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Sample records for oldoinyo lengai tanzania

  1. Peralkaline silicate lavas at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaudius, Jurgis; Keller, Jörg

    2006-10-01

    A detailed study of Oldoinyo Lengai has led to the recognition of two major cone-building stages. An early, predominantly phonolitic stage, Lengai I, forms the southern cone. The recent nephelinitic Lengai II developed following a major sector collapse event over Lengai I. Petrography of Lengai II lavas show that nephelinite is combeite- and wollastonite-bearing. All Oldoinyo Lengai lavas are peralkaline and highly evolved in terms of low Mg#, Ni and Cr values. Within the unique Lengai II combeite-wollastonite-nephelinite (CWN) peralkalinity increases with time to extreme values (Na + K)/Al = 2.36. Mineralogical expression of peralkalinity is the presence of combeite and Na-rich clinopyroxene. In addition, exceptionally high Fe 2O 3 (up to 10.28 wt.%) in nepheline is an indicator for alumina deficiency. Combeite also shows high Fe 3+. Phonolite and CWN of Lengai I and Lengai II show similarly enriched LILE and LREE values and generally parallel patterns in PM normalized and REE plots.

  2. Magnesium isotope fractionation during carbonatite magmatism at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wang-Ye; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Halama, Ralf; Keller, Jörg; Klaudius, Jurgis

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the behaviour of Mg isotopes during carbonatite magmatism, we analyzed Mg isotopic compositions of natrocarbonatites and peralkaline silicate rocks from Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. The olivine melilitites from the vicinity of Oldoinyo Lengai have homogeneous and mantle-like Mg isotopic compositions (δ26Mg of -0.30 to -0.26‰), indicating limited Mg isotope fractionation during mantle melting. The highly evolved peralkaline silicate rocks not related to silicate-carbonatite liquid immiscibility, including phonolites from the unit Lengai I, combeite-wollastonite nephelinites (CWNs) from the unit Lengai II A and carbonated combeite-wollastonite-melilite nephelinites (carbCWMNs), have δ26Mg values (from -0.25 to -0.10‰) clustered around the mantle value. By contrast, the CWNs from the unit Lengai II B, which evolved from the silicate melts that were presumably generated by silicate-carbonatite liquid immiscibility, have heavier Mg isotopes (δ26Mg of -0.06 to +0.09‰). Such a difference suggests Mg isotope fractionation during liquid immiscibility and implies, based on mass-balance calculations, that the original carbonatite melts at Lengai were isotopically light. The variable and positive δ26Mg values of natrocarbonatites (from +0.13 to +0.37‰) hence require a change of their Mg isotopic compositions subsequent to liquid immiscibility. The negative correlations between δ26Mg values and contents of alkali and alkaline earth metals of natrocarbonatites suggest Mg isotope fractionation during fractional crystallization of carbonatite melts, with heavy Mg isotopes enriched in the residual melts relative to fractionated carbonate minerals. Collectively, significant Mg isotope fractionation may occur during both silicate-carbonatite liquid immiscibility and fractional crystallization of carbonatite melts, making Mg isotopes a potentially useful tracer of these processes relevant to carbonatite petrogenesis.

  3. Melilite-group minerals at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenmann, Daniel; Keller, Jörg; Zaitsev, Anatoly N.

    2010-07-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai and the volcanic centres of the Lake Natron-Engaruka province contain melilite as a widespread mineral. Extraordinarily Na-Al-rich melilites (up to 6 wt.% Na 2O and 9 wt.% Al 2O 3) from recent explosive eruptions are among the most Na-rich ever reported. Their unusual mineral composition leads to optical properties with vivid birefringence colours of 2nd order. The continuous variation in mineral composition from common åkermanite to Na-Al-melilite ( alumoåkermanite) is documented and reflects the whole peralkaline trend of Oldoinyo Lengai. The data presented allow the volcano's evolution from primitive olivine melilitites to highly evolved and peralkaline combeite-wollastonite nephelinites to be traced. Melilite compositions of Oldoinyo Lengai extend the magmatic field in the Ca 2Fe(Si 2O 7)-Ca 2Mg(Si 2O 7)-(CaNa)Al(Si 2O 7) end-member ternary compositional diagram.

  4. Holocene carbonatite-nephelinite tephra deposits of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Richard L.

    1989-03-01

    Natrocarbonatite and nephelinite tephra have been erupted together from Oldoinyo Lengai over the past few thousand years. The oldest deposits with recognizable natrocarbonatite are thin tuff beds probably between 2000 and 5000 years in age. Tuffs and agglomerates with an age of about 1250-2000 years contain evidence strongly suggestive of natrocarbonatite ash. The volcano is mantled by nephelinite-carbonatite ash deposits, termed the Footprint Tuff, that were erupted about 600 years ago. Evidence is contradictory as to whether natrocarbonatite was discharged during the cone-building phase of eruptions, which ended about 15,000 years ago. Nephelinite-carbonatite ash erupted in 1966 contains an unidentified mineral, designated NCS, with a chemical composition of Na 4.09Ca 2.76Si 5O 14.81. It may be genetically related to natrocarbonatite magma as it has thus far been identified only in the younger tephra deposits of Oldoinyo Lengai, most of which contain evidence of natrocarbonatite. A tephra deposit termed the Footprint Tuff contains footprints thought to be preserved by the rapid recrystallization of primary natrocarbonatite. Calcite of natrocarbonatite origin forms an estimated 15-20% of the airfall tuffs, and natrocarbonatite probably equalled or exceeded the volume of nephelinite tephra at the time of eruption. Nyerereite ([Na 0.82K 0.18] 2 Ca[CO 3] 2) and gregoryite ([Na 0.78K 0.05] [Ca 0.17CO 3]) were primary minerals in the natrocarbonatite, as in modern lavas of Oldoinyo Lengai. Unlike modern lavas, the groundmass contained a substantial amount of silicate material. Noncarbonate minerals in the Footprint Tuff include nepheline, melilite, augite, wollastonite, melanite, fluorite, and NCS. The Footprint Tuff was cemented soon after deposition, very likely by trona. Gaylussite, pirssonite, or both, were probably later alteration products in the transformation of natrocarbonatite ash to form calcite. Oxygen and carbon isotopic re-equilibration were essentially

  5. Physicochemical properties of alkali carbonatite lavas:Data from the 1988 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, J. B.; Pinkerton, H.; Norton, G. E.; Pyle, D. M.

    1990-03-01

    Alkali carbonatite lavas extruded from Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, in November 1988 are similar in composition to lavas extruded in 1960. Extrusion temperatures are 585 ±10 °C. Apparent viscosities in this temperature range are between 0.3 and 120 Paṡs, the highest values coming from very frothy and phenocryst-rich magma. The viscosities and temperatures are the lowest known for terrestrial magmas.

  6. Mineralogical and chemical transformation of Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatites, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, Anatoly N.; Keller, Jörg

    2006-10-01

    The minerals of Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite lavas are unstable under atmospheric conditions. Subsolidus mineral assemblages in natrocarbonatites were studied in 105 samples from contemporary eruptions ranging from present day to about 100 years old. The subsolidus minerals in natrocarbonatites were formed (i) along cracks on the lava surface from hot gases escaping during cooling, (ii) as atmospheric alteration by solution of water-soluble minerals, in particular halides and gregoryite, and by hydration of nyerereite under the influence of meteoric water and (iii) by reaction with fumarole gases. After solidification, the lavas were cut by a network of thin cracks, the edges of which are covered by polymineralic encrustations. Samples collected 2-24 h after eruption contain nahcolite, trona, sylvite, and halite with accessory kalicinite and villiaumite. Atmospheric humidity results immediately (≥ 2 h after eruption) in alteration of black lavas that is marked by the appearance of white powdery thermonatrite with nahcolite on the lava surface. Subsequent reaction (weeks, months, years) of natrocarbonatite with meteoric water and the atmosphere results in the formation of pirssonite, gaylussite, shortite, trona, thermonatrite, nahcolite and calcite. Generally, the first important step is the formation of pirssonite and the end-members are calcite carbonate rocks or loose aggregates. Fumarolic activity is common for the active northern crater of the volcano. Reaction of hot (54-141 °C) fumarolic gases with natrocarbonatite leads to the formation of sulphur, gypsum, calcite, anhydrite, monohydrocalcite, barite and celestine. Changes in mineralogy of the natrocarbonatite lead to substantial chemical transformation. The most obvious chemical changes in this process are the loss of Na, K, Cl and S, combined with an increase in H 2O, Ca, Sr, Ba, F and Mn. The oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of altered natrocarbonatites shows a significant shift from the

  7. Peralkaline nephelinite-natrocarbonatite immiscibility and carbonatite assimilation at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Roger H.

    2009-11-01

    This study presents petrographic and compositional data for coexisting peralkaline silicate glass and quenched natrocarbonatite melt in nepheline phenocrysts from the 24 September 2007 and July 2008 eruptions of the natrocarbonatite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania). Data are also given for peralkaline residual glass in combeite nephelinite ash clasts occurring in the March-April 2006 large volume natrocarbonatite flow. These data are considered to demonstrate the occurrence of liquid immiscibility between strongly peralkaline Fe-rich nephelinite melt and natrocarbonatite at Oldoinyo Lengai. Compositional data for coexisting silicate-carbonate pairs in conjunction with previous experimental studies suggest that the size of the field of liquid immiscibility for carbonated nephelinitic magmas is a function of their peralkalinity. It is shown that peralkaline combeite wollastonite nephelinite was present at Oldoinyo Lengai prior to, and during, the 24 September 2007 ash eruption. It is postulated that the driving force for this major eruption was assimilation and decomposition of previously emplaced solid natrocarbonatite. Assimilation resulted in the formation of the unusual hybrid nepheline-andradite-melilite-combeite-phosphate magma represented by the 24 September 2007 ash.

  8. Contrasting carbonatite volcanism at the Kerimasi and Oldoinyo Lengai volcanoes, northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Hannes B.; Bosshard-Stadlin, Sonja A.; Weidendorfer, Daniel; Balashova, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The two neighboring volcanoes, Kerimasi and Oldoinyo Lengai, located 12 km apart in the eastern branch of the East African Rift in northern Tanzania display many similarities but also significant differences in terms of the types of magmas being erupted. The carbonatites of Kerimasi have a rather large compositional span (MgO=0-14 wt.% and CaO=32-56 wt.%). This is in sharp contrast to the very uniform Na-carbonatites typically erupted at Oldoinyo Lengai. As a result of this the Kerimasi carbonatites classify as Ca-carbonatites and they are all virtually devoid of alkalis. The trace elements patterns are rather uniform for the Kerimasi carbonatites and the patterns are similar to Ca-carbonatites found elsewhere. They differ to the natrocarbonatites by having considerable higher Zr and Hf concentrations. The slope of the REE ([La/Yb]N) are considerably flatter for the Kerimasi rocks (12 to 45) in comparison to natrocarbonatites (>1000) or even Ca-carbonatite dykes from Oldoinyo Lengai (~100). Interestingly, the Trig Point Hill debris avalanche deposit of Kerimasi is dominated by carbonatitic material in the form of blocks comprising intrusions, cumulates and vesicular lava flows (calculated to have a total volume of approximately 0.6 to 1.2 km3). This strongly indicates that the collapsed part of volcanic edifice at Kerimasi is in fact dominated by carbonatitic material with only minor amounts of silicate rocks. At Oldoinyo Lengai the carbonatitic material mainly occur inside the summit crater as small lava flows (with a combined volume of <0.02 km3) with minor amounts of sövitic intrusions also being present at depth (as indicated by accidental lithics picked-up during explosive eruptions). The effusive to mildly explosive activity characteristic of the Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatites are bracketed by more explosive episodes involving nephelinitic magmas (such as in 1966-67 and 2007-08). It is suggested here that during explosive episodes carbonatite magma mix

  9. Satellite measurements of recent volcanic activity at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Kervyn, Matthieu; Realmuto, Vince; Abrams, Michael; Hook, Simon J.

    2008-06-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) is the only active volcano in the world that produces natrocarbonatite lava. These carbonate-rich lavas are unique in that they have relatively low temperatures (495-590 °C) and very low viscosity. OL has been erupting intermittently since 1983, mostly with small lava flows, pools and spatter cones (hornitos) confined to the summit crater. Explosive, ash-producing eruptions are rare, however, on September 4, 2007 the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured the first satellite image of an ash plume erupting from OL, which may be indicative of a new phase of more silica-rich products and explosive activity that has not occurred since 1966-1967. In the months prior to the eruption, thermal infrared (TIR) satellite monitoring detected an increasing number of thermal anomalies around OL. Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor analyzed with the MODLEN algorithm detected more than 30 hot spots in the last week of August and first week of September 2007, some of which were from bush fires ignited by lava flows or spatter around the volcano. Higher-resolution ASTER data confirmed the location of these burn scars associated with lava flows. ASTER also detected the appearance of an anomalous hot spot at the summit of OL in mid-June with temperatures ~ 440 °C, the presence of several new lava flows in the crater in July and August, and on September 4 measured higher temperatures (~ 550 °C) possibly suggesting a more silicate-rich eruption. ASTER spectral emissivity data were interpreted to indicate a mixture of carbonate and silicate ash in the eruption plume from September 4. Based on the analysis of both ASTER and MODIS data combined with occasional field observations, there appear to have been 2 distinct eruptive events so far in 2007: a typical natrocarbonatite eruption confined to the summit crater in June-July, and a more intense eruption in August-September consisting of

  10. Geologic map of Oldonyo Lengai (Oldoinyo Lengai) Volcano and surroundings, Arusha Region, United Republic of Tanzania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Magigita, Masota M.; Kwelwa, Shimba

    2013-01-01

    The geology of Oldonyo Lengai volcano and the southernmost Lake Natron basin, Tanzania, is presented on this geologic map at scale 1:50,000. The map sheet can be downloaded in pdf format for online viewing or ready to print (48 inches by 36 inches). A 65-page explanatory pamphlet describes the geologic history of the area. Its goal is to place the new findings into the framework of previous investigations while highlighting gaps in knowledge. In this way questions are raised and challenges proposed to future workers. The southernmost Lake Natron basin is located along the East African rift zone in northern Tanzania. Exposed strata provide a history of volcanism, sedimentation, and faulting that spans 2 million years. It is here where Oldonyo Lengai, Tanzania’s most active volcano of the past several thousand years, built its edifice. Six new radiometric ages, by the 40Ar/39Ar method, and 48 new geochemical analyses from Oldonyo Lengai and surrounding volcanic features deepen our understanding of the area. Those who prefer the convenience and access offered by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) may download an electronic database, suitable for most GIS software applications. The GIS database is in a Transverse Mercator projection, zone 36, New (1960) Arc datum. The database includes layers for hypsography (topography), hydrography, and infrastructure such as roads and trails.

  11. Ra-Th disequilibria systematics: Timescale of carbonatite magma formation at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ross W.; Gill, James B.; Bruland, Kenneth W.

    1986-06-01

    Carbonatite magma can form and erupt within 7 to 18 years, and the event seems associated with prior volcanic eruptions. This determination of magma age is possible because the carbonatite lava and ash which were erupted in 1960-1966 from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania, have the most extreme disequilibria between U and Th series nuclides yet measured in volcanic rocks. At the time of eruption: ( 228Ra) /( 232Th) ≈ 27 and ( 226Ra) /( 230Th) > 60 ; ( 238U) /( 232Th) > 10 , while ( 232Th) /( 232Th) = 1.0 ; and ( 210Pb) /( 226Ra) ≈ 0.3 . Three end-member models are presented which enable interpretation of these disequilibria. If the disequilibrium formed instantaneously, the event occurred about 7 years before initial eruption, and just before the last preceding but small eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai. If, instead, the disequilibrium formed continuously, the process must have begun 15 to 18 years before initial eruption, just after the last preceding major eruption. The disequilibria data confirm that the carbonatites are not fused trona, but do not distinguish between other genetic options (mantle fusion, selective assimilation, liquid immiscibility). However, the shortness of magma-formation time together with mass-balance considerations suggest formation due to the continuous exsolution of 2 to 20% of carbonatite from nephelinite which was itself Ra-enriched.

  12. Temperature Measurements in Carbonatite Lava Lakes and Flows from Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, Maurice; Keller, Jorg

    1989-07-01

    The petrogenesis of carbonatites has important implications for mantle processes and for the magmatic evolution of mantle melts rich in carbon dioxide. Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, is the only active carbonatite volcano on Earth. Its highly alkalic, sodium-rich lava, although different in composition from the more common calcium-rich carbonatites, provides the opportunity for observations of the physical characteristics of carbonatite melts. Temperature measurements on active carbonatitic lava flows and from carbonatitic lava lakes were carried out during a period of effusive activity in June 1988. Temperatures ranged from 491 degrees to 519 degrees C. The highest temperature, measured from a carbonatitic lava lake, was 544 degrees C. These temperatures are several hundred degrees lower than measurements from any silicate lava. At the observed temperatures, the carbonatite melt had lower viscosities than the most fluid basaltic lavas. The unusually low magmatic temperatures were confirmed with 1-atmosphere melting experiments on natural samples.

  13. Temperature measurements in carbonatite lava lakes and flows from oldoinyo lengai, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Krafft, M; Keller, J

    1989-07-14

    The petrogenesis of carbonatites has important implications for mantle processes and for the magmatic evolution of mantle melts rich in carbon dioxide. Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, is the only active carbonatite volcano on Earth. Its highly alkalic, sodium-rich lava, although different in composition from the more common calcium-rich carbonatites, provides the opportunity for observations of the physical characteristics of carbonatite melts. Temperature measurements on active carbonatitic lava flows and from carbonatitic lava lakes were carried out during a period of effusive activity in June 1988. Temperatures ranged from 491 degrees to 519 degrees C. The highest temperature, measured from a carbonatitic lava lake, was 544 degrees C. These temperatures are several hundred degrees lower than measurements from any silicate lava. At the observed temperatures, the carbonatite melt had lower viscosities than the most fluid basaltic lavas. The unusually low magmatic temperatures were confirmed with 1-atmosphere melting experiments on natural samples. PMID:17787875

  14. Altered former alkalic carbonatite lava from Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania: Inferences for calcite carbonatite lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, J. B.; Garson, M. S.; Roberts, B.

    1987-08-01

    The active volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, is well known for its extrusions of alkalic carbonatite lava, first witnessed in 1960. An older carbonatite flow from the volcano was originally also rich in Na and K, but replacement of nyerereite by pirssonite as a result of leaching of these elements (together with soluble components such as SO3, Cl, and Rb) and addition of Ca has resulted in a rock intermediate in bulk composition between the unique 1960 Lengai lavas and calcite-rich carbonatite flows reported from other localities. Further replacement of Na by Ca could theoretically result in a pure calcite rock, and we suggest that the partially altered alkalic lava described here is the “missing link” between lavas that are now calcitic but which had a high alkali content when originally extruded. The suggested link between alkali carbonate precursors and present-day calcium carbonate “lavas” explains the apparent paradox between the existence of calcite-rich “flows” and the experimental evidence that denies the possibility of hot, liquid calcium carbonate.

  15. Potassium loss during metasomatic alteration of mica pyroxenite from Oldoinyo Lengai, northern Tanzania: contrasts with fenitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, J. B.; Smith, J. V.

    1992-11-01

    Mica pyroxenite xenoliths, occurring as the cores of nephelinite and ijolite bombs in the pyroclastic deposits of the active volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, have undergone metasomatism in which K was lost and Fe2+ and Ti gained. This is unlike the alkali and ferric iron addition that typifies most examples of metastomatism adjacent to peralkaline igneous rocks in carbonatite complexes.

