of effective therapy, preventive approaches are essential to mitigate this public health problem. Blueberries contain polyphenolic compounds, most prominent...

  16. Dental hygiene students' perceptions of older adults.

    PubMed

    Wiener, R Constance; Shockey, Alcinda Trickett; Long, D Leann

    2014-12-01

    Geriatric education is an important component of the dental hygiene curriculum because, in it, students acquire skills and attitudes to help provide quality care to older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if off-site exposure to nursing home residents with supervised oversight had the potential to improve dental hygiene students' attitudes toward older adults. Senior dental hygiene students at one school completed a pre-nursing home experience questionnaire. A series of geriatric lectures and discussions, which included discussions about students' anxieties of working with institutionalized older adults, were held prior to the nursing home experience. The students then participated in two supervised four-hour nursing home experiences, were debriefed after the experiences, and completed a second questionnaire. Of thirty-nine potential participants in the study, thirty-two took part in the pre-nursing home experience questionnaire (82.1 percent). They had a mean split Fabroni score of 34.2 (95 percent confidence interval: 32.2, 36.3). The thirty participants in the post-experience questionnaire (76.9 percent of total) had a mean split score of 32.7 (95 percent confidence interval: 30.1, 35.3). This study failed to reject the null hypothesis of no mean difference between the pre- and post-nursing home experience; however, the post-experience mean score was lower than the pre-nursing home experience mean score, indicating a more positive attitude toward older adults after the experience.

  17. Transnational Older Adults and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treas, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the international migration patterns and the family lives of older adults. Informants (N = 54) reported that they came to the United States to help out their grown children with housekeeping, child care, and domestic economizing. They described how they strategically navigated U.S. immigration laws choosing to…

  18. Current Psychopathology in Previously Assaulted Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acierno, Ron; Lawyer, Steven R.; Rheingold, Alyssa; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2007-01-01

    Older adult women age 55+ years (N = 549) were interviewed as part of a population-based epidemiological research study of lifetime experiences with physical and sexual assault and current mental health problems. Although overall rates of psychopathology were low, producing very small cells for comparison, women who reported experiencing physical…

  19. Sensory-Cognitive Interactions in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Humes, Larry E; Young, Levi A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was regarding sensory and cognitive interactions in older adults published since 2009, the approximate date of the most recent reviews on this topic. After an electronic database search of articles published in English since 2009 on measures of hearing and cognition or vision and cognition in older adults, a total of 437 articles were identified. Screening by title and abstract for appropriateness of topic and for articles presenting original research in peer-reviewed journals reduced the final number of articles reviewed to 34. These articles were qualitatively evaluated and synthesized with the existing knowledge base. Additional evidence has been obtained since 2009 associating declines in vision, hearing, or both with declines in cognition among older adults. The observed sensory-cognitive associations are generally stronger when more than one sensory domain is measured and when the sensory measures involve more than simple threshold sensitivity. Evidence continues to accumulate supporting a link between decline in sensory function and cognitive decline in older adults.

  20. Walking and Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Strath, Scott; Swartz, Ann; Parker, Sarah; Miller, Nora; Cieslik, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Background Little data exists describing the impact that walking has on metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a multicultural sample of older adults. Methods Walking was measured via pedometer in 150 older adults from 4 different ethnic categories. Steps per day were classified as low (<3100 steps/d) or high (≥3100 steps/d) for statistical analyses. Results Occurrence of MetS was lower in the white (33%) versus non-white population (50%). Low steps/d were related to an increase in MetS for both white (OR = 96.8, 95% CI 12.3–764.6) and non-white individuals (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.8–11.3). Low steps/d also increased the odds for selected components of MetS in both the white and non-white groups. Conclusion Low levels of walking increase the likelihood of having MetS in both white and non-white older adults. Efforts to increase walking in older adults may decrease the likelihood of developing this clustering of disease risk factors. PMID:18209231

  1. Online Attention Training for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, Alexandra; Kueider, Alexandra; Spira, Adam; Adams, Gregory; Rager, Robert; Rebok, George

    Evidence suggests that cognitive training interventions can improve older adults' cognitive performance. Successful training programs are adaptable and train multiple cognitive domains to target individual strengths and weaknesses. Computerized training programs are useful because they allow older adults to easily access training. This pilot study used an online attention training program, ATTENTION WORKOUT™, to enhance three aspects of attention- coordination , allocation , and selective focus -in community-dwelling older adults randomized to either an abbreviated (n=13) or an extended (n=17) practice training program over a 6-week period. Participants in the extended practice group significantly improved on selective focus reading distraction tasks with unrelated words (U=39.5; Z=-2.34; p =.02) and blanks (U=26.5; Z=-3.05; p =.002) as well as a matching attributes task (U=49.5; Z=-2.33; p =.02). The extended practice group significantly improved on three tasks of coordinating attention - radio-tuning (U=30; Z=-2.73; p =.01), circuit-breaker resetting (U=46; Z=-2.24; p =.03), and the combination of the two tasks (U=15; Z=-3.51; p <.0001) - as well as a memory generalization task (U=20; Z=-3.27; p =.001). A post-test satisfaction survey found both groups enjoyed the program, but the abbreviated practice group felt the tasks were more difficult. These findings suggest online attention training programs, like ATTENTION WORKOUT, can improve attention-related skills in community-dwelling older adults.

  2. Exercise Prescribing: Computer Application in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kressig, Reto W.; Echt, Katharina V.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if older adults are capable and willing to interact with a computerized exercise promotion interface and to determine to what extent they accept computer-generated exercise recommendations. Design and Methods: Time and requests for assistance were recorded while 34 college-educated volunteers,…

  3. Socioeconomic differences in sport and physical activity among Italian adults.

    PubMed

    Federico, Bruno; Falese, Lavinia; Marandola, Diego; Capelli, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to assess the extent of socioeconomic differences in sport and physical activity among Italian adults. A secondary data analysis of a multipurpose survey carried out by the National Institute of Statistics in 2006 in Italy was performed. We found marked differences in the practice of physical activity and sport by socioeconomic position. Subjects with a higher educational level were more likely to be physically active, practising more frequently both sport and physical activity. The Odds Ratio (OR) of regular physical activity for the highest educated compared to the lowest educated males was 1.70 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.38, 2.08), and the OR of sport participation was 2.03 (95% CI: 1.51, 2.72). Among females, the corresponding ORs were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.63) and 2.26 (95% CI: 1.51, 3.38). Similar differences in physical activity and sport were found in relation to occupation and material conditions. Almost all sports were more frequently practised by subjects of higher socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic differences in sport and physical activity may derive from economic or cultural barriers. Policies to reduce inequalities and ensure access to sport independently of socioeconomic position are strongly needed.

  4. Arthritis and cognitive impairment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nancy A; Barbour, Kamil E; Helmick, Charles G; Zack, Matthew; Al Snih, Soham

    2017-06-01

    Adults aged 65 or older with arthritis may be at increased risk for cognitive impairment [cognitive impairment but not dementia (CIND) or dementia]. Studies have found associations between arthritis and cognition impairments; however, none have examined whether persons with arthritis develop cognitive impairments at higher rates than those without arthritis. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we estimated the prevalence of cognitive impairments in older adults with and without arthritis, and examined associations between arthritis status and cognitive impairments. We calculated incidence density ratios (IDRs) using generalized estimating equations to estimate associations between arthritis and cognitive impairments adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, income, depression, obesity, smoking, the number of chronic conditions, physical activity, and birth cohort. The prevalence of CIND and dementia did not significantly differ between those with and without arthritis (CIND: 20.8%, 95% CI 19.7-21.9 vs. 18.3%, 95% CI 16.8-19.8; dementia: 5.2% 95% CI 4.6-5.8 vs. 5.1% 95% CI 4.3-5.9). After covariate control, older adults with arthritis did not differ significantly from those without arthritis for either cognitive outcome (CIND IDR: 1.6, 95% CI = 0.9-2.9; dementia IDR: 1.1, 95% CI = 0.4-3.3) and developed cognitive impairments at a similar rate to those without arthritis. Older adults with arthritis were not significantly more at risk to develop cognitive impairments and developed cognitive impairments at a similar rate as older adults without arthritis over 6 years.

  5. Arthritis and cognitive impairment in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nancy A.; Barbour, Kamil E.; Helmick, Charles G.; Zack, Matthew; Al Snih, Soham

    2017-01-01

    Introduction/Objective Adults aged 65 or older with arthritis may be at increased risk for cognitive impairment [cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND) or dementia]. Studies have found associations between arthritis and cognition impairments, however, none have examined whether persons with arthritis develop cognitive impairments at higher rates than those without arthritis. Methods Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) we estimated the prevalence of cognitive impairments in older adults with and without arthritis and examined associations between arthritis status and cognitive impairments. We calculated incidence density ratios (IDRs) using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to estimate associations between arthritis and cognitive impairments adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, income, depression, obesity, smoking, chronic conditions, physical activity, and birth cohort. Results The prevalence of CIND and dementia did not significantly differ between those with and without arthritis (CIND: 20.8%, 95% CI 19.7 – 21.9 vs. 18.3%, 95% CI 16.8 – 19.8; dementia: 5.2% 95% CI 4.6 – 5.8 vs. 5.1% 95% CI 4.3 – 5.9). After controlling for covariates, older adults with arthritis did not differ significantly from those without arthritis for either cognitive outcome (CIND IDR: 1.6, 95% CI = 0.9 – 2.9; dementia IDR: 1.1, 95% CI = 0.4 – 3.3) and developed cognitive impairments at a similar rate to those without arthritis. Conclusion Older adults with arthritis were not significantly more at risk to develop cognitive impairments and developed cognitive impairments at a similar rate as older adults without arthritis over six years. PMID:28337526

  6. Sociality and intergenerational transfer of older adults' nostalgia.

    PubMed

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Robertson, Sara

    2018-05-03

    Interest in nostalgia has blossomed, yet its nature in older adulthood and potential for intergenerational transfer to younger adults has remained neglected. In Experiment 1, we focused on the content of older adults' nostalgic (vs. ordinary) recollections and asked whether older adults' nostalgia could be transferred to younger adults. We showed that nostalgia expressed in older adults' narratives was positively associated with nostalgia reported by young-adult readers. In Experiment 2, undergraduates read a nostalgic or ordinary narrative written by an older adult. Then they rated their own nostalgia as well as their perceived social connectedness, self-continuity, and meaning in life. Exposure to older adults' nostalgic (vs. ordinary) narratives promoted concurrent nostalgia among young adults, along with associated psychological benefits (social connectedness, self-continuity, meaning). The findings illustrate the potential for intergenerational transfer of nostalgia through written narratives, and attest to the universality of nostalgic themes across younger and older adults.

  7. Evaluation of Verbal Behavior in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Amy C.; Fuqua, R. Wayne; Merritt, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 5% of older adults have a dementia diagnosis, and language deterioration is commonly associated with this disorder (Kempler, 2005). Several instruments have been developed to diagnose dementia and assess language capabilities of elderly adults. However, none of these instruments take a functional approach to language assessment as described by Skinner (1957). The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a function-based assessment for language deficits of older adults. Thirty-one participants were categorized into a control group (n  =  15) and a dementia group (n  =  16) based on their score on the Dementia Rating Scale-2. Individuals with dementia performed significantly worse on the tact assessment than those without dementia. Participants from both groups performed better on measures of tacts than intraverbals or mands, even though topographically identical responses were required in these assessments. The data provide support for Skinner's conceptualization of functionally independent verbal operants. PMID:23814369

  8. Dementia literacy in older adults.

    PubMed

    Loi, Samantha M; Lautenschlager, Nicola T

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing aging population, it is predicted that there will also be a rise in the number of people with dementia. Although there is no definitive cure, early detection and access to treatment and services remains the cornerstone of management. Misinformation and poor knowledge about dementia may lead to delayed diagnosis. A study of dementia literacy was undertaken to explore current knowledge in a metropolitan city in Australia. A vignette describing an older person with symptoms of cognitive impairment was posted out to volunteers at the local hospital. The majority of participants surveyed correctly identified that the person in the vignette was suffering from symptoms of dementia or cognitive impairment. However, there was more variation with regard to types of treatment available and appropriate help-seeking behavior. Although people are able to identify symptoms of dementia when they are presented in a scenario, the reality is often not as clear. More education to improve knowledge with regard to this increasingly common disorder is required so that appropriate interventions can be made available. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70-94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked design. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured using a forceplate, and the number and latency of postural adjustments were quantified. Subjects were assigned to groups based on their stepping strategy. The frequency of trials with one or two postural adjustments was compared with data from 20 younger adults (mean age 38 y, range 21-58 y). Logistic regression was used to relate presence of a fall in the previous year with the number and latency of postural adjustments. In comparison with younger adults, who almost always demonstrated one postural adjustment when stepping laterally, older adults constituted a continuous distribution in the percentage of step trials made with one postural adjustment (from 0% to 100% of trials). Latencies of the initial postural adjustment and foot liftoff varied depending on the number of postural adjustments made. A history of falls was associated a larger percentage of two postural adjustments, and a longer latency of foot liftoff. In conclusion, the number and latency of postural adjustments made during voluntary lateral stepping provides additional evidence that lateral control of posture may be a critical indicator of aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70–94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked design. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured using a forceplate, and the number and latency of postural adjustments were quantified. Subjects were assigned to groups based on their stepping strategy. The frequency of trials with one or two postural adjustments was compared with data from 20 younger adults (mean age 38 y, range 21–58 y). Logistic regression was used to relate presence of a fall in the previous year with the number and latency of postural adjustments. In comparison with younger adults, who almost always demonstrated one postural adjustment when stepping laterally, older adults constituted a continuous distribution in the percentage of step trials made with one postural adjustment (from 0% to 100% of trials). Latencies of the initial postural adjustment and foot liftoff varied depending on the number of postural adjustments made. A history of falls was associated a larger percentage of two postural adjustments, and a longer latency of foot liftoff. In conclusion, the number and latency of postural adjustments made during voluntary lateral stepping provides additional evidence that lateral control of posture may be a critical indicator of aging. PMID:24295896

  11. Low Blood Sodium in Older Adults: A Concern?

    MedlinePlus

    ... older adults: A concern? Why is low blood sodium a health concern for older adults? How is ... from Paul Y. Takahashi, M.D. Low blood sodium (hyponatremia) occurs when you have an abnormally low ...

  12. What Older Adults Need to Know about Retail Clinics

    MedlinePlus

    What Older Adults Need to Know about Retail Clinics Expert Information from Healthcare Professionals Who Specialize in the Care of Older Adults Retail clinics are medical clinics based in pharmacies, ...

  13. Overview of persistent pain in older adults.

    PubMed

    Molton, Ivan R; Terrill, Alexandra L

    2014-01-01

    With the shifting age demographics of the U.S. population, more psychologists will be asked to provide clinical services to older adults. Given the high prevalence of persistent pain in aging, in many cases this will mean providing empirically supported interventions for pain and the interference it creates. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad overview of the scope and impact of persistent pain in older people and to discuss mechanisms by which persistent geriatric pain can lead to suffering and disability. We consider the unique context of pain in older adulthood and review differences between older and younger people in terms of pain perception, the social network, beliefs about pain, pain-related coping, and adherence to pain medication. Finally, we discuss special issues affecting pain management in older adults, including dementia, polypharmacy, and barriers to accessing adequate pain care. This review also highlights a need for greater provider training in pain management to meet the needs of a changing U.S. population. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Child's play: the creativity of older adults.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2012-09-01

    In this article, I discuss Paul W. Pruyser's view presented in his article "An Essay on Creativity" (Pruyser in Bull Menninger Clin 43:294-353, 1979) that creative persons manifest early childhood qualities of playfulness, curiosity, and pleasure seeking and that adaptation is itself a form of creativity. I then discuss his article "Creativity in Aging Persons" (Pruyser in Bull Menninger Clin 51:425-435, 1987) in which he presents his view that aging itself is a potentially creative process, that creativity among older adults is not limited to the talented few, and that older adulthood has several specific features that are conducive to creativity. Significant among these features are object loss (especially involving human relationships) and functional loss (due to the vicissitudes of aging). Noting his particular emphasis on object loss and its role in late-life creativity, I focus on functional loss, and I emphasize the importance of adaptation in sustaining the creativity of older adults who experience such loss. I illustrate this adaptation by considering well-known painters who in late life suffered visual problems common to older adults. I suggest that in adapting to their visual problems these artists drew on the early childhood qualities (playfulness, curiosity and pleasure seeking) that all creative persons possess and that they are therefore illustrative for other older adults who are experiencing functional losses. I conclude with Erik H. Erikson's (Toys and reasons: stages in the ritualization of experience, W. W. Norton, New York, 1977) and Paul W. Pruyser's (Pastor Psychol 35:120-131, 1986) reflections on the relationship between seeing and hoping.

  15. Older Adults can Learn to Learn New Motor Skills

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, Rachael D.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that aging is associated with declines in skill acquisition. In the current study, we tested whether older adults could acquire general, transferable knowledge about skill learning processes. Older adult participants learned five different motor tasks. Two older adult control groups performed the same number of trials, but learned only one task. The experimental group exhibited faster learning than that seen in the control groups. These data demonstrate that older adults can learn to learn new motor skills. PMID:17602760

  16. Erectile Dysfunction in the Older Adult Male.

    PubMed

    Mola, Joanna R

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) in the older adult male is a significant problem affecting more than 75% of men over 70 years of age in the United States. Older men have an increased likelihood of developing ED due to chronic disease, comorbid conditions, and age-related changes. Research has demonstrated that while the prevalence and severity of ED increases with age, sexual desire often remains unchanged. This article discusses the clinical picture of ED, including relevant pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and evaluation and treatment options.

  17. Managing Status Epilepticus in the Older Adult

    PubMed Central

    Legriel, Stephane; Brophy, Gretchen M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to describe particularities in epidemiology, outcome, and management modalities in the older adult population with status epilepticus. There is a higher incidence of status epilepticus in the older adult population, and it commonly has a nonconvulsive presentation. Diagnosis in this population may be difficult and requires an unrestricted use of EEG. Short and long term associated-mortality are high, and age over 60 years is an independent factor associated with poor outcome. Stroke (acute or remote symptomatic), miscellaneous metabolic causes, dementia, infections hypoxemia, and brain injury are among the main causes of status epilepticus occurrence in this age category. The use of anticonvulsive agents can be problematic as well. Thus, it is important to take into account the specific aspects related to the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes in older critically-ill adults. Beyond these precautions, the management may be identical to that of the younger adult, including prompt initiation of symptomatic and anticonvulsant therapies, and a broad and thorough etiological investigation. Such management strategies may improve the vital and functional prognosis of these patients, while maintaining a high overall quality of care. PMID:27187485

  18. The Mental Health of Older LGBT Adults.

    PubMed

    Yarns, Brandon C; Abrams, Janet M; Meeks, Thomas W; Sewell, Daniel D

    2016-06-01

    There are approximately one million older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults in the USA. Their mental health issues result from interactions between genetic factors and stress associated with membership in a sexual minority group. Although advancements in acceptance and equal treatment of LGBT individuals have been occurring, sexual minority status remains associated with risks to physical and mental well-being. Older LGBT adults are more likely to have experienced mistreatment and discrimination due to living a majority of their lives prior to recent advancements in acceptance and equal treatment. All LGBT adults experience one common developmental challenge: deciding if, when, and how to reveal to others their gender identity and/or sexual orientation. LGBT individuals have higher rates of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders and also are at increased risk for certain medical conditions like obesity, breast cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Improved education and training of clinicians, coupled with clinical research efforts, holds the promise of improved overall health and life quality for older LGBT adults.

  19. Reviewing and Critiquing Computer Learning and Usage among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Sek

    2008-01-01

    By searching the keywords of "older adult" and "computer" in ERIC, Academic Search Premier, and PsycINFO, this study reviewed 70 studies published after 1990 that address older adults' computer learning and usage. This study revealed 5 prominent themes among reviewed literature: (a) motivations and barriers of older adults' usage of computers, (b)…

  20. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  1. Effects of a Forgiveness Intervention for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allemand, Mathias; Steiner, Marianne; Hill, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The authors' aim in the present study was to examine the effects of a brief forgiveness intervention for older adults. The psychoeducational group intervention consists of (a) established core components of previous forgiveness interventions and (b) additional components considering specific needs of older adults. Seventy-eight older adults (mean…

  2. An Italian multicentre study on adult atopic dermatitis: persistent versus adult-onset disease.

    PubMed

    Megna, Matteo; Patruno, Cataldo; Balato, Anna; Rongioletti, Franco; Stingeni, Luca; Balato, Nicola

    2017-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory skin disease which predominantly affects children. However, AD may persist until adulthood (persistent AD), or directly start in adults (adult-onset AD). AD often shows a non-flexural rash distribution, and atypical morphologic variants in adults and specific diagnostic criteria are lacking. Moreover, adult AD prevalence as well as detailed data which can characterize persistent vs adult-onset subtype are scant. The aim of this study was to investigate on the main features of adult AD particularly highlighting differences between persistent vs adult-onset form. An Italian multicentre observational study was conducted between April 2015-July 2016 through a study-specific digital database. 253 adult AD patients were enrolled. Familiar history of AD was negative in 81.0%. Erythemato-desquamative pattern was the most frequent clinical presentation (74.3%). Flexural surface of upper limbs was most commonly involved (47.8%), followed by eyelid/periocular area (37.9%), hands (37.2%), and neck (32%). Hypertension (7.1%) and thyroiditis (4.3%) were the most frequent comorbidities. A subgroup analysis between persistent (59.7%) vs adult-onset AD patients (40.3%) showed significant results only regarding AD severity (severe disease was more common in persistent group, p < 0.05), itch intensity (higher in adult-onset disease), and comorbidities (hypertension was more frequent in adult-onset group, p < 0.01). Adult AD showed uncommon features such as significant association with negative AD family history and lacking of association with systemic comorbidities respect to general population. No significant differences among persistent vs adult-onset subgroup were registered except for hypertension, itch intensity, and disease severity.

  3. Depression among older adults with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Park, Mijung; Reynolds, Charles F

    2015-02-01

    Older adults with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) experience greater risk for comorbid depression compared to those who do not have DM. Undetected, untreated or under-treated depression impinges an individual's ability to manage their DM successfully, hinders their adherence to treatment regime, and undermines provider-patient relationships. Thus, in the context of caring for older adults with DM, comorbid depression presents special challenges and opportunities for clinicians. In this article, we summarize the clinical presentation of late-life depression, potential mechanisms of comorbidity of depression and DM, importance of depression in the successful management of DM, and available best practice models for depression treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of specific phobia in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Pachana, Nancy A; Woodward, Rana M; Byrne, Gerard JA

    2007-01-01

    Phobias are common in later life, yet treatment research in this population remains scant. The efficacy of exposure therapy, in combination with other Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) components, in the treatment of specific phobia with a middle and older aged sample was examined. Sixteen adults aged 45–68 with DSM-IV diagnosis of a specific phobia received a manualized intervention over ten weeks, and were compared with a control group. Results indicated significant time effects in the treatment group for the primary outcome variables of phobic severity and avoidance as well as secondary outcome variables including depression and anxiety. Symptom presence and severity also significantly declined in the treatment group. No significant changes in state anxiety were noted across the treatment period. Such results provide support for the efficacy of exposure combined with CBT treatment for specific phobia in middle to older aged adults. PMID:18044196

  5. Astrophysics for Older adults in Chicago.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grin, Daniel; Landsberg, Randall H.; Flude, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Gerontology research continues to show that the adage "Use it or Lose it" is a clinical fact when it comes to cognitive engagement post-retirement. Here, I'll discuss a new program developed at the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, bringing classes on astrophysics to older adults throughout the city, at retirement homes, at senior center, and at public libraries, bookended by an engaging trip to the Adler Planetarium. In my presentation, I'll present the gerontological and policy motivations for this program, the presenter training techniques, our partner collaboration strategy, and the results of our effort, which engaged hundreds of older adults throughout Chicago from a variety of socioeconomic strata.

  6. Design principles to accommodate older adults.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Miller, Kenneth W; Ajayi, Funmi; Hutchins, Deborah

    2012-02-29

    The global population is aging. In many industrial countries, almost one in five people are over age 65. As people age, gradual changes ensue in vision, hearing, balance, coordination, and memory. Products, communication materials, and the physical environment must be thoughtfully designed to meet the needs of people of all ages. This article summarizes normal changes in sensory function, mobility, balance, memory, and attention that occur with age. It presents practical guidelines that allow design professionals to accommodate these changes and better meet the needs of older adults. Designing for older adults is inclusive design: it accommodates a range of physical and cognitive abilities and promotes simplicity, flexibility, and ease of use for people of any age.

  7. Design Principles to Accommodate Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Ajayi, Funmi; Hutchins, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The global population is aging. In many industrial countries, almost one in five people are over age 65. As people age, gradual changes ensue in vision, hearing, balance, coordination, and memory. Products, communication materials, and the physical environment must be thoughtfully designed to meet the needs of people of all ages. This article summarizes normal changes in sensory function, mobility, balance, memory, and attention that occur with age. It presents practical guidelines that allow design professionals to accommodate these changes and better meet the needs of older adults. Designing for older adults is inclusive design: it accommodates a range of physical and cognitive abilities and promotes simplicity, flexibility, and ease of use for people of any age. PMID:22980147

  8. Perceived age discrimination in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rippon, Isla; Kneale, Dylan; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: to examine perceived age discrimination in a large representative sample of older adults in England. Methods: this cross-sectional study of over 7,500 individuals used data from the fifth wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a longitudinal cohort study of men and women aged 52 years and older in England. Wave 5 asked respondents about the frequency of five everyday discriminatory situations. Participants who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. Results: approximately a third (33.3%) of all respondents experienced age discrimination, rising to 36.8% in those aged 65 and over. Perceived age discrimination was associated with older age, higher education, lower levels of household wealth and being retired or not in employment. The correlates of age discrimination across the five discriminatory situations were similar. Conclusion: understanding age discrimination is vital if we are to develop appropriate policies and to target future interventions effectively. These findings highlight the scale of the challenge of age discrimination for older adults in England and illustrate that those groups are particularly vulnerable to this form of discrimination. PMID:24077751

  9. Perceived age discrimination in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rippon, Isla; Kneale, Dylan; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    to examine perceived age discrimination in a large representative sample of older adults in England. this cross-sectional study of over 7,500 individuals used data from the fifth wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a longitudinal cohort study of men and women aged 52 years and older in England. Wave 5 asked respondents about the frequency of five everyday discriminatory situations. Participants who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. approximately a third (33.3%) of all respondents experienced age discrimination, rising to 36.8% in those aged 65 and over. Perceived age discrimination was associated with older age, higher education, lower levels of household wealth and being retired or not in employment. The correlates of age discrimination across the five discriminatory situations were similar. understanding age discrimination is vital if we are to develop appropriate policies and to target future interventions effectively. These findings highlight the scale of the challenge of age discrimination for older adults in England and illustrate that those groups are particularly vulnerable to this form of discrimination.

  10. THE OLDER ADULT DRIVER WITH COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT

    PubMed Central

    Carr, David B.; Ott, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Although automobiles remain the transportation of choice for older adults, late life cognitive impairment and dementia often impair the ability to drive safely. There is, however, no commonly utilized method of assessing dementia severity in relation to driving, no consensus on the assessment of older drivers with cognitive impairment, and no gold standard for determining driving fitness. Yet, clinicians are called upon by patients, their families, other health professionals, and often the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) to assess their patients' fitness-to-drive and to make recommendations about driving privileges. Using the case of Mr W, we describe the challenges of driving with cognitive impairment for both the patient and caregiver, summarize the literature on dementia and driving, discuss evidenced-based assessment of fitness-to-drive, and address important ethical and legal issues. We describe the role of physician assessment, referral to neuropsychology, functional screens, dementia severity tools, driving evaluation clinics, and DMV referrals that may assist with evaluation. Finally, we discuss mobility counseling (eg, exploration of transportation alternatives) since health professionals need to address this important issue for older adults who lose the ability to drive. The application of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach to the older driver with cognitive impairment will have the best opportunity to enhance our patients' social connectedness and quality of life, while meeting their psychological and medical needs and maintaining personal and public safety. PMID:20424254

  11. Dental Hygiene Students’ Perceptions of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance; Shockey, Alcinda Trickett; Long, D. Leann

    2015-01-01

    Geriatric education is an important component of the dental hygiene curriculum because, in it, students acquire skills and attitudes to help provide quality care to older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if off-site exposure to nursing home residents with supervised oversight had the potential to improve dental hygiene students’ attitudes toward older adults. Senior dental hygiene students at one school completed a pre-nursing home experience questionnaire. A series of geriatric lectures and discussions, which included discussions about students’ anxieties of working with institutionalized older adults, were held prior to the nursing home experience. The students then participated in two supervised four-hour nursing home experiences, were debriefed after the experiences, and completed a second questionnaire. Of thirty-nine potential participants in the study, thirty-two took part in the pre-nursing home experience questionnaire (82.1 percent). They had a mean split Fabroni score of 34.2 (95 percent confidence interval: 32.2, 36.3). The thirty participants in the post-experience questionnaire (76.9 percent of total) had a mean split score of 32.7 (95 percent confidence interval: 30.1, 35.3). This study failed to reject the null hypothesis of no mean difference between the pre- and post-nursing home experience; however, the post-experience mean score was lower than the pre-nursing home experience mean score, indicating a more positive attitude toward older adults after the experience. PMID:25480277

  12. Recognition of dementia in hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Katie; Mezey, Mathy

    2008-01-01

    Many hospital patients with dementia have no documented dementia diagnosis. In some cases, this is because they have never been diagnosed. Recognition of Dementia in Hospitalized Older Adults proposes several approaches that hospital nurses can use to increase recognition of dementia. This article describes the Try This approaches, how to implement them, and how to incorporate them into a hospital's current admission procedures. For a free online video demonstrating the use of these approaches, go to http://links.lww.com/A216.

  13. Prevalence of olfactory impairment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Claire; Schubert, Carla R; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Nondahl, David M

    2002-11-13

    Older adults represent the fastest-growing segment of the US population, and prevalences of vision and hearing impairment have been extensively evaluated. However, despite the importance of sense of smell for nutrition and safety, the prevalence of olfactory impairment in older US adults has not been studied. To determine the prevalence of olfactory impairment in older adults. A total of 2491 Beaver Dam, Wis, residents aged 53 to 97 years participating in the 5-year follow-up examination (1998-2000) for the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study, a population-based, cross-sectional study. Olfactory impairment, assessed by the San Diego Odor Identification Test and self-report. The mean (SD) prevalence of impaired olfaction was 24.5% (1.7%). The prevalence increased with age; 62.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 57.4%-67.7%) of 80- to 97-year-olds had olfactory impairment. Olfactory impairment was more prevalent among men (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.65-2.19). Current smoking, stroke, epilepsy, and nasal congestion or upper respiratory tract infection were also associated with increased prevalence of olfactory impairment. Self-reported olfactory impairment was low (9.5%) and this measure became less accurate with age. In the oldest group, aged 80 to 97 years, sensitivity of self-report was 12% for women and 18% for men. This study demonstrates that prevalence of olfactory impairment among older adults is high and increases with age. Self-report significantly underestimated prevalence rates obtained by olfaction testing. Physicians and caregivers should be particularly alert to the potential for olfactory impairment in the elderly population.

  14. Access to transportation for Chittenden County Vermont older adults.

    PubMed

    Hadley Strout, Emily; Fox, Leah; Castro, Alejandro; Haroun, Pishoy; Leavitt, Blake; Ross, Cordelia; Sayan, Mutlay; Delaney, Thomas; Platzer, Alyson; Hutchins, Jeanne; Carney, Jan K

    2016-08-01

    Aging often leads to decreased independence and mobility, which can be detrimental to health and well-being. The growing population of older adults will create a greater need for reliable transportation. Explore whether and how lack of transportation has compromised areas of daily lives in older adults. 1221 surveys with 36 questions assessing transportation access, usage, and impact on activities were distributed to Chittenden County, Vermont older adults; 252 met criteria for analysis. Older adults reported overwhelming difficulty getting to activities considered important, with 69 % of participants delaying medical appointments due to transportation barriers. Although family and friends represent a primary method of transportation, older adults reported difficulty asking them for help. Lack of accessible transportation leads to missed healthcare appointments and social isolation, which may have detrimental effects on older adults' quality of life. Many older adults face significant transportation challenges that negatively affect their health and well-being.

  15. Financial Care for Older Adults With Dementia.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xi; Lee, Yeonjung; Dye, Cheryl; Roley, Laurie Theriot

    2017-06-01

    This article describes an examination of the sociodemographic characteristics of adult children, particularly Baby Boomer caregivers, who provide financial care to older parents with dementia. The sample including 1,011adult children dementia caregivers aged 50 to 64 years is selected from a nationally representative sample in the 2010 Health and Retirement Study. Exact logistic regression revealed that race, provision of financial assistance to caregiver children, and the number of their children are significantly associated with financial caregiving of parents. Non-White caregivers are more likely to provide financial care to their parents or parents-in-law with dementia; those who have more children and provide financial assistance to their children are less likely to provide financial care to parents with dementia. The current findings present valuable new information on the sociodemographic characteristics of adult children who provide financial assistance to parents with dementia and inform research, programs, and services on dementia caregiving.

  16. Sexual Consent Capacity Assessment with Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Syme, Maggie L; Steele, Debora

    2016-09-01

    Many healthcare providers have a limited knowledge of sexual and intimate expression in later life, often due to attitudinal and informational limitations. Further, the likelihood of an older adult experiencing cognitive decline increases in a long-term care (LTC) setting, complicating the ability of the providers to know if the older adult can make his or her own sexual decisions, or has sexual consent capacity. Thus, the team is left to question if and how to support intimacy and/or sexuality among residents with intimacy needs. Psychologists working with LTC need to be aware and knowledgeable about sexual consent capacity in older adulthood to be prepared to conduct evaluations and participate in planning care. Limited research is available to consult for best practices in sexual consent capacity assessment; however, models of assessment have been developed based on the best available evidence, clinical judgment, and practice. Existing models will be discussed and an integrated model will be illustrated via a case study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Gait and balance disorders in older adults.

    PubMed

    Salzman, Brooke

    2010-07-01

    Gait and balance disorders are common in older adults and are a major cause of falls in this population. They are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as reduced level of function. Common causes include arthritis and orthostatic hypotension; however, most gait and balance disorders involve multiple contributing factors. Most changes in gait are related to underlying medical conditions and should not be considered an inevitable consequence of aging. Physicians caring for older patients should ask at least annually about falls, and should ask about or examine for difficulties with gait and balance at least once. For older adults who report a fall, physicians should ask about difficulties with gait and balance, and should observe for any gait or balance dysfunctions. The Timed Up and Go test is a fast and reliable diagnostic tool. Persons who have difficulty or demonstrate unsteadiness performing the Timed Up and Go test require further assessment, usually with a physical therapist, to help elucidate gait impairments and related functional limitations. The most effective strategy for falls prevention involves a multifactorial evaluation followed by targeted interventions for identified contributing factors. Evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for gait and balance disorders is limited because of the lack of standardized outcome measures determining gait and balance abilities. However, effective options for patients with gait and balance disorders include exercise and physical therapy. (c) 2010 American Academy of Family Physicians.

  18. Asthma Is More Severe in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dweik, Raed A.; Comhair, Suzy A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Moore, Wendy C.; Peters, Stephen P.; Busse, William W.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Chung, K. Fan; Fitzpatrick, Anne; Israel, Elliot; Teague, W. Gerald; Wenzel, Sally E.; Love, Thomas E.; Gaston, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe asthma occurs more often in older adult patients. We hypothesized that the greater risk for severe asthma in older individuals is due to aging, and is independent of asthma duration. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of prospectively collected data from adult participants (N=1130; 454 with severe asthma) enrolled from 2002 – 2011 in the Severe Asthma Research Program. Results The association between age and the probability of severe asthma, which was performed by applying a Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoother, revealed an inflection point at age 45 for risk of severe asthma. The probability of severe asthma increased with each year of life until 45 years and thereafter increased at a much slower rate. Asthma duration also increased the probability of severe asthma but had less effect than aging. After adjustment for most comorbidities of aging and for asthma duration using logistic regression, asthmatics older than 45 maintained the greater probability of severe asthma [OR: 2.73 (95 CI: 1.96; 3.81)]. After 45, the age-related risk of severe asthma continued to increase in men, but not in women. Conclusions Overall, the impact of age and asthma duration on risk for asthma severity in men and women is greatest over times of 18-45 years of age; age has a greater effect than asthma duration on risk of severe asthma. PMID:26200463

  19. Lipids and physical function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Cherubini, Antonio; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Healthy aging is a public health priority. The maintenance of adequate physical function is recognized as a key element of healthy aging. In recent years, scientific evidence has increased concerning the ability of lipids, in particular omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), to positively influence muscle and overall physical function in older patients. The article will critically review observational as well as intervention studies on this topic, and it will elucidate the potential biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on physical function. Observational studies and clinical trials performed in healthy older patients and in older patients with chronic diseases mostly found positive effects of n-3 PUFA on muscle metabolism, muscle strength and in general physical function. Although the use of n-3 PUFA might represent an important intervention to preserve physical function in older adults, several key questions still need to be answered. Above all, large randomized controlled trials should be performed to confirm the utility of n-3 PUFA as therapeutic agents to prevent and treat physical function decline in old age.

