Science.gov

Sample records for older wall rocks

  1. Artificial Rock Climbing Walls--Innovative Adventure Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attarian, Aram

    1989-01-01

    The history, advantages, and disadvantages of artificial rock climbing walls (used to instruct individuals in the sport of rock climbing) are discussed. Additional topics include designing an artificial wall, types of walls, various uses, and risk management. (IAH)

  2. Artificial Rock Climbing Walls--Innovative Adventure Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attarian, Aram

    1989-01-01

    The history, advantages, and disadvantages of artificial rock climbing walls (used to instruct individuals in the sport of rock climbing) are discussed. Additional topics include designing an artificial wall, types of walls, various uses, and risk management. (IAH)

  3. 4. INTERIOR, EAGLE ROCK CONTROL CENTER. NOTE MAP ON WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR, EAGLE ROCK CONTROL CENTER. NOTE MAP ON WALL SHOWING POWER AND WATER LINES, LOCATIONS OF ALL AQUEDUCT FACILITIES IN AREA, INCLUDING COLORADO RIVER AQUEDUCT SYSTEM. - Eagle Rock Operations Control Center, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. Distributed snow and rock temperature modelling in steep rock walls using Alpine3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberkorn, Anna; Wever, Nander; Hoelzle, Martin; Phillips, Marcia; Kenner, Robert; Bavay, Mathias; Lehning, Michael

    2017-02-01

    In this study we modelled the influence of the spatially and temporally heterogeneous snow cover on the surface energy balance and thus on rock temperatures in two rugged, steep rock walls on the Gemsstock ridge in the central Swiss Alps. The heterogeneous snow depth distribution in the rock walls was introduced to the distributed, process-based energy balance model Alpine3D with a precipitation scaling method based on snow depth data measured by terrestrial laser scanning. The influence of the snow cover on rock temperatures was investigated by comparing a snow-covered model scenario (precipitation input provided by precipitation scaling) with a snow-free (zero precipitation input) one. Model uncertainties are discussed and evaluated at both the point and spatial scales against 22 near-surface rock temperature measurements and high-resolution snow depth data from winter terrestrial laser scans.In the rough rock walls, the heterogeneously distributed snow cover was moderately well reproduced by Alpine3D with mean absolute errors ranging between 0.31 and 0.81 m. However, snow cover duration was reproduced well and, consequently, near-surface rock temperatures were modelled convincingly. Uncertainties in rock temperature modelling were found to be around 1.6 °C. Errors in snow cover modelling and hence in rock temperature simulations are explained by inadequate snow settlement due to linear precipitation scaling, missing lateral heat fluxes in the rock, and by errors caused by interpolation of shortwave radiation, wind and air temperature into the rock walls.Mean annual near-surface rock temperature increases were both measured and modelled in the steep rock walls as a consequence of a thick, long-lasting snow cover. Rock temperatures were 1.3-2.5 °C higher in the shaded and sunny rock walls, while comparing snow-covered to snow-free simulations. This helps to assess the potential error made in ground temperature modelling when neglecting snow in steep bedrock.

  5. STREET FRONT AND LAVA ROCK RETAINING WALL WITH ENTRY AWNING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STREET FRONT AND LAVA ROCK RETAINING WALL WITH ENTRY AWNING. VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Makalapa, Senior Officers' Quarters Type A, 37 Makalapa Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Detail of basaltic rock retaining walls just below top switchback. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of basaltic rock retaining walls just below top switchback. 500 ft long retaining wall at left, scale figure in distance, view south. - La Bajada Historic Trails and Roads, Approximately 1 mile East/Northeast of intersection of State Highway 16 and Indian Service Road 841, La Bajada, Santa Fe County, NM

  7. 9. VIEW OF ROCK SLIDE AND STONE RETAINING WALL ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF ROCK SLIDE AND STONE RETAINING WALL ALONG THE RAILROAD GRADE ABOUT 3/4 MILE SOUTHWEST OF VIVIAN PARK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Heber Creeper Railroad Line, Section from Bridal Veil Falls to Vivian Park, Between Provo & Heber City, Provo, Utah County, UT

  8. A mechanism for high wall-rock velocities in rockbursts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, A.

    1997-01-01

    Considerable evidence has been reported for wall-rock velocities during rockbursts in deep gold mines that are substantially greater than ground velocities associated with the primary seismic events. Whereas varied evidence suggests that slip across a fault at the source of an event generates nearby particle velocities of, at most, several m/s, numerous observations, in nearby damaged tunnels, for instance, imply wall-rock velocities of the order of 10 m/s and greater. The common observation of slab buckling or breakouts in the sidewalls of damaged excavations suggests that slab flexure may be the mechanism for causing high rock ejection velocities. Following its formation, a sidewall slab buckles, causing the flexure to increase until the stress generated by flexure reaches the limit 5 that can be supported by the sidewall rock. I assume here that S is the uniaxial compressive strength. Once the flexural stress exceeds S, presumably due to the additional load imposed by a nearby seismic event, the slab fractures and unflexes violently. The peak wall-rock velocity v thereby generated is given by v=(3 + 1-??2/2)1 2 S/?????E for rock of density ??, Young's modulus E, and Poisson's ratio ??. Typical values of these rock properties for the deep gold mines of South Africa yield v= 26 m/s and for especially strong quartzites encountered in these same mines, v> 50m/s. Even though this slab buckling process leads to remarkably high ejection velocities and violent damage in excavations, the energy released during this failure is only a tiny fraction of that released in the primary seismic event, typically of magnitude 2 or greater.

  9. Measuring and mapping rock wall permafrost across Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnin, Florence; Etzelmuller, Bernd; Hilger, Paula; Westermann, Sebastian; Isaksen, Ketil; Hermans, Reginald

    2017-04-01

    The investigation of rock wall permafrost is of high relevance for geohazards assessment and for understanding cold-climate landscape evolution since its changes over time can cause slope instability and trigger rock falls. The destabilization of steep slopes is a serious threat to human activities and lives in Norway, especially because most of rock walls lie directly above houses, infrastructures and large water bodies with potential of high-energy displacement waves. Rock wall permafrost has been investigated since the early 2010s in alpine massifs of western Norway thanks to the CryoLINK project (2008-2011). The CryoWALL project (2015-2019) aims at extending this preliminary study to the nation-wide scale. It consists in systematic measurements of rock surface temperature (RST) in order model and to map the spatial distribution of rock wall permafrost. In between August 2015 and August 2016, 20 RST loggers (Geoprecision mini data loggers, accuracy ± 0.1°C, precision 0.01°C, sensors PT1000) were installed at 10 cm depth of 7 selected sites. These loggers are distributed along a latitudinal transect (from 60°50'N to 69°46'N), cover various elevations and sun-exposures, and are completed by 4 other loggers installed in Jotunheimen in 2009 and 2010. The RST time series are used for (a) characterizing the distribution of rock wall permafrost across Norway, (b) running steady-state and transient numerical models of rock wall permafrost at selected sites, and to (c) calibrate a general linear regression model that will be used to (d) predict the spatial distribution of rock wall permafrost at the national scale. In this communication we will introduce the RST measurement installations and sites, as well as the first RST records that encompass 6 years of continuous measurements in Jotunheimen, and 1 year of record for 13 other loggers. The preliminary analysis shows that RST differs by 3°C between N and S faces in Southern Norway, with mean annual RST as low as

  10. 13. VIEW OF THE ROAD ABOVE THE DRYLAID ROCK WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE ROAD ABOVE THE DRY-LAID ROCK WALL (TY-3177-12 ON THE KINGS CANYON ROAD WHERE THE ROAD WILL BE GRADED AND BLADED. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 1.83 (ACCORDING TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE RECORD FOR SITE TY-3177). PHOTO IS TAKEN FROM THE NORTHERN END OF THE FEATURE, FACING DUE WEST (2700). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  11. Experimental assessment of borehole wall drilling damage in basaltic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-06-01

    Ring tension tests, permeability tests, and microscopic fracture studies have been performed to investigate the borehole damage induced at low confining pressure by three drilling techniques (diamond, percussion and rotary). Specimens are drilled with three hole sizes (38, 76, and 102 mm diameter) in Pomona basalt and Grande basaltic andesite. The damaged zone is characterized in terms of fractures and fracture patterns around the hole, and in terms of tensile strength reduction of the rock around the holes. Experimental results show that the thickness of the damaged zone around the hole ranges from 0.0 to 1.7 mm. A larger drill bit induces more wall damage than does a smaller one. Different drilling techniques show different damage characteristics (intensity and distribution). Damage characteristics are governed not only by drilling parameters (bit size, weight on bit, rotational speed, diamond radius, and energy), but also by properties of the rock. The weaker rock tends to show more intense damage than does the stronger one. Cracks within grains or cleavage fractures are predominant in slightly coarser grained rock (larger than 0.5 mm grain size) while intergranular cracks are predominant in very fine grained rock (smaller than 0.01 mm grain size). The damaged zones play no significant role in the flow path around a borehole plug.

  12. Fragmentation of wall rock garnets during deep crustal earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Austrheim, Håkon; Dunkel, Kristina G.; Plümper, Oliver; Ildefonse, Benoit; Liu, Yang; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Fractures and faults riddle the Earth’s crust on all scales, and the deformation associated with them is presumed to have had significant effects on its petrological and structural evolution. However, despite the abundance of directly observable earthquake activity, unequivocal evidence for seismic slip rates along ancient faults is rare and usually related to frictional melting and the formation of pseudotachylites. We report novel microstructures from garnet crystals in the immediate vicinity of seismic slip planes that transected lower crustal granulites during intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Bergen Arcs area, western Norway, some 420 million years ago. Seismic loading caused massive dislocation formations and fragmentation of wall rock garnets. Microfracturing and the injection of sulfide melts occurred during an early stage of loading. Subsequent dilation caused pervasive transport of fluids into the garnets along a network of microfractures, dislocations, and subgrain and grain boundaries, leading to the growth of abundant mineral inclusions inside the fragmented garnets. Recrystallization by grain boundary migration closed most of the pores and fractures generated by the seismic event. This wall rock alteration represents the initial stages of an earthquake-triggered metamorphic transformation process that ultimately led to reworking of the lower crust on a regional scale. PMID:28261660

  13. Fragmentation of wall rock garnets during deep crustal earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Austrheim, Håkon; Dunkel, Kristina G; Plümper, Oliver; Ildefonse, Benoit; Liu, Yang; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2017-02-01

    Fractures and faults riddle the Earth's crust on all scales, and the deformation associated with them is presumed to have had significant effects on its petrological and structural evolution. However, despite the abundance of directly observable earthquake activity, unequivocal evidence for seismic slip rates along ancient faults is rare and usually related to frictional melting and the formation of pseudotachylites. We report novel microstructures from garnet crystals in the immediate vicinity of seismic slip planes that transected lower crustal granulites during intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Bergen Arcs area, western Norway, some 420 million years ago. Seismic loading caused massive dislocation formations and fragmentation of wall rock garnets. Microfracturing and the injection of sulfide melts occurred during an early stage of loading. Subsequent dilation caused pervasive transport of fluids into the garnets along a network of microfractures, dislocations, and subgrain and grain boundaries, leading to the growth of abundant mineral inclusions inside the fragmented garnets. Recrystallization by grain boundary migration closed most of the pores and fractures generated by the seismic event. This wall rock alteration represents the initial stages of an earthquake-triggered metamorphic transformation process that ultimately led to reworking of the lower crust on a regional scale.

  14. Plagioclase alteration in anorthositic wall rocks surrounding eclogite facies pseudotachylites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petley-Ragan, Arianne; Austrheim, Håkon; Dunkel, Kristina G.; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2017-04-01

    Plagioclase within the wall rock of eclogite facies pseudotachylites contains microstructures that may be unique to deep-seated earthquakes. The Bergen Arcs of western Norway are made up of partially eclogitized granulite terranes that were exhumed from depths of 55 km in the Caledonian collision zone. Pseudotachylites found within the granulite consist of a predominant matrix of omphacite (XJd 0.23) and kyanite with grossular-rich garnet (XGrs 0.21) and local zoisite, phengite and amphibole. Plagioclase dominates the granulite mineralogy (XAn 0.38) and is partially altered along grain boundaries, planar fractures and cleavage planes. The alteration is observed as < 30 µm clusters of alkali feldspar and zoisite scattered along grain boundaries and throughout the grains, with kyanite, labradorite (XAn 0.60), oligoclase (XAn 0.20) and quartz within planar fractures, and individual zoisite needles along cleavage planes. Within the planar fractures a mosaic structure is observed with an interconnected network of labradorite separating < 5 µm polygons of oligoclase. Kyanite needles are also occasionally observed as sets of parallel lamellae that emanate from the planar fractures. These microstructures are characterized by electron backscatter diffraction. Thermodynamic modelling indicates that the wall-rock assemblage kyanite-quartz-zoisite-K-feldspar formed from more saline fluids (aH2O<0.1) than the fluids involved in the formation of phengite-bearing assemblages in the pseudotachylites. The evidence gained from detailed geochemical and microstructural analyses of plagioclase within these rocks may provide new tools for recognizing lower crustal earthquakes.

  15. Olivine-Bearing Dune Fields and Wall Rock in Coprates Chasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-01

    In this image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, lower wall rock spurs are found that spread dark materials onto a dune field, suggesting local wall materials are a nearby sediment source for dunes.

  16. Kimberlite Wall Rock Fragmentation: Venetia K08 Pipe Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, W.; Kurszlaukis, S.; Tait, M.; Dirks, P.

    2009-05-01

    Volcanic systems impose powerful disrupting forces on the country rock into which they intrude. The nature of the induced brittle deformation or fragmentation can be characteristic of the volcanic processes ongoing within the volcanic system, but are most typically partially removed or obscured by repeated, overprinting volcanic activity in mature pipes. Incompletely evolved pipes may therefore provide important evidence for the types and stages of wall rock fragmentation, and mechanical processes responsible for the fragmentation. Evidence for preserved stages of fragmentation is presented from a detailed study of the K08 pipe within the Cambrian Venetia kimberlite cluster, South Africa. This paper investigates the growth history of the K08 pipe and the mechanics of pipe development based on observations in the pit, drill core and thin sections, from geochemical analyses, particle size distribution analyses, and 3D modeling. Present open pit exposures of the K08 pipe comprise greater than 90% mega-breccia of country rock clasts (gneiss and schist) with <10% intruding, coherent kimberlite. Drill core shows that below about 225 m the CRB includes increasing quantities of kimberlite. The breccia clasts are angular, clast-supported with void or carbonate cement between the clasts. Average clast sizes define sub-horizontal layers tens of metres thick across the pipe. Structural and textural observations indicate the presence of zones of re-fragmentation or zones of brittle shearing. Breccia textural studies and fractal statistics on particle size distributions (PSD) is used to quantify sheared and non- sheared breccia zones. The calculated energy required to form the non-sheared breccia PSD implies an explosive early stage of fragmentation that pre-conditions the rock mass. The pre-conditioning would have been caused by explosions that are either phreatic or phreatomagmatic in nature. The explosions are likely to have been centered on a dyke, or pulses of preceding

  17. Quantitative geophysics in permafrost rock walls and their explanatory power for geomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautblatter, M.; Dräbing, D.; Funk, D.; Kemna, A.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of rock falls has been reported for permafrost-affected rockwalls in the last two decades. The anticipation of the hazard induced by permafrost rock slope failure requires monitoring of thermal and hydrological regimes and geomechanical properties inside the rock mass and quantitative geophysics could provide certain information on all of them. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in frozen rock walls could become a key method for such investigations since freezing and sub-freezing temperature changes induce significant and recognizable changes in resistivity. Testing temperature-resistivity T-ρ relationships from a double-digit number of low-porosity sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks from Alpine and Arctic permafrost rockwalls in the laboratory, we found evidence that exponential T-ρ paths developed by McGinnis et al. (1973) do not describe the resistivity behaviour of hard rocks undergoing freezing or melting correctly, as freezing occurs in confined space. We provide evidence that bilinear functions of unfrozen and frozen T-ρ paths offer a better approximation. Inferring reliable thermal state variables from ERT images requires a quantitative approach involving calibrated (T-ρ) relationships and an adequate resistance error description in the ERT inversion process, where the correct description of data errors and the right degree of data fitting are crucial issues. We also provide evidence that seismic refraction tomography is technically feasible to detect permafrost in low-porosity bedrock that constitutes steep rock walls. We have tested temperature - P-wave velocity functions of 22 decimeter-large metamorphic, magmatic and sedimentary low-porosity rock samples with a natural texture of numerous micro-fissures from alpine and arctic rock walls. The results show the significance of the ice-pressure-induced matrix velocity increase in low-porosity rocks while the velocity increase of the pore infill is negligible. Hence, the

  18. Why is there no Universal Law for Rock Wall Retreat?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautblatter, Michael; Moore, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    Comparing studies of rock slope erosion and soil slope erosion, we find no governing equation similar to the universal soil loss equation for rock slopes. Rock masses in contact with the atmosphere are affected by a suite of physical, chemical and biological processes which degrade intact rock, creating new fractures and extending existing flaws. Complex feedbacks must be explored between changing slope boundary conditions, stress redistribution and fracturing, and weathering by external mechanisms. Rock slope systems are distinguished from soil slope systems by the fundamental nonlinear properties of rock masses. Rock masses represent discontinuous, inhomogeneous, anisotropic, and nonlinearly elastic materials, and contain a record of millions of years of thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes. The origin and evolution of rock mass strength over time can significantly affect bedrock erodibility and engineering performance, the study of which represents a major chance and challenge for the geoscience community. The imprint of THMC processes on rock properties begins with the geological genesis of rocks; however, a significant degree of material behaviour evolves coincidently with the exhumation and evolution of topography. Thus, fracture generation has been investigated as the result of the environmental stress history in geology and geomorphology, partly modulated by incision and topographic stress evolution. Resultant fracture patterns control the degree of discontinuity heterogeneity, anisotropy, and nonlinear mechanical behaviour over millions of years. Here we discuss important novel conceptual approaches to temporally and spatially decipher nonlinear effects on rock slope erosion including incision-related topographic stresses, rock fatigue, paraglacial and paracratering effects etc. and how they could contribute to a more uniform understanding of rockwall retreat.

  19. 4. VIEW OF A DRYLAID ROCK WALL (TY31772) ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF A DRY-LAID ROCK WALL (TY-3177-2) ON THE KINGS CANYON ROAD WHERE BLADING AND GRADING WILL OCCUR. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 0.07 (ACCORDING TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE RECORD FOR TY-3177). TAKEN FROM THE NORTH END OF THE WALL, FACING SOUTH 24ø WEST (214ø). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  20. Progressive failure of sheeted rock slopes: the 2009–2010 Rhombus Wall rock falls in Yosemite Valley, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stock, Greg M.; Martel, Stephen J.; Collins, Brian D.; Harp, Edwin L.

    2012-01-01

    Progressive rock-fall failures in natural rock slopes are common in many environments, but often elude detailed quantitative documentation and analysis. Here we present high-resolution photography, video, and laser scanning data that document spatial and temporal patterns of a 15-month-long sequence of at least 14 rock falls from the Rhombus Wall, a sheeted granitic cliff in Yosemite Valley, California. The rock-fall sequence began on 26 August 2009 with a small failure at the tip of an overhanging rock slab. Several hours later, a series of five rock falls totaling 736 m3progressed upward along a sheeting joint behind the overhanging slab. Over the next 3 weeks, audible cracking occurred on the Rhombus Wall, suggesting crack propagation, while visual monitoring revealed opening of a sheeting joint adjacent to the previous failure surface. On 14 September 2009 a 110 m3 slab detached along this sheeting joint. Additional rock falls between 30 August and 20 November 2010, totaling 187 m3, radiated outward from the initial failure area along cliff (sub)parallel sheeting joints. We suggest that these progressive failures might have been related to stress redistributions accompanying propagation of sheeting joints behind the cliff face. Mechanical analyses indicate that tensile stresses should occur perpendicular to the cliff face and open sheeting joints, and that sheeting joints should propagate parallel to a cliff face from areas of stress concentrations. The analyses also account for how sheeting joints can propagate to lengths many times greater than their depths behind cliff faces. We posit that as a region of failure spreads across a cliff face, stress concentrations along its margin will spread with it, promoting further crack propagation and rock falls.

  1. Modeling of flow and mixing in 3D rough-walled rock fracture intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Liangchao; Jing, Lanru; Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    The processes of fluid flow and solute transport through rock fractures are of primary importance in environmental engineering and geosciences. This study presented numerical modeling results of fluid flow and solute transport in a 3D rock fracture-matrix system with an orthogonal intersection of two rough-walled rock fractures. The rough-walled fracture geometry models were built from laser-scanned data of a real rock surface, for a realistic representation of natural rock fracture surface roughness. The fluid flow in the two intersected fractures and solute transport in the fracture-matrix system were simulated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) and transport equation in the entire system. The dependence of mixing on Péclet number (Pe) and flow directionality features were analyzed. The results directly visualized important channeling flow patterns that significantly enhanced the solute mixing process at the rough-walled fracture intersection. The illustrated channeling flow and associated impacts on mixing are particularly important in the prediction of solute transport in natural fractured rocks, especially when discrete fracture network (DFN) approach is applied.

  2. 11. VIEW OF A DRYLAID ROCK WALL (TY317712) ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF A DRY-LAID ROCK WALL (TY-3177-12) ON THE KINGS CANYON ROAD WHERE THE ROAD WILL BE GRADED AND BLADED. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 1.83 (ACCORDING TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE RECORD FOR SITE TY-3177). PHOTO IS TAKEN FROM THE CENTER OF THE FEATURE, FACING NORTH 47 EAST (47 ). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  3. 16. VIEW OF DRYLAID ROCK WALL (TY317724) ON THE DOWNSLOPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF DRY-LAID ROCK WALL (TY-3177-24) ON THE DOWNSLOPE SIDE OF KINGS CANYON ROAD. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 2.45 (ACCORDING TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE RECORD FOR SITE TY-3177). PHOTO IS TAKEN FROM THE NORTH END OF THE FEATURE, FACING DUE WEST (2700). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  4. 12. VIEW OF A DRYLAID ROCK WALL (TY317712) ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF A DRY-LAID ROCK WALL (TY-3177-12) ON THE KINGS CANYON ROAD WHERE THE ROAD WILL BE GRADED AND BLADED. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 1.83 (ACCORDING TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE RECORD FOR SITE TY-3177). PHOTO IS TAKEN FROM THE CENTER OF THE FEATURE, FACING NORTH 610 WEST (299) . - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  5. 17. VIEW OF DRYLAID ROCK WALL (TY317725) ON THE UPSLOPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF DRY-LAID ROCK WALL (TY-3177-25) ON THE UPSLOPE SIDE OF THE KINGS CANYON ROAD. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 2.45 (ACCORDING TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE RECORD FOR SITE TY-3177). PHOTO IS TAKEN FROM THE WEST SIDE OF THE FEATURE, FACING DUE EAST (90ø). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  6. 15. VIEW OF A DRYLAID ROCK WALL (TY317713) ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF A DRY-LAID ROCK WALL (TY-3177-13) ON THE KINGS CANYON ROAD. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 2.2 (ACCORDING TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE RECORD FOR SITE TY-3177), FACING NORTH 48 EAST. - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  7. Layering in the wall rock of Valles Marineris: intrusive and extrusive magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jean-Pierre; Paige, David A.; Manning, Craig E.

    2003-06-01

    High-resolution images of the walls exposed in Valles Marineris reveal variations in appearance and degree of layering indicating various lithologies comprise the Tharsis plateau. The layered wall rock has been proposed to result from effusive flood basalt volcanism or interbedded sediments and volcanics. We present observations of unlayered rock that indicate layering extends to a greater depth in the western half of Valles Marineris and is confined to the Tharsis plateau, a region of thickened, uplifted crust resulting from prolonged intrusive activity. Consistent with this view, we propose that the observed layering may be a manifestation of intrusive rocks resulting from crystal fractionation of intruded basaltic magmas. Terrestrial layered plutons provide analogs for comparison such as those of the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP) a large igneous province associated with crustal rifting and exposures of thick sequences of layered flood basalts and intruded layered cumulates.

  8. Cryo-induced cracking in high-alpine rock-wall, evidences from acoustic emissions monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amitrano, D.; Gruber, S.; Girard, L.

    2012-04-01

    Ice formation within rock is known to be an important driver of near-surface frost weathering as well as rock damage at the depth of several meters, which may play a crucial role for the slow preconditioning of rock fall in steep permafrost areas. This letter reports results from an experiment where acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was used to investigate rock damage in a high-alpine rock-wall induced by natural thermal cycling and freezing/thawing. The analysis of the large catalog of events obtained shows (i) robust power-law distributions in the time and energy domains, a footprint of rock micro-fracturing activity induced by stresses arising from thermal variations and associated freezing/thawing of rock; (ii) liquid water availability and rock temperature affect AE activity, suggesting the importance of freezing-induced stresses. These results suggest that the framework of further modeling studies (theoretical and numerical) should include damage, elastic interaction and poro-mechanics in order to describe freezing-related stresses.

  9. Experimental Estimation Of Energy Damping During Free Rocking Of Unreinforced Masonry Walls. First Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrentino, Luigi; Masiani, Renato; Benedetti, Stefano

    2008-07-08

    This paper presents an ongoing experimental program on unreinforced masonry walls undergoing free rocking. Aim of the laboratory campaign is the estimation of kinetic energy damping exhibited by walls released with non-zero initial conditions of motion. Such energy damping is necessary for dynamic modelling of unreinforced masonry local mechanisms. After a brief review of the literature on this topic, the main features of the laboratory tests are presented. The program involves the experimental investigation of several parameters: 1) unit material (brick or tuff), 2) wall aspect ratio (ranging between 14.5 and 7.1), 3) restraint condition (two-sided or one-sided rocking), and 4) depth of the contact surface between facade and transverse walls (one-sided rocking only). All walls are single wythe and the mortar is pozzuolanic. The campaign is still in progress. However, it is possible to present the results on most of the mechanical properties of mortar and bricks. Moreover, a few time histories are reported, already indicating the need to correct some of the assumptions frequent in the literature.

  10. Innovations in rocking wall-frame systems-theory and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorian, Mark; Tavousi, Shayan

    2017-09-01

    The need to improve the seismic performance of buildings has brought about innovative systems such as rocking wall-moment frame (RWMF) combinations. The behavior of RWMFs can best be visualized by the moment-frame (MF) restraining the wall in place, and the rigid rocking wall (RRW) providing additional damping and imposing uniform drift along the height of the frame. A novel method of analysis followed by the development of a new lateral resisting system is introduced. The proposed concepts lead to an efficient structural configuration with provisions for self-centering, reparability, performance control, damage tolerance and collapse prevention. Exact, unique, closed form formulae have been provided to assess the collapse prevention and self-centering capabilities of the system. The objective is to provide an informative account of RWMF behavior for preliminary design as well as educational purposes. All formulae have been verified by independent computer analysis. Parametric examples have been provided to verify the validity of the proposed solutions.

  11. Acoustic and optical borehole-wall imaging for fractured-rock aquifer studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, J.H.; Johnson, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    Imaging with acoustic and optical televiewers results in continuous and oriented 360?? views of the borehole wall from which the character, relation, and orientation of lithologic and structural planar features can be defined for studies of fractured-rock aquifers. Fractures are more clearly defined under a wider range of conditions on acoustic images than on optical images including dark-colored rocks, cloudy borehole water, and coated borehole walls. However, optical images allow for the direct viewing of the character of and relation between lithology, fractures, foliation, and bedding. The most powerful approach is the combined application of acoustic and optical imaging with integrated interpretation. Imaging of the borehole wall provides information useful for the collection and interpretation of flowmeter and other geophysical logs, core samples, and hydraulic and water-quality data from packer testing and monitoring. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulation of moisture in alpine rock walls during freeze-thaw events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepfleitner, Harald; Rode, Matthias; Sass, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Rock moisture distribution during freeze-thaw events is the key to understanding frost weathering and subsequent rockfall. Data on moisture levels of natural rock walls are scarce and difficult to measure. An innovative and cheap way to avoid these problems is the use of simulation calculations. Although they are an abstraction of the real system they are widely used in natural science. A novel way to simulate moisture in natural rock walls is the use of the software WUFI which has been developed to understand the moisture behavior in building materials. However, the enormous know-how behind these commercial applications has not been exploited for geomorphological research to date. Necessary input data for the simulation are climate data in hourly resolution (temperature, rainfall, wind, irradiation) and material properties (porosity, sorption and diffusivity parameters) of the prevailing rock. Two different regions were analysed, the Gesäuse (Johnsbachtal: 700 m, limestone and dolomite) and the Sonnblick (3000 m, gneiss and granite). We aimed at comparing the two regions in terms of general susceptibility to frost weathering, as well as the influence of aspect, inclination and rock parameters and the possible impact of climate change. The calculated 1D-moisture profiles and temporal progress of rock moisture - in combination with temperature data - allow to detect possible periods of active weathering and resulting rockfalls. These results were analyzed based on two different frost weathering theories, the "classical" frost shattering theory (requiring high number of freeze-thaw cycles and a pore saturation of 90%) and the segregation ice theory (requiring a long freezing period and a pore saturation threshold of approx. 60%). An additionally considered critical factor for both theories was the frost depth, namely the duration of the "frost cracking window" (between -3 and -10°C) at each site. The results shows that in both areas, north-facing rocks are

  13. Development of a rocking R/C shear wall system implementing repairable structural fuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsafar, Saeed; Moghadam, Abdolreza S.

    2017-09-01

    In the last decades, the concept of earthquake resilient structural systems is becoming popular in which the rocking structure is considered as a viable option for buildings in regions of high seismicity. To this end, a novel wall-base connection based on the " repairable structure" approach is proposed and evaluated. The proposed system is made of several steel plates and high strength bolts act as a friction connection. To achieve the desired rocking motion in the proposed system, short-slotted holes are used in vertical directions for connecting the steel plates to the shear wall (SW). The experimental and numerical studies were performed using a series of displacement control quasi-static cyclic tests on a reference model and four different configurations of the proposed connection installed at the wall corners. The seismic response of the proposed system is compared to the conventional SW in terms of energy dissipation and damage accumulation. In terms of energy dissipation, the proposed system depicted better performance with 95% more energy dissipation capability compared to conventional SW. In terms of damage accumulation, the proposed SW system is nearly undamaged compared to the conventional wall system, which was severely damaged at the wall-base region. Overall, the introduced concept presents a feasible solution for R/C structures when a low-damage design is targeted, which can improve the seismic performance of the structural system significantly.

  14. Development of a rocking R/C shear wall system implementing repairable structural fuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsafar, Saeed; Moghadam, Abdolreza S.

    2017-06-01

    In the last decades, the concept of earthquake resilient structural systems is becoming popular in which the rocking structure is considered as a viable option for buildings in regions of high seismicity. To this end, a novel wall-base connection based on the "repairable structure" approach is proposed and evaluated. The proposed system is made of several steel plates and high strength bolts act as a friction connection. To achieve the desired rocking motion in the proposed system, short-slotted holes are used in vertical directions for connecting the steel plates to the shear wall (SW). The experimental and numerical studies were performed using a series of displacement control quasi-static cyclic tests on a reference model and four different configurations of the proposed connection installed at the wall corners. The seismic response of the proposed system is compared to the conventional SW in terms of energy dissipation and damage accumulation. In terms of energy dissipation, the proposed system depicted better performance with 95% more energy dissipation capability compared to conventional SW. In terms of damage accumulation, the proposed SW system is nearly undamaged compared to the conventional wall system, which was severely damaged at the wall-base region. Overall, the introduced concept presents a feasible solution for R/C structures when a low-damage design is targeted, which can improve the seismic performance of the structural system significantly.

  15. Method of measuring material properties of rock in the wall of a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Overmier, David K.

    1985-01-01

    To measure the modulus of elasticity of the rock in the wall of a borehole, a plug is cut in the borehole wall. The plug, its base attached to the surrounding rock, acts as a short column in response to applied forces. A loading piston is applied to the top of the plug and compression of the plug is measured as load is increased. Measurement of piston load and plug longitudinal deformation are made to determine the elastic modulus of the plug material. Poisson's ratio can be determined by simultaneous measurements of longitudinal and lateral deformation of the plug in response to loading. To determine shear modulus, the top of the plug is twisted while measurements are taken of torsional deformation.

  16. Method of measuring material properties of rock in the wall of a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Overmier, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    To measure the modulus of elasticity of the rock in the wall of a borehole, a plug is cut in the borehole wall. The plug, its base attached to the surrounding rock, acts as a short column in response to applied forces. A loading piston is applied to the top of the plug and compression of the plug is measured as load is increased. Measurements of piston load and plug longitudinal deformation are made to determine the elastic modulus of the plug material. Poisson's ratio can be determined by simultaneous measurements of longitudinal and lateral deformation of the plug in response to loading. To determine shear modulus, the top of the plug is twisted while measurements are taken of torsional deformation.

  17. Decay patterns of brick wall in atmospheric environment: a possible analogue to rock weathering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, Richard; Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přikrylová, Jiřina; Jablonský, Jakub

    2015-04-01

    This study is focused on the decay of bricks exposed in enclosing wall of the Regional maternal hospital in Prague city centre (Czech Republic). The hospital, listed as a Czech architectural monument, has been constructed from locally produced bricks in neo-Gothic style in the period of 1867-1875. The bricks of the enclosing wall show sequence of decay patterns that resemble weathering forms observable on monuments built of natural stone. This study aims to study the observed decay patterns by means of in situ mapping and by analyses of decayed material (optical microscopy, SEM/EDS, X-ray diffraction, Hg-porosimetry, water soluble salts analysis) and to interpret them based on the phase composition and other properties of bricks. Finally, the decay patterns of studied brick wall are compared to known weathering sequences on porous rocks (both on natural outcrops and on artistic monuments).

  18. Comparisons of magnitude estimation scaling of rock music by children, young adults, and older people.

    PubMed

    Fucci, D; Kabler, H; Webster, D; McColl, D

    1999-12-01

    The present study concerned the perceptual processing of complex auditory stimuli in 10 children (M age = 8.1) as compared to 10 young adults (M age = 19.3) and 10 older adult subjects (M age = 54.2). The auditory stimulus used was 10 sec. of rock music (Led Zeppelin, 1969). All three groups provided numerical responses to nine intensities of the rock music stimulus (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 dB above threshold). Analysis showed that the children reported a wider range of numerical responses than both adult groups. The mean numerical responses for the children ranged from .54 to 54.24. For the young adults the range was .76 to 11.37, and for the older subjects it was 1.6 to 23.31. Results suggest that the children were not bound by the same set of rules as the adults with regard to magnitude estimation scaling of the loudness of the rock music stimulus. Their internal scaling mechanisms appeared to be more flexible and broader based than those of the adults who participated in this study.

  19. Rock falls in high-alpine rock walls quantified by terrestrial lidar measurements: A case study in the Mont Blanc area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabatel, Antoine; Deline, Philip; Jaillet, Stéphane; Ravanel, Ludovic

    2008-05-01

    The global warming observed in recent decades and its future increase may affect permafrost distribution on high-mountain faces with consequences for their stability. In this paper, we show that rock falls from high-alpine rock walls can be computed with a decimetre-resolution using lidar measurements. A laser scanner was used to create point clouds and triangulated irregular network models on the east face of the Tour Ronde at 3792 m asl (Mont Blanc massif). Comparison of the models realised from measurements of July 2005 and July 2006 enabled quantification of rock falls with reduced uncertainty. The volume of rock fall reached a total of 536 m3 in the scanned area, which matches an erosion rate of 8.4 mm yr-1. This rate slightly higher to the ones reported in former studies enable to assume that this rock fall may be the consequence of the permafrost degradation in this rock face.

  20. Towards a thermo-mechanical model of permafrost-related rock wall instabilities at high risk sites in Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Benjamin; Krautblatter, Michael; Myhra, Kristin S.; Etzelmüller, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    We present first result of a thermo-mechanical model for two designated high risk sites in Norway: Mannen (Møre og Romsdal) and Gamanjunni (Troms). The classification of high risk sites in Norway is based on the combination of a high hazard score and serious anticipated consequences. We hypothesize that historic, recent and potential massive rock slope failures in deeply incised fjords and valleys are linked not only to glacial debuttressing but also to high altitude permafrost degradation. An increase in rockwall temperature is proven to have a significant effect on rock mass parameters, such as uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strenght, angle of repose and cohesion, which directly control rock wall stability. In this study, critical rock mass parameters will be derived from temperature-controlled rock mechanical testing and are subsequently fed into a mechanical model (RS2/UDEC). Since the test sites are fully instrumented and monitored, current movement rates can be used to calibrate the mechanical model. To account for stability changes related to degrading permafrost a recent model of the thermal rock wall regime throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene is utilized to derive the extend of high altitude permafrost at the test sites. The aim is to combine regional time slices of the thermal model with a multi stage rock-ice mechanical model to (i) simulate the current state of rock wall stability and (ii) gain mechanical insight into spatio-temporal dynamics of rock slope failures after deglaciation in Scandinavia.

  1. Competition with wall lizards does not explain the alpine confinement of Iberian rock lizards: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Monasterio, Camila; Salvador, Alfredo; Díaz, José A

    2010-10-01

    Interspecific competition can limit the distribution of species along altitudinal gradients. It has been suggested that Western European rock lizards (genus Iberolacerta) are restricted to mountains due to the expansion of wall lizards (Podarcis), but there is no experimental evidence to corroborate this hypothesis. This study examines if interference competition with Podarcis muralis is a plausible explanation for the alpine confinement of Iberian rock lizards Iberolacerta cyreni. In a first experiment, we used an enclosure with four types of microhabitats to investigate whether adult rock and/or wall lizards shifted microhabitat or refuge preferences in the presence of the other species, and to detect aggressive interactions between them. In a second experiment, we staged heterospecific encounters between naïve, laboratory-born juveniles to identify behavioural differences and agonistic interactions. In the enclosure, neither rock nor wall lizards changed their microhabitat preferences in the presence of the other species. Nevertheless, rock lizards increased the diversity of microhabitats and nocturnal refuges used in the single species trials, which had twice the number of conspecifics. Aggressive interactions involved mainly large rock lizard males. Juveniles did not show any interspecific agonistic behaviour, but rock lizards spent more time basking and less time moving. Thus, we found no evidence of competition between both species in terms of habitat shifts or agonistic interactions, although intraspecific interactions seemed to explain the behaviour of adult rock lizards. We conclude that other factors are currently determining the alpine confinement of rock lizards.

  2. A custom acoustic emission monitoring system for harsh environments: application to freezing-induced damage in alpine rock-walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, L.; Beutel, J.; Gruber, S.; Hunziker, J.; Lim, R.; Weber, S.

    2012-06-01

    We present a custom acoustic emission (AE) monitoring system designed to perform long-term measurements on high-alpine rock-walls. AE monitoring is a common technique for characterizing damage evolution in solid materials. The system is based on a two-channel AE sensor node (AE-node) integrated into a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) customized for operation in harsh environments. This wireless architecture offers flexibility in the deployment of AE-nodes at any position of the rock-wall that needs to be monitored, within a range of a few hundred meters from a core station connected to the internet. The system achieves near real-time data delivery and allows the user to remotely control the AE detection threshold. In order to protect AE sensors and capture acoustic signals from specific depths of the rock-wall, a special casing was developed. The monitoring system is completed by two probes that measure rock temperature and liquid water content, both probes being also integrated into the WSN. We report a first deployment of the monitoring system on a rock-wall at Jungfraujoch, 3500 m a.s.l., Switzerland. While this first deployment of the monitoring system aims to support fundamental research on processes that damage rock under cold climate, the system could serve a number of other applications, including rock-fall hazard surveillance or structural monitoring of concrete structures.

  3. A custom acoustic emission monitoring system for harsh environments: application to freezing-induced damage in alpine rock walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, L.; Beutel, J.; Gruber, S.; Hunziker, J.; Lim, R.; Weber, S.

    2012-11-01

    We present a custom acoustic emission (AE) monitoring system designed to perform long-term measurements on high-alpine rock walls. AE monitoring is a common technique for characterizing damage evolution in solid materials. The system is based on a two-channel AE sensor node (AE-node) integrated into a wireless sensor network (WSN) customized for operation in harsh environments. This wireless architecture offers flexibility in the deployment of AE-nodes at any position of the rock wall that needs to be monitored, within a range of a few hundred meters from a core station connected to the internet. The system achieves near real-time data delivery and allows the user to remotely control the AE detection threshold. In order to protect AE sensors and capture acoustic signals from specific depths of the rock wall, a special casing was developed. The monitoring system is completed by two probes that measure rock temperature and liquid water content, both probes being also integrated into the WSN. We report a first deployment of the monitoring system on a rock wall at Jungfraujoch, 3500 m a.s.l., Switzerland. While this first deployment of the monitoring system aims to support fundamental research on processes that damage rock under cold climate, the system could serve a number of other applications, including rock fall hazard surveillance or structural monitoring of concrete structures.

  4. Evidence of frost-cracking inferred from acoustic emissions in a high-alpine rock-wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amitrano, D.; Gruber, S.; Girard, L.

    2012-08-01

    Ice formation within rock is known to be an important driver of near-surface frost weathering as well as of rock damage at the depth of several meters, which may play a crucial role for the slow preconditioning of rock fall in steep permafrost areas. This letter reports results from an experiment where acoustic emission monitoring was used to investigate rock damage in a high-alpine rock-wall induced by natural thermal cycling and freezing/thawing. The analysis of the large catalog of events obtained shows (i) robust power-law distributions in the time and energy domains, a footprint of rock micro-fracturing activity induced by stresses arising from thermal variations and associated freezing/thawing of rock; (ii) an increase in AE activity under sub-zero rock-temperatures, suggesting the importance of freezing-induced stresses. AE activity further increases in locations of the rock-wall that are prone to receiving melt water. These results suggest that the framework of further modeling studies (theoretical and numerical) should include damage, elastic interaction and poro-mechanics in order to describe freezing-related stresses.

  5. Non-Darcian flow experiments of shear-thinning fluids through rough-walled rock fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez de Castro, Antonio; Radilla, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Understanding non-Darcian flow of shear-thinning fluids through rough-walled rock fractures is of vital importance in a number of industrial applications such as hydrogeology or petroleum engineering. Different laws are available to express the deviations from linear Darcy law due to inertial pressure losses. In particular, Darcy's law is often extended through addition of quadratic and cubic terms weighted by two inertial coefficients depending on the strength of the inertia regime. The relations between the effective shear viscosity of the fluid and the apparent viscosity in porous media when inertial deviations are negligible were extensively studied in the past. However, only recent numerical works have investigated the superposition of both inertial and shear-thinning effects, finding that the same inertial coefficients obtained for non-Darcian Newtonian flow applied in the case of shear-thinning fluids. The objective of this work is to experimentally validate these results, extending their applicability to the case of rough-walled rock fractures. To do so, flow experiments with aqueous polymer solutions have been conducted using replicas of natural fractures, and the effects of polymer concentration, which determine the shear rheology of the injected fluid, have been evaluated. Our findings show that the experimental pressure loss-flow rate data for inertial flow of shear-thinning fluids can be successfully predicted from the empirical parameters obtained during non-Darcian Newtonian flow and Darcian shear-thinning flow in a given porous medium.

  6. Simulation and field monitoring of moisture in alpine rock walls during freeze-thaw events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rode, Matthias; Sass, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    (high number of freeze-thaw cycles and 90% pore saturation) are achieved predominantly in spring and autumn and in north-facing rock walls. The time spent within the effective "frost cracking window" (-3 - -8°C) is also higher for north-facing sites.

  7. Sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ophiolites and modern oceanic spreading centres

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Massive and stockwork Fe-Cu-Zn (Cyprus type) sulphide deposits in the upper parts of ophiolite complexes represent hydrothermal mineralization at ancient accretionary plate boundaries. These deposits are probable metallogenic analogues of the polymetallic sulphide deposits recently discovered along modern oceanic spreading centres. Genetic models for these deposits suggest that mineralization results from large-scale circulation of sea-water through basaltic basement along the tectonically active axis of spreading, a zone of high heat flow. The high geothermal gradient above 1 to 2 km deep magma chambers emplaced below the ridge axis drives the convective circulation cell. Cold oxidizing sea-water penetrating the crust on the ridge flanks becomes heated and evolves into a highly reduced somewhat acidic hydrothermal solvent during interaction with basaltic wall-rock. Depending on the temperature and water/rock ratio, this fluid is capable of leaching and transporting iron, manganese, and base metals; dissolved sea-water sulphate is reduced to sulphide. At the ridge axis, the buoyant hydrothermal fluid rises through permeable wall-rocks, and fluid flow may be focussed along deep-seated fractures related to extensional tectonic processes. Metal sulphides are precipitated along channelways as the ascending fluid undergoes adiabatic expansion and then further cooling during mixing with ambient sub-sea-floor water. Vigorous fluid flow results in venting of reduced fluid at the sea-floor/sea-water interface and deposition of massive sulphide. A comparison of sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ancient and modern spreading centre environments supports this genetic concept. Massive sulphide deposits in ophiolites generally occur in clusters of closely spaced (< 1-5 km) deposits. Individual deposits are a composite of syngenetic massive sulphide and underlying epigenetic stockwork-vein mineralization. The massive sulphide occurs as concordant tabular

  8. Magma dynamics and wall-rock composition control the environmental impact of magmatic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, N.; Ganino, C.; Pêcher, A.; Chauvel, C.; Zhou, M.; Tornos, F.