  16. Reprint of "Geochemistry and petrogenetic significance of natrocarbonatites at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania: Composition of lavas from 1988 to 2007"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J.; Zaitsev, A. N.

    2012-11-01

    The natrocarbonatites of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, are unique in magmatic petrology. The historical activity of Oldoinyo Lengai has seen changes from nephelinitic to natrocarbonatitic character of the emitted magmas. Since 1983 the activity was characterized by the effusion of fluid natrocarbonatite lava from which we have collected and analyzed fresh samples in the summit crater from 1988 to 2007. The available compositional data set forms the basis for presenting and discussing the typical composition and variation of natrocarbonatites and their relationship to the silicate magmas of Oldoinyo Lengai. The "type" natrocarbonatite major and trace element composition is derived for an average of 25 samples with low standard deviation. Oldoinyo Lengai carbonatites are unique in almost all aspects of their petrological and geochemical characteristics and are characterized as extremely alkali-rich, with Na2O + K2O generally about 40 wt.%, and with high CaO contents of 14-18 wt.%. This composition results from the presence of phenocrysts of nyerereite (Na,K)2Ca(CO3)2 and gregoryite (Na,K,Cax)2-x(CO3) dominating the highly porphyritic natrocarbonatite lavas, with sylvite and fluorite as main groundmass minerals. The significance of particular trace element concentrations and ratios of equally incompatible elements (REE, Ba, Sr, Th/U, Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf) is evaluated for models of liquid-liquid separation. In defining a "type" natrocarbonatite composition, we also distinguish special variations in chemical and/or mineralogical compositions as follows: (1) silicate-bearing natrocarbonatites, characterized by the occurrence of nephelinite spheroids, as in the 1993 and 2006 lavas; (2) residual melt compositions as described from the 1988 eruptive period as represented by the aphyric, filter-pressed interstitial melt of solidifying porphyritic lavas; (3) an interlude during 2000 when natrocarbonatites with sylvite and fluorite microcrysts were emitted. After 25 years of mostly mild

  17. Geochemistry and petrogenetic significance of natrocarbonatites at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania: Composition of lavas from 1988 to 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J.; Zaitsev, A. N.

    2012-09-01

    The natrocarbonatites of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, are unique in magmatic petrology. The historical activity of Oldoinyo Lengai has seen changes from nephelinitic to natrocarbonatitic character of the emitted magmas. Since 1983 the activity was characterized by the effusion of fluid natrocarbonatite lava from which we have collected and analyzed fresh samples in the summit crater from 1988 to 2007. The available compositional data set forms the basis for presenting and discussing the typical composition and variation of natrocarbonatites and their relationship to the silicate magmas of Oldoinyo Lengai. The "type" natrocarbonatite major and trace element composition is derived for an average of 25 samples with low standard deviation. Oldoinyo Lengai carbonatites are unique in almost all aspects of their petrological and geochemical characteristics and are characterized as extremely alkali-rich, with Na2O + K2O generally about 40 wt.%, and with high CaO contents of 14-18 wt.%. This composition results from the presence of phenocrysts of nyerereite (Na,K)2Ca(CO3)2 and gregoryite (Na,K,Cax)2-x(CO3) dominating the highly porphyritic natrocarbonatite lavas, with sylvite and fluorite as main groundmass minerals. The significance of particular trace element concentrations and ratios of equally incompatible elements (REE, Ba, Sr, Th/U, Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf) is evaluated for models of liquid-liquid separation. In defining a "type" natrocarbonatite composition, we also distinguish special variations in chemical and/or mineralogical compositions as follows: (1) silicate-bearing natrocarbonatites, characterized by the occurrence of nephelinite spheroids, as in the 1993 and 2006 lavas; (2) residual melt compositions as described from the 1988 eruptive period as represented by the aphyric, filter-pressed interstitial melt of solidifying porphyritic lavas; (3) an interlude during 2000 when natrocarbonatites with sylvite and fluorite microcrysts were emitted. After 25 years of mostly mild

  18. Chemical composition of nyerereite and gregoryite from natrocarbonatites of Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, A. N.; Keller, J.; Spratt, J.; Jeffries, T. E.; Sharygin, V. V.

    2009-12-01

    Alkali carbonates nyerereite, ideally Na2Ca(CO3)2 and gregoryite, ideally Na2CO3, are the major minerals in natrocarbonatite lavas from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, northern Tanzania. They occur as pheno- and microphenocrysts in groundmass consisting of fluorite and sylvite; nyerereite typically forms prismatic crystals and gregoryite occurs as round, oval crystals. Both minerals are characterized by relatively high contents of various minor elements. Raman spectroscopy data indicate the presence of sulfur and phosphorous as (SO4)2- and (PO4)3- groups. Microprobe analyses show variable composition of both nyerereite and gregoryite. Nyerereite contains 6.1-8.7 wt % K2O, with subordinate amounts of SrO (1.7-3.3 wt %), BaO (0.3-1.6 wt %), SO3 (0.8-1.5 wt %), P2O5 (0.2-0.8 wt %) and Cl (0.1-0.35 wt %). Gregoryite contains 5.0-11.9 wt % CaO, 3.4-5.8 wt % SO3, 1.3-4.6 wt % P2O5, 0.6-1.0 wt % SrO, 0.1-0.6 wt % BaO and 0.3-0.7 wt % Cl. The content of F is below detection limits in nyerereite and gregoryite. Laser ablation ICP-MS analyses show that REE, Mn, Mg, Rb and Li are typical trace elements in these minerals. Nyerereite is enriched in REE (up to 1080 ppm) and Rb (up to 140 ppm), while gregoryite contains more Mg (up to 367 ppm) and Li (up to 241 ppm) as compared with nyerereite.

  19. Fundamental changes in the activity of the natrocarbonatite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kervyn, M.; Ernst, G.G.J.; Keller, J.; Vaughan, R. Greg; Klaudius, J.; Pradal, E.; Belton, F.; Mattsson, H.B.; Mbede, E.; Jacobs, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    On September 4, 2007, after 25 years of effusive natrocarbonatite eruptions, the eruptive activity of Oldoinyo Lengai (OL), N Tanzania, changed abruptly to episodic explosive eruptions. This transition was preceded by a voluminous lava eruption in March 2006, a year of quiescence, resumption of natrocarbonatite eruptions in June 2007, and a volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm in July 2007. Despite the lack of ground-based monitoring, the evolution in OL eruption dynamics is documented based on the available field observations, ASTER and MODIS satellite images, and almost-daily photos provided by local pilots. Satellite data enabled identification of a phase of voluminous lava effusion in the 2 weeks prior to the onset of explosive eruptions. After the onset, the activity varied from 100 m high ash jets to 2–15 km high violent, steady or unsteady, eruption columns dispersing ash to 100 km distance. The explosive eruptions built up a ∼400 m wide, ∼75 m high intra-crater pyroclastic cone. Time series data for eruption column height show distinct peaks at the end of September 2007 and February 2008, the latter being associated with the first pyroclastic flows to be documented at OL. Chemical analyses of the erupted products, presented in a companion paper (Keller et al.2010), show that the 2007–2008 explosive eruptions are associated with an undersaturated carbonated silicate melt. This new phase of explosive eruptions provides constraints on the factors causing the transition from natrocarbonatite effusive eruptions to explosive eruptions of carbonated nephelinite magma, observed repetitively in the last 100 years at OL.

  20. Petrology of the Oldoinyo Lengai volcano and the origin of the Lake Natron Footprint Tuff (northern Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashova, A.

    2015-12-01

    During its evolution the Oldoinyo Lengai volcano (northern Tanzania) has erupted magmas with a compositional range from nephelinites to phonolites and carbonatites. Intrusive, metasomatic and cumulate enclaves are commonly found in all silicate products of the volcano. New and detailed geochemical and mineralogical study of 132 samples of fresh volcanic silicate material from four debris avalanches, and the volcanic edifice, indicates that phonolites and nephelinites associated with carbonatites were generated via different evolutionary paths. Temporally, the first stage of evolution included the phonolitic path, whereas the second, modern stage includes the production of combeite-wollastonite-bearing nephelinites, associated with carbonatites. Our data supports the two-stage evolutionary model previously presented by Klaudius and Keller (2006). The modern stage is characterised by the mildly explosive natrocarbonatitic activity, which is alternating with highly explosive, nephelinitic eruptions. Distal products of these nephelinitic eruptions cover a wide area around the volcano, however only the recent eruptions have been documented. In this context, special emphasis was paid to the origin of the Lake Natron Footprint Tuff which has preserved hominid footprints that received considerable interest within the anthropological community in recent years. The so-called Footprint tuff is the most significant volcaniclastic horizon in the area around Oldoinyo Lengai. Based on the geochemical, mineralogical and magnetic data we collected from this site, we can deduce that the footprint-bearing horizon was deposited during one or several big eruptions of the Oldoinyo Lengai volcano (corresponding to the late nephelinitic stage of volcanism) and was slightly reworked by water. The material that comprises the upper horizon, which covers the footprints, was derived as aeolian sediments from the Lake Natron - Engaruka Monogenetic Volcanic Field (i.e., melilititic in

  1. Volatile emissions from the crater and flank of Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koepenick, K.W.; Brantley, S.L.; Thompson, J.M.; Rowe, G.L.; Nyblade, A.A.; Moshy, C.

    1996-01-01

    As a comparison to airborne infrared (IR) flux measurements, ground-based sampling of fumarole and soil gases was used to characterize the quiescent degassing of CO2 from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano. Aerial and ground-based measurements are in good agreement: ???75% of the aerially measured CO2 flux at Lengai (0.05-0.06 ?? 1012 mol yr-1 or 6000-7200 tonnes CO2 d-1) can be attributed to seven large crater vents. In contrast to Etna and Vulcano Island, where 15-50% of the total CO2 flux emanates diffusely through the volcanic flanks, diffuse emissions were measured only within 500 m of the crater rim at Lengai, contributing < 2% of the total flux. The lack of extensive flank emissions may reflect the dimensions of the magma chamber and/or the lack of a shallow fluid flow system. Thermodynamic restoration of fumarole analyses shows that gases are the most CO2-rich and H2O-poor reported for any volcano, containing 64-74% CO2, 24-34% H2O, 0.88-1.0% H2, 0.1-0.4% CO and < 0.1% H2S, HCl, HF, and CH4. Volatile emissions of S, Cl, and F at Oldoiyno Lengai are estimated as 4.5, 1.5, and 1.0 ?? 107 mol yr-1, respectively. Accuracy of the airborne technique was also assessed by measuring the C emission rate from a coal-burning power plant. CO2 fluxes were measured within ??10% near the plant; however, poor resolution at increased distances caused an underestimation of the flux by a factor of 2. The relatively large CO2 fluxes measured for alkaline volcanoes such as Oldoinyo Lengai or Etna may indicate that midplate volcanoes represent a large, yet relatively unknown, natural source of CO2.

  2. Volatile emissions from the crater and flank of Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepenick, K. W.; Brantley, S. L.; Thompson, J. M.; Rowe, G. L.; Nyblade, A. A.; Moshy, C.

    1996-06-01

    As a comparison to airborne infrared (IR) flux measurements, ground-based sampling of fumarole and soil gases was used to characterize the quiescent degassing of CO2 from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano. Aerial and ground-based measurements are in good agreement: ˜75% of the aerially measured CO2 flux at Lengai (0.05-0.06 × 1012 mol yr-1 or 6000-7200 tonnes CO2 d-1) can be attributed to seven large crater vents. In contrast to Etna and Vulcano Island, where 15-50% of the total CO2 flux emanates diffusely through the volcanic flanks, diffuse emissions were measured only within 500 m of the crater rim at Lengai, contributing <2% of the total flux. The lack of extensive flank emissions may reflect the dimensions of the magma chamber and/or the lack of a shallow fluid flow system. Thermodynamic restoration of fumarole analyses shows that gases are the most CO2-rich and H2O-poor reported for any volcano, containing 64-74% CO2, 24-34% H2O, 0.88-1.0% H2, 0.1-0.4% CO and <0.1% H2S, HCl, HF, and CH4. Volatile emissions of S, Cl, and F at Oldoiyno Lengai are estimated as 4.5, 1.5, and 1.0 × 107 mol yr-1, respectively. Accuracy of the airborne technique was also assessed by measuring the C emission rate from a coal-burning power plant. CO2 fluxes were measured within ±10% near the plant; however, poor resolution at increased distances caused an underestimation of the flux by a factor of 2. The relatively large CO2 fluxes measured for alkaline volcanoes such as Oldoinyo Lengai or Etna may indicate that midplate volcanoes represent a large, yet relatively unknown, natural source of CO2.

  3. Geophysical Investigation of Oldoinyo Lengai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiber, S. E.; Webb, S. J.; Dirks, P. H.

    2006-12-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai, which means "Mountain of God" in Maasai, is a 2886 m high stratovolcano situated in Northern Tanzania, next to one of the large fault scarps that defines the western edge of the East African Rift Valley. Lengai is the only volcano in the world that erupts natrocarbonatite lava and has been in a state of near-eruption since 1983. A large amount of work has been done in terms of the geology and petrology of this unique volcano, but very little has been done in terms of geophysics. A research team from the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa will be conducting a gravity and differential GPS survey on Lengai during December 2006 and January 2007. Seismic monitoring of the volcano will also take place for the duration of the survey using vertical 1 Hz geophones. A gravity profile collected over the volcano by the British Schools Exploring Society in 2004 shows a negative anomaly of approximately 185 mGals. This is after a terrain correction is applied to the data using 1:50000 digitized maps and a vertical prism formula. A single seismometer, with a frequency of 1Hz and then 0.033 Hz, was set up on the volcano in 2001 and 2002 by a graduate student from the University of Washington. A few local volcanotectonic (VT) events were recorded; however the research team was unable to conclude whether the events were from Lengai or the nearby rift. A sustained non-harmonic tremor signal with a fairly broad spectral peak was also observed, but no very long-period (VLP) signals. The gravity and DGPS data collected during the 2006/2007 survey will be processed and used as a baseline for future measurements on the volcano. The data will also be modeled in an attempt to determine the size and position of the magma chamber. These gravity data will be compared with the profile collected in 2004 in an attempt to see whether there have been any large subsurface mass changes over the past two years, or the extent of weathering. Recorded seismicity will be used

  4. Volatile-rich silicate melts from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano (Tanzania): Implications for carbonatite genesis and eruptive behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moor, J. Maarten; Fischer, Tobias P.; King, Penelope L.; Botcharnikov, Roman E.; Hervig, Richard L.; Hilton, David R.; Barry, Peter H.; Mangasini, Frederick; Ramirez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This study presents volatile, trace, and major element compositions of silicate glasses (nepheline-hosted melt inclusions and matrix glass) from the 2007-2008 explosive eruption at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania. The bulk compositions of the heterogeneous ash erupted in 2007-2008 are consistent with physical mixing between juvenile nephelinite magma and natrocarbonatite emplaced during the preceding ˜25 years of effusive carbonatite eruption. The melt inclusions and matrix glasses span a wide range of silica-undersaturated compositions, from ˜46 wt% SiO2 and (Na+K)/Al˜3 in the least evolved melt inclusions to 38 wt% SiO2 and (Na+K)/Al up to 12 in the matrix glass. The depletion in SiO2 between melt inclusions and matrix glass is accompanied by strong enrichment in all of the incompatible trace elements measured (Ba, Nb, La, Ce, Sr, Zr, Y), which is consistent with fractional crystallization of a bulk mineral assemblage with SiO2 higher than that of the melt inclusions but inconsistent with silicate melt evolution by assimilation of carbonatite. The melt inclusions are volatile-rich with 2.7 wt% to 8.7 wt% CO2 and 0.7 wt% to 10.1 wt% H2O, indicating that Oldoinyo Lengai is a hydrous system. This is contrary to the long-held assumption that Oldoinyo Lengai is relatively anhydrous, which is based on the observation that natrocarbonatite lavas are water-poor. We argue that natrocarbonatites are derived from hydrous carbonate liquid that degas H2O at low pressure. The silicate glass data show that H2O concentration is negatively correlated with incompatible element enrichment, which we attribute to crystallization of the melt in response to decompression degassing of H2O. The eruptive cycle at Oldoinyo Lengai reflects changes in bulk silicate magma viscosity due to extensive H2O-driven crystallization and explosive eruptions occur when volatiles (i.e. H2O>CO2 gas, and carbonate liquid) cannot separate from the crystal-rich nephelinite magma. Melt H2O content

  5. Ra-Th disequilibria: Timescale of carbonatite magma formation at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.W.; Gill, J.B.; Bruland, K.W. )

    1988-04-01

    This paper discusses geologic models dealing with the formation of carbonatites from recent lavas of the Oldoninyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania. This paper also acts as a rebutal to an earlier writing which discussed potential flaws in the collection and dating of the carbonatites. The paper goes on to provide activity ratios from different carbonatites and discussion the lack of evidence for fractional crystallization in a olivine sovite magma.

  6. June 1993 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania: Exceptionally viscous and large carbonatite lava flows and evidence for coexisting silicate and carbonate magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, J. B.; Pinkerton, H.; Pyle, D. M.; Nyamweru, C.

    1994-09-01

    Alkali carbonatite lavas and ashes that erupted from Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, in June 1993 provide evidence for coexisting carbonatite and silicate magmas. The lavas and ashes contain immiscible silicate spheroids of ijolitic composition, which themselves contain carbonatite segregations. In contrast to earlier, very mobile flows, the 1993 lava flows were very viscous; the viscosity of one crystal-rich flow is within the range for rhyolites. They are also the largest carbonatite flows yet recorded from the volcano.

  7. Open-path Fourier transform spectroscopy of gas emissions from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Clive; Burton, Mike R.; Durieux, Jacques; Pyle, David M.

    2002-02-01

    We report here novel field spectroscopic measurements of the proportions of H 2O, CO 2, CO and SO 2 in gas emissions from Oldoinyo Lengai, the world's unique, active carbonatite volcano. We found that CO 2 constitutes <40 mol% of emissions from a lava lake, and 25 mol% from a cooler fumarole vent. These results suggest that H 2O is the predominant gas phase rather than CO 2, as reported in previous studies based on conventional sampling (Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 69 (1998) 1466; J. Geophys. Res. 101 (1996) 13819), though it is possible that water is introduced by remelting of older hydrated lava flows. We also observed rapid variations in CO 2/CO molar ratios (between 450 and 750 in 1 h) in the lava lake emissions, which could reflect mixing of gases exsolved from deep and shallow magma. Lengai's measured CO 2 flux (J. Geophys. Res. 101 (1996) 13819; Geology 23 (1995) 933) exceeds the time-averaged magma discharge rate, suggesting efficient separation of carbon and water-rich fluids from unerupted silicate magma. This may play an important role in parental magma differentiation.

  8. The Organic Chemistry of Volcanoes: Case Studies at Cerro Negro, Nicaragua and Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, A. J.; Seward, T. M.; Gize, A. P.; Hall, T.