  20. Comprehension of Health-related Written Materials by Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chiung-ju; Kemper, Susan; Bovaird, James A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how Flesch Reading Ease and text cohesion affect older adults' comprehension of common health texts. All older adults benefited when high Flesh Reading Ease was combined with high cohesion. Older adults with small working memories had more difficulty understanding texts high in Flesch Reading Ease. Additionally, older adults with low verbal ability or older than 77 years of age had difficulty understanding texts high in text cohesion but low in Flesch Reading Ease. These results imply that writers must increase Flesch Reading Ease without disrupting text cohesion to ensure comprehension of health-related texts. PMID:19543546

  1. Explicit Instruction, Bilingualism, and the Older Adult Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Jessica G.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about older adult language learners and effects of aging on L2 learning. This study investigated learning in older age through interactions of learner-internal and -external variables; specifically, late-learned L2 (bilingualism) and provision of grammar explanation (explicit instruction, EI). Forty-three older adults (age 60+) who…

  2. Organizational Support and Volunteering Benefits for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. Design and Methods: This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling…

  3. The Capacity to Consent to Research among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Minhong

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an assessment tool for research consent competence in older participants. A four-item instrument was developed to assess the capacity of the older adults to consent to research. Data were obtained from 203 nursing home residents from two facilities and 201 community-dwelling older adults in a…

  4. Recognition of Rapid Speech by Blind and Sighted Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Friedman, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether older blind participants recognize time-compressed speech better than older sighted participants. Method: Three groups of adults with normal hearing participated (n = 10/group): (a) older sighted, (b) older blind, and (c) younger sighted listeners. Low-predictability sentences that were uncompressed (0% time…

  5. Spatial navigation in young versus older adults

    PubMed Central

    Gazova, Ivana; Laczó, Jan; Rubinova, Eva; Mokrisova, Ivana; Hyncicova, Eva; Andel, Ross; Vyhnalek, Martin; Sheardova, Katerina; Coulson, Elizabeth J.; Hort, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Older age is associated with changes in the brain, including the medial temporal lobe, which may result in mild spatial navigation deficits, especially in allocentric navigation. The aim of the study was to characterize the profile of real-space allocentric (world-centered, hippocampus-dependent) and egocentric (body-centered, parietal lobe dependent) navigation and learning in young vs. older adults, and to assess a possible influence of gender. We recruited healthy participants without cognitive deficits on standard neuropsychological testing, white matter lesions or pronounced hippocampal atrophy: 24 young participants (18–26 years old) and 44 older participants stratified as participants 60–70 years old (n = 24) and participants 71–84 years old (n = 20). All underwent spatial navigation testing in the real-space human analog of the Morris Water Maze, which has the advantage of assessing separately allocentric and egocentric navigation and learning. Of the eight consecutive trials, trials 2–8 were used to reduce bias by a rebound effect (more dramatic changes in performance between trials 1 and 2 relative to subsequent trials). The participants who were 71–84 years old (p < 0.001), but not those 60–70 years old, showed deficits in allocentric navigation compared to the young participants. There were no differences in egocentric navigation. All three groups showed spatial learning effect (p’ s ≤ 0.01). There were no gender differences in spatial navigation and learning. Linear regression limited to older participants showed linear (β = 0.30, p = 0.045) and quadratic (β = 0.30, p = 0.046) effect of age on allocentric navigation. There was no effect of age on egocentric navigation. These results demonstrate that navigation deficits in older age may be limited to allocentric navigation, whereas egocentric navigation and learning may remain preserved. This specific pattern of spatial navigation impairment may help differentiate normal aging from

  6. Implementing reverse mentoring to address social isolation among older adults.

    PubMed

    Breck, Bethany M; Dennis, Cory B; Leedahl, Skye N

    2018-07-01

    Reverse mentoring is a means to address the social work Grand Challenge of social isolation. Among older adults, reverse mentoring can improve social connection by increasing the digital competence of older adults so they can use technology for social benefit, and by facilitating intergenerational connections with young adult mentors. In this paper, reverse mentoring is examined within an intergenerational program that serves older adults and utilizes the native technological knowledge and skills of young adults who mentor older adult participants. Qualitative data were collected through young adult mentor logs of each session, and through open-ended questions on the post-surveys collected from older adults and young adult mentors. Qualitative analysis revealed three themes related to social connection: (1) an increased sense of self-efficacy for older adults as they build confidence in technological use, and for young adults as they develop leadership skills through mentoring, (2) the breaking down of age-related stereotypes, and (3) intergenerational engagement and connection. The findings demonstrate that reverse mentoring can be used in various settings to decrease the social isolation of older adults by developing intergenerational connections and increasing older adult usage of technology.

  7. Internet use and loneliness in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sum, Shima; Mathews, R Mark; Hughes, Ian; Campbell, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Use of the Internet by seniors as a communication technology may lead to changes in older adult social relationships. This study used an online questionnaire to survey 222 Australians over 55 years of age on Internet use. Respondents primarily used the Internet for communication, seeking information, and commercial purposes. The results showed negative correlations between loneliness and well-being. Multiple regression analyses revealed that greater use of the Internet as a communication tool was associated with a lower level of social loneliness. In contrast, greater use of the Internet to find new people was associated with a higher level of emotional loneliness.

  8. Older adults abuse in three Brazilian cities.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Monteiro, Edilene Araújo; Santos, Ana Maria Ribeiro Dos; Pontes, Maria de Lourdes de Farias; Fhon, Jack Roberto Silva; Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Seredynskyj, Fernanda Laporti; Almeida, Vanessa Costa; Giacomini, Suelen Borelli Lima; Defina, Giovanna Partezani Cardoso; Silva, Luipa Michele

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the police reports filed by older adults who suffered abuse in order to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and aggressors, type of violence, location, as well as to compare rates in three Brazilian cities in the period from 2009 to 2013. Ecological study, in which 2,612 police reports registered in Police Stations were analyzed. An instrument was used to obtain data from the victim, the aggressor and the type of violence. Psychological abuse predominated and most cases occurred in the older adults own home. In the cities of Ribeirão Preto and João Pessoa, the older adults presented similar rates for both gender. Regarding the standardized rates, in João Pessoa, there was a rise of this type of abuse in the two first years, and later there was a certain stability. In the city of Teresina, there was an increase, also observed in the city of Ribeirão Preto in the three first years, followed by a decrease. Older adults abuse is a cultural phenomenon difficult to be reported by them, since it occurs in the family context. Analisar os boletins de ocorrência registrados por idosos que sofreram violência, a fim de identificar características sociodemográficas das vítimas e dos agressores, tipo de violência, local, bem como comparar as taxas em três municípios brasileiros no período de 2009 a 2013. Estudo ecológico, em que foram analisados 2.612 boletins de ocorrência registrados em Delegacias do Idoso. Utilizou-se um instrumento para obter dados da vítima, do agressor e tipo de violência. Predominou a violência psicológica, na maioria dos casos na própria residência do idoso. Em Ribeirão Preto e João Pessoa, os idosos mais jovens apresentaram taxas semelhantes entre ambos os sexos. Na comparação das taxas padronizadas, em João Pessoa, houve ascensão deste tipo de violência nos dois primeiros anos, e, posteriormente, certa estabilidade. Em Teresina, houve ascensão, também observada em Ribeirão Preto nos tr

  9. Swallowing Changes in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mulheren, Rachel W; Azola, Alba M; Kwiatkowski, Stephanie; Karagiorgos, Eleni; Humbert, Ianessa; Palmer, Jeffrey B; González-Fernández, Marlís

    2018-06-08

    Older adults may evidence changes in swallowing physiology. Our goals were to identify dysphagia risk in community-dwelling older adults with no history of dysphagia, and to compare swallowing physiology and safety between older and younger adults. Thirty-two older adults with no history of dysphagia were prospectively recruited and completed the Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI), two trials of a 3 oz. swallow screen, and videofluoroscopy (VFSS). Self-ratings of swallowing function were compared to published norms by paired t tests, and multivariate logistic regression models were generated to determine whether these ratings and VFSS analysis of swallowing function were associated with failure of one or both swallow screen trials. Archived VFSS of 33 younger adults were compared to older adults with Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. The DHI scores of older adults were higher than published non-dysphagic adults but lower than dysphagic adults. Older participants with greater Oral Residue scores were more likely to fail both swallow screen trials. Older adults received higher median MBSImP™© scores for select pharyngeal components than younger adults. The two age groups did not differ on Penetration-Aspiration Scale scores, and no aspiration was observed. Measures of swallowing in older individuals may reflect age-related sensory and motor changes in the context of functional swallowing and adequate airway protection.

  10. Helping the Older Adult to Succeed in the ESL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedge, Dick; And Others

    Special problems of adult language learners aged 50 and older studying English as a second language include physical, social, and psychological factors. Physical factors related to aging include vision and hearing problems that adults may not be willing to admit to. Older adults may also be more sensitive to room temperature and lighting, and may…

  11. Motivation to Learn among Older Adults in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Dian-Fu; Lin, Sung-Po

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the survey on adults administered by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008, and logistic regression analysis showed a close relationship between learning motivations of older adults. The finding revealed that the higher age or the lower education attainment of older adults, the lower their learning motivation. The…

  12. Perceptions of Older Adults: The Voices of Eldercare Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tailor, Megha; Zaturenskaya, Mariya; Iwamasa, Gayle Y.; Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2007-01-01

    Eldercare employees (73 women, 15 men) at rural and urban facilities in Australia responded to two open-ended questions related to perceptions of older adults. On average, employees assisted 62 adults per week, working at the facility for 19 years. Participants identified the following characteristics of an "independent older adult:"…

  13. LGBT Older Adults and Nurse Administrators: An Opportunity for Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Marleen

    One of the greatest health care challenges of the 21st century is the rapidly growing number of older adults in the United States. This aging population is also becoming increasingly diverse, and with this diversity comes an increased number of older adults who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT). The needs and health outcomes of this specific subgroup of the older adult population cannot be extrapolated from the more general population of older adults. Nurses have the opportunity to lead health care providers in improving care for this vulnerable and sometimes invisible population. Leading this charge will require nurse executives who advocate, create care environments that are inclusive, and staff with nurses who can care for the specific needs of LGBT older adults. The purpose of this article is to raise awareness of the health needs of LGBT older adults and identify how nurse executives can advocate to improve care for this overlooked population.

  14. Fruit and vegetable intake among older adults: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Kadell, Andria R.

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world population. Older adults are also at heightened risk of chronic conditions (such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer) and specific geriatric conditions (such as cognitive impairment, frailty, and falls). Research studies have examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and subsequent health outcomes and the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in the U.S. population. However, relatively few studies have specifically examined health impacts and correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among older adults, who have unique biophysical and socioeconomic circumstances. Evidence is reviewed to (1) describe findings related to consumption and chronic, geriatric, and other health outcomes among older adults and (2) describe patterns in fruit and vegetable consumption among older adults and how these patterns vary within and among populations. This review addresses specific barriers faced by older adults in obtaining and consuming fruits and vegetables in community settings. Recommendations for practice and policy are discussed. PMID:23769545

  15. Depression among older adults with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mijung; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Depression is among the leading causes of decreased disability-adjusted life years in the world1 and a serious public health problem.2 Older adults with DM experience greater risk for comorbid depression compared to those who do not have DM.3 Having DM increases the risk of subsequent development or recurrence of depression. Conversely, history of depression increases the risk for new onset DM.4 As an unwanted co-traveler of DM, undetected, untreated or undertreated depression impinges an individual’s ability to manage their DM successfully, hindering their adherence to treatment regime.5 It also undermines the effectiveness of provider-patient communication and decays therapeutic relationships. Thus, in the context of caring for older adults with DM, comorbid depression presents special challenges and opportunities for clinicians. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that co-occurring depression and DM may accelerate cognitive decline, highlighting the importance of treating depression and DM. Several treatment modalities are available, which can be used to treat and manage depression in primary care settings: pharmaceutical, brief psychotherapeutic, behavioral and life style interventions, and combination therapies. An evidence-based health care delivery model is also available for treating depression in primary care settings. In this article, we summarize the clinical presentation of late-life depression, potential mechanisms of comorbidity of depression and DM, importance of depression in the successful management of DM, and available best practice models for depression treatment. PMID:25453305

  16. Pedometer accuracy in slow walking older adults.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jessica B; Krč, Katarina M; Mitchell, Emily A; Eng, Janice J; Noble, Jeremy W

    2012-07-03

    The purpose of this study was to determine pedometer accuracy during slow overground walking in older adults (Mean age = 63.6 years). A total of 18 participants (6 males, 12 females) wore 5 different brands of pedometers over 3 pre-set cadences that elicited walking speeds between 0.3 and 0.9 m/s and one self-selected cadence over 80 meters of indoor track. Pedometer accuracy decreased with slower walking speeds with mean percent errors across all devices combined of 56%, 40%, 19% and 9% at cadences of 50, 66, and 80 steps/min, and self selected cadence, respectively. Percent error ranged from 45.3% for Omron HJ105 to 66.9% for Yamax Digiwalker 200. Due to the high level of error across the slowest cadences of all 5 devices, the use of pedometers to monitor step counts in healthy older adults with slower gait speeds is problematic. Further research is required to develop pedometer mechanisms that accurately measure steps at slower walking speeds.

  17. Pedometer accuracy in slow walking older adults

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jessica B.; Krč, Katarina M.; Mitchell, Emily A.; Eng, Janice J.; Noble, Jeremy W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine pedometer accuracy during slow overground walking in older adults (Mean age = 63.6 years). A total of 18 participants (6 males, 12 females) wore 5 different brands of pedometers over 3 pre-set cadences that elicited walking speeds between 0.3 and 0.9 m/s and one self-selected cadence over 80 meters of indoor track. Pedometer accuracy decreased with slower walking speeds with mean percent errors across all devices combined of 56%, 40%, 19% and 9% at cadences of 50, 66, and 80 steps/min, and self selected cadence, respectively. Percent error ranged from 45.3% for Omron HJ105 to 66.9% for Yamax Digiwalker 200. Due to the high level of error across the slowest cadences of all 5 devices, the use of pedometers to monitor step counts in healthy older adults with slower gait speeds is problematic. Further research is required to develop pedometer mechanisms that accurately measure steps at slower walking speeds. PMID:24795762

  18. Training attentional control in older adults

    PubMed Central

    MacKay-Brandt, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated benefits for older adults from training attentional control using a variable priority strategy, but the construct validity of the training task and the degree to which benefits of training transfer to other contexts are unclear. The goal of this study was to characterize baseline performance on the training task in a sample of 105 healthy older adults and to test for transfer of training in a subset (n = 21). Training gains after 5 days and extent of transfer was compared to another subset (n = 20) that served as a control group. Baseline performance on the training task was characterized by a two-factor model of working memory and processing speed. Processing speed correlated with the training task. Training gains in speed and accuracy were reliable and robust (ps <.001, η2 = .57 to .90). Transfer to an analogous task was observed (ps <.05, η2 = .10 to .17). The beneficial effect of training did not translate to improved performance on related measures of processing speed. This study highlights the robust effect of training and transfer to a similar context using a variable priority training task. Although processing speed is an important aspect of the training task, training benefit is either related to an untested aspect of the training task or transfer of training is limited to the training context. PMID:21728889

  19. Older Adults' Acceptance of Activity Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Preusse, Kimberly C.; Mitzner, Tracy L.; Fausset, Cara Bailey; Rogers, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the usability and acceptance of activity tracking technologies by older adults. Method First in our multi-method approach, we conducted heuristic evaluations of two activity trackers that revealed potential usability barriers to acceptance. Next, questionnaires and interviews were administered to 16 older adults (Mage=70, SDage=3.09, rangeage= 65-75) before and after a 28-day field study to understand facilitators and additional barriers to acceptance. These measurements were supplemented with diary and usage data and assessed if and why users overcame usability issues. Results The heuristic evaluation revealed usability barriers in System Status Visibility; Error Prevention; and Consistency and Standards. The field study revealed additional barriers (e.g., accuracy, format), and acceptance-facilitators (e.g., goal-tracking, usefulness, encouragement). Discussion The acceptance of wellness management technologies, such as activity trackers, may be increased by addressing acceptance-barriers during deployment (e.g., providing tutorials on features that were challenging, communicating usefulness). PMID:26753803

  20. Leisure education reduces stress among older adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Liang-Chih

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine whether a leisure education program could facilitate leisure competence among older adults and whether it could also reduce their stress. A pre-test-post-test randomized experimental design was conducted. Subjects were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 30). A leisure education program was used to serve as the intervention. A day before this experiment was carried out, pre-test data were collected using leisure competence and stress scales. Thirty minutes after this experiment ended, post-test data were collected using the same scales. These data were analyzed using an analysis of covariance. The results indicated that the average post-test scores of leisure competence in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group and that the average post-test scores of stress in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Healthcare practitioners should adopt the provision of leisure education as a priority to facilitate leisure competence and reduce stress among older adults.

  1. Training attentional control in older adults.

    PubMed

    Mackay-Brandt, Anna

    2011-07-01

    Recent research has demonstrated benefits for older adults from training attentional control using a variable priority strategy, but the construct validity of the training task and the degree to which benefits of training transfer to other contexts are unclear. The goal of this study was to characterize baseline performance on the training task in a sample of 105 healthy older adults and to test for transfer of training in a subset (n = 21). Training gains after 5 days and extent of transfer was compared to another subset (n = 20) that served as a control group. Baseline performance on the training task was characterized by a two-factor model of working memory and processing speed. Processing speed correlated with the training task. Training gains in speed and accuracy were reliable and robust (ps <.001, η(2) = .57 to .90). Transfer to an analogous task was observed (ps <.05, η(2) = .10 to .17). The beneficial effect of training did not translate to improved performance on related measures of processing speed. This study highlights the robust effect of training and transfer to a similar context using a variable priority training task. Although processing speed is an important aspect of the training task, training benefit is either related to an untested aspect of the training task or transfer of training is limited to the training context.

  2. Hepatitis C Virus Clearance in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Antonio Massimo; Iacobellis, Angelo; Milella, Michele; Conti, Fabio; Messina, Vincenzo; Valvano, Maria Rosa; Niro, Grazia Anna; Morisco, Filomena; Barone, Michele; Termite, Antonio Patrizio; Brancaccio, Giuseppina; Andriulli, Angelo

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether older adults with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) achieve a sustained viral response (SVR) after treatment with direct-acting antiviral therapy. Individuals aged 80 and older with chronic HCV infection (N = 253; n = 213 with cirrhosis, n = 40 with advanced fibrosis). We investigated the efficacy, safety, and global clinical effect of treatment with different combinations of direct antiviral agents (DAAs). Participants with cirrhosis were staged according to Child-Pugh-Turcotte class, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, and the D'Amico staging system. The type and number of comorbidities at baseline and hepatic and nonhepatic events during follow-up were registered. Ninety-five percent of participants with cirrhosis and 95% of those with advanced fibrosis attained SVR. The rate was independent of sex, HCV genotype, and treatment schedule. During a mean follow-up of 14 ± 4 months (range 5-23 months), 34 events occurred in 27 participants: 10 hepatocellular carcinomas, 12 hepatic decompensations, 9 nonhepatic events, 3 deaths. Multivariate analysis of risk factors for experiencing adverse events during follow up showed that participants in D'Amico Stages 4 and 5, with a baseline serum albumin level of 3.5 mg/dL or less, and 3 or more comorbidities were the most at risk. In a real-world setting, DAAs are safe and effective in older adults with HCV-related advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis. Individuals with preserved albumin synthesis and fewer than 3 comorbidities at baseline have the most to gain from long-term DAA therapy. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Hyposalivation and xerostomia in dentate older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance; Wu, Bei; Crout, Richard; Wiener, Michael; Plassman, Brenda; Kao, Elizabeth; McNeil, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background Older adults are susceptible to reduced saliva production related to certain medications, radiation and chronic conditions. Many of these people have many physical and oral health problems and limited access to dental care. The use of effective screening tools for xerostomia and hyposalivation would be helpful in identifying those at risk. The authors conducted a study to investigate the association between three measures of oral dryness: hyposalivation (low unstimulated salivary flow), self-reported xerostomia and clinically assessed dry mouth. Methods The authors included a convenience sample of 252 nondemented and dentate West Virginia participants 70 years and older who were part of a larger study on oral health and cognition among older adults. Participants completed a self-reported xerostomia index, provided an unstimulated salivary sample and underwent an oral assessment for the study. Results Twenty-eight (11.1 percent) had hyposalivation, eight of whom reported having xerostomia (sensitivity = 28.6 percent). Of the 43 participants who reported having xerostomia, only eight had hyposalivation (positive predictive value = 18.6 percent). Hyposalivation and self-reported xerostomia were not significantly related. Clinically assessed dry mouth correlated modestly, but significantly, with hyposalivation and self-reported xerostomia. Conclusions Obtaining routine unstimulated salivary flow rates in addition to self-reported information and oral evaluations may increase early detection of oral dryness, which would assist in implementing early interventions to improve patients’ quality of life. Clinical Implications Visually inspecting oral tissues for dryness and asking a patient if his or her mouth is dry are insufficient measures for clinicians to use to determine if the patient has hyposalivation. The authors recommend that clinicians determine the patients’ unstimulated salivary flow rate. PMID:20194383

  4. Social, Economic, and Health Disparities Among LGBT Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Emlet, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    LGBT older adults are a heterogeneous population with collective and unique strengths and challenges. Health, personal, and economic disparities exist in this group when compared to the general population of older adults, yet subgroups such as transgender and bisexual older adults and individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for disparities and poorer health outcomes. As this population grows, further research is needed on factors that contribute to promoting health equity, while decreasing discrimination and improving competent service delivery.

  5. Modifying Older Adults' Daily Sedentary Behaviour Using an Asset-based Solution: Views from Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Leask, Calum F; Sandlund, Marlene; Skelton, Dawn A; Tulle, Emmanuelle; Chastin, Sebastien Fm

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing public health focus on the promotion of successful and active ageing. Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB) in older adults are feasible and are improved by tailoring to individuals' context and circumstances. SB is ubiquitous; therefore part of the tailoring process is to ensure individuals' daily sedentary routine can be modified. The aim of this study was to understand the views of older adults and identify important considerations when creating a solution to modify daily sedentary patterns. This was a qualitative research study. Fifteen older adult volunteers (mean age = 78 years) participated in 1 of 4 focus groups to identify solutions to modify daily sedentary routine. Two researchers conducted the focus groups whilst a third took detailed fieldnotes on a flipchart to member check the findings. Data were recorded and analysed thematically. Participants wanted a solution with a range of options which could be tailored to individual needs and circumstances. The strategy suggested was to use the activities of daily routine and reasons why individuals already naturally interrupting their SB, collectively framed as assets. These assets were categorised into 5 sub-themes: physical assets (eg. standing up to reduce stiffness); psychological assets (eg. standing up to reduce feelings of guilt); interpersonal assets (eg. standing up to answer the phone); knowledge assets (eg. standing up due to knowing the benefits of breaking SB) and activities of daily living assets (eg. standing up to get a drink). This study provides important considerations from older adults' perspectives to modify their daily sedentary patterns. The assets identified by participants could be used to co-create a tailored intervention with older adults to reduce SB, which may increase effectiveness and adherence.

  6. Face Age and Eye Gaze Influence Older Adults' Emotion Recognition.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anna; Murray, Janice E; Atkinson, Lianne; Ruffman, Ted

    2017-07-01

    Eye gaze has been shown to influence emotion recognition. In addition, older adults (over 65 years) are not as influenced by gaze direction cues as young adults (18-30 years). Nevertheless, these differences might stem from the use of young to middle-aged faces in emotion recognition research because older adults have an attention bias toward old-age faces. Therefore, using older face stimuli might allow older adults to process gaze direction cues to influence emotion recognition. To investigate this idea, young and older adults completed an emotion recognition task with young and older face stimuli displaying direct and averted gaze, assessing labeling accuracy for angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, and sad faces. Direct gaze rather than averted gaze improved young adults' recognition of emotions in young and older faces, but for older adults this was true only for older faces. The current study highlights the impact of stimulus face age and gaze direction on emotion recognition in young and older adults. The use of young face stimuli with direct gaze in most research might contribute to age-related emotion recognition differences. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Recognition of facial, auditory, and bodily emotions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Ruffman, Ted; Halberstadt, Jamin; Murray, Janice

    2009-11-01

    Understanding older adults' social functioning difficulties requires insight into their recognition of emotion processing in voices and bodies, not just faces, the focus of most prior research. We examined 60 young and 61 older adults' recognition of basic emotions in facial, vocal, and bodily expressions, and when matching faces and bodies to voices, using 120 emotion items. Older adults were worse than young adults in 17 of 30 comparisons, with consistent difficulties in recognizing both positive (happy) and negative (angry and sad) vocal and bodily expressions. Nearly three quarters of older adults functioned at a level similar to the lowest one fourth of young adults, suggesting that age-related changes are common. In addition, we found that older adults' difficulty in matching emotions was not explained by difficulty on the component sources (i.e., faces or voices on their own), suggesting an additional problem of integration.

  8. Correlates of, and barriers to, Internet use among older adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Janet; McAllister, Carolyn; McCaslin, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Older adults constitute the group with the greatest increase in Internet usage in the past decade; however, usage varies greatly within this population. Services to older adults require a current understanding of Internet-use trends. This study utilized a quantitative survey method to examine correlates of, and barriers to, current Internet use in a demographically diverse county in Southern California. Findings indicate that the presence of a computer at home, a job requiring computer use, age, education, and ethnicity are important factors in predicting Internet use in older adults. Implications for social work practice with older adults is discussed.

  9. Snow and Rain Modify Neighbourhood Walkability for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa; Hirsch, Jana A; Melendez, Robert; Winters, Meghan; Sims Gould, Joanie; Ashe, Maureen; Furst, Sarah; McKay, Heather

    2017-06-01

    The literature has documented a positive relationship between walkable built environments and outdoor mobility in older adults. Yet, surprisingly absent is any consideration of how weather conditions modify the impact of neighbourhood walkability. Using archived weather data linked to survey data collected from a sample of older adults in Vancouver, Canada, we found that car-dependent neighbourhoods (featuring longer block lengths, fewer intersections, and greater distance to amenities) became inaccessible in snow. Even older adults who lived in very walkable neighbourhoods walked to 25 per cent fewer destinations in snow. It is crucial to consider the impact of weather in the relationship between neighbourhood walkability and older adult mobility.

  10. Young Adults' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes towards the Sexuality of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle

    2014-09-01

    Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality.

  11. How Arousal Affects Younger and Older Adults' Memory Binding

    PubMed Central

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Mather, Mara

    2009-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that associative memory for within-item features is enhanced for emotionally arousing items, whereas arousal-enhanced binding is not seen for associations between distinct items (for a review see Mather, 2007). The costs and benefits of arousal in memory binding have been examined for younger adults but not for older adults. The present experiment examined whether arousal would enhance younger and older adults' within-item and between-item memory binding. The results revealed that arousal improved younger adults' within-item memory binding but not that of older adults. Arousal worsened both groups' between-item memory binding. PMID:21240821

  12. How retellings shape younger and older adults' memories.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2014-04-01

    The way a story is retold influences the way it is later remembered; after retelling an event in a biased manner people subsequently remember the event in line with their distorted retelling. This study tested the hypothesis that this should be especially true for older adults. To test this, older and younger adults retold a story to be entertaining, to be accurate, or did not complete an initial retelling. Later, all participants recalled the story as accurately as possible. On this final test younger adults were unaffected by how they had previously retold the story. In contrast, older adults had better memory for the story's content and structure if they had previously retold the story accurately. Furthermore, for older adults, greater usage of storytelling language during the retelling was associated with lower subsequent recall. In summary, retellings exerted a greater effect on memory in older, compared with younger, adults.

  13. Improving older adults' memory performance using prior task success.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Lisa; Miller, Tyler M

    2013-06-01

    Holding negative aging stereotypes can lead older adults to perform poorly on memory tests. We attempted to improve older adults' memory performance by giving them task experience that would counter their negative performance expectations. Before participating in a memory experiment, younger and older adults were given a cognitive task that they could either successfully complete, not successfully complete, or they were given no prior task. For older adults, recall was significantly higher and self-reported anxiety was significantly lower for the prior task success group relative to the other groups. There was no effect of prior task experience on younger adults' memory performance. Results suggest that older adults' memory can be improved with a single successful prior task experience. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Interference from previous distraction disrupts older adults' memory.

    PubMed

    Biss, Renée K; Campbell, Karen L; Hasher, Lynn

    2013-07-01

    Previously relevant information can disrupt the ability of older adults to remember new information. Here, the researchers examined whether prior irrelevant information, or distraction, can also interfere with older adults' memory for new information. Younger and older adults first completed a 1-back task on pictures that were superimposed with distracting words. After a delay, participants learned picture-word paired associates and memory was tested using picture-cued recall. In 1 condition (high interference), some pairs included pictures from the 1-back task now paired with new words. In a low-interference condition, the transfer list used all new items. Older adults had substantially lower cued-recall performance in the high- compared with the low-interference condition. In contrast, younger adults' performance did not vary across conditions. These findings suggest that even never-relevant information from the past can disrupt older adults' memory for new associations.

  15. Methodological Challenges in Physical Activity Research with Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Jo-Ana D.

    2015-01-01

    The aging adult population is growing, as well as the incidence of chronic illness among older adults. Physical activity has been demonstrated in the literature to be a beneficial component of self-management for chronic illnesses commonly found in the older adult population. Health sciences research seeks to develop new knowledge, practices, and policies that may benefit older adults’ management of chronic illness and quality of life. However, research with the older adult population, though beneficial, includes potential methodological challenges specific to this age group. This article discusses common methodological issues in research among older adults, with a focus on physical activity intervention studies. Awareness and understanding of these issues may facilitate future development of research studies devoted to the aging adult population, through appropriate modification and tailoring of sampling techniques, intervention development, and data measures and collection. PMID:21821726

  16. Nursing Students' Willingness to Care for Older Adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chi, Mei-Ju; Shyu, Meei-Ling; Wang, Shou-Yu; Chuang, Hsiu-Ching; Chuang, Yeu-Hui

    2016-03-01

    The possibilities that nurses will take care of persons 65 years of age or older in hospitals and communities are increasing due to a growing aged population. Nursing students should be prepared to face the challenges of their future practice. Therefore, factors associated with nursing students' willingness to care for older adults need to be identified. This study aimed to explore Taiwanese nursing students' willingness to work with older persons and factors associated with this. A cross-sectional research design was used. Stratified sampling was applied to recruit participants from seven nursing schools in northern, central, southern, and eastern areas of Taiwan. There were 612 nursing students who successful completed the questionnaire including demographic data, the Attitudes Toward the Elderly Scale, and the Willingness Toward the Elderly Care Scale. Data were collected between November 2012 and January 2013. A stepwise regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of nursing students' willingness to care for older adults. The mean score of nursing students' attitudes toward older people was 73.86 (SD = 8.9), with a range of 44-106. The mean score on the willingness to care for older adults was 55.01 (SD = 6.4), with a range of 36-75. The length of time with older adults per week (r = 0.12, p = .003) and grandparents having served as caregivers during the students' childhood (t = -2.147, β = .032) were both positively associated with the willingness to care for older adults. The best predictors of nursing students' willingness to care for older adults were students' attitudes toward older adults (β = 0.38, p < .001), paying attention to issues related to older adults (β = 0.24, p < .001), and having the experience of being a volunteer who served older people (β = 0.10, p = .005), which explained 26.8% of the total variance. Taiwanese undergraduate nursing students had neutral to slightly favorable attitudes toward working with older adults

  17. Assessing shyness in Chinese older adults.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2005-09-01

    The Shyness Scale (SS) is a brief instrument for assessing shyness as a personality trait. The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the SS were investigated in a random sample of 192 Macau Chinese older adults. The Chinese version of the SS possesses high internal consistency and exhibited satisfactory short-term test-retest reliability. The Chinese version of the SS exhibited acceptable convergent validity with other negative measures of psychological well-being including negative emotional states (assessed by the Negative Affect Scale), loneliness (assessed by the UCLA Loneliness Scale), and state anxiety and trait anxiety (assessed by STAI). The divergent validity of the Chinese version of the SS was demonstrated by the negative but significant association between the SS and self esteem (assessed by Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory).

  18. Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, “Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults,” focuses on information sources and data available for modeling environmental exposures in the older U.S. population, defined here to be people 60 years and older, with an emphasis on those...

  19. Education for Older Adults: A Synthesis of Significant Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura-Merkel, Catherine; Worthy, Edmund H., Jr.

    Despite the record numbers of older learners today and the probable future growth of these numbers, older people today are underrepresented in adult education. Furthermore, a significant segment of older people has serious educational deficiencies hindering their ability to cope in the contemporary world. Surveys show that the characteristics that…

  20. Assertiveness by Older Adults with Visual Impairment: Context Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Anas, Ann P.; Mays, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Within a communication predicament of aging and disability framework, this study examined the impact of two types of contextual variation on perceptions of older adult assertiveness within problematic service encounters. Young (N = 66) and older (N = 66) participants evaluated conversational scenarios in which a visually-impaired older woman…

  1. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy with Older Adults: Rationale and Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Petkus, Andrew J; M.A; Wetherell, Julie Loebach

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the population. With these changing demographics, mental health professionals will be seeing more older clients. Additionally, older adults are an underserved population in that most older adults in need of mental health services do not receive treatment. Thus, it is essential that treatments for mental and behavioral health problems are empirically supported with older adults and that mental health professionals are aware of the special needs of older adult populations. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an emerging approach to the treatment of distress. The purpose of this article is to provide a rationale for using ACT with older adults based on gerontological theory and research. We also review research on ACT-related processes in later life. We present a case example of an older man with depression and anxiety whom we treated with ACT. Finally, we describe treatment recommendations and important adaptations that need to be considered when using ACT with older adults and discuss important areas for future research. PMID:26997859

  2. Older Adults' Comprehension of Transformational and Deactivation Negation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    The present research aimed to examine young and older adults' comprehension of negated text to determine the locus of older adults' difficulty in understanding this text construction. Participants were asked to read short passages at their own pace, complete a lexical decision task, and answer a comprehension question about what they had read.…

  3. Medication Adherence in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Elizabeth W.; Rung, Ariane L.; Leon, Kyla A.; Firestein, Catherine; Krousel-Wood, Marie

    2014-01-01

    To effectively address medication adherence and improve cardiovascular health among older adults, a deeper understanding is needed of the barriers that this age group faces and of approaches that would be most effective and feasible for improving adherence. We conducted a focus group study (n = 25) in a diverse population of older adults with…

  4. Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Alicia Ann; Memmott, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    In this comprehensively updated second edition, written by Alicia Ann Clair and Jenny Memmott the extraordinary benefits of music therapy for older adults are detailed. "Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults" not only examines these benefits but also clarifies the reasons that music is beneficial. This important book shows both informal and…

  5. Dare to Dream: New Venture Incubator for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantman, Shira; Gimmon, Eli

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a project that aims to foster active aging through entrepreneurial activities among older adults. The project establishes the feasibility of implementing an intervention program that assimilates the concept and capabilities of entrepreneurship among older adults and supports them while launching new…

  6. Videogames to Promote Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Erin M.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia. PMID:24761318

  7. Older Adults: Community College Students of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Ford M.

    With a declining pool of youth to draw from, community colleges need to be concerned about what can be done to serve the needs of a burgeoning older adult population. Recent research on the educational needs of older adults reveals that they are interested in: (1) information on such personal business and financial topics as social security…

  8. 1976 Survey of Collegiate Programs for Older Adults. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florio, Carol

    Questionnaires were mailed to the directors of continuing education or special programs at 816 colleges and universities in the United States that were believed to offer programs for older adults. 84 percent of the 286 responding institutions reported programs for older adults; 1 percent had them in the planning stages; 3 percent had…

  9. Older Adults: What Every Paediatric Nurse Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barba, Beth Ellen; Tesh, Anita Starr; Cowen, Kay; Hancock, Debbie; Moore, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Older adults have always been important parts of children's lives, playing a variety of roles including grandparent, caregiver, friend, and neighbour. Grandparents also play a variety of roles in families. Often a child's first encounter with serious illness or death involves a grandparent or other older adult. Grandparents are also increasingly…

  10. Creative Programming for Older Adults: A Leadership Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, Florence E.

    The book is a textbook for preparing students for positions in professions through which the needs of older adults are met. It is a manual for in-service training of agency staff, aides, and technicians and serves as a guide for leadership training workshops for board, council, and committee members, and other volunteers working with older adults.…

  11. Older Adults Seeking Healthcare Information on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Jeffrey H.; Hollis-Sawyer, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Due to an aging population and increases in healthcare costs, particular attention needs to be focused on developing Internet sites that provide older adults with credible and accurate healthcare information. Present research findings suggest that motivation is only one factor that influences whether or not older adults utilize the World Wide Web…

  12. Ethical Issues Involving Research Conducted with Homebound Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locher, Julie L.; Bronstein, Janet; Robinson, Caroline O.; Williams, Charlotte; Ritchie, Christine S.

    2006-01-01

    Conducting research in the home setting with homebound older adults presents distinct ethical and practical challenges that require special consideration. This article describes the methodological issues that make studying homebound older adults especially vulnerable to therapeutic misconception and researcher role conflict and offers practical…

  13. The Use of Computer Technology by Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galusha, Jill M.

    The older adult (55+) population is becoming a significant presence in the personal computer market. Seniors have the discretionary income, experience, interest, and free time to make use of computers in interesting ways. A literature review found that older adults make use of computers in significant numbers: 30 percent of computer owners are…

  14. The Meaning of Older Adults' Peer Teaching: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ilseon

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated older adults' peer teaching experiences at a Lifelong Learning Institute through interviews with eight teachers and observations of their classes. Thematic analysis revealed themes of peer-to-peer teaching, volunteer teaching, and explorative teaching. Discussion of the themes examines the meaning of older adults' peer…

  15. Analyzing the Trait of Routinization in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, John W.; Zautra, Alex J.

    1991-01-01

    Developed scale to assess routinization (tendency to maintain daily events of one's life in relatively unchanging and orderly pattern of regularity) among older adults. Findings from over 200 older adults revealed 2 underlying factors: Having Order and Routine in daily living and Disliking Disruption. Evidence was found for validity of the 20-item…

  16. Older Adults' Memory for Verbally Presented Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankoff, Sarah M.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…

  17. Observational Learning among Older Adults Living in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Colleen D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning by older adults living in nursing homes through observational learning based on Bandura's (1977) social learning theory. This quantitative study investigated if older adults could learn through observation. The nursing homes in the study were located in the midwestern United States. The…

  18. Health Literacy Programs for Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Older adults make up the fastest growing age group in North America. This has demanded increased attention in supporting the health and well-being of this population and, in particular, the role of health information in promoting the health and well-being of older adults. Increased availability and accessibility of information as well as a greater…

  19. Gender Differences in Performance of Script Analysis by Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmes, E.; Bush, J. D.; Pike, D. L.; Drake, D. G.

    2006-01-01

    Script analysis as a test of executive functions is presumed sensitive to cognitive changes seen with increasing age. Two studies evaluated if gender differences exist in performance on scripts for familiar and unfamiliar tasks in groups of cognitively intact older adults. In Study 1, 26 older adults completed male and female stereotypical…

  20. The Nature of Subjective Cognitive Complaints of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newson, Rachel S.; Kemps, Eva B.

    2006-01-01

    The current study investigated the nature of subjective cognitive complaints of older adults in relation to a broad array of individual cognitive functions known to decline with age. A 60-item questionnaire was developed to examine: (1) whether older adults experience problems with these cognitive functions (problems with cognition); (2) the…

  1. Enduring Ties: Older Adults' Parental Role and Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blieszner, Rosemary; Mancini, Jay A.