    2010-12-01

    A key control on the destructive consequences of the emplacement of large igneous provinces such as Siberia and Deccan is the type of sedimentary rock in basins beneath the flood basalts. Contact metamorphism around intrusions in carbonates (dolostones or limestones), sulphates (evaporites), coal or organic-rich shale generates large quantities of greenhouse and toxic gases (CO2, CH4, SO2) which subsequently vent to the atmosphere and cause global warming and mass extinctions. Recently we demonstrated that the release of sediment-derived gases had a far greater impact on the environment than the emission of magmatic gases. Here we compare the effects of contact metamorphism of different types of carbonated sediments. We estimate that about 220 kg of CO2 were released per ton of metamorphosed dolomite in Sichuan basin around the plumbing system of Emeishan large igneous province in China. New structural studies show that during emplacement of the main intrusion, multiple generations of mafic dykes invaded the marbles of the lower metamorphic aureole. These dykes reacted extensively with the marble, and the magma actively assimilated wall-rock dolostone, a process that potentially released the entire CO2 budget of the assimilated carbonate, or 477 kg/ton. We compare this result with a second case, the Aguablanca intrusion in Spain, where mafic magma intruded limestones and shales. Contact metamorphism of pure limestone produced very little CO2 (less than 50 kg of CO2 per ton of pure limestone) whereas, in impure dolostones, the presence of silica or clay allowed the formation of calc-silicate minerals and strongly increased the CO2 yield, to140 kg CO2 per ton. In contrast, studies by Svensen and coworkers of sills in the Karoo province reveal lower rates of emission, mainly from decomposition of hydrocarbons around passively emplaced intrusions. Therefore, to understand the full impact on environment of the release of thermogenic gases during a major magmatic event

  9. Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice

    This science unit is designed for limited- and non-English speaking students in a Chinese bilingual education program. The unit covers rock material, classification, characteristics of types of rocks, and rock cycles. It is written in Chinese and simple English. At the end of the unit there is a list of main terms in both English and Chinese, and…

  10. Impacts of the 2003 and 2015 summer heatwaves on permafrost-affected rock-walls in the Mont Blanc massif.

    PubMed

    Ravanel, L; Magnin, F; Deline, P

    2017-07-20

    Rockfall is one of the main geomorphological processes that affects the evolution and stability of rock-walls. At high elevations, rockfall is largely climate-driven, very probably because of the warming of rock-wall permafrost. So with the ongoing global warming that drives the degradation of permafrost, the related hazards for people and infrastructure could continue to increase. The heatwave of summer 2015, which affected Western Europe from the end of June to August, had a serious impact on the stability of high-altitude rock-walls, including those in the Mont Blanc massif. A network of observers allowed us to survey the frequency and intensity of rock-wall morphodynamics in 2015, and to verify its relationship with permafrost. These observations were compared with those of the 2003 summer heatwave, identified and quantified by remote sensing. A comparison between the two years shows a fairly similar rockfall pattern in respect of total volumes and high frequencies (about 160 rockfalls >100m(3)) but the total volume for 2003 is higher than the 2015 one (about 300,000m(3) and 170,000m(3) respectively). In both cases, rockfalls were numerous but with a low magnitude and occurred in permafrost-affected areas. This suggests a sudden and remarkable deepening of the active layer during these two summers, rather than a longer-term warming of the permafrost body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of the Location of Critical Rock Block Fracture on Crack Evolution in a Gob-side Filling Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuehua; Ju, Minghe; Yao, Qiangling; Zhou, Jian; Chong, Zhaohui

    2016-03-01

    Generation, propagation, and coalescence of the shear and tensile cracks in the gob-side filling wall are significantly affected by the location of the fracture of the critical rock block. The Universal Discrete Element Code software was used to investigate crack evolution characteristics in a gob-side filling wall and the parameter calibration process for various strata and the filling wall was clearly illustrated. The cracks in both the filling wall and the coal wall propagate inward in a V-shape pattern with dominant shear cracks generated initially. As the distance between the fracture and the filling wall decreases, the number of cracks in the filling wall decreases, and the stability of the filling wall gradually improves; thus, by splitting the roof rock at the optimal location, the filling wall can be maintained in a stable state. Additionally, we conducted a sensitivity analysis that demonstrated that the higher the coal seam strength, the fewer cracks occur in both the filling wall and the coal wall, and the less failure they experience. With the main roof fracturing into a cantilever structure, the higher the immediate roof strength, the fewer cracks are in the filling wall. With the critical rock block fracturing above the roadway, an optimal strength of the immediate roof can be found that will stabilize the filling wall. This study presents a theoretical investigation into stabilization of the filling wall, demonstrating the significance of pre-splitting the roof rock at a desirable location.

  12. Comparison of metasomatic reactions between a common CO2-rich vein fluid and diverse wall rocks: intensive variables, mass transfers, and Au mineralization at Alleghany, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The gold deposits at Alleghany, California, are typical of many epigenetic gold-bearing hydrothermal vein systems in metamorphic terranes worldwide. Detailed analyses of alteration halos in serpentinite, mafic amphibolite, and granite wall rocks at Alleghany indicate that widely contrasting deposit types, ranging from fuchsite-carbonate schists to pyrite-albitites, resulted when different wall rocks interacted with the same externally derived CO2-rich hydrothermal vein fluid. Patterns of element redistribution within halos and among lithologic units suggest a complex process involving fluid flow along vein fractures and diffusion (?? infiltration) normal to the veins. Wall rocks locally controlled both the directions and magnitudes of chemical fluxes across vein walls. -from Author

  13. Gut wall metabolism of verapamil in older people: effects of rifampicin-mediated enzyme induction

    PubMed Central

    Fromm, Martin F; Dilger, Karin; Busse, Dagmar; Kroemer, Heyo K; Eichelbaum, Michel; Klotz, Ulrich

    1998-01-01

    Aims To investigate prehepatic metabolism of verapamil and its inducibility by rifampicin in older subjects. Methods Eight older subjects (67.1±1.2 years mean±s.d.) received racemic, unlabelled verapamil orally for 16 days (120 mg twice daily). Rifampicin (600 mg daily) was coadministered from day 5 to 16. Using stable isotope technology (i.e. intravenous coadministration of 10 mg deuterated verapamil) during verapamil steady-state without (day 4) and with rifampicin (day 16) bioavailability, prehepatic and hepatic extraction of verapamil were determined. The effects of verapamil on AV-conduction were measured by the maximum PR interval prolongation (%). Results Bioavailability of the cardiovascularly more active S-verapamil decreased from 14.2±4.3% on day 4 to 0.6±0.5% on day 16 (P<0.001). As a consequence, effects of orally administered verapamil on the AV-conduction were nearly abolished (14.4±9.4%vs 2.7±2.6%, P<0.01). This could be attributed to a considerable increase of prehepatic extraction during treatment with rifampicin (41.7±22.1%vs 91.6±6.6%, P<0.01) and to a minor extent to induction of hepatic metabolism (73.7±9.4%vs 91.6±5.3%, P<0.01). Conclusions Prehepatic metabolism of verapamil occurred in the group of older people investigated. Induction of gut wall metabolism most likely was the major reason for the loss of verapamil effect during treatment with rifampicin in this group of older subjects. PMID:9517368

  14. Younger and older zircons from rocks of the oceanic lithosphere in the Central Atlantic and their geotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolotnev, S. G.; Bel'Tenev, V. E.; Lepekhina, E. N.; Ipat'eva, I. S.

    2010-11-01

    Local U-Pb dating of zircons separated from various rocks in the crest zone of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and Carter Seamount (Sierra Leone Rise) is performed. Younger zircons formed in situ in combination with older xenogenic zircons are revealed in enriched basalts, alkaline volcanic rocks, gabbroic rocks, and plagiogranites. Only older zircons are found in depleted basalts and peridotites. Older zircons are ubiquitous in the young oceanic lithosphere of the Central Atlantic. The age of the younger zircons from the crest zone of the MAR ranges from 0.38 to 11.26 Ma and progressively increases receding from the axial zone of the ridge. This fact provides additional evidence for spreading of the oceanic floor. The rate of half-spreading calculated from the age of the studied zircons is close to the rate of half-spreading estimated from magnetic anomalies. The age of the younger zircons from Carter Seamount (58 Ma) corresponds to the age of the volcanic edifice. Older zircons make up an age series from 53 to 3200 Ma. Clusters of zircons differing in age reveal quasiperiodicity of about 200 Ma, which approximately corresponds to the global tectonic epochs in the geological evolution of the Earth. Several age groups of older zircons combine grains close in morphology and geochemistry: (1) Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic (53-700 Ma) prismatic grains with slightly resorbed faces, well-preserved or translucent oscillatory zoning, and geochemical features inherent to magmatic zircons; (2) prismatic grains dated at 1811 Ma with resorbed faces and edges, fragmentary or translucent zoning, and geochemical features inherent to magmatic zircons; (3) ovoid and highly resorbed prismatic grains with chaotic internal structure and metamorphic geochemical parameters; the peak of their ages is 1880 Ma. The performed study indicates that older xenogenic zircons from young rocks in the crest zone of the MAR were captured by melt or incorporated into refractory restite probably in the

  15. Rock Climbing Robot for Exploration and Sample Acquisition at Lava Tubes, Steep Slopes, and Cliff Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parness, A.; Frost, M.; Boston, P.; Cutkosky, M.

    2012-06-01

    The rock climbing robot utilizes a unique technology, microspines, that enables gravity-independent access to some of the most interesting locations on the Martian surface. Inverted rock coring has also been demonstrated with this technology.

  16. Wall Rock Assimilation and Magma Migration in the Sierra Nevada Batholith: A Study of the Courtright Intrusive Zone, Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrez, G.; Putirka, K. D.

    2010-12-01

    The Sierra Nevada Batholith is composed of various plutons that interact with each other, and with pre- and syn-batholith metamorphic rocks. In the central part of the Sierra Nevada Batholith, at Courtright Reservoir in California, the younger Mt. Givens Pluton (87-93 Ma; McNulty et al., 2000) intrudes the Dinkey pluton (103 Ma; Bateman et al., 1964), and metasediments (a metamorphic screen) that, in places, separate the two plutons. This Courtright Reservoir Intrusive zone, as termed by Bateman et al. (1964), provides an ideal setting to examine the dynamics of intrusion and assimilation. Whole rock major and trace element compositions of the plutons, their mafic enclaves, and the metasediments, show that all such samples, from both plutons, fall on a single mixing trend. We thus infer that magmas parental to both plutons were roughly similar in composition, and assimilated significant amounts of the same, or very similar metasedimentary wall rocks. We also examined changes in whole rock compositions within the Mt. Givens pluton, as a function of distance from the two rock units with which it is now in contact (the metasediments, and the Dinkey Creek). In the vicinity of the contact between are an abundance of enclaves that are rounded, and appear to have been transported in vertical pipes. Whole rock analysis of the host granitoid material that surrounds these enclaves is clearly more mafic than the granitoid magmas from interior parts of the pluton. These whole rock compositions indicate that the pluton becomes more homogenous moving away from the contact, with a compositional decay occurring over a span of about 50-100 m. There are at least two possible interpretations. The compositional decay may represent a diffusive exchange of mass between an early crystallizing marginal phase of the pluton and the pluton interior. Another (not mutually incompatible) possibility is that the mafic margins represent pipes or tubes (Paterson, 2010), related to some convective

  17. Mass transfer during wall-rock alteration: An example from a quartz-graphite vein, Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Galbreath, K.C.; Duke, E.F.; Papike, J.J. ); Laul, J.C. )

    1988-07-01

    Mass transfer and fluid-rock interaction have been evaluated along two sample traverses in low-sillimanite grade quartz-mica schist adjacent to a synmetamorphic quartz-graphite vein in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. In an {approximately}17 cm halo between apparently unaltered schist and the vein contact is an outer zone of cryptic alteration and three inner zones of visible alteration. The cryptic zone consists of the original prograde metamorphic mineral assemblage plus anomalously high amounts of tourmaline. The outermost visible zone contains abundant graphite. The second visible zone is defined by intensive bleaching of the schist. The innermost visible zone, immediately adjacent to the vein, is tourmaline + quartz + plagioclase + limonite + graphite. The vein is composed almost entirely of quartz, but also contains trace amounts of graphite. Mass balance calculations indicate that Al was essentially inert. The predominant chemical changes during wall-rock alteration were addition of B and C from the vein-forming fluid along with loss of K from the wall rocks, corresponding to precipitation of tourmaline and graphite, and the progressive destruction of microcline, biotite, and muscovite toward the vein. In addition, the elements V, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sb, W, and Au were introduced into the country rock, whereas Si, Rb, Ba, and Cs were removed. Fluid-rock interaction modeling suggests that between one and four equivalent masses of fluid interacted chemically with the most altered mineral assemblages. In addition, greater than one equivalent mass of reactive fluid penetrated to distances of at least 5 cm from the vein contact.

  18. Mount St. Augustine volcano fumarole wall rock alteration: mineralogy, zoning, composition and numerical models of its formation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getahun, Aberra; Reed, Mark H.; Symonds, Robert

    1996-05-01

    Intensely altered wall rock was collected from high-temperature (640 °C) and low-temperature (375 °C) vents at Augustine volcano in July 1989. The high-temperature altered rock exhibits distinct mineral zoning differentiated by color bands. In order of decreasing temperature, the color bands and their mineral assemblages are: (a) white to grey (tridymite-anhydrite); (b) pink to red (tridymite-hematite-Fe hydroxide-molysite (FeCl 3) with minor amounts of anhydrite and halite); and (c) dark green to green (anhydrite-halite-sylvite-tridymite with minor amounts of molysite, soda and potash alum, and other sodium and potassium sulfates). The alteration products around the low-temperature vents are dominantly cristobalite and amorphous silica with minor potash and soda alum, aphthitalite, alunogen and anhydrite. Compared to fresh 1986 Augustine lava, the altered rocks exhibit enrichments in silica, base metals, halogens and sulfur and show very strong depletions in Al in all alteration zones and in iron, alkali and alkaline earth elements in some of the alteration zones. To help understand the origins of the mineral assemblages in altered Augustine rocks, we applied the thermochemical modeling program, GASWORKS, in calculations of: (a) reaction of the 1987 and 1989 gases with wall rock at 640 and 375 °C; (b) cooling of the 1987 gas from 870 to 100 °C with and without mineral fractionation; (c) cooling of the 1989 gas from 757 to 100 °C with and without mineral fractionation; and (d) mixing of the 1987 and 1989 gases with air. The 640 °C gas-rock reaction produces an assemblage consisting of silicates (tridymite, albite, diopside, sanidine and andalusite), oxides (magnetite and hercynite) and sulfides (bornite, chalcocite, molybdenite and sphalerite). The 375 °C gas-rock reaction produces dominantly silicates (quartz, albite, andalusite, microcline, cordierite, anorthite and tremolite) and subordinate amounts of sulfides (pyrite, chalcocite and wurtzite), oxides

  19. Nd isotopic gradients in upper crustal magma chambers: Evidence for in situ magma-wall-rock interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, G.L.; Tegtmeyer, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Multiple Nd isotopic analyses were obtained for one metaluminous and two peralkaline Tertiary rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs in the Great Basin to determine whether upper crustal silici magmas chemically evolve under closed- or open-system conditions. All the ash-flow tuffs analyzed show significant internal Nd isotopic variations. The largest variations occur within the peralkaline Double-H Mountains Tuff ({epsilon}{sub Nd} = +2.0 to +6.4) at the McDermitt volcanic field in north-central Nevada, and the smallest within the metaluminous Topopah Spring Tuff ({epsilon}{sub Nd} = {minus}10.6 to {minus}11.7) at the southwestern Nevada volcanic field. In all cases the isotopic variation are correlated with magmatic Nd contents, even though the Nd concentrations decreased roofward for the metaluminous rhyolite and increased for the peralkaline rhyolites. The consistent positive correlation between [Nd] and {epsilon}{sub Nd} provides strong evidence for in situ open-system addition of low {epsilon}{sub Nd} wall-rock material to the silicic magmas during their residence in the upper crust. The proportion of wall-rock Nd required to produce the isotopic zonations is small (1 to 15 mol%) for both the peralkaline and metaluminous rhyolites. All levels of the parental magmas sampled by the ash-flow tuffs, and not just magma occupying the roof zone, were open to wall-rock interaction. These results suggest that upper crustal silicic magma bodies evolve under open-system conditions and the effects of such processes should be addressed in models for their chemical differentiation.

  20. Application of kinematic vorticity and gold mineralization for the wall rock alterations of shear zone at Dungash gold mining, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassem, Osama M. K.; Abd El Rahim, Said H.; El Nashar, EL Said R.; AL Kahtany, Kaled M.

    2016-11-01

    The use of porphyroclasts rotating in a flowing matrix to estimate mean kinematic vorticity number (Wm) is important for quantifying the relative contributions of pure and simple shear in wall rocks alterations of shear zone at Dungash gold mine. Furthermore, it shows the relationship between the gold mineralization and deformation and also detects the orientation of rigid objects during progressive deformation. The Dungash gold mine area is situated in an EW-trending quartz vein along a shear zone in metavolcanic and metasedimentary host rocks in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. These rocks are associated with the major geologic structures which are attributed to various deformational stages of the Neoproterozoic basement rocks. We conclude that finite strain in the deformed rocks is of the same order of magnitude for all units of metavolcano-sedimentary rocks. The kinematic vorticity number for the metavolcanic and metasedimentary samples in the Dungash area range from 0.80 to 0.92, and together with the strain data suggest deviations from simple shear. It is concluded that nappe stacking occurred early during the underthrusting event probably by brittle imbrication and that ductile strain was superimposed on the nappe structure during thrusting. Furthermore, we conclude that disseminated mineralization, chloritization, carbonatization and silicification of the wall rocks are associated with fluids migrating along shearing, fracturing and foliation of the metamorphosed wall rocks.

  1. Stable isotope and chemical systematics of pseudotachylyte and wall rock, Homestake shear zone, Colorado, USA: Meteoric fluid or rock-buffered conditions during coseismic fusion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moecher, David P.; Sharp, Zachary D.

    2004-12-01

    A hydrous fluid phase is critical in controlling effective stress and fault mechanics, and influencing the mineralogy and strength of materials within fault zones. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope and chemical analysis of wall rock gneiss, pseudotachylyte, and selected minerals in gneiss and pseudotachylyte from the Homestake shear zone was used to assess whether melting occurred in the presence of meteoric water or involved only minor amounts of H2O derived from micas in wall rock gneiss. Bulk pseudotachylyte has slightly lower δ18OSMOW than the whole rock protolith. δD for one bulk pseudotachylyte is essentially identical to biotite in gneiss; δD for two samples is lower by ˜20‰. Bulk pseudotachylyte has lower SiO2 and K2O, and higher Al2O3, FeO, MgO, CaO, and H2O, than gneiss. The lower SiO2 of pseudotachylyte compared to gneiss is explained by physical segregation of 25 to 72 volume % of quartz clasts from the mobile melt phase. Samples of gneiss and pseudotachylyte define a SiO2-δ18O mixing line between quartz and the most SiO2- and 18O-depleted pseudotachylyte. Physical segregation of quartz (highest oxygen isotope composition in the pseudotachylyte-gneiss system) accounts for the slightly lower oxygen isotope composition of bulk pseudotachylyte relative to gneiss. The similar δD of pseudotachylyte and biotite from gneiss in one sample is consistent with dehydration melting of biotite during frictional heating and dissolution of biotite-derived H2O in the melt. Late devitrification of glass and formation of greater amounts of fine-grained muscovite, accompanied by 10-30% loss of hydrogen as H2O, results in lower δD values in other samples. In general, melt generation occurred in a fault zone closed to infiltration of meteoric water. There was no free, H2O-rich pore fluid present at the time of slip to potentially influence the behavior of the fault.

  2. Wall rock-magma interactions in Etna, Italy, studied by U-Th disequilibrium and rare earth element systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Villemant, B. CNRS URA 196, Paris ); Michaud, V.; Metrich, N. )

    1993-03-01

    [sup 230]Th/[sup 238]U disequilibria have been studied in xenoliths and associated lavas of the 1892 and 1989 eruptions of Etna. Most xenoliths are out of secular equilibrium within 1 [sigma] errors and have lower [sup 230]Th/[sup 232]Th ratios than their host magmas. Siliceous and peraluminous xenoliths display large ranges of Th/U ratios for similar [sup 230]Th/[sup 232]Th values, which are interpreted in terms of Th isotopic rehomogenization. The siliceous xenoliths have also suffered thorium and uranium enrichments, which are best explained by chemical diffusion between xenolith melts and differentiated magmas. Estimates of thorium self-diffusivities and [sup 230]Th-[sup 238]U disequilibria give age constraints on these events corresponding to the last major volcanic event of Etna at 14 ka (formation of the elliptic crater caldera). These results suggest that magma storage in superficial and long-lived magma chambers favors the thorium isotopic homogenization of wall rocks by a thermal effect. Chemical diffusion of uranium and thorium and isotopic homogenization between siliceous melts of wall rocks and differentiated magmas may significantly modify the initial thorium isotopic compositions. Such contamination processes could explain the large variations of the [sup 230]Th/[sup 232]Th initial ratios of Etna magmas. 33 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Shallow subsurface temperature and moisture monitoring at rock walls during freeze thaw cycles in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rode, Matthias; Sass, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    The process of frost weathering as well as the contribution of further weathering processes (e.g. hydration, thermal fatigue) is poorly understood. For this purpose, different measuring systems were set up in two study areas (Dachstein massif - permafrost area (2700m asl, 47° 28' 32″ N, 13° 36' 23″ E) and Gesäuse mountains - non permafrost area (900m asl, 47° 35' 19″ N, 14° 39' 32″ E) located in Styria, Austria within the framework of the research project ROCKING ALPS (FWF-P2444). A key to understand frost weathering is to observe the rock temperature with several high resolution temperature sensors from the rock surface down to -20cm depth. The temperatures are measured hourly at north and south exposed rock walls since 2012 in the headwalls of the Dachstein glacier at the Koppenkarstein (built up of limestone) in about 2600m asl. Since 2013 the same measurement setup is installed in the lower Johnsbachtal (Gesäuse mountains, prevailing rock type is dolomite) in about 800m asl. To know the temperature is crucial to understand internal heat flow and transport and latent heat effects during freezing and thawing caused by night frost (lasting some hours), cold fronts (lasting some days) or winter frost of several weeks or months. At these study points we also have installed small-scale 2D-geoelectric survey lines, supplemented by moisture sensors. Moisture is determined by means of resistivity measurements which are difficult to calibrate, but provide good time series. Additional novel moisture sensors were developed which use the heat capacity of the surrounding rock as a proxy of water content. These sensors give point readings from a defined depth and are independent from soluble salt contents. First results from the Dachstein show that short term latent heat effects during the phase change have crucial influence on the moisture content. The moisture distribution and movements during temperature changes inside the rock are discussed upon the two main

  4. Forceful emplacement of the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek composite pluton into a structural basin in eastern California; internal structure and wall rock deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Sven; Law, Richard; de Saint Blanquat, Michel

    2013-11-01

    Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility parameters have been analyzed at 311 locations in the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek (EJB) pluton of eastern California. The large amount of data has allowed for the AMS parameters to be contoured using techniques that both reveal map-scale trends and emphasize small-scale differences. The contour maps suggest that magnetic susceptibility is dominantly controlled by composition of the magma but may also be affected by emplacement-related strain as the magma chamber inflated and forced the wall rocks outward. Pluton construction involved two major pulses of different composition magmas that were emplaced sequentially but with overlapping periods of crystallization. The magmas initially intruded as sill-like bodies into a structural basin. The magnetic foliation of the pluton cuts across internal magmatic contacts on the map scale and is parallel to local contacts between the pluton and surrounding metasedimentary wall rocks. The magnetic fabric is similar in orientation and symmetry to intense flattening strains recorded in the aureole rocks. The metasedimentary wall rocks have been shortened between 60 and 70% and this strain magnitude is approximately equal on the west, south, and east margins of the pluton. Strain in the wall rocks is dominantly flattening and concentrated into a narrow (1 km wide) inner aureole. Mapping of bedding/cleavage intersection lineations south of the pluton indicates that the magma made room for itself by translating the wall rocks outward and rotating the already inward dipping wall rocks of the structural basin to sub-vertical. Stretching of the inner aureole around an expanding magma chamber was responsible for the intense shortening. Limited data on the Marble Canyon pluton to the south of the EJB pluton indicates a very similar emplacement process.

  5. Mount St. Augustine volcano fumarole wall rock alteration: Mineralogy, zoning, composition and numerical models of its formation process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Getahun, A.; Reed, M.H.; Symonds, R.

    1996-01-01

    Intensely altered wall rock was collected from high-temperature (640??C) and low-temperature (375??C) vents at Augustine volcano in July 1989. The high-temperature altered rock exhibits distinct mineral zoning differentiated by color bands. In order of decreasing temperature, the color bands and their mineral assemblages are: (a) white to grey (tridymite-anhydrite); (b) pink to red (tridymite-hematite-Fe hydroxide-molysite (FeCl3) with minor amounts of anhydrite and halite); and (c) dark green to green (anhydrite-halite-sylvite-tridymite with minor amounts of molysite, soda and potash alum, and other sodium and potassium sulfates). The alteration products around the low-temperature vents are dominantly cristobalite and amorphous silica with minor potash and soda alum, aphthitalite, alunogen and anhydrite. Compared to fresh 1986 Augustine lava, the altered rocks exhibit enrichments in silica, base metals, halogens and sulfur and show very strong depletions in Al in all alteration zones and in iron, alkali and alkaline earth elements in some of the alteration zones. To help understand the origins of the mineral assemblages in altered Augustine rocks, we applied the thermochemical modeling program, GASWORKS, in calculations of: (a) reaction of the 1987 and 1989 gases with wall rock at 640 and 375??C; (b) cooling of the 1987 gas from 870 to 100??C with and without mineral fractionation; (c) cooling of the 1989 gas from 757 to 100??C with and without mineral fractionation; and (d) mixing of the 1987 and 1989 gases with air. The 640??C gas-rock reaction produces an assemblage consisting of silicates (tridymite, albite, diopside, sanidine and andalusite), oxides (magnetite and hercynite) and sulfides (bornite, chalcocite, molybdenite and sphalerite). The 375??C gas-rock reaction produces dominantly silicates (quartz, albite, andalusite, microcline, cordierite, anorthite and tremolite) and subordinate amounts of sulfides (pyrite, chalcocite and wurtzite), oxides (magnetite

  6. Paleoproterozoic rocks of central Colorado: Accreted arcs or extended older crust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Barbara M.; Bickford, M. E.

    2001-11-01

    Paleoproterozoic (1770 1735 Ma) bimodal volcanic rocks in central Colorado have been considered to represent southward growth of Laurentia by arc accretion. Although the bimodality of these rocks suggests an extensional continental setting rather than continental or oceanic arcs, there has been little evidence for pre 1800 Ma crust south of the Wyoming craton other than the 1840 ± 1 Ma Elves Chasm pluton in the Upper Granite Gorge of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. We report SHRIMP U-Pb ages of inherited zircons from metarhyolites and plutons in central Colorado that are latest Archean earliest Proterozoic (2520 2000 Ma) and Trans-Hudson Penokean (1878 1814 Ma). Associated quartzites contain detrital zircons with mean ages of 1735 Ma, indicating only local derivation. A meta-arkose, however, contains detrital zircons of Trans-Hudson Penokean and Archean ages. We believe it likely that the 1900 1800 Ma Trans-Hudson Penokean orogens, including Archean enclaves, extended farther south and west than is currently thought, and were the source of the bimodal volcanic rocks and associated plutons during the period 1770 1700 Ma.

  7. Building the 3D Geological Model of Wall Rock of Salt Caverns Based on Integration Method of Multi-source data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongzhi, WANG; hui, WANG; Lixia, LIAO; Dongsen, LI

    2017-02-01

    In order to analyse the geological characteristics of salt rock and stability of salt caverns, rough three-dimensional (3D) models of salt rock stratum and the 3D models of salt caverns on study areas are built by 3D GIS spatial modeling technique. During implementing, multi-source data, such as basic geographic data, DEM, geological plane map, geological section map, engineering geological data, and sonar data are used. In this study, the 3D spatial analyzing and calculation methods, such as 3D GIS intersection detection method in three-dimensional space, Boolean operations between three-dimensional space entities, three-dimensional space grid discretization, are used to build 3D models on wall rock of salt caverns. Our methods can provide effective calculation models for numerical simulation and analysis of the creep characteristics of wall rock in salt caverns.

  8. Earthquake Resilient Tall Reinforced Concrete Buildings at Near-Fault Sites Using Base Isolation and Rocking Core Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calugaru, Vladimir

    This dissertation pursues three main objectives: (1) to investigate the seismic response of tall reinforced concrete core wall buildings, designed following current building codes, subjected to pulse type near-fault ground motion, with special focus on the relation between the characteristics of the ground motion and the higher-modes of response; (2) to determine the characteristics of a base isolation system that results in nominally elastic response of the superstructure of a tall reinforced concrete core wall building at the maximum considered earthquake level of shaking; and (3) to demonstrate that the seismic performance, cost, and constructability of a base-isolated tall reinforced concrete core wall building can be significantly improved by incorporating a rocking core-wall in the design. First, this dissertation investigates the seismic response of tall cantilever wall buildings subjected to pulse type ground motion, with special focus on the relation between the characteristics of ground motion and the higher-modes of response. Buildings 10, 20, and 40 stories high were designed such that inelastic deformation was concentrated at a single flexural plastic hinge at their base. Using nonlinear response history analysis, the buildings were subjected to near-fault seismic ground motions as well as simple close-form pulses, which represented distinct pulses within the ground motions. Euler-Bernoulli beam models with lumped mass and lumped plasticity were used to model the buildings. Next, this dissertation investigates numerically the seismic response of six seismically base-isolated (BI) 20-story reinforced concrete buildings and compares their response to that of a fixed-base (FB) building with a similar structural system above ground. Located in Berkeley, California, 2 km from the Hayward fault, the buildings are designed with a core wall that provides most of the lateral force resistance above ground. For the BI buildings, the following are investigated

  9. Constraints on magma-wall rock thermal interaction during explosive eruptions from textural analysis of cored bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sottili, G.; Taddeucci, J.; Palladino, D. M.

    2010-04-01

    Cored bombs, a kind of pyroclast consisting of a lithic core surrounded by a chilled shell of juvenile material, record the thermal interaction of magma with wall rocks. We performed textural analysis of cored bombs, solid-melt heat-transfer theoretical modelling, and high-temperature coating experiments to put temporal and intensity constraints on the thermal interaction of potassic magma feeder systems with carbonate wall rocks during explosive eruptions in the Quaternary, Colli Albani Volcanic District (Roman Province). It appears that the degree of thermal alteration of lithic cores records the duration of magma-core heat transfer, whereas the core/shell size ratio records the initial entrainment temperature of the lithic fragment. Both parameters appear to vary significantly with the eruptive style, magnitude and vent location. Specifically, small-scale (~ 0.1-1 km 3 DRE) hydromagmatic eruptions show magma-core heat-transfer durations of 0.1-10 s and entrainment temperatures in the range of 100-300 °C in the case of a monogenetic maar located in the Colli Albani peripheral area, while entrainment temperature is as high as to 800 °C for a polygenetic maar in a high-enthalpy geothermal system at the margins of the main Colli Albani magma chamber. A large-scale (~ 30 km 3 DRE) caldera-forming explosive event shows magma-core heat-transfer duration in the order of 10 2-10 3 s and temperature of 100-500 °C at the initial magma-wall rock contact. On these grounds, we derived the cooling rate of magmas as a function of the initial temperature, mass and size distribution of lithic clasts entrained. Magma cooling by lithic entrainment may have occurred on the same time-scale as that of eruptive pulses (seconds to hours), implying that lithic entrainment may effect changes in magma physico-chemical properties on a short time-scale and, consequently, affect eruptive conduit dynamics.

  10. Retrofit wall system for insulation and lead encasement in older multi-family housing.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, R. L.

    1998-08-11

    This paper presents an approach to modernization or rehabilitation of buildings with uninsulated masonry walls that have lead-based paint hazards or deteriorated plaster walls. The approach provides a solution to lead contamination on the walls, increased energy efficiency and comfort improvements associated with better insulated building envelopes. The system sheaths or replaces damaged or contaminated walls with a tight, well-insulated, durable interior surface. The costs of this system are estimated to be less than those of other insulated wall systems. Modeling of the impact of this system shows significant improvement in energy performance. The energy savings over the life of this durable system contribute to significantly offset the often-times sizeable cost of lead hazard remediation.

  11. Origin of saline, neutral-pH, reduced epithermal waters by reaction of acidic magmatic gas condensates with wall rock

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, M.H. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Fluid inclusions in quartz and sphalerite of epithermal veins containing galena, sphalerite and chalcopyrite with silver sulfides and electrum commonly have salinities of 2 to 10 weight percent NaCl equivalent. Examples include Bohemia, OR, Comstock, NV, and Creede, CO. Salinities in such base metal-rich systems are apparently greater than those in gold-adularia, base metal-poor systems such as Sleeper, NV, Republic, WA, and Hishikare, Kyushu. Saline epithermal fluids are commonly assumed to have been derived from saline magmatic brines, from local host formations, as has been suggested for Creede, or from evaporative concentration (boiling) of more dilute meteoric ground water. Another possibility, which may be the most common origin, is reaction of wall rocks with magmatic gas condensates rich in HCl and sulfuric acid. A mixture of one part Augustine Volcanic gas condensate in 10 parts cold ground water has a pH of 0.7 and the dominant cation is H[sup +] by a factor of 10[sup 4]. Calculated reaction of this condensate mixture with andesite at 300 C to a water/rock ratio (w/r) of 4.6 yields an NaCl-dominated fluid with a total salinity of 2.1 wt %. and pH 3.7. Further reaction, to w/r 0.14 yields a fluid salinity of 2.6 wt % and pH of 5.7; this fluid is in equilibrium with a propylitic alteration assemblage. Aqueous sulfide accumulates during the rock reaction as sulfate is reduced to sulfide when ferrous iron is oxidized to ferric iron. Sulfide concentration in the latter fluid is 32 ppm, far exceeding sulfate concentration. In the overall reaction, hydrogen ion is exchanged for base cations (including base metals) and sulfate is reduced to sulfide.

  12. Activity concentration of natural radionuclides and radon and thoron exhalation rates in rocks used as decorative wall coverings in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, many dwellings have decorative wall coverings made from granite, andesite, tuff, gabbro, and marble. However, information regarding activity concentrations and radon (Rn) and thoron (Rn) exhalation rates for such rocks is very scarce. Therefore, samples of the granite, andesite, tuff, and marble that are used as wall coverings in Japan were collected from mining companies, and their activity concentrations and Rn and Rn exhalation rates were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built with these materials were also carried out. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in all the materials was lower than the critical values described by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (10,000 Bq kg for K and 1,000 Bq kg for all other radionuclides of natural origin). The maximum values of Rn and Rn mass exhalation rates for the granite samples were 0.12 and 430 mBq kg s, and those for the area exhalation rates were 1.8 and 6300 mBq m s, respectively; these values are higher than those for other samples. The maximum value of effective doses to inhabitants was 0.68 mSv y, which is lower than the intervention exemption level (1 mSv y) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82.

  13. Evaluation of the removal of Strontium-90 from groundwater using a zeolite rich-rock permeable treatment wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seneca, S. M.; Rabideau, A. J.; Bandilla, K.

    2010-12-01

    Experimental and modeling studies are in progress to evaluate the long-term performance of a permeable treatment wall comprised of zeolite-rich rock for the removal of strontium-90 from groundwater. Multiple column tests were performed at the University at Buffalo and on-site West Valley Environmental Services; columns were supplied with synthetic groundwater referenced to anticipate field conditions and radioactive groundwater on-site WVES. The primary focus in this work is on quantifying the competitive ion exchange among five cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Sr2+); the data obtained from the column studies is used to support the robust estimation of zeolite cation exchange parameters. This research will produce a five-solute cation exchange model describing the removal efficiency of the zeolite, using the various column tests to calibrate and validate the geochemical transport model. The field-scale transport model provides flexibility to explore design parameters and potential variations in groundwater geochemistry to investigate the long-term performance of a full scale treatment wall at the Western New York nuclear facility.

  14. Modifications of anticipatory postural adjustments in a rock climbing task: the effect of supporting wall inclination.

    PubMed

    Noé, F

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of initial postural constraint on the realisation of a leg release in a rock climbing task. Two conditions were tested: a vertical posture and an overhanging posture. The overhanging posture was characterised by a large sustentation base, which enhanced the mechanical possibilities of the system. Subjects had to release their right foot in both postural conditions. In the vertical posture, movement's effectuation was associated with anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). In the overhanging posture, the movement was performed without APAs. The results indicated that APAs were modulated according to the possibilities of force creation of the system. Hence, the disappearance of APAs in the overhanging posture was explained by the efficiency of the system to create the impulse necessary to perform the task.

  15. Ganges Chasma Landing Site: Access to Layered Mesa Material, Wall Rock, and Sand Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, James W., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The floor of Ganges Chasma offers an ideal landing site for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) A/B rovers. This site is exquisite both in terms of engineering constraints and science objectives. The floor of Ganges Chasma is mantled with an extensive low relief sand sheet. This maximizes landing site safety issues and allows us entrance into Valles Marineris. Other floor regions of Valles Marineris (e.g., Candor, Capri, Melas) appear very rough and hazardous in Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) imagery. The philosophy for selecting this site is that it would allow analysis of Chasma floor material which should be composed of wall material and the layered mesa material, there is also abundant evidence of channels emptying into the canyon thereby providing a source for aqueous sediments.

  16. Targeting Socially Isolated Older Adults: A Process Evaluation of the Senior Centre Without Walls Social and Educational Program.

    PubMed

    Newall, Nancy E G; Menec, Verena H

    2015-12-01

    The Seniors Centre Without Walls (SCWOW) program provides free social and educational programming for older adults via telephone. The target population for SCWOW is socially isolated older adults, a hard to reach population. The aim of this process evaluation was to examine whether SCWOW was reaching its target population and to gather participant feedback about program implementation and the perceived satisfaction and impact of the program. Telephone interviews were conducted with 26 participants (92% females; aged 57-85 years). Forty-two percent of the sample was socially isolated and more than half reported being lonely. Participants reported having no difficulty using the telephone system. On average, participants were very satisfied with the program and reported that SCWOW had several positive effects (e.g., connecting to the larger community, affecting mental well-being). Importantly, no barriers to participation were identified. The study suggests that telephone-based programs can successfully reach socially isolated older adults. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Inquiry into the Efficacy of Interactive Word Walls with Older Adolescent Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vintinner, Jean Payne; Harmon, Janis; Wood, Karen; Stover, Katie

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the perceptions of five high school English teachers of the efficacy of interactive word walls in high school classrooms. Through data collected during interviews and professional reflective journals, as well as the review of student artifacts, this article presents the themes that emerged from effective classroom teachers.…

  18. An Analytical Method for Determining the Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient Between Flowing Fluid and Rock Fracture Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Bing; He, Yuanyuan; Hu, Shaobin; Li, Xiaochun

    2017-07-01

    The convective heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is a useful indicator that characterizes the convective heat transfer properties between flowing fluid and hot dry rock. An analytical method is developed to explore a more realistic formula for the HTC. First, a heat transfer model is described that can be used to determine the general expression of the HTC. As one of the novel elements, the new model can consider an arbitrary function of temperature distribution on the fracture wall along the direction of the rock radius. The resulting Dirichlet problem of the Laplace equation on a semi-disk is successfully solved with the Green's function method. Four specific formulas for the HTC are derived and compared by assuming the temperature distributions along the radius of the fracture wall to be zeroth-, first-, second-, and third-order polynomials. Comparative verification of the four specific formulas based on the test data shows that the formula A corresponding to the zeroth-order polynomial always predicts stable HTC values. At low flow rates, the four formulas predict similar values of HTC, but at higher flow rates, formulas B and D, respectively, corresponding to the first- and third-order polynomials, predict either too large or too small values of the HTC, while formula C, corresponding to the second-order polynomial, predicts relatively acceptable HTC values. However, we cannot tell which one is the more rational formula between formulas A and C due to the limited information measured. One of the clear advantages of formula C is that it can avoid the drawbacks of the discontinuity of temperature and the singular integral of HTC at the points (± R, 0). Further experimental work to measure the actual temperature distribution of water in the fracture will be of great value. It is also found that the absorbed heat of the fluid, Q, has a significant impact on the prediction results of the HTC. The temperatures at the inlet and the outlet used for Q should be

  19. High-Ca Melt Inclusions in Primitive Shoshonites: Magma-Wall Rock Interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, R. A.; Danyushevsky, L. V.

    2002-12-01

    Pliocene absarokites from Tavua and Astrolabe Group volcanoes (Fiji) contain olivine phenocrysts Fo 93-72. Primitive olivines (>Fo 85) show a significant range in CaO content (0.1-0.47 wt% CaO), with high-Ca olivine (>0.35 wt% CaO) being most abundant. Melt inclusions (MI) hosted by high-CaO olivine are large and numerous. On the other hand, low-CaO primitive olivines are either devoid of MI, or MI tend to be smaller and comparatively less abundant. Prior to analysis, MI have been reheated to 1160-1325 oC for 3-5 min. and quenched to glass. MI hosted by evolved olivine (rocks of the suites. In contrast, primitive high-CaO olivine hosts contain MI with very high CaO (up to 19 wt%), low SiO2 and Al2O3, resulting in extreme CaO/Al2O3 ratios (up to 1.95). The less abundant and comparatively smaller MI, hosted by primitive medium-CaO olivine (CaO 0.25-0.35 wt%) have compositions representative of primitve shoshonitic melts. They have higher SiO2, and 'normal' CaO (10-14wt%) and Al2O3 (13-17wt%), resulting in CaO/Al2O3<1. Low-CaO olivines (<0.25 wt%) contain rare low-CaO, low-SiO2 MI with high Na2O, K2O and TiO2 contents. Occurrence of large and numerous MI in high-CaO olivines reflects rapid magma cooling and olivine growth. An environment where this can occur is at margins of a hot magma body where it interacts with colder wallrocks. The high-CaO MI in these olivines may then represent hybrid melts formed during localised assimilation. Less abundant, smaller primitive MI with "normal" compositions are likely trapped within the slow-cooling bulk of the magma, and are under represented due to a sampling bias phenomenon whereby hybrid melts are preferentially trapped during fast crystallisation.

  20. A comparison of multi-view 3D reconstruction of a rock wall using several cameras and a laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoeni, K.; Giacomini, A.; Murtagh, R.; Kniest, E.

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a comparative study between multi-view 3D reconstruction using various digital cameras and a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). Five different digital cameras were used in order to estimate the limits related to the camera type and to establish the minimum camera requirements to obtain comparable results to the ones of the TLS. The cameras used for this study range from commercial grade to professional grade and included a GoPro Hero 1080 (5 Mp), iPhone 4S (8 Mp), Panasonic Lumix LX5 (9.5 Mp), Panasonic Lumix ZS20 (14.1 Mp) and Canon EOS 7D (18 Mp). The TLS used for this work was a FARO Focus 3D laser scanner with a range accuracy of ±2 mm. The study area is a small rock wall of about 6 m height and 20 m length. The wall is partly smooth with some evident geological features, such as non-persistent joints and sharp edges. Eight control points were placed on the wall and their coordinates were measured by using a total station. These coordinates were then used to georeference all models. A similar number of images was acquired from a distance of between approximately 5 to 10 m, depending on field of view of each camera. The commercial software package PhotoScan was used to process the images, georeference and scale the models, and to generate the dense point clouds. Finally, the open-source package CloudCompare was used to assess the accuracy of the multi-view results. Each point cloud obtained from a specific camera was compared to the point cloud obtained with the TLS. The latter is taken as ground truth. The result is a coloured point cloud for each camera showing the deviation in relation to the TLS data. The main goal of this study is to quantify the quality of the multi-view 3D reconstruction results obtained with various cameras as objectively as possible and to evaluate its applicability to geotechnical problems.

  1. The geochemical evolution of clinopyroxene in the Roman Province: A window on decarbonation from wall-rocks to magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollo, S.; Vona, A.