    2005-12-01

    Though it has long been known that volcanoes emit organic compounds within their fumarolic gases, it is only in recent years that a concerted attempt has been made to catalogue and quantify the species and fluxes. Two general lines of interest dominate this study. Firstly, volcanic gases represent some of the most likely environments in which the precursor molecules necessary for the origin of life were synthesised. The existence of an active, abiotic, organic chemistry in such settings today is fundamental to our understanding of the early Earth. Secondly, the presence of halogenated organic compounds is of interest to the atmospheric sciences, particularly with respect to their ozone depleting potential. It is clear that natural sources of halocarbons must exist, and though current natural fluxes are low with respect to the anthropogenic signature, volcanogenic halocarbons may have proved to be significant during the eruption of supervolcanoes and continental flood basalts. In this study, gases were collected from fumaroles in the craters of two, very different, active volcanoes. Cerro Negro, a young basaltic cinder cone belonging to the Central American Volcanic Belt, could be defined as a typical subduction zone volcano. Gases were collected from Cerro Negro during March 2003 and 2004 from a single fumarole discharging close to the crater floor. In contrast, Oldoinyo Lengai is the world's only active carbonatite volcano and represents the most extreme case of alkali volcanism in the East African Rift system. Fieldwork was conducted in the northern summit crater of Lengai over 8 days in October 2003. In this period, the volcano was in near continuous eruption and gases were sampled from two fumaroles situated within 20m of the eruptive centre, though measured gas temperatures were low at around 195°C. Organic compounds were collected using a variety of activated carbon, molecular sieve type adsorbents, packed into glass cartridges. The water and acid matrix of

  9. The Lava sequence of the East African Rift escarpment in the Oldoinyo Lengai - Lake Natron sector, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukirchen, Florian; Finkenbein, Thomas; Keller, Jörg

    2010-12-01

    A 500 m sequence of horizontal lava flows forms the Gregory rift escarpment of the western rift shoulder between Lake Natron and Oldoinyo Lengai. A detailed volcanic stratigraphy of this >1.2 Ma evolution of the EAR in Northern Tanzania is presented. The sequence is formed by several distinct rock suites, with increasing alkalinity from base to top. Alkali olivine basalts of the Waterfall Sequence at the base are followed by a basanite series, and by a range of evolved nephelinites forming the upper part of the escarpment. Numerous dykes and Strombolian scoria deposits indicate local fissure eruptions as opposed to or in addition to more distant sources. Primitive compositions within each of the series indicate variable candidates for primary magmas. The composition of the basanite suite ranges from primitive mantle melts (high Mg#, Cr, Ni) to more evolved rocks, in particular hawaiites, generated by fractionation of olivine, pyroxene and magnetite. Inter-bedded within the basanite suite, one single olivine melilitite flow with high Mg# and abundant olivine and pyroxene megacrysts is the only primitive candidate for the nephelinite suite. However, in view of the large compositional gap and marked differences in incompatible element ratios, a relation between this flow and the nephelinites remains hypothetical. The variation within the evolved nephelinite series can be partly explained by fractionation of pyroxene, apatite, perovskite (and some nepheline), while magma mixing is indicated by zonation patterns of pyroxene. The most evolved nephelinite, however, differs significantly from all other nephelinites in major and trace elements. Thus the entire sequence is petrologically not a coherent evolution, rather the result of different mantle melts fractionating under variable conditions. Carved into the rift scarp of the study area west of Engare Sero is a young explosion crater, the Sekenge Crater. Sekenge Tuffs are olivine melilitites, similar to other craters and

  10. Carbonate-silicate immiscibility and extremely peralkaline silicate glasses from Nasira cone and recent eruptions at Oldoinyo Lengai Volcano, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Roger H.; Dawson, J. Barry

    2012-11-01

    Phenocrysts of garnet, pyroxene and nepheline in peralkaline nephelinite from the Nasira parasitic cones at Oldoinyo Lengai contain quenched immiscible silicate (peralkalinity = 2-13) and Na-Ca-carbonate melts. Their bulk compositions further define the limits of liquid immiscibility for peralkaline carbonated nephelinite magmas and confirm this process was operative at Oldoinyo Lengai during older stages of activity. Groundmass glasses in Nasira nephelinites are peralkaline (peralkalinity = 5.5-9.5) but less evolved than melt inclusion glasses (peralkalinity = 8-13) in nepheline phenocrysts, implying that these magmas are hybrids formed by magma mixing. Groundmass glass in diverse peralkaline combeite nephelinite ash clasts with and without melilite and/or wollastonite formed in the January-June 2008 eruptions of Oldoinyo Lengai are also exceptionally peralkaline. Two trends in their compositions are evident: (1) increasing peralkalinity from 6 to 10 with SiO2 decreasing from 42 to 33 wt.%; (2) increasing peralkalinity from 6 to 16 with SiO2 decreasing from 45 to 40 wt.%. All recent glasses are considered to be more evolved than groundmass glass in Nasira combeite nephelinite. These data indicate that several varieties of nephelinite exist at Oldoinyo Lengai. Their parental magmas are considered to have been initially enriched in alkalis during partial melting of their metasomatized asthenospheric sources and further by subsequent assimilation, or re-solution, of previously exsolved natrocarbonatite melt in the magma chamber(s) underlying Oldoinyo Lengai. On this basis, none of the bulk compositions of peralkaline stage II lavas at Oldoinyo Lengai, including Nasira, are considered to represent those of liquids as their compositions are determined by rheological factors (phenocryst accumulation; cumulate disruption) and assimilation processes. The formation of combeite is considered to be a consequence of natrocarbonatite melt assimilation.

  11. Primary magmas at Oldoinyo Lengai: The role of olivine melilitites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Jörg; Zaitsev, Anatoly N.; Wiedenmann, Daniel

    2006-10-01

    The paper describes olivine melilitites at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, and from tuff cones from the Tanzanian rift valley in the vicinity of Oldoinyo Lengai. Oldoinyo Lengai is the only active carbonatite volcano and is distinguished by its alkali-rich natrocarbonatites. Lengai is also unique for its extreme peralkaline silicate lavas related directly to the natrocarbonatites. Primitive olivine melilitites are, according to their Mg# and Ni, Cr contents, the only candidates in the Lengai area for primary melt compositions. Incompatible trace elements, including REE, constrain the melting process in their sub-lithospheric sources to very low degrees of partial melting in the garnet stability field. The strong peralkaline trend at Oldoinyo Lengai is already recognisable in these primary or near-primary melts. More evolved olivine melilitites, with Mg# < 60 allow the fractionation line in its major and trace element expressions to be followed. Nevertheless, a large compositional gap separates the olivine melilitites and olivine-poorer melilitites from the phonolites and nephelinites that form the bulk of the Lengai cone. These silicate lavas show a high degree of peralkalinity and are highly evolved with very low Mg, Ni and Cr. Prominent examples of the recent evolution are the combeite-wollastonite nephelinites that are unique for Lengai. In their Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope relationships the olivine melilitites define a distinct group with the most depleted Sr and Nd ratios and the most radiogenic Pb isotopes. They are closest to a supposed HIMU end member of the Lengai evolution, which is characterised by an extreme spread in isotopic ratios, explained as a mixing line between HIMU and EM1-like mantle components.

  12. ASTER Observations of Recent Thermal Activity and Explosive Eruption at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Abrams, M. J.; Kervyn, M.; Hook, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) is the only active volcano in the world that produces natro-carbonatite lava. These carbonate-rich lavas are unique in that they have relatively low temperatures (500-600 C) compared with typical silicate lavas (600-1100 C), and they have a low viscosity, behaving more like a mud flow than a lava flow. OL has been erupting on and off since 1983, mostly resulting in small lava flows, pools and spatter cones (hornitos) confined to the summit crater. Explosive, ash-producing eruptions here are rare, however, an ASTER observation from September 4, 2007 caught the first satellite image of an ash plume erupting from OL, which may be indicative of a new phase of more silica-rich products and explosive activity that has not occurred here since the 1960s. Thermal infrared satellite monitoring has detected an increasing number of thermal anomalies around OL in recent months. MODIS MODVOLC data detected >30 hot spots in the last week of August and first week of September 2007, some of which may have been brush fires started by lava flows or spatter; ASTER detected the appearance of an anomalous hot spot at the summit of OL as early as mid-June. We will present up-to date information about the progress of the eruption and results from the analysis of the spectral composition of new eruption products and thermal anomalies that occurred prior to the recent explosive eruption. OL is one of many volcanoes in the world, and especially Africa, that is not regularly monitored. It is only through sporadic reports from locals or tourists in the area, and satellite data that we know anything at all about this volcanic eruption. Continued satellite monitoring along with studies of past thermal activity will help determine how future eruptions may be forecasted.

  13. Pyroclast texture and chemical composition of the 2007-2008 explosive eruption at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania: Evidence for magma mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosshard, S. A.; Mattsson, H. B.

    2012-12-01

    The last explosive eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai in northern Tanzania started on the night from the 3rd to 4th September 2007 and lasted until April 2008. This eruption terminated 25 years of effusive natrocarbonatitic activity and was at times highly explosive with an eruption plume that reached up to 15 km into the atmosphere. We sampled tephra fallout on September 7th (i.e. on the third day of eruption) with additional samples from the 24th. During fieldwork in May 2011 we measured 140 profiles for their dominating grain size and collected representative samples. The tephra layers show variable grain-sizes from fine ash (< 1mm) to fine lapilli (2-30 mm). Most locations revealed three distinct layers with different dominating grain sizes, but especially on the western flank of the volcano, where the tephra deposits were thicker overall (due to the wind direction during the eruption), up to seven layers with alternating grain-sizes were visible. All pyroclasts are well-rounded with euhedral silicate minerals (commonly nepheline, pyroxene, garnet, wollastonite) in the center, surrounded by a moderately vesiculated melt film. The first tephra fallout contains variable amounts of silicate fragments, natrocarbonatite droplets and a mixture between the two magmas. These deposits are interpreted to reflect incomplete mixing between a natrocarbonatitic and a nephelinitic magma. Tephra collected two weeks later (24th September 2007) have a composition that is consistent with being a hybrid between a nephelinite and a natrocarbonatite. The natrocarbonatitic magma is completely assimilated into the new hybrid magma (tephra of natrocarbonatitic composition is no longer observed). It has previously been suggested that CO2, which exsolved from the natrocarbonatite melt during mixing with more silicic, nephelinitic melt is the driving force for these violent explosive, mixed eruptions. Our data support this hypothesis based on CO2 content, which decreases towards the end of the

  14. Apparent tidal influence on magmatic activity at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania, as observed in Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Manen, Saskia M.; Kervyn, Matthieu; Blake, Stephen; Ernst, Gerald G. J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the relative timing of solid Earth tides and thermal anomalies associated with volcanic activity at Oldoinyo Lengai (OL), Tanzania, from 2000 to 2008. The low viscosity of OL's carbonatite magmas may make it particularly susceptible to tidal stresses. Thermal data from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were filtered using the MODLEN algorithm and Earth tides were modeled using TSoft. Application of the Schuster and Chi-squared tests resulted in apparent correlations between times of thermal anomalies and the phase of the semi-diurnal and biannual solid Earth tides. However, for semi-diurnal and biannual tides limited acquisition times of the MODIS data account for the apparent correlations. Re-examining the data while accounting for the bias introduced by the limited acquisition times, correlations are no longer found. Onset times of eruptive events and times of thermal anomalies show no statistically significant correlation with the fortnightly tide, indicating this is not an influence on activity at OL. Tidal influences on magmatic activity, if at all present, cannot be observed in coarse resolution thermal data on semi-diurnal and fortnightly time scales. Based on the available data, correlations on biannual timescales cannot be ruled out.

  15. Trace element geochemistry of nyerereite and gregoryite phenocrysts from natrocarbonatite lava, Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania: Implications for magma mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Roger H.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.

    2012-11-01

    The abundances of Li, P, Cl, V, Mn, Rb, Sr, Y, Cs, Ba, Pb, Th, U and REE, within and between, phenocrysts of nyerereite and gregoryite occurring in natrocarbonatite lavas erupted from the active volcano Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania) have been determined by electron microprobe, LA-ICP-MS and SIMS. These data show that, in general, nyerereite is enriched in Rb (71-137 ppm), Sr (14,485-23,240 ppm), Y (2.0-8.9 ppm), Cs (1.6-5.3 ppm), Ba (4000-11,510 ppm), but poorer in Li (21-91 ppm), P (820-1900 ppm) and V (5.1-47 ppm) relative to gregoryite (Rb = 43-106; Sr = 4255-7275; Y = 0.3-4.0; Cs = 0.6-5.1; Ba = 1125-7052; Li 84-489; P = 6790-15,860; V = 33-155 ppm). Nyerereite is highly enriched in REE (La = 236-973; Ce = 395-1044 ppm) relative to gregoryite (La = 59-309; Ce = 59-301 ppm). Chondrite normalized REE distribution patterns for nyerereite and gregoryite are parallel and linear with no Eu anomalies. They show extreme enrichment in light REE and depletion in heavy REE (nyerereite La/YbCN = 1759-7079; gregoryite La/YbCN = 1051-10,247). Significant differences exist in the abundances of trace elements within and between coexisting crystals occurring in diverse natrocarbonatite flows, although there do not appear to be any significant secular variations in phenocryst compositions in lavas erupted from a given vent. It is concluded that both major, minor and trace element compositional data for nyerereite and gregoryite phenocrysts occurring in natrocarbonatite lavas are derived by the crystallization of several different batches of magma in a continuously replenished fractionating magma chamber. Natrocarbonatite lavas are considered to be hybrids formed by the mixing of both crystals and melts formed from several batches of natrocarbonatite magma; thus bulk rock compositions cannot represent the compositions of the primary magma composition before the onset of fractionation. Differentiation of natrocarbonatite melts leads to enrichment of residua in Ba and Mg.

  16. Silicate-natrocarbonatite liquid immiscibility in 1917 eruption combeite-wollastonite nephelinite, Oldoinyo Lengai Volcano, Tanzania: Melt inclusion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharygin, Victor V.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Zaitsev, Anatoly N.; Kamenetsky, Maya B.

    2012-11-01

    Primary silicate-melt and carbonate-salt inclusions occur in the phenocrysts (nepheline, fluorapatite, wollastonite, clinopyroxene) in the 1917 eruption combeite-wollastonite nephelinite at Oldoinyo Lengai. Silicate-melt inclusions in nepheline clearly show liquid immiscibility phenomena expressed in the presence of carbonate globules in silicate glass. The coexistence of inclusions with markedly different proportions of silicate glass + vapor-carbonate globule in the core of nepheline phenocrysts, the presence of carbonate-salt inclusions in fluorapatite and our heating experiments strongly suggest that their entrapment began at temperatures higher than 1130 °C in an intermediate chamber when initial carbonated nephelinite melt was heterogeneous and represented a mixture of immiscible liquids. Silicate-natrocarbonatite melt immiscibility took place at high temperature and immiscible nephelinite and carbonatite liquids coexisted over a wide temperature range from ≥ 1130 °C to 600 °C. Homogenization of a carbonate globule (dissolution of the gas bubble in carbonate melt) at 900-940 °C indicates that after separation from silicate magma the natrocarbonatite represented homogeneous liquid in the 900-1130 °C temperature range, whereas below these temperatures immiscible melts of different composition and fluid phase have separated from it. The bulk composition of homogeneous natrocarbonatite melt may be estimated as ≈ 20% CaF2, 40-60% (Na,K)2CO3 and 20-40% CaCO3 based on the coexistence of nyerereite, calcite and fluorite and the rapid phase transition (carbonate aggregate → carbonate liquid) at 550-570 °C observed in vapor-carbonate globules of nepheline-hosted silicate-melt inclusions and on the Na2CO3-CaCO3-CaF2 phase diagram. Silicate glasses of nepheline-hosted immiscible inclusions drastically differ from host nephelinite in the abundance of major and trace elements. They are high peralkaline ((Na + K)/Al — up to 9.5) and virtually free of water (H2

  17. Emplacement and inflation of natrocarbonatitic lava flows during the March-April 2006 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Hannes B.; Vuorinen, Jaana

    2009-04-01

    The most voluminous eruption of natrocarbonatite lava hitherto recorded on Earth occurred at Oldoinyo Lengai in March-April 2006. The lava flows produced in this eruption range from blocky 'a'a type to smooth-surfaced inflated pahoehoe. We measured lava inflation features (i.e. one tumulus and three pressure ridges) that formed in the various pahoehoe flows emplaced in this event. The inflation features within the main crater of Oldoinyo Lengai are relatively small-scale, measuring 1-5 m in width, 2.5-24.4 m in length and with inflation clefts less than 0.4 m deep. Their small sizes are in contrast to a tumulus that formed on the northwestern slope of the volcano (situated ~1140 m below the crater floor). The tumulus is roughly circular, measures 17.5 × 16.0 m, and is cut by a 4.4 m deep axial inflation cleft exposing two separate flow units. We measured the elastic properties (i.e. shear- and bulk moduli) of natrocarbonatitic crust and find that these are similar to those reported for basaltic crust, and that there is no direct correlation between magmastatic head and pressure required to form tumuli. All inflated flows in the 2006 event were confined by lateral barriers (main crater, erosional channel or erosional gully) suggesting that the two most important factors for endogenous growth in natrocarbonatitic lava flows are (1) lateral barriers that prevent widening of the flow, and (2) influx of new material beneath the viscoelastic and brittle crust.

  18. Pyroclast textures in the explosive 2007-2008 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania: Implications for magma ascent and fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, H. B.; Bosshard, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    After more than 25 years of effusive natrocarbonatitic activity the Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) volcano in northern Tanzania started erupting explosively in September 2007. The eruption continued for 8 months and was surprisingly vigorous (occasionally the plume reached up to 15 km in altitude). It has previously been proposed that thermal decomposition of older natrocarbonatites (and release of CO2) inside the main crater of the volcano was responsible for the vigour associated with the explosive 1966-67 eruption. From the recent eruption we sampled the initial ash-fall (3 days after the onset) in Al-canisters during a 24 hour period, which was later complemented by tephra samples collected from 140 profiles around the volcano during a field campaign in May 2011. Petrologically, bulk-rock analyses show a trend from being a mechanical mixture of natrocarbonatitic and nephelinitic material in the beginning of the eruption, to being dominated by nephelinitic composition at the end of the eruption. SEM-studies of the first ash-deposits (i.e., September 7th) show a dominance of non-vesicular natrocarbonatitic droplets (containing nyerereite and gregoryite phenocrysts) mixed with a small amount of sub-spherical nephelinitic pyroclasts with low vesicularity (<25 vol.%). Deposits from the later phases of the eruption (as deduced from the tephra-stratigraphy) are dominated by well-sorted, near-spherical, lapilli. In these deposits, the natrocarbonatitic component is absent and individual tephra layers can be distinguished based on variations in grain-size. SEM studies of pyroclasts reveal that approximately 60% of the lapilli are cored by a crystal (predominantly nepheline, garnet, pyroxene, wollastonite) which is covered by a thin melt film. The nephelinitic melt film varies in vesicularity between 20 and 50 vol.% with a clear predominance of near-spherical vesicle shapes. An abundance of small particles and crystals are adhered/welded to the fluidal outer surface of the

  19. Short-lived decay series disequilibria in the natrocarbonatite lavas of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania: constraints on the timing of magma genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, D. M.; Dawson, J. B.; Ivanovich, M.

    1991-08-01

    The 1988 natrocarbonatite lavas from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania have been analysed for 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 238U, 228Ra/ 226Ra. These lavas are unique, in showing disequilibria between 228Th/ 232Th, and between 228Ra and 232Th. Aa and pahoehoe lavas have a mean ( 228Th 232Th) activity ratio of 5.5 ± 0.6 , and one lava has ( 228Ra/ 226Ra) = 0.11 ± 0.01 . The lavas have ( 230Th/ 238U) ˜ 0.1-0.2 , and [ UTh] weight ratios of 2.0-3.2. Late-stage samples, extruded from the lavas on cooling and interpreted as extreme fractionates of the original lavas are highly enriched in U and Ra relative to Th. These samples have measured [ UTh] weight ratios of 5.6-6.4, and a calculated ( 228Ra/ 232Th) activity ratio of 108 ± 5 . Disequilibria between 238U&z.sbnd; 230Th&z.sbnd; 226Ra are consistent with an origin by immiscibility of 4-22wt% natrocarbonatite from nephelinite magma. Disequilibria between 232Th&z.sbnd; 228Ra&z.sbnd; 228Th are consistent with either of two endmember models: (1) instantaneous separation of magma at depth, with eruption 20 ± 1 years later; (2) recharging of a steady-state magma chamber below Oldoinyo Lengai with a maximum volume of 1.5 ± 0.2 × 10 7 m 3 of carbonatite, and a mean magma residence time of 81 ± 9 years. The total time between natrocarbonatite generation and eruption is between 20 and 81 years.