    1987-01-01

    Used quantitative and qualitative data from 23 independent older adults to explore these salient aspects of their parenting role: change over time; current need for the role; current expectations of adult children; and rights and responsibilities of older parents. (Author/ABB)

  2. The Family Life Education Needs of Midlife and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Sharon M.; Morris Michael Lane

    2003-01-01

    Using a life course perspective, reports the findings from a needs assessment for midlife and older adults regarding family life education. A sample of 264 adults aged 50 and older indicated interest in 29 family life education topics. The highest rated topics were nutrition and health, fitness and exercise, and positive aspects of aging.…

  3. Older Adult Education: A Guide to Research, Programs, and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manheimer, Ronald J.; And Others

    This guide highlights certain institutional, research, and policy trends in how educational opportunities for older adults have been evolving--especially during the past 15-20 years. Chapter 1 provides an overview of how older adult education looks today within the context of aging issues and programs. It explores purposes, goals, rationales,…

  4. Institutional Facilitation in Sustained Volunteering among Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Songiee

    2009-01-01

    As more nonprofit organizations rely on older adult volunteers to provide services, it is important to retain volunteers for an extended period of time to ensure service quality and the beneficial outcomes of volunteering. Nonprofit organizations are positioned to facilitate older adult volunteers' role performance. Based on an institutional…

  5. Videogames to Promote Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A

    2012-10-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia.

  6. Older Adults' Motivation to Learn in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yi-Yin

    2011-01-01

    A limited amount of literature has discussed older adults in formal education, especially their motivations to learn in higher education. This study aims to understand older adults' learning in the context of higher education. Specifically, this study argues that higher education can function as a stimulating learning environment that helps older…

  7. Young Children's Attitudes and Perceptions of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Judith Lee

    1981-01-01

    Studied the responses of children aged four to seven to photographs of older adults. Results indicated age discrimination was highly accurate by age six. Most expressed positive views of activities shared with grandparents but identified older adults in general as sad, lonely, and not busy. (Author/JAC)

  8. Self-Report Measure of Psychological Abuse of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Anetzberger, Georgia J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested key psychometric properties of the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM), one self-report scale of the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment (OAMA). Design and Methods: Items and theory were developed in a prior concept mapping study. Subsequently, the measures were administered to 226 substantiated clients by 22…

  9. Community College Programs for Older Adults: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don; Ventura-Merkel, Catherine

    Part of an effort to expand and improve community college programs and services for older adults, this two-part report summarizes results from a national survey of older adult programs and provides an overview of current trends and their implications for action in community colleges. Following introductory sections, the report discusses a fall…

  10. Effective teaching strategies for the older adult with urologic concerns.

    PubMed

    Zurakowski, Tamara; Taylor, Melissa; Bradway, Christine

    2006-10-01

    Older adults are able to learn and apply new knowledge, such as management of a urological condition, but their learning style differs from that of younger clients. An understanding of the older adult's learning style, and knowledge of specific teaching strategies will benefit the urologic nurse in the ongoing effort to be a more effective patient educator.

  11. Volunteerism, Health, and Civic Engagement among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Gillespie, Alayna A.

    2008-01-01

    In North America, 40-50 per cent of older adults are actively involved as formal volunteers in providing diverse health and human services. We review empirical studies concerning older adults' motivations for volunteering, as well as the health and morale benefits they derive from this expression of altruism. Knowledge of the exact nature and…

  12. Validation of the Italian version of the dissociative experience scale for adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    De Pasquale, Concetta; Sciacca, Federica; Hichy, Zira

    2016-01-01

    The Dissociative Experience Scale for adolescent (A-DES), a 30-item, multidimensional, self-administered questionnaire, was validated using a large sample of American young people sample. We reported the linguistic validation process and the metric validity of the Italian version of A-DES in the Italy. A set of questionnaires was provided to a total of 633 participants from March 2015 to April 2016. The participants consisted of 282 boys and 351 girls, and their average age was between 18 and 24 years old. The translation process consisted of two consecutive steps: forward-backward translation and acceptability testing. The psychometric testing was applied to Italian students who were recruited from the Italian Public Schools and Universities in Sicily. Informed consent was obtained from all participants at the research. All individuals completed the A-DES. Reliability and validity were tested. The translated version was validated on a total of 633 Italian students. The reliability of A-DES total is .926. It is composed by 4 subscales: Dissociative amnesia, Absorption and imaginative involvement, Depersonalization and derealization, and Passive influence. The reliability of each subscale is: .756 for dissociative amnesia, .659 for absorption and imaginative involvement, .850 for depersonalization and derealization, and .743 for passive influence. The Italian version of the A-DES constitutes a useful instrument to measure dissociative experience in adolescents and young adults in Italy.

  13. Estradiol and metabolic syndrome in older italian men: The InCHIANTI Study.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; Lauretani, Fulvio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Bandinelli, Stefania; Basaria, Shehzad; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Giumelli, Claudio; Luci, Michele; Najjar, Samer S; Metter, E Jeffrey; Valenti, Giorgio; Guralnik, Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) with age in older men has been linked with decreasing testosterone levels. Interestingly, while testosterone levels decline with age, estradiol (E2) levels remain relatively stable, resulting in a decreased testosterone:E2 ratio. Because E2 levels tend to be elevated in morbid obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes, it is reasonable to hypothesize that high E2 levels are associated with MS in older men. We studied the relationship of total and free E2 with MS after adjustment for multiple confounders, including age, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6), fasting insulin, and testosterone. Men 65 years or older (age range, 65-96; n = 452) had complete data on E2, testosterone, fasting insulin, sex hormone-binding globulin, IL-6, and albumin. Concentrations of free E2 and free testosterone were calculated using the mass action equations. MS was defined according to Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III). Participants with MS had significantly higher serum free and total E2 (P < .001) (P = .003). After adjusting for confounders, including age, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, log(IL-6), and log(insulin), participants with higher log(total E2) (odds ratio [OR], 2.31; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.39-4.70; P = .02) and higher log(free E2) (OR, 2.69; 1.38-5.24; P < .001) had an increased risk of having MS. Log(free E2) (P = .04) maintained significant correlation with MS, even after further adjustment for BMI. In older men, high E2 is independently associated with MS. Whether confirmed in other studies, assessment of E2 should be also considered in older men. Whether changes in this hormonal pattern play a role in the development of MS should be further tested in longitudinal studies.

  14. Management of Depression in Older Adults: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kok, Rob M; Reynolds, Charles F

    2017-05-23

    Depression in older adults is a common psychiatric disorder affecting their health-related quality of life. Major depression occurs in 2% of adults aged 55 years or older, and its prevalence rises with increasing age. In addition, 10% to 15% of older adults have clinically significant depressive symptoms, even in the absence of major depression. Depression presents with the same symptoms in older adults as it does in younger populations. In contrast to younger patients, older adults with depression more commonly have several concurrent medical disorders and cognitive impairment. Depression occurring in older patients is often undetected or inadequately treated. Antidepressants are the best-studied treatment option, but psychotherapy, exercise therapy, and electroconvulsive therapy may also be effective. Psychotherapy is recommended for patients with mild to moderate severity depression. Many older patients need the same doses of antidepressant medication that are used for younger adult patients. Although antidepressants may effectively treat depression in older adults, they tend to pose greater risk for adverse events because of multiple medical comorbidities and drug-drug interactions in case of polypharmacy. High-quality evidence does not support the use of pharmacologic treatment of depression in patients with dementia. Polypharmacy in older patients can be minimized by using the Screening Tool of Older Persons Prescriptions and Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (STOPP/START) criteria, a valid and reliable screening tool that enables physicians to avoid potentially inappropriate medications, undertreatment, or errors of omissions in older people. Antidepressants can be gradually tapered over a period of several weeks, but discontinuation of antidepressants may be associated with relapse or recurrence of depression, so the patient should be closely observed. Major depression in older adults is common and can be effectively treated with

  15. Destination memory accuracy and confidence in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tara L; Jefferson, Susan C

    2018-01-01

    Background/Study Context: Nascent research on destination memory-remembering to whom we tell particular information-suggested that older adults have deficits in destination memory and are more confident on inaccurate responses than younger adults. This study assessed the effects of age, attentional resources, and mental imagery on destination memory accuracy and confidence in younger and older adults. Using computer format, participants told facts to pictures of famous people in one of four conditions (control, self-focus, refocus, imagery). Older adults had lower destination memory accuracy than younger adults, driven by a higher level of false alarms. Whereas younger adults were more confident in accurate answers, older adults were more confident in inaccurate answers. Accuracy across participants was lowest when attention was directed internally but significantly improved when mental imagery was used. Importantly, the age-related differences in false alarms and high-confidence inaccurate answers disappeared when imagery was used. Older adults are more likely than younger adults to commit destination memory errors and are less accurate in related confidence judgments. Furthermore, the use of associative memory strategies may help improve destination memory across age groups, improve the accuracy of confidence judgments in older adults, and decrease age-related destination memory impairment, particularly in young-old adults.

  16. Destination memory for emotional information in older adults.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Destination memory, remembering the destination of the information that one tells, shows significant age-related decline. In the present paper, the authors sought to determine whether destination memory can be improved in older adults using emotional stimuli. This aim was motivated by findings showing better context memory for emotional than for neutral information in older adults. Younger and older adults were asked to tell neutral facts to three types of faces: a neutral one, an emotionally positive one, and an emotionally negative one. On a later recognition test, participants were asked to associate each previously told fact with the face to whom it was told. Destination memory performance was better for facts told to negative than to positive faces, and the latter memory was better than for neutral faces in older adults. Older adults seem to place higher emphasis on emotional material relative to neutral faces, showing better memory for the association between statements and emotional faces.

  17. An examination of electronic health information privacy in older adults.

    PubMed

    Le, Thai; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are the quickest growing demographic group and are key consumers of health services. As the United States health system transitions to electronic health records, it is important to understand older adult perceptions of privacy and security. We performed a secondary analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey (2012, Cycle 1), to examine differences in perceptions of electronic health information privacy between older adults and the general population. We found differences in the level of importance placed on access to electronic health information (older adults placed greater emphasis on provider as opposed to personal access) and tendency to withhold information out of concerns for privacy and security (older adults were less likely to withhold information). We provide recommendations to alleviate some of these privacy concerns. This may facilitate greater use of electronic health communication between patient and provider, while promoting shared decision making.

  18. Older Adults' Uptake and Adherence to Exercise Classes: Instructors' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hawley-Hague, Helen; Horne, Maria; Skelton, Dawn A; Todd, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Exercise classes provide a range of benefits for older adults, but adherence levels are poor. We know little of instructors' experiences of delivering exercise classes to older adults. Semistructured interviews, informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), were conducted with instructors (n = 19) delivering multicomponent exercise classes to establish their perspectives on older adults' uptake and adherence to exercise classes. Analysis revealed 'barriers' to uptake related to identity, choice/control, cost, and venue, and 'solutions' included providing choice/control, relating exercise to identity, a personal touch, and social support. Barriers to adherence included unrealistic expectations and social influences, and solutions identified were encouraging commitment, creating social cohesion, and an emphasis on achieving outcomes. Older adults' attitudes were an underlying theme, which related to all barriers and solutions. The instructor plays an important, but not isolated, role in older adults' uptake and adherence to classes. Instructors' perspectives help us to further understand how we can design successful exercise classes.

  19. Domestic violence and mental health in older adults.

    PubMed

    Knight, Lucy; Hester, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    Domestic violence affects every age group and is present throughout the life span, but, while the mental health impact of domestic violence is clearly established in working age adults, less is known about the nature and impact of domestic violence among older adults. This review, therefore, aimed to synthesize findings on the prevalence, nature, and impact of domestic violence among older adults, and its identification and management. Electronic searches were conducted of Medline, PsycINFO, Cinahl, and Embase to identify studies reporting on the mental health and domestic violence in older adults. Findings suggested that, although prevalence figures are variable, the likely lifetime prevalence for women over the age of 65 is between 20-30%. Physical abuse is suggested to decrease with age, but rates of emotional abuse appear to be stable over the lifespan. Among older adults, domestic violence is strongly associated with physical and mental health problems, and the scarce research comparing the impact of domestic violence across the age cohorts suggests that the physical health of older victims may be more severely affected than younger victims. In contrast, there is evidence that older victims may experience less psychological distress in response to domestic violence than younger victims. Internationally, evidence on the management of domestic violence in older adults is sparse. Findings suggest, however, that identification of domestic violence is poor among older adults, and there are very limited options for onwards referral and support.

  20. Community covariates of malnutrition based mortality among older adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Berthelot, Emily R

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify community level covariates of malnutrition-based mortality among older adults. A community level framework was delineated which explains rates of malnutrition-related mortality among older adults as a function of community levels of socioeconomic disadvantage, disability, and social isolation among members of this group. County level data on malnutrition mortality of people 65 years of age and older for the period 2000-2003 were drawn from the CDC WONDER system databases. County level measures of older adult socioeconomic disadvantage, disability, and social isolation were derived from the 2000 US Census of Population and Housing. Negative binomial regression models adjusting for the size of the population at risk, racial composition, urbanism, and region were estimated to assess the relationships among these indicators. Results from negative binomial regression analysis yielded the following: a standard deviation increase in socioeconomic/physical disadvantage was associated with a 12% increase in the rate of malnutrition mortality among older adults (p < 0.001), whereas a standard deviation increase in social isolation was associated with a 5% increase in malnutrition mortality among older adults (p < 0.05). Community patterns of malnutrition based mortality among older adults are partly a function of levels of socioeconomic and physical disadvantage and social isolation among older adults. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Older Adults Make Less Advantageous Decisions than Younger Adults: Cognitive and Psychological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; McGillivray, Shannon; Finn, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that older adults make less advantageous decisions than younger adults on the Iowa gambling task (IGT). Less advantageous decisions, as measured by the IGT, are characterized by choices that favor larger versus smaller immediate rewards, even though such choices may result in long-term negative consequences. The IGT, and measures of neuropsychological function, personality, and psychopathology were administered to 164 healthy adults 18–85 years of age. Older adults performed less advantageously on the IGT compared with younger adults. Additionally, a greater number of older adult’s IGT performances were classified as ‘impaired’ when compared to younger adults. Less advantageous decisions were associated with obsessive symptoms in older adults and with antisocial symptoms in younger adults. Performance on the IGT was positively associated with auditory working memory and psychomotor function in young adults, and in immediate memory in older adults. PMID:17445297

  2. Project Roadmap: Reeducating Older Adults in Maintaining AIDS Prevention--A Secondary Intervention for Older HIV-Positive Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Saint Jean, Gilbert; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Metsch, Lisa; Mendez-Mulet, Luis; Eisdorfer, Carl; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The number of older adults living with HIV/AIDS is larger than ever. Little is known about their sexual behaviors, although contrary to stereotypes, older adults desire and engage in sexual activity. Despite increased recognition of the need for prevention interventions targeting HIV-positive individuals, no secondary HIV prevention interventions…

  3. A comparative study of negative life events and depressive symptoms among healthy older adults and older adults with chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Gao, Tingting; Gao, Jinglei; Kong, Yixi; Hu, Yueyang; Wang, Ruimei; Mei, Songli

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to study internal relations and functionary mechanism between social support, coping style, negative life events and depressive symptoms and compare these relations in healthy older adults and older adults with chronic disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. In total, 1,264 older adults with chronic disease and 749 healthy older adults participated in this investigation which consist of socio-demographic characters, negative life events, social support, coping style and depressive symptoms. The path and direction of variable function in healthy older adults were inconsistent with older adults with chronic disease. Older adults with chronic disease had more severe depressive symptoms and negative life events, and lower social support and positive coping style. Negative life events, subjective support, positive coping style and negative coping style were significantly predicted depressive symptoms. Objective support may weaken the influence of negative life events on depressive symptoms in chronic disease group. Utilization of support and positive coping style worsen the effect of negative life events on depressive symptoms in healthy older adults. This study implied that to improve their mental health, attention should be paid to the role of biological, psychological and social stress factors and its inherent law of interaction.

  4. Both younger and older adults have difficulty updating emotional memories.

    PubMed

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Huffman, Derek; Mather, Mara

    2013-03-01

    The main purpose of the study was to examine whether emotion impairs associative memory for previously seen items in older adults, as previously observed in younger adults. Thirty-two younger adults and 32 older adults participated. The experiment consisted of 2 parts. In Part 1, participants learned picture-object associations for negative and neutral pictures. In Part 2, they learned picture-location associations for negative and neutral pictures; half of these pictures were seen in Part 1 whereas the other half were new. The dependent measure was how many locations of negative versus neutral items in the new versus old categories participants remembered in Part 2. Both groups had more difficulty learning the locations of old negative pictures than of new negative pictures. However, this pattern was not observed for neutral items. Despite the fact that older adults showed overall decline in associative memory, the impairing effect of emotion on updating associative memory was similar between younger and older adults.

  5. Disability rank in vestibular older adults.

    PubMed

    Aratani, Mayra Cristina; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues; Caovilla, Heloísa Helena; Gazzola, Juliana Maria; Ganança, Mauricio Malavasi; Ganança, Fernando Freitas

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the hierarchical structure of activities of daily living (ADL) among vestibular older adults, according to its power to discriminate disability. An exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted comprising 235 elderly, aged 65 years and older, with chronic vestibular dysfunction. Functional capacity was assessed through the Brazilian version of OARS Multidimensional Functional Assessment Questionnaire which consists of 15 activities of daily living (ADL). The sample was classified in each ADL according to the difficulty level in performing the activity. A multiple correlation analysis technique and discriminant analysis was used to analyze the hierarchical structure of ADL. The sample consisted of 75.3% women, with an average age of 73.55±5.94 years. The ADL and their respective discrimination measurements were: getting into and out of bed (0.293); eating (0.129); combing hair (0.150); walking on flat surfaces (0.270); having a bath/shower (0.512); getting dressed (0.325); getting to the toilet in time (0.107); climbing stairs (0.338); taking medicines on time (0.035); walking close to home (0.529); shopping (0.503); preparing meals (0.398); cutting toenails (0.242); getting off buses (0.452); and cleaning the house (0.408). The tasks that reflect a higher demand upon the vestibular system were the most impaired, in the following order: walking close to home, having a bath/shower, shopping, getting off buses, cleaning the house, preparing meals, climbing stairs, getting dressed, getting into and out of bed, walking on flat surfaces, cutting toenails, combing hair, eating, getting to the toilet in time, taking medicines on time. © 2010 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Alcohol and prescription drug safety in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Zanjani, Faika; Hoogland, Aasha I; Downer, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to investigate older adults’ knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, and to identify pharmacists’ willingness to disseminate prescription drug safety information to older adults. Methods The convenience sample consisted of 48 older adults aged 54–89 years who were recruited from a local pharmacy and who completed surveys addressing their alcohol consumption, understanding of alcohol and prescription drug interactions, and willingness to change habits regarding alcohol consumption and prescription drugs. To address pharmacist willingness, 90 pharmacists from local pharmacies volunteered and answered questions regarding their willingness to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults. Results Older adults reported low knowledge of alcohol and prescription drug safety, with women tending to be slightly more knowledgeable. More importantly, those who drank in the previous few months were less willing to talk to family and friends about how alcohol can have harmful interactions with prescription drugs, or to be an advocate for safe alcohol and prescription drug use than those who had not had a drink recently. Pharmacists reported that they were willing to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults via a variety of formats, including displaying or distributing a flyer, and directly administering a brief intervention. Conclusion In this study, older adults were found to have inadequate knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, but pharmacists who regularly come in contact with older adults indicated that they were ready and willing to talk to older adults about prescription drug safety. Future research should focus on interventions whereby pharmacists disseminate prescription drug safety information to older adults in order to improve healthy prescription drug and alcohol behavior and reduce medical and health costs associated with

  7. Feasibility of mobile mental wellness training for older adults.

    PubMed

    Similä, Heidi; Immonen, Milla; Toska-Tervola, Jaana; Enwald, Heidi; Keränen, Niina; Kangas, Maarit; Jämsä, Timo; Korpelainen, Raija

    2018-03-09

    Mobile technology has been increasingly adopted in promotion of mental health among older people. This study assessed the feasibility of a mobile mental wellness training application for individual use and for group work from the perspectives of older adults and social care professionals. The older individuals recruited for the study were participants in a Circle of Friends group and family caregivers' peer support group offered by the communal senior services. The qualitative and quantitative results of interviews, questionnaires, observation, and application usage were reported. Seven older adults started using the application independently at home in parallel with the group activity. This study revealed new information regarding the barriers to the older adults' full adoption of such mobile technologies. The results indicated that there may be potential in the incorporation of mobile technologies in promotion of mental health of older people at group settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Driving patterns in older adults with glaucoma.

    PubMed

    van Landingham, Suzanne W; Hochberg, Chad; Massof, Robert W; Chan, Emilie; Friedman, David S; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2013-02-21

    The ability to drive is important for ensuring quality of life for many older adults. Glaucoma is prevalent in this age group and may affect driving. The purpose of this study is to determine if glaucoma and glaucomatous visual field (VF) loss are associated with driving cessation, limitations, and deference to another driver in older adults. Cross-sectional study. Eighty-one glaucoma subjects and 58 glaucoma suspect controls between age 60 and 80 reported if they had ceased driving, limited their driving in various ways, or preferred another to drive. Twenty-three percent of glaucoma subjects and 6.9% of suspects had ceased driving (p = 0.01). Glaucoma subjects also had more driving limitations than suspects (2.0 vs. 1.1, p = 0.007). In multivariable models, driving cessation was more likely for glaucoma subjects as compared to suspects (OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.1-14.7; p = 0.03). The odds of driving cessation doubled with each 5 decibel (dB) decrement in the better-eye VF mean deviation (MD) (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4-2.9; p < 0.001). Glaucoma subjects were also more likely than suspects to report a greater number of driving limitations (OR = 4.7; 95% CI = 1.3-16.8; p = 0.02). The likelihood of reporting more limitations increased with the VF loss severity (OR = 1.6 per 5 dB decrement in the better-eye VF MD; 95% CI = 1.1-2.4; p = 0.02). Neither glaucoma nor VF MD was associated with other driver preference (p > 0.1 for both). Glaucoma and glaucomatous VF loss are associated with greater likelihood of driving cessation and greater limitation of driving in the elderly. Further prospective study is merited to assess when and why people with glaucoma change their driving habits, and to determine if their observed self-regulation of driving is adequate to ensure safety.

  9. Young children's attitudes and perceptions of older adults.

    PubMed

    Burke, J L

    Children ages four to seven judged relative ages of unfamiliar adults from photographs and chose photographs of adults in response to sociometric items. Age discrimination was highly accurate by age six. Children identified older adults as sad, lonely and not busy, but older adults were bypassed on items like "knows a lot" and preferences for teachers. In interviews, most of the children accurately identified older people by relying on physiognomic cues. Most described their grandparents as examples of known older people and expressed positive views of the activities they share. Images of passivity, and of older people engaged in domestic, but not "outside" work were also present. Children's attitudes were found to parallel those held by older adults in recent polls; older children in the sample were more likely to hold stereotypical images. Two-thirds of the children preferred not to grow old. Contact of children with older adults other than their grandparents was limited, especially in work settings or schools. It was concluded that deliberate programming in preschools and elementary schools is important to offset early ageist attitude formation.

  10. Language Acculturation among Older Vietnamese Refugee Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thanh V.

    1990-01-01

    Examined English language acculturation among older Vietnamese refugees (aged 40 and older). Found that age, sex, education in Vietnam, health, and length of residence in United States had some significant relationships with language acculturation. Older Vietnamese people had more problems with language acculturation than younger counterparts, and…

  11. Dental Care Utilization among North Carolina Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Chen, Haiying; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Bell, Ronny A.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Reynolds, Teresa; Quandt, Sara A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This analysis delineates the predisposing, need, and enabling factors that are significantly associated with regular and recent dental care in a multi-ethnic sample of rural older adults. Methods A cross-sectional comprehensive oral health survey conducted with a random, multi-ethnic (African American, American Indian, white) sample of 635 community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and older was completed in two rural southern counties. Results Almost no edentulous rural older adults received dental care. Slightly more than one-quarter (27.1%) of dentate rural older adults received regular dental care and slightly more than one-third (36.7%) received recent dental care. Predisposing (education) and enabling (regular place for dental care) factors associated with receiving regular and recent dental care among dentate participants point to greater resources being the driving force in receiving dental care. Contrary to expectations of the Behavioral Model of Health Services, those with the least need (e.g., better self-rated oral health) received regular dental care; this has been referred to as the Paradox of Dental Need. Conclusions Regular and recent dental care are infrequent among rural older adults. Those not receiving dental care are those who most need care. Community access to dental care and the ability of older adults to pay for dental care must be addressed by public health policy to improve the health and quality of life of older adults in rural communities. PMID:22536828

  12. Design of smart home sensor visualizations for older adults.

    PubMed

    Le, Thai; Reeder, Blaine; Chung, Jane; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2014-01-01

    Smart home sensor systems provide a valuable opportunity to continuously and unobtrusively monitor older adult wellness. However, the density of sensor data can be challenging to visualize, especially for an older adult consumer with distinct user needs. We describe the design of sensor visualizations informed by interviews with older adults. The goal of the visualizations is to present sensor activity data to an older adult consumer audience that supports both longitudinal detection of trends and on-demand display of activity details for any chosen day. The design process is grounded through participatory design with older adult interviews during a six-month pilot sensor study. Through a secondary analysis of interviews, we identified the visualization needs of older adults. We incorporated these needs with cognitive perceptual visualization guidelines and the emotional design principles of Norman to develop sensor visualizations. We present a design of sensor visualization that integrate both temporal and spatial components of information. The visualization supports longitudinal detection of trends while allowing the viewer to view activity within a specific date. Appropriately designed visualizations for older adults not only provide insight into health and wellness, but also are a valuable resource to promote engagement within care.

  13. Design of smart home sensor visualizations for older adults.

    PubMed

    Le, Thai; Reeder, Blaine; Chung, Jane; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2014-07-24

    Smart home sensor systems provide a valuable opportunity to continuously and unobtrusively monitor older adult wellness. However, the density of sensor data can be challenging to visualize, especially for an older adult consumer with distinct user needs. We describe the design of sensor visualizations informed by interviews with older adults. The goal of the visualizations is to present sensor activity data to an older adult consumer audience that supports both longitudinal detection of trends and on-demand display of activity details for any chosen day. The design process is grounded through participatory design with older adult interviews during a six-month pilot sensor study. Through a secondary analysis of interviews, we identified the visualization needs of older adults. We incorporated these needs with cognitive perceptual visualization guidelines and the emotional design principles of Norman to develop sensor visualizations. We present a design of sensor visualization that integrate both temporal and spatial components of information. The visualization supports longitudinal detection of trends while allowing the viewer to view activity within a specific date.CONCLUSIONS: Appropriately designed visualizations for older adults not only provide insight into health and wellness, but also are a valuable resource to promote engagement within care.

  14. Pilot testing a digital pet avatar for older adults.

    PubMed

    Chi, Nai-Ching; Sparks, Olivia; Lin, Shih-Yin; Lazar, Amanda; Thompson, Hilaire J; Demiris, George

    Social isolation in older adults is a major public health concern. An embodied conversational agent (ECA) has the potential to enhance older adults' social interaction. However, little is known about older adults' experience with an ECA. In this paper, we conducted a pilot study to examine the perceived acceptance and utility of a tablet-based conversational agent in the form of an avatar (termed "digital pet") for older adults. We performed secondary analysis of data collected from a study that employed the use of a digital pet in ten older adults' homes for three months. Most of the participants enjoyed the companionship, entertainment, reminders, and instant assistance from the digital pet. However, participants identified limited conversational ability and technical issues as system challenges. Privacy, dependence, and cost were major concerns. Future applications should maximize the agent's conversational ability and the system's overall usability. Our results can inform future designs of conversational agents for older adults, which need to include older adults as system co-designers to maximize usability and acceptance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Perspectives on wellness self-monitoring tools for older adults.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jina; Le, Thai; Reeder, Blaine; Thompson, Hilaire J; Demiris, George

    2013-11-01

    Our purpose was to understand different stakeholder perceptions about the use of self-monitoring tools, specifically in the area of older adults' personal wellness. In conjunction with the advent of personal health records, tracking personal health using self-monitoring technologies shows promising patient support opportunities. While clinicians' tools for monitoring of older adults have been explored, we know little about how older adults may self-monitor their wellness and health and how their health care providers would perceive such use. We conducted three focus groups with health care providers (n=10) and four focus groups with community-dwelling older adults (n=31). Older adult participants' found the concept of self-monitoring unfamiliar and this influenced a narrowed interest in the use of wellness self-monitoring tools. On the other hand, health care provider participants showed open attitudes toward wellness monitoring tools for older adults and brainstormed about various stakeholders' use cases. The two participant groups showed diverging perceptions in terms of: perceived uses, stakeholder interests, information ownership and control, and sharing of wellness monitoring tools. Our paper provides implications and solutions for how older adults' wellness self-monitoring tools can enhance patient-health care provider interaction, patient education, and improvement in overall wellness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Depression and Mobility Among Older Adults in Mexico: ENSANUT 2012.

    PubMed

    Picazzo-Palencia, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Depression among older people can be associated with limitations in physical mobility. The ENSANUT 2012 data set was used. A secondary data analysis was conducted on a total sample of 6,525 Mexicans 60 years and older. Findings indicate that depressive symptoms among older people derive from their limitations in mobility rather than from their age. In Mexico, the prevalence of major depressive disorders is higher among older adults than among the rest of the adults. Hence, as the prevalence of this problem grows, the need for appropriate mental health attention will increase in Mexico. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Personality and Lung Function in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, Antonio; Stephan, Yannick; Luchetti, Martina; Gonzalez-Rothi, Ricardo; Sutin, Angelina R

    2017-10-01

    Lung disease is a leading cause of disability and death among older adults. We examine whether personality traits are associated with lung function and shortness of breath (dyspnea) in a national cohort with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Participants (N = 12,670) from the Health and Retirement Study were tested for peak expiratory flow (PEF) and completed measures of personality, health behaviors, and a medical history. High neuroticism and low extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were associated with lower PEF, and higher likelihood of COPD and dyspnea. Conscientiousness had the strongest and most consistent associations, including lower risk of PEF less than 80% of the predicted value (OR = 0.67; 0.62-0.73) and dyspnea (OR = 0.52; 0.47-0.57). Although attenuated, the associations remained significant when accounting for smoking, physical activity, and chronic diseases including cardiovascular and psychiatric disorders. The associations between personality and PEF or dyspnea were similar among those with or without COPD, suggesting that psychological links to lung function are not disease dependent. In longitudinal analyses, high neuroticism (β = -0.019) and low conscientiousness (β = 0.027) predicted steeper declines in PEF. A vulnerable personality profile is common among individuals with limited lung function and COPD, predicts shortness of breath and worsening lung function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Perceptual processing deficits underlying reduced FFOV efficiency in older adults.

    PubMed

    Power, Garry F; Conlon, Elizabeth G

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are known to perform more poorly on measures of the functional field of view (FFOV) than younger adults. Specific contributions by poor bottom-up and or top-down control of visual attention to the reduced FFOV of older adults were investigated. Error rates of older and younger adults were compared on a FFOV task in which a central identification task, peripheral localization task, and peripheral distractors were presented in high and low contrast. Older adults made more errors in all conditions. The effect of age was independent of the contrast of the peripheral target or distractors. The performance cost of including the central task was measured and found to be negligible for younger adults. For older adults performance costs were present in all conditions, greater with distractors than without, and greater for a low rather than high contrast central stimulus when the peripheral target was high contrast. These results are consistent with older adults compensating for reduced sensory input or bottom-up capture of attention by relying more heavily on top-down control for which they are resource limited.

  19. Improving associative memory in older adults with unitization.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Fahad N; Fernandes, Myra; Hockley, William E

    2015-01-01

    We examined if unitization inherent preexperimentally could reduce the associative deficit in older adults. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults studied compound word (CW; e.g., store keeper) and noncompound word (NCW; e.g., needle birth) pairs. We found a reduction in the age-related associative deficit such that older but not younger adults showed a discrimination advantage for CW relative to NCW pairs on a yes-no associative recognition test. These results suggest that CW compared to NCW word pairs provide schematic support that older adults can use to improve their memory. In Experiment 2, reducing study time in younger adults decreased associative recognition performance, but did not produce a discrimination advantage for CW pairs. In Experiment 3, both older and younger adults showed a discrimination advantage for CW pairs on a two-alternative forced-choice recognition test, which encourages greater use of familiarity. These results suggest that test format influenced young adults' use of familiarity during associative recognition of unitized pairs, and that older adults rely more on familiarity than recollection for associative recognition. Unitization of preexperimental associations, as in CW pairs, can alleviate age-related associative deficits.

  20. Priorities for Action in a Rural Older Adults Study

    PubMed Central

    Averill, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a recent study of older adults in the rural southwestern United States and discusses practice and research implications. The aim of the study was to analyze health disparities and strengths in the contexts of rurality, aging, a depressed economy, and limited health resources. Identified themes needing action included sustained access to prescriptions, transportation solutions for older adults in isolated communities, inadequate access to care, poor infrastructure and coordination of services, scarce assisted living and in-home care for frail older adults, and barriers related to culture, language, and economics. PMID:22929381

  1. Suicide in Older Adults: The Role of Emotions and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Szanto, Katalin; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2014-01-01

    Suicide in older adults is a significant clinical concern. In this review of recent findings, we concentrate on the role of emotions and cognition in suicide risk and behavior in older adults. We discuss the epidemiology of suicide in older adults, integrate recent findings on non-psychotic major depression, schizophrenia and suicidal ideation, explore the relationship of emotion regulation with suicide, present recent advances on suicide in demented patients, and describe the latest developments on cognition and decision processes in suicide. PMID:25226883

  2. Older Adults Expend More Listening Effort than Young Adults Recognizing Speech in Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Penny Anderson; Gagne, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Listening in noisy situations is a challenging experience for many older adults. The authors hypothesized that older adults exert more listening effort compared with young adults. Listening effort involves the attention and cognitive resources required to understand speech. The purpose was (a) to quantify the amount of listening effort…

  3. Characteristics of older adult problem gamblers calling a gambling helpline.

    PubMed

    Potenza, Marc N; Steinberg, Marvin A; Wu, Ran; Rounsaville, Bruce J; O'malley, Stephanie S

    2006-06-01

    Few investigations have characterized groups of older adults with gambling problems, and published reports are currently limited by small samples of older adult problem gamblers. Gambling helplines represent a widespread mechanism for assisting problem gamblers to move into treatment settings. Given data from older adult problem gamblers in treatment, we hypothesized that older as compared with younger adult problem gamblers calling a gambling helpline would be less likely to report gambling-related problems. Logistic regression analyses were performed on data obtained from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001, inclusive, from callers with gambling problems (N = 1,084) contacting the Connecticut Council on Problem Gambling Helpline. Of the 1,018 phone calls used in the logistic regression analyses, 168 (16.5%) were from older adults and 850 (83.5%) from younger adults. Age-related differences were observed in demographic features, types and patterns of gambling reported as problematic, gambling-related problems and psychiatric symptoms, substance use problems, patterns of indebtedness, and family histories of addictive disorders. Older as compared with younger adult problem gamblers were more likely to report having lower incomes, longer durations of gambling, fewer types of problematic gambling, and problems with casino slot machine gambling and less likely to report gambling-related anxiety, family problems, illegal behaviors and arrests, drug problems, indebtedness to bookies or acquaintances, family histories of drug abuse, and problems with casino table gambling. Older as compared with younger adult problem gamblers calling a gambling helpline differ on many clinically relevant features. The findings suggest the need for improved and unique prevention and treatment strategies for older adults with gambling problems.

  4. Serotonin Modulation of Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Depressed Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gwenn S.; Kramer, Elisse; Hermann, Carol.; Ma, Yilong; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Monoamine dysfunction, particularly of the serotonin system, has been the dominant hypothesis guiding research and treatment development in affective disorders. The majority of research has been performed in mid-life depressed adults. The importance of understanding the neurobiology of depression in older adults is underscored by increased rates of mortality and completed suicide and an increased risk of Alzheimer's dementia. To evaluate the dynamic response of the serotonin system, the acute effects of citalopram infusion on cerebral glucose metabolism was measured in depressed older adults and control subjects. The hypothesis was tested that smaller decreases in metabolism would be observed in cortical and limbic regions in depressed older adults relative to controls. Methods Sixteen depressed older adults and thirteen controls underwent two resting Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies with the radiotracer [18F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose after placebo and citalopram infusions. Results In controls compared to depressed older adults, greater citalopram induced decreases in cerebral metabolism were observed in the right anterior cingulate, middle temporal (bilaterally), left precuneus, and left parahippocampal gyri. Greater decreases in the depressed older adults than controls was observed in left superior and left middle frontal gyri and increases in left inferior parietal lobule, left cuneus, left thalamus and right putamen. Conclusion In depressed older adults relative to controls, the cerebral metabolic response to citalopram is blunted in cortico-cortico and cortico-limbic pathways and increased in the left hemisphere (greater decrease interiorly and increases posterior). These findings suggest both blunted and compensatory cerebral metabolic responses to citalopram in depressed older adults. PMID:19368900

  5. Barriers to treatment for older adults seeking psychological therapy.

    PubMed

    Wuthrich, Viviana M; Frei, Jacqueline

    2015-07-01

    Older adults with mental health disorders underutilize mental health services more than other adults. While there are well known general barriers to help seeking across the population, specific barriers for older adults include difficulties with transportation, beliefs that it is normal to be anxious and depressed in old age, and beliefs by referrers that psychological therapy is less likely to be effective. This study examined barriers related to identifying the need for help, seeking help and participating in therapy in a clinical population of older adults. Sixty older adults (aged 60-79 years) with comorbid anxiety and unipolar mood disorders completed barriers to treatment questionnaires before and after psychological group treatment, as well as measures of cognitive ability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life at baseline. The greatest barriers to help seeking related to difficulties identifying the need for help, with 50% of the sample reporting their belief that their symptoms were normal as a major barrier. Other major barriers identified were related to: self-reliance, cost of treatment, and fear of medication replicating previous findings. The main barriers reported for difficulties in continuing therapy included not finding therapy helpful, cost of treatment, and thinking that the therapist did not understand their issues. The main barriers identified related to issues with identifying the need to seek help. More attention is needed to educate older adults and professionals about the need for, and effectiveness of, psychological therapies for older adults with anxiety and depression to reduce this barrier to help seeking.