    2014-04-01

    We present results from magma-carbonate interaction experiments designed to shed light on the geochemical evolution of clinopyroxene in the Roman Province (central Italy). Atmospheric pressure experiments were performed at 1140, 1160 and 1180 °C under NNO, MH and air oxygen buffering conditions. The starting materials were a shoshonite and a phonotephrite doped with different amounts of CaO and CaO + MgO whose stoichiometric proportions reproduced the assimilation by magmas of calcite and dolomite, respectively. The results show that clinopyroxenes, spinels and residual glasses are ubiquitous phases in all run-products. Calcite-doped runs crystallize more clinopyroxene than dolomite-doped runs at the same conditions. This leads to the formation of strong desilicated CaO-rich melts showing compositions comparable to those of magmatic skarns. During magma-carbonate interaction, the content of Fe3 + in clinopyroxene increases with increasing fO2 promoting the substitution of Al for Si in tetrahedral site. Local charge imbalances are also compensated by the incorporation of highly charged cations, such as Ti, into the crystal lattice. According to this cation substitution, Al-Ca-Fe3 +-Ti-rich clinopyroxenes of the skarn environment testify to continuous CO2 fluxes produced by the thermal decomposition of carbonate wall-rocks. Nevertheless, the oxidative capacity of CO2 progressively decreases from the skarn shells towards the interior of the magma chamber driving the crystallization of Si-Fe2 +-Mg-rich clinopyroxenes.

  2. Rockfalls on steep rock walls in the Mont Blanc massif: a statistical approach for the 2007 and 2008 events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanel, L.; Allignol, F.; Deline, P.; Ravello, M.

    2009-04-01

    It is hypothesized that climatic warming since 1980 increases rock wall instability in high mountains due to permafrost degradation. This is supported by the observation of ice in several rockfall scars. Due to a lack of systematic observations, magnitude and frequency of high mountain rock failures remain poorly known. As a part of the French-Italian PERMAdataROC project (2005-2008) and the EU-funded transalpine PermaNET project (2008-2011), we developed a present-day rockfall database. It contains information collected during systematic surveys carried out by local people (mountain guides, hut keepers, researchers). Although difficult to implement, this approach seems an efficient way to systematically record slope instability events of all sizes related to climate variations. The database compiles the characteristics (topography, volume, scar geometry, deposit) of the 44 and the 20 rockfalls observed in 2007 and 2008, respectively, in the Mont-Blanc massif (Swiss and Saint-Gervais sides excepted). For each event, scar elevation, slope angle and aspect of the affected slopes are issues from ArcGIS, using a 50 m digital elevation model (DEM) - enhanced to 10 m for affected areas - for the French side of the massif, and a 10 m DEM for the Italian side. Among the 64 documented rockfalls, 53 occurred at an altitude above 3000 m a.s.l (but none above 3900 m), on slopes with an angle mainly in the range 50-60°. Massive ice has been directly observed in 12 scars. The four largest rockfalls occurred on the steepest, Italian side at: Dent de Jetoula (at 2810 m a.s.l.; 15,000 m3) on August 2007, one of the lowest in altitude; Tour des Grandes Jorasses (at 3830 m; 10,000 m3) on September 2007; Aiguilles de Thoules (at 3450 m; 8,000 m3) on July 2008; and Tré-la-Tête (at 3470 m; 50,000 m3) on September 2008. Detailed results are presented, statistically analysed and normalized.

  3. Preliminary results of thermal conductivity and elastic wave velocity measurements of various rock samples collected from outcrops in hanging wall of the Alpine Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, W.; Tadai, O.; Shigematsu, N.; Nishikawa, O.; Mori, H.; Townend, J.; Capova, L.; Saito, S.; Kinoshita, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Alpine Fault is a mature active fault zone likely to rupture in the near future and DFDP aims to measure physical and chemical conditions within the fault. DFDP-2B borehole was drilled into hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. Downhole temperature measurements carried out in DFDP-2B borehole showed that the geothermal gradient in the hanging wall of the fault is very high, likely reaching to 130-150 °C/km (Sutherland et al., 2015 AGU Fall Meeting). To explain this abnormal feature, the determination of thermal properties of all the rock types in the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault is essential. To measure thermal properties and elastic wave velocities, we collected six typical rock block samples from outcrops in Stony creek and Gaunt creek. These include ultramylonite, mylonite, muscovite schist, garnet amphibolite, protomylonite and schist, which are representative of the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. Their wet bulk densities are 2.7 - 2.8 g/cm3, and porosities are 1.4 - 3.0%. We prepared a pair of 4 cm cube specimens of each rock type with one flat plane parallel to the foliation. First, we measured thermal conductivity by the transient plane heat source (hot disc) method in a bulk mode, i.e. to deal with the rock as an isotropic material. However, several samples have clearly visible foliation and are likely to be anisotropic. Thus, the data measured in bulk mode provided an average value of the rocks in the range of approximately 2.4 - 3.2 W/mK. The next step will be to measure thermal conductivity in an anisotropic mode. We also measured P wave velocity (Vp) using the same samples, but in two directions, i.e. parallel and perpendicular to the foliation, respectively. Our preliminary results suggested that Vp is anisotropic in all the six rocks. Generally, Vp parallel to foliation is higher than that in the perpendicular direction. Vp in the parallel direction ranged in 5.5 - 6.0 km/s, whereas in the perpendicular direction it was 4.4 - 5.5 km/s. We

  4. The Magma Chamber Simulator: Modeling the Impact of Wall Rock Composition on Mafic Magmas during Assimilation-Fractional Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, J. B.; Spera, F. J.; Bohrson, W. A.; Ghiorso, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Although stoichiometric titration is often used to model the process of concurrent Assimilation and Fractional Crystallization (AFC) within a compositionally evolving magma body, a more complete treatment of the problem involves simultaneous and self-consistent determination of stable phase relationships and separately evolving temperatures of both Magma (M) and Wall Rock (WR) that interact as a composite M-WR system. Here we present results of M-WR systems undergoing AFC forward modeled with the Magma Chamber Simulator (MCS), which uses the phase modeling capabilities of MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack 1995) as the thermodynamic basis. Simulations begin with one of a variety of mafic magmas (e.g. HAB, MORB, AOB) intruding a set mass of Wall Rock (e.g. lherzolite, gabbro, diorite, granite, metapelite), and heat is exchanged as the M-WR system proceeds towards thermal equilibrium. Depending on initial conditions, the early part of the evolution can involve closed system FC while the WR heats up. The WR behaves as a closed system until it is heated beyond the solidus to critical limit for melt fraction extraction (fc), ranging between 0.08 and 0.12 depending on WR characteristics including composition and, rheology and stress field. Once fc is exceeded, a portion of the anatectic liquid is assimilated into the Magma. The MCS simultaneously calculates mass and composition of the mineral assemblage (Magma cumulates and WR residue) and melt (anatectic and Magma) at each T along the equilibration trajectory. Sensible and latent heat lost or gained plus mass gained by the Magma are accounted for by the MCS via governing Energy Constrained- Recharge Assimilation Fractional Crystallization (EC-RAFC) equations. In a comparison of two representative MCS results, consider a granitic WR intruded by HAB melt (51 wt. % SiO2) at liquidus T in shallow crust (0.1 GPa) with a WR/M ratio of 1.25, fc of 0.1 and a QFM oxygen buffer. In the first example, the WR begins at a temperature of 100o

  5. Analysis of a Large Rock Slope Failure on the East Wall of the LAB Chrysotile Mine in Canada: LiDAR Monitoring and Displacement Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudal, Philippe; Grenon, Martin; Turmel, Dominique; Locat, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    A major mining slope failure occurred in July 2012 on the East wall of the LAB Chrysotile mine in Canada. The major consequence of this failure was the loss of the local highway (Road 112), the main economic link between the region and the Northeast USA. This paper is part of a proposed integrated remote sensing-numerical modelling methodology to analyze mining rock slope stability. This paper presents the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) monitoring of this slope failure. The main focus is the investigation of that rock slide using both terrestrial (TLS) and airborne (ALS) LiDAR scanning. Since 2010, four ALS and 14 TLS were performed to characterize and monitor the slide. First, laser scanning was used to investigate the geometry of the slide. The failure zone was 1100 m by 250 m in size with a mobilized volume of 25 hm3. Laser scanning was then used to investigate the rock slide's 3D displacement, thereby enabling a better understanding of the sliding kinematics. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of the proposed approach to monitor and quantify large-scale rock mass failure. The slope was monitored for a period of 5 years, and the total displacement was measured at every survey. The maximum cumulative total displacement reached was 145 m. This paper clearly shows the ability of LiDAR scanning to provide valuable quantitative information on large rock mass failures involving very large displacements.

  6. Immobilization of uranium in biofilm microorganisms exposed to groundwater seeps over granitic rock tunnel walls in Olkiluoto, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk-Bärsch, Evelyn; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Pedersen, Karsten; Arnold, Thuro; Bok, Frank; Steudtner, Robin; Lehtinen, Anne; Brendler, Vinzenz

    2012-11-01

    In an underground rock characterization facility, the ONKALO tunnel in Finland, massive 5-10-mm thick biofilms were observed attached to tunnel walls where groundwater was seeping from bedrock fractures at a depth of 70 m. In laboratory experiments performed in a flow cell with detached biofilms to study the effect of uranium on the biofilm, uranium was added to the circulating groundwater (CGW) obtained from the fracture feeding the biofilm. The final uranium concentration in the CGW was adjusted to 4.25 × 10-5 M, in the range expected from a leaking spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister in a future underground repository. The effects were investigated using microelectrodes to measure pH and Eh, time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM), and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) studies and thermodynamic calculations were utilized as well. The results indicated that the studied biofilms constituted their own microenvironments, which differed significantly from that of the CGW. A pH of 5.37 was recorded inside the biofilm, approximately 3.5 units lower than the pH observed in the CGW, due to sulfide oxidation to sulfuric acid in the biofilm. Similarly, the Eh of +73 mV inside the biofilm was approximately 420 mV lower than the Eh measured in the CGW. Adding uranium increased the pH in the biofilm to 7.27 and reduced the Eh to -164 mV. The changes of Eh and pH influenced the bioavailability of uranium, since microbial metabolic processes are sensitive to metals and their speciation. EF-TEM investigations indicated that uranium in the biofilm was immobilized intracellularly in microorganisms by the formation of metabolically mediated uranyl phosphate, similar to needle-shaped autunite (Ca[UO2]2[PO4]2·2-6H2O) or meta-autunite (Ca[UO2]2[PO4]2·10-12H2O). In contrast, TRLFS studies of the contaminated CGW identified aqueous uranium carbonate species, likely (Ca2UO2[CO3]3), formed due to the high

  7. Snow control on active layer and permafrost in steep alpine rock walls (Aiguille du Midi, 3842 m a.s.l, Mont Blanc massif)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnin, Florence; Westermann, Sebastian; Pogliotti, Paolo; Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Permafrost degradation through the thickening of the active layer and the rising temperature at depth is a crucial process of rock wall stability. The ongoing increase in rock falls observed during hot periods in mid-latitude mountain ranges is regarded as a result of permafrost degradation. However, the short-term thermal dynamics of alpine rock walls are misunderstood since they result of complex processes related to the interaction of local climate variables, heterogeneous snow cover and heat transfers. As a consequence steady-state and long-term changes that can be approached with simpler process mainly related to air temperature, solar radiations and heat conduction were the most common dynamics to be studied so far. The effect of snow on the bedrock surface temperature is increasingly investigated and has already been demonstrated to be an essential factor of permafrost distribution. Nevertheless, its effect on the year-to-year changes of the active layer thickness and of the permafrost temperature in steep alpine bedrock has not been investigated yet, partly due to the lack of appropriate data. We explore the role of snow accumulations on the active layer and permafrost thermal regime of steep rock walls of a high-elevated site, the Aiguille du Midi (AdM, 3842 m a.s.l, Mont Blanc massif, Western European Alps) by mean of a multi-methods approach. We first analyse six years of temperature records in three 10-m-deep boreholes. Then we describe the snow accumulation patterns on two rock faces by means of automatically processed camera records. Finally, sensitivity analyses of the active layer thickness and permafrost temperature towards timing and magnitude of snow accumulations are performed using the numerical permafrost model CryoGrid 3. The energy balance module is forced with local meteorological measurements on the AdM S face and validated with surface temperature measurements at the weather station location. The heat conduction scheme is calibrated with

  8. Textures, paragenesis and wall-rock alteration of lode-gold deposits in the Charters Towers district, north Queensland: implications for the conditions of ore formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuzer, Oliver P.

    2006-01-01

    Ore deposits of the Charters Towers Goldfield (CTGF) are mainly hosted by fault-fill veins. Extensional (˜8% of all veins) and stockwork-like (˜3%) veins are less common and of little economic significance. Crosscutting relationships and published structural and geochronological data indicate a Late Silurian to Early Devonian timing of gold mineralization, coincident with regional shortening (D4) and I-type magmatism. Paragenetic relationships, which are uniform in veins everywhere within the CTGF, suggest that vein formation commenced with the deposition of large volumes of buck quartz (stage I), followed by buck and comb quartz, and significant pyrite and arsenopyrite precipitation (stage II). Gold was introduced during stage III, after earlier sphalerite and coincident with galena and chalcopyrite. Narrow, discontinuous calcite veins of stage IV mark the waning of gold-related hydrothermal activity or a later unrelated episode. Ore zones within the veins are everywhere composed of comb and/or gray quartz, calcite and/or ankerite and bands or clusters of fractured pyrite that are spatially associated with galena, sphalerite or chalcopyrite. Low-grade or barren vein sections, on the other hand, are mainly composed of milky buck quartz with little evidence for modification, overprinting or interaction with later fluids. Gold-related hydrothermal wall-rock alteration is symmetrically zoned, displaying proximal sericite-ankerite and distal epidote-chlorite-hematite assemblages that may be taken to imply wall-rock interaction with near neutral fluids (pH 5-6). Isocon plots assuming immobile Al, P, Ti, Y and Zr consistently indicate As, K, Pb, S and Zn enrichment and Na, Si and Sr depletion in altered wall-rock specimens relative to the least altered rocks. Alteration assemblages, quartz textures, fault rocks and published fluid inclusion and stable isotope data imply that the veins were formed under conditions of episodic fluid overpressuring (˜0.9-3.8 kbar), at a

  9. Modelling rock wall permafrost degradation in the Mont Blanc massif from the LIA to the end of the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnin, Florence; Josnin, Jean-Yves; Ravanel, Ludovic; Pergaud, Julien; Pohl, Benjamin; Deline, Philip

    2017-08-01

    High alpine rock wall permafrost is extremely sensitive to climate change. Its degradation has a strong impact on landscape evolution and can trigger rockfalls constituting an increasing threat to socio-economical activities of highly frequented areas; quantitative understanding of permafrost evolution is crucial for such communities. This study investigates the long-term evolution of permafrost in three vertical cross sections of rock wall sites between 3160 and 4300 m above sea level in the Mont Blanc massif, from the Little Ice Age (LIA) steady-state conditions to 2100. Simulations are forced with air temperature time series, including two contrasted air temperature scenarios for the 21st century representing possible lower and upper boundaries of future climate change according to the most recent models and climate change scenarios. The 2-D finite element model accounts for heat conduction and latent heat transfers, and the outputs for the current period (2010-2015) are evaluated against borehole temperature measurements and an electrical resistivity transect: permafrost conditions are remarkably well represented. Over the past two decades, permafrost has disappeared on faces with a southerly aspect up to 3300 m a.s.l. and possibly higher. Warm permafrost (i.e. > - 2 °C) has extended up to 3300 and 3850 m a.s.l. in N and S-exposed faces respectively. During the 21st century, warm permafrost is likely to extend at least up to 4300 m a.s.l. on S-exposed rock walls and up to 3850 m a.s.l. depth on the N-exposed faces. In the most pessimistic case, permafrost will disappear on the S-exposed rock walls at a depth of up to 4300 m a.s.l., whereas warm permafrost will extend at a depth of the N faces up to 3850 m a.s.l., but possibly disappearing at such elevation under the influence of a close S face. The results are site specific and extrapolation to other sites is limited by the imbrication of local topographical and transient effects.

  10. Strata-bound sulfide deposits, wall-rock alteration, and associated tin-bearing minerals in the Carolina slate belt, South Carolina and Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Henry

    1982-01-01

    Massive sulfide deposits, gold deposits, and tin-bearing minerals occur in rocks of the Carolina slate belt in South Carolina and adjacent Georgia. The belt of greenschist metamorphic rocks in which the ore deposits occur is mostly Cambrian in age. It is divided into an upper metasedimentary unit and a lower unit of predominantly felsic metavolcanic and metavolcaniclastic rocks. The ore deposits occur in the lower unit chiefly near the contact between the two units. The rocks have been deformed into two maior sets of coaxial folds and at least two minor deformations. Coarse-grained unmetamorphosed Carboniferous, I-type granites, and abundant Triassic-Jurassic diabase dikes cut the slate belt and appear largely unrelated to the ore deposits. Remnants of Cretaceous and younger sedimentary rocks overlie the crystalline rocks near several of the larger mineralized areas.Massive sulfides, largely pyrite, and some polymetallic sulfides occur in mines opened for gold in the nineteenth century. The largest of these in South Carolina are the Haile, Brewer, and Dorn mines. These mines and the Little Mountain and Cedar Creek-Blythewood areas have many similar lithologic characteristics. These are: hydrothermally altered wall-rock consisting of quartz-sericite-kaolinite schist and quartz-sericite schist; abundant aluminous silicates such as kyanite, andalusite, pyrophyllite, and topaz; zones of iron-enriched rocks; and a suite of resistant heavy minerals that includes tin-bearing minerals. Heavy mineral concentrates from alluvium of small streams showed 20,000 ppm tin. Cassiterite and nigerite have been identified.At the Brewer mine, gold has been produced from altered felsic volcanic rocks that contain silicified breccia, massive topaz, abundant pyrite, minor enargite, and probably cassiterite. Massive pyrite and gold have been mined at the Haile mine. In the McCormick-Lincolnton area, a near-surface granitoid pluton is thought to be the source for volcaniclastic rocks that

  11. Carboniferous and older carbonate rocks: Lithofacies, extent, and reservoir quality: Chapter CC in The oil and gas resource potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 area, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.

    1999-01-01

    Carboniferous and older carbonate rocks are potential hydrocarbon reservoir facies for four plays in the 1002 area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. These rocks include several units in the pre-Carboniferous basement and the Carboniferous Lisburne Group. Data from exploratory wells west of the 1002 area, outcrops south of the 1002 area, seismic lines, and well logs are synthesized herein to infer carbonate lithofacies, extent, and reservoir character beneath the northeastern Arctic coastal plain.A chiefly shallow-water basement carbonate succession of Late Proterozoic through Early Devonian age (Katakturuk Dolomite, Nanook Limestone, and Mount Copleston Limestone) is interpreted to be present beneath much of the south-central 1002 area; it reaches 3,700 m thick in outcrop and is the primary reservoir for the Deformed Franklinian Play. A more heterogeneous lithologic assemblage of uncertain age forms basement in the northwestern part of the 1002 area; well data define three subunits that contain carbonate intervals 5- 50 m thick. These strata are prospective reservoirs for the Undeformed Franklinian Play and could also be reservoirs for the Niguanak- Aurora Play. Regional lithologic correlations suggest a Cambrian-Late Proterozoic(?) age for subunits one and two, and a slightly younger, later Cambrian-Silurian age for subunit three. Seismic and well data indicate that subunit one overlies subunit two and is overlain by subunit three. The Mississippian and Pennsylvanian Lisburne Group, a predominantly carbonate platform succession as much as 1 km thick, is projected beneath the southernmost part of the 1002 area and is a potential reservoir for the Ellesmerian Thrust-belt and Niguanak-Aurora Plays.Carbonate rocks in the 1002 area probably retain little primary porosity but may have locally well developed secondary porosity. Measured reservoir parameters in basement carbonate strata are low (porosity generally ≤ 5%; permeability ≤ 0.2 md) but drill

  12. Initial Melting and wall-rock flux-melting of a wet multi-component mantle and its implications for the formation of MORB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, J. P.; Hasenclever, J.

    2013-12-01

    We explore several simple scenarios for wet melting of a heterogeneous multi- component mantle. In our melting formulation the mantle is viewed as a mixture consisting of a heterogeneously depleted peridotite matrix with embedded veins of fertile peridotite and/or geochemically enriched pyroxenite. These lithological units differ in their mineral composition but are assumed to have diffusively equilibrated both their water/hydrogen content and temperature over the hundreds of millions to billions of years prior to entering a melting region. During the melting process, however, only thermal but not chemical (water) equilibrium is assumed between the lithologies, which is a reasonable assumption for veins with thicknesses on the order of few tens to few hundreds of meters, a thermal diffusivity of 10^-6 m^2/s and a diffusivity of hydrogen of less than 3*10^-9 m^2/s. The thermodynamic formulation of the multi-component melting process, during which all components have to share thermal energy, is based on Phipps Morgan (2001). The wet melting parameterization by Katz et al. (2003) has been included in the thermodynamic formulation by modifying its solidus-depletion-dependence and treating water partitioning during melting as partitioning of a trace element with a D-value like that of Ce. Usually, fractional melting with a small trapped melt fraction is assumed. We will mostly discuss results from 1-D model calculations, which represent the idealized decompression of a multi-component mantle rising underneath a mid-ocean ridge. Melt-migration is assumed to occur as vertical ascent within each column. We have also extended the formulation to examine the effects of rising melts on 'flux-melting' the wall-rock through which they migrate. We are still testing to see if this mechanism can be the reason why ridge melts almost always have major element chemistries in equilibrium with a peridotitic mantle, while the incompatible trace elements in EMORB reflect the influence of

  13. Rockfall source characterization at high rock walls in complex geological settings by photogrammetry, structural analysis and DFN techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliardi, Federico; Riva, Federico; Galletti, Laura; Zanchi, Andrea; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2016-04-01

    Rockfall quantitative risk analysis in areas impended by high, subvertical cliffs remains a challenge, due to the difficult definition of potential rockfall sources, event magnitude scenarios and related probabilities. For this reasons, rockfall analyses traditionally focus on modelling the runout component of rockfall processes, whereas rock-fall source identification, mapping and characterization (block size distribution and susceptibility) are over-simplified in most practical applications, especially when structurally complex rock masses are involved. We integrated field and remote survey and rock mass modelling techniques to characterize rock masses and detect rockfall source in complex geo-structural settings. We focused on a test site located at Valmadrera, near Lecco (Southern Alps, Italy), where cliffs up to 600 m high impend on a narrow strip of Lake Como shore. The massive carbonates forming the cliff (Dolomia Principale Fm), normally characterized by brittle structural associations due to their high strength and stiffness, are here involved in an ENE-trending, S-verging kilometre-scale syncline. Brittle mechanisms associated to folding strongly controlled the nature of discontinuities (bedding slip, strike-slip faults, tensile fractures) and their attributes (spacing and size), as well as the spatial variability of bedding attitude and fracture intensity, with individual block sizes up to 15 m3. We carried out a high-resolution terrestrial photogrammetric survey from distances ranging from 1500 m (11 camera stations from the opposite lake shore, 265 pictures) to 150 m (28 camera stations along N-S directed boat routes, 200 pictures), using RTK GNSS measurements for camera station geo-referencing. Data processing by Structure-from-Motion techniques resulted in detailed long-range (1500 m) and medium-range (150 to 800 m) point clouds covering the entire slope with maximum surface point densities exceeding 50 pts/m2. Point clouds allowed a detailed

  14. High morphogenic activity in the permafrost-affected rock walls of the Mont Blanc massif during the 2015 summer heat wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanel, Ludovic; Magnin, Florence; Deline, Philip

    2016-04-01

    In order to test the geomorphological hypothesis on the link between permafrost degradation and rock wall destabilisation, we survey all the rockfalls that occur in the central part of the Mont-Blanc massif using a network of observers since 2007. 511 rockfalls (100 < V < 45,000 m3) have been documented, year 2015 included. Between 2007 and 2014, the average number of destabilizations was 44 (from 17 in 2014 with a cold summer to 72 in 2009 with a relatively hot summer). In 2015, 160 events were recorded i.e. 4 times more than the annual average of the previous years. That makes the year 2015 similar to 2003 that was characterized by its summer heatwave triggering 152 rockfalls in the area currently covered by the network of observers, as shown by the analysis of a SPOT-5 image. Observations of 2015 are discussed and crossed with a statistical model of the Mean Annual Rock Surface Temperature (MARST) for the 1961-1990 period, implemented on a 4-m-resolution DEM of the Mont Blanc massif, and temperature measurements in three 10-m-deep boreholes at the Aiguille du Midi (3842 m a.s.l.), where the summer 2015 active layers have been the thickest since the start of measurements in 2009 (e.g. 3.6 m in the NE face against 2.9 m in average during the previous years). Before 2015, 90 % of the inventoried rockfalls occurred in areas where MARST is in the range -5 to 1°C, whereas only 50 % of the whole rock wall area above 2000 m a.s.l. covers this temperature range. With an air 0°C isotherm which sometimes exceeded the summit of Mont Blanc (4809 m a.s.l.) during the 2015 Summer, conditions were particularly unfavorable for mountaineering. Numerous rescues were carried out to climbers technically blocked by uncommon conditions or injured by rockfalls. On the normal route to the summit of Mont Blanc, two administrative closures of the Goûter hut (3835 m a.s.l.) were necessary to prevent climbers from the huge risk of rockfalls in the access couloir, known for its rockfall

  15. Stratigraphy and composition of volcanic rocks cropping out along the northern walls of the Valle del Bove, Mount Etna, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofolini, R.; de Rosa, R.; Ferlito, C.; Niceforo, G. A. M.

    2003-04-01

    The Valle del Bove cuts the eastern sector of Mount Etna and represents a key area for understanding of the most recent history of this complex volcano. Lava flows and tuffs related to the volcanic activity preceding the building of the most recent center (Recent Mongibello) outcrop along its sheer slopes. In this work 14 stratigraphic sections, comprising products of the Ellittico center at elevations between 1300 and 2400 m a.s.l., have been examined. In each section lava flows alternate with volcaniclastic deposits, with their thickness varying from less than 1 to 30 m. The matrix ash in thin tephra levels is commonly deeply weathered. Some of these layers show graded bedding and some others plane-parallel and cross-laminated structures, whereas thicker deposits do not show any clear internal structures and are poorly sorted.. The lithic component is always igneous in origin and is represented by dark or reddish, massive lava fragments either rounded or angular in shape, with their size attaining up to 1 m across in the massive beds. The juvenile fraction is represented by dark, vesiculated scoria. Isolated crystals of pyroxene are also present. The limited lateral distribution of the thick massive beds and their textural and compositional characters suggests their emplacement as Lahar-type highly concentrated flows, probably of secondary origin. A primary fall-out pyroclastic origin is inferred for the thin laminated and graded beds . Lavas, light to dark grey in colour, are commonly massive, and only rarely slightly vesicular; their massive portion is 0.5 to 5 m. thick. Plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts may be recognised by naked eye; smaller crystals of olivine are present too. Whole rock compositions, obtained by XRF analysis, vary from hawaiites to mugeariites, and. are consistent with those of the Ellittico products. Lateral and vertical variations of some chemical characters of lavas in different stratigraphic sections suggest slight changes of the

  16. Oxygen and U-Th isotopes and the timescales of hydrothermal exchange and melting in granitoid wall rocks at Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankney, Meagan E.; Bacon, Charles R.; Valley, John W.; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2017-09-01

    We report new whole rock U-Th and in-situ oxygen isotope compositions for partially melted (0-50 vol% melt), low-δ18O Pleistocene granitoid blocks ejected during the ∼7.7 ka caldera-forming eruption of Mt. Mazama (Crater Lake, Oregon). The blocks are interpreted to represent wall rocks of the climactic magma chamber that, prior to eruption, experienced variable amounts of exchange with meteoric hydrothermal fluids and subsequent partial melting. U-Th and oxygen isotope results allow us to examine the timescales of hydrothermal circulation and partial melting, and provide an ;outside in; perspective on the buildup to the climactic eruption of Mt. Mazama. Oxygen isotope compositions measured in the cores and rims of individual quartz (n = 126) and plagioclase (n = 91) crystals, and for transects across ten quartz crystals, document zonation in quartz (Δ18OCore-Rim ≤ 0.1-5.5‰), but show homogeneity in plagioclase (Δ18OCore-Rim ≤ ±0.8‰). We propose that oxygen isotope zonation in quartz records hydrothermal exchange followed by high-temperature exchange in response to partial melting caused by injection of basaltic to andesitic recharge magma into the deeper portions of the chamber. Results of modeling of oxygen diffusion in quartz indicates that hydrothermal exchange in quartz occurred over a period of ∼1000-63,000 years. Models also suggest that the onset of melting of the granitoids occurred a minimum of ∼10-200 years prior to the Mazama climactic eruption, an inference which is broadly consistent with results for magnetite homogenization and for Zr diffusion in melt previously reported by others. Uranium-thorium isotope compositions of most granitoid blocks are in 238U excess, and are in agreement with a 238U enriched array previously measured for volcanic rocks at Mt. Mazama. Uranium excess in the granitoids is likely due to enrichment via hydrothermal circulation, given their low δ18O values. The sample with the highest U excess (≥5.8%) also

  17. Oxygen and U-Th isotopes and the timescales of hydrothermal exchange and melting in granitoid wall rocks at Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ankney, Meagan E.; Bacon, Charles R.; Valley, John W.; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2017-01-01

    We report new whole rock U-Th and in-situ oxygen isotope compositions for partially melted (0–50 vol% melt), low-δ18O Pleistocene granitoid blocks ejected during the ∼7.7 ka caldera-forming eruption of Mt. Mazama (Crater Lake, Oregon). The blocks are interpreted to represent wall rocks of the climactic magma chamber that, prior to eruption, experienced variable amounts of exchange with meteoric hydrothermal fluids and subsequent partial melting. U-Th and oxygen isotope results allow us to examine the timescales of hydrothermal circulation and partial melting, and provide an “outside in” perspective on the buildup to the climactic eruption of Mt. Mazama. Oxygen isotope compositions measured in the cores and rims of individual quartz (n = 126) and plagioclase (n = 91) crystals, and for transects across ten quartz crystals, document zonation in quartz (Δ18OCore-Rim ≤ 0.1–5.5‰), but show homogeneity in plagioclase (Δ18OCore-Rim ≤ ±0.8‰). We propose that oxygen isotope zonation in quartz records hydrothermal exchange followed by high-temperature exchange in response to partial melting caused by injection of basaltic to andesitic recharge magma into the deeper portions of the chamber. Results of modeling of oxygen diffusion in quartz indicates that hydrothermal exchange in quartz occurred over a period of ∼1000–63,000 years. Models also suggest that the onset of melting of the granitoids occurred a minimum of ∼10–200 years prior to the Mazama climactic eruption, an inference which is broadly consistent with results for magnetite homogenization and for Zr diffusion in melt previously reported by others.Uranium-thorium isotope compositions of most granitoid blocks are in 238U excess, and are in agreement with a 238U enriched array previously measured for volcanic rocks at Mt. Mazama. Uranium excess in the granitoids is likely due to enrichment via hydrothermal circulation, given their low δ18O values. The sample with the

  18. Immiscibility between calciocarbonatitic and silicate melts and related wall rock reactions in the upper mantle: a natural case study from Romanian mantle xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalot-Prat, Françoise; Arnold, Michel

    1999-04-01

    more Ca-rich than those in the silicate matrix; spinels are relatively Al- and Mg-poor but rather Cr- and Fe-rich. Existence of only one titanium oxide (armalcolite) and various pairs of pyroxenes suggest crystallization temperatures in the range 1100-1200°C and pressures between 10-15 kb. Feldspar compositions in silicate materials, which vary continuously from labradorite to sanidine, are consistent with hypersolvus and dry crystallization conditions. All of these results provide evidence that immiscibility occurred at mantle depth as the liquid was forcibly injected during hydraulic fracturing of the mantle. The compositions of conjugate melts suggest a very large miscibility gap, as expected at high pressure in a dry environment from the experiments of Kjarsgaard and Hamilton [Kjarsgaard, B.A., Hamilton, D.L., 1988. Liquid immiscibility and the origin of alkali-poor carbonatites. Mineral. Mag. 52, 43-55; Kjarsgaard, B.A., Hamilton, D.L., 1989. The genesis of carbonatites by immiscibility. In: Bell, K. (Ed.), Carbonatites: Genesis and Evolution. Unwyn Hyman, London, pp. 388-404.]. The parental melt was carbonate, silica-undersaturated and rich in F, Cl and CO 2. Both immiscible melts were water-undersaturated. The cooling rate until total crystallization in veinlets was very slow, limited and necessarily occurred at mantle depth. Wall rock reactions leading to the formation of Ca-rich pyroxene at the expense of mantle enstatite or olivine occurred only at the contact with somewhat alkali-rich carbonatitic or silicate melts. Calcite, always anhedral, is the last mineral to crystallize. It is a differentiation product formed by magmatic crystallization or wall rock reaction. In some cases, given the rarity of any other minerals, it may be the product of the crystallization of a pure sövite immiscible melt.

  19. Characterization of Unfractured Wall Rocks of TCDP Hole-B by Combination of Thermal-Property and TDR Measurements in Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubayashi, O.; Lin, W.; Hirono, T.; Song, S.; Hung, J.

    2005-12-01

    As part of comprehensive studies of non-destructive physical properties of the cores from Hole-B drilled for the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP), we have closely examined the data of combined thermal-property and TDR (water content) measurements which were carefully performed in laboratory. The purpose is to establish the bulk characteristics of thermal-properties in response to water content for the non-fractured part of the formations in TCDP Hole-B, so that we can properly assess the baseline thermal regime undisturbed by the thermal effect of fault activity. The sections studied in this work are unfractured parts of the cores (i) from 1142 to 1170m, and (ii) from 1200 to 1235m of Hole-B, which compose the wall rocks immediately below the fault zones of 1137m and 1194m depths, respectively. The instruments used were a transient type thermal-property analyzer with a half space probe for thermal conductivity, and a parallel-rod sensor probe for TDR water content, both are commercially available. Measured value of thermal conductivity ranges from 2.2 to 3.7 W/mK, while TDR water content value covers the approximate range of 15 to 26 percent. It is found by a correlation plot of thermal conductivity (Lamda) vs. water content (w) that within each section there is a very good negative correlation between the two for most of the good quality measurements, indicating thermal conductivity being primarily controlled by the volume ratio of solid grain to interstitial water. Such a relationship is reasonable and would be very useful in evaluation of thermal-properties of the whole section along the drillhole, and also for estimating the thermal-properties of fault zones in particular, which is always difficult to measure directly due to practical constrains.

  20. Thermal characteristics of permafrost in the steep alpine rock walls of the Aiguille du Midi (Mont Blanc Massif, 3842 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnin, F.; Deline, P.; Ravanel, L.; Noetzli, J.; Pogliotti, P.

    2014-06-01

    Permafrost and related thermo-hydro-mechanical processes are regarded as crucial factors in rock wall stability in high alpine areas, but a lack of field measurements means that the characteristics of such locations and the processes to which they are subjected are poorly understood. To help remedy this situation, in 2005 work began to install a monitoring system at the Aiguille du Midi (3842 m a.s.l.). This paper presents temperature records from nine surface sensors (eight years of records) and three 10 m-deep boreholes (four years of records), installed at locations with different surface and bedrock characteristics. Annual and seasonal offsets between mean surface temperatures and air temperatures suggest that snow cover and slope aspect are also important factors governing bedrock surface temperatures in steep terrain. Snow-free sensors revealed additional effects of microtopography and micrometeorology. Active layer thicknesses ranged from < 2 m to nearly 6 m, depending on sun-exposure and interannual variations in atmospheric conditions. Warm and cold permafrost (about -1.5 °C to -4.5 °C at 10 m-depth) coexists within the Aiguille du Midi, resulting in high lateral heat fluxes. A temperature inflection associated with a fracture provided evidence of non-conductive processes, most notably cooling due to air ventilation and some intermittent and local warming. Our field data, the first to be obtained from an Alpine permafrost site where temperatures are below -4 °C, confirm the results of previous studies of permafrost in steep bedrock slopes and highlight the importance of factors such as snow cover and fracturing.

  1. Uinta Arch Project: investigations of uranium potential in Precambrian X and older metasedimentary rocks in the Unita and Wasatch ranges, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Graff, P.J.; Sears, J.W.; Holden, G.S.

    1980-06-01

    This study is part of the United States Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program to understand the geologic setting, amount, and availability of uranium resources within the boundaries of the United States. The systematic study of Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates and areas that may contain such conglomerates is an integral part of DOE's resource evaluation program, because deposits of world-wide importance occur in such terrains in Canada and South Africa, and because terrains similar to those producing uranium from quartz-pebble conglomerates exist elsewhere in the United States. Because of the ready availability of Tertiary sandstone and Colorado Plateau-type uranium deposits, large areas of Precambrian rocks in the US have not been fully assessed for uranium potential. Thus, the Uinta Arch Project was undertaken to assess the favorability of Precambrian metasedimentary rocks in northern Utah for deposits of uranium in Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates. Rocks of interest to this study are the thick, clastic sequences within the Uinta Arch that are considered to be of Early Proterozoic age. The Uinta Arch area is known to contain rocks which generally fit the lithologic characteristics that are understood to limit the occurrence of Precambrian fossil placers. However, detailed geology of these rocks and their exact fit to the model described for uraniferous conglomerates was not known. The primary goal of the Uinta Arch Project was to determine how well these Precambrian rocks resemble known deposits and to describe the favorability of placer uranium deposits.

  2. View of Highway 140 west of Arch Rock. Note stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Highway 140 west of Arch Rock. Note stone wall at right and formed concrete wall at center. Looking north-northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  3. Talking Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Dale; Corley, Brenda

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the ways that rocks can be used to enhance children's creativity and their interest in science. Suggests the creation of a dramatic production involving rocks. Includes basic information on sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks. (TW)

  4. Talking Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Dale; Corley, Brenda

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the ways that rocks can be used to enhance children's creativity and their interest in science. Suggests the creation of a dramatic production involving rocks. Includes basic information on sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks. (TW)

  5. Bulk densities and porosities of Cenozoic and Cretaceous basin-filling strata and Cretaceous and older basement rocks, Los Angeles Basin, California, determined from measurements of core samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, L.A.; McCulloh, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes and provides a digital data file of selected bulk properties of subsurface rocks sampled in and around Los Angeles basin, California. Selected properties include measured dry bulk density (range 0.78 to 3.01 g/cm3), measured or estimated grain (matrix) density, calculated water saturated bulk density (range 1.47 to 3.01 g/cm3), calculated total porosity (range 0 to 69 porosity percent), geologic age, and lithology. Most of the rocks are conventional core samples taken from wells drilled by the petroleum industry. A small percentage of the core samples are from shallow borings. Rocks studied range in age from pre-Cambrian (?) to Recent and include sedimentary (98.8%), and volcanic, metamorphic and intrusive (1.2%) samples. Core samples studied were taken from measured drillhole depths that range from 35 to 20,234 ft (11 to 6,167 m). Version 1.0 of the data base (dated June 1998) contains information for 7378 samples from 234 wells, including two redrilled wells. This report/data base can be accessed on U. S. Geological Survey servers at http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of98-788. Periodic additions to the on-line data base will be provided as new data is gathered.

  6. Tithonium Chasma's Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-565, 5 December 2003

    Exposures of light-toned, layered, sedimentary rocks are common in the deep troughs of the Valles Marineris system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from western Tithonium Chasma. The banding seen here is an eroded expression of layered rock. Sedimentary rocks can be composed of (1) the detritus of older, eroded and weathered rocks, (2) grains produced by explosive volcanism (tephra, also known as volcanic ash), or (3) minerals that were chemically precipitated out of a body of liquid such as water. These outcrops are located near 4.8oS, 89.7oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated from the lower left.

  7. Rock Slope Stability Evaluation in a Steep-Walled Canyon: Application to Elevator Construction in the Yunlong River Valley, Enshi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Lili; Chai, Bo; Yin, Kunlong

    2015-09-01

    A passenger elevator is to be built on a nearly vertical slope in the National Geological Park in Enshi, Hubei province, China. Three steps comprise the construction: excavating the slope toe for the elevator platform, building the elevator on the platform, and affixing the elevator to the slope using anchors. To evaluate the rock slope stability in the elevator area and the safety of the elevator construction, we applied three techniques: qualitative analysis, formula calculation, and numerical simulation methods, based on field investigation and parameter selection, and considering both wet and dry conditions, pre- and post-construction. Qualitative stability factors for sliding and falling were calculated using the limit equilibrium method; the results show that the slope as a whole is stable, with a few unstable blocks, notably block BT1. Formula-based stability factors were calculated for four sections on block BT1, revealing the following: anchors will decrease the stability of certain rock pieces; the lowest average stability factor after anchoring will be K f = 1.36 in wet conditions; block BT1 should be reinforced during elevator construction, up to a first-class slope stability factor of K f = 1.40; and the slope as a whole is stable. Numerical simulation using FLAC3D indicated that the stress distribution will reach equilibrium for all steps before and after construction, and that the factor of safety (FOS) is within the general slope safety range (FOS > 1.05). We suggest that unstable pieces in block BT1 be reinforced during construction to a first-class slope safety range (FOS > 1.3), and that deformation monitoring on the slope surface be implemented.

  8. 8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT THAT SHOWS THE TRENCHING AND 1960 PIPELINE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE WALL SEGMENTS, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  9. Analysis of a Large Rock Slope Failure on the East Wall of the LAB Chrysotile Mine in Canada: Back Analysis, Impact of Water Infilling and Mining Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenon, Martin; Caudal, Philippe; Amoushahi, Sina; Turmel, Dominique; Locat, Jacques

    2017-02-01

    A major mining slope failure occurred in July 2012 on the East wall of the LAB Chrysotile mine in Canada. The major consequence of this failure was the loss of the local highway (Road 112), the main commercial link between the region and the Northeast USA. LiDAR scanning and subsequent analyses were performed and enabled quantifying the geometry and kinematics of the failure area. Using this information, this paper presents the back analysis of the July 2012 failure. The analyses are performed using deterministic and probabilistic limit equilibrium analysis and finite-element shear strength reduction analysis modelling. The impact of pit water infilling on the slope stability is investigated. The impact of the mining activity in 2011 in the lower part of the slope is also investigated through a parametric analysis.

  10. "Rock Garden"

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-10-14

    This false color composite image of the Rock Garden shows the rocks "Shark" and "Half Dome" at upper left and middle, respectively. Between these two large rocks is a smaller rock (about 0.20 m wide, 0.10 m high, and 6.33 m from the Lander) that was observed close-up with the Sojourner rover (see PIA00989). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00987

  11. Science Rocks!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestwich, Dorothy; Sumrall, Joseph; Chessin, Debby A.

    2010-01-01

    It all began one Monday morning. Raymond could not wait to come to large group. In his hand, he held a chunk of white granite he had found. "Look at my beautiful rock!" he cried. The rock was passed around and examined by each student. "I wonder how rocks are made?" wondered one student. "Where do they come from?"…

  12. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  13. Rock Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  14. Collecting Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rachel M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

  15. Science Rocks!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestwich, Dorothy; Sumrall, Joseph; Chessin, Debby A.

    2010-01-01

    It all began one Monday morning. Raymond could not wait to come to large group. In his hand, he held a chunk of white granite he had found. "Look at my beautiful rock!" he cried. The rock was passed around and examined by each student. "I wonder how rocks are made?" wondered one student. "Where do they come from?"…

  16. Rock Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  17. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  18. Strains Induced in Urban Structures by Ultra-High Frequency Blasting Rock Motions: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowding, C. H.; Hamdi, E.; Aimone-Martin, C. T.

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes measurement and interpretation of strains induced in two, multiple story, older, urban structures by ultra-high frequency rock blast excitation from contiguous excavation. These strains are obtained from relative displacements found by integrating time correlated velocity time histories from multiple positions on the structures and foundation rock. Observations are based on ten instrumented positions on the structures and in the foundation rock during eight blast events, which provided over 70 time histories for analysis. The case study and measurements allowed the following conclusions: despite particle velocities in the rock that greatly exceed regulatory limits, strains in external walls are similar to or lower than those necessary to crack masonry structures and weak wall covering materials. These strains are also lower than those sustained by single story residential structures when excited by low frequency motions with particle velocities below regulatory limits. Expected relative displacements calculated with pseudo velocity single degree of freedom response spectra of excitation motions measured in the rock are similar to those measured.

  19. Three classes of Martian rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this portion of the 360-degree color gallery pan, looking to the northeast, the colors have been exaggerated to highlight the differences between rocks and soils. Visible are the downwind sides of rocks, not exposed to wind scouring like Barnacle Bill (which faces upwind). There is a close correspondence between the shapes and colors of the rocks. Three general classes of rocks are recognized: large rounded rocks with weathered coatings, small gray angular rocks lacking weathered coatings, and flat white rocks. The large rounded rocks in the distance, marked by the red arrows, are comparable to Yogi. Spectral properties show that these rocks have a highly weathered coating in addition to a distinctive shape. A second population of smaller, angular rocks (blue arrows) in the foreground have unweathered surfaces even on the downwind side, except where covered on their tops by drift. These are comparable to Barnacle Bill. They may have been emplaced at the site relatively recently, perhaps as ejecta from an impact crater, so they have not had time to weather as extensively as the larger older rocks. The third kind of rock (white arrows) is white and flat, and includes Scooby Doo in the foreground and a large deposit in the background called Baker's Bank. The age of the white rock relative to the other two classes is still being debated. One representative rock of each class (Yogi, Barnacle Bill, and Scooby Doo) has been measured by the rover.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  20. 'Escher' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

    The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water.

    Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend.

    These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  1. 'Escher' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

    The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water.

    Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend.

    These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  2. 'Earhart' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock informally named 'Earhart' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the pilot Amelia Earhart. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe fractures in Earhart could have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Rover team members do not have plans to investigate Earhart in detail because it is located across potentially hazardous sandy terrain. This image was taken on sol 219 (Sept. 4) by the rover's panoramic camera, using its 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  3. Rock flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matveyev, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Rock flows are defined as forms of spontaneous mass movements, commonly found in mountainous countries, which have been studied very little. The article considers formations known as rock rivers, rock flows, boulder flows, boulder stria, gravel flows, rock seas, and rubble seas. It describes their genesis as seen from their morphological characteristics and presents a classification of these forms. This classification is based on the difference in the genesis of the rubbly matter and characterizes these forms of mass movement according to their source, drainage, and deposit areas.

  4. An unconventional depiction of viewpoint in rock art.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Jack; Scott-Virtue, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Rock art in Africa sometimes takes advantage of three-dimensional features of the rock wall, such as fissures or protuberances, that can be incorporated into the artistic composition (Lewis-Williams, 2002). More commonly, rock artists choose uniform walls on which two-dimensional depictions may represent three-dimensional figures or objects. In this report we present such a two-dimensional depiction in rock art that we think reveals an intention by the artist to represent an unusual three-dimensional viewpoint, namely, with the two human figures facing into the rock wall, instead of the accustomed Western viewpoint facing out!

  5. Discrete Fracture Network Characterization and Modeling in the Swedish Program for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Crystalline Rocks Using Information Acquired by Difference Flow Logging and Borehole Wall Image Logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follin, S.; Stigsson, M.; Levén, J.

    2006-12-01

    Difference flow logging is a relatively new hydraulic test method. It offers a superior geometrical resolution compared to the classic double-packer injection test method. Other significant features of the difference flow logging method are the long duration of the test period and the line source flow regime. These three features are vital for the characterization and the modeling of the conductive fracture frequency in crystalline rocks. Further, combining difference flow logging with core mapping and in situ borehole wall image logging (BIPS) allows for an enhanced geological cross correlation and structural interpretation. The data and analyses presented here come from the ongoing site investigations for a high-level nuclear waste repository in Forsmark managed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. First, we demonstrate the statistical properties of the fracture transmissivities acquired by difference flow logging for a number of one-kilometer-long cored boreholes. Secondly, we make a hydraulic comparison between these data and the transmissivities acquired by double-packer injection tests. Thirdly, we present a method for investigating the geometrical connectivity of open fractures in fracture network simulations and how this connectivity can be cross correlated to the fracture transmissivity distribution acquired by difference flow logging. Finally, we discuss the geometrical properties of flowing fractures as acquired by BIPS data and the correlation to the current stress situation in Forsmark. The geometrical anisotropy observed in the transmissivity data suggests that the current stress situation is very important for the flow field in Forsmark. This puts constraints on the collection and use of geological/structural data for hydrogeological discrete fracture network modeling.

  6. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  7. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  8. Terby's Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    27 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in northern Terby Crater. Terby is located along the north edge of Hellas Planitia. The sedimentary rocks might have been deposited in a greater, Hellas-filling sea -- or not. Today, the rocks are partly covered by dark-toned sediment and debris.

    Location near: 27.2oS, 285.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  9. Opportunity Rocks!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This high-resolution image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows in superb detail a portion of the puzzling rock outcropping that scientists are eagerly planning to investigate. Presently, Opportunity is on its lander facing northeast; the outcropping lies to the northwest. These layered rocks measure only 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall and are thought to be either volcanic ash deposits or sediments carried by water or wind. The small rock in the center is about the size of a golf ball.

  10. White Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-21

    White Rock is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during NASA Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970 and is now shown here in an image from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

  11. Rock Garden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This false color composite image of the Rock Garden shows the rocks 'Shark' and 'Half Dome' at upper left and middle, respectively. Between these two large rocks is a smaller rock (about 0.20 m wide, 0.10 m high, and 6.33 m from the Lander) that was observed close-up with the Sojourner rover (see PIA00989).

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  12. 'Lutefisk' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its panoramic camera to take this image of a rock called 'Lutefisk' on the rover's 286th martian day (Oct. 22, 2004). The surface of the rock is studded with rounded granules of apparently more-resistant material up to several millimeters (0.1 inch) or more across. The visible portion of Lutefisk is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) across.

  13. Preliminary Study on Rock Avalanche in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Wen, Y.; Hsieh, M.

    2012-12-01

    Rock avalanche is a kind of rapid (average >100 km/h) granule flow caused by crushing and pulverization of rock materials during catastrophic rock slide. Literature researches show that rock avalanches typically occur on steep, high-relief slopes underlain by hard rocks, and have volumes >10,000,000 m3. Rock avalanches also are characterized by long runout distances, which are 5 to 10 times the total fall heights. Some cases can run up the opposing valley wall. Rock avalanches generally occurred in active mountains (e.g., New Zealand) and were triggered by earthquakes or rainfall (snowmelt), but with exceptions. There were few rock avalanches in historical time in Taiwan. This could reflect: (1) intrinsic instability of hillslopes due to weak rock, frequent earthquakes/heavy rains, which resulted in landslides of high frequency/low magnitude; (2) limited runout space along deeply incised river-valley systems, which increased the likelihood of rock-slope failures to transform to debris flows. However, there are ancient rock-avalanche records, found at Shou-shan coast (SW Taiwan) and Shin-she, Chang-pin, Tu-lan along Hua-tung coast (E Taiwan), which is likely to have undergone coseismic uplift. These places, with steep slopes, underlain by hard rock, and free for materials to run, are most prone to rock avalanches in the future.

  14. 11. VIEW, LOOKING WESTNORTHWEST, SHOWING STRUCTURAL BREACH IN WALL CAUSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST, SHOWING STRUCTURAL BREACH IN WALL CAUSED BY MARSHY CONDITIONS. SORTED AND ASSEMBLED NATIVE BASALT COBBLES USED FOR BUILDING MATERIAL APPEAR IN BACKGROUND - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  15. 'Wopmay' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows an unusual, lumpy rock informally named 'Wopmay' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the Canadian bush pilot Wilfrid Reid 'Wop' May. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe the lumps in Wopmay may be related to cracking and alteration processes, possibly caused by exposure to water. The area between intersecting sets of cracks eroded in a way that created the lumpy appearance. Rover team members plan to drive Opportunity over to Wopmay for a closer look in coming sols. This image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 248 (Oct. 4, 2004), using its 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

  16. Wall turbulence without walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Yoshinori; Jimenez, Javier

    2008-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations are presented of isolated logarithmic layers without an underlying buffer zone. They are implemented by enforcing artificial boundary conditions within the logarithmic layer which are synthesized from values from the interior of the flow. As an example, simulations of a half-channel employing this technique are discussed. The results exhibit logarithmic mean velocity profiles, and velocity fluctuation intensities that are similar to those obtained by the full DNS of half or full channels. Those results strongly suggest that the formation of a logarithmic layer is not overly dependent on the presence of a near-wall region, and that such a flow can exist by itself. The technique enables us to perform conceptual experiments to clarify what is essential to the logarithmic layer. For example, preliminary results show that the logarithmic layer cannot be created only by a non-uniform shear, and requires a spatial gradient of the scales of the fluctuations. Somewhat surprisingly, some simulations result in Kármán constants fairly different from κ=0.4, providing clues to what determines κ in real wall turbulence.

  17. Classic Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Edgar Allen

    2004-01-01

    While "early college" programs designed for high-school-age students are beginning to proliferate nationwide, a small New England school has been successfully educating teens for nearly four decades. In this article, the author features Simon's Rock, a small liberal arts college located in the Great Barrington, Massachusetts, that has…

  18. Innovative Composite Wall System for Sheathing Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Robert L.; Cavallo, James

    1997-09-25

    Existing Housing - Much of the older multifamily housing stock in the United States includes units in structures with uninsulated masonry walls. Included in this stock are two- and three-story walk-up apartments, larger apartment complexes, and public housing (both high- rise and townhouse). This older multifamily housing has seen years of heavy use that may have left the plaster wall marred or damaged. Long- term building settlement or movement may have cracked the plaster, sometimes severely. Moisture from invented kitchens and baths may have caused condensation on uninsulated exterior walls. At best this condensation has left stains on the paint or wallpaper. At worst it has supported mold and mildew growth, fouling the air and creating unhealthy living conditions. Deteriorating plaster and flaking paint also result from wet walls. The presence of flaking, lead-based paint in older (pre-1978) housing is a major public health concern. Children can suffer permanent mental handicaps and psychological disorders if they are subjected to elevated levels of lead, while adults can suffer hypertension and other maladies. Studies have found that, in some urban communities with older housing stocks, over 35% of children tested have elevated blood lead levels (Hastings, et al.: 1997). Nationally, nearly 22% of black, non-hispanic children living in pre-1946 housing were found to have elevated levels of lead in their blood (MWWR Article: February 21,1997). The deterioration of many of these walls is to the point that lead can freely enter the living space.

  19. Geohydrology and simulation of steady-state flow conditions in regional aquifer systems in Cretaceous and older rocks underlying Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signor, D.C.; Helgesen, J.O.; Jorgensen, D.G.; Leonard, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    Three regional aquifers systems are the basis for describing the geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the central United States. The Great Plains aquifer system, composed of Lower Cretaceous sandstone, generally contains brackish water (1,000 to 10,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids); the Western Interior Plains aquifer system of lower Paleozoic rocks contains saline water and is laterally adjacent to the freshwater-bearing Ozark Plateaus aquifer system composed of rocks of the same age.

  20. 12. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST WING. AN OVERHEAD POWER SHAFT IS SHOWN ALONG EACH WALL, BELT-CONNECTED TO A ROW OF BILLINGS & SPENCER DROP HAMMERS USED IN FORGING PARTS FOR 1903 MODEL SPRINGFIELD RIFLE. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1905. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 64, Rodman Avenue between Second & Third Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  1. Poohbear Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image, taken by Sojourner's front right camera, was taken when the rover was next to Poohbear (rock at left) and Piglet (not seen) as it looked out toward Mermaid Dune. The textures differ from the foreground soil containing a sorted mix of small rocks, fines and clods, from the area a bit ahead of the rover where the surface is covered with a bright drift material. Soil experiments where the rover wheels dug in the soil revealed that the cloudy material exists underneath the drift.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  2. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  3. Poohbear Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image, taken by Sojourner's front right camera, was taken when the rover was next to Poohbear (rock at left) and Piglet (not seen) as it looked out toward Mermaid Dune. The textures differ from the foreground soil containing a sorted mix of small rocks, fines and clods, from the area a bit ahead of the rover where the surface is covered with a bright drift material. Soil experiments where the rover wheels dug in the soil revealed that the cloudy material exists underneath the drift.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  4. Meridiani Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the complex surfaces of some of the light- and intermediate-toned sedimentary rock exposed by erosion in eastern Sinus Meridiani. Similar rocks occur at the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, site, but they are largely covered by windblown sand and granules. The dark feature with a rayed pattern is the product of a meteor impact.

    Location near: 0.8oN, 355.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  5. Terby's Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    25 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in the crater, Terby. The crater is located on the north rim of Hellas Basin. If one could visit the rocks in Terby, one might learn from them whether they formed in a body of water. It is possible, for example, that Terby was a bay in a larger, Hellas-wide sea.

    Location near: 27.9oS, 285.7oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  6. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  7. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the famous 'White Rock' feature in Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. The light-toned rock is not really white, but its light tone caught the eye of Mars geologists as far back as 1972, when it was first spotted in images acquired by Mariner 9. The light-toned materials are probably the remains of a suite of layered sediments that once spread completely across the interior of Pollack Crater. Dark materials in this image include sand dunes and large ripples.

    Location near: 8.1oS, 335.1oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  8. Pulmonary complications of abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Panitch, Howard B

    2015-01-01

    The abdominal wall is an integral component of the chest wall. Defects in the ventral abdominal wall alter respiratory mechanics and can impair diaphragm function. Congenital abdominal wall defects also are associated with abnormalities in lung growth and development that lead to pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and alterations in thoracic cage formation. Although infants with ventral abdominal wall defects can experience life-threatening pulmonary complications, older children typically experience a more benign respiratory course. Studies of lung and chest wall function in older children and adolescents with congenital abdominal wall defects are few; such investigations could provide strategies for improved respiratory performance, avoidance of respiratory morbidity, and enhanced exercise ability for these children.

  9. Rafted Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-09

    This area of Amazonis Planitia to the west of the large volcano Olympus Mons was once flooded with lava. A huge eruption flowed out across the relatively flat landscape. Sometimes called "flood basalt," the lava surface quickly cooled and formed a thin crust of solidified rock that was pushed along with the flowing hot liquid rock. Hills and mounds that pre-dated the flooding eruption became surrounded, forming obstructions to the relentless march of lava. In this image, these obstructions appeared to have poked up and sliced through the lava crust as the molten rock and crust moved together from west to east, over and past the stationary mounds. The result is a series of parallel grooves or channels with the obstructing mound remaining at the western end as the flow came to rest. From such images scientists can reconstruct the direction of the lava flow, potentially tracing it back to the source vent. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21204

  10. 2012 Problem 10: Rocking Bottle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaohua; Gao, Wenli; Wang, Sihui; Zhou, Huijun

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the motion of a bottle partly filled with water is investigated. Two stages of motion showing different kinetic properties, named as "moving stage" and "rocking stage", can be clearly identified in the experiment. In the moving stage, the bottle moves forward with a short period vibration, while in the rocking stage, the bottle oscillates with a significantly longer period around a certain spot. Theoretical and numerical methods are employed to explain these phenomena. By simplifying the system into a rigid body model, it is found that in the moving stage, classical mechanical method gives results that fit our experiment well. And the rocking stage is thought to be the result of the asymmetric torque generated by the gravity of a liquid layer adhered to the inside wall of the bottle.

  11. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    6 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of sedimentary rocks in a crater located just north of the Sinus Meridiani region. Perhaps the crater was once the site of a martian lake.

    Location near: 2.9oN, 359.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  13. Rock mechanics. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Jumikis, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Rock Mechanics, 2nd Edition deals with rock as an engineering construction material-a material with which, upon which, and within which civil engineers build structures. It thus pertains to hydraulic structures engineering; to highway, railway, canal, foundation, and tunnel engineering; and to all kinds of rock earthworks and to substructures in rock. Major changes in this new edition include: rock classification, rock types and description, rock testing equipment, rock properties, stability effects of discontinuity and gouge, grouting, gunite and shotcrete, and Lugeon's water test. This new edition also covers rock bolting and prestressing, pressure-grouted soil anchors, and rock slope stabilization.

  14. Cataclysmic Rock Avalanche from El Capitan, Yosemite Valley, circa 3.6 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, G. M.

    2008-12-01

    El Capitan in Yosemite Valley is one of the largest and most iconic granite faces in the world. Despite glacially steepened walls exceeding 90 degrees, a historic database shows relatively few rock falls from El Capitan in the past 150 years. However, a massive bouldery deposit beneath the southeast face suggests an earlier rock avalanche of unusually large size. Spatial analysis of airborne LiDAR data indicate that the rock avalanche deposit has a volume of ~2.70 x 106 m3, a maximum thickness of 18 m, and a runout distance of 660 m, roughly twice the horizontal extent of the adjacent talus. The deposit is very coarse on its distal edge, with individual boulder volumes up to 2500 m3. Cosmogenic 10Be exposure dates from boulders distributed across the deposit confirm this interpretation. Four 10Be samples are tightly clustered between 3.5 and 3.8 ka, with a mean age of 3.6 +/- 0.6 ka. A fifth sample gives a much older age of 22.0 ka, but a glacier occupied Yosemite Valley at this time, prohibiting deposition; thus, the older age likely results from exposure on the cliff face prior to failure. The similarity of ages and overall morphology suggest that the entire deposit formed during a single event. The mean exposure age coincides with inferred Holocene rupture of the northern Owens Valley and/or White Mountain fault(s) between 3.3 and 3.8 ka (Lee et al., 2001; Bacon and Pezzopane, 2007). This time coincidence, combined with the fact that historic rupture of the Owens Valley fault in A.D. 1872 generated numerous large rock falls in Yosemite Valley, strongly suggests that the El Capitan rock avalanche was triggered by a seismic event along the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada circa 3.6 ka. As there is not an obvious "scar" on the expansive southeast face, the exact source area of the rock avalanche is not yet known. Detrital apatite U-Th/(He) thermochronometry can determine the elevation(s) from which rock fall boulders originate, but significant inter-sample age

  15. Rock Driller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The next series of planetary exploration missions require a method of extracting rock and soil core samples. Therefore a prototype ultrasonic core driller (UTCD) was developed to meet the constraints of Small Bodies Exploration and Mars Sample Return Missions. The constraints in the design are size, weight, power, and axial loading. The ultrasonic transducer requires a relatively low axial load, which is one of the reasons this technology was chosen. The ultrasonic generator breadboard section can be contained within the 5x5x3 limits and weighs less than two pounds. Based on results attained the objectives for the first phase were achieved. A number of transducer probes were made and tested. One version only drills, and the other will actually provide a small core from a rock. Because of a more efficient transducer/probe, it will run at very low power (less than 5 Watts) and still drill/core. The prototype generator was built to allow for variation of all the performance-effecting elements of the transducer/probe/end effector, i.e., pulse, duty cycle, frequency, etc. The heart of the circuitry is what will be converted to a surface mounted board for the next phase, after all the parameters have been optimized and the microprocessor feedback can be installed.

  16. Constraining the age of Aboriginal rock art using cosmogenic Be-10 and Al-26 dating of rock shelter collapse in the Kimberley region, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazes, Gaël; Fink, David; Fülöp, Réka-Hajnalka; Codilean, Alexandru T.

    2017-04-01

    results range from 9.8 ± 1.9 kyr to 180.8 ± 22.3 kyr, While the date obtained for the youngest site can be interpreted as both a maximum and minimum age for the art due to its positioning over different walls of this specific shelter, all the other sites give maximum art ages which are significantly older than presumed human occupation in Australia. However, within the context of regional landscape geomorphology, these relatively young ages give new insights into the contrasting modes of landscape evolution in the Kimberley, and the importance of episodic escarpment retreat overprinted by passive basin-wide denudation which from numerous previous measurements are as low as 1-5 mm/ka (i.e. averaging timescales of ˜400 kyr). A large number of similar sites in the region have been mapped and are potential candidates for this new approach which can constrain the controversial relative chronology of the various aboriginal rock art styles.

  17. Wonderful Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

  18. Older Drivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affects Driving Tips for Safe Driving Making Your Vehicle Safe Regulations Affecting Older Drivers When Driving Skills ... Like drivers of any age, they use their vehicles to go shopping, do errands, and visit the ...

  19. 53. VIEW OF ROCK FOUNDATIONS AIR CLEANED FOR MONOLITHS 1722, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW OF ROCK FOUNDATIONS AIR CLEANED FOR MONOLITHS 17-22, INTERMEDIATE WALL, LOOKING NORTH Photograph No. 12840. September 10, 1948 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  20. 168. Craggy Gardens Visitor Center. View of the rock retaining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    168. Craggy Gardens Visitor Center. View of the rock retaining wall outside the women's restroom to the northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  1. Investigation of blast-induced fracture in rock mass using reversed vertical seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, D. H.; Wu, Y. K.

    2001-10-01

    The rock mass on quarry and pit wall surfaces is usually fractured during production blasting. Quantitative investigations of the fractured zones are needed for stabilization of the rock walls. In this study, the principle of reversed vertical seismic profiling (RVSP) was applied. A set of seismic geophones were arranged on the horizontal bench surface and seismic signals were generated along the vertical rock wall using a free-swinging hammer. The travel times of seismic rays were recorded and the P-wave velocities of the rock mass were analyzed using the Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). A series of site tests have been carried out on the rock walls at a granite quarry that are characterized by fractures. The fracture depth at various locations on the wall surface is thereby determined. The results indicate that RVSP provides an easy and reliable method to quantitatively evaluate the blasting-induced fractures in the rock mass.

  2. A Rock Encyclopedia That Includes Rock Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laznicka, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Described is a rock encyclopedia combining rock sample sets and encyclopedic word and picture entries which can be used as a realistic information resource for independent study or as a part of a course. (JT)

  3. Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard Apollo 12 was a crew of three astronauts: Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples, some of which can be seen in this photograph. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  4. Wall Turbulence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  5. Submarine canyon erosion: contribution of marine rock burrowers.

    PubMed

    Warme, J E; Scanland, T B; Marshall, N F

    1971-09-17

    Rocks of the rim and upper walls of Scripps Submarine Canyon are intensely burrowed by marine invertebrates. Important excavators are bivalves, polychaetes, and sipunculoids whose activities culminate in a network of passageways and eventual disintegration of the rocks. In many localities erosion by animals is more important than erosion by physical and chemical processes.

  6. Uranium-bearing coal and carbonaceous rocks in the Fall Creek area, Bonneville County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vine, James D.; Moore, George Winfred

    1952-01-01

    Uraniferous coal, carbonaceous shale, and carbonaceous limestone occur in the Bear River formation of Early Cretaceous age at the Fall Creek prospect, in the Fall Creek area, Bonneville County, Idaho. The uranium compounds are believed to have been derived from mildly radioactive silicic volcanic rocks of Tertiary age that rest unconformably on all older rocks and once overlay the Bear River formation and its coal. Meteoric water, percolating downward through the silicic volcanic rocks and into the older rocks along joints and faults, is believed to have brought the uranium compounds into contact with the coal and carbonaceous rocks in which the uranium was absorbed.

  7. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  8. From Cave Walls to Clay Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2004-01-01

    About 15,000 BC, the bison and other animals roamed the land and cave people, in their spare time, found colorful, chalky rocks with which to play. Over the course of time, they found that the chalky rocks would rub off on the cave walls, thus cave paintings and the pursuit of art was born. This article describes one fourth-grade classroom's…

  9. From Cave Walls to Clay Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2004-01-01

    About 15,000 BC, the bison and other animals roamed the land and cave people, in their spare time, found colorful, chalky rocks with which to play. Over the course of time, they found that the chalky rocks would rub off on the cave walls, thus cave paintings and the pursuit of art was born. This article describes one fourth-grade classroom's…

  10. Accelerated Weathering of Rocks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    Dry tests en polished specimens with alternating heating and co- oling actions; ii) Wet tests in destilled water, with alternating...Rock-type Dry tests KxlO2 Wet tests KxlO2 Sound rock SR 3.64 8.31 Medium altered rock MAR 4.96 31.58 Very altered rock VAR 8.89 116.20 TABLE X...Sound rock SR Medium altered rock Very altered rock" KAR VAR ’ Reflectivity R (%) dry test wet test dry test wet test dry test wet

  11. 'Stucco' Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This projected mosaic image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial clotting or cement-like properties of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) wide and 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.(This image also appears as an inset on a separate image from the rover's navigation camera, showing the location of this particular spot within the trench wall.)

  12. 'Stucco' Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This projected mosaic image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial clotting or cement-like properties of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) wide and 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.(This image also appears as an inset on a separate image from the rover's navigation camera, showing the location of this particular spot within the trench wall.)

  13. Scattering from Rock and Rock Outcrops

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    slope was determined from high-resolution interferometric bathymetry so that the global grazing angle of the 5 ideal mean seafloor could be mapped to...from exposed rock on the seafloor , (i.e., individual rocks and rock outcrops) presents some of the most difficult challenges for modern MCM and ASW...classification tools. Inverse models based on forward models would be essential for using sonar systems for remote sensing of seafloor properties. An

  14. Wall Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  15. Wall Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  16. Wall Covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

  17. Rockfaced, coursed ashlar wing wall on the southwest corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rock-faced, coursed ashlar wing wall on the southwest corner of the bridge, facing west. - Oakland Avenue Viaduct, Oakland Avenue spanning U.S. Route 62 (State Route 2302) & Pine Run, Sharon, Mercer County, PA

  18. Geotechnical Descriptions of Rock and Rock Masses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    user of the field log can relate to the general class of rock being described. For example, the rock name " syenite " might be qualified by adding "the...FELDSPAR PRE-S---- Coarne Texture Granite Syenite Qts ononite Honzonite Cabbro Peridotite (Platonic or to Qtx Diorite to Diorite Pyroxenite intrusive

  19. Wall Turbulence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    Doppler velocimeter, computer experiments, and pulsed-laser velocimetry. External influences to be studied are imposed flow oscillations , wavy walls...imposed flow oscillations Studies of the effect of imposed small amplitude flow oscillations have shown no effect on the time mean flow. Work was...undertaken to see if imposed large amplitude oscillations can affect drag. The system used was water flow through a two inch pipe. The flow oscillations

  20. Zapped, Martian Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-20

    This image from the Mars Hand Lens Imager MAHLI on NASA Mars rover Curiosity shows details of rock texture and color in an area where the rover Dust Removal Tool DRT brushed away dust that was on the rock.

  1. The Rock Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  2. Theory of wing rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C.-H.; Lan, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Wing rock is one type of lateral-directional instabilities at high angles of attack. To predict wing rock characteristics and to design airplanes to avoid wing rock, parameters affecting wing rock characteristics must be known. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model is developed to investigate the main aerodynamic nonlinearities causing wing rock. In the present theory, the Beecham-Titchener asymptotic method is used to derive expressions for the limit-cycle amplitude and frequency of wing rock from nonlinear flight dynamics equations. The resulting expressions are capable of explaining the existence of wing rock for all types of aircraft. Wing rock is developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.

  3. Rocks in Our Pockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Donna; Kuhlman, Wilma

    2005-01-01

    To introduce students to rocks and their characteristics, teacher can begin rock units with the activities described in this article. Students need the ability to make simple observations using their senses and simple tools.

  4. The Rock Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  5. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  6. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  7. Rocks in Our Pockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Donna; Kuhlman, Wilma

    2005-01-01

    To introduce students to rocks and their characteristics, teacher can begin rock units with the activities described in this article. Students need the ability to make simple observations using their senses and simple tools.

  8. Principles of rock deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas, A.

    1987-01-01

    This text focuses on the recent achievements in the analysis of rock deformation. It gives an analytical presentation of the essential structures in terms of kinetic and dynamic interpretation. The physical properties underlying the interpretation of rock structures are exposed in simple terms. Emphasized in the book are: the role of fluids in rock fracturing; the kinematic analysis of magnetic flow structures; the application of crystalline plasticity to the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the large deformation imprinted in many metamorphic rocks.

  9. Ni distribution in MORB-source-mantle pyroxenites: Traces of melt-rock reaction on a cm-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, D.; Dijkstra, A.; Pettke, T.

    2010-12-01

    Introduction The origin of pyroxenites in mantle peridotites is widely discussed as they represent the most important observed lithological inhomogeneity in the upper mantle. We have studied a case of such mantle heterogeneity, consisting of 1-10 cm thick concordant layers of websteritic pyroxenites within residual MORB-source mantle peridotites, in the Jurassic Pindos Ophiolite (N. Greece). Here we report Ni concentrations in minerals in pyroxenites and we compare them with those in the enclosing peridotites We use this data to test whether these pyroxenite layers are cumulate veins, or the product of melt-rock reactions. Results Ni concentrations analysed by Laser ablation ICP-MS on single olivine grains in thick sections show values for the wall-rock peridotites 2580-3480 μg/g, while 2825-3815 μg/g are measured in pyroxenites layers. We consistently observe higher Ni concentrations (10-20%) in pyroxenites compared to peridotites and we observe the same trend in thick sections containing peridotite and pyroxenite parts. The highest Ni concentrations, up to 4145 μg/g, are found in olivine inclusions - older grains surrounded by newly formed orthopyroxene in pyroxenites. Similar elevated Ni concentrations are also characteristic for single orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene grains in pyroxenites compared to peridotites. Intermediate values are typical for transition zones, as there is no strict contact line on the thick section scale between peridotite and pyroxenite. Discussion The data is consistent with a melt-rock reaction origin for the pyroxenites. Melt-rock reaction in the upper mantle between peridotites and SiO2-rich melts would not significantly lower the whole-rock Ni concentration in the newly-formed hybrid rock (pyroxenites). The transformation of olivine to orthopyroxene would strongly concentrate Ni in the remaining olivine and would also enrich other minerals (Sobolev et al. 2007). This interpretation is fully supported by petrographical

  10. 68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 4; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. My Pet Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  12. My Pet Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  13. Double-wall tubing for oil recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Carroll, W. F.; Jaffee, L. D.; Stimpson, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Insulated double-wall tubing designed for steam injection oil recovery makes process more economical and allows deeper extension of wells. Higher quality wet steam is delivered through tubing to oil deposits with significant reductions in heat loss to surrounding rock allowing greater exploitation of previously unworkable reservoirs.

  14. Double-wall tubing for oil recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Carroll, W. F.; Jaffee, L. D.; Stimpson, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Insulated double-wall tubing designed for steam injection oil recovery makes process more economical and allows deeper extension of wells. Higher quality wet steam is delivered through tubing to oil deposits with significant reductions in heat loss to surrounding rock allowing greater exploitation of previously unworkable reservoirs.

  15. Rock-fall potential in the Yosemite Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Morrissey, M.M.; Iovine, Giulio; Godt, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    We used two methods of estimating rock-fall potential in the Yosemite Valley, California based on (1) physical evidence of previous rock-fall travel, in which the potential extends to the base of the talus, and (2) theoretical potential energy considerations, in which the potential can extend beyond the base of the talus, herein referred to as the rock-fall shadow. Rock falls in the valley commonly range in size from individual boulders of less than 1 m3 to moderate-sized falls with volumes of about 100,000 m3. Larger rock falls exceeding 100,000 m3, referred to as rock avalanches, are considered to be much less likely to occur based on the relatively few prehistoric rock-fall avalanche deposits in the Yosemite Valley. Because the valley has steep walls and is relatively narrow, there are no areas that are absolutely safe from large rock avalanches. The map shows areas of rock-fall potential, but does not predict when or how frequently a rock fall will occur. Consequently, neither the hazard in terms of probability of a rock fall at any specific location, nor the risk to people or facilities to such events can be assessed from this map.

  16. Rock type identification and abundance estimation from hyperspectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jilu

    This study explores the usefulness of hyperspectral data to discriminate rock units and estimate the abundance of sulfides in rocks. Airborne visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR) hyperspectral data collected from northern Cape Smith, Quebec and laboratory thermal infrared reflectance (TIR) data measured on rock samples from eight different mines in the Sudbury Basin, Ontario are involved in the analysis. The study addressed four different geological application scenarios with the aim of retrieving useful lithological information from rock spectra while minimizing the influence of varying environmental factors. The research first examines the effects of topography on the selection of rock endmembers from airborne VIS_NIR spectra and demonstrates how a topographic correction process can improve the discrimination of rock units. It demonstrates that traditional ways of selecting spectral endmembers from hyperspectral data for areas of rugged terrain cannot provide representative rock unit signatures. The second part of the research targeted the mapping of wall rock in an underground environment using TIR spectra. Rock samples from mines of the Sudbury Basin in Ontario were measured using naturally broken surfaces both dry and wet to address environmental conditions encountered underground. An innovative method applying a spectral angle mapper on the 2nd derivative of rock spectra from 700--1300 cm-1 was proved to be robust to remove the effect of liquid water, local geometry and disseminated sulfide ores while preserving diagnostic rock signatures for mapping. The study then focuses on retrieving sulfide information from TIR to estimate ore (total sulfide abundance) grade on naturally broken rock faces and separate ore-bearing rocks from their host rocks in an underground environment regardless of rock types. An important finding is that reflectance at 1319 cm -1, where most silicate rocks demonstrate low reflectance, is related to total sulfide concentration in rocks

  17. Isotopic heterogeneity in volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, J. A.; Ramos, F. C.; Tollstrup, D. L.

    2003-04-01

    The growing microsample database on volcanic rocks is showing that isotopic disequilibrium between and among phenocryst phases, their melt inclusions, and groundmass is the rule rather than the exception. This applies even in cases of little or no petrographic evidence for disequilibrium. Erupted magmas must therefore be regarded, to some extent, as mechanical mixtures of isotopically distinct components assembled from different sources. The preservation of isotopic disequilibrium requires that the assembly takes place before diffusion can eradicate evidence of disequilibrium. For a wide range of magmas (mafic, intermediate and felsic, silica under- and oversaturated) from different volcano types (flood basalts, monogenetic cones, stratocones, silicic calderas) this timescale ranges from thousands of years down to one year or less, with no consistent pattern of mixing-to-eruption time vs. volcano or magma type. Among many issues arising from these findings, we note that estimation of magmatic temperatures from application of equilibrium thermodynamics to phenocryst assemblages in volcanic rocks should be approached with extreme caution. The isotope ratio variations observed among the components of a single volcanic rock sample, in most cases, indicate interaction between magma and the local wall-rock. This is consistent with the view that the vast majority of magmas undergo modification during transport through and residence within the crust. Three physical origins of heterogeneity have been proposed: melting of wallrock, magmatic recharge, and mixing of components within a magma chamber initially segregated into melt-rich and crystal-rich portions. Time constraints on preservation of disequilibrium imply either a causal link with eruption, or that these processes occur through the lifetime of a chamber.

  18. Spirit Guidepost, 'Plymouth Rock'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image during Spirit's 152nd sol, on June 7, 2004. The rock, informally named 'Plymouth Rock,' is approximately 90 centimeters (35 inches) across and 50 centimeters (20 inches) tall. Spirit did not spend any time studying Plymouth Rock, but rover controllers used it as a guide to maneuver Spirit closer to the 'Columbia Hills.' Like most of the rocks found at the Gusev crater location, Plymouth is most likely a basalt. The tiny vesicles pitting the rock's surface further indicate its volcanic origin.

  19. Rock ramp design guidelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, David M.; Holmquist-Johnson, Christopher L.; Broderick, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Rock ramps or roughened channels consist of steep reaches stabilized by large immobile material (riprap). Primary objectives for rock ramps include: Create adequate head for diversionMaintain fish passage during low-flow conditionsMaintain hydraulic conveyance during high-flow conditionsSecondary objectives for rock ramp design include:Emulate natural systemsMinimize costsThe rock ramp consists of a low-flow channel designed to maintain biologically adequate depth and velocity conditions during periods of small discharges. The remainder of the ramp is designed to withstand and pass large flows with minimal structural damage. The following chapters outline a process for designing rock ramps.

  20. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  1. Wall to Wall Optimal Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chini, Gregory P.; Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Doering, Charles R.

    2013-11-01

    How much heat can be transported between impermeable fixed-temperature walls by incompressible flows with a given amount of kinetic energy or enstrophy? What do the optimal velocity fields look like? We employ variational calculus to address these questions in the context of steady 2D flows. The resulting nonlinear Euler-Lagrange equations are solved numerically, and in some cases analytically, to find the maximum possible Nusselt number Nu as a function of the Péclect number Pe , a measure of the flow's energy or enstrophy. We find that in the fixed-energy problem Nu ~ Pe , while in the fixed-enstrophy problem Nu ~ Pe 10 / 17 . In both cases, the optimal flow consists of an array of convection cells with aspect ratio Γ (Pe) . Interpreting our results in terms of the Rayleigh number Ra for relevant buoyancy-driven problems, we find Nu <= 1 + 0 . 035 Ra and Γ ~ Ra - 1 / 2 for porous medium convection (which occurs with fixed energy), and Nu <= 1 + 0 . 115 Ra 5 / 12 and Γ ~ Ra - 1 / 4 for Rayleigh-Bénard convection (which occurs with fixed enstrophy and for free-slip walls). This work was supported by NSF awards PHY-0855335, DMS-0927587, and PHY-1205219 (CRD) and DMS-0928098 (GPC). Much of this work was completed at the 2012 Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (GFD) Program at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

  2. Depression in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home » Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression affects more ... combination of both. [8] Older Adult Attitudes Toward Depression: According to a Mental Health America survey [9] ...

  3. MEASURING AND MODELING DISINFECTION WALL DEMAND IN METALLIC PIPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field test procedure was developed and implemented in Detroit to estimate chlorine loss due to wall demand in older 6" (152 mm) and 8" (203 mm) diameter, unlined cast iron pipes. The test results produced extremely high wall reaction rate coefficients that increased significan...

  4. Friction of rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental results in the published literature show that at low normal stress the shear stress required to slide one rock over another varies widely between experiments. This is because at low stress rock friction is strongly dependent on surface roughness. At high normal stress that effect is diminished and the friction is nearly independent of rock type. If the sliding surfaces are separated by gouge composed of Montmorillonite or vermiculite the friction can be very low. ?? 1978 Birkha??user Verlag.

  5. Bounce Rock Dimple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This panoramic camera image shows the hole drilled by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rock abrasion tool into the rock dubbed 'Bounce' on Sol 65 of the rover's journey. The tool drilled about 7 millimeters (0.3 inches) into the rock and generated small piles of 'tailings' or rock dust around the central hole, which is about 4.5 centimeters (1.7 inches) across. The image from sol 66 of the mission was acquired using the panoramic camera's 430 nanometer filter.

  6. Opaque rock fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit, B.; Molinaroli, E.; Olsen, J.

    1987-05-01

    The authors describe a new, rare, but petrogenetically significant variety of rock fragments from Holocene detrital sediments. Approximately 50% of the opaque heavy mineral concentrates from Holocene siliciclastic sands are polymineralic-Fe-Ti oxide particles, i.e., they are opaque rock fragments. About 40% to 70% of these rock fragments show intergrowth of hm + il, mt + il, and mt + hm +/- il. Modal analysis of 23,282 opaque particles in 117 polished thin sections of granitic and metamorphic parent rocks and their daughter sands from semi-arid and humid climates show the following relative abundances. The data show that opaque rock fragments are more common in sands from igneous source rocks and that hm + il fragments are more durable. They assume that equilibrium conditions existed in parent rocks during the growth of these paired minerals, and that the Ti/Fe ratio did not change during oxidation of mt to hm. Geothermometric determinations using electron probe microanalysis of opaque rock fragments in sand samples from Lake Erie and the Adriatic Sea suggest that these rock fragments may have equilibrated at approximately 900/sup 0/ and 525/sup 0/C, respectively.

  7. Bounce Rock Dimple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This panoramic camera image shows the hole drilled by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rock abrasion tool into the rock dubbed 'Bounce' on Sol 65 of the rover's journey. The tool drilled about 7 millimeters (0.3 inches) into the rock and generated small piles of 'tailings' or rock dust around the central hole, which is about 4.5 centimeters (1.7 inches) across. The image from sol 66 of the mission was acquired using the panoramic camera's 430 nanometer filter.

  8. Hungry for Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit hazard identification camera shows the rover's perspective just before its first post-egress drive on Mars. On Sunday, the 15th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey, engineers drove Spirit approximately 3 meters (10 feet) toward its first rock target, a football-sized, mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack (not pictured). In the foreground of this image are 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi' - two rocks that scientists considered investigating first. Ultimately, these rocks were not chosen because their rough and dusty surfaces are ill-suited for grinding.

  9. Hydraulic conductivity of rock fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1994-10-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada contains numerous geological units that are highly fractured. A clear understanding of the hydraulic conductivity of fractures has been identified as an important scientific problem that must be addressed during the site characterization process. The problem of the flow of a single-phase fluid through a rough-walled rock fracture is discussed within the context of rigorous fluid mechanics. The derivation of the cubic law is given as the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations for flow between smooth, parallel plates, the only fracture geometry that is amenable to exact treatment. The various geometric and kinetic conditions that are necessary in order for the Navier-Stokes equations to be replaced by the more tractable lubrication or Hele-Shaw equations are studied and quantified. Various analytical and numerical results are reviewed pertaining to the problem of relating the effective hydraulic aperture to the statistics of the aperture distribution. These studies all lead to the conclusion that the effective hydraulic aperture is always less than the mean aperture, by a factor that depends on the ratio of the mean value of the aperture to its standard deviation. The tortuosity effect caused by regions where the rock walls are in contact with each other is studied using the Hele-Shaw equations, leading to a simple correction factor that depends on the area fraction occupied by the contact regions. Finally, the predicted hydraulic apertures are compared to measured values for eight data sets from the literature for which aperture and conductivity data were available on the same fracture. It is found that reasonably accurate predictions of hydraulic conductivity can be made based solely on the first two moments of the aperture distribution function, and the proportion of contact area. 68 refs.

  10. Kilbuck terrane: Oldest known rocks in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Box, S.E. ); Moll-Stalcup, E.J.; Wooden, J.L. ); Bradshaw, J.Y. )

    1990-12-01

    The Kilbuck terrane in southwestern Alaska is a narrow, thin crustal sliver or flake of amphibolite facies orthogneiss. The igneous protolith of this gneiss was a suite of subduction-related plutonic rocks. U-Pb data on zircons from trondhjemitic and granitic samples yield upper-intercept (igneous) ages of 2,070 {plus minus}16 and 2,040 {plus minus}74 Ma, respectively. Nd isotope data from these rocks suggest that a diorite-tonalite-trondhjemite suite ({epsilon}{sub Nd}(T) = +2.1 to +2.7; T is time of crystallization) evolved from partial melts of depleted mantle with no discernible contamination by older crust, whereas a coeval granitic pluton ({epsilon}{sub Nd}(T) = {minus}5.7) contains a significant component derived from Archean crust. Orthogneisses with similar age and Nd isotope characteristics are found in the Idono complex 250 km to the north. Early Proterozoic rocks are unknown elsewhere in Alaska. However, Phanerozoic plutons cutting several continental terranes in Alaska (southern Brooks Range and Ruby, Seward, and Yukon-Tanana terranes) have Nd isotope compositions indicative of Early Proterozoic (or older) crustal components that could be correlative with rocks of the Kilbuck terrane. Rocks with similar igneous ages in cratonal North America are rare, and those few that are known have Nd isotope compositions distinct from those of the Kilbuck terrane. Conversely, provinces with Nd model ages of 2.0-2.1 Ga are characterized by extensive 1.8 Ga or younger plutonism, which is unknown in the Kilbuck terrane. At present the case for a North American parentage of the Kilbuck terrane is not compelling. The possibility that the Kilbuck terrane was displaced from provinces of similar age in other cratons (e.g., Australian, Baltic, Guiana, and west African shields), or from the poorly dated Siberian craton, cannot be excluded.

  11. My Big Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinosa, Paul S.

    2002-01-01

    It was June and I was in Yosemite National Park in California, 2,000-feet off the ground. I was climbing El Capitan, a majestic 3,000-foot high, mile-wide granite monolith--one of the most sought after and spectacular rock climbs in the world. After three days of climbing on its sheer face, and having completed the most difficult part of the route, my partner and I were heading down. A thunderstorm lasting all night and into the morning had soaked our tiny perch and all our worldly possessions. We began rappelling down the vertical wall by sliding to the ends of two 50meter ropes tied together and looped through a set of fixed rings bolted into the rock. At the end of the ropes was another rappel station consisting of a set of rings, placed by previous climbers for retreating parties, which we used to anchor ourselves to the rock face. We then pulled the ropes down from the rings above, threaded the ones in front of our noses and started down another rope length. Everything we brought up for our five-day climb to the summit we had to bring back down with us: ropes, climbing gear of every sort, sleeping bags, extra clothes, food, water, and other essentials. All this we either stuffed into a haul bag (an oversized reinforced duffel bag) or slung over our shoulders. The retreat was slow and methodical, akin to a train backing down a mountain, giving me ample time to think. My situation made me think about my work, mostly, about all the projects I have managed, or been involved in managing. As a NASA project manager, I have worked on a number of successful projects. I have also been involved in a number of projects I never saw the end of. I thought about all the projects I transferred off of for other opportunities, projects that were in full stride and ran out of funding, and ones put on the shelf because they would not meet a flight date. Oh yes, I have had many success, to be sure, or I would have burned out years ago. Lessons from both the successful and not

  12. Hand injuries in rock climbers.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Erik N; Klugman, Jeffrey A; Bosco, Joseph A

    2006-01-01

    Rock climbing, whether practiced in nature on cliffs and boulders or indoors on walls made of resin and wood, has grown in popularity in recent years. An estimated five million people participate in "rocking" at least three times a year. Climbing places unique demands on the upper extremity, especially the hands. The flexor tendons and flexor pulleys are prone to sprains and ruptures. Pulley injuries occur in up to 20% of climbers. The A2 pulley of the ring finger is the most frequently injured. Most pulley injuries can be successfully treated with a week of immobilization, followed by a range of motion (ROM) exercises for one week. Isometric training on a finger board can be started once ROM exercises are painless. A return to climbing can be initiated when the climber is able to avoid grip positions that produce pain; however, the closed crimp grip should be avoided at this time. Surgical reconstruction using the technique described by Widstrom is recommended for acute injuries with clinical evidence of bowstringing. Ultrasound and MRI are the current modalities best suited for confirming clinical findings.