  20. Magma mixing and forced exsolution of CO2 during the explosive 2007-2008 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosshard-Stadlin, Sonja A.; Mattsson, Hannes B.; Keller, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai is probably most famous for being the only active volcano on Earth which is erupting natrocarbonatitic magma. However, the mildly explosive natrocarbonatitic activity is alternating with highly explosive, nephelinitic eruptions of which the most recent episode occurred in September 2007 (and lasted until April 2008). Here we present petrographic observations, mineral chemistry as well as major- and trace element analyses of samples covering the evolution of the eruption with time. In the early phases of the eruption, the phenocryst assemblages are dominated by the carbonate minerals nyerereite and gregoryite, but as the eruption progresses the mineralogy becomes dominated by silicate minerals like nepheline, pyroxene, garnet, alumoåkermanite, combeite and wollastonite. The observed major- and trace element variations during the 2007-2008 eruption indicate mixing between a natrocarbonatitic magma and a combeite-wollastonite-bearing nephelinitic magma (CWN), with higher portions of natrocarbonatite in the early stages of the eruption. Euhedral and uncorroded clinopyroxene crystals are abundant in the late 2007 deposits but quickly start to break-down and corrode as the eruption continues, indicating that the natrocarbonatite and the CWN are not in fact conjugate magmas derived from a single magma reservoir, but must have evolved separately in the crust from the point of immiscibility. When these magmas interact beneath the volcano, a hybrid silicate magma forms (where clinopyroxene is no longer stable) and the composition of this hybrid causes the overall solubility of CO2 in the system to decrease drastically. This results in rapid exsolution of CO2 (g) which is allowed to expand during ascent, and we conclude that this is most likely the reason behind the unexpected vigor in the explosive eruptions of Oldoinyo Lengai. This massive release of CO2 during ascent may also explain the petrographic features of the pyroclasts as these are dominated by

  1. Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of ashes from an early phase of the explosive September 2007 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Hannes B.; Reusser, Eric

    2010-12-01

    Ashes from Oldoinyo Lengai were collected four days after the onset of the recent explosive episode (i.e., on September 7th 2007). The ash is composed of poorly-vesicular natrocarbonatite droplets, vesicular microcrystalline nephelinite shards, and a mixed variety containing both silicate and carbonate minerals in variable proportions. Simple mixing calculations show that the whole-rock composition of the ashes can be explained by mixing natrocarbonatite and nephelinite magmas with a ratio of 4:1. The dominant silicate minerals are clinopyroxene, nepheline, Ti-andradite, wollastonite and alumoåkermanite. Ti-magnetite is the most common oxide mineral. This mineral assemblage is similar to that present in the 1966 eruption products. In contrast to the 1966-1967 explosive eruption where clinopyroxene is resorbed and corroded, the ashfall from September 7th contains a large amount of euhedral clinopyroxene crystals, suggesting that magma mixing was heterogeneous and incomplete in this initial stage of the eruption. This is also supported by the petrography of the ashes. The composition of the dominant carbonate minerals (i.e., gregoryite and nyerereite) and the fluidal textures of the natrocarbonatite droplets suggest mixing of higher-viscosity nephelinite and low-viscosity natrocarbonatite magmas. Characteristic carbonate minerals produced by alteration cannot be found in the ashes. This suggests limited interaction with the older, pre-existing, natrocarbonatites inside the summit crater of the volcano. The carbonate minerals show textural evidence of being partially resorbed into the hotter nephelinitic magma. At least part of this decomposition of carbonate phases (releasing CO 2 and contributing to increased explosivity) must have occurred within the volcanic edifice such that the released gas is allowed to expand during decompression.

  2. Salt-bearing fumarole deposits in the summit crater of Oldoinyo Lengai, Northern Tanzania: interactions between natrocarbonatite lava and meteoric water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genge, M. J.; Balme, M.; Jones, A. P.

    2001-04-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai in the Northern Tanzania rift is the only active nephelinite-carbonatite stratovolcano. We report the discovery of thermonatrite, aphthitalite, halite and sylvite fumarole deposits on recent natrocarbonatite lava flows erupted in the summit crater during the wet season. These salt deposits occur as delicate, concave fringes or tubes that line the cooling cracks in the lava flows and consist of intergrowths of euhedral crystals. The presence of a dark altered zone, depleted in halides and alkalies, adjacent to cooling cracks and observations of steam fumaroles emanating from the fractures suggest that the salts are formed by sublimation from saturated vapours generated by the extrusion of lavas over meteoric water. The crystallisation sequence recorded in the salts suggests that mixing between meteoric steam and magmatic CO 2 and H 2S occurs at high temperatures resulting in the sublimation of carbonates and sulphates. At lower temperatures the vapours are dominated by meteoric steam and sublimate halides. The high solubility of the fumarole salts within meteoric water and their formation only during the wet season implies that these are ephemeral deposits that are unlikely to be preserved in the geological record.

  3. Upper-mantle volatile chemistry at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano and the origin of carbonatites.

    PubMed

    Fischer, T P; Burnard, P; Marty, B; Hilton, D R; Füri, E; Palhol, F; Sharp, Z D; Mangasini, F

    2009-05-01

    Carbonatite lavas are highly unusual in that they contain almost no SiO(2) and are >50 per cent carbonate minerals. Although carbonatite magmatism has occurred throughout Earth's history, Oldoinyo Lengai, in Tanzania, is the only currently active volcano producing these exotic rocks. Here we show that volcanic gases captured during an eruptive episode at Oldoinyo Lengai are indistinguishable from those emitted along mid-ocean ridges, despite the fact that Oldoinyo Lengai carbonatites occur in a setting far removed from oceanic spreading centres. In contrast to lithophile trace elements, which are highly fractionated by the immiscible phase separation that produces these carbonatites, volatiles (CO(2), He, N(2) and Ar) are little affected by this process. Our results demonstrate that a globally homogenous reservoir exists in the upper mantle and supplies volatiles to both mid-ocean ridges and continental rifts. This argues against an unusually C-rich mantle being responsible for the genesis of Na-rich carbonatite and its nephelinite source magma at Oldoinyo Lengai. Rather, these carbonatites are formed in the shallow crust by immiscibility from silicate magmas (nephelinite), and are stable under eruption conditions as a result of their high Na contents. PMID:19424154

  4. Upper-mantle volatile chemistry at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano and the origin of carbonatites.

    PubMed

    Fischer, T P; Burnard, P; Marty, B; Hilton, D R; Füri, E; Palhol, F; Sharp, Z D; Mangasini, F

    2009-05-01

    Carbonatite lavas are highly unusual in that they contain almost no SiO(2) and are >50 per cent carbonate minerals. Although carbonatite magmatism has occurred throughout Earth's history, Oldoinyo Lengai, in Tanzania, is the only currently active volcano producing these exotic rocks. Here we show that volcanic gases captured during an eruptive episode at Oldoinyo Lengai are indistinguishable from those emitted along mid-ocean ridges, despite the fact that Oldoinyo Lengai carbonatites occur in a setting far removed from oceanic spreading centres. In contrast to lithophile trace elements, which are highly fractionated by the immiscible phase separation that produces these carbonatites, volatiles (CO(2), He, N(2) and Ar) are little affected by this process. Our results demonstrate that a globally homogenous reservoir exists in the upper mantle and supplies volatiles to both mid-ocean ridges and continental rifts. This argues against an unusually C-rich mantle being responsible for the genesis of Na-rich carbonatite and its nephelinite source magma at Oldoinyo Lengai. Rather, these carbonatites are formed in the shallow crust by immiscibility from silicate magmas (nephelinite), and are stable under eruption conditions as a result of their high Na contents.

  5. Fundamental changes in the activity of the natrocarbonatite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. II. Eruptive behaviour during the 2007-2008 explosive eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervyn, Matthieu; Ernst, Gerald G. J.; Keller, Jörg; Vaughan, R. Greg; Klaudius, Jurgis; Pradal, Evelyne; Belton, Frederic; Mattsson, Hannes B.; Mbede, Evelyne; Jacobs, Patric

    2010-10-01

    On September 4, 2007, after 25 years of effusive natrocarbonatite eruptions, the eruptive activity of Oldoinyo Lengai (OL), N Tanzania, changed abruptly to episodic explosive eruptions. This transition was preceded by a voluminous lava eruption in March 2006, a year of quiescence, resumption of natrocarbonatite eruptions in June 2007, and a volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm in July 2007. Despite the lack of ground-based monitoring, the evolution in OL eruption dynamics is documented based on the available field observations, ASTER and MODIS satellite images, and almost-daily photos provided by local pilots. Satellite data enabled identification of a phase of voluminous lava effusion in the 2 weeks prior to the onset of explosive eruptions. After the onset, the activity varied from 100 m high ash jets to 2-15 km high violent, steady or unsteady, eruption columns dispersing ash to 100 km distance. The explosive eruptions built up a ˜400 m wide, ˜75 m high intra-crater pyroclastic cone. Time series data for eruption column height show distinct peaks at the end of September 2007 and February 2008, the latter being associated with the first pyroclastic flows to be documented at OL. Chemical analyses of the erupted products, presented in a companion paper (Keller et al. 2010), show that the 2007-2008 explosive eruptions are associated with an undersaturated carbonated silicate melt. This new phase of explosive eruptions provides constraints on the factors causing the transition from natrocarbonatite effusive eruptions to explosive eruptions of carbonated nephelinite magma, observed repetitively in the last 100 years at OL.

  6. Trace- and rare-earth-element geochemistry of the June 1993 natrocarbonatite lavas, Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania): Implications for the origin of carbonatite magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetti, Antonio; Bell, Keith; Shrady, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Major-, trace- and rare-earth-element data from ten natrocarbonatite lavas collected during the June 1993 extrusive activity define two distinct groups. Although both groups are characterized by low Nb and Zr contents, and low Th/U (~1.0); Ba/Sr>1.0; (La/Sm) N>40; high Ba, Mo, Sr, W contents; and LREE contents ~1000 to 2000×chondrite, one group has much higher Al 2O 3, Fe 2O 3, Nb, Pb, SiO 2, Zr and total REEs contents. These differences are attributed to the presence of silicate spheroids in natrocarbonatites that form within the latter group. Similarity in trace- and rare-earth-element-normalized patterns for both groups of natrocarbonatite lavas suggest either a common source or generation from a common parental melt. Models proposed for the origin of natrocarbonatites include immiscible separation from a peralkaline, silicate magma, or late-stage fractionation from a parent olivine sövite magma. Although natrocarbonatite melt formation may be controlled by either of these differentiation processes, certain trace-element ratios for the 1993 lavas, such as Ce/Pb (~9), and Th/Nb (~0.1) are similar to those estimated for primitive mantle, and their Sm/Nd ratios (~0.07) are quite different to the average value of 0.15 for most carbonatites world-wide. The similarity in element ratios in many of the older silicate lavas at Oldoinyo Lengai (e.g., Zr/Nb, La/Nb, Ba/Nb, Rb/Nb, and Ba/La) to those estimated for HIMU and EM I suggest that source characteristics can be reflected in such melts. Even if the natrocarbonatites are formed by liquid immiscibility, recent experiments have shown that partition coefficients for trace elements (e.g., Ba, Ce, Mo, Nb, Pb, Th, U) between conjugate carbonate and silicate melts approach unity with increasing temperature. Alternatively, the similarity in trace-element ratios between those for the silicate lavas from Oldoinyo Lengai and mantle components are simply fortuitous.

  7. Fundamental changes in the activity of the natrocarbonatite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. I. New magma composition during the 2007-2008 explosive eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Jörg; Klaudius, Jurgis; Kervyn, Matthieu; Ernst, Gerald G. J.; Mattsson, Hannes B.

    2010-10-01

    With a paroxysmal ash eruption on 4 September 2007 and the highly explosive activity continuing in 2008, Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) has dramatically changed its behavior, crater morphology, and magma composition after 25 years of quiet extrusion of fluid natrocarbonatite lava. This explosive activity resembles the explosive phases of 1917, 1940-1941, and 1966-1967, which were characterized by mixed ashes with dominantly nephelinitic and natrocarbonatitic components. Ash and lapilli from the 2007-2008 explosive phase were collected on the slopes of OL as well as on the active cinder cone, which now occupies the entire north crater having buried completely all earlier natrocarbonatite features. The lapilli and ash samples comprise nepheline, wollastonite, combeite, Na-åkermanite, Ti-andradite, resorbed pyroxene and Fe-Ti oxides, and a Na-Ca carbonate phase with high but varying phosphorus contents which is similar, but not identical, to the common gregoryite phenocrysts in natrocarbonatite. Lapilli from the active cone best characterize the erupted material as carbonated combeite-wollastonite-melilite nephelinite. The juvenile components represent a fundamentally new magma composition for OL, containing 25-30 wt.% SiO2, with 7-11 wt.% CO2, high alkalies (Na2O 15-19%, K2O 4-5%), and trace-element signatures reminiscent of natrocarbonatite enrichments. These data define an intermediate composition between natrocarbonatite and nephelinite, with about one third natrocarbonatite and two thirds nephelinite component. The data are consistent with a model in which the carbonated silicate magma has evolved from the common combeite-wollastonite nephelinite (CWN) of OL by enrichment of CO2 and alkalies and is close to the liquid immiscible separation of natrocarbonatite from carbonated nephelinite. Material ejected in April/May 2008 indicates reversion to a more common CWN composition.

  8. Changes in the crater of Oldoinyo Lengai: June 1993 - February 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyamweru, Celia

    1997-07-01

    The summit crater of the volcano Oldoinyo Lengai in the Rift Valley of northern Tanzania has been the site of numerous minor eruptions of highly fluid carbonatite lava since activity resumed in early 1983. In June 1993 the nature of the activity appeared to change, in that (1) explosive activity produced ash fall on the outer slopes of the cone, (2) eruptive vents formed on the southern part of the summit crater floor, rather than on its northern or central sectors as had previously been the case, and (3) large, highly viscous flows were formed. These changes gave rise to expectations that the volcano was entering a new phase in its activity, and that major explosive activity might be anticipated in the near future. To date, major explosive activity has not taken place. On numerous occasions since June 1993, liquid lava has been observed in the summit crater, and the activity appears to have resumed its former characteristics. Eye-witness reports and photographs are used to illustrate the activity that has occurred in the summit crater between June 1993 and early 1997.

  9. Peralkaline nephelinites. I. Comparative petrology of Shombole and Oldoinyo L'engai, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Tony D.

    1989-04-01

    Shombole, a nephelinite-carbonatite volcano in south Kenya, erupted silicate lavas, carbonatite dikes and tuffs, and pyroclastic rocks similar to those at other East African alkaline centres. Shombole lavas containing cpx + nepheline + accessory minerals range from perovskite-bearing nephelinites (43% SiO2, volatile-free) to sphene-bearing and phonolitic nephelinites (46 49% SiO2) and phonolites (49 56% SiO2) and have low peralkalinity ([Na+K]/Al ≈ 1.15) which does not correlate with SiO2. Early fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene strongly depleted Ni and Cr concentrations (≈10 ppm); fractionation of perovskite, melanite, sphene, and apatite produced negative correlations of all REE with SiO2. Many lavas contain cognate intrusive xenoliths and xenocrysts and oscillatory zoning is a common feature of clinopyroxene, nepheline, and melanite crystals, indicating recycling of intrusive material. Irregular calcite-rich bodies in many samples are interpreted as quenched immiscible Ca-carbonatite liquid, and [Ca-carbonate]-silicate liquid immiscibility is observed in experiments with one nephelinite. Chemical variation in the Shombole suite can be modeled as a combination of crystal fractionation (clinopyroxene and heavy minor phases) and retention of neutral density nepheline derived from disaggregated xenoliths entrained during emplacement of dike swarms. Six newly analyzed lavas from Oldoinyo L'engai, northern Tanzania, are geochemically similar to Shombole nephelinites except that they have relatively high Na2O+K2O (average 18% vs 12%) and Zr (average 680 ppm vs 400 ppm). They are extremely peralkaline and are not typical of nephelinites from other centres. Three with [Na+K]/Al≈1.5 contain euhedral wollastonite phenocrysts; three with [Na+K]/Al≈2.0 contain combeite (Na2Ca2Si3O9) phenocrysts and pseudomorphs after wollastonite. Both types contain abundant sodalite phenocrysts (+nepheline+clinopyroxene+melanite+sphene). Seven other wollastonite nephelinite

  10. Vapour transport of rare earth elements (REE) in volcanic gas: Evidence from encrustations at Oldoinyo Lengai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, C. D.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2008-10-01

    Fumarolic encrustations and natrocarbonatite lava from the active crater of Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania, were sampled and analysed. Two types of encrustation were distinguished on the basis of their REE content, enriched (~ 2800-5600 × [REE chondrite]) and depleted (~ 100-200 × [REE chondrite]) relative to natrocarbonatite (1700-1900 × [REE chondrite]. REE-enriched encrustations line the walls of actively degassing fumaroles, whereas REE-depleted encrustations occur mainly along cracks in and as crusts on cooling natrocarbonatite lava flows; one of the low REE encrustation samples was a stalactite from the wall of a possible fumarole. The encrustations are interpreted to have different origins, the former precipitating from volcanic gas and the latter from meteoric/ground water converted to steam by the heat of the overlying lava flow(s). REE-profiles of encrustations and natrocarbonatite are parallel, suggesting that there was no preferential mobilization of specific REE by either volcanic vapour or meteoric water vapour. The elevated REE-content of the first group of encrustations suggests that direct REE-transport from natrocarbonatite to volcanic vapour is possible. The REE trends observed in samples precipitating directly from the volcanic vapour cannot be explained by dry volatility based on the available data as there is no evidence in the encrustation compositions of the greatly enhanced volatility predicted for Yb and Eu. The observed extreme REE-fractionation with steep La/Sm slopes parallel to those of the natrocarbonatite reflects solvation and complexation reactions in the vapour phase that did not discriminate amongst the different REE or similar transport of REE in both the natrocarbonatite magma and its exsolving vapour. The low concentrations of REE in the encrustations produced by meteoric vapour suggest that the temperature was too low or that this vapour did not contain the ligands necessary to permit significant mobilization of the REE.

  11. Volatile Chemistry of the 2007 to Present Explosive Eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai Volcano, East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moor, J.; Fischer, T. P.; King, P. L.; Sharp, Z.; Shaw, A. M.; Mangasini, F.