  6. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Presley, Carolyn J.; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G.; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. PMID:27197919

  7. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Presley, Carolyn J; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D; Wildes, Tanya M; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasibility study of an attention training application for older adults.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nikki L; Mogle, Jacqueline; Colancecco, Elise; Dick, Robert; Hannan, John; Lin, Feng Vankee

    2015-09-01

    Technology-based attention training has demonstrated promise in its potential to improve cognitive functioning in older people. Developing mobile applications, with older users specifically in mind, may support future dissemination of these interventions and integration into daily life. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of an Attention Training Application (ATA) for community-dwelling older adults using mobile technology. A descriptive, mixed-methods design was used to capture older adults' feedback on the usability and acceptability of the ATA. A convenience sample of older adults (n = 9) from two independent living facilities participated in a 2-hour training and practice session with the ATA. Participants were given personally tailored instructions for using the mobile device and the ATA specifically. Following a practice session, participants provided ratings on multiple components of the ATA and completed an audio-recorded, semi-structured interview to provide detailed descriptions of their experience and perceptions. An iterative process of content analysis was used to characterise the open-ended responses. Participants rated the ATA favourably overall on several 0-10 scales including likeability [8.5 (1.6)], interest [8.8 (2.3)] and satisfaction [8.2 (1.9)]. The qualitative analyses revealed several issues relevant to the feasibility of the ATA among older people including the importance of the technological background of the user, limiting negative feedback, challenges with the touch screen interface, personal preferences for challenge, extending the practice period and the difficulty of the dual-task condition. The use of the ATA is feasible in the older adult population. Future development should specifically consider personal characteristics as well as preferences to maximise usability and acceptability among older people. Older adults enjoyed the ATA. This opens doors to user-friendly technological interventions that may be

  9. Living environment and mobility of older adults.

    PubMed

    Cress, M Elaine; Orini, Stefania; Kinsler, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Older adults often elect to move into smaller living environments. Smaller living space and the addition of services provided by a retirement community (RC) may make living easier for the individual, but it may also reduce the amount of daily physical activity and ultimately reduce functional ability. With home size as an independent variable, the primary purpose of this study was to evaluate daily physical activity and physical function of community dwellers (CD; n = 31) as compared to residents of an RC (n = 30). In this cross-sectional study design, assessments included: the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance - 10 test, with a possible range of 0-100, higher scores reflecting better function; Step Activity Monitor (StepWatch 3.1); a physical activity questionnaire, the area of the home (in square meters). Groups were compared by one-way ANOVA. A general linear regression model was used to predict the number of steps per day at home. The level of significance was p < 0.05. Of the 61 volunteers (mean age: 79 ± 6.3 years; range: 65-94 years), the RC living space (68 ± 37.7 m(2)) was 62% smaller than the CD living space (182.8 ± 77.9 m(2); p = 0.001). After correcting for age, the RC took fewer total steps per day excluding exercise (p = 0.03) and had lower function (p = 0.005) than the CD. On average, RC residents take 3,000 steps less per day and have approximately 60% of the living space of a CD. Home size and physical function were primary predictors of the number of steps taken at home, as found using a general linear regression analysis. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. When touch matters: an affective tactile intervention for older adults.

    PubMed

    Mammarella, Nicola; Fairfield, Beth; Di Domenico, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    Our goal was to test the hypothesis that positive tactile experiences can lead to an improvement in cognitive, emotional skills and perceived quality of life in a group of healthy community-dwelling older adults. During a 10-week period, older adults completed a series of activities that required manipulating either a piece of velvet, a piece of canvas or velcro. Only older adults who worked with velvet showed an increase in cognitive and emotional skills, and the perceived quality of life. Our study is one of the first to show that positive tactile experiences might have a beneficial effect on the psychological well-being of healthy community-dwelling older adults across different domains. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Stereotype threat can reduce older adults' memory errors

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Sarah J.; Mather, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Stereotype threat often incurs the cost of reducing the amount of information that older adults accurately recall. In the current research we tested whether stereotype threat can also benefit memory. According to the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, threat induces a prevention focus in which people become concerned with avoiding errors of commission and are sensitive to the presence or absence of losses within their environment (Seibt & Förster, 2004). Because of this, we predicted that stereotype threat might reduce older adults' memory errors. Results were consistent with this prediction. Older adults under stereotype threat had lower intrusion rates during free-recall tests (Experiments 1 & 2). They also reduced their false alarms and adopted more conservative response criteria during a recognition test (Experiment 2). Thus, stereotype threat can decrease older adults' false memories, albeit at the cost of fewer veridical memories, as well. PMID:24131297

  12. Stereotype threat can reduce older adults' memory errors.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat often incurs the cost of reducing the amount of information that older adults accurately recall. In the current research, we tested whether stereotype threat can also benefit memory. According to the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, threat induces a prevention focus in which people become concerned with avoiding errors of commission and are sensitive to the presence or absence of losses within their environment. Because of this, we predicted that stereotype threat might reduce older adults' memory errors. Results were consistent with this prediction. Older adults under stereotype threat had lower intrusion rates during free-recall tests (Experiments 1 and 2). They also reduced their false alarms and adopted more conservative response criteria during a recognition test (Experiment 2). Thus, stereotype threat can decrease older adults' false memories, albeit at the cost of fewer veridical memories, as well.

  13. Falls among Older Adults: Public Health Impact and Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Judy A.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of the epidemiology of falls among older adults, describes current prevention strategies, and highlights key areas that need to be addressed, including risk assessments, exercise, and environmental changes. (Contains 50 references.) (JOW)

  14. In Defense of Offering Educational Programs for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Chandra M.

    2003-01-01

    Older adults participate in education to fulfil coping, expressive, contributive, influence, and transcendence needs. Learning can promote sustained mental functioning and increase self-efficacy and social support. (Contains 15 references.) (SK)

  15. Antimnemonic effects of schemas in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Badham, Stephen P.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual’s knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli. PMID:25980799

  16. Spin exercise improves semantic fluency in previously sedentary older adults.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Joe R; McGregor, Keith M; Hass, Chris J; Crosson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest improvements of neurocognitive function among older adults who undergo aerobic exercise training. This study sought to examine the impact of an aerobic exercise intervention on verbal fluency in sedentary older adults. Twenty community-dwelling older adults were recruited and enrolled in either a spin exercise group or a control condition. Participants were evaluated with an estimated V02max test and on measures of letter, category, and switching verbal fluency both before and after a 12-week intervention period. Spin exercise resulted in a significant improvement in category (semantic) verbal fluency when compared with the control group (15% vs. 2% increase, respectively; P = .001). Spin exercise also resulted in a significant improvement in estimated V02max (P = .005). Also important, the spin exercise group demonstrated a high level of adherence (mean adherence = 82.5%). Spin exercise can be an effective mode of aerobic exercise to improve semantic fluency in previously sedentary older adults.

  17. Perceptions of successful aging in Black older adults.

    PubMed

    Troutman, Meredith; Nies, Mary A; Mavellia, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Successful aging is important; however, there is a lack of knowledge on how to promote successful aging in Black older adults. In this study, which examined Black older adults' perceptions of successful aging, a cross-sectional descriptive design was used to examine the psychometric properties of the Successful Aging Inventory and qualitative characteristics of successful aging in 100 Black older adults. The participants' responses to an open-ended question, "What does successful aging mean to you?" revealed relevant aspects of successful aging. Six broad categories emerged: Independence/Ability, Health, Mindset, Activity/Service, Family, and Spirituality. These categories suggest foci for potential interventions to promote successful aging in Black older adults.

  18. Insomnia symptoms, nightmares, and suicidal ideation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Nadorff, Michael R; Fiske, Amy; Sperry, Jeannie A; Petts, Rachel; Gregg, Jeffrey J

    2013-03-01

    Prior research has found that insomnia symptoms and nightmares are associated with suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death by suicide. However, to the best of our knowledge, no research has examined the relation between insomnia symptoms, nightmares, and suicidal ideation in older adults. The current project aimed to fill this void by investigating the relation between insomnia symptoms, nightmares, and suicidal ideation in an older adult sample. The study utilized a cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 81 older adult patients (age ≥ 65 years) recruited from a family medicine clinic. The participants were asked to complete surveys about their sleep, symptoms of depression, and suicidal ideation. Insomnia symptoms, but not nightmares, were significantly related to suicidal ideation. In addition, insomnia symptoms were related to suicidal ideation independent of nightmares. Furthermore, the relation between insomnia symptoms and suicidal ideation was mediated by depressive symptoms. These findings have implications for the identification and treatment of suicidal ideation in older adults.

  19. Facilitating aerobic exercise training in older adults with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Kolanowski, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Emerging science suggests that aerobic exercise might modify the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and improve cognition. However, there are no clinical practice guidelines for aerobic exercise prescription and training in older adults with AD. A few existing studies showed that older adults with AD can participate in aerobic exercise and improve dementia symptoms, but lack adequate descriptions of their aerobic exercise training programs and their clinical applicability. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge about the potential benefits of aerobic exercise in older adults with AD. We then describe the development of a moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program for this population and report results from its initial testing in a feasibility trial completed by two persons with AD. Two older adults with AD completed the aerobic exercise program. Barriers to the program's implementation are described, and methods to improve more wide-spread adoption of such programs and the design of future studies that test them are suggested.

  20. Hydrate for health: listening to older adults' need for information.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Mary H; Marquez, Celine S; Kline, Katherine V; Morris, Erin; Linares, Brenda; Carlson, Barbara W

    2014-10-01

    An interdisciplinary team of faculty and students developed the Hydrate for Health project to provide relevant and evidence-based information to community-dwelling older adults. Evidence-based factsheets on bladder health, nighttime urination, medication safety, and physical activity/exercise, as well as a fluid intake self-monitoring tool, were developed. Four focus groups were conducted and included older adults (N = 21) who participated in activities at two local senior centers to obtain their feedback about the relevance of the factsheets. Extensive revisions were required based on the feedback received. Older adults expressed a desire for pragmatic information (i.e., how to determine fluid sources from food, how to measure water, how to determine their own fluid needs). They also wanted information that could be easily incorporated into daily life. Nurses play a central role in listening to and incorporating older adults' voices into consumer education materials. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Familism and Health Care Provision to Hispanic Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Savage, Brittany; Foli, Karen J; Edwards, Nancy E; Abrahamson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The Hispanic older adult population's rapid growth calls for an awareness of values that can affect the rendering and receipt of care. Familism, or familismo, a traditional Hispanic value, places importance of family over the self and can potentially affect health care perceptions and practices for Hispanic older adults. The current article discusses familism, which is upheld by some Hispanic older adults, and the potential for underuse of health care services. The traditional feminine role, marianismo, and masculine role, machismo, are considered, as well as implications for how decision making may be made by family members rather than the patient. Clinical implications for the provision of health care to Hispanic older adults are provided, along with the importance of considering acculturation and ethnic heterogeneity. Health care management strategies that reflect recognition and respect of familism, yet emphasize optimization of adherence and self-care, are described. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Connecting Socially Isolated Older Rural Adults with Older Volunteers through Expressive Arts.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Ann; Skinner, Mark W; Wilkinson, Fay; Reid, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Employing a participatory arts-based research approach, we examined an innovative program from rural Ontario, Canada, designed to address social isolation among older people. Older socially isolated adults were matched to trained volunteers, where in dyads, the eight pairs created expressive art in their home setting over the course of 10 home visits. With thematic and narrative inquiry, we analysed the experiences and perceptions of the program leader, older participants, and older volunteers via their artistic creations, weekly logs, evaluations, and field notes. The findings reveal a successful intervention that positively influenced the well-being of older adult participants and older volunteers, especially in regards to relationships, personal development, and creating meaning as well as extending the intervention's impact beyond the program's duration. We also discuss opportunities for similar programs to inform policy and enable positive community-based health and social service responses to rural social isolation.

  3. Listeriosis Prevention for Older Adults: Effective Messages and Delivery Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Sheryl C.; Kosa, Katherine M.; Moore, Christina M.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Ten Eyck, Toby A.; Cowen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Individuals aged 60 years and older are at an increased risk for listeriosis and other foodborne illnesses. They can reduce their risk by following recommended food safety practices. A total of 8 focus groups were conducted to characterize older adults' food safety knowledge and practices, their impressions of educational materials on listeriosis…

  4. Medication Management Assessment for Older Adults in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwig, Denise; Brandt, Nicole; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the Medication Management Instrument for Deficiencies in the Elderly (MedMaIDE) and to provide results of reliability and validity testing. Design and Methods: Participants were 50 older adults, aged 65 and older, who lived in the community, took at least one prescription medication, and were then…

  5. EVALUATING RISK IN OLDER ADULTS USING PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid growth in the number of older Americans has many implications for public health, including the need to better understand the risks posed by environmental exposures to older adults. An important element for evaluating risk is the understanding of the doses of environment...

  6. Evaluation of the Child Care Class for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallegos, Sandra

    In 1986, the Ability Based on Older Dependable Experience (ABODE) Program was developed at De Anza College to train older adults to serve as a temporary source of child care on an emergency basis. The program was sponsored by Tandem Computers, Incorporated, out of a desire to provide better employee benefits with respect to child care. The program…

  7. Introducing Computer-Based Concept Mapping to Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo, Iñaki; Elorriaga, Jon A.; Arruarte, Ana; Larrañaga, Mikel; Gutiérrez, Julián

    2017-01-01

    The dramatic eruption of information and communication technology has had a remarkable effect on modern life, including the capacity to help older adults improve their quality of life and remain independent longer. However, while technology use is generally widespread, there is an observable underutilization by older people. There is sound…

  8. The Susceptibility of Older Adults to Environmental Hazards

    EPA Science Inventory

    This rapid growth in the number of older Americans has many implications for public health, including the need to better understand the health risks posed by environmental exposures to older adults. This paper describes the need to link environmental exposures, the processing of...

  9. Physical Activity and Perceived Self-Efficacy in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Mary E.; Marotta, Sylvia A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of self-efficacy in older adults, with physical activity, age, and sex as the predictor variables. Regression analyses revealed physical activity to be the only statistically significant predictor of self-efficacy. These findings may be of interest to counselors who work with older people.…

  10. Perspectives on Wellness Self-Monitoring Tools for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jina; Le, Thai; Reeder, Blaine; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Demiris, George

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Our purpose was to understand different stakeholder perceptions about the use of self-monitoring tools, specifically in the area of older adults’ personal wellness. In conjunction with the advent of personal health records, tracking personal health using self-monitoring technologies shows promising patient support opportunities. While clinicians’ tools for monitoring of older adults have been explored, we know little about how older adults may self-monitor their wellness and health and how their health care providers would perceive such use. Methods We conducted three focus groups with health care providers (n=10) and four focus groups with community-dwelling older adults (n=31). Results Older adult participants’ found the concept of self-monitoring unfamiliar and this influenced a narrowed interest in the use of wellness self-monitoring tools. On the other hand, health care provider participants showed open attitudes towards wellness monitoring tools for older adults and brainstormed about various stakeholders’ use cases. The two participant groups showed diverging perceptions in terms of: perceived uses, stakeholder interests, information ownership and control, and sharing of wellness monitoring tools. Conclusions Our paper provides implications and solutions for how older adults’ wellness self-monitoring tools can enhance patient-health care provider interaction, patient education, and improvement in overall wellness. PMID:24041452

  11. Primary Care Providers' HIV Prevention Practices Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Tracy; Teaster, Pamela B.; Thornton, Alice; Watkins, John F.; Alexander, Linda; Zanjani, Faika

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore primary care providers' HIV prevention practices for older adults. Primary care providers' perceptions and awareness were explored to understand factors that affect their provision of HIV prevention materials and HIV screening for older adults. Design and Method Data were collected through 24 semistructured interviews with primary care providers (i.e., physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) who see patients older than 50 years. Results Results reveal facilitators and barriers of HIV prevention for older adults among primary care providers and understanding of providers' HIV prevention practices and behaviors. Individual, patient, institutional, and societal factors influenced HIV prevention practices among participants, for example, provider training and work experience, lack of time, discomfort in discussing HIV/AIDS with older adults, stigma, and ageism were contributing factors. Furthermore, factors specific to primary and secondary HIV prevention were identified, for instance, the presence of sexually transmitted infections influenced providers' secondary prevention practices. Implications HIV disease, while preventable, is increasing among older adults. These findings inform future research and interventions aimed at increasing HIV prevention practices in primary care settings for patients older than 50. PMID:25736425

  12. Multidimensional attitudes of emergency medicine residents toward older adults.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Teresita M; Chan, Shu B; Hansoti, Bhakti

    2014-07-01

    The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs), and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM) resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score). Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY) levels. EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels.

  13. Interactive video dance games for healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Studenski, S; Perera, S; Hile, E; Keller, V; Spadola-Bogard, J; Garcia, J

    2010-12-01

    Physical activity promotes health in older adults but participation rates are low. Interactive video dance games can increase activity in young persons but have not been designed for use with older adults. The purpose of this research was to evaluate healthy older adults' interest and participation in a dance game adapted for an older user. Healthy older adults were recruited from 3 senior living settings and offered three months of training and supervision using a video dance game designed for older people. Before and after the program, data was collected on vital signs, physical function and self reported quality of life. Feedback was obtained during and after training. Of 36 persons who entered (mean age 80.1 + 5.4 years, 83 % female), 25 completed the study. Completers were healthier than noncompleters. Completers showed gains in narrow walk time, self-reported balance confidence and mental health. While there were no serious adverse events, 4 of 11 noncompleters withdrew due to musculoskeletal complaints. Adapted Interactive video dance is feasible for some healthy older adults and may help achieve physical activity goals.

  14. Cognitive mechanisms of false facial recognition in older adults.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Emily C; Glisky, Elizabeth L; Bartlett, James C; Rapcsak, Steven Z

    2012-03-01

    Older adults show elevated false alarm rates on recognition memory tests involving faces in comparison to younger adults. It has been proposed that this age-related increase in false facial recognition reflects a deficit in recollection and a corresponding increase in the use of familiarity when making memory decisions. To test this hypothesis, we examined the performance of 40 older adults and 40 younger adults on a face recognition memory paradigm involving three different types of lures with varying levels of familiarity. A robust age effect was found, with older adults demonstrating a markedly heightened false alarm rate in comparison to younger adults for "familiarized lures" that were exact repetitions of faces encountered earlier in the experiment, but outside the study list, and therefore required accurate recollection of contextual information to reject. By contrast, there were no age differences in false alarms to "conjunction lures" that recombined parts of study list faces, or to entirely new faces. Overall, the pattern of false recognition errors observed in older adults was consistent with excessive reliance on a familiarity-based response strategy. Specifically, in the absence of recollection older adults appeared to base their memory decisions on item familiarity, as evidenced by a linear increase in false alarm rates with increasing familiarity of the lures. These findings support the notion that automatic memory processes such as familiarity remain invariant with age, while more controlled memory processes such as recollection show age-related decline.

  15. Cancer screening in the older adult: issues and concerns.

    PubMed

    Craft, Melissa

    2014-06-01

    Making individual recommendations for cancer screening in older adult patients may be difficult and time consuming, because of the need to incorporate complex issues of life expectancy, health status, risks and benefits, and individual values and wishes. In this article, current recommendations and related risks and benefits are summarized. Specific issues and concerns are addressed, with suggestions for strategies to assist older adults in making screening decisions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; González-Forteza, Catalina; Jiménez-Tapia, Alberto; Gallo, Joseph J; Wagner, Fernando A

    2014-06-01

    Determine the structure of depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults through the person-centered approach of latent class analysis (LCA). The study is based on data from two independent samples collected in Mexico City (2,444 adolescents and 2,223 older adults) which included the revised version of the CES-D. The presence or absence of depressed mood (dysphoria), diminished pleasure (anhedonia), drastic change in weight, sleep problems, thinking and concentration difficulties, excessive or inappropriate guilt, fatigue, psychomotor agitation/retardation, and suicide ideation were used in LCA to determine the structure of depressive symptoms for adolescents and older adults. Adolescents reported higher excessive or inappropriate guilt compared to older adults, while older adults had higher proportions of anhedonia, sleep problems, fatigue, and psychomotor agitation/retardation. Similar proportions were found in other symptoms. The LCA analysis showed the best fit with four latent classes (LC): LC 1, "symptoms suggestive of major depressive episode (MDE)" with prevalence of 5.9 % (n = 144) and 10.3 % (n = 230) among adolescents and older adults, respectively; LC 2, "probable MDE symptoms" 18.2 % (n = 446) and 23.0 % (n = 512); LC 3, "possible MDE" 27.7 % (n = 676) and 21.8 % (n = 485); LC 4, "without significant depressive symptoms" 48.2 % (n = 1,178) and 44.8 % (n = 996). The differences in item thresholds between the two groups (adolescents vs. older adults) were statistically significant (Wald test = 255.684, df = 1, p < 0.001). This study documented important similarities and differences in the structure of depressive symptoms between adolescents and older adults that merit acknowledgment, further study, and consideration of their potential clinical and public health implications.

  17. Dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients; comparing adults and older adults.

    PubMed

    Gómez Valiente da Silva, Henyse; Fonseca de Andrade, Camila; Bello Moreira, Annie Seixas

    2014-04-01

    Evaluate the nutrient intake and nutritional status of food in cancer patients admitted to a university hospital, with comparison of adult and older adult age category. Cross-sectional study. This study involved cancer patients admitted to a hospital in 2010. Dietary habits were collected using a Brazilian food frequency questionnaire. Participants were divided in two groups: adults or older adults and in 4-cancer category: hematologic, lung, gastrointestinal and others. Body Mass Index evaluated nutritional status. A total of 86 patients with a mean age of 56.5 years, with 55% males and 42% older adults were evaluated. The older adult category had a higher frequency of being underweight (24.4% vs 16.3%, p < 0.01) and a lower frequency of being overweight (7% vs. 15.1%, p < 0.01) than adults. Both, adult and older adults had a high frequency of smoking, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity. The older adults had lower consumption of calories, intake of iron and folic acid. Inadequacy of vitamin intake was observed in both groups; respectively, 52%, 43%, 95%, 76% and 88% for Vitamin A, C, D, E and folic acid. The older adults had a higher folic acid and calcium inadequacy than the adults (97% vs 82%, p <0.01; 88% vs 72%, p < 0.01). There was no association of micronutrient intake with cancer, nor with nutritional status. The food intake, macro and micronutrients ingestion is insufficient among cancer individuals. Food intake of older adults was inferior, when compared to the adult category. There was a high prevalence of BMI excess in the adult group and a worst nutritional status in the older adult category. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Walking through doorways causes forgetting: Younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Pettijohn, Kyle A; Kim, Joonsung

    2015-06-01

    Previous research on event cognition has found that walking through doorways can cause forgetting. The explanation for this finding is that there is a competition between event models, producing interference, and depressing performance. The current study explored the degree to which this might be affected by the natural aging process. This is of interest because there is some evidence that older adults have trouble coordinating sources of interference, which is what is thought to underlie this effect. This would suggest that older adults should do worse on this task. Alternatively, there is also evidence that older adults are typically not disrupted at the event level of processing per se. This would suggest that older adults should perform similarly to younger adults on this task. In the study reported here, younger and older participants navigated through a virtual environment, and memory was tested with probes either before or after a shift and for objects that were associated with the participant (i.e., just picked up). In general, both younger and older adults had memory disrupted after walking through a doorway. Importantly, the magnitude of this disruption was similar in the 2 age groups. This is consistent with the idea that processing at the event level is relatively unaffected by the natural aging process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Multimorbidity and Decision-Making Preferences Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chi, Winnie C; Wolff, Jennifer; Greer, Raquel; Dy, Sydney

    2017-11-01

    Understanding individuals' preferences for participating in health care decisions is foundational to delivering person-centered care. We aimed to (1) explore preferences for health care decision making among older adults, and (2) identify multimorbidity profiles associated with preferring less active, ie, passive, participation among older US adults. Ours was a cross-sectional, nationally representative study of 2,017 National Health and Aging Trends Study respondents. Passive decision-making preference was defined as preferring to leave decisions to physicians. Multimorbidity profiles, based on 13 prevalent chronic conditions, were examined as (1) presence of 2 or more conditions, (2) a simple conditions count, and (3) a condition clusters count. Multiple logistic regression was used with adjustment for age, sex, education, English proficiency, and mobility limitation. Most older adults preferred to participate actively in making health care decisions. Older adults with 4 or more conditions, however, and those with multiple condition clusters are relatively less likely to prefer active decision making. Primary care physicians should initiate a shared decision-making process with older adults with 4 or more conditions or multiple condition clusters. Physicians should anticipate variation in decision-making preferences among older adults and adapt a decision-making process that suits individuals' preferences for participation to ensure person-centered care delivery. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  20. Shared conceptualizations and divergent experiences of counseling among African American and white older adults.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jin Hui; Wittink, Marsha; Dahlberg, Britt

    2011-08-01

    Research findings suggest that older adults prefer counseling for depression treatment; however, few older adults use counseling services. In this article we present the results of our analysis of semistructured interviews with 102 older adults to explore conceptualizations of counseling and impediments to use among African American and White older adults. We found that older adults believe counseling is beneficial; however, use was hindered in multiple ways. Older adults were skeptical about establishing a caring relationship with a professional. African American older adults did not mention social relationships to facilitate depression care, whereas White older adults described using personal relationships to navigate counseling services. African American older men were least familiar with counseling. Our findings suggest that African American and White older adults share a strong cultural model of counseling as beneficial; however, significant impediments exist and affect older adults differentially based on ethnicity.

  1. North/South Differences Among Italian Emerging Adults Regarding Criteria Deemed Important for Adulthood and Life Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Garro, Maria; Pipitone, Laura; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare Northern and Southern Italian emerging adult university students, regarding the importance attributed to criteria for adulthood and the levels of life and education satisfaction. Self-report questionnaires were filled by 475 Northern and Southern Italian University students (Age M = 22.91, 76% females, n = 359). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that Southern emerging adults were more likely to place importance on family capacities, norm compliance, interdependence and role transitions as criteria for achieving adulthood than Northern emerging adults. Regarding gender differences, females were more likely to believe in the importance of norm compliance than males, while males were more likely to espouse the importance of legal transitions. Finally, emerging adults from the North reported higher levels of life satisfaction than their Southern counterparts. We interpreted these findings in light of socio-economical and gender socialization differences among Northern and Southern Italian emerging adults. PMID:27298636

  2. How arousal affects younger and older adults' memory binding.

    PubMed

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Mather, Mara

    2011-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that associative memory for within-item features is enhanced for emotionally arousing items, whereas arousal-enhanced binding is not seen for associations between distinct items (for a review, see Mather, 2007, Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2, 33-52). The costs and benefits of arousal in memory binding have been examined for younger adults but not for older adults. The present experiment examined whether arousal would enhance younger and older adults' within-item and between-item memory binding. The results revealed that arousal improved younger adults' within-item memory binding but not that of older adults. Arousal worsened both groups' between-item memory binding.

  3. Gambling disorder in older adults: a cross-cultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Gustavo Costa; Leppink, Eric; Yaemi, Ana; Mariani, Mirella; Tavares, Hermano; Grant, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Gambling disorder (GD) in older adults is significantly increasing and became an important public health issue in different countries. However, little is known regarding GD in older adults. The prevalence and acceptance of gambling vary among different cultures and this raises the question of how and to what extent culture affects older gamblers. The majority of the important studies regarding GD in older adults have been conducted mainly in Anglo-Saxon cultures and little information is available regarding GD in other cultures. The objective of this paper is to perform the first standardized cross-cultural comparison regarding older adults presenting GD. The total studied sample involved 170 subjects: 89 from the Brazilian (BR) sample and 81 from the American (US) sample. It consisted of 67 men and 103 women (average age=64.42, standard deviation=±3.86). They were evaluated for socio-demographics, gambling behavior variables and psychiatric antecedents. Overall, there were significant differences between BR and US older adult gamblers in marital status, onset of gambling activity, onset of GD and urge scores. This study showed that there are important differences in gambling course, gambling behavior and personal antecedents between two samples of older adults presenting GD from countries with different social-cultural background. It weakens the possibility of generalization of results found in Anglo-Saxon countries to other cultures and reinforces for the need for development of research on GD in older adults outside the Anglo-Saxon culture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Trends in substance use admissions among older adults.

    PubMed

    Chhatre, Sumedha; Cook, Ratna; Mallik, Eshita; Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2017-08-22

    Substance abuse is a growing, but mostly silent, epidemic among older adults. We sought to analyze the trends in admissions for substance abuse treatment among older adults (aged 55 and older). Treatment Episode Data Set - Admissions (TEDS-A) for period between 2000 and 2012 was used. The trends in admission for primary substances, demographic attributes, characteristics of substance abused and type of admission were analyzed. While total number of substance abuse treatment admissions between 2000 and 2012 changed slightly, proportion attributable to older adults increased from 3.4% to 7.0%. Substantial changes in the demographic, substance use pattern, and treatment characteristics for the older adult admissions were noted. Majority of the admissions were for alcohol as the primary substance. However there was a decreasing trend in this proportion (77% to 64%). The proportion of admissions for following primary substances showed increase: cocaine/crack, marijuana/hashish, heroin, non-prescription methadone, and other opiates and synthetics. Also, admissions for older adults increased between 2000 and 2012 for African Americans (21% to 28%), females (20% to 24%), high school graduates (63% to 75%), homeless (15% to 19%), unemployed (77% to 84%), and those with psychiatric problems (17% to 32%).The proportion of admissions with prior history of substance abuse treatment increased from 39% to 46% and there was an increase in the admissions where more than one problem substance was reported. Ambulatory setting continued to be the most frequent treatment setting, and individual (including self-referral) was the most common referral source. The use of medication assisted therapy remained low over the years (7% - 9%). The changing demographic and substance use pattern of older adults implies that a wide array of psychological, social, and physiological needs will arise. Integrated, multidisciplinary and tailored policies for prevention and treatment are necessary to

  5. Suicide in older adults: a comparison with middle-aged adults using the Queensland Suicide Register.

    PubMed

    Koo, Yu Wen; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Globally, suicide rates increase with age, being highest in older adults. This study analyzed differences in suicides in older adults (65 years and over) compared to middle-aged adults (35-64 years) in Queensland, Australia, during the years 2000-2012. The Queensland Suicide Register was utilized for the analysis. Annual suicide rates were calculated by gender and age group, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were examined. In Queensland, the average annual rate of suicides for older adults was 15.27 per 100,000 persons compared to 18.77 in middle-aged adults in 2000-2012. There were no significant changes in time trends for older adults in 2002-2012. Suicide methods differed between gender and age groups. Older adults who died by suicide were more likely to be male, widowed, living alone or in a nursing home, and out of the work force. The prevalence of untreated psychiatric conditions, diagnosed psychiatric disorders, and consultations with a mental health professional three months prior to death was lower in older adults than middle-aged adults. Somatic illness, bereavement, and attention to suicide in the media were more common among older adults than middle-age adults. Older females were particularly more likely to pay attention to suicide in the media. Our findings show older adults who died by suicide were more likely to experience somatic illnesses, bereavement, and pay attention to suicide in the media compared to middle aged. Preventing suicide in older adults would therefore require holistic and comprehensive approaches.

  6. Living Arrangements and Health of Older Adults in India.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Tannistha; Chen, Feinian; Vanneman, Reeve

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the association between the multigenerational household context and health of older adults in India, taking into account potential selection effects. Using data from the India Human Development Survey (2004-05), a nationally representative multitopic data set, we employed a two-step analytical strategy--logistic regression followed by propensity score stratification method--to model the effect of contrasting living arrangement types on short-term illness. Overall, older adults living in multigenerational households have the lowest levels of short-term illness. Among them, those who live with their spouse, adult children, and young grandchildren experience the highest health gains. Health advantage diminishes when older adults live only with a spouse and adult children, and further diminishes when they live only with their spouse. Solitary living is associated with the highest likelihood of short-term morbidity. Good health is also shown to be associated with household wealth, gender, household size, and urban residence. Our study demonstrates that multigenerational households--the traditional and the most dominant form of living arrangement in India--have protective health benefits for older adults, while taking into account potential selection mechanisms. On Contrary to some epidemiological studies, we do not find any elevated risk of exposure to short-term illness, when older adults are living in households with young grandchildren. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Neural basis for recognition confidence in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Chua, Elizabeth F; Schacter, Daniel L; Sperling, Reisa A

    2009-03-01

    Although several studies have examined the neural basis for age-related changes in objective memory performance, less is known about how the process of memory monitoring changes with aging. The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine retrospective confidence in memory performance in aging. During low confidence, both younger and older adults showed behavioral evidence that they were guessing during recognition and that they were aware they were guessing when making confidence judgments. Similarly, both younger and older adults showed increased neural activity during low- compared to high-confidence responses in the lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and left intraparietal sulcus. In contrast, older adults showed more high-confidence errors than younger adults. Younger adults showed greater activity for high compared to low confidence in medial temporal lobe structures, but older adults did not show this pattern. Taken together, these findings may suggest that impairments in the confidence-accuracy relationship for memory in older adults, which are often driven by high-confidence errors, may be primarily related to altered neural signals associated with greater activity for high-confidence responses.

  8. Neural basis for recognition confidence in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Elizabeth F.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Sperling, Reisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the neural basis for age-related changes in objective memory performance, less is known about how the process of memory monitoring changes with aging. We used fMRI to examine retrospective confidence in memory performance in aging. During low confidence, both younger and older adults showed behavioral evidence that they were guessing during recognition, and that they were aware they were guessing when making confidence judgments. Similarly, both younger and older adults showed increased neural activity during low compared to high confidence responses in lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and left intraparietal sulcus. In contrast, older adults showed more high confidence errors than younger adults. Younger adults showed greater activity for high compared to low confidence in medial temporal lobe structures, but older adults did not show this pattern. Taken together, these findings may suggest that impairments in the confidence-accuracy relationship for memory in older adults, which are often driven by high confidence errors, may be primarily related to altered neural signals associated with greater activity for high confidence responses. PMID:19290745

  9. Physical activity behavior predicts endogenous pain modulation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Naugle, Kelly M; Ohlman, Thomas; Naugle, Keith E; Riley, Zachary A; Keith, NiCole R

    2017-03-01

    Older adults compared with younger adults are characterized by greater endogenous pain facilitation and a reduced capacity to endogenously inhibit pain, potentially placing them at a greater risk for chronic pain. Previous research suggests that higher levels of self-reported physical activity are associated with more effective pain inhibition and less pain facilitation on quantitative sensory tests in healthy adults. However, no studies have directly tested the relationship between physical activity behavior and pain modulatory function in older adults. This study examined whether objective measures of physical activity behavior cross-sectionally predicted pain inhibitory function on the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) test and pain facilitation on the temporal summation (TS) test in healthy older adults. Fifty-one older adults wore an accelerometer on the hip for 7 days and completed the CPM and TS tests. Measures of sedentary time, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were obtained from the accelerometer. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to determine the relationship of TS and CPM with levels of physical activity, while controlling for demographic, psychological, and test variables. The results indicated that sedentary time and LPA significantly predicted pain inhibitory function on the CPM test, with less sedentary time and greater LPA per day associated with greater pain inhibitory capacity. Additionally, MVPA predicted pain facilitation on the TS test, with greater MVPA associated with less TS of pain. These results suggest that different types of physical activity behavior may differentially impact pain inhibitory and facilitatory processes in older adults.

  10. Optimism for the Future in Younger and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Kelly A; Barber, Sarah J; Brown, Maddalena; Mather, Mara

    2018-01-09

    Research has suggested that older adults are less optimistic about their future than younger adults; however, a limitation of prior studies is that younger and older adults were forecasting to different ages and stages of life. To address this, we investigated whether there are age differences in future optimism when people project to the exact same age. We also tested whether optimism differs when projecting one's own future versus another person's future. Participants were 285 younger and 292 older adults recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Participants completed writing and word-rating tasks in which they imagined their own future in 15 years, their own future at age 85, or the average person's future at age 85. Younger adults were more optimistic than older adults about their own future in 15 years. In contrast, both age groups were similarly optimistic about their future at age 85 and expected it to be more positive than others' future at age 85. Contrary to previous research, younger and older adults had comparable future forecasts when projecting to the exact same age. These findings emphasize the need to consider age and stage of life when examining age differences in future optimism. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Éthier-Majcher, Catherine; Joubert, Sven; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as “facial trustworthiness.”In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness. PMID:24046755

  12. Validation of the Italian Version of the Caregiver Abuse Screen among Family Caregivers of Older People with Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Di Rosa, Mirko; Barbabella, Francesco; Barbini, Norma; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Chiatti, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Introduction . Elder abuse is often a hidden phenomenon and, in many cases, screening practices are difficult to implement among older people with dementia. The Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE) is a useful tool which is administered to family caregivers for detecting their potential abusive behavior. Objectives . To validate the Italian version of the CASE tool in the context of family caregiving of older people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to identify risk factors for elder abuse in Italy. Methods . The CASE test was administered to 438 caregivers, recruited in the Up-Tech study. Validity and reliability were evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficients, principal-component analysis, and Cronbach's alphas. The association between the CASE and other variables potentially associated with elder abuse was also analyzed. Results . The factor analysis suggested the presence of a single factor, with a strong internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86). CASE score was strongly correlated with well-known risk factors of abuse. At multivariate level, main factors associated with CASE total score were caregiver burden and AD-related behavioral disturbances. Conclusions . The Italian version of the CASE is a reliable and consistent screening tool for tackling the risk of being or becoming perpetrators of abuse by family caregivers of people with AD.

  13. Validation of the Italian Version of the Caregiver Abuse Screen among Family Caregivers of Older People with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Di Rosa, Mirko; Barbabella, Francesco; Barbini, Norma; Chiatti, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Elder abuse is often a hidden phenomenon and, in many cases, screening practices are difficult to implement among older people with dementia. The Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE) is a useful tool which is administered to family caregivers for detecting their potential abusive behavior. Objectives. To validate the Italian version of the CASE tool in the context of family caregiving of older people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to identify risk factors for elder abuse in Italy. Methods. The CASE test was administered to 438 caregivers, recruited in the Up-Tech study. Validity and reliability were evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficients, principal-component analysis, and Cronbach's alphas. The association between the CASE and other variables potentially associated with elder abuse was also analyzed. Results. The factor analysis suggested the presence of a single factor, with a strong internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86). CASE score was strongly correlated with well-known risk factors of abuse. At multivariate level, main factors associated with CASE total score were caregiver burden and AD-related behavioral disturbances. Conclusions. The Italian version of the CASE is a reliable and consistent screening tool for tackling the risk of being or becoming perpetrators of abuse by family caregivers of people with AD. PMID:28265571

  14. Organizational support and volunteering benefits for older adults.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-10-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling was used to define the latent variables and to test direct and indirect relationships among organizational support, socioemotional benefits, and self-reported health. Organizational support (measured by choice of volunteer activity, training, and ongoing support) had significant direct associations with 2 latent factors of socioemotional benefits, that is, perceived contribution and personal benefits. Perceived contribution was significantly related to mental health. Additionally, older volunteers with lower socioeconomic status (SES) committed more hours and perceived more personal benefits than higher SES peers. These findings suggest that volunteer programs can provide various organizational supports to older volunteers, especially to low-SES volunteers, in order to promote the socioemotional and health benefits of volunteering to older adults. Psychological well-being of older adults can be improved through engagement in meaningful volunteer activities and contribution to others.