  13. Search for underground openings for in situ test facilities in crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Strisower, B.; Corrigan, D.J.; Graf, A.N.; O'Brien, M.T.; Pratt, H.; Board, M.; Hustrulid, W.

    1980-01-01

    With a few exceptions, crystalline rocks in this study were limited to plutonic rocks and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nearly 1700 underground mines, possibly occurring in crystalline rock, were initially identified. Application of criteria resulted in the identification of 60 potential sites. Within this number, 26 mines and 4 civil works were identified as having potential in that they fulfilled the criteria. Thirty other mines may have similar potential. Most of the mines identified are near the contact between a pluton and older sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks. However, some mines and the civil works are well within plutonic or metamorphic rock masses. Civil works, notably underground galleries associated with pumped storage hydroelectric facilities, are generally located in tectonically stable regions, in relatively homogeneous crystalline rock bodies. A program is recommended which would identify one or more sites where a concordance exists between geologic setting, company amenability, accessibility and facilities to conduct in situ tests in crystalline rock.

  14. Mars Rock Analysis Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-12

    John Grotzinger (second from left), Curiosity project scientist, California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, speaks at a news conference presenting findings of the Curiosity rover's analysis of the first sample of rock powder collected on Mars, Tuesday, March 12, 2013 in Washington. The rock sample collected shows ancient Mars could have supported living microbes. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Mars Rock Analysis Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-12

    John Grotzinger, Curiosity project scientist, California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, answers a reporter's question at a news conference where findings of the Curiosity rover's analysis of the first sample of rock powder collected on Mars were presented, Tuesday, March 12, 2013 in Washington. The rock sample collected shows ancient Mars could have supported living microbes. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Mars Rock Analysis Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-12

    John Grotzinger (center), Curiosity project scientist, California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, speaks at a news conference presenting findings of the Curiosity rover's analysis of the first sample of rock powder collected on Mars, Tuesday, March 12, 2013 in Washington. The rock sample collected shows ancient Mars could have supported living microbes. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  18. Rock Bites into 'Bounce'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This panoramic camera image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity features the 6.44 millimeter (0.25 inch) deep hole ground into the rock dubbed 'Bounce' by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The tool took 2 hours and 15 minutes to grind the hole on sol 66 of the rover's journey. A combination of limited solar power and the rock's jagged texture led the rock abrasion tool team to set very aggressive grinding parameters to ensure that the end result was a full circle, suitable for a thorough read from the rover's spectrometers.

    Bounce's markedly different appearance (when compared to the rocks that were previously examined in the Eagle Crater outcrop) made it a natural target for rover research. In order to achieve an ideal position from which to grind into the rock, Opportunity moved in very close with its right wheel next to Bounce. In this image, the panoramic camera on the rover's mast is looking down, catching the tip of the solar panel which partially blocks the full circle ground by the rock abrasion tool.

    The outer ring consists of the cuttings from the rock, pushed out by the brushes on the grinding instrument. The dark impression at the top of the outer circle was caused by the instrument's contact mechanism which serves to stabilize it while grinding.

  19. Odyssey/White Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-01

    These Mars Odyssey images show the White Rock feature on Mars in both infrared left and visible right wavelengths. White Rock is the unofficial name for this landform that was first observed during NASA Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970.

  20. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  1. Welcome to Rock Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varelas, Maria; Benhart, Jeaneen

    2004-01-01

    At the beginning of the school year, the authors, a first-grade teacher and a teacher educator, worked together to "spice up" the first-grade science curriculum. The teacher had taught the unit Rocks, Sand, and Soil several times, conducting hands-on explorations and using books to help students learn about properties of rocks, but she felt the…

  2. Welcome to Rock Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varelas, Maria; Benhart, Jeaneen

    2004-01-01

    At the beginning of the school year, the authors, a first-grade teacher and a teacher educator, worked together to "spice up" the first-grade science curriculum. The teacher had taught the unit Rocks, Sand, and Soil several times, conducting hands-on explorations and using books to help students learn about properties of rocks, but she felt the…

  3. Mars Rock Analysis Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-12

    David Blake, principal investigator for Curiosity's Chemistry and Mineralogy investigation at NASA's Ames Research Center in Calif., speaks at a news conference presenting findings of the Curiosity rover's analysis of the first sample of rock powder collected on Mars, Tuesday, March 12, 2013 in Washington. The rock sample collected shows ancient Mars could have supported living microbes. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Chocolate Hills Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-16

    This false-color image, taken by the panoramic camera on NASA rover Opportunity, shows the rock Chocolate Hills, perched on the rim of the 10-meter 33-foot wide Concepcion crater. This rock has a thick, dark-colored coating resembling chocolate.

  5. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  6. Rock Bites into 'Bounce'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This panoramic camera image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity features the 6.44 millimeter (0.25 inch) deep hole ground into the rock dubbed 'Bounce' by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The tool took 2 hours and 15 minutes to grind the hole on sol 66 of the rover's journey. A combination of limited solar power and the rock's jagged texture led the rock abrasion tool team to set very aggressive grinding parameters to ensure that the end result was a full circle, suitable for a thorough read from the rover's spectrometers.

    Bounce's markedly different appearance (when compared to the rocks that were previously examined in the Eagle Crater outcrop) made it a natural target for rover research. In order to achieve an ideal position from which to grind into the rock, Opportunity moved in very close with its right wheel next to Bounce. In this image, the panoramic camera on the rover's mast is looking down, catching the tip of the solar panel which partially blocks the full circle ground by the rock abrasion tool.

    The outer ring consists of the cuttings from the rock, pushed out by the brushes on the grinding instrument. The dark impression at the top of the outer circle was caused by the instrument's contact mechanism which serves to stabilize it while grinding.

  7. Bounce Rock Snapshot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity panoramic camera image shows 'Bounce Rock,' a rock the airbag-packaged rover struck while rolling to a stop on January 24, 2004. This is the largest rock for as far as the eye can see, approximately 35 centimeters (14 inches) long and 10 centimeters (4 inches) high. There appears to be a dusty coating on the top of parts of the rock, which may have been broken when it was struck by the airbags. The rock was about 5 meters (16 feet) from the rover when this image was obtained. This is an enhanced color composite image from sol 36 of the rover's journey, generated using the camera's L2 (750 nanometer), L5 (530 nanometer), and L6 (480 nanometer) filters.

    Bounce Rock Spectra Figure 1 above is a plot of panoramic camera spectra extracted from three different regions on the rock dubbed 'Bounce.' The yellow spectrum is from the yellow box in the image on the left, from the dusty top part of the rock. The spectrum is dominated by the signature of oxidized 'ferric' iron (Fe3+) like that seen in the classic Martian dust. The red spectrum is from the darker Meridiani Planum soils that were disturbed by the airbag when it bounced near the rock. That spectrum is also dominated by ferric iron, though the reflectivity is lower. Scientists speculate that this may be because the grains are coarser in these soils compared to the dust. The green spectrum, which is from the right side of the rock, shows a strong drop in the infrared reflectance that is unlike any other rock yet seen at Meridiani Planum or Gusev Crater. This spectral signature is typical of un-oxidized 'ferrous' iron (Fe2+) in the rock, perhaps related to the presence of volcanic minerals like olivine or pyroxene. The possibility that this may be a basaltic rock that is distinctly different from the rocks seen in the Eagle Crater outcrop is being intensively explored using the rover's other instruments.

  8. Museums and Older Adults .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Elizabeth M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This issue contains articles on characteristics of the older adult population and how one museum program addressed them; an analysis of sensory changes in older adulthood and their implications for museum facilities and programing; what older adults can contribute to the museum; older adults as museum volunteers; and case studies of museum…

  9. Rock-fall hazards in the Yosemite Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Morrissey, M.M.; Iovine, Giulio; Godt, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    This report with map shows the areas of highest rock-fall hazard in four selected parts of Yosemite Valley, California, defined by the National Park Service. Two specific levels of hazard are recognized and identified from rock falls ranging in size from individual boulders to moderate-sized events with volumes of 100,000 m3. These different levels of hazard are associated with areas within the base of the talus (red line in Plate 1) and those normally beyond the base of the talus which we refer to as the rock-fall shadow (yellow line in Plate 1). Rock falls of even greater size, exceeding 100,000 m3, referred to as rock avalanches, are a potential hazard, but the extent of this hazard is not easily defined. Rock avalanches are considered to be much less likely to occur because of the relatively few prehistoric rock-fall avalanche deposits that have been recognized in the Yosemite Valley. With the configuration of the steep valley walls and the relatively narrow valley, it should be noted that there are no absolutely safe or zero probability areas from large rock avalanches. This study has shown in map form where rock-fall hazard exists and has given general indication of the expected frequency of these events; however, the study does not quantify the probability at any specific location, nor evaluate the risk to people or facilities to such events.

  10. Layered Rocks in Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 June 2004 Exposures of layered, sedimentary rock are common on Mars. From the rock outcrops examined by the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, in Meridiani Planum to the sequence in Gale Crater's central mound that is twice the thickness of of the sedimentary rocks exposed by Arizona's Grand Canyon, Mars presents a world of sediment to study. This unusual example, imaged by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), shows eroded layer outcrops in a crater in Terra Tyrrhena near 15.4oS, 270.5oW. Sedimentary rocks provide a record of past climates and events. Perhaps someday the story told by the rocks in this image will be known via careful field work. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  11. Cell Wall Assembly in Fucus Zygotes

    PubMed Central

    Quatrano, Ralph S.; Stevens, Patricia T.

    1976-01-01

    Fertilization triggers the assembly of a cell wall around the egg cell of three brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus, F. distichus, and F. inflatus. New polysaccharide polymers are continually being added to the cell wall during the first 24 hours of synchronous embryo development. This wall assembly involves the extracellular deposition of fibrillar material by cytoplasmic vesicles fusing with the plasma membrane. One hour after fertilization a fragmented wall can be isolated free of cytoplasm and contains equal amounts of cellulose and alginic acid with no fucose-containing polymers (fucans) present. Birefringence of the wall caused by oriented cellulose microfibrils is not detected in all zygotes until 4 hours, at which time intact cell walls can be isolated that retain the shape of the zygote. These walls have a relatively low ratio of fucose to xylose and little sulfate when compared to walls from older embryos. When extracts of walls from 4-hour zygotes are subjected to cellulose acetate electrophoresis at pH 7, a single fucan (F1) can be detected. By 12 hours, purified cell walls are composed of fucans containing a relatively high ratio of fucose to xylose and high levels of sulfate, and contain a second fucan (F2) which is electrophoretically distinct from F1. F2 appears to be deposited in only a localized region of the wall, that which elongates to form the rhizoid cell. Throughout wall assembly, the polyuronide block co-polymer alginic acid did not significantly vary its mannuronic (M) to guluronic (G) acid ratio (0.33-0.55) or its block distribution (MG, 54%; GG, 30%; MM, 16%). From 6 to 24 hours of embryo development, the proportion of the major polysaccharide components found in purified walls is stable. Alginic acid is the major polymer and comprises about 60% of the total wall, while cellulose and the fucans each make-up about 20% of the remainder. During the extracellular assembly of this wall, the intracellular levels of the storage glucan laminaran

  12. Rock Magnetism: Successes and Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Louis Néel once proposed making ships "invisible" (i.e., magnetically undetectable) by giving them a permanent or remanent magnetism that would cancel the signal induced by the Earth's magnetic field. Like much of rock magnetism, this borders on the magical. Rocks possess a magnetic memory that verges on the phenomenal. An adequate magnetic lifetime for your credit card is until its expiry date and one must avoid exposure to magnetic fields and heat. But a rock's magnetic memory is forever, and the recipe for that durability includes, for igneous and metamorphic rocks, exposure to ancient fields while hot - near the Curie temperature in fact. The thermal remanent magnetism (TRM) thus produced is largely immune to later field changes at lower temperatures although luckily a fraction - a partial TRM overprint - does record later heating events, e.g., burial during major orogenies. When we lift the veil and look closely, on a microscale or nanoscale, it is perplexing to understand why paleomagnetism works so well when rocks seemingly contain so few of Néel's ideal recorders: single-domain grains with tightly coupled atomic spins. In larger grains with multiple domains, the walls between neighbouring domains move readily, like dislocations in crystals, enlarging some domains at the expense of others. This mutability makes any magnetic memory of multi-domain grains suspect. But around the threshold between single-domain and multi-domain structures - a specific grain size that varies widely from one magnetic mineral to another - there are recent predictions and observations of novel structures, including linked magnetic moments of nearby grains and interfacial moments of exsolved phases, that could go some way towards explaining why single-domain-like behaviour is so widespread. Many magnetic properties show an almost continuous variation with grain size, quite unlike the expected discontinuity at the single-domain threshold. Among these is initial susceptibility which

  13. Our World: The Rock Cycle

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Find out how rocks brought to Earth by the Apollo astronauts have helped NASA learn more about the rock cycle. Compare igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks found on Earth to three types of ro...

  14. Space Weathering of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

  15. Zapping Rocks on Mars

    ScienceCinema

    Wiens, Roger

    2016-07-12

    Better understanding Mars means better understanding its geology. That’s why, sitting atop NASA’s Curiosity rover, is ChemCam, an instrument built by Los Alamos National Laboratory that shoots lasers at Martian rocks and analyzes the data. After nearly 1,500 rock zaps, ChemCam has uncovered some surprising facts about the Red Planet, including the discovery of igneous rocks. Soon, a new Los Alamos-built instrument—the SuperCam—will ride aboard the Mars 2020 rover and bring with it enhanced capabilities to unlock new secrets about the planet.

  16. Zapping Rocks on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger

    2016-05-16

    Better understanding Mars means better understanding its geology. That’s why, sitting atop NASA’s Curiosity rover, is ChemCam, an instrument built by Los Alamos National Laboratory that shoots lasers at Martian rocks and analyzes the data. After nearly 1,500 rock zaps, ChemCam has uncovered some surprising facts about the Red Planet, including the discovery of igneous rocks. Soon, a new Los Alamos-built instrument—the SuperCam—will ride aboard the Mars 2020 rover and bring with it enhanced capabilities to unlock new secrets about the planet.

  17. Detached rock evaluation device

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A rock detachment evaluation device (10) having an energy transducer unit 1) for sensing vibrations imparted to a subject rock (172) for converting the sensed vibrations into electrical signals, a low band pass filter unit (12) for receiving the electrical signal and transmitting only a low frequency segment thereof, a high band pass filter unit (13) for receiving the electrical signals and for transmitting only a high frequency segment thereof, a comparison unit (14) for receiving the low frequency and high frequency signals and for determining the difference in power between the signals, and a display unit (16) for displaying indicia of the difference, which provides a quantitative measure of rock detachment.

  18. Dirty Rotten Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows a collection of rocks (upper right) at Gusev Crater that have captured the attention of scientists for their resemblance to rotting loaves of bread. The insides of the rocks appear to have been eroded, while their outer rinds remain more intact. These outer rinds are reminiscent of those found on rocks at Meridiani Planum's 'Eagle Crater.' This image was captured on sol 158 (June 13, 2004).

  19. Weird 'Endurance' Rock Ahead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a bizarre, lumpy rock dubbed 'Wopmay' on the inner slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists say the rock's unusual texture is unlike any others observed so far at Meridiani Planum. Wopmay measures approximately 1 meter (3.3 feet) across. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 195 (Aug. 11, 2004). Opportunity will likely travel to this or a similar rock in coming sols for a closer look at the alien surface.

  20. Weird 'Endurance' Rock Ahead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a bizarre, lumpy rock dubbed 'Wopmay' on the inner slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists say the rock's unusual texture is unlike any others observed so far at Meridiani Planum. Wopmay measures approximately 1 meter (3.3 feet) across. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 195 (Aug. 11, 2004). Opportunity will likely travel to this or a similar rock in coming sols for a closer look at the alien surface.

  1. Rock Garden Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image mosaic of part of the 'Rock Garden' was taken by the Sojourner rover's left front camera on Sol 71 (September 14). The rock 'Shark' is at left center and 'Half Dome' is at right. Fine-scale textures on the rocks are clearly seen. Broken crust-like material is visible at bottom center.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  2. Dirty Rotten Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows a collection of rocks (upper right) at Gusev Crater that have captured the attention of scientists for their resemblance to rotting loaves of bread. The insides of the rocks appear to have been eroded, while their outer rinds remain more intact. These outer rinds are reminiscent of those found on rocks at Meridiani Planum's 'Eagle Crater.' This image was captured on sol 158 (June 13, 2004).

  3. Geologic map of upper Eocene to Holocene volcanic and related rocks in the Cascade Range, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James G.

    1993-01-01

    For geothermal reasons, the maps emphasize Quaternary volcanic rocks. Large igneous-related geothermal systems that have high temperatures are associated with Quaternary volcanic fields, and geothermal potential declines rapidly as age increases (Smith and Shaw, 1975). Most high-grade recoverable geothermal energy is likely to be associated with silicic volcanism less than 1 Ma. Lower grade (= lower temperature) geothermal resources may be associated with somewhat older rocks; however, volcanic rocks older than about 2 Ma are unlikely geothermal targets (Smith and Shaw, 1975).

  4. 133. View of rock cut at base of rough ridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. View of rock cut at base of rough ridge and roadway crossing unnamed viaduct on Grandfather Mountain with the Great Wall of China supporting the curve in the distance. Looking southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  5. 1. View west from east rock of the Lake Whitney ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View west from east rock of the Lake Whitney Dam. Spillway is at right center. Abutment or training wall is at the photo's center. Shed at left center covers turbine installed in 1932. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Lake Whitney Dam, East side of Whitney Avenue near intersection with Armory Street, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  6. 5. VIEW OF UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILES LOOKING TOWARDS ROCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILES LOOKING TOWARDS ROCK WALL VISIBLE ON SLOPE JUST RIGHT OF CENTER. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  7. Oblique view of the northeast side, note the lava rock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the northeast side, note the lava rock stem wall below the windows of the shed-roof addition, view facing west - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Golf Course Equipment & Repair Shop, Reeves & Moffett Roads, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  8. The December 2008 Crammont rock avalanche, Mont Blanc massif area, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deline, P.; Alberto, W.; Broccolato, M.; Hungr, O.; Noetzli, J.; Ravanel, L.; Tamburini, A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe a 0.5 Mm3 rock avalanche that occurred in 2008 in the western Alps and discuss possible roles of controlling factors in the context of current climate change. The source is located between 2410 m and 2653 m a.s.l. on Mont Crammont and is controlled by a densely fractured rock structure. The main part of the collapsed rock mass deposited at the foot of the rock wall. A smaller part travelled much farther, reaching horizontal and vertical travel distances of 3050 m and 1560 m, respectively. The mobility of the rock mass was enhanced by channelization and snow. The rock-avalanche volume was calculated by comparison of pre- and post-event DTMs, and geomechanical characterization of the detachment zone was extracted from LiDAR point cloud processing. Back analysis of the rock-avalanche runout suggests a two stage event. There was no previous rock avalanche activity from the Mont Crammont ridge during the Holocene. The 2008 rock avalanche may have resulted from permafrost degradation in the steep rock wall, as suggested by seepage water in the scar after the collapse in spite of negative air temperatures, and modelling of rock temperatures that indicate warm permafrost (T > -2 °C).

  9. Focus on the Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewell, John

    1994-01-01

    Describes historical accounts of the manipulation and importance of the Earth and its mineral resources. A foldout, "Out of the Rock," provides a collection of activities and information that helps make integration of the aforementioned concepts easy. (ZWH)

  10. Our World: Lunar Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Learn about NASA'€™s Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. See how NASA protects these precious moon rocks brought to Earth by the Apollo astronauts. Explore t...

  11. Many-Layered Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-23

    This MOC image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rocks in a crater in the northwestern part of Schiaparelli basin. The repetition of these horizontal layers suggests the sediments could have been deposited in an ancient crater lake

  12. Rock in Its Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCluskey, Thomas

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the following musical elements of rock: rhythm, melody, harmony, and form. A impromptu analysis made at a session of the Youth Music Symposium, July 25, 1969. Remarks transcribed from tape. (Author/AP)

  13. Prominent Rocks - 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-13

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image from NASA Mars Pathfinder. Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

  14. Terby's Layered Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    14 March 2004 Layered rock outcrops are common all across Mars, and the Mars rover, Opportunity, has recently investigated some layered rocks in Meridiani Planum. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered sedimentary rocks in northern Terby Crater, located just north of the giant Hellas Basin near 27.5oS, 285.8oW. Hundreds of layers are exposed in a deposit several kilometers thick within Terby. A history of events that shaped the northern Hellas region is recorded in these rocks, just waiting for a person or robot to investigate. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  15. Broken Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    18 May 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows broken-up blocks of sedimentary rock in western Candor Chasma. There are several locations in western Candor that exhibit this pattern of broken rock. The manner in which these landforms were created is unknown; it is possible that there was a landslide or a meteoritic impact that broke up the materials. One attribute that is known: in some of these cases, it seems that the rock was broken and then buried by later sedimentary rocks, before later being exhumed so that they can be seen from orbit today.

    Location near: 6.9oS, 75.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  16. Ancient Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-469, 31 August 2003

    The terraced area in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image is an outcropping of ancient, sedimentary rock. It occurs in a crater in western Arabia Terra near 10.8oN, 4.5oW. Sedimentary rocks provide a record of past environments on Mars. Field work will likely be required to begin to get a good understanding of the nature of the record these rocks contain. Their generally uniform thickness and repeated character suggests that deposition of fine sediment in this crater was episodic, if not cyclic. These rocks might be indicators of an ancient lake, or they might have been deposited from grains settling out of an earlier, thicker, martian atmosphere. This image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated from the lower left.

  17. Focus on the Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewell, John

    1994-01-01

    Describes historical accounts of the manipulation and importance of the Earth and its mineral resources. A foldout, "Out of the Rock," provides a collection of activities and information that helps make integration of the aforementioned concepts easy. (ZWH)

  18. Writing Rock Music Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donal

    1980-01-01

    Suggests ways student reviewers of rock music groups can write better reviews. Among the suggestions made are that reviewers occasionally discuss the audience or what makes a particular group unique, support general comment with detail, and avoid ecstatic adjectives. (TJ)

  19. East Candor Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    24 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a thick, massive outcrop of light-toned rock exposed within eastern Candor Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Dark, windblown sand has banked against the lower outcrop slopes. Outcrops such as this in the Valles Marineris chasms have been known since Mariner 9 images were obtained in 1972. However, the debate as to whether these represent sedimentary or igneous rocks has not been settled within the Mars science community. In either case, they have the physical properties of sedimentary rock (that is, they are formed of fine-grained materials), but some igneous rocks made up of volcanic ash may also exhibit these properties. This image is located near 7.8oS, 65.3oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  20. Terby's Layered Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    14 March 2004 Layered rock outcrops are common all across Mars, and the Mars rover, Opportunity, has recently investigated some layered rocks in Meridiani Planum. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered sedimentary rocks in northern Terby Crater, located just north of the giant Hellas Basin near 27.5oS, 285.8oW. Hundreds of layers are exposed in a deposit several kilometers thick within Terby. A history of events that shaped the northern Hellas region is recorded in these rocks, just waiting for a person or robot to investigate. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  1. Mars Rock Analysis Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-12

    Michael Meyer (left), lead scientist, Mars Exploration Program at NASA Headquarters, speaks at a news conference presenting findings of the Curiosity rover's analysis of the first sample of rock powder collected on Mars, Tuesday, March 12, 2013 in Washington. The rock sample collected shows ancient Mars could have supported living microbes. John Grotzinger, Curiosity project scientist, California Institute of Technology is seen on the right. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. Fractal Geometry of Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Radlinski, A.P.; Radlinska, E.Z.; Agamalian, M.; Wignall, G.D.; Lindner, P.; Randl, O.G.

    1999-04-01

    The analysis of small- and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering data for sedimentary rocks shows that the pore-rock fabric interface is a surface fractal (D{sub s}=2.82) over 3 orders of magnitude of the length scale and 10 orders of magnitude in intensity. The fractal dimension and scatterer size obtained from scanning electron microscopy image processing are consistent with neutron scattering data. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Mars Rock Analysis Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-12

    Paul Mahaffy (right), principal investigator for Curiosity's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, demonstrates how the SAM instrument drilled and captured rock samples on the surface of Mars at a news conference, Tuesday, March 12, 2013 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The analysis of the rock sample collected shows ancient Mars could have supported living microbes. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Evolution of sedimentary rock formation of a rock association level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, V. G.

    2017-07-01

    The evolution of sedimentary rock formation of a highly organized level (paragenetic rock associations) is more complex than that of a poorly organized level (rocks). Subjacent rock associations are established for the entire geological evolution of the Earth: they varied in time and were obsolescent or, in contrast, nascent and momentary. A certain cyclicity of evolution is identified along with directed changes.

  5. Wall surveyor project report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Johnston, B.C.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-02-22

    A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is not fieldable yet, it has successfully scanned the test walls and produced real-time images identifying the walls. It is planned to optimize and package the evaluation wall surveyor into a hand held unit.

  6. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  7. Rock and soil mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Derski, W.; Izbicki, R.; Kisiel, I.; Mroz, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Although theoretical in character, this book provides a useful source of information for those dealing with practical problems relating to rock and soil mechanics - a discipline which, in the view of the authors, attempts to apply the theory of continuum to the mechanical investigation of rock and soil media. The book is in two separate parts. The first part, embodying the first three chapters, is devoted to a description of the media of interest. Chapter 1 introduces the main argument and discusses the essence of the discipline and its links with other branches of science which are concerned, on the one hand, with technical mechanics and, on the other, with the properties, origins, and formation of rock and soil strata under natural field conditions. Chapter 2 describes mechanical models of bodies useful for the purpose of the discourse and defines the concept of the limit shear resistance of soils and rocks. Chapter 3 gives the actual properties of soils and rocks determined from experiments in laboratories and in situ. Several tests used in geotechnical engineering are described and interconnections between the physical state of rocks and soils and their rheological parameters are considered.

  8. Petrology of metamorphic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Suk, M.

    1983-01-01

    ''Petrology of Metamorphic Rocks'' reviews Central European opinions about the origin and formation of metamorphic rocks and their genetic systems, confronting the works of such distinguished European scientists as Rosenbusch, Becke, Niggli, Sander, Eskola, Barth and others with present-day knowledge and the results of Soviet and American investigations. The initial chapters discuss the processes that give rise to metamorphic rocks, and the main differences between regional metamorphism and other types of alterations, the emphasis being laid on the material characteristic of the processes of metamorphism, metasomatism and ultrametamorphism. Further chapters give a brief characterization of research methods, together with a detailed genetic classification based on the division of primary rocks into igneous rocks, sediments and ore materials. The effects of metamorphic alterations and those of the properties of the primary rocks are analyzed on the basis of examples taken chiefly from the Bohemian Massif, the West Carpathians, other parts of the European Variscides, from the crystalline Scandinavian Shelf in Norway and Finland, and from the Alps. Typical examples are documented by a number of charts, photographs and petrographical - particularly petrochemical - data.

  9. If walls could talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The plant cell wall is very complex, both in structure and function. The wall components and the mechanical properties of the wall have been implicated in conveying information that is important for morphogenesis. Proteoglycans, fragments of polysaccharides and the structural integrity of the wall may relay signals that influence cellular differentiation and growth control. Furthering our knowledge of cell wall structure and function is likely to have a profound impact on our understanding of how plant cells communicate with the extracellular environment.

  10. If walls could talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The plant cell wall is very complex, both in structure and function. The wall components and the mechanical properties of the wall have been implicated in conveying information that is important for morphogenesis. Proteoglycans, fragments of polysaccharides and the structural integrity of the wall may relay signals that influence cellular differentiation and growth control. Furthering our knowledge of cell wall structure and function is likely to have a profound impact on our understanding of how plant cells communicate with the extracellular environment.

  11. Rock and Roll at the Apollo 17 Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2016-06-01

    Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan and Harrison H. (Jack) Schmitt collected 243 pounds (110 kg) of rock and regolith samples during 22 hours working on the lunar surface during the Apollo 17 mission in December 1972, while Astronaut Ronald Evans orbited in the command module. The field observations, audio descriptions, and photographs coupled with orbital data and detailed, laboratory analyses of Apollo samples provided unprecedented information about the Moon and its geologic history. The Apollo samples continue to inspire new questions and answers about the Moon. Debra Hurwitz and David Kring (Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute; Hurwitz now at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) were particularly interested in solving the mystery of where the boulders came from at the base of the North Massif (station 6) and at the base of the South Massif (station 2) from which Apollo 17 astronauts collected samples of impact melt breccias. The breccias were unequivocally formed by impact processes, but forty years of analyses had not yet determined unambiguously which impact event was responsible. Was it the basin-forming event of the landing site's neighbor Serenitatis (possibly Nectarian age); the larger, nearby Imbrium basin (Imbrian age and one of the last large basins to form); a combination of these impacts or an impact event older or younger than all of the above. Tracking down the origin of the boulders would ideally unravel details of the formation age of the breccias and, ultimately, help with the historical record of basin formation on the Moon. Hurwitz and Kring verified the boulders rolled down from massif walls - Apollo 17 impact melt breccias originated in massif material, not from the Sculptured Hills, an overlying geologic unit. But the relative geologic context is easier to explain than the absolute age, at least until some discrepancies are resolved in existing Ar-Ar and U-Pb radiometric ages of the Apollo 17

  12. Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred; Onedera, Jill D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address selected aspects of depression in older adults. Specifically, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and interventions for depression in older adults are reviewed.

  13. Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred; Onedera, Jill D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address selected aspects of depression in older adults. Specifically, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and interventions for depression in older adults are reviewed.

  14. Pollack Crater's White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of White Rock in Pollack crater was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on February 3, 2007 at 1750 UTC (12:50 p.m. EST), near 8 degrees south latitude, 25 degrees east longitude. The CRISM image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) long and 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    First imaged by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1972, the enigmatic group of wind-eroded ridges known as White Rock has been the subject of many subsequent investigations. White Rock is located on the floor of Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. It measures some 15 by 18 kilometers (9 by 11 miles) and was named for its light-colored appearance. In contrast-enhanced images, the feature's higher albedo or reflectivity compared with the darker material on the floor of the crater makes it appear white. In reality, White Rock has a dull, reddish color more akin to Martian dust. This higher albedo as well as its location in a topographic low suggested to some researchers that White Rock may be an eroded remnant of an ancient lake deposit. As water in a desert lake on Earth evaporates, it leaves behind white-colored salts that it leached or dissolved out of the surrounding terrain. These salt deposits may include carbonates, sulfates, and chlorides.

    In 2001, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor measured White Rock and found no obvious signature of carbonates or sulfates, or any other indication that White Rock holds evaporite minerals. Instead, it found Martian dust.

    CRISM's challenge was to obtain greater detail of White Rock's mineralogical composition and how it formed. The instrument operates at a different wavelength range than TES, giving it greater sensitivity to carbonate, sulfate and phyllosilicate (clay-like) minerals. It also

  15. Pollack Crater's White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of White Rock in Pollack crater was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on February 3, 2007 at 1750 UTC (12:50 p.m. EST), near 8 degrees south latitude, 25 degrees east longitude. The CRISM image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) long and 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    First imaged by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1972, the enigmatic group of wind-eroded ridges known as White Rock has been the subject of many subsequent investigations. White Rock is located on the floor of Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. It measures some 15 by 18 kilometers (9 by 11 miles) and was named for its light-colored appearance. In contrast-enhanced images, the feature's higher albedo or reflectivity compared with the darker material on the floor of the crater makes it appear white. In reality, White Rock has a dull, reddish color more akin to Martian dust. This higher albedo as well as its location in a topographic low suggested to some researchers that White Rock may be an eroded remnant of an ancient lake deposit. As water in a desert lake on Earth evaporates, it leaves behind white-colored salts that it leached or dissolved out of the surrounding terrain. These salt deposits may include carbonates, sulfates, and chlorides.

    In 2001, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor measured White Rock and found no obvious signature of carbonates or sulfates, or any other indication that White Rock holds evaporite minerals. Instead, it found Martian dust.

    CRISM's challenge was to obtain greater detail of White Rock's mineralogical composition and how it formed. The instrument operates at a different wavelength range than TES, giving it greater sensitivity to carbonate, sulfate and phyllosilicate (clay-like) minerals. It also

  16. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  17. Thermoluminesence Properties and Ages along the Stony Creek, Hanging Wall of Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, O.; Theeraporn, C.; Takashima, I.; Shigematsu, N.; Little, T. A.; Boulton, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Alpine Fault, New Zealand is an oblique slip thrust with significantly high slip rate, and its dip-slip component causes the rapid uplift of the Southern Alps and the extremely high geothermal gradient in it. Thermoluminescence (TL) dating is a method using the phenomenon that energy accumulated in the crystal from radiation of surrounding radioactive elements is reemitted in the form of light when heating the minerals. This method covers a wide range of age from 1,000 to 1,000,000 years, and has relatively low reset temperature for the accumulation of radiation dose. Therefore, TL dating is a feasible geochronometry for the reconstruction of the thermal history of the area with very high uplifting rate. In order to determine uplifting rates and their distribution in the Southern Alps adjacent to the Alpine fault, ten rock samples were collected for TL dating in the distance 1 km from main fault plane along the Stony Creek. All the samples commonly include quartz veins which are folded tightly or in isoclinal form parallel to the foliations. TL dating was performed using quartz grains separated from host rock. A widely ranging TL ages are obtained from the hanging wall of the fault. The rocks within 600m from present shear zone yield ages ranging from 55.2 ka to 88.8 ka, showing older ages with distance from shear zone. Within 600 m to 900 m from the fault, relatively younger ages, 54.7 to 34.4 ka are obtained. Assuming the thermal gradient of 10 °C /100 m and exhumation rate of 10 m / kyr, the zeroing depth and temperature of TL signals is estimated from 350 to 900 m and from 45 to 100 °C, respectively. The range of TL ages is very large amounted to 50,000 years in the narrow zone. This may be responsible for the variety of TL zeroing temperatures in the hanging wall rocks rather than disturbance of thermal structure and/or inhomogeneity of uplifting rate in this area. Annealing tests are necessary to clarify the real properties of TL for each sample tested.

  18. Seismic Structural Considerations for the Stern and Base of Retaining Walls Subjected to Earthquake Ground Motions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Unit 4402JC, entitled “Soil-Structure Interaction for Seismic Evaluation of Earth - Retaining Lock and Cantilever Walls ” for which Dr. Robert M. Ebeling...Introduction Figure 1.3 Earthquake-induced flexural yielding of stem wall and permanent displacement The seismic evaluation of earth retaining wall ...effects depends on the reserve capacity available in the design for static earth pressures. This aspect is investigated for older retaining wall

  19. Seismic Structural Considerations for the Stem and Base of Retaining Walls Subjected to Earthquake Ground Motions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Structure Interaction for Seismic Evaluation of Earth - Retaining Lock and Cantilever Walls " for which Dr. Robert M. Ebeling, Engineering and Informatic...yielding of stem wall and permanent displacement The seismic evaluation of earth retaining wall structures is more complex due to soil-structure...for static earth pressures. This aspect is investigated for older retaining wall systems by examining the margin of safety inherent in the old working 4

  20. Ganges Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    24 May 2004 Mariner 9 images acquired in 1972 first revealed a large, light-toned, layered mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a higher-resolution view of these rocks than was achieved by Mariner 9 or Viking, and higher than can be obtained by Mars Odyssey or Mars Express. The image, with a resolution of about 3.7 meters (12 feet) per pixel, shows eroded layered rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma. These rocks record a history of events that occurred either in Ganges Chasma, or in the rocks brought to the surface by the opening of Ganges Chasma. Either way, the story they might tell could be as fascinating and unprecedented as the story told by sedimentary rocks investigated this year in Meridiani Planum by the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover ... no one knows. The image is located near 7.3oS, 48.8oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  1. Ganges Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    24 May 2004 Mariner 9 images acquired in 1972 first revealed a large, light-toned, layered mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a higher-resolution view of these rocks than was achieved by Mariner 9 or Viking, and higher than can be obtained by Mars Odyssey or Mars Express. The image, with a resolution of about 3.7 meters (12 feet) per pixel, shows eroded layered rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma. These rocks record a history of events that occurred either in Ganges Chasma, or in the rocks brought to the surface by the opening of Ganges Chasma. Either way, the story they might tell could be as fascinating and unprecedented as the story told by sedimentary rocks investigated this year in Meridiani Planum by the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover ... no one knows. The image is located near 7.3oS, 48.8oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  2. PBF Reactor Building (PER620). Camera faces south along west wall. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Reactor Building (PER-620). Camera faces south along west wall. Gap between native lava rock and concrete basement walls is being backfilled and compacted. Wire mesh protects workers from falling rock. Note penetrations for piping that will carry secondary coolant water to Cooling Tower. Photographer: Holmes. Date: June 15, 1967. INEEL negative no. 67-3665 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Alkaline igneous rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitton, J.G.; Upton, B.G.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this volume, an international team of scientists provides an up-to-date overview of the nature, origin, and evolution of alkaline magmas. Particular attention is paid to carbonatites, lamprophyres, and lamproites which are rock suites of current interest not recently reviewed elsewhere. Recent work on the classical alkaline provinces of East Africa, South Greenland, and the Kola Peninsula is included together with reviews of other areas of alkaline magmatism in North and South America, East Greenland, Europe, West Africa, and the ocean basins. Other papers discuss the impact of experimental isotopic and geochemical studies of the petrogenesis of alkaline rocks. This book will be of interest to petrologists and geochemists studying alkaline igneous rocks, and to other earth scientists as a reference on the rapidly expanding field of igneous petrology.

  4. Rock Deformation Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Harry

    The Third Rock Deformation Colloquium was held December 4, 1989, at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. Steve Kirby of the U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif., reported on actions taken by the rock deformation steering committee. Brian Wernicke of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., talked on the structural geology of the Great Basin.The steering committee voted for “Committee on Deformation of Earth Materials” as the name for the AGU technical committee on rock deformation, Kirby said. Considerable discussion has occurred in the steering committee over our relationship to the AGU Mineral Physics Committee. Indeed, Kirby will become chairman of that committee in 1990, underlining the overlap of the two groups. It was agreed that we will pursue closer association with Mineral Physics.

  5. Ladon Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    6 June 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rocks exposed by the fluids that carved the Ladon Valles system in the Erythraeum region of Mars. These rocks are so ancient that their sediments were deposited, cemented to form rock, and then eroded by the water (or other liquid) that carved Ladon Valles, so far back in Martian history that such liquids could still flow on the planet's surface.

    Location near: 20.8oS, 30.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  6. Sedimentary Rock Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-348, 2 May 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image acquired in March 2003 shows dozens of repeated layers of sedimentary rock in a western Arabia Terra crater at 8oN, 7oW. Wind has sculpted the layered forms into hills somewhat elongated toward the lower left (southwest). The dark patches at the bottom (south) end of the image are drifts of windblown sand. These sedimentary rocks might indicate that the crater was once the site of a lake--or they may result from deposition by wind in a completely dry, desert environment. Either way, these rocks have something important to say about the geologic history of Mars. The area shown is about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  7. West Candor Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock exposures in western Candor Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Most of west Candor's interior includes exposures of layered rock with very few superimposed impact craters. The rock may be very ancient, but the lack of craters suggests that the erosion of these materials is on-going.

    Location near: 6.3oS, 76.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  8. Faulted Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    27 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the layered, sedimentary rock outcrops that occur in a crater located at 8oN, 7oW, in western Arabia Terra. Dark layers and dark sand have enhanced the contrast of this scene. In the upper half of the image, one can see numerous lines that off-set the layers. These lines are faults along which the rocks have broken and moved. The regularity of layer thickness and erosional expression are taken as evidence that the crater in which these rocks occur might once have been a lake. The image covers an area about 1.9 km (1.2 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  9. Gale Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-439, 1 August 2003

    Gale Crater, located in the Aeolis region near 5.5oS, 222oW, contains a mound of layered sedimentary rock that stands higher than the rim of the crater. This giant mound suggests that the entire crater was not only once filled with sediment, it was also buried beneath sediment. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the eroded remains of the sedimentary rock that once filled Gale Crater. The layers form terraces; wind has eroded the material to form the tapered, pointed yardang ridges seen here. The small circular feature in the lower right quarter of the picture is a mesa that was once a small meteor impact crater that was filled, buried, then exhumed from within the sedimentary rock layers exposed here. This image is illuminated from the left.

  10. Eos Chaos Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in Eos Chaos, located near the east end of the Valles Marineris trough system. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte (upper half of image) and a high slope (lower half of image). The rocks might be sedimentary rocks, similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region.

    Location near: 12.9oS, 49.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  11. Sedimentary Rock Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-348, 2 May 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image acquired in March 2003 shows dozens of repeated layers of sedimentary rock in a western Arabia Terra crater at 8oN, 7oW. Wind has sculpted the layered forms into hills somewhat elongated toward the lower left (southwest). The dark patches at the bottom (south) end of the image are drifts of windblown sand. These sedimentary rocks might indicate that the crater was once the site of a lake--or they may result from deposition by wind in a completely dry, desert environment. Either way, these rocks have something important to say about the geologic history of Mars. The area shown is about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  12. Ladon Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    6 June 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rocks exposed by the fluids that carved the Ladon Valles system in the Erythraeum region of Mars. These rocks are so ancient that their sediments were deposited, cemented to form rock, and then eroded by the water (or other liquid) that carved Ladon Valles, so far back in Martian history that such liquids could still flow on the planet's surface.

    Location near: 20.8oS, 30.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  13. In-situ Rock Spalling Strength near Excavation Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, M.; Kaiser, P. K.

    2014-03-01

    It is widely accepted that the in-situ strength of massive rocks is approximately 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS, where UCS is the uniaxial compressive strength obtained from unconfined tests using diamond drilling core samples with a diameter around 50 mm. In addition, it has been suggested that the in-situ rock spalling strength, i.e., the strength of the wall of an excavation when spalling initiates, can be set to the crack initiation stress determined from laboratory tests or field microseismic monitoring. These findings were supported by back-analysis of case histories where failure had been carefully documented, using either Kirsch's solution (with approximated circular tunnel geometry and hence σ max = 3σ 1 -σ 3) or simplified numerical stress modeling (with a smooth tunnel wall boundary) to approximate the maximum tangential stress σ max at the excavation boundary. The ratio of σ max /UCS is related to the observed depth of failure and failure initiation occurs when σ max is roughly equal to 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS. In this article, it is suggested that these approaches ignore one of the most important factors, the irregularity of the excavation boundary, when interpreting the in-situ rock strength. It is demonstrated that the "actual" in-situ spalling strength of massive rocks is not equal to 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS, but can be as high as 0.8 ± 0.05 UCS when surface irregularities are considered. It is demonstrated using the Mine-by tunnel notch breakout example that when the realistic "as-built" excavation boundary condition is honored, the "actual" in-situ rock strength, given by 0.8 UCS, can be applied to simulate progressive brittle rock failure process satisfactorily. The interpreted, reduced in-situ rock strength of 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS without considering geometry irregularity is therefore only an "apparent" rock strength.

  14. Digital carbonate rock physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenger, Erik H.; Vialle, Stephanie; Lebedev, Maxim; Uribe, David; Osorno, Maria; Duda, Mandy; Steeb, Holger

    2016-08-01

    Modern estimation of rock properties combines imaging with advanced numerical simulations, an approach known as digital rock physics (DRP). In this paper we suggest a specific segmentation procedure of X-ray micro-computed tomography data with two different resolutions in the µm range for two sets of carbonate rock samples. These carbonates were already characterized in detail in a previous laboratory study which we complement with nanoindentation experiments (for local elastic properties). In a first step a non-local mean filter is applied to the raw image data. We then apply different thresholds to identify pores and solid phases. Because of a non-neglectable amount of unresolved microporosity (micritic phase) we also define intermediate threshold values for distinct phases. Based on this segmentation we determine porosity-dependent values for effective P- and S-wave velocities as well as for the intrinsic permeability. For effective velocities we confirm an observed two-phase trend reported in another study using a different carbonate data set. As an upscaling approach we use this two-phase trend as an effective medium approach to estimate the porosity-dependent elastic properties of the micritic phase for the low-resolution images. The porosity measured in the laboratory is then used to predict the effective rock properties from the observed trends for a comparison with experimental data. The two-phase trend can be regarded as an upper bound for elastic properties; the use of the two-phase trend for low-resolution images led to a good estimate for a lower bound of effective elastic properties. Anisotropy is observed for some of the considered subvolumes, but seems to be insignificant for the analysed rocks at the DRP scale. Because of the complexity of carbonates we suggest using DRP as a complementary tool for rock characterization in addition to classical experimental methods.

  15. Theory of wing rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C. H.; Lan, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    A theory is developed for predicting wing rock characteristics. From available data, it can be concluded that wing rock is triggered by flow asymmetries, developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model that includes all essential aerodynamic nonlinearities is developed. The Beecham-Titchener method is applied to obtain approximate analytic solutions for the amplitude and frequency of the limit cycle based on the three degree-of-freedom equations of motion. An iterative scheme is developed to calculate the average aerodynamic derivatives and dynamic characteristics at limit cycle conditions. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.