    2008-12-01

    We characterize the volatile chemistry of the ongoing explosive eruption at Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) in the Gregory Rift Valley of N Tanzania. Fieldwork was conducted from 4-8 April 2008, during which time OL exhibited Strombolian to ash plume-producing activity. Eight distinct ash lapilli layers were sampled 900m from the crater. Mini-DOAS SO2 flux measurements were conducted on 6, 7, and 8 April. Despite moderate eruptive activity, SO2 concentrations were very low, from ~ 20ppm.m to below detection. A low concentration plume was detected on 7 April, allowing a SO2 flux estimate of 0.2-0.4 tons/day. SIMS analyses of carbonatite lavas erupted in 2005 show very high S concentrations (0.62wt %), suggesting that the low SO2 flux is due to partitioning of S into the melt. Ash leachates were analyzed as a proxy for plume chemistry and to assess health risks associated with mobile elements in the ashes. The solutions had high pH of 10.6 to 11.1. This has implications for pH fluctuations of Lake Natron (pH ~10; located 20km N of the crater), which may correlate with lacustrine ash deposition during passed explosive activity at OL. In the uppermost ash layer (deposited on 4/5/2008; not influenced by rain) dominant mobile ions are Cl (18120mg/kg), SO4 (26616mg/kg), PO4 (2393mg/kg), and F (534mg/kg), Na (101679mg/kg), K (22544mg/kg), Ca (721mg/kg), and Si (189mg/kg). Leachate S/Cl from this pristine ash is 0.49, compared to 0.29 measured by SIMS in lavas from 2005. Using the SO2 flux and the S/Cl in the leachates, the Cl flux was 0.5-0.8 tons/day. High concentrations of leachable ions, particularly F, on ash presents health hazards (F poisoning; water source contamination) to local communities. Concentrations in the underlying ashes are lower (40-129 mg/kg Cl, 965-3223 mg/kg SO4 , 66-104 mg/kg F, 40-335 mg/kg PO4 ) than those in the upper deposit due to leaching by rain prior to deposition of the uppermost ash layer. FTIR spectroscopy of ashes shows at least two carbonate

  12. Rift initiation in cratonic lithosphere: Seismicity patterns in the Manyara-Natron-Magadi basins and Oldoinyo Lengai volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, C.; Rodzianko, A.; Rasendra, N.; Msabi, M.; Muirhead, J.; Ebinger, C. J.; Tiberi, C.; Roecker, S. W.; Ferdinand, R. W.; Mtelela, K.; Muzuka, A.

    2013-12-01

    The CRAFTI project consists of a 2-year seismic acquisition program to quantify the partitioning of strain between faulting and magmatism during the early stages of continental rifting in Archaean and Proterozoic lithosphere. The <7 My Eastern Rift System in northern Tanzania and southern Kenya provides an ideal study system, as it comprises several rift segments at different stages of the rifting cycle. We present preliminary results from 38 broadband seismometers deployed in Tanzania in January 2013, and 4 stations in Kenya deployed in July 2013. The network includes a rift-perpendicular transect, and spans parts of 3 discrete rift basins in different stages of development: Manyara, Natron, Magadi. Initial analyses indicate relatively low noise levels at all stations deployed in Maasai bomas and rural schools, and good to excellent transmission, except near Quaternary Gelai, Oldoinyo Lengai, and Kitumbeine volcanoes. We present time-space relations of seismicity for the first 6 months' of data, and focal mechanisms for the largest events during that time period. Hypocentral locations are compared with the locations of eruptive centers, dike intrusions, and sub-surface projections of faults mapped in a complementary part of the CRAFTI project. The spatial and temporal distribution of earthquake activity will help identify the contributions of faulting and magmatism in each basin, and in the identification of subsurface magma reservoirs in this youthful rift system.

  13. Voluminous lava flows at Oldoinyo Lengai in 2006: chronology of events and insights into the shallow magmatic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervyn, Matthieu; Ernst, Gerald G. J.; Klaudius, Jurgis; Keller, Jörg; Kervyn, François; Mattsson, Hannes B.; Belton, Frederic; Mbede, Evelyne; Jacobs, Patric

    2008-09-01

    The largest natrocarbonatite lava flow eruption ever documented at Oldoinyo Lengai, NW Tanzania, occurred from March 25 to April 5, 2006, in two main phases. It was associated with hornito collapse, rapid extrusion of lava covering a third of the crater and emplacement of a 3-km long compound rubbly pahoehoe to blocky aa-like flow on the W flank. The eruption was followed by rapid enlargement of a pit crater. The erupted natrocarbonatite lava has high silica content (3% SiO2). The eruption chronology is reconstructed from eyewitness and news media reports and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data, which provide the most reliable evidence to constrain the eruption’s onset and variations in activity. The eruption products were mapped in the field and the total erupted lava volume estimated at 9.2 ± 3.0 × 105 m3. The event chronology and field evidence are consistent with vent construct instability causing magma mixing and rapid extrusion from shallow reservoirs. It provides new insights into and highlights the evolution of the shallow magmatic system at this unique natrocarbonatite volcano.

  14. The Li isotopic composition of Oldoinyo Lengai: Nature of the mantle sources and lack of isotopic fractionation during carbonatite petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halama, Ralf; McDonough, William F.; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Keller, Jörg; Klaudius, Jurgis

    2007-02-01

    Lithium concentrations and Li isotope compositions are reported for natrocarbonatites and silicate lavas from Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. Natrocarbonatites are characterized by very high Li contents (211-294 ppm) and a narrow range of δ7Li values between + 3.3 and + 5.1. These Li isotope compositions overlap with those reported for MORB and OIB and suggest that the natrocarbonatites reflect the Li isotopic composition of their mantle source. Co-genetic silicate lavas, covering a wide compositional spectrum, show no obvious isotopic fractionation as a function of igneous differentiation or liquid immiscibility. Primitive olivine melilitites (Mg# = 58-70), considered to be parental magmas, contain 14-23 ppm Li and have δ7Li values of + 2.4 to + 4.4. A highly differentiated, peralkaline nephelinite (Mg# = 12), likely to be related to the natrocarbonatites by liquid immiscibility, has about twice as much Li as the melilitite (57 ppm), but a similar isotopic composition (δ7Li = + 3). In contrast, a phonolite with 15 ppm Li has a lighter Li isotope composition (δ7Li = - 0.4), which may reflect assimilation of isotopically light lower crustal mafic granulites, a conclusion supported by radiogenic isotope data. Clinopyroxene and olivine separates from the silicate lavas have uniformly lower Li concentrations (3-15 ppm) and lower δ7Li values (δ7Li = - 2.9 to - 0.5) than the respective whole-rocks, with Δ7Liwhole-rock-mineral between 1.4 and 6.3. This difference between whole-rock and mineral data is interpreted to reflect diffusion-driven isotopic fractionation.

  15. Evolution of a magma-driven earthquake swarm and triggering of the nearby Oldoinyo Lengai eruption, as resolved by InSAR, ground observations and elastic modeling, East African Rift, 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, G.; Hamiel, Y.; Shamir, G.; Nof, R.

    2008-07-01

    An earthquake swarm struck the North Tanzania Divergence, East African Rift over a 2 month period between July and September 2007. It produced approximately 70 M > 4 earthquakes (peak magnitude Mw 5.9), and extensive surface deformation, concurrent with eruptions at the nearby Oldoinyo Lengai volcano. The spatial and temporal evolution of the entire deformation event was resolved by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations, owing to a particularly favorable acquisition programming of the Envisat and ALOS satellites, and was verified by detailed ground observations. Elastic modeling based on the InSAR measurements clearly distinguishes between normal faulting, which dominated during the first week of the event, and intermittent episodes of dike propagation, oblique dike opening and dike-induced faulting during the following month. A gradual decline in the intensity of deformation occurred over the final weeks. Our observations and modeling suggest that the sequence of events was initiated by pressurization of a deep-seated magma chamber below Oldoinyo Lengai which opened the way to lateral dike injection, and dike-induced faulting and seismicity. As dike intrusion terminated, silicate magma ascended the volcano conduit, reacted with the carbonatitic magma, and set off a major episode of explosive ash eruptions producing mixed silicate-carbonatitic ejecta. The rise of the silicate magma within the volcano conduit is attributed to bubble growth and buoyancy increase in the magma chamber either due to a temporary pressure drop after the termination of the diking event, or due to the dynamic effects of seismic wave passage from the earthquake swarm. Similar temporal associations between earthquake swarms and major explosive ash eruptions were observed at Oldoinyo Lengai over the past half century.

  16. Oldoinyo Lengai gas chemistry from 2005 to 2009: Insights to carbonatite-nephelinite volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T. P.; Burnard, P.; Marty, B.; de Moor, J.; Hilton, D. R.; Shaw, A. M.; Barry, P. H.; Ramirez, C.; Mangasini, F.

    2009-12-01

    The African Rift valleys are sites of carbonatite-nephelinite volcanic complexes. Oldoinyo Lengai (OL), the cone that rises to nearly 3000 m above Tanzania’s Rift Valley, is the world’s only active carbonatite volcano. Explosive eruptions have occurred at OL in 1966, 1983 [1] and 1993 [2] producing ash, cones and natrocarbonatite tephra. From Sept. 2007 to Nov. 2008, OL erupted explosively forming a ~60 m high ash cone. The magma composition of these eruptions is nephelinite mixed with carbonatite [3]. In June 2009, we observed a carbonatite lava lake at the bottom of the ~100m deep crater. Volcanic products at OL have therefore transitioned from carbonatite erupted in 2005/06 to nephelinite back to carbonatite in three years; a tribute to the highly dynamic nature of the volcano. We collected samples from crater fumaroles in July 2005, May 2006 and June 2009, spanning the volcanoes recent cycle of activity. The gas composition of all samples is dominated by H2O (meteoric) and CO2. S, HCl, and HF contents are < 1 mol%. Hydrogen and CO contents of 0.1 - 0.2 mol% and 0.0015 - 0.025 mol% respectively show the reduced nature of the gases consistent with H2S being the dominant S species. The CO2/S and CO2/HCl ratios of gases are lower than those of carbonatite magmas which contain up to 8000 ppm S and Cl suggesting that carbonatite acts as a condensor for S and Cl (see also [3]). Isotopic compositions of He, N2, Ar, C show that the mantle below OL is characterized by volatiles indistinguishable from those of MORB sources [4]. H2-H2O redox conditions indicate equilibrium with the ‘rock-buffer’ commonly controlling gases associated with silicic magmas [5]. Gas equilibrium temperatures from ~ 400C to 600C are similar to carbonatite magmas (540C). The 2009 gases have CO2/S ratios that are higher by factor of 10 than those collected in the 2005 and 2006, suggesting efficient condensation of S into the erupting carbonatite ~ 100 m below the sampling locality

  17. Multi-phase saturation experiments on the Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite lavas: derived from a sodic-potassic calciocarbonatite through fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidendorfer, D.; Schmidt, M. W.; Mattsson, H. B.

    2015-12-01

    Typical natrocarbonatite eruption temperatures are 490-595°C and are at least 200-300°C lower than temperatures for any suitable silicic liquid that could be conjugate across a miscibility gap. In particular, the 2007 Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) eruption delivered a mix of nephelinitic and carbonatite melts, supporting the commonly accepted supposition that carbonatites are conjugate to spatially associated peralkaline nephelinites. We constrain possible parental melt compositions of the natrocarbonatites by saturation with calcite, apatite, cpx, wollastonite, nepheline, combeite or nyerereite (at 1 kbar, 650-1200°C, fast-quench cold-seal vessels); all occurring in the silicate or carbonatite rocks of OL The results show that the natrocarbonatite is highly undersaturated in calcite and apatite. At 1200°C, calcite saturation results in decreasing Na2O+K2O from initially 41.5 to 10.3 wt% while the CaCO3-component is increased to 80 wt%. In the complex system, there is no thermal (nyerereite-fairchildite) maximum, hence fractionation of calcite+apatite may proceed from a parent melt with 15 wt% alkali and 70% Ca-component to the observed OL natrocarbonatites. The observed melt inclusions in phenocrysts in the nephelinites at Keramasi (Guzmics et al. 2012, CMP) would serve as ideal parents, these melt compositions correspond to 1050oC. The modelled liquid line of descent along the calcite surface requires a total fractionation of ~48% calcite and ~9 wt% apatite. SiO2 solubility only increases from 0.2-2.9 wt% at 750-1200°C, leaving little leeway for reaction with silicates. A peritectic reaction among the above silicates conserving the Si-content in the carbonatite could not be identified. At >950°C cpx yields, through peritectic melting, an immiscible peralkaline silicate melt + extensive wollastonite (as observed in OL cumulates). This experimental silicate melt resembles the unusual silicate ash compositions from the 2007 eruption. The natrocarbonatite lavas from OL

  18. Preferential Weathering of Carbonatite Lava at Ol Doinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, C. H.; Harpp, K. S.; Geist, D.; Bosselait, M.

    2014-12-01

    Although carbonatites have been produced since the Archean and are preserved in the geologic record, the East African Rift is home to the only active carbonatite volcano, at Ol Doinyo Lengai. It has long been known that the natrocarbonatites become strongly weathered the first time they are exposed to rain. We studied the weathering patterns in the field and have determined the mineralogical transformations via petrography and XRD. Mass transport is assessed by XRF and ICP-MS analyses. Water preferentially dissolves specific minerals in the pristine lava, permeating through earlier layers of flow to form stalactites, which have differing mineralogical composition. These hang both from the host flow and from the bottom of underlying earlier flows. The weathering product is characterized by trona, a hydrated carbonate mineral, as well as the sodium sulfate mineral aphthitalite. Data from XRD analysis of the carbonatite lava confirm transformation of its original minerals, nyerereite and gregoryite, into secondary hydrated carbonate minerals gaylussite and pirssonite (e.g., Zaitsev and Keller, 2006). This transformation is attributed to the instability of the erupted minerals at atmospheric conditions. Data from XRF analysis indicate a 4-fold increase in the amount of sodium present in the stalactite as well as a 8-fold increase in potassium. Trace element analysis by ICP-MS indicates significantly elevated levels of vanadium, copper, and rubidium in the weathering product, whereas strontium, barium, lanthanum, and cesium are left behind in high concentrations in the carbonatite lava. Our results provide further evidence supporting the proposal by Dawson et al. (1987) that calcium carbonate dominated lava flows result from extensive weathering of sodic carbonatite flows.

  19. Olivine-mica pyroxenite xenoliths from northern Tanzania: metasomatic products of upper-mantle peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, J. B.; Smith, J. V.

    1992-04-01

    Olivine-mica-pyroxene blocks in Neogene pyroclastics from Oldoinyo Lengai and Loluni, Tanzania, result from K, Ca, Fe, Ti, Al, REE, Cl, F and OH metasomatism of upper-mantle peridotite. Deformed olivine relicts and high Cr and Ni in bulk-rock analyses indicate a peridotite precursor.

  20. Natrocarbonatite tephra of Kerimasi volcano, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Richard L.

    1983-10-01

    Carbonatite tephra was discharged in the final eruptive phase of Kerimasi, an extinct nephelinite volcano in the eastern rift valley of northern Tanzania. The tephra was dominantly of alkali carbonatite composition, thus providing the first well-documented example of premodern natrocarbonatite volcanism. The principal carbonate mineral was nyerereite, which is the dominant mineral in modern natrocarbonatite lava flows of the adjacent volcano Oldoinyo Lengai. The nyerereite of Kerimasi was leached of its alkalis by meteoric water and is now represented by calcite pseudomorphs. Natrocarbonatite tephra of Kerimasi shows that the alkali-rich eruptive rocks of Oldoinyo Lengai are not unique, thus supporting the hypothesis that carbonatite magmas associated with nephelinite volcanism were originally alkaline and that the subvolcanic calcitic carbonatites are a residuum from which the alkalis have been removed, either by volcanism or fenetizing fluids. A hypothesis to be tested is that eruptive carbonatite magma is, worldwide, commonly and perhaps dominantly of natrocarbonatite composition.

  1. Comment on Ra-Th disequilibria systematics: Timescale of carbonatite magma formation at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Gittins, J. )

    1988-04-01

    This paper discusses potential flaws in study by Williams, Gill, and bruland (1986) dealing with the extreme disequilibria between uranium and thorium series nuclides in alkalic carbonatite lava specimens. It discusses the apparent discrepencies between chemical compositions of lava which were reported from the same eruption. Clarification is made on the actual timing of eruptions in this volcanic region and the effects this would have on the petrogenesis interpretation of these rocks.

  2. The compressibility of CaCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 liquids: application to natrocarbonatite and CO2-bearing nephelinite liquids from Oldoinyo Lengai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Mary Catherine; Lange, Rebecca A.; Ai, Yuhui

    2015-07-01

    To constrain the compressibility of natrocarbonate liquids, sound-speed measurements were made on 11 liquids in the CaCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary system from 808 to 1323 K at 1 bar with a frequency-sweep acoustic interferometer. CaCO3 concentrations range from 15 to 50 mol% in four of the experimental liquids. The sound-speed data for all liquids were converted to isothermal compressibility ( β T ), which were fit to an ideal mixing model with respect to composition; the average residual is 1.2 %. Fitted values (±1 σ) of the partial molar compressibility (10-2 GPa-1) at 1100 K were derived for CaCO3 (5.36 ± 0.13), Li2CO3 (8.09 ± 0.06), Na2CO3 (10.62 ± 0.07), and K2CO3 (14.09 ± 0.06); these values translate to bulk modulus values of 18.7, 12.4, 9.4, and 7.1 GPa, respectively, reflecting the relatively large compressibility of carbonate liquids. The data are additionally used to estimate the partial molar volume and compressibility of the CO2 component dissolved as carbonate in nephelinite liquids; the density of this dissolved component at 1423 K and 1 GPa ranges from 1.62, 1.71 to 1.83 g/cm3 when it is complexed with K+, Na+, and Ca2+, respectively, and is estimated to be ~2.05 and 2.14 g/cm3 when complexed with Fe2+ and Mg2+, respectively. The results from this study can be applied to natrocarbonate liquids, such as those erupted from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano in Africa, and indicate a melt density of ~2.19 g/cm3 at 1150 °C and 1 GPa, which is ~18 % less dense than the average melt density (~2.67 g/cm3) calculated for associated Mg-poor nephelinite liquids at the same conditions and volatile-free. However, the dissolution of 10.1 wt% H2O and 8.7 wt% CO2 in the average nephelinite melt (based on volatile contents reported in the literature for these magmas) reduces its density to ~2.14 g/cm3 at 1150 °C and 1 GPa, eliminating the buoyancy contrast with the natrocarbonate melt. In turn, it is highly likely that the natrocarbonatite melts contained

  3. Evidence for Significant Aseismic Strike Slip During the 2007 Dike Intrusion Episode in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himematsu, Y.; Furuya, M.

    2014-12-01

    In July 2007, an earthquake swarm initiated Northern Tanzania near Lake Natron and lasted for about two months. Mt. Oldoinyo Lengai, which located near the seismicity, began to erupt effusively before about a month later, and increased eruption intensity on September when the swarm almost ceased. The explosive eruption continued until April 2008. Calais et al. (2008), Baer et al. (2008), and Biggs et al. (2009) have already reported the deformation associated with the swarm using InSAR. However, they mainly used ENVISAT/ASAR(C-band) images and only used images acquired from descending pass. We use both ascending and descending passes of ALOS/PALSAR (L-band) images. In addition to InSAR data, we also employ the offset-tracking technique to detect the signals along the azimuth direction. Using InSAR and offset-tracking, we could obtain the full 3D displacement field associated with the swarm. The inferred full 3D displacement indicates that the graben-like-subsiding zone was horizontally moving by ~48cm toward SSW. To our knowledge, the horizontal movement at the subsidence zone has never been identified. To explain the displacement, we performed the fault source modeling. The fault slip distribution indicates that the ratio of strike slip component is about 30% of total moment release. Aseismic strike-slip creep motion might have also been responsible for the horizontal motion area and the swarm activity.