  15. Executive functioning in older adults with hoarding disorder.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Catherine R; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Schiehser, Dawn; Almklov, Erin; Golshan, Shahrokh; Saxena, Sanjaya

    2013-11-01

    Hoarding disorder (HD) is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric condition. Midlife HD patients have been found to have neurocognitive impairment, particularly in areas of executive functioning, but the extent to which this is due to comorbid psychiatric disorders has not been clear. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine executive functioning in geriatric HD patients without any comorbid Axis I disorders (n = 42) compared with a healthy older adult comparison group (n = 25). We hypothesized that older adults with HD would perform significantly worse on measures of executive functioning (Wisconsin Card Sort Task [Psychological Assessment Resources, Lutz, Florida, USA] ( Psychological Assessment Resources, 2003) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV digit span and letter-number sequencing tests [Pearson, San Antonio, TX, USA]). Older adults with HD showed significant differences from healthy older controls in multiple aspects of executive functioning. Compared with healthy controls, older adults with HD committed significantly more total, non-perseverative errors and conceptual level responses on the Wisconsin Card Sort Task and had significantly worse performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV digit span and letter-number sequencing tests. Hoarding symptom severity was strongly correlated with executive dysfunction in the HD group. Compared with demographically-matched controls, older adults with HD have dysfunction in several domains of executive functioning including mental control, working memory, inhibition, and set shifting. Executive dysfunction is strongly correlated with hoarding severity and is not because of comorbid psychiatric disorders in HD patients. These results have broad clinical implications suggesting that executive functioning should be assessed and taken into consideration when developing intervention strategies for older adults with HD. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Improving aerobic fitness in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Petrella, Robert J.; Lattanzio, Chastity N.; Shapiro, Sheree; Overend, Tom

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of adding stages of change–based counseling to an exercise prescription for older, sedentary adults in family practice. DESIGN The Step Test Exercise Prescription Stages of change counseling study was a 12-month cluster randomized trial. SETTING Forty family practices in 4 regions of Canada. PARTICIPANTS Healthy, community-dwelling men (48%) and women (52%) with a mean (SD) age of 64.9 (7.1) years (range 55 to 85 years). There were a total of 193 participants in the intervention group and 167 in the control group. INTERVENTION Intervention physicians were trained to deliver a tailored exercise prescription and a transtheoretical behaviour change counseling program. Control physicians were trained to deliver the exercise prescription alone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Predicted cardiorespiratory fitness, measured by predicted maximal oxygen consumption (pVO2max), and energy expenditure, measured by 7-day physical activity recall. RESULTS Mean increase in pVO2max was significant for both the intervention (3.02 [95% confidence interval 2.40 to 3.65] mL/kg/min) and control (2.21 [95% confidence interval 1.27 to 3.15] mL/kg/min) groups at 12 months (P < .001); however, there was no difference between groups. Women in the intervention group improved their fitness significantly more than women in the control group did (3.20 vs 1.23 mL/kg/min). The intervention group had a 4–mm Hg reduction in systolic blood pressure, while the control group’s mean reduction was 0.4 mm Hg (P < .001). The mean (SD) energy expended significantly increased and was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (69.06 [169.87] kcal/d vs −6.96 [157.06] kcal/d, P < .006). Practice setting characteristics did not significantly affect the primary outcomes. CONCLUSION The Step Test Exercise Prescription Stages of change exercise and behavioural intervention improved fitness and activity and lowered systolic blood pressure across a range of

  17. Selectivity as an Emotion Regulation Strategy: Lessons from Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Tamara; Hogan, Candice; Carstensen, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Findings based on studies of daily life consistently associate older ages with relatively positive emotional experience, suggesting that older adults may regulate emotions more effectively than younger adults. Findings from laboratory studies are equivocal, however, with mixed evidence for age-related improvements in use of emotion regulatory strategies. In the current paper, we propose that findings may reflect a failure of laboratory-based experiments to capture the regulatory strategies that older people use in their everyday lives. We argue that the advantages older people have are likely due to antecedent emotion regulation as opposed to response-focused strategies. Understanding the regulatory approaches that older people actually use may inform developmental models of emotion regulation throughout adulthood as well as interventions for improving emotional experience across the life span. PMID:25914897

  18. Guidelines for the Productive Employment of Older Adults in Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sally M.; And Others

    This publication offers guidelines that policymakers, advocates of children and older adults, and child care practitioners can use to provide older adults with opportunities to work in the child care field. Guidelines that address developmental issues relating to older adults concern employers' sensitivity to older adults and staffing patterns in…

  19. Organizing a Literacy Program for Older Adults. Literacy Education for the Elderly Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bella; Ventura-Merkel, Catherine

    This guide describes a model for a community-based literacy program for older adults that uses older adults as tutors. Guidelines are provided to program sponsors for implementing literacy education for older adults. Chapter I provides an overview of the problem of illiterate older adults and literacy education for them. Chapter II addresses the…

  20. Assessing and Meeting the Needs of LGBT Older Adults via the Older Americans Act.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael; Tax, Aaron D

    2017-12-01

    SAGE and its partners have been focused on bridging the chasm between the greater need that LGBT older adults have for care, services, and supports, and the lower rate at which they access them, compared with their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts. The chasm is caused by discrimination, social isolation, disproportionate poverty and health disparities, and a lack of access to culturally competent providers. SAGE has used federal administrative and legislative advocacy to encourage the Aging Network to bridge this chasm by assessing and meeting the needs of LGBT older adults that can be addressed via the programs created under the Older Americans Act.

  1. SUICIDE IN OLDER ADULTS: NURSING ASSESSMENT OF SUICIDE RISK

    PubMed Central

    Garand, Linda; Mitchell, Ann M.; Dietrick, Ann; Hijjawi, Sophia P.; Pan, Di

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental objective of the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention is the prevention of suicide in older adults, especially elderly males, because these individuals are at higher risk for suicide than any other age group. Furthermore, they are the fastest growing segment of the population. The suicide rates for older Caucasian men are particularly high. Because nurses play an important role in the identification of persons at risk for suicide, it is important that they be cognizant of the complex risk factors involved in late life suicide. Toward that end, we review the prevalence of suicidal behaviors in older adults and discuss risk factors that contribute to completed suicide in these individuals. Lastly, we discuss the role of nurses in the identification of older adults at risk for suicidal behavior so that life-saving treatment measures can be implemented. PMID:16546935

  2. Diabetes Self-Care and the Older Adult

    PubMed Central

    Weinger, Katie; Beverly, Elizabeth A.; Smaldone, Arlene

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is highest in older adults, a population that is increasing. Diabetes self-care is complex with important recommendations for nutrition, physical activity, checking glucose levels, and taking medication. Older adults with diabetes have unique issues which impact self-care. As people age, their health status, support systems, physical and mental abilities, and nutritional requirements change. Furthermore, comorbidities, complications, and polypharmacy complicate diabetes self-care. Depression is also more common among the elderly and may lead to deterioration in self-care behaviors. Because of concerns about cognitive deficits and multiple comorbidities, adults older than 65 years are often excluded from research trials. Thus, little clinical evidence is available and the most appropriate treatment approaches and how to best support older patients’ self-care efforts are unclear. This review summarizes the current literature, research findings, and expert and consensus recommendations with their rationales. PMID:24510969

  3. Effect of an AIDS education program for older adults.

    PubMed

    Rose, M A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an age-specific AIDS education program on HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceived susceptibility to AIDS, and perceived severity of AIDS in older adults. The health belief model served as a framework. The age-specific AIDS education program was developed based on a knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors survey of 458 older adults at senior citizen centers. The program included case study presentations of actual older people with AIDS along with an emphasis on myths identified in the initial survey. There was a significant increase in total knowledge about AIDS (p < .001), perceived susceptibility (p < .01), and perceived severity (p < .001) after the educational program. Based on the results of this study, nurses are in an excellent position to provide primary and secondary AIDS prevention strategies for all age groups, including the older adult population.

  4. Anticholinergic medications: use among older adults with memory problems.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Rachel F; Steiner, Victoria; Hicks, Barbara; Pierce, Linda; Iwuagwu, Cletus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency with which over-the-counter and prescription medications with potential anticholinergic side effects were used by a sample of 193 older adults with memory problems. Medications with anticholinergic side effects are contraindicated in this population because they can worsen memory impairment and increase confusion. A retrospective chart review of clients seen between October 1999 and April 2004 was completed, with a secondary analysis of the medications older adults (older than 50 years) were taking at their initial clinic visit. Findings revealed that 10.3% of these older adults were consuming one or more medications with anticholinergic side effects. These findings demonstrate an ongoing opportunity for nurses to educate health care providers, as well as consumers, regarding the dangers of these medications.

  5. Domestic Robots for Older Adults: Attitudes, Preferences, and Potential

    PubMed Central

    Mitzner, Tracy L.; Beer, Jenay M.; Prakash, Akanksha; Chen, Tiffany L.; Kemp, Charles C.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    2014-01-01

    The population of older adults in America is expected to reach an unprecedented level in the near future. Some of them have difficulties with performing daily tasks and caregivers may not be able to match pace with the increasing need for assistance. Robots, especially mobile manipulators, have the potential for assisting older adults with daily tasks enabling them to live independently in their homes. However, little is known about their views of robot assistance in the home. Twenty-one independently living older Americans (65–93 years old) were asked about their preferences for and attitudes toward robot assistance via a structured group interview and questionnaires. In the group interview, they generated a diverse set of 121 tasks they would want a robot to assist them with in their homes. These data, along with their questionnaire responses, suggest that the older adults were generally open to robot assistance but were discriminating in their acceptance of assistance for different tasks. They preferred robot assistance over human assistance for tasks related to chores, manipulating objects, and information management. In contrast, they preferred human assistance to robot assistance for tasks related to personal care and leisure activities. Our study provides insights into older adults' attitudes and preferences for robot assistance with everyday living tasks in the home which may inform the design of robots that will be more likely accepted by older adults. PMID:25152779

  6. Do older adults perceive postural constraints for reach estimation?

    PubMed

    Cordova, Alberto; Gabbard, Carl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Recent evidence indicates that older persons have difficulty mentally representing intended movements. Furthermore, in an estimation of reach paradigm using motor imagery, a form of mental representation, older persons significantly overestimated their ability compared with young adults. The authors tested the notion that older adults may also have difficulty perceiving the postural constraints associated with reach estimation. The authors compared young (Mage = 22 years) and older (Mage = 67) adults on reach estimation while seated and in a more postural demanding standing and leaning forward position. The expectation was a significant postural effect with the standing condition, as evidenced by reduced overestimation. Whereas there was no difference between groups in the seated condition (both overestimated), older adults underestimated whereas the younger group once again overestimated in the standing condition. From one perspective, these results show that older adults do perceive postural constraints in light of their own physical capabilities. That is, that group perceived greater postural demands with the standing posture and elected to program a more conservative strategy, resulting in underestimation.

  7. Domestic Robots for Older Adults: Attitudes, Preferences, and Potential.

    PubMed

    Smarr, Cory-Ann; Mitzner, Tracy L; Beer, Jenay M; Prakash, Akanksha; Chen, Tiffany L; Kemp, Charles C; Rogers, Wendy A

    2014-04-01

    The population of older adults in America is expected to reach an unprecedented level in the near future. Some of them have difficulties with performing daily tasks and caregivers may not be able to match pace with the increasing need for assistance. Robots, especially mobile manipulators, have the potential for assisting older adults with daily tasks enabling them to live independently in their homes. However, little is known about their views of robot assistance in the home. Twenty-one independently living older Americans (65-93 years old) were asked about their preferences for and attitudes toward robot assistance via a structured group interview and questionnaires. In the group interview, they generated a diverse set of 121 tasks they would want a robot to assist them with in their homes. These data, along with their questionnaire responses, suggest that the older adults were generally open to robot assistance but were discriminating in their acceptance of assistance for different tasks. They preferred robot assistance over human assistance for tasks related to chores, manipulating objects, and information management. In contrast, they preferred human assistance to robot assistance for tasks related to personal care and leisure activities. Our study provides insights into older adults' attitudes and preferences for robot assistance with everyday living tasks in the home which may inform the design of robots that will be more likely accepted by older adults.

  8. Understanding and Reducing Disability in Older Adults Following Critical Illness

    PubMed Central

    Brummel, N.E.; Balas, M.C.; Morandi, A.; Ferrante, L.E.; Gill, T.M.; Ely, E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review how disability can develop in older adults with critical illness and to explore ways to reduce long-term disability following critical illness. Data Sources Review of the literature describing post-critical illness disability in older adults and expert opinion. Results We identified 19 studies evaluating disability outcomes in critically ill patients age 65 years and older. Newly acquired disability in activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living and mobility activities was commonplace among older adults who survived a critical illness. Incident dementia and less-severe cognitive impairment was also highly prevalent. Factors related to the acute critical illness, intensive care unit practices such as heavy sedation, physical restraints and immobility as well as aging physiology and coexisting geriatric conditions can combine to result in these poor outcomes. Conclusion Older adults who survive critical illness suffer physical and cognitive declines resulting in disability at greater rates than hospitalized, non-critically ill and community dwelling older adults. Interventions derived from widely available geriatric care models in use outside of the ICU, which address modifiable risk factors including immobility and delirium, are associated with improved functional and cognitive outcomes and can be used to complement ICU-focused models such as the ABCDEs. PMID:25756418

  9. New Approaches to the Education of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mary Alice

    New approaches to the education of older adults can be identified through a review of the literature on the following topics: developmental perspectives (including generativity and integrity) and adult development, life span habits (as determined by longitudinal research), gender roles, reminiscence, cognitive, and need-based learning. One of the…

  10. Perceptions of Physical Activity by Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…

  11. Older Adults' Perceptions of Closeness in Sibling Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Helgola G.; And Others

    Decreasing numbers of peers in the lives of older adults give a special meaning to closeness in their sibling relationships. Interviews elicited perceptions of closeness from 30 adults. Content analyses revealed several patterns, i.e., participants perceived themselves as always having been close, as having grown more or less close over time, or…

  12. Meeting Older Adults Learning Needs When Using Information Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Don

    As in other countries, older adults in Australia could benefit from acquiring information technology (IT) skills in many ways, including improved access to information on health issues and development of the skills needed for employment in high-demand IT-related occupations. The research on adult learning and the problems faced by many older…

  13. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  14. Semantic Priming During Sentence Processing by Young and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Deborah M.; Yee, Penny L.

    1984-01-01

    Compares the semantic processing skills of younger adults (mean age 25) and older adults (mean age 68). After reading a sentence, subjects performed a task in which responses did not depend on retention. Results provided no evidence for age-related changes, including those associated with access to implied information. (Author/RH)

  15. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  16. Creative Ageing? Selfhood, Temporality and the Older Adult Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabeti, Shari

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on a long-term ethnography of an adult creative writing class situated in a major urban art gallery in the United Kingdom. It takes the claims of one group of older adults--that creative writing made them "feel younger"--as the starting point for exploring this connection further. It places these claims broadly within…

  17. Incidence of Dementia in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strydom, Andre; Chan, Trevor; King, Michael; Hassiotis, Angela; Livingston, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Dementia may be more common in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) than in the general population. The increased risk for Alzheimer's disease in people with Down syndrome (DS) is well established, but much less is known about dementia in adults with ID who do not have DS. We estimated incidence rates from a longitudinal study of…

  18. Lack of immunity against rubella among Italian young adults.

    PubMed

    Gallone, Maria Serena; Gallone, Maria Filomena; Larocca, Angela Maria Vittoria; Germinario, Cinzia; Tafuri, Silvio

    2017-03-07

    To support the evaluation of the 2010-15 National Plan for Measles and Congenital Rubella Elimination, the authors designed and performed a serosurveillance survey to verify the immunity/susceptibility rate against rubella among Apulian young adults. The study was carried out from May 2011 to June 2012 in the Department of Transfusion Medicine/Blood Bank of Policlinico General Hospital in Bari. Subjects were enrolled by a convenience sampling. For each enrolled patient a 5 ml serum sample was collected and tested for anti-rubella IgG. The geometrical means (GMT) of anti-rubella IgG was calculated. T student test or ANOVA test, when appropriate, was used to compare the means of age per gender and GMT of anti-rubella IgG titres per age classes. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportion of anti-rubella IgG positive subjects per gender and per age classes. For all tests, a p value <0.05 was considered as significant. At the end of the study 1764 subjects were enrolled, 1362 (77.2%) of which were male. The mean age was 38.4 ± 11.7 years (range: 17-65). 86.7% (95% CI = 85.0-88.2) had a positive titre of anti-rubella IgG. GMT of anti-rubella IgG titre was 4.3. The proportion of positive subjects was of 76.8% (n = 279/363; 95% CI = 72.2-81.1) in persons aged 18-26 years; 88.1% (n = 310/352; 95% CI = 84.2-91.3) in 27-35 year-old people; 88.5% (n = 464/524; 95% CI = 85.5-91.1) in 36-45 year-old people; 90.7% (n = 350/386; 95% CI = 87.3-93.4) among people aged 46-55 years and 90.6% (n = 126/139; 95% CI = 84.5-94.9) in 55-65 year-old people (Chi-square = 39.7; p < 0.0001). GMT of anti-rubella IgG titre was 4.3 (4.3 in male and 4.2 in female, t = 2.2; p = 0.03) and seems to differ dividing the enrolled subjects by age group (F = 14.3; p < 0.0001). According to our data, too many women of child-bearing age are still unprotected from rubella in the elimination era and in this scenario the public

  19. A community-based culturally competent oral health promotion for migrant older adults living in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Calache, Hanny; Morgan, Mike

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of a theory-based oral health promotion intervention in a community environment by a nondental peer educator on the oral hygiene and gingival health of independent-living Italian older adults. A quasiexperimental design with a pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group with no intervention. Ten Melbourne-based Italian social clubs participated in this evaluation. One hundred forty-four active members of the social clubs. A series of oral health seminars and four supervised brushing sessions at club premises. The intervention did not involve any direct oral health professional clinical care. Clubs were allocated to the control or intervention group. Dental plaque levels and gingival bleeding scores were determined. A series of one-way analyses of covariance were conducted using the baseline measures as covariates. Controlling for pretest scores, the experimental group was significantly more likely than the control group to have improved gingival status and self-efficacy. No significant effects were found regarding dental plaque. Within the setting of Italian social clubs, the intervention was effective at increasing self-efficacy and reducing gingival bleeding. As such, it represents a useful approach for the design of oral health interventions in older migrant adults. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. [Wellbeing of Chilean older adults is associated with group participation].

    PubMed

    Palma-Candia, Oskarina; Hueso-Montoro, César; Ortega-Valdivieso, Azucena; Montoya-Juárez, Rafael; Cruz-Quintana, Francisco

    2016-10-01

    Subjective aspects such as personal growth and the development of their potential are relevant for the perception of wellbeing of older adults. These dimensions appear to be connected with meaningful group participation. To assess the perception of psychological wellbeing of older adults in a Chilean region and determine its association with socio-demographic variables and participation in organizations. Ryff's scale of psychological wellbeing perception was applied to 101 adults (43 men) from Magallanes, aged 60 and 88 years. Sociodemographic data was also collected. Mean wellbeing scores reported were 193.7 ± 20 (maximum score: 234). Those older adults who participated in organizations had higher scores than those who did not take part in them. Participation in organizations appeared to be specifically associated to positive relationships (p = 0.03) and personal growth (p < 0.01). The number of organizations in which older adults participated was positively correlated with the perception of wellbeing (p < 0.01). Greater personal wellbeing was associated with leadership roles in organizations (p = 0.01). Significant differences between level of schooling and personal growth (p = 0.01) were also observed found. There were no differences associated with sex, age and marital status. The perception of wellbeing of older adults is influenced by their participation in organizations. Leadership is associated with the highest levels of wellbeing.

  1. Older adults' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dacey, Marie; Baltzell, Amy; Zaichkowsky, Len

    2008-01-01

    To examine how motives discriminate 3 physical activity levels of inactive, active, and sustained maintainers. Six hundred forty-five adults (M age = 63.8) completed stage-of-change and Exercise Motivations Inventory (EMI-2) scales. Exploratory factor analysis established psychometric properties of the EMI-2 suitable for older adults. Six factors emerged in the EMI-2: health and fitness, social/emotional benefits, weight management, stress management, enjoyment, and appearance. Enjoyment contributed most to differentiating activity levels. Moderators of age and gender were delineated. Intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation distinguish older adults' activity levels.

  2. Metacognitive Training at Home: Does It Improve Older Adults' Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather; Dunlosky, John; Hertzog, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has described the success of an intervention aimed at improving older adults' ability to regulate their learning. This metacognitive approach involves teaching older adults to allocate their study time more efficiently by testing themselves and restudying items that are less well learned. Objective Although this type of memory intervention has shown promise, training older adults to test themselves in the laboratory can be very time-intensive. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to transport the self-testing training method from the laboratory to home use. Methods A standard intervention design was used that included a pretraining session, multiple training sessions, and a posttraining session. Participants were randomly assigned to either the training group (n = 29) or the waiting list control group (n = 27). Moreover, we screened participants for whether they used the self-testing strategy during their pretraining test session. Results Compared to the performance of the control group, the training group displayed significant gains, which demonstrates that older adults can benefit from training themselves to use these skills at home. Moreover, the results of the present study indicate that this metacognitive approach can effectively improve older adults' learning, even in those who spontaneously self-test prior to training. Conclusions Training metacognitive skills, such as self-testing and efficient study allocation, can improve the ability to learn new information in healthy older adults. More importantly, older adult clients can be supplied with an at-home training manual, which will ease the burden on practitioners. PMID:20016124

  3. Functional neuroimaging of the Iowa Gambling Task in older adults.

    PubMed

    Halfmann, Kameko; Hedgcock, William; Bechara, Antoine; Denburg, Natalie L

    2014-11-01

    The neural systems most susceptible to age-related decline mirror the systems linked to decision making. Yet, the neural processes underlying decision-making disparities among older adults are not well understood. We sought to identify neural response patterns that distinguish 2 groups of older adults who exhibit divergent decision-making patterns. Participants were 31 healthy older adults (ages 59-88, 53% female), defined as advantageous or disadvantageous decision-makers based on Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) performance, who completed an alternate version of the IGT while undergoing functional MRI. The groups were indistinguishable on neuropsychological testing. We contrasted the BOLD signal between groups during 3 phases of the decision-making process: Prechoice (preselection), Prefeedback (postselection), and Feedback (receipt of gains/losses). We further examined whether BOLD signal varied as a function of age in each group. We observed greater activation among the IGT-Disadvantageous relative to -Advantageous older adults in the prefrontal cortex during the early phases of the decision-making process (Prechoice), and in posterior brain regions (e.g., the precuneus) during the later phases (Prefeedback and Feedback). We also found that with increasing age, IGT-Advantageous older adults showed increasing activation in the prefrontal cortex during all phases and increasing activation in the posterior cingulate during earlier phases of the decision process. By contrast, the IGT-Disadvantageous older adults exhibited a reduced or reversed trend. These functional differences may be a consequence of altered reward processing or differing compensatory strategies between IGT-Disadvantageous and -Advantageous older adults. This supports the notion that divergent neurobiological aging trajectories underlie disparate decision-making patterns. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Asthma Morbidity, Comorbidities, and Modifiable Factors Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Joy; Chen, Jessica; Mirabelli, Maria C

    Asthma morbidity is increased among older adults, especially older adult women. Interventions to improve asthma control in this population are not well described. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors (including modifiable factors) associated with asthma-related hospitalizations and emergency department or urgent care center visits (ED/UCV) among older adults. A secondary objective was to investigate sex differences in variables relevant to asthma control. Data were obtained from 14,076 older adults ≥65 years with active asthma participating in the 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Asthma Call-back Survey (a random-digit dialed survey) in 40 US states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, representative of >2.6 million persons. Weighted, adjusted logistic regression was conducted. One or more asthma-related hospitalizations in the past year were reported by 5.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 5.0% to 6.4%) of participants; 10.6% (95% CI = 9.7% to 11.5%) reported ≥1 asthma-related ED/UCV. Compared with older adults without asthma-related hospitalizations, adjusted odds were higher among those with ≥1 asthma-related hospitalization for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary artery disease, depression, cockroaches or mold in the home, and cost barriers to asthma-related health care or medication. All these factors, except for cockroaches, were associated with asthma-related ED/UCV. Compared with males, adjusted odds were higher among females for COPD, depression, obesity, and cost barriers to asthma-related health care or medication. Among older adults, asthma-related hospitalizations and ED/UCV were associated with clinical comorbidities, mold in the home, and financial barriers to asthma-related health care. Interventions addressing modifiable factors could reduce asthma morbidity among older adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Delirium in older adults attending adult day care and family caregiver distress.

    PubMed

    Bull, Margaret J

    2011-06-01

    BACKGROUND; Delirium is a critical, costly, frequently reversible problem in older adults. Findings of previous studies indicate that delirium occurs in up to 65% of hospitalised older adults and up to 80% of terminally ill patients. Few studies address the frequency of delirium in community dwelling older adults and the extent to which delirium symptoms create distress for their family caregivers. To determine the frequency of delirium in older people attending two adult day centers (ADC) in the United States and identify the extent to which delirium symptoms were associated with family caregivers' mental health symptoms, and ways of coping with the older adults' care. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. Thirty older adults and their family caregivers were randomly selected from the rosters of the ADC. Only 6.7% of the older adults had a positive screen for delirium. The majority of family caregivers (96.6%) stated that they had no knowledge of delirium prior to participating in this study. Both older adults and their family caregivers need education about delirium symptoms and risks. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Training for generalization in Theory of Mind: a study with older adults

    PubMed Central

    Cavallini, Elena; Bianco, Federica; Bottiroli, Sara; Rosi, Alessia; Vecchi, Tomaso; Lecce, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) refers to the ability to attribute independent mental states to self and others in order to explain and predict social behavior. Recent research in this area has shown a decline in ToM abilities associated with normal aging that is of a moderate magnitude or greater. Very few studies have investigated whether it is possible to improve older adults’ ToM abilities. The present study was designed to address this gap in the literature by evaluating the impact of a ToM training on practiced and transfer tasks. We provided older adults with a variety of activities designed to facilitate the generalization of benefits to other ToM-demanding tasks. Participants were 63 healthy older adults, native Italian speakers (Mage = 71.44, SD = 5.24, age range: 63–81 years). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the ToM training (age range: 63–81 years) and the physical-conversation training (age range: 64–81 years). Training effects were measured using the strange stories (practiced task) and the animation task (transfer task). Results revealed the efficacy of the training in producing improvements on practiced but also on transfer tasks. PMID:26300818

  7. Repetition blindness and homophone blindness in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Caitlin J; James, Lori E; Noble, Paula M

    2016-11-01

    We tested age effects on repetition blindness (RB), defined as the reduced probability of reporting a target word following presentation of the same word in a rapidly presented list. We also tested age effects on homophone blindness (HB), in which the first word is a homophone of the target word rather than a repeated word. Thirty young and 28 older adults viewed rapidly presented lists of words containing repeated, homophone, or unrepeated word pairs and reported all of the words immediately after each list. Older adults exhibited a greater degree of RB and HB than young adults using a conditional scoring method that provides certainty that blindness has occurred. The existence of RB and HB for both age groups, and increased blindness for older compared to young adults, supports predictions of a binding theory that has successfully accounted for a wide range of phenomena in cognitive aging.

  8. Reducing misinformation effects in older adults with cognitive interview mnemonics.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Robyn E; Humphries, Joyce E; Milne, Rebecca; Memon, Amina; Houlder, Lucy; Lyons, Amy; Bull, Ray

    2012-12-01

    We examined the effect of a prior Modified Cognitive Interview on young and older adults' recall of a short film of a staged crime and subsequent reporting of misinformation. Participants viewed the film followed the next day by misinformation presented in a postevent summary. They were then interviewed with either a Modified Cognitive Interview or a control interview followed by a recognition memory test. A Modified Cognitive Interview elicited more correct details and improved overall accuracy compared to a control interview in both age groups, although the young adults recollected three times more correct information in a Modified Cognitive Interview than the older adults. In both age groups, correct recollections of person and action details were higher in a Modified Cognitive Interview than a control interview. Importantly, older adults who were interviewed with a Modified Cognitive Interview were not susceptible to misinformation effects. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Improving Nurses' Knowledge About Older Adults 
With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Burhenn, Peggy S; Ferrell, Betty; Johnson, Shirley; Hurria, Arti

    2016-07-01

    To assess nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of caring for older adults and to use that assessment data to develop a training program to improve skills in caring for older adults with cancer. 
. Survey of oncology nursing staff conducted pre- and posteducation regarding geriatric care.
. City of Hope, a comprehensive cancer center in southern California.
. 422 (baseline) and 375 (postintervention) nursing staff in adult care areas. 
. The primary endpoint was the difference between baseline and postintervention knowledge. Secondary endpoints included differences in attitudes and perceptions of caring for older adults in an oncology setting. A two-sample t test was performed to compare the mean results between baseline and follow-up surveys.
. Knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of caring for older adults.
. Survey comparisons from baseline to postintervention demonstrated statistically significant increases in nurses' knowledge of geriatric care after the implementation of an educational program targeted at oncology nurses. Nurses' attitudes remained the same pre- versus posteducation. A significant change reflecting a better perception was noted in the burden of behavioral problems; however, a worsening was noted in disagreements among staff; disagreements involving staff, patients, and families; and limited access to geriatric services. Both surveys highlighted the need to provide more education for staff about geriatric care issues and to make available more geriatric-specific resources. 
. Knowledge about caring for older adults is needed for oncology nurses, and a geriatric education program for oncology nurses can result in improved knowledge in a variety of domains. Surveying staff highlighted the positive attitude of nurses toward caring for older adults at the study institution. The use of this survey identified key issues facing older adults and ways to improve care.
. Additional knowledge about caring for older adults for

  10. Creating grander families: older adults adopting younger kin and nonkin.

    PubMed

    Hinterlong, James; Ryan, Scott

    2008-08-01

    There is a dearth of research on older adoptive parents caring for minor children, despite a growing number of such adoptions finalized each year. This study offers a large-scale investigation of adoptive families headed by older parents. We describe these families and explore how preadoptive kinship between the adoptive parent and the child impacts adoption outcomes. We analyze data from kin (n = 98) and nonkin (n = 310) adoptive families headed by adults aged 60 years and older. We find that older kin adoptive families are smaller, report lower income, and include adoptive mothers with less formal education. Children in these families had less severe needs for special care at the time of placement. Although kin and nonkin older parents offer similar assessments of their parent-child relationships, kin adopters indicate a greater willingness to adopt the same child again and yet report less positive current family functioning. Multivariate regression analyses reveal that preadoptive kinship predicts more negative parental assessment of the adoption's impact on the family and less positive family functioning net of other parent, family, and child characteristics. Externalizing behavior by the child (e.g., delinquency or aggression) is the strongest predictor of deleterious outcomes for both groups. Kin adoption by older adults creates new families under strain but does not reduce parental commitment to the child. We conclude that older adults serve as effective adoptive parents but would benefit from preadoption and postadoption services to assist them in preparing for and positively addressing the challenging behaviors exhibited by adopted children.

  11. A concept analysis of dignity for older adults.

    PubMed

    Jacelon, Cynthia S; Connelly, Thomas W; Brown, Rana; Proulx, Kathy; Vo, Thuy

    2004-10-01

    Human dignity is an essential value of professional nursing education as well as a component of the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics. Nurses are exhorted to treat patients with dignity, and older adults want to be treated with dignity and die with dignity. Although dignity, particularly the dignity of older adults, is often discussed in the health care literature, its meaning is not always clear. The aim of this paper is to describe a concept analysis to develop a definition of dignity in older adults. Data were collected using a literature review and five focus groups composed of older adults. The literature provided data about professionals' ideas of dignity and the focus groups provided qualitative data about the nature of dignity in older people. The literature review and focus groups were carried out concurrently, followed by synthesis of the findings. Dignity is an inherent characteristic of being human, it can be subjectively felt as an attribute of the self, and is made manifest through behaviour that demonstrates respect for self and others. Dignity must be learned, and an individual's dignity is affected by the treatment received from others. A behavioural definition of dignity was constructed and this could provide the theoretical basis for nurses to develop interventions that foster dignity for older people.

  12. Strategies for Preventing Cognitive Decline in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Many advances have been made in the understanding of age-related changes in cognition. As research details the cognitive and neurobiological changes that occur in aging, there is increased interest in developing and understanding methods to prevent, slow, or reverse the cognitive decline that may occur in normal healthy older adults. The Institute of Medicine has recently recognized cognitive aging as having important financial and public health implications for society with the increasing older adult population worldwide. Cognitive aging is not dementia and does not result in the loss of neurons but rather changes in neurotransmission that affect brain functioning. The fact that neurons are structurally intact but may be functionally affected by increased age implies that there is potential for remediation. Method and Results: This review article presents recent work using medication-based strategies for slowing cognitive changes in aging. The primary method presented is a hormonal approach for affecting cognition in older women. In addition, a summary of the work examining modifiable lifestyle factors that have shown promise in benefiting cognition in both older men and women is described. Conclusions: Much work remains to be done so that evidence-based recommendations can be made for slowing cognitive decline in healthy older adults. The success of some of these methods thus far indicates that the brains of healthy older adults are plastic enough to be able to respond to these cognitive decline prevention strategies, and further work is needed to define the most beneficial methods. PMID:28703016

  13. Symptom distress in older adults following cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Van Cleave, Janet H; Egleston, Brian L; Ercolano, Elizabeth; McCorkle, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Symptom distress remains a significant health problem among older adults with cancer following surgery. Understanding factors influencing older adults' symptom distress may lead to early identification and interventions, decreasing morbidity and improving outcomes. We conducted this study to identify factors associated with symptom distress following surgery among 326 community-residing patients 65 years or older with a diagnosis of thoracic, digestive, gynecologic, and genitourinary cancers. This secondary analysis used combined subsets of data from 5 nurse-directed intervention clinical trials targeting patients after surgery at academic cancer centers in northwest and northeastern United States. Symptom distress was assessed by the Symptom Distress Scale at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. A multivariable analysis, using generalized estimating equations, showed that symptom distress was significantly less at 3 and 6 months (3 months: P < .001, 6 months: P = .002) than at baseline while controlling for demographic, biologic, psychological, treatment, and function covariates. Thoracic cancer, comorbidities, worse mental health, and decreased function were, on average, associated with increased symptom distress (all P < .05). Participants 75 years or older reported increased symptom distress over time compared with those aged 65 to 69 years (P < .05). Age, type of cancer, comorbidities, mental health, and function may influence older adults' symptom distress following cancer surgery. Older adults generally experience decreasing symptom distress after thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic cancer surgery. Symptom management over time for those with thoracic cancer, comorbidities, those with worse mental health, those with decreased function, and those 75 years or older may prevent morbidity and improve outcomes of older adults following surgery.

  14. Systematic Review of Falls in Older Adults with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wildes, Tanya M; Dua, Priya; Fowler, Susan A.; Miller, J. Philip; Carpenter, Christopher R.; Avidan, Michael S.; Stark, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives lder adults frequently experience falls, at great cost to themselves and society. Older adults with cancer may be at greater risk for falls and have unique risk factors. Materials and Methods We undertook a systematic review of the available medical literature to examine the current evidence regarding factors associated with falls in older adults with cancer. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, CENTRAL, DARE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and clinical trials.gov were searched using standardized terms for concepts of oncology/cancer, people 60 and older, screening, falls and diagnosis. Eligible studies included cohort or case-control studies or clinical trials in which all patients, or a subgroup of patients, had a diagnosis of cancer and in which falls were either the primary or secondary outcome. Results We identified 31 studies that met our inclusion criteria. Several studies suggest that falls are more common in older adults with a diagnosis of cancer than those without. Among the 11 studies that explored factors associated with outpatient falls, some risk factors for falls established in the general population were also associated with falls in older adults with cancer, including dependence in activities of daily living and prior falls. Other factors associated with falls in a general population, such as age, polypharmacy and opioid use, were not predictive of falls among oncology populations. Falls among older adults with cancer in the inpatient setting were associated with established risk factors for falls in people without cancer, but also with factors unique to an oncology population, such as brain metastases. Conclusions Falls in older adults with cancer are more common than in the general population, and are associated with risk factors unique to people with cancer. Further study is needed to establish methods of screening older adults with cancer for fall risk and ultimately implement interventions to reduce their risk of falls. Identifying

  15. Older Adults Do Not Notice Their Names: A New Twist to a Classic Attention Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Kilb, Angela; Maddox, Geoffrey B.; Thomas, Jenna; Fine, Hope C.; Chen, Tina; Cowan, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Although working memory spans are, on average, lower for older adults than young adults, we demonstrate in 5 experiments a way in which older adults paradoxically resemble higher capacity young adults. Specifically, in a selective-listening task, older adults almost always failed to notice their names presented in an unattended channel. This is an…

  16. Understanding the Potential of PARO for Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Sean A.; Kemple, Shawn; Mitzner, Tracy L.; King, Chih-Hung Aaron; Rogers, Wendy A.