  16. Rock Outcrops near Hellas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    7 October 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in a pitted and eroded region just northeast of Hellas Planitia. The light-toned materials are most likely sedimentary rocks deposited early in martian history (but long after the Hellas Basin formed by a giant asteroid or comet impact). The scene also includes a plethora of large dark-toned, windblown ripples. The image is located near 27.2oS, 280.7oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  17. Sedimentary Rock Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    29 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows knobs of remnant, wind-eroded, layered sedimentary rock that once completely covered the floor of a crater located west of the Sinus Meridiani region of Mars. Sedimentary rock outcrops are common throughout the Sinus Meridiani region and its surrounding cratered terrain.

    Location near: 2.2oN, 7.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  18. Sedimentary Rock Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    27 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layers of sedimentary rock in a crater in western Arabia Terra. Layered rock records the history of a place, but an orbiter image alone cannot tell the entire story. These materials record some past episodes of deposition of fine-grained material in an impact crater that is much larger than the image shown here. The picture is located near 3.4oN, 358.7oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi.) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  19. Sedimentary Rocks and Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    25 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows buttes composed of light-toned, sedimentary rock exposed by erosion within a crater occurring immediately west of Schiaparelli Basin near 4.0oS, 347.9oW. Surrounding these buttes is a field of dark sand dunes and lighter-toned, very large windblown ripples. The sedimentary rocks might indicate that the crater interior was once the site of a lake. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  20. Sedimentary Rock Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    29 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows knobs of remnant, wind-eroded, layered sedimentary rock that once completely covered the floor of a crater located west of the Sinus Meridiani region of Mars. Sedimentary rock outcrops are common throughout the Sinus Meridiani region and its surrounding cratered terrain.

    Location near: 2.2oN, 7.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  1. Layered Rocks In Melas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    20 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), image shows exposures of finely-bedded sedimentary rocks in western Melas Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Rocks similar to these occur in neighboring west Candor Chasma, as well. The picture is located near 9.1oS, 74.5oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the left/upper left.

  2. Diverse Rock Named Squash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image from the Sojourner rover's right front camera was taken on Sol 27. The Pathfinder lander is seen at middle left. The large rock at right, nicknamed 'Squash', exhibits a diversity of textures. It looks very similar to a conglomerate, a type of rock found on Earth that forms from sedimentary processes.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  3. Opportunity Rocks Again!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This high-resolution image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera highlights a portion of the puzzling rock outcropping that scientists eagerly wait to investigate. Presently, Opportunity is on its lander facing northeast; the outcropping lies to the northwest. These layered rocks measure only 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall and are thought to be either volcanic ash deposits or sediments carried by water or wind. Data from the panoramic camera's near-infrared, blue and green filters were combined to create this approximate true color image.

  4. Soil and Rock Yogi

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-06

    Several possible targets of study for rover Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument are seen in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 2. The smaller rock at left has been dubbed "Barnacle Bill," while the larger rock at right, approximately 3-4 meters from the lander, is now nicknamed "Yogi." Barnacle Bill is scheduled to be the first object of study for the APXS. Portions of a petal and deflated airbag are also visible at lower right. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00629

  5. Layered Rocks of Melas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    04 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered sedimentary rock outcrops exposed by erosion in southern Melas Chasma, one of the major Valles Marineris troughs. Such outcrops are common in southern Melas; they resemble the rock outcrops seen in some of the chaotic terrains and other Valles Marineris chasms. This image is located near 11.9oS, 74.6oW, and is about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  6. Layered Rocks in Ritchey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    14 May 2004 This March 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light- and dark-toned layered rock outcrops on the floor of Ritchey Crater, located near 28.9oS, 50.8oW. Some or all of these rocks may be sedimentary in origin. Erosion has left a couple of buttes standing on a more erosion-resistant plain. This picture covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  7. Rock Outcrops near Hellas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    7 October 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in a pitted and eroded region just northeast of Hellas Planitia. The light-toned materials are most likely sedimentary rocks deposited early in martian history (but long after the Hellas Basin formed by a giant asteroid or comet impact). The scene also includes a plethora of large dark-toned, windblown ripples. The image is located near 27.2oS, 280.7oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  8. Sedimentary Rock Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    27 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layers of sedimentary rock in a crater in western Arabia Terra. Layered rock records the history of a place, but an orbiter image alone cannot tell the entire story. These materials record some past episodes of deposition of fine-grained material in an impact crater that is much larger than the image shown here. The picture is located near 3.4oN, 358.7oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi.) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  9. Thermal Performance of Uninsulated and Partially Filled Wall Cavities: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ridouane, E. H.; Bianchi, M.

    2011-08-01

    Low-rise, wood-framed homes are the most common type of residential structures in the United States. Wood wall construction supports roofs efficiently and provides a stable frame for attaching interior and exterior wall coverings. Wall cavities are prevalent and increase thermal resistance, particularly when they are filled with insulating material. This paper describes detailed computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the thermal performance of uninsulated or partially filled wall cavities and accounts for conduction through framing, convection, and radiation. Parameters are ambient outdoor temperature, cavity surface emissivity, cavity aspect ratio, and insulation height. Understanding the thermal performance of uninsulated or partially insulated wall cavities is essential for conserving energy in residential buildings. The results can serve as input for building energy simulation tools such as DOE2 and EnergyPlus for modeling the temperature dependent energy performance of new and older homes with uninsulated or partially insulated walls.

  10. Fault Rock Variation as a Function of Host Rock Lithology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, A.; Diener, J.

    2013-12-01

    Fault rocks contain an integrated record of the slip history of a fault, and thereby reflect the deformation processes associated with fault slip. Within the Aus Granulite Terrane, Namibia, a number of Jurassic to Cretaceous age strike-slip faults cross-cut Precambrian high grade metamorphic rocks. These strike-slip faults were active at subgreenschist conditions and occur in a variety of host rock lithologies. Where the host rock contains significant amounts of hydrous minerals, representing granulites that have undergone retrogressive metamorphism, the fault rock is dominated by hydrothermal breccias. In anhydrous, foliated rocks interlayered with minor layers containing hydrous phyllosilicates, the fault rock is a cataclasite partially cemented by jasper and quartz. Where the host rock is an isotropic granitic rock the fault rock is predominantly a fine grained black fault rock. Cataclasites and breccias show evidence for multiple deformation events, whereas the fine grained black fault rocks appear to only record a single slip increment. The strike-slip faults observed all formed in the same general orientation and at a similar time, and it is unlikely that regional stress, strain rate, pressure and temperature varied between the different faults. We therefore conclude that the type of fault rock here depended on the host rock lithology, and that lithology alone accounts for why some faults developed a hydrothermal breccia, some cataclasite, and some a fine grained black fault rock. Consequently, based on the assumption that fault rocks reflect specific slip styles, lithology was also the main control on different fault slip styles in this area at the time of strike-slip fault activity. Whereas fine grained black fault rock is inferred to represent high stress events, hydrothermal breccia is rather related to events involving fluid pressure in excess of the least stress. Jasper-bearing cataclasites may represent faults that experienced dynamic weakening as seen

  11. FAST TRACK PAPER: Older crust underlies Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulger, G. R.

    2006-05-01

    The oldest rocks outcropping in northwest Iceland are ~16 Myr old and in east Iceland ~13 Myr. The full plate spreading rate in this region during the Cenozoic has been ~2 cm a-1, and thus these rocks are expected to be separated by ~290 km. They are, however, ~500 km apart. The conclusion is inescapable that an expanse of older crust ~210 km wide underlies Iceland, submerged beneath younger lavas. This conclusion is independent of any considerations regarding spreading ridge migrations, jumps, the simultaneous existence of multiple active ridges, three-dimensionality, or subsidence of the lava pile. Such complexities bear on the distribution and age of the older crust, but not on its existence or its width. If it is entirely oceanic its maximum age is most likely 26-37 Ma. It is at least 150 km in north-south extent, but may taper and extend beneath south Iceland. Part of it might be continental-a southerly extension of the Jan Mayen microcontinent. This older crust contributes significantly to crustal thickness beneath Iceland and the ~40 km local thickness measured seismically is thus probably an overestimate of present-day steady-state crustal production at Iceland.

  12. Kilbuck terrane: oldest known rocks in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Box, S.E.; Moll-Stalcup, E. J.; Wooden, J.L.; Bradshaw, J.Y.

    1990-01-01

    The Kilbuck terrane in southwestern Alaska is a narrow, thin crustal sliver or flake of amphibolite facies orthogneiss. The igneous protolith of this gneiss was a suite of subduction-related plutonic rocks. U-Pb data on zircons from trondhjemitic and granitic samples yield upper-intercept (igneous) ages of 2070 ?? 16 and 2040 ?? 74 Ma, respectively. Nd isotope data from these rocks suggest that a diorite-tonalite-trondhjemite suite (??Nd[T] = +2.1 to +2.7; T is time of crystallization) evolved from partial melts of depleted mantle with no discernible contamination by older crust, whereas a coeval granitic pluton (??Nd[T] = -5.7) contains a significant component derived from Archean crust. Orthogneisses with similar age and Nd isotope characteristics are found in the Idono complex 250 km to the north. Early Proterozoic rocks are unknown elsewhere in Alaska. The possibility that the Kilbuck terrane was displaced from provinces of similar age in other cratons (e.g., Australian, Baltic, Guiana, and west African shields), or from the poorly dated Siberian craton, cannot be excluded. -from Authors

  13. Halogenation of microcapsule walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. R.; Schaab, C. K.; Scott, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Procedure for halogenation of confining walls of both gelatin and gelatin-phenolic resin capsules is similar to that used for microencapsulation. Ten percent halogen content renders capsule wall nonburning; any higher content enhances flame-retardant properties of selected internal phase material. Halogenation decreases permeability of wall material to encapsulated materials.

  14. The Lamportian cell wall

    SciTech Connect

    Keiliszewski, M.; Lamport, D. )

    1991-05-01

    The Lamportian Warp-Weft hypothesis suggests a cellulose-extensin interpenetrating network where extensin mechanically couples the load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in a wall matrix that is best described as a microcomposite. This model is based on data gathered from the extensin-rich walls of tomato and sycamore cell suspension culture, wherein extensin precursors are insolubilized into the wall by undefined crosslinks. The authors recent work with cell walls isolated from intact tissue as well as walls from suspension cultured cells of the graminaceous monocots maize and rice, the non-graminaceous monocot asparagus, the primitive herbaceous dicot sugar beet, and the gymnosperm Douglas Fir indicate that although extensins are ubiquitous to all plant species examined, they are not the major structural protein component of most walls examined. Amino acid analyses of intact and HF-treated walls shows a major component neither an HRGP, nor directly comparable to the glycine-rich wall proteins such as those associated with seed coat walls or the 67 mole% glycine-rich proteins cloned from petunia and soybean. Clearly, structural wall protein alternatives to extensin exist and any cell wall model must take that into account. If we assume that extracellular matrices are a priori network structures, then new Hypless' structural proteins in the maize cell wall raise questions about the sort of network these proteins create: the kinds of crosslinks involved; how they are formed; and the roles played by the small amounts of HRGPs.

  15. Bounce Rock Close-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This high-resolution panoramic camera blue filter image of the rock dubbed 'Bounce' was obtained up close, just before the rover placed its instruments on the rock for detailed study. The rock has a number of shiny surfaces and textures on it, some of which are unlike those seen in the Eagle Crater rock outcrop. Also, the rock was apparently moved or shaken when it was hit with the airbags, as can be seen by the gap and cracks in the soil around the rock. This image from sol 65 of the rover's journey was acquired using the panoramic camera's 430 nanometer filter.

  16. Teaching the Rock Cycle with Ease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereki, Debra

    2000-01-01

    Describes a hands-on lesson for teaching high school students the concept of the rock cycle using sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Students use a rock cycle diagram to identify pairs of rocks. From the rock cycle, students explain on paper how their first rock became the second rock and vice versa. (PVD)

  17. Teaching the Rock Cycle with Ease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereki, Debra

    2000-01-01

    Describes a hands-on lesson for teaching high school students the concept of the rock cycle using sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Students use a rock cycle diagram to identify pairs of rocks. From the rock cycle, students explain on paper how their first rock became the second rock and vice versa. (PVD)

  18. Mars Rock Analysis Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-12

    John Grunsfeld (at podium), Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters, asks one last question of the Mars Curiosity rover panel, Tuesday, March 12, 2013 in Washington. The news conference covered the findings that the analysis of the rock sample collected shows ancient Mars could have supported living microbes. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. Slippery Rock University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnhold, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Slippery Rock University (SRU), located in western Pennsylvania, is one of 14 state-owned institutions of higher education in Pennsylvania. The university has a rich tradition of providing professional preparation programs in special education, therapeutic recreation, physical education, and physical therapy for individuals with disabilities.…

  20. Rocking and Rolling Rattlebacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    A rattleback is a well-known physics toy that has a preferred direction of rotation. If it is spun about a vertical axis in the "wrong" direction, it will slow down, start rocking from end to end, and then spin in the opposite (i.e. preferred) direction. Many articles have been written about rattlebacks. Some are highly mathematical and…

  1. Life on the rocks.

    PubMed

    Gorbushina, Anna A

    2007-07-01

    Biofilms are interface micro-habitats formed by microbes that differ markedly from those of the ambient environment. The term 'subaerial biofilm' (SAB) was coined for microbial communities that develop on solid mineral surfaces exposed to the atmosphere. Subaerial biofilms are ubiquitous, self-sufficient, miniature microbial ecosystems that are found on buildings, bare rocks in deserts, mountains, and at all latitudes where direct contact with the atmosphere and solar radiation occurs. Subaerial biofilms on exposed terrestrial surfaces are characterized by patchy growth that is dominated by associations of fungi, algae, cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria. Inherent subaerial settlers include specialized actinobacteria (e.g. Geodermatophilus), cyanobacteria and microcolonial fungi. Individuals within SAB communities avoid sexual reproduction, but cooperate extensively with one another especially to avoid loss of energy and nutrients. Subaerial biofilm metabolic activity centres on retention of water, protecting the cells from fluctuating environmental conditions and solar radiation as well as prolonging their vegetative life. Atmospheric aerosols, gases and propagatory particles serve as sources of nutrients and inoculum for these open communities. Subaerial biofilms induce chemical and physical changes to rock materials, and they penetrate the mineral substrate contributing to rock and mineral decay, which manifests itself as bio-weathering of rock surfaces. Given their characteristic slow and sensitive growth, SAB may also serve as bioindicators of atmospheric and/or climate change.

  2. ROUGH ROCK DEMONSTRATION SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FORBES, JACK

    THE ROUGH ROCK DEMONSTRATION SCHOOL IS LOCATED IN NORTHEASTERN ARIZONA, WHERE THE NAVAJO LANGUAGE IS UNIVERSALLY SPOKEN BY THE NAVAJO PEOPLE. IT IS LOCATED ON A NAVAJO RESERVATION AND WAS DESIGNED AS A BIA EXPERIMENTAL SCHOOL TO SERVE 200 ELEMENTARY PUPILS, MOST OF WHOM ARE IN THE BOARDING SCHOOL SITUATION. AN OBJECTIVE OF THE SCHOOL IS TO GAIN…

  3. Wind Carved Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-19

    The distinctively fluted surface and elongated hills in this image in Medusae Fossae are caused by wind erosion of a soft fine-grained rock. Called yardangs, these features are aligned with the prevailing wind direction. This wind direction would have dominated for a very long time to carve these large-scale features into the exposed rock we see today. Yardangs not only reveal the strength and direction of historic winds, but also reveal something of the host rock itself. Close inspection by HiRISE shows an absence of boulders or rubble, especially along steep yardang cliffs and buttresses. The absence of rubble and the scale of the yardangs tells us that the host rock consists only of weakly cemented fine granules in tens of meters or more thick deposits. Such deposits could have come from extended settling of volcanic ash, atmospheric dust, or accumulations of wind deposited fine sands. After a time these deposits became cemented and cohesive, illustrated by the high standing relief and exposed cliffs. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21111

  4. Curiosity First Rock Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-17

    This mosaic image shows the first target NASA Curiosity rover aims to zap ChemCam instrument. ChemCam will be firing a laser at this rock, provisionally named N165, and analyzing the glowing, ionized gas, called plasma, that the laser excites.

  5. Reducing Rock Climbing Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attarian, Aram

    1998-01-01

    Provides checklists that can be used as risk-management tools to evaluate rock-climbing programs: developing goals, policies, and procedures; inspecting the climbing environment; maintaining and inspecting equipment; protecting participants; and managing staff (hiring, training, retraining, and evaluating) and campers (experience level, needs, and…

  6. The River Rock School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereaux, Teresa Thomas

    1999-01-01

    In the early 1920s, the small Appalachian community of Damascus, Virginia, used private subscriptions and volunteer labor to build a 15-classroom school made of rocks from a nearby river and chestnut wood from nearby forests. The school building's history, uses for various community activities, and current condition are described. (SV)

  7. Rocking and Rolling Rattlebacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    A rattleback is a well-known physics toy that has a preferred direction of rotation. If it is spun about a vertical axis in the "wrong" direction, it will slow down, start rocking from end to end, and then spin in the opposite (i.e. preferred) direction. Many articles have been written about rattlebacks. Some are highly mathematical and…

  8. The River Rock School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereaux, Teresa Thomas

    1999-01-01

    In the early 1920s, the small Appalachian community of Damascus, Virginia, used private subscriptions and volunteer labor to build a 15-classroom school made of rocks from a nearby river and chestnut wood from nearby forests. The school building's history, uses for various community activities, and current condition are described. (SV)

  9. Slippery Rock University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnhold, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Slippery Rock University (SRU), located in western Pennsylvania, is one of 14 state-owned institutions of higher education in Pennsylvania. The university has a rich tradition of providing professional preparation programs in special education, therapeutic recreation, physical education, and physical therapy for individuals with disabilities.…

  10. 'Scarecrow' Climbs Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Scarecrow, a mobility-testing model for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, easily traverses large rocks in the Mars Yard testing area at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover is in development for launch in 2009. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the mission for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  11. Elastic Rock Heterogeneity Controls Brittle Rock Failure during Hydraulic Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenbruch, C.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    For interpretation and inversion of microseismic data it is important to understand, which properties of the reservoir rock control the occurrence probability of brittle rock failure and associated seismicity during hydraulic stimulation. This is especially important, when inverting for key properties like permeability and fracture conductivity. Although it became accepted that seismic events are triggered by fluid flow and the resulting perturbation of the stress field in the reservoir rock, the magnitude of stress perturbations, capable of triggering failure in rocks, can be highly variable. The controlling physical mechanism of this variability is still under discussion. We compare the occurrence of microseismic events at the Cotton Valley gas field to elastic rock heterogeneity, obtained from measurements along the treatment wells. The heterogeneity is characterized by scale invariant fluctuations of elastic properties. We observe that the elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation controls the occurrence of brittle failure. In particular, we find that the density of events is increasing with the Brittleness Index (BI) of the rock, which is defined as a combination of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We evaluate the physical meaning of the BI. By applying geomechanical investigations we characterize the influence of fluctuating elastic properties in rocks on the probability of brittle rock failure. Our analysis is based on the computation of stress fluctuations caused by elastic heterogeneity of rocks. We find that elastic rock heterogeneity causes stress fluctuations of significant magnitude. Moreover, the stress changes necessary to open and reactivate fractures in rocks are strongly related to fluctuations of elastic moduli. Our analysis gives a physical explanation to the observed relation between elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation and the occurrence of brittle failure during hydraulic reservoir stimulations. A crucial factor for understanding

  12. Rocks of the Columbia Hills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blaney, D.L.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L.; Farrand, W. H.; Gorevan, S.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J.; Kusack, A.; McSween, H.Y.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Ruff, S.W.; Wang, A.; Yen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified five distinct rock types in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Clovis Class rock is a poorly sorted clastic rock that has undergone substantial aqueous alteration. We interpret it to be aqueously altered ejecta deposits formed by impacts into basaltic materials. Wishstone Class rock is also a poorly sorted clastic rock that has a distinctive chemical composition that is high in Ti and P and low in Cr. Wishstone Class rock may be pyroclastic or impact in origin. Peace Class rock is a sedimentary material composed of ultramafic sand grains cemented by significant quantities of Mg- and Ca-sulfates. Peace Class rock may have formed when water briefly saturated the ultramafic sands and evaporated to allow precipitation of the sulfates. Watchtower Class rocks are similar chemically to Wishstone Class rocks and have undergone widely varying degrees of near-isochemical aqueous alteration. They may also be ejecta deposits, formed by impacts into Wishstone-rich materials and altered by small amounts of water. Backstay Class rocks are basalt/trachybasalt lavas that were emplaced in the Columbia Hills after the other rock classes were, either as impact ejecta or by localized volcanic activity. The geologic record preserved in the rocks of the Columbia Hills reveals a period very early in Martian history in which volcanic materials were widespread, impact was a dominant process, and water was commonly present. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Rocks of the Columbia Hills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Blaney, Diana L.; Clark, Benton C.; Crumpler, Larry; Farrand, William H.; Gorevan, Stephen; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Hurowitz, Joel; Kusack, Alastair; McSween, Harry Y.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Ruff, Steven W.; Wang, Alian; Yen, Albert

    2006-02-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified five distinct rock types in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Clovis Class rock is a poorly sorted clastic rock that has undergone substantial aqueous alteration. We interpret it to be aqueously altered ejecta deposits formed by impacts into basaltic materials. Wishstone Class rock is also a poorly sorted clastic rock that has a distinctive chemical composition that is high in Ti and P and low in Cr. Wishstone Class rock may be pyroclastic or impact in origin. Peace Class rock is a sedimentary material composed of ultramafic sand grains cemented by significant quantities of Mg- and Ca-sulfates. Peace Class rock may have formed when water briefly saturated the ultramafic sands and evaporated to allow precipitation of the sulfates. Watchtower Class rocks are similar chemically to Wishstone Class rocks and have undergone widely varying degrees of near-isochemical aqueous alteration. They may also be ejecta deposits, formed by impacts into Wishstone-rich materials and altered by small amounts of water. Backstay Class rocks are basalt/trachybasalt lavas that were emplaced in the Columbia Hills after the other rock classes were, either as impact ejecta or by localized volcanic activity. The geologic record preserved in the rocks of the Columbia Hills reveals a period very early in Martian history in which volcanic materials were widespread, impact was a dominant process, and water was commonly present.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A breeding osprey occupies a nest constructed on a speaker pole in the lower parking lot of the KSC Press Site. Eggs have been sighted in the nest. The NASA logo in the background is painted on an outer wall of the 525-foot-tall Vehicle Assembly Building nearby. Known as a fish hawk, the osprey selects sites of opportunity in which to nest -- from trees and telephone poles to rocks or even flat ground. In North America, it is found from Alaska and Newfoundland to Florida and the Gulf Coast. Osprey nests are found throughout the Kennedy Space Center and surrounding Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-01-14

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A breeding osprey occupies a nest constructed on a speaker pole in the lower parking lot of the KSC Press Site. Eggs have been sighted in the nest. The NASA logo in the background is painted on an outer wall of the 525-foot-tall Vehicle Assembly Building nearby. Known as a fish hawk, the osprey selects sites of opportunity in which to nest -- from trees and telephone poles to rocks or even flat ground. In North America, it is found from Alaska and Newfoundland to Florida and the Gulf Coast. Osprey nests are found throughout the Kennedy Space Center and surrounding Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

  15. View of front (north) and east walls of the Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front (north) and east walls of the Office, Childs power plant. Rock cairn in front frames the 1976 National Historic Mechanical Engineering plaque. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Office, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  16. 12. View of the swimming pool retaining wall, the steps, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View of the swimming pool retaining wall, the steps, ascending to the rock garden, and the Belvedere (more distant view). The view includes the bronze sculpture "Bather at the Seine" by Maillol (Ca. 1921), and a honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  17. 13. View of the swimming pool retaining wall, the steps, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of the swimming pool retaining wall, the steps, ascending to the rock garden, and the Belvedere (less distant view). The view includes the bronze sculpture "Bather at the Seine" by Maillol (Ca. 1921), and a honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  18. The Conversion of Exterior Wall Facings for Climbing Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Bill; Toft, Murray

    1979-01-01

    The conversion of existing exterior walls to provide facilities for outdoor rock climbing activities is described with particular emphasis on design to provide practice in basic movement skills such as correct use of holds, balance, controlled change of position, traversing, and moving up and down. (JMF)

  19. Climbing Walls and Climbing Tuitions. A Delta Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshstein, Rita J.; Kadamus, James A.

    2012-01-01

    High-end amenities like rock climbing walls on college campuses have become an easy target for those attempting to explain rising tuitions. This Delta Perspective looks beyond the media attention surrounding these "frills" to examine more serious questions about spending on campus facilities, college spending in general, and the real drivers of…

  20. Great wall...and lesser wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    What nature has covered up, humans have again exposed. Using images from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR), researchers have found remnants of two generations of the Great Wall of China buried beneath desert sands, 700 km west of Beijing. Erosion and wind storms had shielded parts of both walls from view, but the foundation now has been laid bare by remote sensors.

  1. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James A.; Meier, Wayne R.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  2. Wall contraction in Bloch wall films.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartran, D. S.; Bourne, H. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The phenomenon of wall contraction characterized by a peak in the velocity-field relationship and a region of negative differential mobility is observed in uniaxial magnetic thin films of various magnetic properties by careful interrupted-pulse experiments. The observed results agree quite well with the theory for bulk samples when the extensive flux closure of thin film walls is accounted for by a suitable empirical scaling factor.

  3. Wall of fundamental constants

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Peloso, Marco; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-02-15

    We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

  4. Martian Rocks Rich in Silicon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-11

    Data from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer APXS instrument on NASA Mars rover Curiosity show an unusual enrichment of silicon in the rocks dubbed Wildrose and Bonanza King, relative to other rocks studied at Gale Crater on Mars.

  5. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOEpatents

    Lindroth, David P.; Morrell, Roger J.; Blair, James R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  6. Inverting Images of the 40s: The Berlin Wall and Collective Amnesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loshitzky, Yosefa

    1995-01-01

    Examines images of World War II invoked in two live, international music concerts (one rock, one classical) celebrating the fall of the Berlin Wall. Argues that Western television's choice of imagery represented the Wall's demise as a marker of the end of the Cold War rather than a vanishing monument of Germany's conflicted struggle with Holocaust…

  7. Inverting Images of the 40s: The Berlin Wall and Collective Amnesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loshitzky, Yosefa

    1995-01-01

    Examines images of World War II invoked in two live, international music concerts (one rock, one classical) celebrating the fall of the Berlin Wall. Argues that Western television's choice of imagery represented the Wall's demise as a marker of the end of the Cold War rather than a vanishing monument of Germany's conflicted struggle with Holocaust…

  8. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  9. Influence of substrate rocks on Fe-Mn crust composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Morgan, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    Principal Component and other statistical analyses of chemical and mineralogical data of Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide crusts and their underlying rock substrates in the central Pacific indicate that substrate rocks do not influence crust composition. Two ridges near Johnston Atoll were dredged repetitively and up to seven substrate rock types were recovered from small areas of similar water depths. Crusts were analyzed mineralogically and chemically for 24 elements, and substrates were analyzed mineralogically and chemically for the 10 major oxides. Compositions of crusts on phosphatized substrates are distinctly different from crusts on substrates containing no phosphorite. However, that relationship only indicates that the episodes of phosphatization that mineralized the substrate rocks also mineralized the crusts that grew on them. A two-fold increase in copper contents in crusts that grew on phosphatized clastic substrate rocks, relative to crusts on other substrate rock types, is also associated with phosphatization and must have resulted from chemical reorganization during diagenesis. Phosphatized crusts show increases in Sr, Zn, Ca, Ba, Cu, Ce, V, and Mo contents and decreases in Fe, Si, and As contents relative to non-phosphatized crusts. Our statistical results support previous studies which show that crust compositions reflect predominantly direct precipitation from seawater (hydrogenetic), and to lesser extents reflect detrital input and diagenetic replacement of parts of the older crust generation by carbonate fluorapatite.

  10. Astronaut Charles Duke stands at rock adjacent to 'House Rock'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., Apollo 16 lunar module pilot, stands at a rock adjacent (south) to the huge 'House Rock' (barely out of view at right edge). Note shadow at extreme right center where the two moon-exploring crewmen of the mission sampled what they referred to as the 'eastwest split of House Rock' or the open space between this rock and 'House Rock'. Duke has a sample bag in his hand, and a lunar surface rake leans against the large boulder.

  11. Realistic Expectations for Rock Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerback, Mary Elizabeth; Azer, Nazmy

    1991-01-01

    Presents a rock classification scheme for use by beginning students. The scheme is based on rock textures (glassy, crystalline, clastic, and organic framework) and observable structures (vesicles and graded bedding). Discusses problems in other rock classification schemes which may produce confusion, misidentification, and anxiety. (10 references)…

  12. Tectonic constraints on a deep-seated rock slide in weathered crystalline rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, Luigi; Gullà, Giovanni

    2017-08-01

    Deep-seated rock slides (DSRSs), recognised as one of the most important mass wasting processes worldwide, involve large areas and cause several consequences in terms of environmental and economic damage; they result from a complex of controlling features and processes. DSRSs are common in Calabria (southern Italy) where the complex geo-structural setting plays a key role in controlling the geometry of the failure surface and its development. This paper describes an integrated multi-disciplinary approach to investigate a DSRS in Palaeozoic high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Sila Massif; it focuses on the definition of the internal structure and the predisposing factors of the Serra di Buda landslide near the town of Acri, which is a paradigm for numerous landslides in this area. An integrated interdisciplinary study based on geological, structural, and geomorphological investigations-including field observations of weathering grade of rocks, minero-petrographic characterisations, geotechnical investigations and, in particular, fifteen years of displacement monitoring-is presented. Stereoscopic analysis of aerial photographs and field observations indicate that the Serra di Buda landslide consists of two distinct compounded bodies: (i) an older and dormant body ( 7 ha) and (ii) a more recent and active body ( 13 ha) that overlies the previous one. The active landslide shows movement linked to a deep-seated translational rock slide (block slide); the velocity scale ranges from slow (1.6 m/year during paroxysmal stages) to extremely slow (< 16 mm/year during stable creep stages). The geological structures and rock weathering have played a key role in the landslide's initiation and further development. Steep slope angles, rugged topography, river deepening and erosion at the toe of the slope are also responsible for the formation of this landslide. In particular, the landslide shows a strongly tectonic constraint: the flanks are bounded by high-angle faults, and the

  13. Oxygen isotope studies of early Precambrian granitic rocks from the Giants Range batholith, northeastern Minnesota, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viswanathan, S.

    1974-01-01

    Oxygen isotope studies of granitic rocks from the 2.7 b.y.-old composite Giants Range batholith show that: (1) ??(O18)quartz values of 9 to 10 permil characterize relatively uncontaminated Lower Precambrian, magmatic granodiorites and granites; (2) granitic rocks thought to have formed by static granitization have ??(O18)quartz values that are 1 to 2 permil higher than magmatic granitic rocks; (3) satellite leucogranite bodies have values nearly identical to those of the main intrusive phases even where they transect O18-rich metasedimentary wall rocks; (4) oxygen isotopic interaction between the granitic melts and their O18-rich wall rocks was minimal; and (5) O18/O18 ratios of quartz grains in a metasomatic granite are largely inherited from the precursor rock, but during the progression - sedimentary parent ??? partially granitized parent ??? metasomatic granite ??? there is gradual decrease in ??(O18)quartz by 1 to 2 permil. ?? 1974.

  14. Reconstruction of the rock fall/avalanche frequency in the Mont Blanc massif since the Last Glacial Maximum. New results using 10Be cosmogenic dating and reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallach, Xavi; Ogier, Christophe; Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip; Carcaillet, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Rockfalls and rock avalanches are active processes in the Mont Blanc massif, with infrastructure and alpinists at risk. Thanks to a network of observers (hut keepers, mountain guides, alpinists) set up in 2007 present rockfalls are well surveyed and documented. Rockfall frequency over the past 150 years has been studied by comparison of historical photographs, showing that it strongly increased during the three last decades, especially during hot periods like the summer of 2003 and 2015, due to permafrost degradation driven by the climate change. In order to decipher the possible relationship between rockfall occurrence and the warmest periods of the Lateglacial and the Holocene, we start to study the morphodynamics of some selected high-elevated (>3000 m a.s.l.) rockwalls of the massif on a long timescale. Contrary to low altitude, deglaciated sites where study of large rockfall deposits allows to quantify frequency and magnitude of the process, rockfalls that detached from high-elevated rockwalls are no more noticeable as debris were absorbed and evacuated by the glaciers. Therefore, our study focuses on the rockfall scars. Their 10Be dating gives us the rock surface exposure age from present to far beyond the Last Glacial Maximum, interpreted as the rockfall ages. TCN dating of rockfalls has been carried out at the Aiguille du Midi in 2007 (Boehlert et al., 2008), and three other sites in the Mont Blanc massif in 2011 (Gallach et al., submitted). Here we present a new data set of rockfall dating carried out in 2015 that improves the 2007 and 2011 data. Furthermore, a relationship between the colour of the Mont Blanc granite and its exposure age has been shown: fresh rock surface is light grey (e.g. in recent rockfall scars) whereas weathered rock surface is in the range grey to orange/red: the redder a rock surface, the older its age. Here, reflectance spectroscopy is used to quantify the granite surface colour. Böhlert, R., Gruber, S., Egli, M., Maisch, M

  15. Rock burst governance of working face under igneous rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zhenxing; Yu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    As a typical failure phenomenon, rock burst occurs in many mines. It can not only cause the working face to cease production, but also cause serious damage to production equipment, and even result in casualties. To explore how to govern rock burst of working face under igneous rock, the 10416 working face in some mine is taken as engineering background. The supports damaged extensively and rock burst took place when the working face advanced. This paper establishes the mechanical model and conducts theoretical analysis and calculation to predict the fracture and migration mechanism and energy release of the thick hard igneous rock above the working face, and to obtain the advancing distance of the working face when the igneous rock fractures and critical value of the energy when rock burst occurs. Based on the specific conditions of the mine, this paper put forward three kinds of governance measures, which are borehole pressure relief, coal seam water injection and blasting pressure relief.

  16. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  17. A Generalized Wall Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Liu, Nan-Suey; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Lumley, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    The asymptotic solutions, described by Tennekes and Lumley (1972), for surface flows in a channel, pipe or boundary layer at large Reynolds numbers are revisited. These solutions can be extended to more complex flows such as the flows with various pressure gradients, zero wall stress and rough surfaces, etc. In computational fluid dynamics (CFD), these solutions can be used as the boundary conditions to bridge the near-wall region of turbulent flows so that there is no need to have the fine grids near the wall unless the near-wall flow structures are required to resolve. These solutions are referred to as the wall functions. Furthermore, a generalized and unified law of the wall which is valid for whole surface layer (including viscous sublayer, buffer layer and inertial sublayer) is analytically constructed. The generalized law of the wall shows that the effect of both adverse and favorable pressure gradients on the surface flow is very significant. Such as unified wall function will be useful not only in deriving analytic expressions for surface flow properties but also bringing a great convenience for CFD methods to place accurate boundary conditions at any location away from the wall. The extended wall functions introduced in this paper can be used for complex flows with acceleration, deceleration, separation, recirculation and rough surfaces.

  18. Poroelasticity of rock

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.F.

    1992-03-01

    The research program is an experimental study of static and dynamic poroelastic behavior of rocks. Measurements of Skempton's coefficient and undrained Poisson's ratio together with drained bulk modulus and shear modulus will provide a complete set of the four poroelastic moduli. Stress coupling to fluid flow in fractured rock can occur also through changes of fracture permeability due to fracture compressibility. Numerical models that include this effect will be compared with standard double porosity models of fluid extraction from oil reservoirs. Wave velocity and attenuation measurements will be made from seismic to ultrasonic frequencies to establish a phenomenological model of the effects of permeability, porosity and saturation for seismic exploration of oil and gas and for seismic characterization of an aquifer for environmental restoration and waste remediation.

  19. Unboxing Space Rocks

    ScienceCinema

    Bruck Syal, Megan

    2016-07-12

    The box was inconspicuous, but Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) postdoctoral researcher Megan Bruck Syal immediately knew its contents: two meteorites around the size of walnuts. They formed about 4.6 billion years ago and survived a history of violent collisions in the asteroid belt before being bumped into a near-Earth-object orbit by gravitational interactions with the planets. After finally raining down on Earth, these rocks were scavenged in Antarctica by researchers, sorted and classified at NASA Johnson Space Center, then mailed first-class to Bruck Syal. Now that these space rocks are in Bruck Syal’s hands, they are mere months away from fulfilling their destiny. They are to be vaporized by a high-powered laser, and the data they yield on asteroid deflection could one day save the planet.

  20. Unboxing Space Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Bruck Syal, Megan

    2016-05-09

    The box was inconspicuous, but Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) postdoctoral researcher Megan Bruck Syal immediately knew its contents: two meteorites around the size of walnuts. They formed about 4.6 billion years ago and survived a history of violent collisions in the asteroid belt before being bumped into a near-Earth-object orbit by gravitational interactions with the planets. After finally raining down on Earth, these rocks were scavenged in Antarctica by researchers, sorted and classified at NASA Johnson Space Center, then mailed first-class to Bruck Syal. Now that these space rocks are in Bruck Syal’s hands, they are mere months away from fulfilling their destiny. They are to be vaporized by a high-powered laser, and the data they yield on asteroid deflection could one day save the planet.

  1. Moon rock in JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-07

    ISS020-E-007383 (FOR RELEASE 21 JULY 2009) --- A moon rock brought to Earth by Apollo 11, humans? first landing on the moon in July 1969, is shown as it floats aboard the International Space Station. Part of Earth and a section of a station solar panel can be seen through the window. The 3.6 billion year-old lunar sample was flown to the station aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-119 in April 2009 in honor of the July 2009 40th anniversary of the historic first moon landing. The rock, lunar sample 10072, was flown to the station to serve as a symbol of the nation?s resolve to continue the exploration of space. It will be returned on shuttle mission STS-128 to be publicly displayed.

  2. Sedimentary Rock Near Coprates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-420, 13 July 2003

    This mosaic of two Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) narrow angle camera images, one from 2001, the other from 2003, shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops exposed on the floor of a trough that parallels Coprates Chasma in the Valles Marineris system. Layered rocks form the pages from which the history of a place can be read. It may be many years before the story is read, but or now at least we know where one of the books of martian history is found. This picture is located near 15.2oS, 60.1oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  3. Gale Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    15 April 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcroppings of layered, sedimentary rock in eastern Gale Crater. North-central Gale Crater is the site of a mound that is more than several kilometers thick and largely composed of sedimentary rocks that record a complex history of deposition and erosion. At one time, Gale Crater might have been completely filled and buried beneath the martian surface.

    Location near: 4.9oS, 221.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  4. Soil and rock 'Yogi'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Several possible targets of study for rover Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument are seen in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 2. The smaller rock at left has been dubbed 'Barnacle Bill,' while the larger rock at right, approximately 3-4 meters from the lander, is now nicknamed 'Yogi.' Barnacle Bill is scheduled to be the first object of study for the APXS. Portions of a petal and deflated airbag are also visible at lower right.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  5. Sedimentary Rock Outcrops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    16 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded layered rock outcrops in a crater north of Meridiani Planum near 2.7oN, 359.1oW. The dozens and dozens of sedimentary rock layers of repeated thickness and similar physical properties at this location suggest that they may have been deposited in a lacustrine (lake) setting. The crater in which these layers occur may once have been completely filled and buried, as is the case for many craters in the Sinus Meridiani region. This image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  6. Schiaparelli's Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    9 October 2004 Schiaparelli Basin is a large, 470 kilometer (292 miles) impact crater located east of Sinus Meridiani. The basin might once have been the site of a large lake--that is, if the sedimentary rocks exposed on its northwestern floor were deposited in water. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a 1.5 meter per pixel (5 ft per pixel) view of some of the light-toned, finely-bedded sedimentary rocks in northwestern Schiaparelli. The image is located near 1.0oS, 346.0oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  7. Sedimentary Rock Near Coprates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-420, 13 July 2003

    This mosaic of two Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) narrow angle camera images, one from 2001, the other from 2003, shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops exposed on the floor of a trough that parallels Coprates Chasma in the Valles Marineris system. Layered rocks form the pages from which the history of a place can be read. It may be many years before the story is read, but or now at least we know where one of the books of martian history is found. This picture is located near 15.2oS, 60.1oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  8. Gale Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    15 April 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcroppings of layered, sedimentary rock in eastern Gale Crater. North-central Gale Crater is the site of a mound that is more than several kilometers thick and largely composed of sedimentary rocks that record a complex history of deposition and erosion. At one time, Gale Crater might have been completely filled and buried beneath the martian surface.

    Location near: 4.9oS, 221.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  9. Life inhabits rocks: clues to rock erosion from electron microscopy of pisolite at a UNESCO heritage site in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazaki, Kazue; Asada, Ryuji; Lindenmayer, Zara Gerhardt; Shirotori, Tatsuya; Vargas, Juliana Missiaggia; Nowatzki, Carlos Henrique; Coelho, Osmar Wöhl

    2009-02-01

    Rock erosion is attracting increasing attention from scientists worldwide. The area encompassing the Saint John Baptist Church, Saint John Village, XVII century ruins in Rio Grande do Sul at the UNESCO World Heritage Site is considered a Brazilian treasure. However, the risk of damage to this site from rock erosion has recently increased tremendously. Generally, the rocky construction such as fence, wall and tomb stone, seems strong but is actually extremely sensitive to erosion caused by lichens, fungi, molds and bacteria. Because of biological erosion and massive exposure, the fresh rock is dominated by clays and microorganisms. Water-adsorbing clays and microorganisms influence the mechanisms of the rock erosion. In this study, the formation of bio-clay-minerals in porous structure of pisolite was demonstrated using electron microscopy. Bacterial clay mineralization can deform the rock structure and even produce organic materials. Biological activity could easily corrode rocky constructions around the Saint John Baptist Church site. The rocks are pisolitic laterites possibly formed in Tertiary over the Kretaceous Parana flood Basalts. Samples inhabited by lichens and fungi were collected from a collapsed wall in the ancient church. The zonal reddish-brown pisolites are 4 mm in diameter in a matrix of clays associated with porous and empty spaces. Elemental distribution maps from X-ray fluorescence microscopy show iron-rich spherules of pisolite, whereas the matrix is composed of Al, Si, Mn, and Sr; thus producing goethite and kaolinite. Transmission electron microscopic observation showed that various types of bacteria inhabit the spherule and are associated with clay minerals and graphite. STEM elemental analysis confirmed the bio-clay-mineralization with Al, Si, S, and Fe, around bacterial cells. The results presented here will improve our understanding of nm-scale bio-mineralization and bio-erosion in lateritic rocks.

  10. DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF ROCKS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    common crustal rocks: polycrystalline and single crystal quartz (40-450 kbar), anorthosite (to 620 kbar), microcline (to 580 kbar) olivine (to 780 kbar...shock-induced transitions to high pressure polymorphic forms occur. Release adiabats of polycrystalline quartz and anorthosite descending from various... anorthosite descending from shock states above 120 kbar are quite steep, indicating irreversible transformation to denser materials believed to be high

  11. West Candor Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    22 September 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of light-toned, massively-bedded rock in western Candor Chasma, part of the Valles Marineris trough system.

    Location near: 5.5oS, 73.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  12. Terby Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    27 December 2003 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered sedimentary rock outcrops in Terby Crater, located near 27.7oS, 285.4oW. The layered sediments in Terby are several kilometers thick, attesting to a long history of deposition in this ancient basin. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  13. Ripples and Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 February 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned sedimentary rock outcrops and large dark-toned, windblown ripples in Aram Chaos.

    Location near: 3.0oN, 20.9oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Summer

  14. Eroded Sedimentary Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-372, 26 May 2003

    This high resolution Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, layered sedimentary rock exposures in an unnamed western Arabia Terra crater at 8oN, 7oW. The dark material is windblown sand; much of the erosion of these layers may have also been caused by wind. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  15. Iani Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    23 February 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned sedimentary rocks exposed by erosion in the Iani Chaos region of Mars.