  4. Distribution of fault activity in the early stages of continental breakup: an analysis of faults and volcanic products of the Natron Basin, East African Rift, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, J. D.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent magmatic-tectonic crises in Ethiopia (e.g. 2005 Dabbahu rifting episode, Afar) have informed our understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of strain in magmatic rifts transitioning to sea-floor spreading. However, the evolving contributions of magmatic and tectonic processes during the initial stages of rifting, is a subject of ongoing debate. The <5 Ma northern Tanzania and southern Kenya sectors of the East Africa Rift provide ideal locations to address this problem. We present preliminary findings from an investigation of fault structures utilizing aerial photography and satellite imagery of the ~35 km wide Natron rift-basin in northern Tanzania. Broad-scale structural mapping will be supplemented by field observations and 40Ar-39Ar dating of lava flows cut by faults to address three major aspects of magma-assisted rifting: (1) the relative timing of activity between the border fault and smaller faults distributed across the width of the rift; (2) time-averaged slip rates along rift-zone faults; and (3) the spatial distribution of faults and volcanic products, and their relative contributions to strain accommodation. Preliminary field observations suggest that the ~500 m high border fault system along the western edge of the Natron basin is either inactive or has experienced a reduced slip rate and higher recurrence interval between surface-breaking events, as evidence by a lack of recent surface-rupture along the main fault escarpments. An exception is an isolated, ~2 km-long segment of the Natron border fault, which is located in close proximity (< 5km) to the active Oldoinyo Lengai volcano. Here, ~10 m of seemingly recent throw is observed in volcaniclastic deposits. The proximity of the fault segment to Oldoinyo Lengai volcano and the localized distribution of fault-slip are consistent with magma-assisted faulting. Faults observed within the Natron basin and on the flanks of Gelai volcano, located on the eastern side of the rift, have

  5. Volcanic activities in the Southern part of East African rift initiation: Melilitites and nephelinites from the Manyara Basin (North Tanzania rift axis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudouin, Celine; Parat, Fleurice; Tiberi, Christel; Gautier, Stéphanie; Peyrat, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    The East African Rift exposes different stages of plate boundary extension, from the initiation of the rift (North (N) Tanzania) to oceanic accretion (Afar). The N Tanzania rift-axis (north-south (S) trend) is divided into 2 different volcanic and seismic activities: (1) the Natron basin (N) with shallow seismicity and intense volcanism and (2) the Manyara basin (S) with deep crustal earthquakes and sparse volcanism. The Natron basin is characterized by extinct volcanoes (2 Ma-0.75 Ma) and active volcano (Oldoinyo Lengai) and a link between seismicity and volcanism has been observed during the Oldoinyo Lengai crisis in 2007. In the S part of the N Tanzanian rift, volcanoes erupted in the Manyara basin between 0.4 and 0.9 Ma. In this study, we used geochemical signature of magmas and deep fluids that percolate into the lithosphere beneath Manyara basin, to define the compositions of magmas and fluids at depth beneath the S part of the N Tanzania rift, compare to the Natron basin and place constrain on the volcanic and seismic activities. The Manyara basin has distinct volcanic activities with mafic magmas as melilitites (Labait) and Mg-nephelinites (carbonatite, Kwaraha), and more differentiated magmas as Mg-poor nephelinites (Hanang). Melilitites and Mg-nephelinites are primary magmas with olivine, clinopyroxene (cpx), and phlogopite recording high-pressure crystallization environment, (melilitites >4 GPa and Mg-nephelinites>1 GPa) with high volatile contents (whole rock: 0.7-4.6 wt% CO2, 0.1-0.3 wt% F and 0.1 wt% Cl). FTIR analyses of olivine constrained the water content of Labait and Kwaraha magmas at 0.1 and 0.4 wt% H2O, respectively. Geochemical modelling suggests that mafic magmas result from a low degree of partial melting (1-2%) of a peridotitic source with garnet and phlogopite (high Tb/Yb (>0.6) and Rb/Sr (0.03-0.12) ratio). Mg-poor nephelinites from Hanang volcano crystallized cpx, Ti-garnet, and nepheline as phenocrysts. Magmas result from fractional

  6. Field-mapping and petrographic analysis of volcanoes surrounding the Lake Natron Homo sapiens footprint site, northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, S. M.; Zimmer, B.; Liutkus, C.; Carmichael, S. K.; McGinnis, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Lake Natron Homo sapiens footprint site is located in northern Tanzania along the East African Rift escarpment. The site is positioned south of Lake Natron within an ephemeral channel of the Engare Sero River. The hominid footprints are preserved in a tuff, which originated from one of the volcanic centers surrounding the site. Two large volcanoes in the surrounding region, including the active carbonatite producing Oldoinyo L’engai and the now extinct Kerimasi are possible sources. This area also contains over 30 smaller tuff cones and tuff rings that have been poorly mapped and not analyzed in detail. The site is significant as it is the oldest modern human trackway in East Africa and one of the largest collections of hominid footprints in the world. Determining the source of the footprinted volcanic ash requires detailed field mapping, and both petrographic and geochemical analyses. Extensive field-mapping of the region revealed multiple regional beds that stratigraphically overlay the footprinted layer. Age dating as well as geochemical analysis is being conducted to relate these beds to the footprinted layer. Field-mapping showed that the footprinted tuff is over 35 cm thick, suggesting a large, sustained eruption. The bulk of the tuff cones examined in the field visibly varied in composition to the footprinted tuff and, based on proximity to the footprint site, are too small to produce the requisite volume of ash. Field analysis of samples collected from Oldoinyo L’engai reveal the most similar mineral assemblages to the footprinted layer, and the large volcano provides a source substantial enough to create a thick ash bed 10 km north of the summit. Preliminary research reveals that the footprinted tuff is a phonolite, characterized by silica depletion and the presence of sanidine, augite, and annite with interstitial calcite. XRD analysis of samples collected from Oldoinyo L’engai reveal a nepheline-rich phonolite with zeolites (ie. phillipsite

  7. Carbonatite tuffs in the Laetolil Beds of Tanzania and the Kaiserstuhl in Germany

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, R.L.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Carbonatite lava and tephra are now well known. The only modern eruptive carbonatites, from Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, are of alkali carbonatite, whereas all of the pre-modern examples are of calcite or dolomite. Chemical and stable isotope analyses were made of separate phases of Pliocene carbonatite tuffs of the Laetolil Beds in Tanzania and of Miocene carbonatite tuffs of the Kaiserstuhl in Germany in order to understand the reasons for this major difference. The Laetolil Beds contain numerous carbonatite and melilitite-carbonatite tuffs. It is proposed that the carbonatite ash was originally of alkali carbonate composition and that the alkali component was dissolved, leaving a residuum of calcium carbonate. The least recrystallized melilitite-carbonatite tuff contains early-deposited calcite cement and calcite pseudomorphs after nyerereite (?) that have contents of strontium and barium and ??18O and ??13C values suggestive of incomplete chemical and isotopic exchange during alteration and replacement of alkali carbonatite ash. Carbonatite tuffs of the Kaiserstuhl contain globules composed of calcite phenocrysts and microphenocrysts in a groundmass of calcite with a small amount of clay, apatite, and magnetite. The SrO contents of phenocrysts, microphenocrysts, and groundmass calcite average 0.90, 1.42, and 0.59 percent, respectively. The average ??18O and ??13C values of globules (+14.3 and -9.0, respectively) fall between those of coarse-grained intrusive Kaiserstuhl carbonatite (avg. +6.6, -5.8) and those of low-temperature calcite cement in the carbonatite tuffs (+21.8, -14.9). The phenocrysts and microphenocrysts are primary magmatic calcite, but several features indicate that the groundmass has been recrystallized and altered in contact with meteoric water, resulting in weathering of silicate to clay, leaching of strontium, and isotopic exchange. The weight of evidence favors an original high content of alkali carbonatite in the groundmass, with

  8. Helium and carbon isotope systematics of Rungwe geothermal gases and fluids; southern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, P. H.

    2009-12-01

    observed latitudinal isotopic trends in He-CO2. However, the two localities with MORB-like 3He/4He ratios ~6 to 7 RA, δ13C ~ -4 to -5 ‰ and CO2/3He ~ 4 x10^9 are both cold temperature (~ 15°C) CO2 gas vents. The MORB-like characteristics of these cold vents are comparable to MORB-like values observed at Oldoinyo Lengai in northern Tanzania [4], suggesting that both Rungwe region and Oldoinyo Lengai may derive their volatile compositions from a homogeneous (MORB-like) mantle source common to the entire segment of the southern EAR. [1] Furman (2007) Journal of African Earth Sciences 48, 147-160. [2] Ebinger et al. (1989) Journal of Geophysical Research 94, 15,785-15,803. [3] Pik et al. (2006) Chemical Geology 226, 100-114. [4] Fisher et al. (2009) Nature 459, 77-80.

  9. Mineralogy, geochemistry and petrology of the phonolitic to nephelinitic Sadiman volcano, Crater Highlands, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, A. N.; Marks, M. A. W.; Wenzel, T.; Spratt, J.; Sharygin, V. V.; Strekopytov, S.; Markl, G.

    2012-11-01

    Sadiman volcano is located in the Crater Highlands area of northern Tanzania, which lies next to the western escarpment of the Gregory rift—a part of the eastern branch of the East African Rift system. It consists of interlayered phonolitic tuffs, tuff breccias (with blocks of nephelinites) and nephelinitic lava flows. Rare xenoliths of phonolite lava and ijolite were observed within the nephelinite lavas with ijolite blocks occurring in phonolitic tuffs. No evidence for the presence of melilite-bearing and/or carbonatitic rocks was found during this study. On the basis of petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry the nephelinites are divided into highly porphyritic nephelinite, wollastonite nephelinite and phonolitic nephelinite, the latter of which is the dominant variety at Sadiman. Nepheline + clinopyroxene + titanite ± perovskite ± andradite-schorlomite ± wollastonite ± sanidine ± sodalite are the principle pheno- and microphenocryst phases. The nephelinites are highly evolved (Mg# = 0.17-0.26) alkaline to peralkaline (AI = 0.88-1.21) rocks enriched in incompatible elements such as Rb, Ba, Th, U, Nb, Pb, Ta, Sr and light REEs, and strongly depleted in P and Ti. This suggests derivation from an enriched mantle source and fractionation of apatite and Ti-rich mineral(s). Primary melt inclusions in nepheline phenocrysts (Thomogenization = 860-1100 °C) indicate enrichment of volatile components in the melts, particularly of fluorine (up to 1.8 wt.% in silicate glass) resulting in the formation of daughter fluorite in partly and complete crystallized inclusions. The Sadiman nephelinites crystallized under relatively oxidizing conditions (above the FMQ buffer), which differ from the reducing conditions reported for trachytic and pantelleritic rocks from other parts of the Gregory rift. Similar rock types and relatively oxidizing conditions are known from Oldoinyo Lengai and other localities, all of which are closely associated with carbonatites. By analogy, we

  10. Aseismic strike-slip associated with the 2007 dike intrusion episode in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himematsu, Yuji; Furuya, Masato

    2015-08-01

    In July 2007, an earthquake swarm initiated in northern Tanzania near Lake Natron and lasted for about two months. Mt. Oldoinyo Lengai, located to the southwest of the swarm, began to erupt effusively about a month prior to the swarm, and increased its eruption intensity on September when the swarm almost ceased. Several previous studies have already reported the crustal deformation signals associated with the swarm using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). However, nearly all the published data are based on the C-band ENVISAT/ASAR images acquired only from the descending path. We use the L-band ALOS/PALSAR images acquired from both ascending and descending paths, which allow us to examine the deformation signals in more detail. In addition to the InSAR data, we employ the offset-tracking technique to detect the signals along the azimuth direction. Using InSAR and offset-tracking data, we obtain the full 3D displacement fields associated with the episode. Besides the horizontal extension and subsidence signals due to the dike intrusion as already reported, the inferred full 3D displacements further indicate that the subsiding zone was horizontally moving by ~ 48 cm toward SSW. To explain the displacements, we performed fault source modeling, assuming an elastic half space. The fault slip distribution indicates that the contribution of the strike-slip component is about 20% of total moment release. Because almost all the focal mechanisms of earthquakes during the 2007 event indicate nearly pure normal faulting, aseismic strike-slip must have been responsible for the horizontal movement of the subsiding zone. The strike-slip at the shallowest depths suggests the presence of transtensive stress, which seems to be reasonable to generate the relay zones that are widely observed in the East African Rift. We also confirmed that the stress changes due to the dike intrusion were consistent with the inferred fault slip distributions.

  11. Surface deformation and stress interactions during the 2007-2010 sequence of earthquake, dyke intrusion and eruption in northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Juliet; Chivers, Michael; Hutchinson, Michael C.

    2013-10-01

    Magma movement and fault slip alter the magnitude and orientation of the stress in the surrounding crust. Observations of a sequence of events clustered in space and time provide information about the triggering mechanism and stress interactions between magma intrusion, earthquakes and eruptions. We investigate the syn- and post-intrusion stress changes associated with the 2007 Gelei dyke intrusion episode and subsequent eruption of nearby Oldonyo Lengai. Previous studies produced a kinematic model of the 2007 June-August sequence involving ˜1 m slip on a normal fault followed by the intrusion of the 7-10-km long Gelei dyke, collapse of a shallow graben and the deflation of the Gelei magma chamber. Immediately following this, the volcano Oldoinyo Lengai (<10 km away) experienced a new phase of explosive activity lasting for several months. Here, we present new geodetic observations covering Gelei and Oldoinyo Lengai in 2008 September-2010. We show continued slip on graben-bounding faults above the Gelei dyke. The eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai was accompanied by the intrusion of a 4 km-long E-W-trending dyke followed by deflation of a shallow source directly below the summit of the volcano. Next, we use stress calculations to investigate a number of hypotheses linking these events. (1) Before the onset of surface deformation, a dyke sufficiently deep and narrow to be geodetically undetectable could still have produced sufficient stress changes to trigger slip on the normal fault (i.e. the sequence could have been magmatically driven). (2) Stresses at the dyke tip would have been sufficient to overcome the effect of continued slip on the normal fault, allowing the dyke to propagate upwards into a region of clamping. (3) The Gelei sequence would have produced a significant stress change on the chamber beneath Oldoinyo Lengai. These static stress calculations allow us to discuss the roles played by dynamic stress, deeper magmatic changes and background stresses

  12. Is natrocarbonatite a cognate fluid condensate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Troels; Veksler, Ilya

    2001-10-01

    Natrocarbonatite flows in the crater of the volcano Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania) are the only carbonatite magmas observed to erupt and have provided strong arguments in favor of a magmatic origin for carbonatite. The currently favored explanation for the genesis of these carbonatites by liquid immiscibility between a silicate and a carbonatite melt is questioned based on the extremely low eruption temperatures of 544-593 °C and compositional and mineralogical characteristics not in agreement with experimental constraints. Experimental investigations of the relationship between Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite and related silicate rock compositions do indicate that alkali-bearing peralkaline carbonatite with liquidus calcite can form by liquid immiscibility. At the same time, these experiments result in evidence which speaks against a liquid immiscibility origin for the highly alkaline and peralkaline Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite. On the carbonatite side of the miscibility gap, fractional crystallization cannot account for a liquid evolution from alkali-bearing peralkaline carbonatite to highly alkaline natrocarbonatite. Such an evolution does not seem to be compatible with the liquidus mineral assemblages and the chemistry of Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite. No natural silicate magma is known to produce natrocarbonatite compositions by liquid immiscibility. The best interpretation of the Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite flows involves expulsion of a cognate, mobile, alkaline, and CO2-rich fluid condensate. This conclusion is supported by recent studies of silicate and carbonatite melt inclusions in minerals of ultramafic alkaline complexes, trace element partitioning, isotopic constraints, and by experimental data on major element partitioning between coexisting H2O-CO2-rich fluid and carbonatitic melt. In contrast to all other suggested modes of formation, an origin of Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite from cognate fluid appears best to be in agreement with the

  13. Is natrocarbonatite a cognate fluid condensate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Troels; Veksler, Ilya

    Natrocarbonatite flows in the crater of the volcano Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania) are the only carbonatite magmas observed to erupt and have provided strong arguments in favor of a magmatic origin for carbonatite. The currently favored explanation for the genesis of these carbonatites by liquid immiscibility between a silicate and a carbonatite melt is questioned based on the extremely low eruption temperatures of 544-593 °C and compositional and mineralogical characteristics not in agreement with experimental constraints. Experimental investigations of the relationship between Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite and related silicate rock compositions do indicate that alkali-bearing peralkaline carbonatite with liquidus calcite can form by liquid immiscibility. At the same time, these experiments result in evidence which speaks against a liquid immiscibility origin for the highly alkaline and peralkaline Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite. On the carbonatite side of the miscibility gap, fractional crystallization cannot account for a liquid evolution from alkali-bearing peralkaline carbonatite to highly alkaline natrocarbonatite. Such an evolution does not seem to be compatible with the liquidus mineral assemblages and the chemistry of Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite. No natural silicate magma is known to produce natrocarbonatite compositions by liquid immiscibility. The best interpretation of the Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite flows involves expulsion of a cognate, mobile, alkaline, and CO2-rich fluid condensate. This conclusion is supported by recent studies of silicate and carbonatite melt inclusions in minerals of ultramafic alkaline complexes, trace element partitioning, isotopic constraints, and by experimental data on major element partitioning between coexisting H2O-CO2-rich fluid and carbonatitic melt. In contrast to all other suggested modes of formation, an origin of Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite from cognate fluid appears best to be in agreement with the

  14. A melt evolution model for Kerimasi volcano, Tanzania: Evidence from carbonate melt inclusions in jacupirangite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Káldos, Réka; Guzmics, Tibor; Mitchell, Roger H.; Dawson, John Barry; Milke, Ralf; Szabó, Csaba

    2015-12-01

    This study presents compositional data for a statistically significant number (n = 180) of heated and quenched (recreated) carbonate melt inclusions trapped in magnetite and clinopyroxene in jacupirangite from Kerimasi volcano (Tanzania). On the basis of homogenization experiments for clinopyroxene-hosted melt inclusions and forsterite-monticellite-calcite phase relations, a range of 1000 to 900 °C is estimated for their crystallization temperatures. Petrographic observations and geochemical data show that during jacupirangite crystallization, a CaO-rich and alkali-"poor" carbonate melt (relative to Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite) existed and was entrapped in the precipitating magnetite, forming primary melt inclusions, and was also enclosed in previously crystallized clinopyroxene as secondary melt inclusions. The composition of the trapped carbonate melts in magnetite and clinopyroxene is very similar to the parental melt of Kerimasi calciocarbonatite; i.e., enriched in Na2O, K2O, F, Cl and S, but depleted in SiO2 and P2O5 relative to carbonate melts entrapped at an earlier stage and higher temperature (1050-1100 °C) during the formation of Kerimasi afrikandite. Significant compositional variation is shown by the major minerals of Kerimasi plutonic rocks (afrikandite, jacupirangite and calciocarbonatite). Magnetite and clinopyroxene in the jacupirangite are typically transitional in composition between those of afrikandite and calciocarbonatite. These data suggest that the jacupirangite represents an intermediate stage between the formation of afrikandite and calciocarbonatite. Jacupirangite most probably formed when immiscible silicate and carbonate melts separated from the afrikandite body, although the carbonate melt was not separated completely from the silicate melt fraction. In general, during the evolution of the carbonate melt at Kerimasi, concentrations of P2O5 and SiO2 decreased, whereas volatile content (alkalis, S, F, Cl and H2O) increased

  15. Ultramafic xenoliths and megacrysts from a melilitite tuff cone, Deeti, northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, L. H.; Jones, A. P.; Church, A. A.; Taylor, W. R.