    2017-01-01

    As the population ages, there is an increasing need for socio-emotional support for older adults. A potential way to meet this need is through interacting with pet-type robots such as the seal robot, PARO. There was a need to extend research on PARO’s potential benefits beyond cognitively impaired and dependently living older adults. Because independently living, cognitively intact older adults may also have socio-emotional needs, the primary goal of this study was to investigate their attitudes, emotions, and engagement with PARO to identify its potential applicability to this demographic. Thirty older adults participated in an interaction period with PARO, and their attitudes and emotions toward PARO were assessed before and after using a multi-method approach. Video of the interaction was coded to determine the types and frequency of engagements participants initiated with PARO. Overall, there were no pre-post interaction differences on these measures. However, semi-structured interviews suggested that these older adults had positive attitudes towards PARO’s attributes, thought it would be easy to use, and perceived potential uses for both themselves and others. Participants varied in their frequency of engagement with PARO. A novel finding is that this active engagement frequency uniquely predicted post-interaction period positive affect. This study advances understanding of healthy older adults’ attitudes, emotions, and engagement with PARO and of possible ways in which PARO could provide social and emotional support to healthy older adults. The results are informative for future research and design of pet-type robots. PMID:28943748

  17. Loneliness in older adults is associated with diminished cortisol output.

    PubMed

    Schutter, N; Holwerda, T J; Stek, M L; Dekker, J J M; Rhebergen, D; Comijs, H C

    2017-04-01

    Loneliness in older adults has been associated with increased mortality and health problems. One of the assumed underlying mechanisms is dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA-axis). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether loneliness in older adults is associated with HPA-axis dysregulation and whether this association differs between depressed and non-depressed persons. Cross-sectional data of 426 lonely and non-lonely older adults in the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO) were used. Linear regression analyses and multinominal logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between loneliness and morning cortisol, cortisol awakening response, diurnal slope and dexamethasone suppression ratio. In all analyses, confounders were introduced. In order to examine whether the association between loneliness and cortisol measures is different in depressed versus non-depressed persons, an interaction term for loneliness x depression diagnosis was tested. Cortisol output in the first hour after awakening and dexamethasone suppression ratio was lower in lonely participants. There were no significant interactions between loneliness and depression diagnosis in the association with the cortisol measures. This study is the first to investigate the association between the HPA-axis and loneliness in a large group of older adults aged 60-93years. We found lower cortisol output in the first hour after awakening and lower dexamethasone suppression ratio in lonely older depressed and non-depressed adults. Whether diminished cortisol output is the underlying mechanism that leads to health problems in lonely older adults is an interesting object for further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bridging the digital divide in older adults: a study from an initiative to inform older adults about new technologies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Damnée, Souad; Kerhervé, Hélène; Ware, Caitlin; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In a society where technology progresses at an exponential rate, older adults are often unaware of the existence of different kinds of information and communication technologies (ICTs). To bridge the gap, we launched a 2-year project, during which we conducted focus groups (FGs) with demonstrations of ICTs, allowing older adults to try them out and to share their opinions. This study aimed at investigating how participants perceived this kind of initiative and how they reacted to different kinds of ICTs. Patients and methods In total, 14 FGs were conducted with community-dwelling older adults, with a frequency of two FGs on the same topic once per trimester. Twenty-three older adults (four men and 19 women) attended at least one FG but only nearly half of them were regular attendants (ten participating in at least five sessions). Age of participants ranged from 63 years to 88 years, with a mean of 77.1 years. All of them had completed secondary education. The analyses of the data were performed according to inductive thematic analysis. Results Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis. The first concerned participants’ motivation for and assessment of the project. The second theme identified the underlying factors of the “digital divide” between the younger and the older generations. The third theme concerned the factors of technology adoption among older adults. The fourth one identified participants’ attitudes toward assistive ICTs, designed specifically for older adults (“gerontechnologies”). Discussions and conclusion This project encouraging older adults to be informed about different kinds of ICTs was positively rated. With regard to ICTs, participants perceived a digital divide. The underlying factors are generation/cohort effects, cognitive and physical decline related to aging, and negative attitudes toward technologies. However, more and more older adults adopt different kinds of ICTs in order to fit in with the society

  19. Bridging the digital divide in older adults: a study from an initiative to inform older adults about new technologies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Damnée, Souad; Kerhervé, Hélène; Ware, Caitlin; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In a society where technology progresses at an exponential rate, older adults are often unaware of the existence of different kinds of information and communication technologies (ICTs). To bridge the gap, we launched a 2-year project, during which we conducted focus groups (FGs) with demonstrations of ICTs, allowing older adults to try them out and to share their opinions. This study aimed at investigating how participants perceived this kind of initiative and how they reacted to different kinds of ICTs. In total, 14 FGs were conducted with community-dwelling older adults, with a frequency of two FGs on the same topic once per trimester. Twenty-three older adults (four men and 19 women) attended at least one FG but only nearly half of them were regular attendants (ten participating in at least five sessions). Age of participants ranged from 63 years to 88 years, with a mean of 77.1 years. All of them had completed secondary education. The analyses of the data were performed according to inductive thematic analysis. Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis. The first concerned participants' motivation for and assessment of the project. The second theme identified the underlying factors of the "digital divide" between the younger and the older generations. The third theme concerned the factors of technology adoption among older adults. The fourth one identified participants' attitudes toward assistive ICTs, designed specifically for older adults ("gerontechnologies"). This project encouraging older adults to be informed about different kinds of ICTs was positively rated. With regard to ICTs, participants perceived a digital divide. The underlying factors are generation/cohort effects, cognitive and physical decline related to aging, and negative attitudes toward technologies. However, more and more older adults adopt different kinds of ICTs in order to fit in with the society. Concerning assistive ICTs, they manifested a lack of perceived need and usefulness

  20. Recruitment and Retention of Older Adults in Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Lona; Miller, Douglas K.; McGloin, Joanne M.; Div, M; Freeman, Marcie; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Magaziner, Jay; Studenski, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Older adults continue to be underrepresented in clinical research despite their burgeoning population in the United States and worldwide. Physicians often propose treatment plans for older adults based on data from studies involving primarily younger, more-functional, healthier participants. Major barriers to recruitment of older adults in aging research relate to their substantial health problems, social and cultural barriers, and potentially impaired capacity to provide informed consent. Institutionalized older adults offer another layer of complexity that requires cooperation from the institutions to participate in research activities. This paper provides study recruitment and retention techniques and strategies to address concerns and overcome barriers to older adult participation in clinical research. Key approaches include early in-depth planning; minimizing exclusion criteria; securing cooperation from all interested parties; using advisory boards, timely screening, identification, and approach of eligible patients; carefully reviewing the benefit:risk ratio to be sure it is appropriate; and employing strategies to ensure successful retention across the continuum of care. Targeting specific strategies to the condition, site, and population of interest and anticipating potential problems and promptly employing predeveloped contingency plans are keys to effective recruitment and retention. PMID:19093934

  1. Reports on depressive symptoms in older adults with chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Morris, Diana L; Preechawong, Sunida; Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2004-01-01

    Depression is the most common mental disorder among older adults in the United States and one of the most disabling conditions worldwide. Chronic conditions and related functional limitations are associated with late-life depression, but assessment of depression is complicated by the absence of measures that capture the range of depressive emotions older adults may express. This descriptive, correlational study of 314 older adults with chronic conditions examined three measures to assess depressive symptoms: the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10), and an Emotional Symptom Checklist (ESC). The measures were correlated with each other and with a number of chronic conditions and functional impairments. Men and women scored similarly on all measures, though correlations between depressive symptoms and negative emotions were stronger for men. About 12% of the older adults exceeded the CES-D criteria for severe depressive symptoms, with the greatest percentage among those aged 75 to 84. The most frequently reported negative emotions were sadness (by women and elders through age 84) and loneliness (by men and elders age 85 and over). The findings suggest the need for multiple assessment strategies to identify older adults at risk for late-life depression.

  2. Does yoga engender fitness in older adults? A critical review.

    PubMed

    Roland, Kaitlyn P; Jakobi, Jennifer M; Jones, Gareth R

    2011-01-01

    Interest in yoga is growing, especially among older adults. This review critically summarizes the current literature to investigate whether physical fitness and function benefits are engendered through the practice of yoga in older adults. A comprehensive search yielded 507 studies; 10 studies with 544 participants (69.6 ± 6.3 yr, 71% female) were included. Large variability in yoga styles and measurement outcomes make it challenging to interpret results across studies. Studies reported moderate improvements for gait (ES = 0.54, 0.80), balance (ES = 0.25-1.61), upper/lower body flexibility (ES = 0.25, 0.70), lower body strength (ES = 0.51), and weight loss (ES = 0.73, 0.99).Yoga may engender improvements in some components of fitness in older adults. However, more evidence is needed to determine its effectiveness as an alternative exercise to promote fitness in older adults. Further investigation into yoga as an exercise activity for older adults is warranted.

  3. Major depressive and anxiety disorders in visually impaired older adults.

    PubMed

    van der Aa, Hilde P A; Comijs, Hannie C; Penninx, Brenda W J H; van Rens, Ger H M B; van Nispen, Ruth M A

    2015-01-20

    We assessed the prevalence of subthreshold depression and anxiety, and major depressive, dysthymic, and anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, and general anxiety disorder) in visually impaired older adults and compared these estimates with those of normally sighted peers. Cross-sectional data were analyzed based on telephone interviews with visually impaired older adults aged ≥ 60 years (n = 615) with a visual acuity of ≥ 0.30 logMAR (20/40 Snellen) in the best eye from outpatient low vision rehabilitation centers, and face-to-face interviews with community-dwelling normally sighted peers (n = 1232). To determine prevalence rates, the normally sighted population was weighted on sex and age to fit the visually impaired population. Logistic regression analyses were used to compare the populations and to correct for confounders. The prevalence of major depressive disorder (5.4%) and anxiety disorders (7.5%), as well as the prevalence of subthreshold depression (32.2%) and subthreshold anxiety (15.6%), were significantly higher in visually impaired older adults compared to their normally sighted peers (P < 0.05). Agoraphobia and social phobia were the most prevalent anxiety disorders in visually impaired older adults. This study shows that depression and anxiety are major public health problems in visually impaired older adults. Research on psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic interventions to improve depression and anxiety in this population is warranted. (http://www.trialregister.nl number, NTR3296.). Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  4. An Evaluation of Wellness Assessment Visualizations for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Blaine; Yoo, Daisy; Aziz, Rafae; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Demiris, George

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Smart home technologies provide a valuable resource to unobtrusively monitor health and wellness within an older adult population. However, the breadth and density of data available along with aging associated decreases in working memory, prospective memory, spatial cognition, and processing speed can make it challenging to comprehend for older adults. We developed visualizations of smart home health data integrated into a framework of wellness. We evaluated the visualizations through focus groups with older adults and identified recommendations to guide the future development of visualizations. Materials and Methods We conducted four focus groups with older adult participants (n=31) at an independent retirement community. Participants were presented with three different visualizations from a wellness pilot study. A qualitative descriptive analysis was conducted to identify thematic content. Results We identified three themes related to processing and application of visualizations: (1) values of visualizations for wellness assessment, (2) cognitive processing approaches to visualizations, and (3) integration of health data for visualization. In addition, the focus groups highlighted key design considerations of visualizations important towards supporting decision-making and evaluation assessments within integrated health displays. Conclusions Participants found inherent value in having visualizations available to proactively engage with their healthcare provider. Integrating the visualizations into a wellness framework helped reduce the complexity of raw smart home data. There has been limited work on health visualizations from a consumer perspective, in particular for an older adult population. Creating appropriately designed visualizations is valuable towards promoting consumer involvement within the shared decision-making process of care. PMID:25401414

  5. Falls Risk and Simulated Driving Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, John G.; Neider, Mark B.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2013-01-01

    Declines in executive function and dual-task performance have been related to falls in older adults, and recent research suggests that older adults at risk for falls also show impairments on real-world tasks, such as crossing a street. The present study examined whether falls risk was associated with driving performance in a high-fidelity simulator. Participants were classified as high or low falls risk using the Physiological Profile Assessment and completed a number of challenging simulated driving assessments in which they responded quickly to unexpected events. High falls risk drivers had slower response times (~2.1 seconds) to unexpected events compared to low falls risk drivers (~1.7 seconds). Furthermore, when asked to perform a concurrent cognitive task while driving, high falls risk drivers showed greater costs to secondary task performance than did low falls risk drivers, and low falls risk older adults also outperformed high falls risk older adults on a computer-based measure of dual-task performance. Our results suggest that attentional differences between high and low falls risk older adults extend to simulated driving performance. PMID:23509627

  6. Validity of the International Fitness Scale "IFIS" in older adults.

    PubMed

    Merellano-Navarro, Eugenio; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; García-Rubio, Javier; Gusi, Narcís; Olivares, Pedro R

    2017-09-01

    To validate the "International Fitness Scale" (IFIS) in older adults. Firstly, cognitive interviews were performed to ensure that the questionnaire was comprehensive for older Chilean adults. After that, a transversal study of 401 institutionalized and non-institutionalized older adults from Maule region in Chile was conducted. A battery of validated fitness tests for this population was used in order to compare the responses obtained in the IFIS with the objectively measured fitness performance (back scratch, chair sit-and-reach, handgrip, 30-s chair stand, timed up-and-go and 6-min walking). Indicated that IFIS presented a high compliance in the comprehension of the items which defined it, and it was able of categorizing older adults according to their measured physical fitness levels. The analysis of covariance ANCOVA adjusted by sex and age showed a concordance between IFIS and the score in physical fitness tests. Based on the results of this study, IFIS questionnaire is a good alternative to assess physical fitness in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Worry in Older Community-Residing Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kaye; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Ke, Liang; Cumming, Robert G.; Kendig, Hal; Mathews, Mark

    2011-01-01

    With rising longevity, increasing numbers of older people are experiencing changes in their everyday family and social life, changes in their financial status, and a greater number of chronic conditions affecting their health. We took the opportunity to explore these relationships with worry in a group of volunteer community-living elderly (n =…

  8. OLDER ADULTS: AN ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The baby boom generation is quickly becoming the geriatric generation. The over-65 age bracket hit 13% of Americans in 1997, and is expected to reach 20% by 2030 accounting for 73 million Americans. World-wide the total number of older people (>60years) is expected to double from...

  9. Falls Prevention: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications can be adjusted to reduce your falling risk. Falls and Medication Management : Reduce Medication Whenever Possible Older people are much more likely than younger people to use many prescription and ... medicines increase the risk of a fall, and interactions between drugs may ...

  10. Patient Portal Use and Experience Among Older Adults: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background The older adult population (65 years or older) in the United States is growing, and it is important for communities to consider ways to support the aging population. Patient portals and electronic personal health records (ePHRs) are technologies that could better serve populations with the highest health care needs, such as older adults. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the existing research landscape related to patient portal and ePHR use and experience among older adults and to understand the benefits and barriers to older adults’ use and adoption of patient portals and ePHRs. Methods We searched six pertinent bibliographic databases for papers, published from 2006 to 2016 and written in English, that focused on adults 60 years or older and their use of or experience with patient portals or ePHRs. We adapted preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to review papers based on exclusion and inclusion criteria. We then applied thematic analysis to identify key themes around use, experience, and adoption. Results We retrieved 199 papers after an initial screening and removal of duplicate papers. Then we applied an inclusion and exclusion criteria, resulting in a final set of 17 papers that focused on 15 separate projects. The majority of papers described studies involving qualitative research, including interviews and focus groups. They looked at the experience and use of ePHRs and patient portals. Overall, we found 2 main barriers to use: (1) privacy and security and (2) access to and ability to use technology and the Internet. We found 2 facilitators: (1) technical assistance and (2) family and provider advice. We also reported on older adults’ experience, including satisfaction with the system and improvement of the quality of their health care. Several studies captured features that older adults wanted from these systems such as further assistance managing health-related tasks and contextual

  11. Physical activity during hospitalization: Activities and preferences of adults versus older adults.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Jorit; Conijn, D; Vermeulen, H M; Vliet Vlieland, Tpm

    2018-04-16

    Inactivity during hospitalization leads to a functional decline and an increased risk of complications. To date, studies focused on older adults. This study aims to compare the physical activities performed by older adult and adult hospitalized patients. Patients hospitalized for >3 days at a university hospital completed a questionnaire regarding their physical activities (% of days on which an activity was performed divided by the length of stay) and physical activity needs during hospitalization. Crude and adjusted comparisons of older adult (>60 years) and adult (≤60 years) patients were performed using parametric testing and regression analyses. Of 524 patients, 336 (64%) completed the questionnaire, including 166 (49%) older adult patients. On average, the patients were physically active on 35% or less of the days during their hospitalization. Linear regression analysis showed no significant associations between being an older adult and performing physical activities after adjusting for gender, length of stay, surgical intervention, and meeting physical activity recommendations prior to hospitalization. Most patients were well informed regarding physical activity during hospitalization; however, the older adult patients reported a need for information regarding physical activities after hospitalization more frequently (odds ratios, 2.47) after adjusting for educational level, gender, and physical therapy during hospitalization. Both older adult and adult patients are physically inactive during hospitalization, and older adult patients express a greater need for additional information regarding physical activity after hospitalization than adult patients. Therefore, personalized strategies that inform and motivate patients to resume physical activities during hospitalization are needed regardless of age.

  12. Multidimensional Attitudes of Emergency Medicine Residents Toward Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Teresita M.; Chan, Shu B.; Hansoti, Bhakti

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs), and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM) resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Methods Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. Results 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score). Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY) levels. Conclusion EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels. PMID:25035760

  13. Healthcare-Associated Meningitis or Ventriculitis in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Srihawan, Chanunya; Habib, Onaizah; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2017-12-01

    Healthcare-associated meningitis or ventriculitis (HCAMV) is a serious and life-threatening complication of invasive neurosurgical procedures or penetrating head trauma. Older adults are at higher risk of adverse outcomes in community-acquired meningitis but studies of HCAMV are lacking. Therefore, we perform the study to define the differences in clinical outcomes between older and younger adults with HCAMV. Retrospective study. A large tertiary care hospital in Houston, Texas, from July 2003 to November 2014. Adults with a diagnosis of HCAMV (N = 160) aged ≥65 (n = 35), aged 18-64 (n = 125). Demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory results, treatments, and outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale). Older adults had more comorbidities and CSF abnormalities [pleocytosis, high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein, low CSF glucose) and were more likely to have altered mental status than younger adults (P < .05). An adverse clinical outcome was seen in 142 participants (89%) (death (n = 18, 11%), persistent vegetative state (n = 26, 16%), severe disability (n = 68, 43%), moderate disability (n = 30, 19%). There was no difference in adverse outcomes between older (97%) and younger (86%) adults (P = .13). On logistic regression analysis, abnormal neurological examination (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 7.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.15-23.63, P = .001) and mechanical ventilation (aOR = 11.03, 95% CI = 1.35-90.51, P = .02) were associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Older adults with HCAMV have more comorbidities and CSF abnormalities and are more likely to have altered mental status than younger adults but have similar high rates of adverse clinical outcomes. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Implications of Recent Drug Approvals for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhower, Christine; Koronkowski, Michael; Marcum, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    More than 100 medications were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as new drugs or for new indications in 2014 and 2015. Several of the new drugs may benefit older adults, but adverse events and pharmacokinetic changes due to aging must be considered. This article will focus on three recently approved drugs that are marketed for chronic conditions that can affect older adults: suvorexant, for treatment of insomnia; edoxaban, for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and for treatment of venous thromboembolism; and droxidopa, for treatment of symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Information about indications, mechanisms of action, dosing, efficacy, and safety are reviewed. The place of each agent in therapy for older adults is also discussed. PMID:27340374

  15. Cognitive function and adherence of older adults undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Hain, Debra J

    2008-01-01

    As the number of older adults undergoing hemodialysis increases, it is important for nurses to consider cognitive impairment as a contributing factor to non-adherence. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify cognitive markers that nurses can use to alert them to potential problems with adherence among older adults undergoing hemodialysis. Stories of the health challenge of making lifestyle change were analyzed with a linguistic analysis software program. A standardized instrument (3MS) that measures global cognitive function was administered. Determination of adherence level was the last activity of data collection. In this sample (n=63), 39.7% of the participants had evidence of cognitive impairment (3MS score less than 80); 58.2% of the 39.7% had evidence of non-adherence. There was a significant relationship between word use and cognitive function (p < .01). Cognitive impairment is prevalent among older adults undergoing hemodialysis and words might be a proxy for recognizing this.

  16. An integrated dementia intervention for Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee-Young; Bae, Yeong-Suk; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Kap-Soon; Chae, Myeong-Jeong; Ju, Ree-Aie

    2010-12-01

    Called dotage in Korea, dementia is primarily characterized by cognitive impairments. Secondary manifestations include mental-emotional problems, including depression. This study was designed to examine the effects of an integrated dementia intervention for Korean older adults. The intervention is composed of cognitive stimulation training, exercise, music, art, and horticultural therapy. Participants included 38 older adults with mild dementia. Twenty were assigned to the experimental group and 18 to the control group. Participants in the experimental group attended 18 program sessions. Significant differences were found postintervention between the two groups in measures of cognitive function, depression levels, and mental-emotional health. The findings indicate that this integrated dementia intervention can be applied to help older adults with mild dementia. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Personality traits and perceived social support among depressed older adults.

    PubMed

    Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Franzese, Alexis T; Thorp, Steven R; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Lynch, Thomas R

    2008-09-01

    The contribution of personality traits and social support to mental health is well established, but to our knowledge there have been no longitudinal investigations of the relation between personality and social support in depressed older adults. In the current study, we examined a repeated measures multi-level mixed model of change in perceived social support to determine whether personality traits and depressive symptoms were associated with changes in perceived social support over the 3 year study interval in a sample of depressed older adults. Results suggest that Conscientiousness and Extraversion were personality traits that were significantly predictive of changes in perceived social support over this time interval. Based on these results it appears that, among depressed older adults, those with conscientious or extraverted personality traits are more likely to resist impulses to withdraw from relationships. In addition, these traits may lead to more satisfying interactions and greater perceived social support over time. The implications of these results are discussed.

  18. Gender differences in performance of script analysis by older adults.

    PubMed

    Helmes, E; Bush, J D; Pike, D L; Drake, D G

    2006-12-01

    Script analysis as a test of executive functions is presumed sensitive to cognitive changes seen with increasing age. Two studies evaluated if gender differences exist in performance on scripts for familiar and unfamiliar tasks in groups of cognitively intact older adults. In Study 1, 26 older adults completed male and female stereotypical scripts. Results were not significant but a tendency was present, with genders making fewer impossible errors on the gender-typical script. Such an interaction was also noted in Study 2, which contrasted 50 older with 50 younger adults on three scripts, including a script with neutral familiarity. The pattern of significant interactions for errors suggested the need to use scripts that are based upon tasks that are equally familiar to both genders.

  19. Non-Digital Game Playing by Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, W Ben; Sixsmith, Andrew; Kaufman, David

    2017-09-01

    Research on video games' effect on cognition and behaviour has been extensive, yet little research has explored non-digital forms of game playing, especially among older adults. As part of a larger survey on game playing, 886 respondents (≥ age 55) filled out questionnaires about non-digital game play. The study aims were to determine perceived benefits of non-digital game play and to determine socio-demographic factors that might predict perceived benefits. Survey results indicate that non-digital game playing is social in nature and common (73% of respondents) among older adults. Older adults play for fun, but also to help maintain their cognition. Regression analyses indicated various socio-demographic factors - age, education, gender, and race - were independently associated with perceived benefits from game playing. The results thus emphasize the importance of non-digital game playing in this population and suggest that efforts to facilitate game playing may improve social interactions and quality of life.

  20. Treating Opioid-Induced Constipation in Older Adults: New Options.

    PubMed

    Sani, Halima; Mahan, Rebecca J

    2015-10-01

    Numerous factors, such as changes in gastrointestinal physiology, reduced mobility, decreased liquid and nutritional intake, and certain comorbidities, predispose older adults to constipation. Use of opioid medications further compounds this problem. Unlike other side effects associated with opioid use, patients do not develop tolerance to constipation and other opioid-induced bowel dysfunctions. Although opioid-induced constipation has a prevalence rate of 80% in this population, it remains highly undertreated. Despite this problem, there have been limited therapeutic options available for older adults suffering from opioid-induced constipation. On September 16, 2014, a new oral agent, naloxegol, a peripherally acting muopioid receptor antagonist (PAMORA), approved by the Food and Drug Administration, provides new hope for patients. This paper explores clinical complications associated with opioid-induced constipation in older adults, analyzes the efficacy and safety of laxatives and PAMORAs, and defines the future role of naloxegol in this vulnerable population.

  1. The role of exercise in fall prevention for older adults.

    PubMed

    Rose, Debra J; Hernandez, Danielle

    2010-11-01

    This article reviews the evidence for the effectiveness of stand-alone exercise interventions and multifactorial intervention strategies that include exercise in lowering fall incidence rates and/or fall risk among older adults residing in the community, acute, subacute, and long-term care settings. Stand-alone exercise programs that emphasize multiple exercise categories are effective in reducing fall rates and fall risk in community-residing older adults, and may also be effective when conducted for a sufficient duration with older adult patients in subacute settings. In contrast, multifactorial fall risk reduction programs that include exercise as a component and are delivered by a multidisciplinary team are more effective in lowering fall rates in long-term care settings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The application of a generativity model for older adults.

    PubMed

    Ehlman, Katie; Ligon, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Generativity is a concept first introduced by Erik Erikson as a part of his psychosocial theory which outlines eight stages of development in the human life. Generativity versus stagnation is the main developmental concern of middle adulthood; however, generativity is also recognized as an important theme in the lives of older adults. Building on the work of Erikson, McAdams and de St. Aubin (1992) developed a model explaining the generative process. The aims of this article are: (a) to explore the relationship between generativity and older adults as it appears in research literature; and (b) to examine McAdam's model and use it to explain the role of generativity in older adults who share life stories with gerontology students through an oral history project.

  3. Treatment of depression in older adults beyond fluoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Gabriela Arantes

    2015-01-01

    This review aimed to discuss the importance of the comprehensive treatment of depression among older adults in Brazil. The abuse of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, including fluoxetine hydrochloride, as antidepressants has been considered a serious public health problem, particularly among older adults. Despite the consensus on the need for a comprehensive treatment of depression in this population, Brazil is still unprepared. The interface between pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy is limited due to the lack of healthcare services, specialized professionals, and effective healthcare planning. Fluoxetine has been used among older adults as an all-purpose drug for the treatment of depressive disorders because of psychosocial adversities, lack of social support, and limited access to adequate healthcare services for the treatment of this disorder. Preparing health professionals is a sine qua non for the reversal of the age pyramid, but this is not happening yet. PMID:25830872

  4. Hearing aid user guides: suitability for older adults.

    PubMed

    Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the content, design, and readability of printed hearing aid user guides to determine their suitability for older adults, who are the main users of hearing aids. Hearing aid user guides were assessed using four readability formulae and a standardized tool to assess content and design (SAM - Suitability Assessment of Materials). A sample of 36 hearing aid user guides (four user guides from nine different hearing aid manufacturers) were analysed. Sixty nine percent of user guides were rated 'not suitable' and 31% were rated 'adequate' for their suitability. Many scored poorly for scope, vocabulary, aspects of layout and typography, and learning stimulation and motivation. The mean reading grade level for all user guides was grade 9.6 which is too high for older adults. The content, design, and readability of hearing aid user guides are not optimal for older adults and thus may serve as a barrier to successful hearing aid outcomes for this population.

  5. Older Adults' Online Dating Profiles and Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Wada, Mineko; Mortenson, William Bennett; Hurd Clarke, Laura

    2016-12-01

    This study examined how relevant Rowe and Kahn's three criteria of successful aging were to older adults' self-portrayals in online dating profiles: low probability of disease and disability, high functioning, and active life engagement. In this cross-sectional study, 320 online dating profiles of older adults were randomly selected and coded based on the criteria. Logistic regression analyses determined whether age, gender, and race/ethnicity predicted self-presentation. Few profiles were indicative of successful aging due to the low prevalence of the first two criteria; the third criterion, however, was identified in many profiles. Native Americans were significantly less likely than other ethnic groups to highlight the first two criteria. Younger age predicted presenting the first criterion. Women's presentation of the third criterion remained significantly high with age. The findings suggest that the criteria may be unimportant to older adults when seeking partners, or they may reflect the exclusivity of this construct.

  6. Transition of gastroenterological patients from paediatric to adult care: A position statement by the Italian Societies of Gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Elli, Luca; Maieron, Roberto; Martelossi, Stefano; Guariso, Graziella; Buscarini, Elisabetta; Conte, Dario; di Giulio, Emilio; Staiano, Annamaria; Barp, Jacopo; Bassotti, Gabrio; Bianco, Maria Antonia; Buri, Luigi; Carrara, Maurizio; Ghidini, Benedetta; Giannini, Olivia; Knafelz, Daniela; Miele, Erasmo; Peralta, Sergio; Riccio, Elisabetta; Tomba, Carolina; Zilli, Maurizio; Guadagnini, Tiziana

    2015-09-01

    In 2013, four Italian Gastroenterological Societies (the Italian Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, the Italian Society of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Endoscopists, the Italian Society of Endoscopy, and the Italian Society of Gastroenterology) formed a joint panel of experts with the aim of preparing an official statement on transition medicine in Gastroenterology. The transition of adolescents from paediatric to adult care is a crucial moment in managing chronic diseases such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disease and liver transplantation. Improved medical treatment and availability of new drugs and surgical techniques have improved the prognosis of many paediatric disorders, prolonging survival, thus making the transition to adulthood possible and necessary. An inappropriate transition or the incomplete transmission of data from the paediatrician to the adult Gastroenterologist can dramatically decrease compliance to treatment and prognosis of a young patient, particularly in the case of severe disorders. For these reasons, the Italian gastroenterological societies decided to develop an official shared transition protocol. The resulting document discusses the factors influencing the transition process and highlights the main points to accomplish to optimize compliance and prognosis of gastroenterological patients during the difficult transition from childhood to adolescence and adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Health promotion among older adults in Austria: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Boggatz, Thomas; Meinhart, Christoph Matthias

    2017-04-01

    To determine the types of attitudes to health promotion among older Austrians. Health promotion in old age becomes increasingly important in the current period of demographic transition. Interventions are likely to be successful if they take the attitude of older persons into consideration. There may be several types of attitudes to health promotion among older adults. Cross-sectional qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in a purposive sample consisting of 36 home-dwelling older persons from local communities in the federal province of Salzburg, Austria. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring and subsequent construction of types. There are three main types of attitudes to health promotion. 'Health promoters through everyday activities' considered domestic work and walks to be sufficient in keeping up their health. Fitness-oriented persons practised sports of some type. Users of complementary methods practised such methods to some degree. These types of attitudes could be further differentiated according to their outcome expectations. In addition to benefits for health, socialising was also an important outcome. Physical decline may reduce a fitness-oriented attitude, whereas encouragement by others may trigger it. Older adults have various attitudes to health promotion, but these are not immutable. Health promotion programmes that are not restricted to a narrow focus on health but provide the opportunity to socialise may support older adults in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Living arrangements and suicidal ideation among the Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jibum; Lee, Yun-Suk; Lee, Jinkook

    2016-12-01

    This study examines how living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for older adults in South Korea, which has the highest suicide rate among OECD countries, and a particularly high suicide rate for older persons. Analyzing a sample of 5795 women and 3758 men aged 65 and older from a nationwide representative cross-sectional data-set, we examined how many older adults think about suicide over a one-year period, why they think about suicide, and whether living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation. About 1 out of 12 respondents in our sample reported suicidal ideation. While women and men did not differ in the prevalence of suicidal ideation, women attributed their suicidal feelings to health problems, while men attributed theirs to economic difficulties. Logistic regression results indicated that living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for men but not women. Older men living with a spouse were less likely to have suicidal ideation than older men with other living arrangements (i.e., living alone, living with children without spouse, living with spouse, and others). Our results highlight the importance of living arrangements to older men's suicidal ideation. We discuss gender differences in the implications of living arrangements to suicidal ideation within the context of Confucian culture.

  9. No place like home: older adults and their housing.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jonathan D; Johnson, David S; Marchand, Joseph T; Smeeding, Timothy M; Torrey, Barbara Boyle

    2007-03-01

    The home is both older Americans' largest asset and their largest consumption good. This article employs new data on the consumption and assets of older Americans to investigate what role the home plays in the economic lives of older adults. We used 20 years of data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey to examine the asset and consumption trends of four cohorts of older Americans. We compared the data with other survey results. Older Americans' homeownership rates were stable until age 80. The homes were increasingly mortgage free; home equity increased with age, and relatively few older adults took out home equity loans or reverse annuity mortgages. Housing consumption flows increased with age; nonhousing consumption flows declined after age 60 at a rate of approximately 1.4% per year. The results suggest that the consumption of cohorts of older Americans does not decrease dramatically over a 20-year period and that they are also not converting their housing assets into other types of income or consumption, at least up to age 80. A number of reasons, including the bequest motive and the life cycle hypothesis, might explain this behavior.

  10. Clinical characteristics of generalized anxiety disorder: older vs. young adults.

    PubMed

    Altunoz, Umut; Kokurcan, Ahmet; Kirici, Sevinc; Bastug, Gulbahar; Ozel-Kizil, Erguvan Tugba

    2018-02-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders in older people. Although GAD in older adults seems to differ in many aspects like clinical presentation, severity and treatment response, there is a paucity of comparative research. The aim of the study is to compare the clinical presentation of GAD between older and young adults. One hundred and two non-demented older patients (age ≥65) and 64 young patients (age <45) who were diagnosed with GAD according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria were included to the study. Socio-demographic Data Form, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders-1 (SCID-1), the Questionnaire for the Suggested Behavioral Criteria of GAD for DSM-5, the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale (GADSS) and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) were applied to both groups. Older GAD patients had more disturbances of sleep, less reassurance seeking behaviors, higher rates of depression and higher depression severity when compared to the young patients. Although older people seemed to have a lower severity of GAD, they had higher disability due to worries. Older patients worried more about their own health and family well-being, whereas young patients worried more about future and other's health.

  11. Portuguese nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Tavares, João Paulo; da Silva, Alcione Leite; Sá-Couto, Pedro; Boltz, Marie; Capezuti, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Portugal is impacted by the rapid growth of the aging population, which has significant implications for its health care system. However, nurses have received little education focusing on the unique and complex care needs of older adults. This gap in the nurses' education has an enormous impact in their knowledge and attitudes and affects the quality of nursing care provided to older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1068 Portuguese nurses in five hospitals (northern and central region) with the following purposes: (i) explore the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about four common geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcer, incontinence, restraint use and sleep disturbance) in Portuguese hospitals; and (ii) evaluate the influence of demographic, professional and nurses' perception about hospital educational support, geriatric knowledge, and burden of caring for older adults upon geriatric nursing knowledge and attitudes. The mean knowledge and attitudes scores were 0.41 ± 0.15 and 0.40 ± 0.21, respectively (the maximum score was 1). Knowledge of nurses in Portuguese hospitals about the four geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcers, sleep disturbance, urinary incontinence and restraint use) was found inadequate. The nurses' attitudes towards caring for hospitalized older adults were generally negative. Nurses who work in academic hospitals demonstrated significantly more knowledge than nurses in hospital centers. The attitudes of nurses were significantly associated with the hospital and unit type, region, hospital educational support, staff knowledge, and perceived burden of caring for older adults. The study findings support the need for improving nurses' knowledge and attitudes towards hospitalized older adults and implementing evidence-based guidelines in their practice. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. Hospitalization and aesthetic health in older adults.

    PubMed

    Moss, Hilary; Donnellan, Claire; O'Neill, Desmond

    2015-02-01

    To assess the impact of hospitalization on arts engagement among older people; and to assess perceptions of whether hospitals are aesthetically deprived environments. A Survey of Aesthetic and Cultural Health was developed to explore the role of aesthetics before, during and after hospital. Study participants were n = 150 hospital in-patients aged >65. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Attendance at arts events was an important part of life for this sample and a large drop off was noted in continuation of these activities in the year post-hospital stay. Physical health issues were the main causes but also loss of confidence and transport issues. Film, dance, and music were the most popular arts for this sample prior to hospital stay. Noise pollution caused by other patients, lack of control over TV/radio, and access to receptive arts in hospital (reading and listening to music) were important issues for patients in hospital. This study identifies a trend for decreasing exposure to arts beginning with a hospital stay and concludes that older people may need encouragement to resume engagement in arts following a hospital stay. There is relatively limited evidence regarding the nature of, and potential benefit from, aesthetics in healthcare and limited studies with rigorous methodology, and further research is needed to understand the aesthetic preferences of older people in hospital. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Singapore Healthy Older People Everyday (HOPE) Study: Prevalence of Frailty and Associated Factors in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Reshma A; Chen, Matthew Zhixuan; Tan, Linda Wei Lin; Lim, Moses YiDong; Ho, Han Kwee; van Dam, Rob M

    2017-08-01

    In the context of a rapidly ageing population, Singapore is anticipating a rise in multimorbidity, disability, and dependency, which are driven by physical frailty. Healthy Older People Everyday (HOPE) is an epidemiologic population-based study on community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older in Singapore. To investigate the prevalence of frail and prefrail states and their association with polypharmacy, multimorbidity, cognitive and functional status, and perceived health status among community-dwelling older adults in Singapore. Participants for HOPE were older adults aged 65 years and older recruited from a cohort study on the northwest region of Singapore. Analysis was performed on data collected from a combination of interviewer-administered questionnaires (including FRAIL scale, EQ-5D, Mini Mental State Examination, Barthel index, and Lawton IADL scale), clinical assessments, and physical measurements (including hand grip strength and Timed-Up-and-Go [TUG] test). A total of 1051 older adults (mean age 71.2 years) completed the study. More than half (57.2%) were female. The prevalence of frailty and prefrailty was 6.2% and 37%, respectively. Frailty was associated with older age, female gender, Indian (instead of Chinese) ethnicity, multimorbidity, polypharmacy, cognitive and functional impairment, weaker hand grip strength, longer TUG times, and poor perceived health status. Those with underlying cognitive impairment and frailty were at greater risk of adverse health outcome. Frailty is a complex health state with multiple domains and dimensions. In our study in a multiethnic Asian population, we identified nonmodifiable factors and modifiable risk factors (multimorbidity, polypharmacy, cognitive and functional impairment) that were associated with frailty. Interventions will have to be multipronged and will require a collaborated effort in order to effect change and improve the health span in rapidly ageing populations. Copyright © 2017 AMDA

  14. The pleasurable recreational activities among community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Joji; Masuda, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Yusuke; Gotoh, Tadao; Kawamura, Takashi; Iguchi, Akihisa

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify what pleasurable recreational activities older adults like to participate in, and to investigate the relationship between those activities and quality of life (QOL). Questionnaires were delivered to older residents (65 years and above) in a Japanese rural area. The residents' background information, the amount of pleasure for various activities, and the QOL were surveyed. The QOL was evaluated by the revised Philadelphia Geriatric Center (PGC) morale scale. The amount of pleasure taken in a majority of the activities, such as conversation with family or neighbors showed a significant association with the happiness score, but only a few activities showed significant association between the revised PGC morale scale and the amount of pleasure. The multiple regression analyses indicated that the amount of pleasure in exercise, the difficulty in managing finances, and amount of pleasure taken in watching TV were significant variables for predicting the happiness score. The results indicated that the amount of pleasure older adults experienced when engaging in activities such as conversation with family or neighbors showed significant association with the older adults' happiness. These results may be helpful in understanding contributions of various activities to the perception of pleasure in older adults.