    Location near: 4.2oS, 18.7oW Image width: 1 km (0.6 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  16. Melas Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    17 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in southwestern Melas Chasma, one of the troughs of the vast Valles Marineris system. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left; it is located near 9.8oS, 76.0oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  17. Odyssey/White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These Mars Odyssey images show the 'White Rock' feature on Mars in both infrared (left) and visible (right) wavelengths. The images were acquired simultaneously on March 11, 2002. The box shows where the visible image is located in the infrared image. 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform that was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. The variations in brightness in the infrared image are due to differences in surface temperature, where dark is cool and bright is warm. The dramatic differences between the infrared and visible views of White Rock are the result of solar heating. The relatively bright surfaces observed at visible wavelengths reflect more solar energy than the darker surfaces, allowing them to stay cooler and thus they appear dark in the infrared image. The new thermal emission imaging system data will help to address the long standing question of whether the White Rock deposit was produced in an ancient crater lake or by dry processes of volcanic or wind deposition. The infrared image has a resolution of 100 meters (328 feet) per pixel and is 32 kilometers (20 miles) wide. The visible image has a resolution of 18 meters per pixel and is approximately 18 kilometers (11 miles) wide. The images are centered at 8.2 degrees south latitude and 24.9 degrees east longitude.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Mars Rock Analysis Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-12

    Paul Mahaffy, principal investigator for Curiosity's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, answer's a reporters question at a news conference, Tuesday, March 12, 2013 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The news conference covered the findings that the analysis of the rock sample collected shows ancient Mars could have supported living microbes. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. Terrain and Rock Yogi

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-06

    The left portion of this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on July 5, 1997 (Sol 2), shows a portion of the large rock nicknamed "Yogi." Portions of a petal and deflated airbag are in the foreground. The dark circular object at right is a portion of the lander's high-gain antenna. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00630

  20. Soil Rock Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A redesigned version of a soil/rock analyzer developed by Martin Marietta under a Langley Research Center contract is being marketed by Aurora Tech, Inc. Known as the Aurora ATX-100, it has self-contained power, an oscilloscope, a liquid crystal readout, and a multichannel spectrum analyzer. It measures energy emissions to determine what elements in what percentages a sample contains. It is lightweight and may be used for mineral exploration, pollution monitoring, etc.

  1. Terby Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    27 December 2003 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered sedimentary rock outcrops in Terby Crater, located near 27.7oS, 285.4oW. The layered sediments in Terby are several kilometers thick, attesting to a long history of deposition in this ancient basin. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  2. Rock pushing and sampling under rocks on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, H.J.; Liebes, S.; Crouch, D.S.; Clark, L.V.

    1978-01-01

    Viking Lander 2 acquired samples on Mars from beneath two rocks, where living organisms and organic molecules would be protected from ultraviolet radiation. Selection of rocks to be moved was based on scientific and engineering considerations, including rock size, rock shape, burial depth, and location in a sample field. Rock locations and topography were established using the computerized interactive video-stereophotogrammetric system and plotted on vertical profiles and in plan view. Sampler commands were developed and tested on Earth using a full-size lander and surface mock-up. The use of power by the sampler motor correlates with rock movements, which were by plowing, skidding, and rolling. Provenance of the samples was determined by measurements and interpretation of pictures and positions of the sampler arm. Analytical results demonstrate that the samples were, in fact, from beneath the rocks. Results from the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer of the Molecular Analysis experiment and the Gas Exchange instrument of the Biology experiment indicate that more adsorbed(?) water occurs in samples under rocks than in samples exposed to the sun. This is consistent with terrestrial arid environments, where more moisture occurs in near-surface soil un- der rocks than in surrounding soil because the net heat flow is toward the soil beneath the rock and the rock cap inhibits evaporation. Inorganic analyses show that samples of soil from under the rocks have significantly less iron than soil exposed to the sun. The scientific significance of analyses of samples under the rocks is only partly evaluated, but some facts are clear. Detectable quantities of martian organic molecules were not found in the sample from under a rock by the Molecular Analysis experiment. The Biology experiments did not find definitive evidence for Earth-like living organisms in their sample. Significant amounts of adsorbed water may be present in the martian regolith. The response of the soil

  3. Seismic stress mobilization of natural colloids in a porous rock

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Peter M; Abdel-fattah, Amr I

    2008-01-01

    Stress oscillations at 26 Hz enhanced the release of natural micro-particles (colloids) in a porous rock sample. Micron-scale effects were induced by meter-scale wavelengths. The results are attributed to altering the release rate coefficient for colloids trapped in pores. The rate change did not depend on colloid size and thus is not due to altering colloid-pore-wall interactions. Enhanced colloid detachment from pore walls and flushing from dead-end pores are likely mechanisms. This phenomenon could impact a broad range of physical sciences involving colloid dynamics and porous transport.

  4. Salty Martian Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    These plots, or spectra, show that a rock dubbed 'McKittrick' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars, has higher concentrations of sulfur and bromine than a nearby patch of soil nicknamed 'Tarmac.' These data were taken by Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which produces a spectrum, or fingerprint, of chemicals in martian rocks and soil. The instrument contains a radioisotope, curium-244, that bombards a designated area with alpha particles and X-rays, causing a cascade of reflective fluorescent X-rays. The energies of these fluorescent X-rays are unique to each atom in the periodic table, allowing scientists to determine a target's chemical composition.

    Both 'Tarmac' and 'McKittrick' are located within the small crater where Opportunity landed. The full spectra are expressed as X-ray intensity (logarithmic scale) versus energy. When comparing two spectra, the relative intensities at a given energy are proportional to the elemental concentrations, however these proportionality factors can be complex. To be precise, scientists extensively calibrate the instrument using well-analyzed geochemical standards.

    Both the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and the rock abrasion tool are located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or arm.

  5. Salty Martian Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    These plots, or spectra, show that a rock dubbed 'McKittrick' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars, has higher concentrations of sulfur and bromine than a nearby patch of soil nicknamed 'Tarmac.' These data were taken by Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which produces a spectrum, or fingerprint, of chemicals in martian rocks and soil. The instrument contains a radioisotope, curium-244, that bombards a designated area with alpha particles and X-rays, causing a cascade of reflective fluorescent X-rays. The energies of these fluorescent X-rays are unique to each atom in the periodic table, allowing scientists to determine a target's chemical composition.

    Both 'Tarmac' and 'McKittrick' are located within the small crater where Opportunity landed. The full spectra are expressed as X-ray intensity (logarithmic scale) versus energy. When comparing two spectra, the relative intensities at a given energy are proportional to the elemental concentrations, however these proportionality factors can be complex. To be precise, scientists extensively calibrate the instrument using well-analyzed geochemical standards.

    Both the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and the rock abrasion tool are located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or arm.

  6. Sport for Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    The following papers were prepared for a seminar on sport for older people: (1) "Gerontological Aspects of Physical Exercise" (Eino Heikkinen); (2) "Sporting Activities in the Individual Life from the View of Older Persons" (Henning Allmer); (3) "Reasons Why Decision-Makers Should Urge Old People to Practise Physical and Sporting Activities"…

  7. Sport for Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    The following papers were prepared for a seminar on sport for older people: (1) "Gerontological Aspects of Physical Exercise" (Eino Heikkinen); (2) "Sporting Activities in the Individual Life from the View of Older Persons" (Henning Allmer); (3) "Reasons Why Decision-Makers Should Urge Old People to Practise Physical and Sporting Activities"…

  8. Georgia's "Older Worker Specialists."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ard, John V.; Barbour, Charles

    1979-01-01

    Describes the Referral/Employment Network for Elderly Workers (RENEW) in Georgia funded by the Department of Labor under Title IX of the Older Americans Act. The program recruits and trains older people (over age 55) to help other seniors find jobs. (MF)

  9. Subsidence and collapse sinkholes in soluble rock: a numerical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Georg; Romanov, Douchko; Hiller, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Soluble rocks such as limestone, gypsum, anhydrite, and salt are prone to subsidence and the sudden creation of collapse sinkholes. The reason for this behaviour stems from the solubility of the rock: Water percolating through fissures and bedding partings can remove material from the rock walls and thus increase the permeability of the host rock by orders of magnitudes. This process occurs on time scales of 1,000-100,000 years, resulting in enlarged fractures, voids and cavities, which then carry flow efficiently through the rock. The enlargement of sub-surface voids to the meter-size within such short times creates mechanical conditions prone to collapse. The collapse initiates at depth, but then propagates to the surface. By means of numerical modelling, we discuss the long-term evolution of secondary porosity in gypsum rocks, resulting in zones of sub-surface voids, which then become mechanically unstable and collapse. We study two real-world case scenarios, in which we can relate field observations to our numerical model: (i) A dam-site scenario, where flow around the dam caused widespread dissolution of gypsum and subsequent subsidence of the dam and a nearby highway. (ii) A natural collapse sinkhole forming as a result of freshwater inflow into a shallow anhydrite formation with rapid evolution of voids in the sub-surface.

  10. Dissolution and precipitation of fractures in soluble rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Georg; Gabrovšek, Franci; Romanov, Douchko

    2016-04-01

    Soluble rocks such as limestone, anhydrite, and gypsum are characterised by their large secondary permeability, which results from the interaction of water circulating through the rock and dissolving the soluble fracture walls. This highly selective dissolution process enlarges the fractures to voids and eventually cavities, which then carry the majority of flow through an aquifer along preferential flow pathes. We employ a numerical model describing the evolution of secondary porosity in a soluble rock to discuss the evolution of single fractures in different rock types. Our main focus is three-fold: The distinction of shallow versus deep flow pathes and their evolution on the one hand; the effect of precipitation of the dissolved material in the fracture, and finally the complication of fracture enlargement in fractures composed of several different soluble materials. We observe a similar evolution of void space for fractures composed of limestone and gypsum, but on different time scales. For anhydrite, owing to its difference in the kinetical rate law describing the removal of soluble rock, when compared to limestone and anhydrite, the evolution is even faster. Precipitation of the dissolved rock due to changes in the hydrochemical conditions can clog fractures fairly fast, thus changing the pattern of preferential pathways in the soluble aquifer, especially with depth. Finally, limestone fractures coated with gypsum, as frequently observed in caves, will result in a substantial acceleration of fracture enlargement with time, thus giving these fractures a hydraulical advantage over pure limestone fractures in their competition for capturing flow.

  11. Renovating Older Schools: Reusing Older Schools Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State. Educational Design Inst.

    A slide presentation examines the decisionmaking process behind whether a community should renovate their older school facilities or abandon them for new facilities. Three factors to be considered in this decision are addressed and involve the school's location, the history of the school, and the relationship of the school to the community and the…

  12. Self-formed waterfall plunge pools in homogeneous rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Lo, Daniel Y.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfalls are ubiquitous, and their upstream propagation can set the pace of landscape evolution, yet no experimental studies have examined waterfall plunge pool erosion in homogeneous rock. We performed laboratory experiments, using synthetic foam as a bedrock simulant, to produce self-formed waterfall plunge pools via particle impact abrasion. Plunge pool vertical incision exceeded lateral erosion by approximately tenfold until pools deepened to the point that the supplied sediment could not be evacuated and deposition armored the pool bedrock floor. Lateral erosion of plunge pool sidewalls continued after sediment deposition, but primarily at the downstream pool wall, which might lead to undermining of the plunge pool lip, sediment evacuation, and continued vertical pool floor incision in natural streams. Undercutting of the upstream pool wall was absent, and our results suggest that vertical drilling of successive plunge pools is a more efficient waterfall retreat mechanism than the classic model of headwall undercutting and collapse in homogeneous rock.

  13. Metallic Wall Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan Michael (Inventor); Hofer, Richard Robert (Inventor); Mikellides, Ioannis G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A Hall thruster apparatus having walls constructed from a conductive material, such as graphite, and having magnetic shielding of the walls from the ionized plasma has been demonstrated to operate with nearly the same efficiency as a conventional non-magnetically shielded design using insulators as wall components. The new design is believed to provide the potential of higher power and uniform operation over the operating life of a thruster device.

  14. Phantom domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avelino, P. P.; Ferreira, V. M. C.; Menezes, J.; Sousa, L.

    2017-08-01

    We consider a model with two real scalar fields which admits phantom domain wall solutions. We investigate the structure and evolution of these phantom domain walls in an expanding homogeneous and isotropic universe. In particular, we show that the increase of the tension of the domain walls with cosmic time, associated to the evolution of the phantom scalar field, is responsible for an additional damping term in their equations of motion. We describe the macroscopic dynamics of phantom domain walls, showing that extended phantom defects whose tension varies on a cosmological time scale cannot be the dark energy.

  15. Grinding into Soft, Powdery Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This hole in a rock dubbed 'Clovis' is the deepest hole drilled so far in any rock on Mars. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this view with its microscopic imager on martian sol 217 (Aug. 12, 2004) after drilling 8.9 millimeters (0.35 inch) into the rock with its rock abrasion tool. The view is a mosaic of four frames taken by the microscopic imager. The hole is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter. Clovis is key to a developing story about environmental change on Mars, not only because it is among the softest rocks encountered so far in Gusev Crater, but also because it contains mineral alterations that extend relatively deep beneath its surface. In fact, as evidenced by its fairly crumbly texture, it is possibly the most highly altered volcanic rock ever studied on Mars.

    Scientific analysis shows that the rock contains higher levels of the elements sulfur, chlorine, and bromine than are normally encountered in basaltic rocks, such as a rock dubbed 'Humphrey' that Spirit encountered two months after arriving on Mars. Humphrey showed elevated levels of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine only in the outermost 2 millimeters (less than 0.1 inch) of its surface. Clovis shows elevated levels of the same elements along with the associated softness of the rock within a borehole that is 4 times as deep. Scientists hope to compare Clovis to other, less-altered rocks in the vicinity to assess what sort of water-based processes altered the rock. Hypotheses include transport of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine in water vapor in volcanic gases; hydrothermal circulation (flow of volcanically heated water through rock); or saturation in a briny soup containing the same elements.

    In this image, very fine-grained material from the rock has clumped together by electrostatic attraction and fallen into the borehole. NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS

  16. Grinding into Soft, Powdery Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This hole in a rock dubbed 'Clovis' is the deepest hole drilled so far in any rock on Mars. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this view with its microscopic imager on martian sol 217 (Aug. 12, 2004) after drilling 8.9 millimeters (0.35 inch) into the rock with its rock abrasion tool. The view is a mosaic of four frames taken by the microscopic imager. The hole is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter. Clovis is key to a developing story about environmental change on Mars, not only because it is among the softest rocks encountered so far in Gusev Crater, but also because it contains mineral alterations that extend relatively deep beneath its surface. In fact, as evidenced by its fairly crumbly texture, it is possibly the most highly altered volcanic rock ever studied on Mars.

    Scientific analysis shows that the rock contains higher levels of the elements sulfur, chlorine, and bromine than are normally encountered in basaltic rocks, such as a rock dubbed 'Humphrey' that Spirit encountered two months after arriving on Mars. Humphrey showed elevated levels of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine only in the outermost 2 millimeters (less than 0.1 inch) of its surface. Clovis shows elevated levels of the same elements along with the associated softness of the rock within a borehole that is 4 times as deep. Scientists hope to compare Clovis to other, less-altered rocks in the vicinity to assess what sort of water-based processes altered the rock. Hypotheses include transport of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine in water vapor in volcanic gases; hydrothermal circulation (flow of volcanically heated water through rock); or saturation in a briny soup containing the same elements.

    In this image, very fine-grained material from the rock has clumped together by electrostatic attraction and fallen into the borehole. NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS

  17. Rock Pore Structure as Main Reason of Rock Deterioration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondrášik, Martin; Kopecký, Miloslav

    2014-03-01

    Crashed or dimensional rocks have been used as natural construction material, decoration stone or as material for artistic sculptures. Especially old historical towns not only in Slovakia have had experiences with use of stones for construction purposes for centuries. The whole buildings were made from dimensional stone, like sandstone, limestone or rhyolite. Pavements were made especially from basalt, andesite, rhyolite or granite. Also the most common modern construction material - concrete includes large amounts of crashed rock, especially limestone, dolostone and andesite. However, rock as any other material if exposed to exogenous processes starts to deteriorate. Especially mechanical weathering can be very intensive if rock with unsuitable rock properties is used. For long it had been believed that repeated freezing and thawing in relation to high absorption is the main reason of the rock deterioration. In Slovakia for many years the high water absorption was set as exclusion criterion for use of rocks and stones in building industry. Only after 1989 the absorption was accepted as merely informational rock property and not exclusion. The reason of the change was not the understanding of the relationship between the porosity and rock deterioration, but more or less good experiences with some high porous rocks used in constructions exposed to severe weather conditions and proving a lack of relationship between rock freeze-thaw resistivity and water absorption. Results of the recent worldwide research suggest that understanding a resistivity of rocks against deterioration is hidden not in the absorption but in the structure of rock pores in relation to thermodynamic properties of pore water and tensile strength of rocks and rock minerals. Also this article presents some results of research on rock deterioration and pore structure performed on 88 rock samples. The results divide the rocks tested into two groups - group N in which the pore water does not freeze

  18. A Crater on a Crater Wall

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-13

    It's not that common to see craters on steep hills, partly because rocks falling downhill can quickly erase such craters. Here, however, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) observes a small impact has occurred on the sloping wall of a larger crater and is well-preserved. Dark, blocky ejecta from the smaller crater has flowed downhill (to the west) toward the floor of the larger crater. Understanding the emplacement of such ejecta on steep hills is an area of ongoing research. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21758

  19. Enhancing Older Adults' Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigates older adults' reading comprehension skills through syntactic measures and measures of sentence content. Analyzes the apparent reading difficulties of older adults. Provides guidelines for the preparation of prose materials for older readers. (HB)

  20. Strain-induced permeability increase in volcanic rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Jamie I.; Heap, Michael J.; Baud, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    The extrusion of dense, viscous magma typically occurs along pronounced conduit-parallel faults. To better understand the evolution of fault permeability with increasing strain, we measured the permeability of low-porosity volcanic rock samples (basalt and andesite) that were deformed in the brittle regime to various levels of inelastic strain. We observed a progressive increase in sample permeability with increasing inelastic strain (i.e., with continued sliding on the fault plane). At the maximum imposed inelastic strain (0.11), sample permeability had increased by 3 orders of magnitude or more for all sample sets. Microstructural observations show that narrow shear fractures evolve into more complex fracture systems characterized by thick zones of friction-induced cataclasis (gouge) with increasing inelastic strain. These data suggest that the permeability of conduit-parallel faults hosted in the rock at the conduit-wall rock interface will increase during lava extrusion, thus facilitating outgassing and hindering the transition to explosive behavior.

  1. The Layer Cake Walls of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the northern wall of Coprates Chasma, in Valles Marineris, was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1227 UTC (8:27 a.m. EDT) on June 16, 2007, near 13.99 degrees south latitude, 303.09 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Valles Marineris is a large canyon system straddling Mars' equator, with a total size approximating the Mediterranean Sea emptied of water. It is subdivided into several interconnected 'chasmata' each hundreds of kilometers wide and, in some cases, thousands of kilometers long. The walls of several of the chasmata, including Coprates Chasma, expose a section of Mars' upper crust about 5 kilometers (3 miles) in depth. Exposures like these show the layers of rock that record the formation of Mars' crust over geologic time, much as the walls of the Grand Canyon on Earth show part of our planet's history.

    The upper panel of this montage shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), taken in longer infrared wavelengths than measured by CRISM. The CRISM image samples the base of Coprates Chasma's wall, including a conspicuous horizontal band that continues along the wall for tens of kilometers to the east and west, and a topographic shelf just above that.

    The middle two panels show the CRISM image in visible and infrared light. In the middle left panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 0.59, 0.53, and 0.48 microns, similar to what the human eye would see. Color variations are subdued by the presence of dust on all exposed surfaces. In the middle right panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 2.53, 1.51, and 1.08 microns. These three infrared wavelengths

  2. The Layer Cake Walls of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the northern wall of Coprates Chasma, in Valles Marineris, was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1227 UTC (8:27 a.m. EDT) on June 16, 2007, near 13.99 degrees south latitude, 303.09 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Valles Marineris is a large canyon system straddling Mars' equator, with a total size approximating the Mediterranean Sea emptied of water. It is subdivided into several interconnected 'chasmata' each hundreds of kilometers wide and, in some cases, thousands of kilometers long. The walls of several of the chasmata, including Coprates Chasma, expose a section of Mars' upper crust about 5 kilometers (3 miles) in depth. Exposures like these show the layers of rock that record the formation of Mars' crust over geologic time, much as the walls of the Grand Canyon on Earth show part of our planet's history.

    The upper panel of this montage shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), taken in longer infrared wavelengths than measured by CRISM. The CRISM image samples the base of Coprates Chasma's wall, including a conspicuous horizontal band that continues along the wall for tens of kilometers to the east and west, and a topographic shelf just above that.

    The middle two panels show the CRISM image in visible and infrared light. In the middle left panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 0.59, 0.53, and 0.48 microns, similar to what the human eye would see. Color variations are subdued by the presence of dust on all exposed surfaces. In the middle right panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 2.53, 1.51, and 1.08 microns. These three infrared wavelengths

  3. The Layer Cake Walls of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the northern wall of Coprates Chasma, in Valles Marineris, was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1227 UTC (8:27 a.m. EDT) on June 16, 2007, near 13.99 degrees south latitude, 303.09 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Valles Marineris is a large canyon system straddling Mars' equator, with a total size approximating the Mediterranean Sea emptied of water. It is subdivided into several interconnected 'chasmata' each hundreds of kilometers wide and, in some cases, thousands of kilometers long. The walls of several of the chasmata, including Coprates Chasma, expose a section of Mars' upper crust about 5 kilometers (3 miles) in depth. Exposures like these show the layers of rock that record the formation of Mars' crust over geologic time, much as the walls of the Grand Canyon on Earth show part of our planet's history.

    The upper panel of this montage shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), taken in longer infrared wavelengths than measured by CRISM. The CRISM image samples the base of Coprates Chasma's wall, including a conspicuous horizontal band that continues along the wall for tens of kilometers to the east and west, and a topographic shelf just above that.

    The middle two panels show the CRISM image in visible and infrared light. In the middle left panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 0.59, 0.53, and 0.48 microns, similar to what the human eye would see. Color variations are subdued by the presence of dust on all exposed surfaces. In the middle right panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 2.53, 1.51, and 1.08 microns. These three infrared wavelengths

  4. The possible role of yeast cell walls in modifying cellular response to chlorhexidine diacetate.

    PubMed

    Hiom, S J; Furr, J R; Russell, A D; Hann, A C

    1996-01-01

    The relative porosity (RP) and thickness of cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae depended upon the age of culture, the RP decreasing and the cell wall thickness increasing in older cultures. Chlorhexidine diacetate (CHA) produced cytological changes in S. cerevisiae cells, involving dense and granular cytoplasmic constituents, withdrawal of the interior from the cell wall and a general loss of the typical cellular organization. Cell wall mannan is unlikely to play a role in limiting the entry of CHA into yeast cells but changes in glucan composition, wall thickness and RP might be involved in determining the sensitivity of cells to the biguanide.

  5. Blade-Like Martian Walls Outline Polygons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-25

    This view shows part of an area on Mars where narrow rock ridges, some as tall as a 16-story building, intersect at angles forming corners of polygons. The area covered in the image spans about two-thirds of a mile (1.1 kilometers) wide, in the Gordii Dorsum portion of the Medusae Fossae region of Mars. The image is from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. North is up. Note the shadows cast by some of the walls. These ridges likely formed as lava that hardened underground and later resisted erosion better than the surrounding material. From ground level, they would resemble hardened-lava walls on Earth http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21264

  6. Anaemia in older persons.

    PubMed

    den Elzen, W P J; Gussekloo, J

    2011-06-01

    Anaemia is common in older individuals and, because of its association with various negative outcomes, adequate diagnosis and treatment is important. The present review focuses on prominent factors included in diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms for anaemia. Although pernicious anaemia is associated with severe vitamin B12 deficiency, evidence of an association between subnormal vitamin B12 and anaemia in older persons in the general population is limited and inconclusive. Accumulating evidence suggests that clinicians should at least reconsider the risks of a low vitamin B12 level before starting vitamin B12 supplementation in older individuals. Although clinicians may be reluctant to measure ferritin in older individuals due to its acute phase properties, such measurements are important in older persons with anaemia, especially in those with signs of inflammation. While a severe age-related decline in renal function may lead to a blunted erythropoietin response and anaemia, elevated erythropoietin levels are associated with increased mortality. More studies are needed to identify the clinical relevance and therapeutic implications of low and high erythropoietin levels in older persons. In contrast to other age-related diseases, telomere length is not associated with anaemia in older individuals in the general population. In conclusion, many issues regarding the aetiology of anaemia in old age remain unresolved. Because current guidelines on anaemia are based on the classic notions of the aetiology of anaemia, they may need to be revised for the highest age groups.

  7. Heterogeneous alternation of fractured rock driven by preferential carbonate dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, H.; Zhi, W.; Li, L.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the alternation of fractured rock induced by geochemical reactions is critical for predicting the flow, solute transport and energy production in geosystems. Most existing studies on fracture alterations focus on rocks with single minerals where reactions occur at the fracture wall resulting in fracture aperture alteration while ignoring rock matrix properties (e.g. the formation and development of altered zones). In this work, we aimed to mechanistically understand the role of preferential calcite dissolution in the long-term evolution of fracture and rock matrix. We use direct simulation of physics-based reactive transport processes in an image of fractured rock at the resolution of tens of micrometers. Three numerical experiments were carried out with the same initial physical properties however different calcite content. Simulation results show that the formation and development of altered zones in the rock matrix is highly related to the abundance of fast-dissolving calcite. Abundant calcite (50% (v/v), calcite50) leads to a localized, thick zone of large porosity increase while low calcite content (10% (v/v), calcite10) creates an extended and narrow zone of small porosity increase resulting in surprisingly larger change in effective transport property. After 300 days of dissolution, although with relatively similar dissolved calcite mass and matrix porosity increase, effective matrix diffusion coefficients increase by 9.9 and 19.6 times in calcite50 and calcite10, respectively. In turn, calcite dissolution rates are directly limited by diffusive transport in the altered matrix and the shape of the altered zone. This work sheds light on the unique characteristics of reactive transport in fractured, mineralogically complex rocks that are different from those with single minerals (Wen et al., 2016). Reference: Wen, H., Li, L., Crandall, D. and Hakala, J.A. (2016) Where Lower Calcite Abundance Creates More Alteration: Enhanced Rock Matrix

  8. Energy expenditure and physiological responses during indoor rock climbing.

    PubMed

    Mermier, C M; Robergs, R A; McMinn, S M; Heyward, V H

    1997-09-01

    To report the physiological responses of indoor rock climbing. Fourteen experienced climbers (nine men, five women) performed three climbing trials on an indoor climbing wall. Subjects performed three trials of increasing difficulty: (a) an easy 90 degrees vertical wall, (b) a moderately difficult negatively angled wall (106 degrees), and (c) a difficult horizontal overhang (151 degrees). At least 15 minutes separated each trial. Expired air was collected in a Douglas bag after four minutes of climbing and heart rate (HR) was recorded continuously using a telemetry unit. Arterialised blood samples were obtained from a hyperaemised ear lobe at rest and one or two minutes after each trial for measurement of blood lactate. Significant differences were found between trials for HR, lactate, oxygen consumption (VO2), and energy expenditure, but not for respiratory exchange ratio. Analysis of the HR and VO2 responses indicated that rock climbing does not elicit the traditional linear HR-VO2 relationship characteristic of treadmill and cycle ergometry exercise. During the three trials, HR increased to 74-85% of predicted maximal values and energy expenditure was similar to that reported for running at a moderate pace (8-11 minutes per mile). These data indicate that indoor rock climbing is a good activity to increase cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular endurance. In addition, the traditional HR-VO2 relationship should not be used in the analysis of this sport, or for prescribing exercise intensity for climbing.

  9. Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veizer, J.; MacKenzie, F. T.

    2003-12-01

    For almost a century, it has been recognized that the present-day thickness and areal extent of Phanerozoic sedimentary strata increase progressively with decreasing geologic age. This pattern has been interpreted either as reflecting an increase in the rate of sedimentation toward the present (Barrell, 1917; Schuchert, 1931; Ronov, 1976) or as resulting from better preservation of the younger part of the geologic record ( Gilluly, 1949; Gregor, 1968; Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971a; Veizer and Jansen, 1979, 1985).Study of the rocks themselves led to similarly opposing conclusions. The observed secular (=age) variations in relative proportions of lithological types and in chemistry of sedimentary rocks (Daly, 1909; Vinogradov et al., 1952; Nanz, 1953; Engel, 1963; Strakhov, 1964, 1969; Ronov, 1964, 1982) were mostly given an evolutionary interpretation. An opposing, uniformitarian, approach was proposed by Garrels and Mackenzie (1971a). For most isotopes, the consensus favors deviations from the present-day steady state as the likely cause of secular trends.This chapter attempts to show that recycling and evolution are not opposing, but complementary, concepts. It will concentrate on the lithological and chemical attributes of sediments, but not deal with the evolution of sedimentary mineral deposits (Veizer et al., 1989) and of life ( Sepkoski, 1989), both well amenable to the outlined conceptual treatment. The chapter relies heavily on Veizer (1988a) for the sections dealing with general recycling concepts, on Veizer (2003) for the discussion of isotopic evolution of seawater, and on Morse and Mackenzie (1990) and Mackenzie and Morse (1992) for discussion of carbonate rock recycling and environmental attributes.

  10. Exercise Desert Rock, Staff Memorandums. Army, Camp Desert Rock, Nevada.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1957-01-01

    I AD-AGAG 257 EXERCISE DESERT ROCK LAS VEGAS NV F/6 IS/ 3 EXERCISE DESERT ROCK, STAFF MEMORANDUMS. ARMY. CAMP DESERT ROCK-ETClUlCASIFE mm95i mm... Exercise Safety Progra - . 1. PUrose: To establish ane’ffective safety progr.Rm toreduce, and keep to a minimum, accident,1 manpower and monetary losses. at...agencies will be- followed. Supervispry personnel will: become familiar with those that Pre applicable to thei£r... operations. The Exercise Safety

  11. Aram Chaos Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of light-toned, sedimentary rock among darker-toned mesas in Aram Chaos. Dark, windblown megaripples -- large ripples -- are also present at this location.

    Location near: 3.0oN, 21.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  12. Ganges Rocks and Sand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 January 2004 The top half of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows wind-eroded remnants of sedimentary rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma, one of the troughs of the Valles Marineris system. The lower half shows a thick accumulation of dark, windblown sand. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. These features are located near 7.6oS, 49.4oW.

  13. Sedimentary Rocks in Melas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a butte and several other landforms eroded into light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock in southern Melas Chasma. Melas is part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system.

    Location near: 11.8oS, 74.6oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  14. Melas Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    28 August 2004 Light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops are common within the vast martian Valles Marineris trough system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a recent example from southern Melas Chasma at 1.5 m/pixel (5 ft/pixel) resolution. The image is located near 11.3oS, 73.9oW, and covers an area about 1.8 km (1.1 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  15. Sedimentary Rock in Candor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 February 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dozens of light- and a few dark-toned sedimentary rock layers exposed by faulting and erosion in western Candor Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system.

    Location near: 6.5oS, 77.0oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  16. Sedimentary Rocks in Ganges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows portions of two massifs composed of light-toned, sedimentary rock in Ganges Chasma, part of the Valles Marineris trough system. On the steeper slopes in this vista, dry talus shed from the outcrop has formed a series of dark fans. Surrounded by dark, windblown sand, these landforms are located near 8.6oS, 46.8oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  17. Mars Rock Analysis Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-12

    Participants at a news conference discussing findings of the analysis of a rock sample from Mars are seen, Tuesday, March 12, 2013 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. From left to right are seen: Michael Meyer, lead scientist, Mars Exploration Program at NASA Headquarters; John Grotzinger, Curiosity project scientist, California Institute of Technology in Pasadena; David Blake, principal investigator for Curiosity's Chemistry and Mineralogy investigation at NASA's Ames Research Center in Calif.; and Paul Mahaffy, principal investigator for Curiosity's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. Rover, Airbags, & Surrounding Rocks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-05

    This image of the Martian surface was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) before sunset on July 4, 1997 (Sol 1), the spacecraft's first day on Mars. The airbags have been partially retracted, and portions the petal holding the undeployed rover Sojourner can be seen at lower left. The rock in the center of the image may be a future target for chemical analysis. The soil in the foreground has been disturbed by the movement of the airbags as they retracted. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00619

  19. From stones to rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortier, Marie-Astrid; Jean-Leroux, Kathleen; Cirio, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    With the Aquila earthquake in 2009, earthquake prediction is more and more necessary nowadays, and people are waiting for even more accurate data. Earthquake accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to the understanding of how oceanic expansion works and significant development of numerical seismic prediction models. Despite the improvements, the location and the magnitude can't be as accurate as citizen and authorities would like. The basis of anticipating earthquakes requires the understanding of: - The composition of the earth, - The structure of the earth, - The relations and movements between the different parts of the surface of the earth. In order to answer these questions, the Alps are an interesting field for students. This study combines natural curiosity about understanding the predictable part of natural hazard in geology and scientific skills on site: observing and drawing landscape, choosing and reading a representative core drilling, replacing the facts chronologically and considering the age, the length of time and the strength needed. This experience requires students to have an approach of time and space radically different than the one they can consider in a classroom. It also limits their imagination, in a positive way, because they realize that prediction is based on real data and some of former theories have become present paradigms thanks to geologists. On each location the analyzed data include landscape, core drilling and the relation established between them by students. The data is used by the students to understand the meaning, so that the history of the formation of the rocks tells by the rocks can be explained. Until this year, the CBGA's perspective regarding the study of the Alps ground allowed students to build the story of the creation and disappearance of the ocean, which was a concept required by French educational authorities. But not long ago, the authorities changed their scientific expectations. To meet the

  20. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  1. Interactive Word Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Narvaez, Rose

    2013-01-01

    It is common to see word walls displaying the vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds and are a classroom strategy used to reinforce reading and language arts instruction. Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986). As a…

  2. Wall Finishes; Carpentry: 901895.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is designed to provide instruction in selecting, preparing, and installing wall finishing materials. Prerequisites for the course include mastery of building construction plans, foundations and walls, and basic mathematics. Intended for use in grades 11 and 12, the course contains five blocks of study totaling 135 hours of…

  3. Wall Construction; Carpentry: 901892.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The curriculum guide outlines a course designed to provide instruction in floor and wall layout, and in the diverse methods and construction of walls. Upon completion of this course the students should have acquired a knowledge of construction plans and structural foundations in addition to a basic knowledge of mathematics. The course consists of…

  4. Domain wall filters

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Oliver; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert; Witzel, Oliver

    2007-03-15

    We propose using the extra dimension separating the domain walls carrying lattice quarks of opposite handedness to gradually filter out the ultraviolet fluctuations of the gauge fields that are felt by the fermionic excitations living in the bulk. This generalization of the homogeneous domain wall construction has some theoretical features that seem nontrivial.

  5. 'Stucco' Walls-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial 'clodding' or cementation of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across and makes up half of the projected 'Stucco Walls' image.

  6. Interactive Word Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Narvaez, Rose

    2013-01-01

    It is common to see word walls displaying the vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds and are a classroom strategy used to reinforce reading and language arts instruction. Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986). As a…

  7. Fibroblast deletion of ROCK2 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Toru; Narang, Nikhil; Chen, Phetcharat; Yu, Brian; Knapp, Maura; Janardanan, Jyothi; Blair, John; Liao, James K

    2017-07-06

    Although left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is often associated with hypertension, little is known regarding its underlying pathophysiological mechanism. Here, we show that the actin cytoskeletal regulator, Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinase-2 (ROCK2), is a critical mediator of LV diastolic dysfunction. In response to angiotensin II (Ang II), mutant mice with fibroblast-specific deletion of ROCK2 (ROCK2Postn-/-) developed less LV wall thickness and fibrosis, along with improved isovolumetric relaxation. This corresponded with decreased connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) expression in the hearts of ROCK2Postn-/- mice. Indeed, knockdown of ROCK2 in cardiac fibroblasts leads to decreased expression of CTGF and secretion of FGF2, and cardiomyocytes incubated with conditioned media from ROCK2-knockdown cardiac fibroblasts exhibited less hypertrophic response. In contrast, mutant mice with elevated fibroblast ROCK activity exhibited enhanced Ang II-stimulated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Clinically, higher leukocyte ROCK2 activity was observed in patients with diastolic dysfunction compared with age- and sex-matched controls, and correlated with higher grades of diastolic dysfunction by echocardiography. These findings indicate that fibroblast ROCK2 is necessary to cause cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis through the induction CTGF and FGF2, and they suggest that targeting ROCK2 may have therapeutic benefits in patients with LV diastolic dysfunction.

  8. Fibroblast deletion of ROCK2 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Toru; Narang, Nikhil; Chen, Phetcharat; Yu, Brian; Knapp, Maura; Janardanan, Jyothi; Blair, John; Liao, James K.

    2017-01-01

    Although left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is often associated with hypertension, little is known regarding its underlying pathophysiological mechanism. Here, we show that the actin cytoskeletal regulator, Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinase-2 (ROCK2), is a critical mediator of LV diastolic dysfunction. In response to angiotensin II (Ang II), mutant mice with fibroblast-specific deletion of ROCK2 (ROCK2Postn–/–) developed less LV wall thickness and fibrosis, along with improved isovolumetric relaxation. This corresponded with decreased connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibroblast growth factor–2 (FGF2) expression in the hearts of ROCK2Postn–/– mice. Indeed, knockdown of ROCK2 in cardiac fibroblasts leads to decreased expression of CTGF and secretion of FGF2, and cardiomyocytes incubated with conditioned media from ROCK2-knockdown cardiac fibroblasts exhibited less hypertrophic response. In contrast, mutant mice with elevated fibroblast ROCK activity exhibited enhanced Ang II–stimulated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Clinically, higher leukocyte ROCK2 activity was observed in patients with diastolic dysfunction compared with age- and sex-matched controls, and correlated with higher grades of diastolic dysfunction by echocardiography. These findings indicate that fibroblast ROCK2 is necessary to cause cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis through the induction CTGF and FGF2, and they suggest that targeting ROCK2 may have therapeutic benefits in patients with LV diastolic dysfunction. PMID:28679962

  9. Heritage stones and their deterioration in rock-cut monuments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vinod K.

    2017-04-01

    India is dotted with thousands of rock- cut monuments of considerable antiquity having artwork of global importance. It is evident from the location of many of these monuments that knowledge of viable selection of site, geotechnical considerations and amenability to sculptures' chisel was vital for construction of rock-cut monuments and sculptures. These rock-cut structures also represent significant achievements of geotechnical and structural engineering and craftsmanship of contemporary period. The paper deals with some of the sites where natural rock-mass exposures were used to hew the monuments and highlight the deterioration owing to geological and climatic conditions. The Kailash temple in Ellora and Ajanta rock-cut caves are among the greatest architectural feats which owe their grandeur to amenability and consistency of basalt of Deccan Volcanic Province from which it is hewn. The Kailash Temple was created through a single, huge top-down excavation 100 feet deep down into the volcanic basaltic cliff rock. These ancient rock cut structures are amazing achievements of structural engineering and craftsmanship. The lava flows are nearly horizontal, competent rock medium facilitated the chiseling for the sculptures. The deterioration of these basalts are seen where the amygdule, vesicles and opening in rock discontinuity had the medium of construction or excavation. The monolithic rock- cut monuments of Mahabalipuram temples are constructed in the form of rathas or chriot and adjoining caves by excavating solid charnockite/granites. The large rock exposures are excavated and cut to perfection with wall decorations and sculptured art. The charnockites are the strongest and the most durable rock, yet quite amenable to fine dressing. These monolithic monuments in charnockite and are cut out of the hillock. The 7th Century monuments now exhibit somewhat rough surface probably due to weathering effect of salt laden winds from the sea side and alteration of feldspars

  10. 'They of the Great Rocks'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows 'Adirondack,' the rover's first target rock. Spirit traversed the sandy martian terrain at Gusev Crater to arrive in front of the football-sized rock on Sunday, Jan. 18, 2004, just three days after it successfully rolled off the lander. The rock was selected as Spirit's first target because its dust-free, flat surface is ideally suited for grinding. Clean surfaces also are better for examining a rock's top coating. Scientists named the angular rock after the Adirondack mountain range in New York. The word Adirondack is Native American and means 'They of the great rocks.'

  11. Predicting rock bursts in mines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1979-01-01

    The microseismic method relies on observational data, amply demonstrated in laboratory experiments, that acoustic noise occurs in rocks subjected to high differential stresses. Acoustic emission becomes most pronounced as the breaking strength of the rock is reached. Laboratory studies have shown that the acoustic emission is linked with the release of stored strain energy as the rock mass undergoes small-scale adjustments such as the formation of cracks. Studies in actual mines have shown that acoustic noises often precede failure of rock masses in rock bursts or in coal bumps. Seismologists are, therefore, very interested in whether these results can be applied to large-scale failures; that is, earthquakes. An active research program in predicting rock bursts in mines is being conducted by Brian T. Brady and his colleagues at the U.S Bureau of Mines, Denver Colo.  

  12. Rocks as poroelastic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J G

    1998-04-30

    In Biot's theory of poroelasticity, elastic materials contain connected voids or pores and these pores may be filled with fluids under pressure. The fluid pressure then couples to the mechanical effects of stress or strain applied externally to the solid matrix. Eshelby's formula for the response of a single ellipsoidal elastic inclusion in an elastic whole space to a strain imposed at infinity is a very well-known and important result in elasticity. Having a rigorous generalization of Eshelby's results valid for poroelasticity means that the hard part of Eshelby' work (in computing the elliptic integrals needed to evaluate the fourth-rank tensors for inclusions shaped like spheres, oblate and prolate spheroids, needles and disks) can be carried over from elasticity to poroelasticity - and also thermoelasticity - with only trivial modifications. Effective medium theories for poroelastic composites such as rocks can then be formulated easily by analogy to well-established methods used for elastic composites. An identity analogous to Eshelby's classic result has been derived [Physical Review Letters 79:1142-1145 (1997)] for use in these more complex and more realistic problems in rock mechanics analysis. Descriptions of the application of this result as the starting point for new methods of estimation are presented.

  13. Overview: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1992-08-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  14. Overview - Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, James C.

    1992-03-24

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling Organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  15. Overview: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  16. A smart rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressel, Phil

    2014-12-01

    This project was to design and build a protective weapon for a group of associations that believed in aliens and UFO's. They collected enough contributions from societies and individuals to be able to sponsor and totally fund the design, fabrication and testing of this equipment. The location of this facility is classified. It also eventually was redesigned by the Quartus Engineering Company for use at a major amusement park as a "shoot at targets facility." The challenge of this project was to design a "smart rock," namely an infrared bullet (the size of a gallon can of paint) that could be shot from the ground to intercept a UFO or any incoming suspicious item heading towards the earth. Some of the challenges to design this weapon were to feed cryogenic helium at 5 degrees Kelvin from an inair environment through a unique rotary coupling and air-vacuum seal while spinning the bullet at 1500 rpm and maintain its dynamic stability (wobble) about its spin axis to less than 10 micro-radians (2 arc seconds) while it operated in a vacuum. Precision optics monitored the dynamic motion of the "smart rock."

  17. Fossils, rocks, and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Lucy E.; Pojeta, John

    1993-01-01

    We study out Earth for many reasons: to find water to drink or oil to run our cars or coal to heat our homes, to know where to expect earthquakes or landslides or floods, and to try to understand our natural surroundings. Earth is constantly changing--nothing on its surface is truly permanent. Rocks that are not on top of a mountain may once have been on the bottom of the sea. Thus, to understand the world we live on, we must add the dimension of time. We must study Earth's history. When we talk about recorded history, time is measured in years, centuries, and tens of centuries. When we talk about Earth history, time is measured in millions and billions of years. Time is an everyday part of our lives. We keep track of time with a marvelous invention, the calendar, which is based on the movements of the Earth in space. One spin of Earth on its axis is a day, and one trip around the sun is a year. The modern calendar is a great achievement, developed over many thousands of years as theory and technology improved. People who study Earth's history also use a type of calendar, called the geologic time scale. It looks very different from the familiar calendar. In some ways, it is more like a book, and the rocks are its pages. Some of the pages are torn or missing, and the pages are not numbered, but geology gives us the tools to help us read this book.

  18. Fossils, rocks, and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Lucy E.; Pojeta, John

    1999-01-01

    We study our Earth for many reasons: to find water to drink or oil to run our cars or coal to heat our homes, to know where to expect earthquakes or landslides or floods, and to try to understand our natural surroundings. Earth is constantly changing--nothing on its surface is truly permanent. Rocks that are now on top of a mountain may once have been at the bottom of the sea. Thus, to understand the world we live on, we must add the dimension of time. We must study Earth's history. When we talk about recorded history, time is measured in years, centuries, and tens of centuries. When we talk about Earth history, time is measured in millions and billions of years. Time is an everyday part of our lives. We keep track of time with a marvelous invention, the calendar, which is based on the movements of Earth in space. One spin of Earth on its axis is a day, and one trip around the Sun is a year. The modern calendar is a great achievement, developed over many thousands of years as theory and technology improved. People who study Earth's history also use a type of calendar, called the geologic time scale. It looks very different from the familiar calendar. In some ways, it is more like a book, and the rocks are its pages. Some of the pages are torn or missing, and the pages are not numbered, but geology gives us the tools to help us read this book.

  19. Rock Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    C. Lum

    2004-09-16

    The purpose of this model report is to document the Rock Properties Model version 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties model provides mean matrix and lithophysae porosity, and the cross-correlated mean bulk density as direct input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'', MDL-NBS-HS-000021, REV 02 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in Section 6.6 and 8.2. Model validation accomplished by corroboration with data not cited as direct input is discussed in Section 7. The revision of this model report was performed as part of activities being conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan for: The Integrated Site Model, Revision 05'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169635]). The purpose of this revision is to bring the report up to current procedural requirements and address the Regulatory Integration Team evaluation comments. The work plan describes the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and procedures for this process.