    1997-07-01

    Deeti, a ˜50 m high 'ubehebe' tuff ring is situated in a small field of similar tuff cones of Quaternary age, next to the two nephelinite-carbonatite volcanoes of Kerimasi and Oldoinyo Lengai, south of Lake Natron. The tuff cones, lying on small parallel faults, may have been closely associated and possibly triggered by the same events that have given rise to the volcanic activity at Oldoinyo Lengai and Kerimasi. The host extrusive at Deeti is a melilitite (SiO 2 37.20%, MgO 15.0%, TiO 2 3.93%, CaO 9.26%, K 2O 2.76% and Mg66.4); it is mica porphyritic and contains ijolitic xenolith fragments. The upper part of the cone is formed of spectacular carbonate-cemented, coarse bedded deposits of cored, golf ball size lapilli. A distinctive megacryst suite is composed of phlogopitic mica (FeO 0.5%, TiO 2 4.8%, Mg80), pargasitic amphibole ( Mg71) and diopsidic clinopyroxene ( Mg80). Numerous ultramafic xenoliths dominated by amphibole-mica peridotites and pyroxenites, form the cores of larger lapilli and exist as bombs up to 30 cm across. This amphibole is chromian-pargasite, with very rare relics of richterite ( Mg88). The xenoliths show abundant evidence of multiple veining, overgrowths and substantial fabric modification. On the basis of electron microprobe data, we show that these petrographic textures probably developed as a result of metasomatism by alkaline silicate, and possibly carbonatite melts. The original protoliths include more primitive spinel peridotites (Fo >88) that have been significantly Fe-enriched. The lava has sampled upper mantle wall rock to depths of origin of the melilitite (> 60 km) and these xenoliths may constrain possible mantle source compositions for the adjacent larger carbonatite volcanoes.

  16. Peralkaline nephelinites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Tony D.

    1989-07-01

    Two fractionation trends in sodic alkaline ultramafic liquids have been predicted from experiments in subsystems of the join Di-Ak-Ne-Lc-Qz. The products of these trends are equated with contrasting suites of peralkaline nephelinites from two nephelinite-carbonatite volcanos of the south Gregory Rift, Shombole (southern Kenya) and Oldoinyo L'engai (northern Tanzania). In both trends, peralkalinity is interpreted to result from fractional crystallization of aluminous clinopyroxene. The “Shombole trend” has olivine nephelinite as its parental magma, and the differentiation products are mildly peralkaline [(Na+K)/Al≈1.15] nephelinites. It is the most common lineage observed in nephelinite-carbonatite centres. The “Oldoinyo L'engai trend” has melilitite or olivine-melilite nephelinite as its parental magma, and produces extremely peralkaline [(Na+K)/Al=1.4 2.3] wollastonite- and combeite- (Na2 Ca2Si3O9) bearing nephelinites. The presence of a reaction relation between wollastonite and liquid to produce combeite, indicated by corroded wollastonite phenocrysts armoured by combeite in some nephelinites from Oldoinyo L'engai, is confirmed by melting experiments. Combeite nephelinites from Oldoinyo L'engai were erupted simultaneously with natrocarbonatite ash, and are very similar in composition to silicate liquids that have been shown by experiment to be immiscible with natrocarbonatite. Because the L'engai trend is rarely expressed at extrusive centres (combeite has been recorded at only three localities), and combeite nephelinites are highly evolved magmas, it is unlikely that natrocarbonatite is primary to other carbonatite types. It is proposed that carbonatite liquid is exsolved at crustal pressures from a wide range of nephelinitic liquids: Mg-rich carbonatite from primitive, olivine-bearing alkaline ultramafic liquids, Ca-rich carbonatite from olivine-free nephelinites of low peralkalinity, and natrocarbonatite from strongly peralkaline combeite

  17. Carbonatite melt inclusions in coexisting magnetite, apatite and monticellite in Kerimasi calciocarbonatite, Tanzania: melt evolution and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmics, Tibor; Mitchell, Roger H.; Szabó, Csaba; Berkesi, Márta; Milke, Ralf; Abart, Rainer

    2011-02-01

    Kerimasi calciocarbonatite consists principally of calcite together with lesser apatite, magnetite, and monticellite. Calcite hosts fluid and S-bearing Na-K-Ca-carbonate inclusions. Carbonatite melt and fluid inclusions occur in apatite and magnetite, and silicate melt inclusions in magnetite. This study presents statistically significant compositional data for quenched S- and P-bearing, Ca-alkali-rich carbonatite melt inclusions in magnetite and apatite. Magnetite-hosted silicate melts are peralkaline with normative sodium-metasilicate. On the basis of our microthermometric results on apatite-hosted melt inclusions and forsterite-monticellite phase relationships, temperatures of the early stage of magma evolution are estimated to be 900-1,000°C. At this time three immiscible liquid phases coexisted: (1) a Ca-rich, P-, S- and alkali-bearing carbonatite melt, (2) a Mg- and Fe-rich, peralkaline silicate melt, and (3) a C-O-H-S-alkali fluid. During the development of coexisting carbonatite and silicate melts, the Si/Al and Mg/Fe ratio of the silicate melt decreased with contemporaneous increase in alkalis due to olivine fractionation, whereas the alkali content of the carbonatite melt increased with concomitant decrease in CaO resulting from calcite fractionation. Overall the peralkalinity of the bulk composition of the immiscible melts increased, resulting in a decrease in the size of the miscibility gap in the pseudoquaternary system studied. Inclusion data indicate the formation of a carbonatite magma that is extremely enriched in alkalis with a composition similar to that of Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite. In contrast to the bulk compositions of calciocarbonatite rocks, the melt inclusions investigated contain significant amount of alkalis (Na2O + K2O) that is at least 5-10 wt%. The compositions of carbonatite melt inclusions are considered as being better representatives of parental magma composition than those of any bulk rock.

  18. The last ~1 million years of carbonatite volcanism in northern Tanzania; last gasp of a decaying rift?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.

    2003-04-01

    Continued monitoring of volcanic activity at Oldoinyo Lengai for the last ~35 years suggests that this central volcano has become a highly evolved low temperature/low volume carbonatite-nephelinite system. The sustained intermingling of silicate and carbonatitic eruptions for most of this volcano's history contrasts sharply with the two-stage sequential development of neighbouring Kerimasi (nephelinite then carbonatite). The footprint of the older Kerimasi volcano is effected by active faulting of earlier flood lavas along the west rift wall. The mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of both volcanos generally conform with the LeBas model of carbonatite-nephelinite volcanism for the eastern arm of the EAR. However, their overall differences in bulk chemistry suggest that their ~15 km horizontal separation at the surface, reflects compositional heterogeneity of the mantle source over a similar length scale. This is consistent with primary melt segregation at relatively shallow mantle depths, and crustal delivery along pipe-like conduits with minimal lateral transport. The surrounding rift valley floor is pock-marked with numerous small volcanic structures, such as tuff cones, craters and minor lava flows. The ages of these minor volcanos are bracketed by the two larger central volcanos, and also contain both carbonatite and alkaline silicate magmas; they extend the compositional range and suggest deeper sources for periodic small volume primary melilitite magmas. Their xenolith populations are consistent with an extended history of metasomatised mantle peridotites characterised by increasing amphibole, mica, and clinopyroxene at the expense of orthopyroxene. Megacrysts and cumulate-textured xenoliths are also consistent with repeated occupation of vertical conduits and local sidewall crystallisation at depths close to the Moho. Overall, the recent volcanic activity represents highly evolved small volume batches of mantle melts with high carbonate and CO2, and

  19. Tanzania: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Barbara

    A survey of the status of language usage in Tanzania begins with an overview of the three levels of language use: (1) Swahili, the national and official language, used in public life; (2) English, used in international affairs and in technical and intellectual matters; and (3) the over 120 vernacular languages used in family and religious life,…

  20. Tungiasis infestation in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mazigo, Humphrey D; Behamana, Emmanuel; Zinga, Maria; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2010-03-01

    Tungiasis is caused by the jigger flea Tunga penetrans. We describe a case of severe infestation from Kigoma region, Western Tanzania. A 19-year-old male with epilepsy and mental disability presented with ulcerated and inflamed toes. Clinical examination revealed the presence of approximately 810 embedded jigger fleas on the feet, and another 60 lesions on the hands. The patient presented with fissures on the feet, hands and soles. He had difficulty walking and erythematous, oedematous, ulcerated and inflamed skin around the feet. Living conditions were precarious. The patient was assisted to extract the embedded fleas and his feet were washed with disinfectants. Oral antibiotics were given. The case shows that the disease may reach high parasite loads in Tanzanian individuals, with consequently severe pathology. There have been single reports of returning tourists from Tanzania with tungiasis, but the epidemiological situation and the geographic occurrence of the disease in this country are not known. Systematic studies are needed to increase knowledge on the epidemiological situation of tungasis in Tanzania and to identify endemic areas. PMID:20351463

  1. Corporal Punishment in Tanzania's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Mwahombela, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to acquire descriptive information regarding corporal punishment in Tanzania's O-level secondary schools. 448 individuals participated in the study: 254 teachers and 194 students, all from government or private secondary schools in the Iringa Region of Tanzania. In addition, 14 students and 14 teachers were…

  2. Plague in Tanzania: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ziwa, Michael H; Matee, Mecky I; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Lyamuya, Eligius F; Kilonzo, Bukheti S

    2013-10-01

    Human plague remains a public health concern in Tanzania despite its quiescence in most foci for years, considering the recurrence nature of the disease. Despite the long-standing history of this problem, there have not been recent reviews of the current knowledge on plague in Tanzania. This work aimed at providing a current overview of plague in Tanzania in terms of its introduction, potential reservoirs, possible causes of plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in the country. Plague is believed to have been introduced to Tanzania from the Middle East through Uganda with the first authentication in 1886. Xenopsylla brasiliensis, X. cheopis, Dinopsyllus lypusus, and Pulex irritans are among potential vectors while Lophuromys spp, Praomys delectorum, Graphiurus murinus, Lemniscomys striatus, Mastomys natalensis, and Rattus rattus may be the potential reservoirs. Plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in Tanzania are likely to be attributable to a complexity of factors including cultural, socio-economical, environmental and biological. Minimizing or preventing people's proximity to rodents is probably the most effective means of preventing plague outbreaks in humans in the future. In conclusion, much has been done on plague diagnosis in Tanzania. However, in order to achieve new insights into the features of plague epidemiology in the country, and to reorganize an effective control strategy, we recommend broader studies that will include the ecology of the pathogen, vectors and potential hosts, identifying the reservoirs, dynamics of infection and landscape ecology.

  3. Malaria control in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Yhdego, M.; Majura, P. )

    1988-01-01

    A review of the malaria control programs and the problem encountered in the United Republic of Tanzania since 1945 to the year 1986 is discussed. Buguruni, one of the squatter areas in the city of Dar es Salaam, is chosen as a case study in order to evaluate the economic advantage of engineering methods for the control of malaria infection. Although the initial capital cost of engineering methods may be high, the cost effectiveness requires a much lower financial burden of only about Tshs. 3 million compared with the conventional methods of larviciding and insecticiding which requires more than Tshs. 10 million. Finally, recommendations for the adoption of engineering methods are made concerning the upgrading of existing roads and footpaths in general with particular emphasis on drainage of large pools of water which serve as breeding sites for mosquitoes.

  4. Reforming Teacher Education in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Frank; Abd-Kadir, Jan; Tibuhinda, Audax

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that in order to improve the quality of education in primary schools in developing countries there is a need to place pedagogy and its training implications at the centre of teacher education reform. Like many countries in Eastern and Southern Africa, Tanzania has introduced various initiatives and reforms to improve the…

  5. Conventialization of Numerals in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajoro, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The supposed pre-eminence of an external examination can exert a disproportionate influence on a curriculum and the associated learning and teaching. Teaching can easily subordinate learning and understanding to curriculum coverage if the society develops a culture that appears to make such demands. This study focuses on Tanzania and provides the…

  6. Crater Highlands, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000, acquired elevation measurements for nearly all of Earth's landmass between 60oN and 56oS latitudes. For many areas of the world SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional observation of landforms at regional scales. SRTM data were used to generate this view of the Crater Highlands along the East African Rift in Tanzania. Landforms are depicted with colored height and shaded relief, using a vertical exaggeration of 2X and a southwestwardly look direction.

    Lake Eyasi is depicted in blue at the top of the image, and a smaller lake occurs in Ngorongoro Crater. Near the image center, elevations peak at 3648 meters (11,968 feet) at Mount Loolmalasin, which is south of Ela Naibori Crater. Kitumbeine (left) and Gelai (right) are the two broad mountains rising from the rift lowlands. Mount Longido is seen in the lower left, and the Meto Hills are in the right foreground.

    Tectonics, volcanism, landslides, erosion and deposition -- and their interactions -- are all very evident in this view. The East African Rift is a zone of spreading between the African (on the west) and Somali (on the east) crustal plates. Two branches of the rift intersect here in Tanzania, resulting in distinctive and prominent landforms. One branch trends nearly parallel the view and includes Lake Eyasi and the very wide Ngorongoro Crater. The other branch is well defined by the lowlands that trend left-right across the image (below center, in green). Volcanoes are often associated with spreading zones where magma, rising to fill the gaps, reaches the surface and builds cones. Craters form if a volcano explodes or collapses. Later spreading can fracture the volcanoes, which is especially evident on Kitumbeine and Gelai Mountains (left and right, respectively, lower center).

    The Crater Highlands rise far above the adjacent savannas, capture moisture from passing air masses

  7. Marine fisheries in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Jiddawi, Narriman S; Ohman, Marcus C

    2002-12-01

    Fishery resources are a vital source of food and make valuable economic contributions to the local communities involved in fishery activities along the 850 km stretch of the Tanzania coastline and numerous islands. Small-scale artisanal fishery accounts for the majority of fish catch produced by more than 43 000 fishermen in the country, mainly operating in shallow waters within the continental shelf, using traditional fishing vessels including small boats, dhows, canoes, outrigger canoes and dinghys. Various fishing techniques are applied using uncomplicated passive fishing gears such as basket traps, fence traps, nets as well as different hook and line techniques. Species composition and size of the fish varies with gear type and location. More than 500 species of fish are utilized for food with reef fishes being the most important category including emperors, snappers, sweetlips, parrotfish, surgeonfish, rabbitfish, groupers and goatfish. Most of the fish products are used for subsistence purposes. However, some are exported. Destructive fishing methods such as drag nets and dynamite fishing pose a serious problem as they destroy important habitats for fish and other organisms, and there is a long-term trend of overharvested fishery resources. However, fishing pressure varies within the country as fishery resources are utilized in a sustainable manner in some areas. For this report more than 340 references about Tanzanian fishery and fish ecology were covered. There are many gaps in terms of information needed for successful fishery management regarding both basic and applied research. Most research results have been presented as grey literature (57%) with limited distribution; only one-fifth were scientific publications in international journals.

  8. Corporal punishment in Tanzania's schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Mwahombela, Lucas

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this survey was to acquire descriptive information regarding corporal punishment in Tanzania's O-level secondary schools. 448 individuals participated in the study: 254 teachers and 194 students, all from government or private secondary schools in the Iringa Region of Tanzania. In addition, 14 students and 14 teachers were interviewed. It was found that corporal punishment was the most common form of punishment in secondary schools. The majority of teachers supported its continued use, but believed in moderation. The majority of students and teachers were unaware of national laws to restrict corporal punishment. There was agreement between students and teachers that corporal punishment was used for major and minor student offences such as misbehaviour and tardiness. Students reported disliking the practice and believed it was ineffective and resulted in emotional, as well as physical, distress.

  9. Child Sexual Abuse in Tanzania and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalor, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, toward an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods: Contacts were made with academics, government…

  10. "Hakuna Matata": Lakeside Literacy in Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Alan J.

    This paper begins by telling the story of Edward, a preacher/teacher in Tanzania who, although poor and uneducated himself, managed to teach his parishioners how to read. The paper describes the experience of one man and his wife who spent 4 years at Katoke Teachers College in northwest Tanzania during the early 1970s, after which they returned to…

  11. Partitioning of elements between silicate melt and immiscible fluoride, chloride, carbonate, phosphate and sulfate melts, with implications to the origin of natrocarbonatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, Ilya V.; Dorfman, Alexander M.; Dulski, Peter; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Danyushevsky, Leonid V.; Jeffries, Teresa; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2012-02-01

    Liquid-liquid partitioning of 42 elements between synthetic silicate melts and immiscible fluoride, chloride, carbonate, phosphate and sulfate liquids was studied at temperatures of 650-1100 °C, pressures 72-100 MPa, with 0-11 wt.% H2O. One series of experiments was performed in a rotating internally-heated autoclave where separation of the immiscible liquids was assisted by centrifugal forces. An analogous series of experiments was done in static rapid-quench cold-seal pressure vessels. The experimentally determined liquid-liquid distribution coefficients (D's) vary over several orders of magnitude, as a result of variable Coulombic interactions between cations and anions. For alkaline, alkaline earth and rare earth elements ther is a strong and systematic dependence of the liquid/liquid D values on the ionic potential Z/r for all the examined systems. In contrast, highly charged cations (e.g., HFSE) show no systematic relationships between the D's and Z/r. New experimental constraints on the carbonate/silicate liquid-liquid D values presented here confirm that rare metals such as Nb, Zr, REE, Th and U concentrate in silicate liquids, and therefore carbonatites that carry economical rare metal mineralization are not likely to have formed by liquid immiscibility. The comparison between experimentally-determined carbonate-silicate liquid-liquid D values and bulk-rock natrocarbonatite vs. nephelinite compositions at the Oldoinyo Lengai in Tanzania reveals significant discrepancies for Cs, Rb, Ba, Be, Zn, heavy REE, Ti, Mo and W, thus rendering a simple, one-stage immiscibility model for Oldoinyo Lengai questionable.