  15. Physiological and psychological effects of gardening activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ahmad; Qibing, Chen; Tao, Jiang

    2018-04-06

    Gardening has long been one of most enjoyable pastimes among older adults. Whether gardening activities contribute to the well-being of older adults is a major question. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the psychophysiological relaxing effects of gardening activities on older adults living in modern institutional care. The study participants were 40 older women aged 79.5 ± 8.09 years (mean ± SD). A cross-over study design was used to investigate the physiological and psychological responses to environments with and without plants. Physiological evaluation was carried out using blood pressure and electroencephalography, and psychological evaluation was carried out using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Semantic Differential method. Blood pressure was significantly lower, and changes in brainwaves were observed. Psychological responses showed that participants were more "comfortable and relaxed" after the plant task than after the control task. In addition, total anxiety levels were significantly lower after carrying out the plant task than after the control task. Our research suggests that gardening activities might enhance physiological and psychological relaxation in older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Sexual Behavior of Older Adults Living with HIV in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Negin, Joel; Geddes, Louise; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Kuteesa, Monica; Karpiak, Stephen; Seeley, Janet

    2016-02-01

    Sexual behavior among older adults with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa has been understudied despite the burgeoning of this population. We examined sexual behavior among older adults living with HIV in Uganda. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 50 years of age or older and living with HIV. Quantitative data were collected through face-to-face interviews, including demographic characteristics, health, sexual behavior and function, and mental health. Of respondents, 42 were men and 59 women. More than one-quarter of these HIV-positive older adults were sexually active. A greater proportion of older HIV-positive men reported being sexually active compared to women (54 vs. 15%). Among those who are sexually active, a majority never use condoms. Sixty-one percent of men regarded sex as at least somewhat important (42%), while few women shared this opinion (20%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that odds of sexual activity in the past year were significantly increased by the availability of a partner (married/cohabitating), better physical functioning, and male gender. As more adults live longer with HIV, it is critical to understand their sexual behavior and related psychosocial variables in order to improve prevention efforts.

  17. Exploring the effect of depressive symptoms and ageing on metamemory in an Italian adult sample.

    PubMed

    Fastame, Maria Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effect of depression and age-related factors on metamemory measures in an Italian adult sample. Fifty-eight healthy participants were recruited in Northern Italy and were, respectively, assigned to the following groups: Young (20-30 years old), old (60-70 years old), and Very Old (71-84 years old). Participants were administered a battery of tests, including a word recall task, self-referent mnestic efficiency scales, general beliefs about memory, and depression measures. General beliefs about memory, self-efficacy, and beliefs about the control of personal memory were predicted by age, education, depression, and mnestic and cognitive efficiency. Finally, age-related differences were found in metamemory measures: the accuracy of mnestic control processes is thought to be lower by very old adults than by old and young individuals.

  18. An empirical examination of subjective age in older adults.

    PubMed

    Agogo, David; Hajjat, Fatima; Milne, George R; Schewe, Charles D; Perrott, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    It has been observed that subjective age (SA) often trails chronological age, especially in older adults. In a previously published article, we argued that differences in individual's SA is a function of their level of activity on biological, mental, and social dimensions. This article empirically tests this proposition using a newly created Subjective Aging Index (SAI). The SAI is related to SA above the effect of age with differences existing across age groups and sex. The findings contribute to the literature on successful aging strategies with important implications for health care practitioners, marketers, and individuals heading towards older adult years.

  19. Positivity effect specific to older adults with subclinical memory impairment

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Stephanie L.; Noche, Jessica A.; Murray, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that older adults preferentially remember positive information (“positivity effect”), however others have reported mixed results. One potential source of conflict is that aging is not a unitary phenomenon and individual differences exist. We modified a standard neuropsychological test to vary emotional content and tested memory at three time points (immediate/20 min/1 wk). Cognitively normal older adults were stratified into those with and without subclinical memory impairment. We found that the positivity effect was limited to those with subclinical memory impairment, suggesting that consideration of subclinical memory impairment is necessary for understanding age-related emotional memory alterations. PMID:27421893

  20. Urinary Tract Infection and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Penfield, Nicolas W; Trautner, Barbara W; Jump, Robin L P

    2017-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a significant cause of morbidity among older adults. However, antibiotic prescriptions for clinically suspected UTIs are often inappropriate. Health care providers frequently struggle to differentiate UTI from asymptomatic bacteriuria, particularly in patients presenting with nonspecific symptoms. Patients with baseline cognitive impairments that limit history-taking can be particularly challenging. This article reviews the epidemiology and pathogenesis of UTI in older adults. It discusses an approach to diagnosis and treatment focused on recognizing patients who would likely benefit from antibiotic treatment and on identifying patients for whom empiric antibiotic therapy should not be given. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Evaluating physical and behavioral changes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Walton, J C; Miller, J M

    1998-04-01

    In older adults, subtle and sometime not so subtle physical or behavior changes can act as early warning signs of changing status. Nonspecific signs and symptoms occurring in older adults such as decline in previous functional capacity, urinary incontinence, anorexia, confusion, or unexplained falls may be signs of infection, medication interaction, dehydration, constipation, or sleep deprivation. Nurses, by critically assessing the situation early, may identify a developing problem. Prompt and early diagnosis of the underlying problem may save costly extended hospitalization or even prevent life-threatening complications.

  2. Older adults' engagement with a video game training program.

    PubMed

    Belchior, Patrícia; Marsiske, Michael; Sisco, Shannon; Yam, Anna; Mann, William

    2012-12-19

    The current study investigated older adults' level of engagement with a video game training program. Engagement was measured using the concept of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975). Forty-five older adults were randomized to receive practice with an action game ( Medal of Honor ), a puzzle-like game ( Tetris ), or a gold-standard Useful Field of View (UFOV) training program. Both Medal of Honor and Tetris participants reported significantly higher Flow ratings at the conclusion, relative to the onset of training. Participants are more engaged in games that can be adjusted to their skill levels and that provide incremental levels of difficulty. This finding was consistent with the Flow theory (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975).

  3. Fall Prevention for Older Adults Receiving Home Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Bamgbade, Sarah; Dearmon, Valorie

    2016-02-01

    Falls pose a significant risk for community-dwelling older adults. Fall-related injuries increase healthcare costs related to hospitalization, diagnostic procedures, and/or surgeries. This article describes a quality improvement project to reduce falls in older adults receiving home healthcare services. The fall prevention program incorporated best practices for fall reduction, including fall risk assessment, medication review/management, home hazard and safety assessment, staff and patient fall prevention education, and an individualized home-based exercise program. The program was implemented and evaluated during a 6-month time frame. Fewer falls occurred post implementation of the falls prevention program with no major injuries.

  4. Urinary Tract Infection and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cortes-Penfield, Nicolas W.; Trautner, Barbara W.; Jump, Robin

    2018-01-01

    Synopsis Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a significant cause of morbidity among older adults; however, antibiotic prescriptions for clinically suspected UTIs are often inappropriate. Healthcare providers frequently struggle to differentiate UTI from asymptomatic bacteriuria, particularly in patients presenting with nonspecific symptoms. Patients with baseline cognitive impairments that limit history-taking can be particularly challenging. Here, we review the epidemiology and pathogenesis of UTI in older adults. We also discuss an approach to the diagnosis and treatment of UTIs, focusing on recognizing patients who would likely benefit from antibiotic treatment and on identifying patients for whom empiric antibiotic therapy should not be given. PMID:29079155

  5. Older Adults' Reasons for Using Technology while Aging in Place.

    PubMed

    Peek, Sebastiaan T M; Luijkx, Katrien G; Rijnaard, Maurice D; Nieboer, Marianne E; van der Voort, Claire S; Aarts, Sil; van Hoof, Joost; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M; Wouters, Eveline J M

    2016-01-01

    Most older adults prefer to age in place, and supporting older adults to remain in their own homes and communities is also favored by policy makers. Technology can play a role in staying independent, active and healthy. However, the use of technology varies considerably among older adults. Previous research indicates that current models of technology acceptance are missing essential predictors specific to community-dwelling older adults. Furthermore, in situ research within the specific context of aging in place is scarce, while this type of research is needed to better understand how and why community-dwelling older adults are using technology. To explore which factors influence the level of use of various types of technology by older adults who are aging in place and to describe these factors in a comprehensive model. A qualitative explorative field study was set up, involving home visits to 53 community-dwelling older adults, aged 68-95, living in the Netherlands. Purposive sampling was used to include participants with different health statuses, living arrangements, and levels of technology experience. During each home visit: (1) background information on the participants' chronic conditions, major life events, frailty, cognitive functioning, subjective health, ownership and use of technology was gathered, and (2) a semistructured interview was conducted regarding reasons for the level of use of technology. The study was designed to include various types of technology that could support activities of daily living, personal health or safety, mobility, communication, physical activity, personal development, and leisure activities. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze interview transcripts. The level of technology use in the context of aging in place is influenced by six major themes: challenges in the domain of independent living; behavioral options; personal thoughts on technology use; influence of the social network; influence of organizations, and the

  6. Predictors of suicide ideation among older adults with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Norm; Heisel, Marnin J; Canham, Sarah L; Sixsmith, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) carries the greatest risk of death by suicide of all psychiatric conditions as 25%-50% of those with BD will make one or more suicide attempt, and about 15% will intentionally end their lives. Among young adults with BD, substance misuse, medication non-adherence, age at onset, and comorbid psychiatric conditions each predict self-harm. It is currently unclear if these same factors or others predict suicide ideation among older adults with BD. We recruited a global sample of 220 older adults with BD over 19 days using socio-demographically targeted, social media advertising and online data collection (Mean = 58.50, SD = 5.42; range 50 to 81 years). Path analyses allowed us to identify direct and indirect predictors of suicide ideation among older adults with BD. Cognitive failures (perception, memory, and motor function), depressive symptoms, alcohol misuse, and dissatisfaction with life as direct predictors of suicide ideation; duration of BD symptoms and medication non-adherence emerged as indirect predictors. Of note, the significant impact of sleep on suicide ideation is indirect via depressive symptoms, cognitive failures, medication non-adherence and life dissatisfaction. As with young adults with BD, alcohol misuse and medication non-adherence emerged as significant predictors of suicide ideation. In addition, cognitive failures directly and indirectly predict suicide ideation in this sample of older adults with BD. Population aging and treatment efficacy are leading to ever growing numbers of older adults with BD. Both direct and indirect predictors of suicide ideation need to be considered in future BD research and treatment planning.

  7. Predictors of suicide ideation among older adults with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Heisel, Marnin J.; Canham, Sarah L.; Sixsmith, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Bipolar disorder (BD) carries the greatest risk of death by suicide of all psychiatric conditions as 25%–50% of those with BD will make one or more suicide attempt, and about 15% will intentionally end their lives. Among young adults with BD, substance misuse, medication non-adherence, age at onset, and comorbid psychiatric conditions each predict self-harm. It is currently unclear if these same factors or others predict suicide ideation among older adults with BD. Methods We recruited a global sample of 220 older adults with BD over 19 days using socio-demographically targeted, social media advertising and online data collection (Mean = 58.50, SD = 5.42; range 50 to 81 years). Path analyses allowed us to identify direct and indirect predictors of suicide ideation among older adults with BD. Results Cognitive failures (perception, memory, and motor function), depressive symptoms, alcohol misuse, and dissatisfaction with life as direct predictors of suicide ideation; duration of BD symptoms and medication non-adherence emerged as indirect predictors. Of note, the significant impact of sleep on suicide ideation is indirect via depressive symptoms, cognitive failures, medication non-adherence and life dissatisfaction. Conclusions As with young adults with BD, alcohol misuse and medication non-adherence emerged as significant predictors of suicide ideation. In addition, cognitive failures directly and indirectly predict suicide ideation in this sample of older adults with BD. Population aging and treatment efficacy are leading to ever growing numbers of older adults with BD. Both direct and indirect predictors of suicide ideation need to be considered in future BD research and treatment planning. PMID:29145409

  8. Food Insecurity and Peripheral Arterial Disease in Older Adult Populations.

    PubMed

    Redmond, M L; Dong, F; Goetz, J; Jacobson, L T; Collins, T C

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity, defined as the limited or uncertain availability of nutritious and safe foods, is a complex phenomenon and is linked to poor nutrition and diet-sensitive chronic diseases. Dietary patterns that include saturated fats and meat products are potential risk factors for the progression of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This study explored whether there is a relationship between food insecurity and PAD among a national sample of older adults. We conducted a cross-sectional data analysis using data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Food security was assessed using the US Household Food Security Survey Module. Bivariate analyses were conducted using the Rao-Scott Chi-square test to examine associations between PAD and sociodemographic variables. Multivariable generalized logistic regression was employed to assess the effect of food security on the presence of PAD, with adjustment for respondent's socio demographic characteristics. A total of 2,027 adults with PAD were included (Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) score ≤ 0.90).We excluded participants less than 60 years of age. Compared to older adults who are food secure, those who are food insecure have an increased risk for PAD. Food insecurity is associated with peripheral arterial disease among older adults (adults adjusted odds ratio, 1.50 [95% CI 1.11-2.03). Older adults with peripheral arterial disease are experiencing food insecurity. While nutrition and PAD are not well-defined, previous literature indicates there is a connection between food insecurity and diet-sensitive chronic diseases (diabetes and hypertension) which are risk factors for PAD. Food insecurity should be taken into consideration when treating older adults with PAD to help decrease poor health outcomes that are linked to an insufficient amount of nutritious foods.

  9. Loneliness and Mortality Among Older Adults in China

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationships between loneliness, social and health behaviors, health, and mortality among older adults in China. Method. Data came from a nationally representative sample of 14,072 adults aged 65 and older from the 2002, 2005, and 2008 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. A cross-lagged model combined with survival analysis was used to assess the relationships between loneliness, behavioral and health outcomes, and risk of mortality. Results. About 28% of older Chinese adults reported feeling lonely, and lonely adults faced increased risks of dying over the subsequent years. Some of the effect was explained by social and health behaviors, but most of the effect was explained by health outcomes. Loneliness both affects and is affected by social activities, solitary leisure activities, physical exercise, emotional health, self-rated health, and functional limitations over a 3-year period. Discussion. Loneliness is part of a constellation of poor social, emotional, and health outcomes for Chinese older adults. Interventions to increase the social involvement of lonely individuals may improve well-being and lengthen life. PMID:24550354

  10. Differences in Risk Aversion between Young and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Albert, Steven M; Duffy, John

    2012-01-15

    Research on decision-making strategies among younger and older adults suggests that older adults may be more risk averse than younger people in the case of potential losses. These results mostly come from experimental studies involving gambling paradigms. Since these paradigms involve substantial demands on memory and learning, differences in risk aversion or other features of decision-making attributed to age may in fact reflect age-related declines in cognitive abilities. In the current study, older and younger adults completed a simpler, paired lottery choice task used in the experimental economics literature to elicit risk aversion. A similar approach was used to elicit participants' discount rates. The older adult group was more risk averse than younger adults (p < .05) and also had a higher discount rate (15.6-21.0% vs. 10.3-15.5%, p < .01), indicating lower expected utility from future income. Risk aversion and implied discount rates were weakly correlated. It may be valuable to investigate developmental changes in neural correlates of decision-making across the lifespan.

  11. Differences in Risk Aversion between Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Steven M.; Duffy, John

    2013-01-01

    Research on decision-making strategies among younger and older adults suggests that older adults may be more risk averse than younger people in the case of potential losses. These results mostly come from experimental studies involving gambling paradigms. Since these paradigms involve substantial demands on memory and learning, differences in risk aversion or other features of decision-making attributed to age may in fact reflect age-related declines in cognitive abilities. In the current study, older and younger adults completed a simpler, paired lottery choice task used in the experimental economics literature to elicit risk aversion. A similar approach was used to elicit participants' discount rates. The older adult group was more risk averse than younger adults (p < .05) and also had a higher discount rate (15.6-21.0% vs. 10.3-15.5%, p < .01), indicating lower expected utility from future income. Risk aversion and implied discount rates were weakly correlated. It may be valuable to investigate developmental changes in neural correlates of decision-making across the lifespan. PMID:24319671

  12. Antisocial Personality Disorder in Older Adults: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Katherine J; Vaughn, Michael G

    2017-11-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) has enormous negative impacts on the affected individuals, their loved ones, and society. This burden is intensified by the social and functional changes related to age. The lower prevalence of ASPD in older adults compared to younger adults is well-documented. This discrepancy, often attributed solely to antisocial "burnout," contributes to the lack of attention given to this disorder in older adults and may signify difficulty measuring ASPD in this population. These measurement issues likely stem from problems with the validity of the diagnostic criteria for older adults which may not effectively capture changes that occur with age. This review focuses on the current literature surrounding the validity of ASPD criteria with older adults and relevant concepts, including the connection between criminality and ASPD. Issues with screening tools and the measurement of ASPD caused by problems with the criteria are also discussed. Finally, recommendations for improvement, including use of dimensional models of personality disorders, a potential geriatric subclassification of criteria, and modification of the existing criteria are presented with clinical implications and suggestions for future research.

  13. Social relevance enhances memory for impressions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1 using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2 older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults' ability to successfully retrieve contextual information.

  14. Promoting transfer in memory training for older adults.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Elena; Dunlosky, John; Bottiroli, Sara; Hertzog, Christopher; Vecchi, Tomaso

    2010-08-01

    Many studies have focused on memory training in aging, showing that older adults can improve their performance. Unfortunately, the benefits of training can rarely be generalized to other tasks for which adults were not specifically trained. We investigated the benefits of instruction-based training in promoting transfer effects in older adults. In Experiment 1, we evaluated transfer effects in a training group who practiced using standard mnemonics to learn paired associates and word lists, and this group was given instructions about how the mnemonics could be used for two of the four transfer tasks (text learning, name-face learning, grocery list learning, place learning). In Experiment 2, we compared transfer effects for two different training groups: one practiced the strategies with the two trained tasks and did not receive instructions, and the other had the same practice but also received instructions on all the transfer tasks. Transfer in text learning occurred in both experiments. This transfer is particularly interesting, as text learning was the most dissimilar task in terms of both the nature of the materials and the underlying processes that support performance. The transfer was reliably greater when training involved instructions about applicability than when it did not. Instructions to use practiced strategies on new materials may be a useful technique in promoting transfer in older adults. It seems that the lack of transfer does not necessarily arise from older adults' inabilities, but because they do not realize that trained strategies can (or should) be applied to new materials.

  15. Permissive beliefs and attitudes about older adult suicide: a suicide enabling script?

    PubMed

    Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Benoit, Kathrin

    2017-02-01

    In the United States, suicide rates are highest among European American older adults. This phenomenon calls attention to cultural factors, specifically, the suicide beliefs and attitudes of European Americans. Beliefs and attitudes matter in the vulnerability to suicide. As predicted by cultural scripts of suicide theory, suicide is most likely among individuals and in communities where it is expected and is most acceptable. This study examined beliefs about the precipitants of, and protectors against older adult suicide, as well as suicide attitudes, in a predominantly European American community. Two hundred and fifty-five older adults (86% European American) and 281 younger adults (81% European American) indicated what they thought were the most likely older adult suicide precipitants and protectors, and their opinion about older adult suicide, depending on precipitant. Health problems were the most endorsed older adult suicide precipitants. Suicide precipitated by health problems was also rated most positively (e.g., rational, courageous). Older adults, persons with more education, and persons who did not identify with a religion expressed the most favorable attitudes about older adult suicide, across suicide precipitants. Men viewed older adult suicide as more admissible, and women, with more sympathy. Perceived suicide protectors included religiosity among older adults, and supportive relationships among younger adults. The belief, in this study's predominantly European American community, that older adult suicide is triggered by health problems, together with favorable attitudes about older adult suicide, suggest an enabling older adult suicide script, with implications for suicide risk and prevention.

  16. Self-rated driving and driving safety in older adults.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lesley A; Dodson, Joan E; Edwards, Jerri D; Ackerman, Michelle L; Ball, Karlene

    2012-09-01

    Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults' self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving outcomes in older adults (n=350; mean age 73.9, SD=5.25, range 65-91). Adverse driving outcomes included self-reported incidences of (1) being pulled over by the police, (2) receiving a citation, (3) receiving a recommendation to cease or limit driving, (4) crashes, and (5) state-reported crashes. Results found that older drivers with low self-ratings reported more medical conditions, less driving frequency, and had been given more suggestions to stop/limit their driving; there were no other significant differences between low and high self-raters. Logistic regression revealed older drivers were more likely to have a state-reported crash and receive a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Men were more likely to report all adverse driving outcomes except for receiving a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Regarding self-rated driving, older adults with high ratings were 66% less likely (OR=0.34, 95% CI=0.14-0.85) to have received suggestions to limit or stop driving after accounting for demographics, health and driving frequency. Self-ratings were not predictive of other driving outcomes (being pulled over by the police, receiving a citation, self-reported crashes, or state-reported crashes, ps>0.05). Most older drivers (85.14%) rated themselves as either good or excellent drivers regardless of their actual previous citation or crash rates. Self-rated driving is likely not related to actual driving proficiency as indicated by previous crash involvement in older adults

  17. Intelligibility of Noise-Adapted and Clear Speech in Child, Young Adult, and Older Adult Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiljanic, Rajka; Gilbert, Rachael C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined intelligibility of conversational and clear speech sentences produced in quiet and in noise by children, young adults, and older adults. Relative talker intelligibility was assessed across speaking styles. Method: Sixty-one young adult participants listened to sentences mixed with speech-shaped noise at -5 dB…

  18. [German National Physical Activity Recommendations for Adults and Older Adults: Methods, Database and Rationale].

    PubMed

    Füzéki, Eszter; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-03-01

    National physical activity recommendations are regarded as crucial elements of comprehensive physical activity promotion strategies. To date, Germany has no such national physical activity recommendations. The aim of this study was to provide physical activity recommendations based on a comprehensive summary of scientific evidence on the relationships between physical activity and a range of health outcomes in adults and older adults. The recommendations were developed in a 3-phase process (systematic literature review, development and use of quality criteria, synthesis of content) based on already existing high-quality guidelines. Based on the analysis of documents included in this study, the following recommendations were formulated. To gain wide-ranging health benefits, adults and older adults should be physically active regularly and avoid inactivity. Adults and older adults should carry out at least 150 min/week moderate intensity or 75 min/week high intensity aerobic activity. Adults and older adults can also reach the recommended amount of physical activity by performing activities in an appropriate combination in both intensity ranges. Optimally, physical activity should be distributed over the week and it can be accumulated in bouts of at least 10 min. Physical activity beyond 150 min/week yields further health benefits. At the same time, physical activity below 150 min/week is associated with meaningful health gains. Accordingly, all adults and older adults should be encouraged to be physically active whenever possible. Adults and older adults should also perform muscle strengthening activities at least twice a week. Regular balance exercises (3 times a week) can reduce the risk of falls in older adults. Adults and older adults should avoid long periods of sitting and should break up sitting time by physical activity. Physical activity can lead to adverse events, such as musculoskeletal injuries, which can be mitigated through appropriate

  19. Orchestrating care: nursing practice with hospitalised older adults.

    PubMed

    Dahlke, Sherry Ann; Phinney, Alison; Hall, Wendy Ann; Rodney, Patricia; Baumbusch, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    The increased incidence of health challenges with aging means that nurses are increasingly caring for older adults, often in hospital settings. Research about the complexity of nursing practice with this population remains limited. To seek an explanation of nursing practice with hospitalised older adults. Design. A grounded theory study guided by symbolic interactionism was used to explore nursing practice with hospitalised older adults from a nursing perspective. Glaserian grounded theory methods were used to develop a mid-range theory after analysis of 375 hours of participant observation, 35 interviews with 24 participants and review of selected documents. The theory of orchestrating care was developed to explain how nurses are continuously trying to manage their work environments by understanding the status of the patients, their unit, mobilising the assistance of others and stretching available resources to resolve their problem of providing their older patients with what they perceived as 'good care' while sustaining themselves as 'good' nurses. They described their practice environments as hard and under-resourced. Orchestrating care is comprised of two subprocesses: building synergy and minimising strain. These two processes both facilitated and constrained each other and nurses' abilities to orchestrate care. Although system issues presented serious constraints to nursing practice, the ways in which nurses were making meaning of their work environment both aided them in managing their challenges and constrained their agency. Nurses need to be encouraged to share their important perspective about older adult care. Administrators have a role to play in giving nurses voice in workplace committees and in forums. Further research is needed to better understand how multidisciplinary teams influence care of hospitalized older adults. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Experience of Discrimination Among U.S. Chinese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruijia; Simon, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Experiences of discrimination are detrimental to health and well-being. This study aimed to examine experiences of discrimination and responses to unfair treatment among community-dwelling U.S. Chinese older adults. Method. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults aged 60 years and older in the Greater Chicago area were interviewed in person between 2011 and 2013. Results. Of the 3,159 participants interviewed, 58.9% were women and the mean age was 72.8 years. A total of 671 (21.3%) participants reported having experienced discrimination and 1,454 (48.2%) reported passive response to unfair treatment. Older adults living in Chicago’s Chinatown had the lowest prevalence of perceived discrimination compared with those living in other areas. Younger age, higher education, higher income, fewer children, more years in the United States, more years in the community, poorer health status, lower quality of life, and worsening health over the last year were associated with higher frequency of discrimination reported. Younger age, higher education, higher income, being married, living with more people, having fewer children, more years in the United States, and better health over the past year were associated with engaged responses to unfair treatment. Conclusion. U.S. Chinese older adults suffered considerable discrimination, but tended to have passive responses to unfair treatment. Future longitudinal studies are needed to improve our understanding of the risk factors and outcomes associated with discrimination among U.S. Chinese older adults. PMID:25326642

  1. Gender differences in older adults with chronic migraine in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özge, Aynur; Uluduz, Derya; Selekler, Macit; Öztürk, Musa; Baykan, Betül; Çınar, Nilgün; Domaç, Füsun M; Zarifoğlu, Mehmet; Inan, Levent E; Akyol, Ali; Bolay, Hayrunnisa; Uzuner, Gülnur T; Erdemoğlu, Ali K; Oksuz, Nevra; Temel, Gulhan O

    2015-05-01

    Chronic migraine is a growing and disabling subtype of migraine with different risk factors and clinical features, even in older adults. We sought to define and differentiate clinical features of chronic migraine in older adults. We also aimed to compare major clinical features of chronic migraine in older adults with those in younger people of both sexes. We used electronic dataset (Turkish Headache Database) from 13 tertiary headache centers in Turkey. Electronic dataset included detailed headache-defining features according to ICHD-II criteria based on face-to-face interviews and examination by a headache specialist. Using statistical methods, clinical variables of chronic migraine in older adults were compared with those of younger adults. We included 915 patients with chronic migraine (mean age 43.80 ± 13.95 years); 83.3% were females. In total, 301 patients (32.9%) with chronic migraine aged >50 years were compared with 614 patients aged <50 years. There was no significant change in men with increasing age. However, duration of headache history, severity of attacks, previous histories of motion sickness and positive family history of headaches were significantly different in women with increasing age. Further sex-related differences have been shown in parameters such as attack duration, quality and associated nausea. Chronic migraine is an infrequent type of migraine and shows age-related changes in some phenotypic characteristics, such as severity of attacks, especially in women aged older than 50 years. Furthermore, positive family history of headaches and history of motion sickness increase the likelihood of developing chronic migraine in older women, indicating involvement of some gender-related, but as-yet unknown, genetic factors. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Developmental trajectory of time perspective: From children to older adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Lu-Lu; Cui, Ji-Fang; Chen, Xing-Jie; Wang, Ya

    2016-12-01

    Time perspective is a fundamental dimension of the psychological time construct, with a pervasive and powerful influence on human behavior. However, the developmental trajectory of time perspective across a human lifespan remains unclear. The current study aimed to portray the developmental trajectory of all dimensions of time perspectives from children to older adults in a large sample. A total of 1,901 individuals (aged 9-84 years) completed measures of time perspective. They were then divided into five age groups: children, teenagers, young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults. Results suggested that each time perspective showed a unique developmental pattern across the lifespan. Moreover, perceived economic situation and education were related to some dimensions of time perspective. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Attitudes toward Younger and Older Adults: The German Aging Semantic Differential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluth, Sebastian; Ebner, Natalie C.; Schmiedek, Florian

    2010-01-01

    The present study used the German Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) to assess attitudes toward younger and older adults in a heterogeneous sample of n = 151 younger and n = 143 older adults. The questionnaire was administered in two versions, one referring to the evaluation of younger adults, the other to the evaluation of older adults.…

  4. Toward a New Motivation to Learn Framework for Older Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yi-Yin; Sandmann, Lorilee R.

    2012-01-01

    Although existing literature addresses adults' motivation to learn, and some specifically focuses on older adults, it is now recognized that older adults are more heterogeneous and complex than other age groups. Therefore, this study seeks to provide an alternative theoretical framework to investigate motivation to learn for older adult learners…

  5. Depressive symptoms in institutionalized older adults

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Lívia Maria; Mattos, Inês Echenique

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson’s regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals. PMID:24897042

  6. Functional abilities in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Burton, Catherine L; Strauss, Esther; Bunce, David; Hunter, Michael A; Hultsch, David F

    2009-01-01

    A classification scheme and general set of criteria for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were recently proposed by a multidisciplinary group of experts who met at an international symposium on MCI. One of the proposed criteria included preserved basic activities of daily living and minimal impairment in complex instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). To investigate whether older adults with MCI classified according to the subtypes identified by the Working Group (i.e. amnestic, single non-memory domain, and multiple domain with or without a memory component) differed from cognitively intact older adults on a variety of measures indexing IADLs and to examine how well measures of IADL predict concurrent MCI status. Two hundred and fifty community-dwelling older adults, ranging in age from 66 to 92, completed self-report measures of IADLs (Lawton and Brody IADL Scale, Scales of Independent Behaviour-Revised--SIB-R) and a measure of everyday problem solving indexing IADLs (Everyday Problems Test--EPT). Ratings of participants' IADL functioning were also obtained from informants (e.g. spouse, adult child and friend). Older adults with multiple-domain MCI demonstrated poorer IADL functioning than older adults with no cognitive impairment on the EPT and the SIB-R (both self- and informant-report versions). The multiple-domain MCI participants also demonstrated poorer IADLs than MCI participants with impairments in a single cognitive domain on the self-reported SIB-R and EPT. The single-domain MCI groups demonstrated poorer IADLs than older adults without cognitive impairment on the informant-reported SIB-R and EPT. No significant group differences were found on the Lawton and Brody IADL Scale. Using the EPT and SIB-R as predictors in a multinomial regression analysis, MCI group status was reliably predicted, but the classification rate was poor. Individuals with MCI demonstrated poorer IADL functioning compared to cognitively intact older adults

  7. Stereotype Threat Lowers Older Adults' Self-Reported Hearing Abilities.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Lee, Soohyoung Rain

    2015-01-01

    Although stereotype threat is a well-documented phenomenon, previous studies examining it in older adults have almost exclusively focused on objective cognitive outcomes. Considerably less attention has been paid to the impact of stereotype threat on older adults' subjective assessments of their own abilities or to the impact of stereotype threat in noncognitive domains. Older adults are stereotyped as having experienced not only cognitive declines, but physical declines as well. The current study tested the prediction that stereotype threat can negatively influence older adults' subjective hearing abilities. To test this, 115 adults (mean age 50.03 years, range 41-67) read either a positive or negative description about how aging affects hearing. All participants then answered a questionnaire in which they assessed their own hearing abilities. The impact of stereotype threat on self-reported hearing was moderated by chronological age. Participants in their 40s and early 50s were unaffected by the stereotype threat manipulation. In contrast, participants in their late 50s and 60s rated their hearing as being subjectively worse when under stereotype threat. The current study provides a clear demonstration that stereotype threat negatively impacts older adults' subjective assessments of their own abilities. It is also the first study to demonstrate an effect of stereotype threat within the domain of hearing. These results have important implications for researchers investigating age-related hearing decline. Stereotype threat can lead to overestimation of the prevalence of age-related hearing decline. It can also serve as a confounding variable when examining the psychosocial correlates of hearing loss. Because of this, researchers studying age-related hearing loss should aim to provide a stereotype threat-free testing environment and also include assessments of stereotype threat within their studies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Edentulism and quality of life among older Ghanaian adults.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, Sandra A; Yawson, Alfred E; Calys-Tagoe, Benedict N L; Naidoo, Nirmala; Martey, Pamela; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul; Mensah, George; Minicuci, Nadia; Biritwum, Richard B

    2015-04-09

    Edentulism affects the quality of life and general health of an individual. But in ageing individuals, it has been observed to have greater impact, manifesting in functional, psychological and social limitations. With an increasing older adult population in Ghana, its burden is likely to increase. This study was thus carried out to explore the association between edentulism and quality of life among older Ghanaian adults. Secondary analysis of WHO's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 in Ghana was conducted using self-reported edentulism as the dependent variable. Participants included a nationally representative sample of adult's aged 50 years and older living in Ghana. Quality of life was measured using the 8 item WHOQOL measure and a single item measure which was a question "How would you rate your overall quality of life?". To assess the association between edentulism and the independent variables, a bivariate analysis was carried out. A Poisson regression model was then performed, adjusting for age, sex, income, education and the diagnosis of a chronic disease condition. A Spearman's correlation analysis was also carried out between the single and multi item measure of quality of life to assess how well they correlate. Edentulism was observed to be associated with significantly lower levels of SWB among older adults using both the single-item and multiple-item measure (WHOQOL). It, however, showed no association with happiness. Among edentulous respondents, females and those with no formal education reported significantly lower quality of life. The WHOQOL correlated positively and strongly with the single-item measure. Edentulism may not be life threatening and yet it has been shown to have a negative effect on the quality of life of older adult Ghanaians. More emphasis may thus need to be placed on the oral health of the aging population in Ghana to avoid it.

  9. Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups—young adults (20–29 years of age) and older adults (70–89 years of age). Participants completed cognitive measures and several discourse tasks; these included telling stories depicted in wordless picture books and answering multiple-choice comprehension questions pertaining to the story. Results The 2 groups did not differ significantly for proportion of story propositions conveyed; however, the younger group performed significantly better on the comprehension measure as compared with the older group. Only the older group demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between the story measures. Performance on the production and comprehension measures significantly correlated with performance on the cognitive measures for the older group but not for the younger group. Conclusions The relationship between adults’ comprehension of stimuli used to elicit narrative production samples and their narrative productions differed across the life span, suggesting that discourse processing performance changes in healthy aging. Finally, the study’s findings suggest that memory and attention contribute to older adults’ story processing performance. PMID:21106701

  10. Do older adults experience greater thermal strain during heat waves?

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Jill M; Larose, Joanie; Simpson, Christina; Flouris, Andreas D; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-03-01

    Heat waves are the cause of many preventable deaths around the world, especially among older adults and in countries with more temperate climates. In the present study, we examined the effects of age on whole-body heat loss and heat storage during passive exposure to environmental conditions representative of the upper temperature extremes experienced in Canada. Direct and indirect calorimetry measured whole-body evaporative heat loss and dry heat exchange, as well as the change in body heat content. Twelve younger (21 ± 3 years) and 12 older (65 ± 5 years) adults with similar body weight (younger: 72.0 ± 4.4 kg; older: 80.1 ± 4.2 kg) and body surface area (younger: 1.8 ± 0.1 m(2); older: 2.0 ± 0.1 m(2)) rested for 2 h in a hot-dry [36.5 °C, 20% relative humidity (RH)] or hot-humid (36.5 °C, 60% RH) environment. In both conditions, evaporative heat loss was not significantly different between groups (dry: p = 0.758; humid: p = 0.814). However, the rate of dry heat gain was significantly greater (by approx. 10 W) for older adults relative to younger adults during the hot-dry (p = 0.032) and hot-humid exposure (p = 0.019). Consequently, the cumulative change in body heat content after 2 h of rest was significantly greater in older adults in the hot-dry (older: 212 ± 25 kJ; younger: 131 ± 27 kJ, p = 0.018) as well as the hot-humid condition (older: 426 ± 37 kJ; younger: 317 ± 45 kJ, p = 0.037). These findings demonstrate that older individuals store more heat during short exposures to dry and humid heat, suggesting that they may experience increased levels of thermal strain in such conditions than people of younger age.

  11. Ageist attitudes block young adults' ability for compassion toward incapacitated older adults.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Yoav S; Bodner, Ehud

    2015-09-01

    Upon encountering older adults, individuals display varying degrees of prosocial attitudes and behaviors. While some display compassion and empathy, others draw away and wish to maintain their distance from them. The current study examined if and how ageist attitudes influence the association between the sight of physical incapacity in older age and compassionate reactions toward them. We predicted that ageist attitudes would interfere with the ability to respond to them with compassion. Young adults (N = 149, ages 19-29) were randomly distributed into two experimental conditions, each viewing a short video portraying different aspects of older adult physicality; one group viewed older adults displaying incapacitated behavior, and the other viewed fit behavior. Participants subsequently filled out scales assessing aging anxieties, and ageist and compassionate attitudes. Ageism was associated with reduced compassion toward the figures. Moreover, viewing incapacitated older adults led to increased concern toward them and perceived efficacy in helping them. However, significant interactions proved that higher scores of ageism in response to the videos led to increased need for distance and reduced efficacy toward incapacitated adults, an effect not observed among subjects with lower ageism scores. Ageism seems to be a factor which disengages individuals from older adults displaying fragility, leading them to disregard social norms which dictate compassion. The results are discussed from the framework of terror management theory, as increased mortality salience and death-related thoughts could have led to the activation of negative attitudes which, in turn, reduce compassion.

  12. Factors associated with cane use among community dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Aminzadeh, F; Edwards, N

    2000-01-01

    Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this study examined factors associated with cane use among community dwelling older adults. Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 106 community residing older adults in Ottawa, Canada. Using a stepwise discriminant analysis, subjective norms, attitudes, and age surfaced as the key variables associated with cane use in this sample. The discriminant function accounted for 67% of the variance in cane use and correctly classified 91% of cases (Wilks's lambda = 0.33, lambda2 = 110.12, df = 3, p < 0.0001). The findings provide evidence for the utility of the TPB in its application to understanding cane use behaviors of older persons and have important implications for the design of theory-based fall prevention interventions to enhance the acceptance and effective use of mobility aids.