  20. Schiaparelli Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-403, 26 June 2003

    Some of the most important high resolution imaging results of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) experiment center on discoveries about the presence and nature of the sedimentary rock record on Mars. This old meteor impact crater in northwestern Schiaparelli Basin exhibits a spectacular view of layered, sedimentary rock. The 2.3 kilometer (1.4 miles) wide crater may have once been completely filled with sediment; the material was later eroded to its present form. Dozens of layers of similar thickness and physical properties are now expressed in a wedding cake-like stack in the middle of the crater. Sunlight illuminating the scene from the left shows that the circle, or mesa top, at the middle of the crater stands higher than the other stair-stepped layers. The uniform physical properties and bedding of these layers might indicate that they were originally deposited in a lake (it is possible that the crater was at the bottom of a much larger lake, filling Schiaparelli Basin); alternatively, the layers were deposited by settling out of the atmosphere in a dry environment. This picture was acquired on June 3, 2003, and is located near 0.9oS, 346.2oW.

  1. Geochronology and geochemistry of the rocks associated with a late proterozoic ophiolite in West Pokot, NW Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, A. C.; Vearncombe, J. R.; Price, R. C.; Shackleton, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Mafic and ultramafic rocks in the W Pokot area, NW Kenya are identified as parts of a dismembered ophiolite. They lie within the late Proterozoic Mozambique Belt and are associated with metasediments and calc-alkaline volcanics and intruded by granitic rocks. All these rocks are allochthonous, thrust westwards towards the Archaean Tanzanian Craton. The calc-alkaline volcanics, which are chemically similar to present-day island-arc volcanic rocks, give a Rb/Sr whole-rock isochron age of 663 ± 49 Ma, and the associated metasediments give an age of 584 ± 25 Ma, both ages interpreted as dating a regional amphibolitefacies metamorphism. These rocks are intruded by the Marich Granite from which a Rb/Sr whole-rock isochron age of 593 ± 50 Ma was obtained with an 87Sr/ 86Sr initial ratio of 0/7072 ± 5 implying some crustal contamination either from the magmatite complex, which structurally underlies the ophiolitic rocks, or from deeper crustal rocks. The age spectrum is broadly similar to that established for similar sequences of rocks northwards along strike in Sudan, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There is no support for the view that these high-grade metamorphic rocks of this part of the Mozambique Belt are an older series underlying the lower grade Late Prpterozoic rocks of NE Africa and Saudi Arabia.

  2. Depression - older adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... active and engaged. The most worrisome complication of depression is suicide. Men make up most suicides among older adults. ... such as 911) if you are thinking about suicide (taking your own ... and think they may have depression, contact their provider.

  3. Profile of Older Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administration on Aging Administration on Disabilities Center for Integrated Programs Center for Performance and Evaluation National Institute ... Project Aging Statistics Profile of Older Americans AGing Integrated Database (AGID) Census Data & Population Estimates Projected Future ...

  4. Health Care for Older Americans: Insuring against Catastrophic Loss. Hearings before the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session (Part 1--Fort Smith, AR, August 27, 1986; Part 2--Little Rock, AR, August 28, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This document contains witness testimonies from a two-part Senate hearing called to examine different aspects of the problem of delivering appropriate, affordable, long-term health care and catastrophic coverage for older adults in America. Opening statements by Senator David Pryor are included for both sessions of the hearing. A statement by…

  5. Geoelectrical Classification of Gypsum Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinea, Ander; Playà, Elisabet; Rivero, Lluís; Himi, Mahjoub; Bosch, Ricard

    2010-12-01

    Gypsum rocks are widely exploited in the world as industrial minerals. The purity of the gypsum rocks (percentage in gypsum mineral in the whole rock) is a critical factor to evaluate the potential exploitability of a gypsum deposit. It is considered than purities higher than 80% in gypsum are required to be economically profitable. Gypsum deposits have been studied with geoelectrical methods; a direct relationship between the electrical resistivity values of the gypsum rocks and its lithological composition has been established, with the presence of lutites being the main controlling factor in the geoelectrical response of the deposit. This phenomenon has been quantified in the present study, by means of a combination of theoretical calculations, laboratory measurements and field data acquisition. Direct modelling has been performed; the data have been inverted to obtain the mean electrical resistivity of the models. The laboratory measurements have been obtained from artificial gypsum-clay mixture pills, and the electrical resistivity has been measured using a simple electrical circuit with direct current power supply. Finally, electrical resistivity tomography data have been acquired in different evaporite Tertiary basins located in North East Spain; the selected gypsum deposits have different gypsum compositions. The geoelectrical response of gypsum rocks has been determined by comparing the resistivity values obtained from theoretical models, laboratory tests and field examples. A geoelectrical classification of gypsum rocks defining three types of gypsum rocks has been elaborated: (a) Pure Gypsum Rocks (>75% of gypsum content), (b) Transitional Gypsum Rocks (75-55%), and (c) Lutites and Gypsum-rich Lutites (<55%). From the economic point of view, the Pure Gypsum Rocks, displaying a resistivity value of >800 ohm.m, can be exploited as industrial rocks. The methodology used could be applied in other geoelectrical rock studies, given that this relationship

  6. Building The Bell Rock Lighthouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shallcross, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Ever since the first mariners sailed off the east coast of Scotland the Bell Rock has claimed many vessels and countless lives. Also known as the Inch Cape Rocks they lie 18 km off the coast at Arbroath. Located near the mouth of the Firth of Forth and its important shipping ports these dangerous rocks cover an area some 440 m long and 90 m wide.…

  7. Mars Rock Formation Poses Mystery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This sharp, close-up image taken by the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows a rock target dubbed 'Robert E,' located on the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are studying this area for clues about the rock outcrop's composition. This image measures 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across and was taken on the 15th day of Opportunity's journey (Feb. 8, 2004).

  8. [Hearing disorders and rock music].

    PubMed

    Lindhardt, Bjarne Orskov

    2008-12-15

    Only few studies have investigated the frequency of hearing disorders in rock musicians. Performing rock music is apparently associated with a hearing loss in a fraction of musicians. Tinnitus and hyperacusis are more common among rock musicians than among the background population. It seems as if some sort of resistance against further hearing loss is developed over time. The use of ear protection devices have not been studied systematically but appears to be associated with diminished hearing loss.

  9. Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Mineral Mountain and Teapot Mountain quadrangles, Pinal County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, William J.; Theodore, Ted G.

    1979-01-01

    The widespread distribution of Tertiary volcanic rocks in south-central Arizona is controlled in part by prevolcanic structures along which volcanic vents were localized. Volcanic rocks in the Mineral Mountain and Teapot Mountain quadrangles mark the site of a major northwest-trending structural hingeline. This hingeline divides an older Precambrian X terrane on the west from intensely deformed sequences of rock as young as Pennsylvanian on the east, suggesting increased westerly uplift. The volcanic rocks consist of a pile of complexly interlayered rhyolite, andesite, dacite, flows and intrusive rocks, water-laid tuffs, and very minor olivine basalt. Although the rocks erupted from several different vents, time relations, space relations, and chemistry each give strong evidence of a single source for all the rocks. Available data (by the K-Ar dating method) on hornblende and biotite separates from the volcanic rocks range from 14 to 19 m.y. and establish the pre-middle Miocene age of major dislocations along the structural hingeline. Most of the volcanic rocks contain glass, either at the base of the flows or as an envelope around the intrusive phases. One of the intrusive rhyolites, however, seems to represent one of the final eruptions. Intense vesiculation of the intrusive rhyolite suggests a large content of volatiles at the time of its eruption. Mineralization is associated with the more silicic of these middle Miocene volcanic rocks; specifically, extensive fissure quartz veins contain locally significant amounts of silver, lead, and zinc and minor amounts of gold. Many of the most productive deposits are hosted by the volcanic rocks, although others occur in the Precambrian rocks. Magnetic data correspond roughly to the geology in outlining the overall extent of the volcanic rocks as a magnetic low.

  10. 22. SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING WEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING WEST FROM THE SAME POINT AS VIEW NO. 21. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. Age and regional relationships of granitoid rocks of the Adirondack highlands

    SciTech Connect

    McLelland, J.M. ); Chiarenzelli, J.R.

    1991-07-01

    Approximately 55% of the Adirondack highlands is underlain by granitic to tonalitic rocks that can be subdivided into five groups based on age, composition, and field occurrence: (1) early calcalkaline tonalites (ca. 1300 Ma) and associated granitic rocks (ca. 1250 Ma) of the southern and eastern highlands, (2) older anorogenic plutonic rocks (1145-1160 Ma) that occur throughout the highlands, (3) younger anorogenic plutonic rocks (ca. 1130 Ma) of the northwest highlands, and (5) late leucogranitic rocks (1060-1080 Ma) that occur throughout the northern highlands. The data presented here are in good agreement with zircon ages from the Green Mountains of Vermont as well as from southern Ontario and Quebec and suggest similar geologic histories for these regions. These results document a protracted and complicated evolution for this portion of the Grenville Province.

  12. Petrology of the igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, I. S.

    1987-01-01

    Papers published during the 1983-1986 period on the petrology and geochemistry of igneous rocks are discussed, with emphasis on tectonic environment. Consideration is given to oceanic rocks, subdivided into divergent margin suites (mid-ocean ridge basalts, ridge-related seamounts, and back-arc basin basalts) and intraplate suites (oceanic island basalts and nonridge seamounts), and to igneous rocks formed at convergent margins (island arc and continental arc suites), subdivided into volcanic associations and plutonic associations. Other rock groups discussed include continental flood basalts, layered mafic intrusions, continental alkalic associations, komatiites, ophiolites, ash-flow tuffs, anorthosites, and mantle xenoliths.

  13. Ready to Rock and Roll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit hazard-identification camera shows the rover's perspective just before its first post-egress drive on Mars. On Sunday, the 15th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey, engineers drove Spirit approximately 3 meters (10 feet)toward its first rock target, a football-sized, mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack (not pictured). In the foreground of this image are 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi' - two rocks that scientists considered investigating first. Ultimately, these rocks were not chosen because their rough and dusty surfaces are ill-suited for grinding.

  14. Petrology of the igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, I. S.

    1987-01-01

    Papers published during the 1983-1986 period on the petrology and geochemistry of igneous rocks are discussed, with emphasis on tectonic environment. Consideration is given to oceanic rocks, subdivided into divergent margin suites (mid-ocean ridge basalts, ridge-related seamounts, and back-arc basin basalts) and intraplate suites (oceanic island basalts and nonridge seamounts), and to igneous rocks formed at convergent margins (island arc and continental arc suites), subdivided into volcanic associations and plutonic associations. Other rock groups discussed include continental flood basalts, layered mafic intrusions, continental alkalic associations, komatiites, ophiolites, ash-flow tuffs, anorthosites, and mantle xenoliths.

  15. Acritarchs in carbonaceous meteorites and terrestrial rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2013-10-01

    Acritarchs are a group of organic-walled, acid-resistant microfossils of uncertain or unknown origin. Some are thought to represent the cysts or resting stages of unicellular protists (possibly dinoflagellates), chrysophytes (green algae) or other planktonic eukaryotic algae. Acritarchs are found throughout the geologic column extending back as far at 3.2 Ga. The presence of large sphaeromorphs in the Archaean provides evidence that the eukaryotic lineage extends much farther back in time than previously thought possible. Acritarchs are abundant in the Paleoproterozoic shales (1.9-1.6 Ga) of the former Soviet Union and they have been extensively used for the investigation of Proterozoic and Paleozoic biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental parameters. Scanning Electron Microscope studies have revealed the fossilized remains of organic-walled microfossils of unknown origin and exhibiting characteristics of acritarchs in a variety of carbonaceous meteorites. In many cases, these remains are black or brown in color and have Carbon/Oxygen ratios suggesting they have been diagenetically converted into kerogen. It is not feasible that the fossilized remains of organicwalled microfossils such as acritarchs represent biological contaminant that invaded and became embedded in the rock matrix of carbonaceous meteorites within the short time periods of their residence on Earth. Consequently, these groups of microfossils are considered to provide an additional line for the existence of indigenous extraterrestrial microbial remains in meteorites. This paper presents a brief review of acritarchs in terrestrial rocks and provides images of a number of similar morphotypes of uncertain origin found in freshly fractured samples of carbonaceous meteorites.

  16. MIR wall surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K

    1998-08-01

    This report addresses the problem of determining the layer thickness of a wall probed with a monostatic, hand-held implementation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR). Our goal is to locate the layers of the wall, and measure its overall thickness. The physical constraints require the device to be held fixed or swept rapidly over the wall. Thus an insufficient amount of backscattered data are collected to use diffraction tomographic [3] techniques to form images. The problem is therefore one of determining the wall layers from a set of time series reflection data. We develop two channel signal processing algorithms to determine the location of the layers of a wall, using as inputs the time series returned from the wall and the incident pulse. We study the problem using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) computer code to simulate the electromagnetic propagation within and scattering from a wall probed with five pulses. We use the results to develop and test signal processing procedures for locating the individual layers. We study two classes of algorithms: a deconvolution approach to determine a layered impulse response, and a correlation approach. After testing the algorithms on the FDTD results, we down-select to a suitable method.

  17. Rock.XML - Towards a library of rock physics models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Erling Hugo; Hauge, Ragnar; Ulvmoen, Marit; Johansen, Tor Arne; Drottning, Åsmund

    2016-08-01

    Rock physics modelling provides tools for correlating physical properties of rocks and their constituents to the geophysical observations we measure on a larger scale. Many different theoretical and empirical models exist, to cover the range of different types of rocks. However, upon reviewing these, we see that they are all built around a few main concepts. Based on this observation, we propose a format for digitally storing the specifications for rock physics models which we have named Rock.XML. It does not only contain data about the various constituents, but also the theories and how they are used to combine these building blocks to make a representative model for a particular rock. The format is based on the Extensible Markup Language XML, making it flexible enough to handle complex models as well as scalable towards extending it with new theories and models. This technology has great advantages as far as documenting and exchanging models in an unambiguous way between people and between software. Rock.XML can become a platform for creating a library of rock physics models; making them more accessible to everyone.

  18. Wall conditioning on ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Michiya; Pitts, Richard A.

    2011-08-01

    Like all tokamaks, ITER will require wall conditioning systems and strategies for successful operation from the point of view of plasma-facing surface preparation. Unlike today's devices however, ITER will have to manage large quantities of tritium fuel, imposing on wall conditioning a major responsibility for tritium inventory control. It will also feature the largest plasma-facing beryllium surface ever used in a tokamak and its high duty cycle and long pulse are expected to lead to the rapid formation of deposited layers in which tritium can accumulate. This paper summarises the currently planned ITER wall conditioning systems and describes the strategy for their use throughout exploitation of the device.

  19. Learning Opportunities for Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeracher, Dorothy

    1980-01-01

    The author summarizes a conference on learning opportunities for older people by discussing six issues: (1) perspectives of older people and service providers; (2) categorization of older learners; (3) learning needs of older people; (4) participation rates; (5) government policies; and (6) curriculum concerns. (SK)

  20. Economic Resources for Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sheila J.

    Although the older person's economic stiuation has improved, older women, minorities, and rural residents have incomes significantly lower than those for the older population in general. Older married women may appear to be financially secure, but many of their resources often disappear when their husbands die. Widowhood or divorce endangers the…

  1. Addressing the Consequences of Dynamic Rock Failure in Underground Excavations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, T. R.

    2016-10-01

    Rockbursts are violent events that result in the ejection of volumes of rock from the walls of underground excavations. They can be extremely hazardous and have been responsible for many accidents in underground excavations. They also are responsible for significant direct and indirect costs in mining and civil engineering projects. The occurrence of rockbursting can be reduced by optimising the design with regard to excavation layout, excavation geometry and size, excavation sequence, and by the application of destressing/preconditioning measures. Thereafter, containment of damage relies on rock support. Conventional design of rock support for the containment of rockburst damage is not possible since neither the demand that is generated, nor the capacity of support systems, are known, and thus there is a state of design indeterminacy. The approach recommended in this paper is a risk-consequence one: evaluation of the risk (the product of the probability of occurrence of a rockburst and its consequence, in financial terms), and use of this quantified risk as a decision making tool regarding the justification for significant dynamically capable rock support. A typically suitable rock support system for rockbursting conditions is suggested in the paper.

  2. Ancient Layered Rocks in Schiaparelli Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    One of the earliest results of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC)investigation shortly after the spacecraft began to orbit Mars in 1997 was the discovery of layered rock outcrops reaching deep down into the martian crust in the walls of the Valles Marineris. Since that time, thousands of MOC images have revealed layered rock in a variety of settings--crater floors, canyon interiors, and scarps exposed by faulting and pitting. This spectacular example taken by MOC in 2001 is found on the floor of an impact crater located near the equator in northwestern Schiaparelli Basin (0.15oN, 345.6oW). The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 miles) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. Layers of uniform thickness and appearance suggest that these materials are ancient sediments, perhaps deposited in water, or perhaps deposited by wind. Wind has subsequently eroded and exposed the layers. Dark drifts of sand occur at the lower center of the image, and lighter-toned windblown ripples dominate the center and upper right.

  3. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  4. Rocks That Remember (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnroe, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Parts of the continental crust preserve a magnetic memory that is billions of years old. Why do some rocks remember where they were born and others forget? Through time, continents travel over the world, but the memory preserved in some minerals remembers where they originated from, with a positioning system that can be envied even by modern technology. These magnetic mineral memory systems survived harsh environments, persevering in a magnetic field which changed in intensity and alternated in direction thousands of times, while also traveling the globe and possibly being subjected to enhanced temperatures. During all this, some crustal rocks retained most "magnetic sectors" in their "hard disk", and today create remanent magnetic anomalies reflecting the time and position of their initial remanent magnetization. Magnetic anomalies in planetary crusts are deviations from a global internal magnetic field. Measured over many length scales and at elevations ranging from near surface to satellites, crustal anomalies reflect the magnetic minerals, which respond to the changing planetary magnetic field. Anomalies are influenced by the geometry of the geological bodies, and by the magnetic and mineralogical properties of the constitutive rocks. Previously, magnetism of the continental crust has been completely described in terms of bulk ferrimagnetism of crustal minerals, and much of it due to induced magnetization. Even though remanent magnetization of the crust proved crucial for dating the ocean floor, and also is important for mineral exploration, the contribution of remanence to continental magnetic anomalies has been largely underestimated. In the course of studying remanent anomalies and the minerals responsible for them, a new interface-based remanence type, "lamellar magnetism", was discovered in rather common, slowly cooled, igneous and metamorphic rocks containing finely exsolved (10 microns to 1 nm) members of the rhombohedral hematite-ilmenite series

  5. Rover, airbags, & surrounding rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the Martian surface was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) before sunset on July 4 (Sol 1), the spacecraft's first day on Mars. The airbags have been partially retracted, and portions the petal holding the undeployed rover Sojourner can be seen at lower left. The rock in the center of the image may be a future target for chemical analysis. The soil in the foreground has been disturbed by the movement of the airbags as they retracted.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  6. Meridiani Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-545, 15 November 2003

    Northern Sinus Meridiani is a region of vast exposures of layered, sedimentary rock. Buried within these layers are many filled impact craters. Erosion has re-exposed several formerly-buried craters in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. Arrows 1 and 2 indicate craters that are still emerging from beneath layered material; arrow 3 indicates a crater that has been fully re-exposed. This image is located near 5.1oN, 2.7oW. The area shown is about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated from the left/upper left.

  7. Rocks of low permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 17th International Congress of the IAH (International Association of Hydrogeologists) will meet in Tucson, Ariz., January 7-10, 1985. The deadline for abstracts is March 1, 1984, and final papers are due October 15, 1984.The topic of the congress will be “Hydrogeology of Rocks of Low Permeability,” and speakers will include W. Back, J. F. Bredehoeft, G. de Marsily, J. E. Gale, P. Fritz, L. W. Gelhar, G. E. Grisak, C. W. Kreitler, M. R. Llamas, T. N. Narasimhan, I. Neretnieks, and E. P. Weeks. The congress will conclude with a panel discussion moderated by S. P. Neuman. Panelists include S. N. Davis, G. de Marsily, R. A. Freeze, P. A. Witherspoon, and I. Neretnieks.

  8. Robotic Rock Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Martial

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a three-month research program undertook jointly by the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University and Ames Research Center as part of the Ames' Joint Research Initiative (JRI.) The work was conducted at the Ames Research Center by Mr. Liam Pedersen, a graduate student in the CMU Ph.D. program in Robotics under the supervision Dr. Ted Roush at the Space Science Division of the Ames Research Center from May 15 1999 to August 15, 1999. Dr. Martial Hebert is Mr. Pedersen's research adviser at CMU and is Principal Investigator of this Grant. The goal of this project is to investigate and implement methods suitable for a robotic rover to autonomously identify rocks and minerals in its vicinity, and to statistically characterize the local geological environment. Although primary sensors for these tasks are a reflection spectrometer and color camera, the goal is to create a framework under which data from multiple sensors, and multiple readings on the same object, can be combined in a principled manner. Furthermore, it is envisioned that knowledge of the local area, either a priori or gathered by the robot, will be used to improve classification accuracy. The key results obtained during this project are: The continuation of the development of a rock classifier; development of theoretical statistical methods; development of methods for evaluating and selecting sensors; and experimentation with data mining techniques on the Ames spectral library. The results of this work are being applied at CMU, in particular in the context of the Winter 99 Antarctica expedition in which the classification techniques will be used on the Nomad robot. Conversely, the software developed based on those techniques will continue to be made available to NASA Ames and the data collected from the Nomad experiments will also be made available.

  9. Collenchyma: a versatile mechanical tissue with dynamic cell walls

    PubMed Central

    Leroux, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Background Collenchyma has remained in the shadow of commercially exploited mechanical tissues such as wood and fibres, and therefore has received little attention since it was first described. However, collenchyma is highly dynamic, especially compared with sclerenchyma. It is the main supporting tissue of growing organs with walls thickening during and after elongation. In older organs, collenchyma may become more rigid due to changes in cell wall composition or may undergo sclerification through lignification of newly deposited cell wall material. While much is known about the systematic and organographic distribution of collenchyma, there is rather less information regarding the molecular architecture and properties of its cell walls. Scope and conclusions This review summarizes several aspects that have not previously been extensively discussed including the origin of the term ‘collenchyma’ and the history of its typology. As the cell walls of collenchyma largely determine the dynamic characteristics of this tissue, I summarize the current state of knowledge regarding their structure and molecular composition. Unfortunately, to date, detailed studies specifically focusing on collenchyma cell walls have not been undertaken. However, generating a more detailed understanding of the structural and compositional modifications associated with the transition from plastic to elastic collenchyma cell wall properties is likely to provide significant insights into how specific configurations of cell wall polymers result in specific functional properties. This approach, focusing on architecture and functional properties, is likely to provide improved clarity on the controversial definition of collenchyma. PMID:22933416

  10. Tertiary volcanic rocks from the Halmahera arc, Eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sufni Hakim, A.; Hall, Robert

    -greenschist facies alteration reflecting deep burial and/or high heat flows. This alteration produced zeolites, chlorites, smectites, and locally, pumpellyite and sphene. Dating of overlying sedimentary rocks shows that the Oha Formation volcanic rocks are older than Late Miocene; a Late Cretaceous-Eocene age is suspected since petrographically and chemically similar arc volcanic rocks of this age are present in the NE and SE arms.

  11. Abdominal wall endometriomas.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu; Tsai, Eing Mei; Long, Cheng Yu; Chen, Yung Hung; Kay, Nari

    2009-03-01

    Abdominal wall endometriosis is rare, with an incidence of 0.03-0.47% following cesarean delivery. The study reviewed abdominal wall endometriomas during an 8-year period in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital. Of 166 patients with endometriosis treated surgically in the hospital during an 8-year period, 20 (12%) had abdominal wall endometriomas. The mean interval between the prior operation and the appearance of the first symptoms was 39.3 months. Preoperative diagnosis was correct in 14 patients (70%). Abdominal wall endometrioma is more common than generally assumed in patients visiting the hospital. In patients with a palpable subcutaneous mass near surgical scars associated with cyclic or constant pain, a thorough history and physical examination are sufficient to establish the presence of endometriomas. A surgical-wide excision with clear margins is the single treatment of choice.

  12. [Nursing care wall planning].

    PubMed

    Moreau, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Nursing care wall planners are not a tool for assessing workload, but a means of providing coherence and individualised monitoring of care. Its application is focused not only on team organisation, but also on the patient's needs.

  13. Coke oven wall pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book presents papers on coke oven wall pressures. Topics include How to Extend the Lifetime of Tall, High Performance Coke Ovens, Control of Operation and Equipment Prevents Coke Oven Damage, and Forensic Study of Fairfield Coke Battery 2.

  14. Plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Höfte, Herman; Voxeur, Aline

    2017-09-11

    Plants are able to generate large leaf surfaces that act as two-dimensional solar panels with a minimum investment in building material, thanks to a hydrostatic skeleton. This requires high intracellular pressures (up to 1 MPa), which depend on the presence of strong cell walls. The walls of growing cells (also called primary walls), are remarkably able to reconcile extreme tensile strength (up to 100 MPa) with the extensibility necessary for growth. All walled organisms are confronted with this dilemma - the need to balance strength and extensibility - and bacteria, fungi and plants have evolved independent solutions to cope. In this Primer, we discuss how plant cells have solved this problem, allowing them to support often very large increases in volume and to develop a broad variety of shapes (Figure 1A,B,D). This shape variation reflects the targeted deposition of wall material combined with local variations in cell-wall extensibility, processes that remain incompletely understood. Once the cell has reached its final size, it can lay down secondary wall layers, the composition and architecture of which are optimized to exert specific functions in different cell types (Figure 1E-G). Such functions include: providing mechanical support, for instance, for fibre cells in tree trunks or grass internodes; impermeabilising and strengthening vascular tissue to resist the negative pressure of the transpiration stream; increasing the surface area of the plasma membrane to facilitate solute exchange between cells (Figure 1C); or allowing important elastic deformation, for instance, to support the opening and closing of stomates. Specialized secondary walls, such as those constituting seed mucilage, are stored in a dehydrated form in seedcoat epidermis cells and show rapid swelling upon hydration of the seed. Other walls, in particular in reserve tissues, can accommodate large amounts of storage polysaccharides, which can be easily mobilized as a carbon source. Here we

  15. Resistor network as a model of fractures in granitic rocks - model for ERT interpretation in crystalline rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhelm, Jan; Jirků, Jaroslav; Janeček, Josef; Slavík, Lubomír; Bárta, Jaroslav

    2017-04-01

    Recently we have developed and tested system for long-term monitoring of underground excavation stability in granitic rocks. It is based on repeated ultrasonic time-of-flight measurement and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurement. The ERT measurement is performed directly on the rock wall using 48 electrodes. The spacing between electrodes was selected 20 centimeters. Based on sensitivity function it can be expected that maximum penetration depth of ERT is about 1.5 m. The observed time changes in apparent resistivity are expected to be mainly result of changes in fracture water saturation. To get some basic knowledge about relation between electrical resistivity in the rock fracture zone and its saturation a series of laboratory tests with rock samples with different porosity and different saturation was performed. The model of crystalline rock with sparse net of fractures is highly inhomogeneous medium and can be hardly considered as 2D layered model, which is usually used in ERT inversion. Therefore, we prepared resistor-network model for the qualitative/quantitative interpretation of observed apparent resistivity changes. Some preliminary results of our experience with this new type of resistivity model are presented. The results can be used for underground storage monitoring projects. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic, project No. TA 0302408

  16. Possible Mud Cracks Preserved in Martian Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-17

    The network of cracks in this Martian rock slab called "Old Soaker" may have formed from the drying of a mud layer more than 3 billion years ago. The view spans about 4 feet (1.2 meters) left-to-right and combines three images taken by the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) camera on the arm of NASA's Curiosity Mars rover. Mud cracks would be evidence of a time when dry intervals interrupted wetter periods that supported lakes in the area. Curiosity has found evidence of ancient lakes in older, lower-lying rock layers and also in younger mudstone that is above Old Soaker. MAHLI was positioned about 3 feet (90 centimeters) above the surface when it took the component images on Dec. 31, 2016, during the 1,566th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars. This observation was planned as part of assessing a hypothesis that the target preserves evidence of drying mud. The location is within an exposure of Murray formation mudstone on lower Mount Sharp inside Gale Crater. The slab bears a network of four- and five-sided polygons about half an inch to 1 inch (1 to 2 centimeters) across, which matches the pattern commonly formed when a thin layer of mud dries. Some edges of the polygons are ridges of material the same color as the surrounding rock. This could result from a three-step process after cracks form due to drying: Wind-blown sediments accumulate in the open cracks. Later, these sediments and the dried mud become rock under the pressure of multiple younger layers that accumulate on top of them. Most recently, after the overlying layers were eroded away by wind, the vein-filling material resists erosion better than the once-muddy material, so the pattern that began as cracks appears as ridges. Note that some of the cracks contain material much brighter than the surrounding rock. These are mineral veins. Curiosity has found such bright veins of calcium sulfate in many rock layers the rover has investigated. These veins form from circulation of mineral

  17. Technical Highlight: NREL Evaluates the Thermal Performance of Uninsulated Walls to Improve the Accuracy of Building Energy Simulation Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Ridouane, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop models of uninsulated wall assemblies that help to improve the accuracy of building energy simulation tools when modeling potential energy savings in older homes.

  18. Rockin' around the Rock Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frack, Susan; Blanchard, Scott Alan

    2005-01-01

    In this activity students will simulate how sedimentary rocks can be changed into metamorphic rocks by intense pressure. The materials needed are two small pieces of white bread, one piece of wheat bread, and one piece of a dark bread (such as pumpernickel or dark rye) per student, two pieces of waxed paper, scissors, a ruler, and heavy books.…

  19. 'Mister Badger' Pushing Mars Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Viking's soil sampler collector arm successfully pushed a rock on the surface of Mars during the afternoon of Friday, October 8. The irregular-shaped rock was pushed several inches by the Lander's collector arm, which displaced the rock to the left of its original position, leaving it cocked slightly upward. Photographs and other information verified the successful rock push. Photo at left shows the soil sampler's collector head pushing against the rock, named 'Mister Badger' by flight controllers. Photo at right shows the displaced rock and the depression whence it came. Part of the soil displacement was caused by the collector s backhoe. A soil sample will be taken from the site Monday night, October 11. It will then be delivered to Viking s organic chemistry instrument for a series of analyses during the next few weeks. The sample is being sought from beneath a rock because scientists believe that, if there are life forms on Mars, they may seek rocks as shelter from the Sun s intense ultraviolet radiation.

  20. Further Reflections on Little Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Danielle S.

    2007-01-01

    The famous photo of Hazel Bryan jeering at Elizabeth Eckford as a mob helped drive Elizabeth from Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, on September 4, 1957, compels meditation on the nature of democratic politics. This scene is commemorative of the Little Rock events where school segregation was rampant. The author believes that the photo…

  1. Rocking Ratchets at High Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, Peter

    A pedagogical introduction to basic physical and mathematical concepts of stochastic modeling is given for the specific example of a rocking ratchet system. Perturbative methods are illustrated by deriving the leading order behavior of the particle current for asymptotically fast rocking forces.

  2. Rockin' around the Rock Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frack, Susan; Blanchard, Scott Alan

    2005-01-01

    In this activity students will simulate how sedimentary rocks can be changed into metamorphic rocks by intense pressure. The materials needed are two small pieces of white bread, one piece of wheat bread, and one piece of a dark bread (such as pumpernickel or dark rye) per student, two pieces of waxed paper, scissors, a ruler, and heavy books.…

  3. The Rock Climbing Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudlas, John

    The product of 10 years of rock climbing instruction, this guide provides material from which an instructor can teach basic climbing concepts and safety skills as well as conduct a safe, enjoyable rock climbing class in a high school setting. It is designed for an instructor with limited experience in climbing; however, the need for teacher…

  4. Bakhtin's Dialogics and Rock Lyrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jeff Parker

    Rock music is ideological both implicitly (in its intrinsic valuing of change, and resistance to authority, for instance), and explicitly (in political records from activist artists such as John Lennon and U2). The texts of the rock genre offer rhetorical experiences. A dialogic conception may help scholars to account for and describe the…

  5. Rock Segmentation through Edge Regrouping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burl, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Rockster is an algorithm that automatically identifies the locations and boundaries of rocks imaged by the rover hazard cameras (hazcams), navigation cameras (navcams), or panoramic cameras (pancams). The software uses edge detection and edge regrouping to identify closed contours that separate the rocks from the background.

  6. Further Reflections on Little Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Danielle S.

    2007-01-01

    The famous photo of Hazel Bryan jeering at Elizabeth Eckford as a mob helped drive Elizabeth from Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, on September 4, 1957, compels meditation on the nature of democratic politics. This scene is commemorative of the Little Rock events where school segregation was rampant. The author believes that the photo…

  7. ROCKs as immunomodulators of stroke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing Mei; Liao, James K

    2012-10-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death and a major cause of long-term disability in the adult population. Growing evidence suggests that inflammation may play an important role in the evolution of stroke. Because Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCKs) are important mediators of inflammation, they may contribute to stroke and stroke recovery. The pathophysiological role of ROCKs in mediating inflammation at different phases of stroke, and the therapeutic opportunities for stroke prevention and stroke treatment with ROCK inhibitors will be discussed. Inflammation is a double-edged sword during the evolution of stroke. Immunomodulation might provide a novel therapeutic approach for stroke prevention and stroke treatment. ROCK plays an important role in mediating the inflammatory response following vascular injury as well as platelet activation and thrombus formation. ROCK inhibitors have been shown to be beneficial in stroke prevention, acute neuroprotection and chronic stroke recovery by affecting inflammatory-mediated platelet and endothelial function, smooth muscle contraction and neuronal regeneration. Thus, ROCK-mediated inflammation could be a potential therapeutic target for stroke prevention and stroke treatment. However, the mechanism by which ROCKs regulate the inflammatory response is unclear, and the role of the two ROCK isoforms in stroke and stroke recovery remains to be determined.

  8. Evaluation of the Integrity of Deep Rock Masses Using Results of Digital Borehole Televiewers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hao-Sen; Feng, Xia-Ting; Li, Shao-Jun; Yang, Cheng-Xiang; Yao, Zhi-Bin

    2017-06-01

    Rock mass integrity is regarded as an important index to evaluate rock mass quality. Core drilling technology is one of the effective methods used for this. To overcome the problem of core discing and core breakage from the drilling process, a new evaluation method was proposed: a rock mass integrity index (RMIBT) based on high-definition digital borehole televiewer data. The RMIBT values were obtained by measuring the mass proportions of the length of the rock mass without macroscopic fractures on the borehole wall. Their scoring criteria were determined based on rock quality designation. It was applied in multiple deep rock excavations and therefore proved to be useful, especially where core discing occurs, in specific spatial distributions of structural planes, as well as logging errors from core breakages induced by drilling. In addition, the RMIBT can be used to assess dynamically the integrity of macroscopic rock masses and the evolution of fractures in the excavation damaged zone, thus providing a basis for the evaluation of rock masses in deep rock excavations.

  9. Conducting Wall Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Polk, James E.; Dotson, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    A unique configuration of the magnetic field near the wall of Hall thrusters, called Magnetic Shielding, has recently demonstrated the ability to significantly reduce the erosion of the boron nitride (BN) walls and extend the life of Hall thrusters by orders of magnitude. The ability of magnetic shielding to minimize interactions between the plasma and the discharge chamber walls has for the first time enabled the replacement of insulating walls with conducting materials without loss in thruster performance. The boron nitride rings in the 6 kW H6 Hall thruster were replaced with graphite that self-biased to near the anode potential. The thruster efficiency remained over 60% (within two percent of the baseline BN configuration) with a small decrease in thrust and increase in Isp typical of magnetically shielded Hall thrusters. The graphite wall temperatures decreased significantly compared to both shielded and unshielded BN configurations, leading to the potential for higher power operation. Eliminating ceramic walls makes it simpler and less expensive to fabricate a thruster to survive launch loads, and the graphite discharge chamber radiates more efficiently which increases the power capability of the thruster compared to conventional Hall thruster designs.

  10. Earth melter with rubble walls and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Chris C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an improvement to the earth melter described and claimed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,443,618. The improvement is the use of rubble for retaining walls. More specifically, the retaining walls rest on ground level and extend above ground level piling rubble around a melt zone. A portion of the melter may be below grade wherein sidewalls are formed by the relatively undisturbed native soil or rock, and the rubble may be used as a backfill liner for the below grade sidewalls.

  11. North-vergent thrust fault between Baltica and Laurentian affinity rocks in the frontal part of Romanzof orogen, NE Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. E.; O'Sullivan, P. B.

    2012-12-01

    the Neroukpuk Quartzite lies in thrust contact on Devonian lithic clastic rocks. The Devonian rocks are calcareous and, in addition to Caledonian (c. 420 Ma) populations, yield detrital zircon age populations similar to those in the Sadlerochit Mountains metaclastic rocks indicating its provenance is mainly in the Sadlerochit Mountains sequence. The Devonian unit also contains lenses of black chert, interpreted to be olistoliths, that can only be derived from the Romanzof Mountains succession. Folds in the metaclastic rocks display north vergence with little plunge and moderate south-dipping semipenetrative axial planar foliation. Blocks of older rocks of Baltica affinity occur locally below the thrust, thereby indicating the presence of a footwall syncline with rocks of the Sadlerochit Mountains succession forming the foot wall beneath the Devonian unit. These relations indicate that the contact at the south margin of the Sadlerochit Mountains succession is a north-directed thrust fault rather than a sinistral transform fault. Although this fault does not confirm the existence of a Northwest Passage event, it provides the first strong evidence that the Romanzof orogen is north-vergent thrust belt-foreland basin system that placed the Romanzof Mountains succession onto the Sadlerochit Mountains succession early in Devonian time.

  12. Older Adults’ Pain Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Deborah Dillon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the types of pain information described by older adults with chronic osteoarthritis pain. Pain descriptions were obtained from older adults’ who participated in a posttest only double blind study testing how the phrasing of healthcare practitioners’ pain questions affected the amount of communicated pain information. The 207 community dwelling older adults were randomized to respond to either the open-ended or closed-ended pain question. They viewed and orally responded to a computer displayed videotape of a practitioner asking them the respective pain question. All then viewed and responded to the general follow up question, ““What else can you tell me?” and lastly, “What else can you tell me about your pain, aches, soreness or discomfort?” Audio-taped responses were transcribed and content analyzed by trained, independent raters using 16 a priori criteria from the American Pain Society (2002) Guidelines for the Management of Pain in Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Juvenile Chronic Arthritis. Older adults described important but limited types of information primarily about pain location, timing, and intensity. Pain treatment information was elicited after repeated questioning. Therefore, practitioners need to follow up older adults’ initial pain descriptions with pain questions that promote a more complete pain management discussion. Routine use of a multidimensional pain assessment instrument that measures information such as functional interference, current pain treatments, treatment effects, and side effects would be one way of insuring a more complete pain management discussion with older adults. PMID:19706351

  13. Deposits along the Northern Wall of Melas Chasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-05

    It has been known since the 1970s when the Viking orbiters took pictures of Mars that there are large (i.e., several kilometers-thick) mounds of light-toned deposits within the central portion of Valles Marineris. More recent higher resolution images of Mars, including this image of Melas Chasma, show that the wall rocks of Valles Mariners also contain similar, albeit thinner, light-toned deposits. Spectral data from the CRISM instrument indicate that the larger mounds are composed of sulfates. Some of the wall rock deposits are also made up of sulfates, but others contain clays or mixtures of several kinds of hydrated materials, suggesting that multiple aqueous processes, perhaps at different times within Valles Marineris, formed the variety of deposits we now observe. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21102

  14. Rock avalanches on a glacier and morainic complex in Haut Val Ferret (Mont Blanc Massif, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deline, Philip; Kirkbride, Martin P.

    2009-01-01

    Deposits in upper Val Ferret (Mont Blanc Massif, Italy) have been attributed to glacier advances and to a rock avalanche of 12 September AD 1717. We review evidence for the timing and mode of emplacement of the deposit, and present a new geomorphic interpretation and relative and absolute dating to show that the AD 1717 deposit is less extensive than previously thought. The landslide was deflected along one side of the valley floor, preserving older slope and morainic sediments along the other side. An earlier rock avalanche onto the Triolet Glacier occurred before AD 1000. The deposits of these landslides partly cover older moraine several kilometres downstream from the present glacier front, and have affected the glacier regimen and construction of its moraines. This study highlights the geomorphic impact of rock avalanches in glacierized high mountains.

  15. Analysis of Inflatable Rock Bolts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Charlie C.

    2016-01-01

    An inflatable bolt is integrated in the rock mass through the friction and mechanical interlock at the bolt-rock interface. The pullout resistance of the inflatable bolt is determined by the contact stress at the interface. The contact stress is composed of two parts, termed the primary and secondary contact stresses. The former refers to the stress established during bolt installation and the latter is mobilized when the bolt tends to slip in the borehole owing to the roughness of the borehole surface. The existing analysis of the inflatable rock bolt does not appropriately describe the interaction between the bolt and the rock since the influence of the folded tongue of the bolt on the stiffness of the bolt and the elastic rebound of the bolt tube in the end of bolt installation are ignored. The interaction of the inflatable bolt with the rock is thoroughly analysed by taking into account the elastic displacements of the rock mass and the bolt tube during and after bolt installation in this article. The study aims to reveal the influence of the bolt tongue on the contact stress and the different anchoring mechanisms of the bolt in hard and soft rocks. A new solution to the primary contact stress is derived, which is more realistic than the existing one in describing the interaction between the bolt and the rock. The mechanism of the secondary contact stress is also discussed from the point of view of the mechanical behaviour of the asperities on the borehole surface. The analytical solutions are in agreement with both the laboratory and field pullout test results. The analysis reveals that the primary contact stress decreases with the Young's modulus of the rock mass and increases with the borehole diameter and installation pump pressure. The primary contact stress can be easily established in soft and weak rock but is low or zero in hard and strong rock. In soft and weak rock, the primary contact stress is crucially important for the anchorage of the bolt, while

  16. Tracer tomography (in) rocks!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyvári, Márk; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Jimenez Parras, Santos; Bayer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Physical behavior of fractured aquifers is rigorously controlled by the presence of interconnected conductive fractures, as they represent the main pathways for flow and transport. Ideally, they are simulated as a discrete fracture network (DFN) in a model to capture the role of fracture system geometry, i.e. fracture length, height, and width (aperture/transmissivity). Such network may be constrained by prior geological information or direct data resources such as field mapping, borehole logging and geophysics. With the many geometric features, however, calibration of a DFN to measured data is challenging. This is especially the case when spatial properties of a fracture network need to be calibrated to flow and transport data. One way to increase the insight in a fractured rock is by combining the information from multiple field tests. In this study, a tomographic configuration that combines multiple tracer tests is suggested. These tests are conducted from a borehole with different injection levels that act as sources. In a downgradient borehole, the tracer is recorded at different levels or receivers, in order to maximize insight in the spatial heterogeneity of the rock. As tracer here we chose heat, and temperature breakthrough curves are recorded. The recorded tracer data is inverted using a novel stochastic trans-dimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure. An initial DFN solution is generated and sequentially modified given available geological information, such as expected fracture density, orientation, length distribution, spacing and persistency. During this sequential modification, the DFN evolves in a trans-dimensional inversion space through adding and/or deleting fracture segments. This stochastic inversion algorithm requires a large number of thousands of model runs to converge, and thus using a fast and robust forward model is essential to keep the calculation efficient. To reach this goal, an upwind coupled finite difference method is employed

  17. The older worker.

    PubMed

    Fulks, J S; Fallon, L F

    2001-01-01

    About one person in eight remains employed past 65, the average age for retirement in the U.S. These persons tend to be highly reliable. They can adapt and learn new technology, but may require extra time to do so. Older workers have particular needs in the workplace due to physiological changes that accompany aging. They may require more lighting, and they may have decreased mobility, physical strength, and dexterity. These factors often have no impact on their ability to accomplish job duties. This chapter underscores the significant contributions that older workers often provide, and also addresses retirement planning.

  18. Obesity in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kalish, Virginia B

    2016-03-01

    The percentage of older obese adults is on the rise. Many clinicians underestimate the health consequences of obesity in the elderly, citing scarce evidence and concerns that weight loss might be detrimental to the health of older adults. Although overweight and obese elders are not at the same risk for morbidity and mortality as younger individuals, quality of life and function are adversely impacted. Weight loss plans in the elderly should include aerobic activities as well as balance and resistance activities to maintain optimal physical function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Loose Rock Leads to Incomplete Drilling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-11

    The Bonanza King rock on Mars, pictured here, was tapped by the drill belonging to NASA Mars rover Curiosity. The tapping resulted in sand piling up on the rock after drilling, showing the rock was not firmly in place.

  20. Rock Outcrops on Mars and Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-27

    This set of images compares the Link outcrop of rocks on Mars left with similar rocks seen on Earth right. The Link outcrop shows rounded gravel fragments, or clasts, up to a couple inches few centimeters, within the rock outcrop.