  13. Aging on the Street: Homeless Older Adults in America.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    Older adults are at greater risk for homelessness today than at any time in recent history. Approximately one half of homeless individuals in America are older than 50, which has created serious challenges for how cities, governments, and health care providers care for homeless populations. Systems established in the 1980s to help care for homeless individuals were not designed to address problems of aging. It is critical that nurses and all health professionals have a better understanding of the unique needs and concerns of homeless older adults. Nurses can be an important part of the solution, not only through direct patient care but by advocating for improvements in care for this vulnerable population. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(9), 25-29.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Daily Physical Activity and Cognitive Function Variability in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Christine B; Edwards, Jerri D; Andel, Ross; Kilpatrick, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) is believed to preserve cognitive function in older adulthood, though little is known about these relationships within the context of daily life. The present microlongitudinal pilot study explored within- and between-person relationships between daily PA and cognitive function and also examined within-person effect sizes in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Fifty-one healthy participants (mean age = 70.1 years) wore an accelerometer and completed a cognitive assessment battery for five days. There were no significant associations between cognitive task performance and participants' daily or average PA over the study period. Effect size estimates indicated that PA explained 0-24% of within-person variability in cognitive function, depending on cognitive task and PA dose. Results indicate that PA may have near-term cognitive effects and should be explored as a possible strategy to enhance older adults' ability to perform cognitively complex activities within the context of daily living.

  15. Chinese older adults' Internet use for health information.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carmen K M; Yeung, Dannii Y; Ho, Henry C Y; Tse, Kin-Po; Lam, Chun-Yiu

    2014-04-01

    Technological advancement benefits Internet users with the convenience of social connection and information search. This study aimed at investigating the predictors of Internet use to search for online health information among Chinese older adults. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was applied to examine the predictiveness of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and attitudes toward Internet use on behavioral intention to search for health information online. Ninety-eight Chinese older adults were recruited from an academic institute for older people and community centers. Frequency of Internet use and physical and psychological health were also assessed. Results showed that perceived ease of use and attitudes significantly predicted behavioral intention of Internet use. The potential influences of traditional Chinese values and beliefs in health were also discussed.

  16. Sleep and Suicide in Older Adults: An Opportunity for Intervention.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Todd M; Simons, Kelsey V; King, Deborah A; Pigeon, Wilfred R

    2016-11-01

    Whether as a standalone disorder or as a symptom associated with existing pathology, the prevalence of sleep disturbance increases with age. Older adults also experience a myriad of risk factors for suicide, including depression, and have elevated rates of suicide. There is now significant evidence linking sleep disturbances to suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The use of pharmacologic means to treat insomnia (e.g., sedative hypnotics) is also commonplace among older cohorts and has been associated with suicide. Behavioral treatment of insomnia represents an efficacious alternative to pharmacotherapy among older adults, which while improving sleep, may concurrently reduce depressive symptomatology. Implications and clinical recommendations of the sleep-suicide relationship are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Mealtime Interactions and Life Satisfaction Among Older Adults in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Ye, Minzhi; Chen, Lin; Kahana, Eva

    2017-06-01

    We examined the association between older adults' mealtime interactions at senior centers in Shanghai and their life satisfaction. Competing hypotheses, derived from socioemotional selectivity theory and activity theory, were tested. Data were obtained from the 2011 Shanghai senior center service utilization survey ( N = 320). Relationships between respondents' mealtime interactions and life satisfaction were tested using multilevel regression modeling. After adjusting for demographics, interactions with tablemates (companionship, self-disclosure, and instrumental support) were positively associated with respondents' life satisfaction. These associations varied by senior centers. However, the number of tablemates was not significantly associated with respondents' life satisfaction. Findings support the activity-theory-based hypothesis that mealtime interactions are related to older adults' life satisfaction independent of the number of tablemates. This study illuminates the value of social interactions in the context of community dining programs for the rapidly increasing older population in urban China.

  18. Cognitive Style Predictors of Affect Change in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive styles are the lenses through which individuals habitually process information from their environment. In this study, we evaluated whether different cognitive style individual difference variables, such as explanatory style and dispositional optimism, could predict changes in affective state over time in community-dwelling older adults.…

  19. Technology: Education and Training Needs of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Lesa; Watson, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the global aging of the population on social, economic, political, and health care institutions is unequaled. Parallel to this, evolving developments in technology promise opportunities for sales and product development to support positive aging. Older adults are excited to utilize technologies that they perceive as practical.…

  20. Older Adults' Attitudes Toward Cohabitation: Two Decades of Change.

    PubMed

    Brown, Susan L; Wright, Matthew R

    2016-07-01

    Our study tracks cohort change in the attitudes of adults aged 50 and older toward cohabitation from 1994 to 2012. We used data from the 1994, 2002, and 2012 waves of the General Social Survey to examine the roles of cohort replacement and intracohort change in the trend toward favorable cohabitation attitudes and to examine sociodemographic variation in patterns of support for cohabitation. Support for cohabitation accelerated over time with nearly half (46%) of older adults reporting favorable attitudes toward cohabitation in 2012 versus just 20% in 1994. This shift in older adults' attitudes largely reflected cohort replacement rather than intracohort change. Some of the factors associated with later life cohabitation experience were linked to supportive attitudes. Cohort succession is fueling the growing acceptance of cohabitation among older adults and coincides with the rapid growth in later life cohabitation that has occurred in recent decades. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Insomnia Symptoms, Nightmares, and Suicidal Ideation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Prior research has found that insomnia symptoms and nightmares are associated with suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death by suicide. However, to the best of our knowledge, no research has examined the relation between insomnia symptoms, nightmares, and suicidal ideation in older adults. The current project aimed to fill this void by investigating the relation between insomnia symptoms, nightmares, and suicidal ideation in an older adult sample. Method. The study utilized a cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 81 older adult patients (age ≥ 65 years) recruited from a family medicine clinic. The participants were asked to complete surveys about their sleep, symptoms of depression, and suicidal ideation. Results. Insomnia symptoms, but not nightmares, were significantly related to suicidal ideation. In addition, insomnia symptoms were related to suicidal ideation independent of nightmares. Furthermore, the relation between insomnia symptoms and suicidal ideation was mediated by depressive symptoms. Discussion. These findings have implications for the identification and treatment of suicidal ideation in older adults. PMID:22929392

  2. Squatting Exercises in Older Adults: Kinematic and Kinetic Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    FLANAGAN, SEAN; SALEM, GEORGE J.; WANG, MAN-YING; SANKER, SERENA E.; GREENDALE, GAIL A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Squatting activities may be used, within exercise programs, to preserve physical function in older adults. This study characterized the lower-extremity peak joint angles, peak moments, powers, work, impulse, and muscle recruitment patterns (electromyographic; EMG) associated with two types of squatting activities in elders. Methods Twenty-two healthy, older adults (ages 70–85) performed three trials each of: 1) a squat to a self-selected depth (normal squat; SQ) and 2) a squat onto a chair with a standardized height of 43.8 cm (chair squat; CSQ). Descending and ascending phase joint kinematics and kinetics were obtained using a motion analysis system and inverse dynamics techniques. Results were averaged across the three trials. A 2 × 2 (activity × phase) ANOVA with repeated measures was used to examine the biomechanical differences among the two activities and phases. EMG temporal characteristics were qualitatively examined. Results CSQ generated greater hip flexion angles, peak moments, power, and work, whereas SQ generated greater knee and ankle flexion angles, peak moments, power, and work. SQ generated a greater knee extensor impulse, a greater plantar flexor impulse and a greater total support impulse. The EMG temporal patterns were consistent with the kinetic data. Conclusions The results suggest that, with older adults, CSQ places greater demand on the hip extensors, whereas SQ places greater demand on the knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors. Clinicians may use these discriminate findings to more effectively target specific lower-extremity muscle groups when prescribing exercise for older adults. PMID:12673148

  3. Visual Arts and Older Adult Learners in Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Irma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of visual arts and its impact on successful aging and older adult learners in retirement. Retirement is one of the most important economic, psychological, and social transitions in most people's lives. Longevity has increased in the last sixty years such that in 2010, the average person can…

  4. Prejudice Reduction in University Programs for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose-Luis Alvarez; Camara, Carmen Palmero; Eguizabal, Alfredo Jimenez

    2011-01-01

    The present paper, drawing from the perspective of social cognition, examines and evaluates an intervention based on social-cognitive perspective-taking on the reduction of stereotyping and prejudice in older adults. Data were collected in a sample of Spanish participants with a mean age of 63.2 years. The intervention, aimed at reducing prejudice…

  5. Cognitively active older adults' comprehension and metacomprehension of negated text.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Sara J

    2018-05-14

    Background/Study context: Previous research has demonstrated that negated text is universally difficult to understand, and while readers are aware of the difficulty, they are not always able to direct this awareness to improve their comprehension of negation. The present research aimed to determine whether this holds true for older adults, even while maintaining good cognitive function through reading activity. The study used an online paradigm, where young (age range 19-24) and older (age range 60-87) adults read passages, rated their comprehension, and answered questions about what they read. Data analysis included analysis of variance for comprehension accuracy and metacomprehension judgment as well as gamma correlation analysis for the relationship between these two variables to determine accuracy of metacomprehension judgments. . Older readers, who took part in library activities and book discussion groups, had better comprehension than young adults overall and were also better able to judge their own comprehension of negative text. These results suggested that remaining cognitively active may help older adults not only maintain their ability to understand text but may also enhance their ability to assess their own comprehension of that text. In addition, these readers were likely able to use their experience with reading to compensate for any working memory deficits that may occur with age and which may detrimentally affect their ability to understand complex text constructions, such as negation.

  6. Lay Meanings of Health among Rural Older Adults in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; Williams, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Self-perceptions of health vary depending on one's social and cultural context. Rural residents have been characterized as having a distinct culture, and health differences by residence have been well documented. While there is evidence of poor health among rural older adults, little research has examined how they perceive and define…

  7. Measuring Successful Aging in Southern Black Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Meredith; Nies, Mary A.; Bentley, Monica

    2011-01-01

    With the growing size of the population of aging Black individuals, it is important to understand successful aging in this group. This study, therefore, piloted the Successful Aging Inventory (SAI) with a convenience sample of Black older adults. Participants completed a demographic form, the SAI, Purpose in Life Test, Life Satisfaction…

  8. What Motivates Older Adults to Improve Diet and Exercise Patterns?

    PubMed

    Bardach, Shoshana H; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake and physical activity are lifestyle behaviors that are learned, developed, and practiced throughout an individual's lifetime. These lifestyle behaviors have a profound role on health and quality of life--with late-life changes still resulting in notable improvements. Despite well documented benefits of behavior change, such changes are extremely challenging. The purpose of this study is to better understand from the perspective of older adults themselves, the factors that may influence their likelihood of making lifestyle changes. Participants were recruited two primary care clinics. 104 older adults ranging in age from 65 to 95 were included. Participants were interviewed about their motivations and plans to change diet and physical activity behaviors following a routine primary care visit. All interviews were transcribed and transcripts were analyzed using a line-by-line coding approach. Older adults reported that their likelihood of making a lifestyle change related to perceptions of old age, personal motivation, and perceived confidence in the ability to make effective changes. These findings suggest the importance of creating more positive images of old age and tailoring health promotion efforts to older adults' motivations and confidence in their ability to make behavior changes.

  9. Characteristics of Older Adults and the Aging: Some Comments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Cash J.; Cangemi, Joseph P.

    1978-01-01

    Asserting that both humanistic and manpower considerations dictate that we address the aging process, this article describes the characteristics of older adults and illustrates the way in which they may be allowed to remain productive. Maslow's "Need Hierarchy" and Thorndike's "Theory of Developmental Tasks" are applied to the…

  10. Art Programming for Older Adults: What's Out There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barret, Diane B.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews professional literature on developments in art education for older adults since 1980. Describes programs at the national, state, and local levels that emphasize either the crafts or fine arts approach to art education. Recommends programs that promote creative thinking and self-expression. (CFR)

  11. Factors associated with frailty in chronically ill older adults.

    PubMed

    Hackstaff, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    An ex post facto analysis of a secondary dataset examined relationships between physical frailty, depression, and the self-perceived domains of health status and quality-of-life in older adults. The randomized sample included 992 community-dwelling, chronically ill, and functionally impaired adults age 65 and older who received care from a Southern California Kaiser Permanente medical center between 1998 and 2002. Physical frailty represents a level of physiologic vulnerability and functional loss that results in dependence on others for basic, daily living needs (Fried et al., 2001). The purpose of the study was to identify possible intervention junctures related to self-efficacy of older adults in order to help optimize their functionality. Multivariate correlation analyses showed statistically significant positive correlations between frailty level and depression (r = .18; p = < .05), number of medical conditions (r = .09; p = < .05), and self-rated quality-of-life (r = .24; p = < .05). Frailty level showed a statistically significant negative correlation with self-perceived health status (r = -.25; p = < .05). Notably, no statistically significant correlation was found between age and frailty level (r = -.03; p = < .05). In linear regression, self-perceived health status had a partial variance with frailty level (part r = -.18). The significant correlations found support further research to identify interventions to help vulnerable, older adults challenge self-perceived capabilities so that they may achieve optimum functionality through increased physical activity earlier on, and increased self-efficacy to support successful adaptation to aging-related losses.

  12. Older Japanese Adults and Mobile Phones: An Applied Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachiya, Kumiko

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research investigates the meaning of "keitai" (mobile phones) for older Japanese adults between the ages of 59 and 79. Participants' emails from keitai, handwritten daily logs, and audio and video recordings from meetings and interviews were collected during my stay of nearly seven months in one of the largest cities in…

  13. Participation in Learning and Wellbeing among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify the effects of participation in learning on the subjective wellbeing of older adults. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a large-scale, nationally representative survey of those aged 50 and above. The survey contains several wellbeing measures and information on three…

  14. Creative Retirement: Survey of Older Adults' Educational Interests and Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The University of Manitoba's Continuing Education Division (CED) and Creative Retirement Manitoba (CRM) formed a partnership to promote applied research on lifelong learning and older adults, to develop new and to complement existing educational activities, and to explore new program models and instructional methods to meet the educational needs…

  15. Operant Conditioning in Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spira, Adam P.; Edelstein, Barry A.

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral interventions based on operant principles are commonly attempted to manage agitation in older adults with dementia. The extent to which operant conditioning can occur in persons with particular dementias, however, is unclear. The present study involved use of a button-pressing task to evaluate the sensitivity of the responding of older…

  16. Social media use of older adults: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Leist, Anja K

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining social relationships has been defined as a core element of aging well. With a considerable amount of older adults living alone, social media provides the possibility to engage in meaningful social contact, e.g. by joining online social networks and online discussion forums. The review encompasses current knowledge of prerequisites in social media use of older adults such as functional capacity, information and communications technology-related knowledge, and favorable attitudes towards social media. Then, the potential of social media use for clinical practice and possible negative consequences are outlined. Literature on social media use from a gerontological perspective was reviewed in July and August 2012. Online communities are suitable for providing and receiving social support when confronted with a difficult life situation, regardless of geographical location or time. From a practitioner's perspective, social media can be used to advance health-related knowledge such as information on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of specific conditions and disorders. Further positive consequences have been shown to be overcoming loneliness, relieving stress, and raising feelings of control and self-efficacy. Possible negative consequences could be misuse of personal data as well as the distribution and uncritical adoption of potentially harmful information via online communities. The potential of social media in clinical practice is reflected in a wide range of intervention possibilities for older adults. However, with the rise of social media, new threats emerge for older adults as well. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Depression among Transgender Older adults: General and Minority Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to (1) examine the direct and indirect effects internalized heterosexism, concealment of gender identity, and perceived general stress in association with depression among transgender older adults; and (2) to assess the relative contribution of each relationship. Methods Secondary analyses of data from a large community-based study of older sexual and gender minorities were conducted utilizing structural equation modeling with a subsample (n = 174) of transgender adults aged 50 to 86-years old. Results Disclosure of gender identity had no significant direct or indirect effects on either perceived general stress or depression. Internalized heterosexism did not have a direct effect on depression, but did have a significant indirect effect through perceived general stress. Finally, perceived general stress had an additional significant direct effect on depression, over and above internalized heterosexism. Total effect sizes appear to be considerable with standardized betas greater than 5.0. Conclusion Perceived general stress and internalized heterosexism independently and cumulatively have significant direct and indirect effects on depression among transgender older adults. Implications for depression among transgender older adults and the role of community psychology are discussed. PMID:28369987

  18. Differentiating true and false schematic memories in older adults.

    PubMed

    Webb, Christina E; Dennis, Nancy A

    2018-02-06

    While schemas aid memory for schematically related information, the gist induced by the schema can also lead to high rates of false memories, especially in older adults. The neural mechanisms that support and differentiate true and false memories in aging are not well understood. The current study sought to clarify this, using a novel scene paradigm to investigate the role of schemas on true and false memories in older adults. Healthy older adults encoded schematic scenes (e.g., bathroom). At retrieval, participants were tested on their memory for both schematic and non-schematic targets and lures while fMRI data was collected. Results indicate that true memories were supported by the typical retrieval network, and activity in this network was greater for true than false memories. Schema specific retrieval was supported by mPFC, extending this common finding to aging. While no region differentiated false memories compared to correct rejections, results showed that individual differences in false memory rates were associated with variability in neural activity. The findings underscore the importance of elucidating the neural basis of cognition within older adults, as well as the specific contribution of individual differences to the neural basis of memory errors in aging. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Metabolites associated with circulating interleukin-6 in older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Circulating levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels are elevated in older adults, but mechanisms are unclear. In the current study, we used an untargeted metabolomic approach to develop an improved understanding about mechanisms related to circulating IL-6 in ...

  20. Curling for Confidence: Psychophysical Benefits of Curling for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Stone, Rachael C; Rakhamilova, Zina; Gage, William H; Baker, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    While physical activity is increasingly promoted for older adults, there is a paucity of sport promotion, which has distinct benefits from exercise and remains stereotypically associated with younger age. Curling is a moderately intense and safe sport that continues to gain popularity; however, no research has investigated psychophysical benefits of curling for older adults. The present study compares high-experience (20+ years; n = 63) and low-experience (<20 years; n = 53) curlers (aged 60+ years) with older adult noncurlers (n = 44) on measures of daily functionality, balance confidence, and perceptions of the aging process. While no significant differences were found between high- and low-experience curlers, any level of experience reported significantly better functionality, physical confidence, and aging attitudes compared to noncurlers (p ≤ .05). Although further research is necessary, the results suggest that any level of curling experience can enhance older adult psychophysical well-being, and warrants consideration for physical activity promotion and falls prevention programs.

  1. Motivations and Benefits of the Travel Experiences of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Young-Joo; Janke, Megan C.

    2011-01-01

    The motivations and benefits of educational travel among individuals aged 55 years old and over were examined in this study. A total of 136 older adults enrolled in Elderhostel programs participated in this study and reported their perceived benefits and motivations for engaging in educational travel experiences. Correlation analyses were used to…

  2. Influencing and protective factors of suicidal ideation among older adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Bi; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Liu, Chia-Yih; Chen, Ying-Jen

    2017-04-01

    Suicide is a global issue, but few studies have explored the triggers and psychological feelings of suicidal ideation in older adults. A qualitative design with face-to-face semistructured interviews examined the experience of suicidal ideation in adults aged 65 years and older. A purposive sampling of 32 outpatients with suicidal ideation from a medical centre in northern Taiwan participated. Interview data identified three themes: triggers for suicidal ideation, contributing psychological changes, and factors of adaptive response. The triggers for suicidal ideation included physical discomfort, loss of respect and/or support from family, impulsive emotions due to conflicts with others, and painful memories. Psychological changes contributed to suicidal ideation: feelings of loneliness, a sense of helplessness, or lack of self-worth. Participants described adaptive responses that acted as protective factors of suicidal ideation: support from family and friends, control of emotions, establishing a support network, comfort from religion, medication, and focussing on the family. Mental health nurses and clinicians should incorporate evaluations of stressful life events and psychological changes into a screening scale for older adults to improve detection of those at risk for suicide. Teaching coping strategies could provide timely interventions to secure the safety of this older population of adults. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  3. Ethnically Diverse Older Adults' Beliefs about Staying Mentally Sharp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Wu, Bei; Liu, Rui; Price, Anna E.; Tseng, Winston; Corwin, Sara J.; Ivey, Susan L.; Hunter, Rebecca; Sharkey, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined diverse older adults' (n = 396, ages 50+) views about how to stay mentally sharp. We conducted 42 focus groups in four languages at nine United States locations using a standardized discussion guide and methods. The groups represented African Americans, American Indians, Chinese Americans, Latinos, Whites other than Latinos,…

  4. Auditory Processing of Older Adults with Probable Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jerri D.; Lister, Jennifer J.; Elias, Maya N.; Tetlow, Amber M.; Sardina, Angela L.; Sadeq, Nasreen A.; Brandino, Amanda D.; Bush, Aryn L. Harrison

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Studies suggest that deficits in auditory processing predict cognitive decline and dementia, but those studies included limited measures of auditory processing. The purpose of this study was to compare older adults with and without probable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) across two domains of auditory processing (auditory performance in…

  5. Social Relevance Enhances Memory for Impressions in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Brittany S.; Gutchess, Angela H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1, using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2, older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults’ ability to successfully retrieve contextual information. PMID:22364168

  6. Sleep Reduces False Memory in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Sim, Sam K. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Design: Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). Measurements and Results: At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made “remember”/“know” and “new” judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced “remember” responses, but not “know” responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode. Citation: Lo JC; Sim SK; Chee MW. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults. SLEEP 2014;37(4):665-671. PMID:24744453

  7. Hyphens for Disambiguating Phrases: Effectiveness for Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anema, Inge; Obler, Loraine K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hyphens that disambiguate phrasing in ambiguous sentences influence reading rate and reading comprehension for younger and older adults. Moreover, as working memory (WM) has been implicated in age-related changes in sentence comprehension for both auditory and written materials, we asked if it…

  8. Understanding Gerotranscendence in Older Adults: A New Perspective for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degges-White, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    The author describes gerotranscendence as a process that occurs when older adults shift from a rational focus on the present-day, material world to a more universal and transcendent perspective. Accompanying this shift is a desire to move toward the end of life with a sense of integrity and acceptance of one's choices. By gaining an understanding…

  9. Positivity Effect Specific to Older Adults with Subclinical Memory Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, Stephanie L.; Noche, Jessica A.; Murray, Elizabeth A.; Yassa, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that older adults preferentially remember positive information ("positivity effect"), however others have reported mixed results. One potential source of conflict is that aging is not a unitary phenomenon and individual differences exist. We modified a standard neuropsychological test to vary emotional…

  10. Binaural Advantage for Younger and Older Adults with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubno, Judy R.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Horwitz, Amy R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Three experiments measured benefit of spatial separation, benefit of binaural listening, and masking-level differences (MLDs) to assess age-related differences in binaural advantage. Method: Participants were younger and older adults with normal hearing through 4.0 kHz. Experiment 1 compared spatial benefit with and without head shadow.…

  11. Chronic Pain and Attention in Older Community-Dwelling Adults.

    PubMed

    van der Leeuw, Guusje; Leveille, Suzanne G; Dong, Zhiyong; Shi, Ling; Habtemariam, Daniel; Milberg, William; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Grande, Laura; Gagnon, Peggy; McLean, Robert R; Bean, Jonathan F

    2018-06-06

    To examine the cross-sectional relationship between chronic pain and complex attention in a population of community-living older adults. Prospective cross-sectional cohort study. Population-based Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect, and Zest in the Elderly of Boston Study II. Individuals aged 71 to 101 (N=354). Chronic pain was measured using the pain severity and interference subscales of the Brief Pain Inventory. Four subscales of the Test of Everyday Attention were used to measure domains of attention switching and selective, sustained, and divided attention. Before and after multivariable adjustment, pain severity was associated with poorer scores on measures of selective and sustained attention. Pain interference scores also were significantly inversely associated with selective attention. Chronic pain is associated with poorer performance in selective and sustained attention in community-dwelling older adults. Further research is needed to determine whether effective pain management could lead to better attentional performance in older adults. Older adults who live with chronic pain, often undertreated, are potentially at risk of cognitive difficulties and related functional consequences. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Mature Stuff. Physical Activity for the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, David K., Ed.

    This book on physical education for the older adult is divided into three parts. The first part contains a chapter that introduces the reader to the topic of aging in American society and ties that topic to the interests of health professionals. Chapters 2 through 6 address the foundation areas of health, physical education, recreation and dance…

  13. Older Adult Participants in Music: A Review of Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrough, Galen P.; Boswell, Jacquelyn

    1992-01-01

    Reviews research literature published between 1957 and 1990 regarding the musical involvement of the elderly. Divides studies into works dealing with (1) musical aptitude, (2) musical preferences, (3) music programs for older adults, and (4) the aging voice. Cites the enormous and growing quantity and quality of research on the subject. Identifies…

  14. Cognitive Benefits of Online Social Networking for Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Myhre, Janelle W; Mehl, Matthias R; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests that older adults who remain socially active and cognitively engaged have better cognitive function than those who are isolated and disengaged. This study examined the efficacy of learning and using an online social networking website, Facebook.com, as an intervention to maintain or enhance cognitive function in older adults. Forty-one older adults were assigned to learn and use Facebook (n = 14) or an online diary website (active control, n = 13) for 8 weeks or placed on a waitlist (n = 14). Outcome measures included neuropsychological tests of executive functions, memory, and processing speed and self-report questionnaires about social engagement. The Facebook group showed a significant increase in a composite measure of updating, an executive function factor associated with complex working memory tasks, compared to no significant change in the control groups. Other measures of cognitive function and social support showed no differential improvement in the Facebook group. Learning and using an online social networking site may provide specific benefits for complex working memory in a group of healthy older adults. This may reflect the particular cognitive demands associated with online social networking and/or the benefits of social engagement more generally. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Sensory Impairments among Older Adults with Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janicki, Matthew P.; Dalton, Arthur J.

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated vision and hearing impairment in 45,500 adults (age 35 and older) with an intellectual disability. Visual impairment or blindness were found in 25 percent of the total sample, impaired hearing or deafness in 22 percent. Breakdown by age group indicates increasing frequency of impairment with advancing age. Implications for…

  16. Ecological Relevance Determines Task Priority in Older Adults' Multitasking.

    PubMed

    Doumas, Michail; Krampe, Ralf Th

    2015-05-01

    Multitasking is a challenging aspect of human behavior, especially if the concurrently performed tasks are different in nature. Several studies demonstrated pronounced performance decrements (dual-task costs) in older adults for combinations of cognitive and motor tasks. However, patterns of costs among component tasks differed across studies and reasons for participants' resource allocation strategies remained elusive. We investigated young and older adults' multitasking of a working memory task and two sensorimotor tasks, one with low (finger force control) and one with high ecological relevance (postural control). The tasks were performed in single-, dual-, and triple-task contexts. Working memory accuracy was reduced in dual-task contexts with either sensorimotor task and deteriorated further under triple-task conditions. Postural and force performance deteriorated with age and task difficulty in dual-task contexts. However, in the triple-task context with its maximum resource demands, older adults prioritized postural control over both force control and memory. Our results identify ecological relevance as the key factor in older adults' multitasking. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A Plan for: A Consumer Conference for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarakov, Selma

    This document provides a step-by-step description of the planning and implementation of a two day consumer concerns conference for older adults held at Palomar Community College (California). The bulk of the document is made up of practical discussions of such planning phases as facility selection and decoration, conference publicity, snack and…

  18. The Level of Willingness to Evacuate among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray-Graves, Amy; Turner, Keith W.; Swan, James H.

    2011-01-01

    The issues of rising numbers of disasters, overwhelming increases in number of older adults, and historically flawed evacuations present real challenges. During the next two decades, the number of American baby boomers, who turn 65, will increase by 40%. As evidenced by recent disasters, the imperfections and vulnerabilities of flawed evacuations…

  19. Understanding Arthritis Promoting Healthy Lifestyles for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremethick, Mary Jane; Hogan, Patricia I.; Coleman, Barb; Adams, Kady

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of "Healthy People 2010" is to decrease the incidence of limitation in physical activity due to arthritis. Physical education, recreation, and dance professionals can play an important role in meeting this objective by addressing barriers to physical activity and exercise in older adults with arthritis, and by successfully…

  20. The Application of a Generativity Model for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlman, Katie; Ligon, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Generativity is a concept first introduced by Erik Erikson as a part of his psychosocial theory which outlines eight stages of development in the human life. Generativity versus stagnation is the main developmental concern of middle adulthood; however, generativity is also recognized as an important theme in the lives of older adults. Building on…

  1. Dietary screening tool identifies nutritional risk in older adults123

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paige E; Mitchell, Diane C; Hartman, Terryl J; Lawrence, Frank R; Sempos, Christopher T; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Background: No rapid methods exist for screening overall dietary intakes in older adults. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a scoring system for a diet screening tool to identify nutritional risk in community-dwelling older adults. Design: This cross-sectional study in older adults (n = 204) who reside in rural areas examined nutrition status by using an in-person interview, biochemical measures, and four 24-h recalls that included the use of dietary supplements. Results: The dietary screening tool was able to characterize 3 levels of nutritional risk: at risk, possible risk, and not at risk. Individuals classified as at nutritional risk had significantly lower indicators of diet quality (Healthy Eating Index and Mean Adequacy Ratio) and intakes of protein, most micronutrients, dietary fiber, fruit, and vegetables. The at-risk group had higher intakes of fats and oils and refined grains. The at-risk group also had the lowest serum vitamin B-12, folate, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin concentrations. The not-at-nutritional-risk group had significantly higher lycopene and β-carotene and lower homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentrations. Conclusion: The dietary screening tool is a simple and practical tool that can help to detect nutritional risk in older adults. PMID:19458013

  2. Using Simulations To Understand Older Adults with Sensory Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clubok, Miriam

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes two popular models for increasing sensitivity to sensory impairment in the elderly and details a third model used in training human service students and practitioners. Ideas and techniques presented work toward understanding the impact of sensory impairment on the daily life of older adults and to identify coping techniques to improve…

  3. Older Adults Talk Technology: Technology Usage and Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Mitzner, Tracy L; Boron, Julie B; Fausset, Cara Bailey; Adams, Anne E; Charness, Neil; Czaja, Sara J; Dijkstra, Katinka; Fisk, Arthur D; Rogers, Wendy A; Sharit, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Older adults (n = 113) participated in focus groups discussing their use of and attitudes about technology in the context of their home, work, and healthcare. Participants reported using a wide variety of technology items, particularly in their homes. Positive attitudes (i.e., likes) outnumbered negative attitudes (i.e., dislikes), suggesting that older adults perceive the benefits of technology use to outweigh the costs of such use. Positive attitudes were most frequently related to how the technology supported activities, enhanced convenience, and contained useful features. Negative attitudes were most frequently associated with technology creating inconveniences, unhelpful features, as well as security and reliability concerns. Given that older adults reported more positive than negative attitudes about the technologies they use, these results contradict stereotypes that older adults are afraid or unwilling to use technology. These findings also highlight the importance of perceived benefits of use and ease of use for models of technology acceptance. Emphasizing the benefits of technology in education and training programs may increase future technology adoption.

  4. An Optimal Delivery Format for Presentations Targeting Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin-Wells, Vonnette; Zimmerman, Teena; McDougall, Graham J., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    African-American, Hispanic, and white older adults (n=34) attended three information sessions presented via flipcharts, transparencies, and PowerPoint (one format per session). In focus groups, participants rated accessibility, novelty, and efficiency. They overwhelmingly preferred PowerPoint on all dimensions. (SK)

  5. Quick Guide to Health Literacy and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... starter tips Resources Additional Resources Cultural Competence Health Literacy Older Adults Plain Language Visual Impairment Web sites Content last updated: October 30, 2007 skip to navigation | skip to content ACCESSIBILITY | FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT | PRIVACY POLICY | CONTACT US Office of Disease ...

  6. Prescribing an Exercise Program and Motivating Older Adults To Comply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    To help motivate older adults to initiate and adhere to an exercise program, a seven-step approach was developed: education about benefits, screening, goal setting, exposure to exercise, exposure to role models, verbal encouragement from credible sources, and reinforcement and rewards. (Contains 65 references.) (SK)

  7. The Impact of Arthritis on Life Satisfaction of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burckhardt, Carol S.

    Poor health has been implicated as a suppressor of the life satisfaction of older adults. To clarify the contribution of arthritis to this process, functional disability, negative affect, pain, current severity of the disease, self-esteem, perception of general health, and internal health locus of control, were placed within a causal model as…

  8. Older Korean-American Adults' Attitudes toward the Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Hyuckhoon

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to gain a holistic understanding of how older Korean-American adults' socio-demographic factors affect their attitudes toward the computer. The research was guided by four main questions: (1) What do participants describe as the consequences of their using the computer? (2) What attitudes toward the computer do participants…

  9. Digital Skills Acquisition: Future Trends among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify future trends and barriers that will either facilitate or impede the narrowing of the digital skills divide among older adults during the next 10 years. Methodology: To address the research questions, this study used a modified version of the Delphi process using a panel of experts who…

  10. Differential Diagnosis in Older Adults: Dementia, Depression, and Delirium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gintner, Gary G.

    1995-01-01

    Examines three common disorders, dementia, depression, and delirium, which can be particularly difficult to diagnose in older adults. Presents three aspects that are helpful in making a decision: age-related differences, medical issues that need to be ruled out, and assessment methods particularly useful in the diagnostic process. (JPS)

  11. Patient engagement in research with older adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Puts, Martine T E; Sattar, Schroder; Ghodraty-Jabloo, Vida; Hsu, Tina; Fitch, Marg; Szumacher, Ewa; Ayala, Ana Patricia; Alibhai, Shabbir M H

    2017-11-01

    Cancer is a disease that mostly affects older adults. Older adults have been under-represented in clinical cancer research. Around the world there is a push for patient engagement on study teams as it is anticipated to improve study design, recruitment and dissemination of findings. In the current overview we examined the evidence with regard to: 1) the history of patient engagement in research and frameworks developed; 2) impact of patient engagement on patient and research outcomes; 3) use of patient engagement in geriatrics and oncology, 4) recommendations for successful engagement; and 5) gaps in the literature that should be studied further. A narrative review was conducted. Articles published in English were searched in Medline with the help of a librarian. Patient engagement has been shown to improve the conduct of studies by making the study design more relevant and feasible, and improving recruitment rates and uptake of research findings by patients. However, the best way to engage patients is not clear yet. Several resources have been developed to support researchers engaging older adults with cancer in research. While patient engagement in research seems promising to improve study outcomes, little evidence is available thus far in geriatric oncology settings. Several gaps in the literature are identified that should be further studied to determine the value of, and best approaches to, patient engagement with older adults with cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Lynda; LeBlanc, Melanie; Morin, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia is associated with significant morbidity and is often a persistent problem, particularly in older adults. It is important to attend to this complaint and not assume that it will remit spontaneously. In many cases, unfortunately, insomnia remains unrecognized and untreated, often because it is presumed that insomnia is an inevitable…

  13. Services for Older Adults. Reference Book [and] Student Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences.

    This student activity book and reference book, which are part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, are intended for use in 1- and 2- programs preparing Texas high school students for employment in occupations related to providing services for older adults. The reference book…

  14. Visual Object Pattern Separation Varies in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Heather M.; Toner, Chelsea; Pirogovsky, Eva; Kirwan, C. Brock; Gilbert, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Young and nondemented older adults completed a visual object continuous recognition memory task in which some stimuli (lures) were similar but not identical to previously presented objects. The lures were hypothesized to result in increased interference and increased pattern separation demand. To examine variability in object pattern separation…

  15. Digital Gaming Perspectives of Older Adults: Content vs. Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Hannah R.

    2013-01-01

    There were two objectives to this study: (a) to establish flow and (2) to establish whether computer game interaction or content was important to the older adult, using the Nintendo Wii and the Sony PlayStation 2 consoles. An earlier study had identified the sports genre as a preference, and three games (golf, tennis, and boxing) were selected…

  16. Keeping It Safe: Aging in Place among Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina G.; Bishop, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study addressed in this article was to identify ways to reduce risk and improve safe aging in place among rural older adults. Resident and Extension faculty and county educators visited study participants at home to assess functional capacity and the home environment. Extension professionals may be uniquely positioned to provide…

  17. Dietary considerations for reducing cardiometabolic risk in older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of dietary guidance specifically targeted for older adults to minimize the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders is, for the most part, consistent with that associated with optimal health outcomes throughout adulthood. Evidence suggests that there is a direct link between healthy diet...

  18. Treatment of Depression and Suicide in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhar, Sunil S.; Brown, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) intervention for suicide prevention in older adults. Although many studies have found that CBT interventions are efficacious for reducing depressive symptoms in the elderly, researchers have yet to evaluate the efficacy of such interventions for preventing suicide or reducing suicide risk…

  19. Older Adults Talk Technology: Technology Usage and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Mitzner, Tracy L.; Boron, Julie B.; Fausset, Cara Bailey; Adams, Anne E.; Charness, Neil; Czaja, Sara J.; Dijkstra, Katinka; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Sharit, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Older adults (n = 113) participated in focus groups discussing their use of and attitudes about technology in the context of their home, work, and healthcare. Participants reported using a wide variety of technology items, particularly in their homes. Positive attitudes (i.e., likes) outnumbered negative attitudes (i.e., dislikes), suggesting that older adults perceive the benefits of technology use to outweigh the costs of such use. Positive attitudes were most frequently related to how the technology supported activities, enhanced convenience, and contained useful features. Negative attitudes were most frequently associated with technology creating inconveniences, unhelpful features, as well as security and reliability concerns. Given that older adults reported more positive than negative attitudes about the technologies they use, these results contradict stereotypes that older adults are afraid or unwilling to use technology. These findings also highlight the importance of perceived benefits of use and ease of use for models of technology acceptance. Emphasizing the benefits of technology in education and training programs may increase future technology adoption. PMID:20967133

  20. Exploring Interhemispheric Collaboration in Older Compared to Younger Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Barbara J.; Yamashiro, Mariana; Anderson, Erin; Barrett, Christopher; Adamson, Maheen M.; Hellige, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    Physical and Name Identity letter-matching tasks were used to explore differences in interhemispheric collaboration in younger and older adults. To determine whether other factors might also be related to across/within-hemisphere processing or visual field asymmetries, neuropsychological tests measuring frontal/executive functioning were…