  12. The integrated project in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The 1st Integrated Project (IP) in Africa was started in Tanzania in 1983 by the International Planned Parenthood (IPPF) Africa Bureau. It was to be done by the Family Planning Association of Tanzania (UMATI). 2 pilot areas are in the Kilimanjaro region. 1 covers Modio and Roo villages in rural Masama; the other is a sugar cane plantation run by Tanganyika Planting Company Ltd. (TPC). The IP National Steering Committee (NSC) was formed in 1983 with representatives from the Ministry of Health and a parasitologist. No nutritionist was included. In 1983 a survey of population, health care activities, and demographic characteristics was undertaken. In 1984 house-to-house visits were made. Information was gathered on family planning knowledge, practice, and sanitary conditions. Mass stool examinations and blanket treatment for both children and adults began in August, 1984. Family planning information is fully integrated with education about sanitation and nutrition. 11 films were shown at TPC to about 500 children and adults and almost 20,000 children and adults received some form of health education. Health educators and laboratory technicians moved to accommodations in TPC and Modio village to live among the people they were serving. At the end of 1986, the number of family planning acceptors had risen quite a bit. It continued to do so in 1987. At TPC mass stool tests and deworming were done in 1985. This was completed in Masama in May, 1987. For follow-up selective treatments twice a year was done. The focus of environmental sanitation activity, especially in Masama, was the search for a cheap, well-built latrine. The IP staff in Masama trained 43 of the 90 traditional birth attendants (TBAs). UMATI has realized in 1984 that thought IP they can more effectively involve the community in family planning. By working on parasite infection, the IP staff aroused community interest in family planning. The NSC has set the tone of this project because it understood the

  13. Fires in Tanzania and Mozambique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Like many countries, the southeastern African country of Malawi faces the challenge of balancing a growing population's need for food and energy with preservation of natural resources. This MODIS image from November 8, 2001, shows Malawi surrounded by (starting from top and moving clockwise) Tanzania, Mozambique, and northern Zambia. Lake Malawi runs north-south through the eastern part of the country, and is the southern-most of Africa's Great Rift Lakes, a series of deep lakes that run roughly north-south along the Great Rift Valley in eastern Africa, formed when the Earth buckled and then sank after the collision of Africa and Eurasia millions of years ago. Most of the land around the lake and throughout the country has been cleared of its natural vegetation and converted to agricultural land. This causes soil erosion problems and sedimentation in the lake, which affects the sustainability of fishing in the lake. In this image, greenish swirls in the water around the shores could indicate a mixture of sediment and phytoplankton or algae. Deforestation is also a major issue, especially since wood for fuel is the primary source of the country's energy. The difference between the lands protected by parks and preserves stand out dramatically. The largest protected area is halfway down the western border of the country-Kasungu National Park. Several smaller preserves also exist, and where they do, they stand out in green against the paler landscape. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  14. Education and Poverty Reduction in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedgwood, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the returns to education in Tanzania, both financial and non-financial, and considers whether these returns translate into poverty reduction. It looks at reasons why achievement of high primary enrolment rates in the past did not lead to the realisation of the associated developmental outcomes, considering factors…

  15. Curriculum Unit: Kenya and Tanzania, Tourist Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This curriculum guide is designed to enable teachers and ninth grade students to develop a clearer understanding of the countries of Kenya and Tanzania and the economic needs of their citizens. A pretest-posttest examination with 20 true or false questions, 2 essay questions, and a list of 50 vocabulary words is provided. Brief descriptions of the…

  16. Evolution of Elections Management in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, A. S.; Mdegella, O. M.; Lubawa, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion on the evolution of elections management in Tanzania with a focus on technological advancement in administering registration of voters. The paper provides the merits that permanent voters register has brought over the thumb practice. It traces the management of elections during colonialism, after independence…

  17. Modeling solutions to Tanzania's physician workforce challenge

    PubMed Central

    Goodell, Alex J.; Kahn, James G.; Ndeki, Sidney S.; Kaale, Eliangiringa; Kaaya, Ephata E.; Macfarlane, Sarah B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a great need for physicians in Tanzania. In 2012, there were approximately 0.31 physicians per 10,000 individuals nationwide, with a lower ratio in the rural areas, where the majority of the population resides. In response, universities across Tanzania have greatly increased the enrollment of medical students. Yet evidence suggests high attrition of medical graduates to other professions and emigration from rural areas where they are most needed. Objective To estimate the future number of physicians practicing in Tanzania and the potential impact of interventions to improve retention, we built a model that tracks medical students from enrollment through clinical practice, from 1990 to 2025. Design We designed a Markov process with 92 potential states capturing the movement of 25,000 medical students and physicians from medical training through employment. Work possibilities included clinical practice (divided into rural or urban, public or private), non-clinical work, and emigration. We populated and calibrated the model using a national 2005/2006 physician mapping survey, as well as graduation records, graduate tracking surveys, and other available data. Results The model projects massive losses to clinical practice between 2016 and 2025, especially in rural areas. Approximately 56% of all medical school students enrolled between 2011 and 2020 will not be practicing medicine in Tanzania in 2025. Even with these losses, the model forecasts an increase in the physician-to-population ratio to 1.4 per 10,000 by 2025. Increasing the absorption of recent graduates into the public sector and/or developing a rural training track would ameliorate physician attrition in the most underserved areas. Conclusions Tanzania is making significant investments in the training of physicians. Without linking these doctors to employment and ensuring their retention, the majority of this investment in medical education will be jeopardized. PMID:27357075

  18. The economics of pharmaceutical supply in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Yudkin, J S

    1980-01-01

    This paper analyzes the patterns of purchasing, distribution, and utilization of pharmaceuticals currently found in Tanzania, an underdeveloped country in Africa. Like other nations in the Third World, Tanzania offers the prospect of a rapidly expanding market for the multinational pharmaceutical industry. However, this market has been to a large extent developed by the intense promotional activities of the drug companies themselves. In addition to normal marketing methods, these companies indulge in techniques which would be neither acceptable nor legal in developed countries. As a result, expensive proprietary drugs are overpurchased and overprescribed, mainly in the large urban hospitals, with consequent deprivation of other health care facilities, particularly those for the rural peasants who form the majority of the population. The activities of the multinational pharmaceutical companies in the Third World are therefore an important component in the continuing underdevelopment of health in these nations.

  19. Wildlife and wildlife management in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Caro, Tim; Davenport, Tim R B

    2016-08-01

    Tanzania, arguably mainland Africa's most important nation for conservation, is losing habitat and natural resources rapidly. Moving away from a charcoal energy base and developing sustainable finance mechanisms for natural forests are critical to slowing persistent deforestation. Addressing governance and capacity deficits, including law enforcement, technical skills, and funding, across parts of the wildlife sector are key to effective wildlife protection. These changes could occur in tandem with bringing new models of natural resource management into play that include capacity building, corporate payment for ecosystem services, empowering nongovernmental organizations in law enforcement, greater private-sector involvement, and novel community conservation strategies. The future of Tanzania's wildlife looks uncertain-as epitomized by the current elephant crisis-unless the country confronts issues of governance, embraces innovation, and fosters greater collaboration with the international community. PMID:26681228

  20. Wildlife and wildlife management in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Caro, Tim; Davenport, Tim R B

    2016-08-01

    Tanzania, arguably mainland Africa's most important nation for conservation, is losing habitat and natural resources rapidly. Moving away from a charcoal energy base and developing sustainable finance mechanisms for natural forests are critical to slowing persistent deforestation. Addressing governance and capacity deficits, including law enforcement, technical skills, and funding, across parts of the wildlife sector are key to effective wildlife protection. These changes could occur in tandem with bringing new models of natural resource management into play that include capacity building, corporate payment for ecosystem services, empowering nongovernmental organizations in law enforcement, greater private-sector involvement, and novel community conservation strategies. The future of Tanzania's wildlife looks uncertain-as epitomized by the current elephant crisis-unless the country confronts issues of governance, embraces innovation, and fosters greater collaboration with the international community.

  1. A review of pig pathology in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard Trevor; Swai, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    The approximately 1.58 million pigs in Tanzania represent 3.7% of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Pigs are kept mainly by small producers who own 99.5% of the national stock in units that average 3.04 animals (range 2-48). Government policy has had little practical application. African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Cysticercosis are important diseases. The first two are notifiable diseases under Tanzania legislation; the last has widespread distribution and relevance as a major zoonosis. Ascariasis (Ascaris suum), hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus), leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) and thermophilic Campylobacter are other zoonoses associated with pigs. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites, especially Sarcoptes scabiei, are common. Risk factors associated with cysticercosis for humans working with pigs or eating their meat include the free-range or semi-confined management systems, the use of rivers or ponds as a source of water, lack of household sanitation, informal home slaughter, pork not being inspected at slaughter slabs and undercooked and barbecued meat. Pigs are a minor component of Tanzania's livestock sector but there is potential for increasing their contribution to human welfare. Prospects are enhanced by the shorter life cycle, greater number of young produced per year and the possibility of producing high-quality animal protein at a lower cost than meat produced by cattle and small ruminants. PMID:23733144

  2. USAID and FINCA: helping women in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Henderson, K

    2000-01-01

    In Tanzania, the international microfinance network FINCA set up shop and began training its first Village Banking Groups in June 1998, disbursing its first loans in July with a grant from the US Agency for International Development. Within 2 months, the program reached 757 low-income women and distributed loans worth US$57,183 using the group support system in which 30-50 neighbors come together to guarantee one another's loans. With the loans from FINCA, entrepreneurs quickly became involved in a range of business activities, from selling tomatoes to starting a hair salon. Located in Mwanza, in the Lake Zone, FINCA Tanzania's clients include many members of the Sukuma tribe. It is noted that in this region there are a few job opportunities in the formal economy. In 1999, FINCA Tanzania reached 3632 clients, exceeding its targets despite a difficult economic environment. In that same year, FINCA partnered with Freedom from Hunger in launching a program that offers some of its members health education and basic business training at Village Banking Group meetings.

  3. "Finding a Life" among Undocumented Congolese Refugee Children in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    The majority of undocumented Congolese refugee children living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, experience extreme poverty and social exclusion, harassment and discrimination. Their fear of deportation, forcible removal to refugee camps and imprisonment is coupled with a strong feeling that they are unwelcome in Tanzania. These realities require that…

  4. The Book Industry in Tanzania. Occasional Paper No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This comprehensive treatment of the state of the publishing industry in Tanzania provides a general description of the book trade in Africa, including discussions of the types of publishers active in Africa and of the recording of African publishing output, and a review of publishing activities in Tanzania, which covers the history of Tanzanian…

  5. Science Education in Tanzania: Challenges and Policy Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semali, Ladislaus M.; Mehta, Khanjan

    2012-01-01

    Students in rural and urban areas in Tanzania, and elsewhere in Africa, continue to have limited or lack access to culturally and employment-relevant science education. The current case study, a 2007-2009 examination of barriers to the reform movement of science education in Tanzania, uses data from interviews, classroom observations, document…

  6. Use of Modern Technologies in Improving Astronomy Education in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiwaji, N. T.

    2006-08-01

    With only the most basic astronomy content officially included in the Physics syllabus of Secondary Schools in Tanzania and a one semester Astrophysics option course offered in the Physics Department of one University, the reasons for apathy towards astronomy education in Tanzania are discussed. Using the current focus on introducing ICT into Primary and Secondary schools in Tanzania, the potential for advancing astronomy education per se and natural sciences in general is presented. Limiting factors such as teachers in general and science and astronomy literate teachers in particular, infrastructure and running costs of providing ICT based education, cultural impediments need to be overcome.

  7. Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage Initiatives in Tanzania and Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Bill; Parthesius, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this paper is provide an overview of the capacity building programmes in maritime and underwater cultural heritage (MUCH) conducted by the authors in Tanzania and Mozambique. Tanzania and Mozambique have long histories of indigenous cultures, foreign contacts and influences and African adaptations beginning in the late Greco-Roman period, when the coastal populations exploited the peoples and riches of the interior. Today the coastline contains numerous examples of indigenous tangible and intangible heritage and many sites and histories related to the Swahili culture. Some exploratory research and training has been conducted in Tanzania and Mozambique, but the implementation by local residents of their own MUCH programme is still at an early stage. Under a UNESCO agreement framework, Tanzania in particular has started to develop a MUCH programme, which can assist in highlighting their extensive histories, cultural landscapes and cultural identity.

  8. Plague and the Human Flea, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Leirs, Herwig; Makundi, Rhodes H.; Van Dongen, Stefan; Davis, Stephen; Neerinckx, Simon; Deckers, Jozef; Libois, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Domestic fleas were collected in 12 villages in the western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Of these, 7 are considered villages with high plague frequency, where human plague was recorded during at least 6 of the 17 plague seasons between 1986 and 2004. In the remaining 5 villages with low plague frequency, plague was either rare or unrecorded. Pulex irritans, known as the human flea, was the predominant flea species (72.4%) in houses. The density of P. irritans, but not of other domestic fleas, was significantly higher in villages with a higher plague frequency or incidence. Moreover, the P. irritans index was strongly positively correlated with plague frequency and with the logarithmically transformed plague incidence. These observations suggest that in Lushoto District human fleas may play a role in plague epidemiology. These findings are of immediate public health relevance because they provide an indicator that can be surveyed to assess the risk for plague. PMID:17553245

  9. Spectroscopy of red dravite from northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, Michail N.; Dyar, M. Darby; Naumenko, Ievgen V.; Vyshnevsky, Olexij A.

    2015-07-01

    Low-Fe dravite with a formula of Na0.66Ca0.16Mg2.62Fe0.33Mn0.02Ti0.02Al5.95B3Si6.04O27(OH)4 is described from Engusero Sambu, northern Tanzania (On maps, Engusero Sambu may be found to be marked as belonging to Kenya, but in reality, it is located near the border in northern Tanzania). The sample has an unusual red color that is distinctly different from the red dravite from the Osarara, Narok district, in Kenya that was formerly studied by Mattson and Rossman (Phys Chem Miner 14:225-234, 1984) and Taran and Rossman (Am Mineral 87:1148-1153, 2002). This unique sample has been characterized by optical and Mössbauer spectral measurements to investigate underlying cause of the intense bands in absorption spectra that give rise to the red color. These features are shown to be caused by exchange-coupled Fe3+-Fe3+ interactions. Thermal annealing of the samples causes an increase in Fe3+ contents due to oxidation of [Y]Fe2+. However, heat treatment does not change the high-energy absorption edge, which is probably caused by intense ligand-to-Fe3+ charge-transfer UV bands. In fact, Mössbauer results show that high-temperature annealing initiates breakdown of the tourmaline into an Fe oxide and causes accompanying redistribution of Fe3+ within the structure. Because of the popularity of tourmaline as a gemstone, this work has implications for understanding the causes of color in tourmaline, facilitating recognition of the distinctions between naturally occurring and treated tourmalines in the gem industry and enabling heat treatments for color enhancement.

  10. Nutrition Transition in Rural Tanzania and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Keding, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    All three types of malnutrition - underweight, overweight and micronutrient deficiency - are experienced in countries undergoing a nutrition transition, and they can occur in parallel in one community or even one household. To combat this triple burden of malnutrition, a combination of different strategies will be necessary, including a focus on food-based strategies that promote the consumption of a wide range of foods across nutritionally distinct food groups. In addition to a literature review, data from our own nutrition studies in both Tanzania and Kenya are presented in this paper. The literature review revealed an average of 10% of children in urban areas of Kenya and Tanzania with overweight and obesity, which is an alarming trend, and it is suggested that interventions need to start not only at school but also with adolescent girls and pregnant women to target the '1,000-day window'. From own study data, dietary patterns were generated that included a 'purchase' pattern dominated by bought and processed foods, indicating a possible nutrition transition even in the rural areas of both countries. Vegetable and especially fruit consumption was low in both countries. In addition, in Kenya, study participants exceeded the suggested maximum level of sugar consumption per day, which will most likely contribute to increasing levels in overweight and obesity prevalence and other noncommunicable diseases in general. As sugar was mainly consumed in combination with black tea, next to eating habits, changing drinking habits is also an important part of the nutrition transition and needs to receive more attention. A 'healthy eating at school and at home strategy' is suggested, which needs the support of both schools and parents/caregivers. In general, to take countermeasures against the negative trends of nutrition transition, joint efforts from all players in the field - not only those in nutrition, health and medicine, but also those in education and agriculture

  11. Structure of carbonate melts at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudspeth, J.; Sanloup, C.; Cochain, B.; Konopkova, Z.; Afonina, V.; Morgenroth, W.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonate melts are rare magmas with only a single active volcano (Oldoinyo Lengai,Tanzania [1]). They are of fundamental interest for their role in the Earth's deep carbon cycle and are of immense economic importance due to their affinity for REE strategic metals (niobium, uranium, tantalum, etc). They have remarkable physical properties such as very low viscosity [2] and magmatic temperatures for alkaline carbonate lavas [3] and it has been predicted that their compressibility could be significantly higher than that of silicate melts [4,5]. Despite the atomic structure of carbonate melts being fundamental for controlling their physical and chemical behavior in natural systems, very few structural studies have been reported and these have been largely computational. Here we present initial structural investigations of carbonate melts at mantle pressures using in situ x-ray diffraction in diamond anvil cells. The structure factor S(Q) is transformed to obtain the real space pair distribution function G(R) which describes the local and intermediate range atomic ordering allowing bond length and coordination number changes with pressure to be determined. [1] Krafft and Keller, Science 245:168-170, 1989 [2] Yono et al., Nat. Commun. 5:5091, 2014 [3] Dobson et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 143:207-215, 1996 [4] Genge et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 131:225-238, 1995 [5] Jones et al., Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 75:289-322, 2013

  12. Evidence for the alkaline nature of parental carbonatite melts at Oka complex in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Simonetti, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    The Earth’s sole active carbonatite volcano, Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania), is presently erupting unique natrocarbonatite lavas that are characterized by Na- and K-bearing magmatic carbonates of nyerereite [Na2Ca(CO3)2] and gregoryite [(Na2,K2,Ca)CO3]. Contrarily, the vast majority of older, plutonic carbonatite occurrences worldwide are dominated by Ca-(calcite) or Mg-(dolomite)-rich magmatic carbonates. Consequently, this leads to the conundrum as to the composition of primary, mantle-derived carbonatite liquids. Here we report a detailed chemical investigation of melt inclusions associated with intrusive (plutonic) calcite-rich carbonatites from the ~120 Ma carbonatite complex of Oka (Canada). Melt inclusions are hosted by magnetite (Fe3O4), which crystallizes through a significant period of carbonatite melt solidification. Our results indicate mineral assemblages within the melt inclusions that are consistent with those documented in natrocarbonatite lavas. We propose therefore that derivation of alkali-enriched parental carbonatite melts has been more prevalent than that preserved in the geological record.

  13. Norman L. Bowen Award to John Barry Dawson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joseph V.; Dawson, J. B.

    Barry Dawson is just right for th e first Norman L. Bowen Award in Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology. Like Norman L. Bowen, he has the inspiration to combine ideas from different disciplines to obtain a higher synthesis. Consider his brilliant talk of yesterday morning (Eos 69, p. 502, abstract V11C-06, Veined and metasomatised upper mantle beneath the Eastern African Rift: Evidence from N. Tanzania xenoliths). Barry rapidly reviewed the tectonic setting of east Africa, showed some nice photographs of the volcanic cones of Pello and Oldoinyo Lengai, focused on the upper-mantle xenoliths in scoria at Pello, moved in on the microscopy and mineral chemistry of the metasomatic veins in the peridotites, snowed how the lower density of a metasomatized peridotite would fit the middle of a geophysical profile from seismic surveys, and brought off a grand finale in which the Kenya dome was interpreted to result from inflation related to metasomatization of underlying peridotite. Undoubtedly, this will lead to many further studies of doming adjacent to rift systems around the world.

  14. An analogue experimental model of depth fluctuations in lava lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witham, Fred; Woods, Andrew W.; Gladstone, Charlotte

    2006-07-01

    Lava lakes, consisting of molten degassing lava in summit craters of active basaltic volcanoes, sometimes exhibit complex cycles of filling and emptying on time-scales of hours to weeks such as recorded at Pu’u’O’o in Hawaii and Oldoinyo Lengai in Tanzania. Here we report on a new series of analogue laboratory experiments of two-phase flow in a reservoir-conduit-lava lake system which spontaneously generates oscillations in the depth of liquid within the lake. During the recharge phase, gas supplied from a subsurface reservoir of degassing magma drives liquid magma up the conduit, causing the lake to fill. As the magmastatic pressure in the lake increases, the upward supply of magma, driven by the gas bubbles, falls. Eventually the upflow becomes unstable, and liquid drains downwards from the lake, driven by the magmastatic pressure of the overlying lake, suppressing the ascent of any more bubbles from the chamber. At a later stage, once the lake has drained sufficiently, the descent speed of liquid through the conduit decreases below the ascent speed of the bubbles, and the recharge cycle resumes. Application of a quantitative model of the experiments to the natural system is broadly consistent with field data.

  15. Shallow and deep earthquake sequences captured in the North Tanzanian Divergence, East Africa: Inferences on seismogenic processes and rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albaric, J.; Perrot, J.; Déverchère, J.; Deschamps, A.; Ferdinand, R. W.; Le Gall, B.

    2009-12-01

    Using a temporary local seismic network of 35 stations deployed in North Tanzania (SEISMOTANZ'07 experiment) during 6 months in 2007, we captured two earthquake sequences (Gelai and Manyara) occurring respectively in the southern end of the Kenya rift and in the North Tanzanian Divergence (NTD). None of the sequences depicts typical swarm or mainshock-aftershock patterns. Although distant of only ~150 km, their triggering mechanisms appear to be different. They highlight a major change in the magmatic/tectonic nature of the rift where the eastern branch of the Est African Rift enters the Tanzanian craton. Both depict similar shape and long-axis, emphasizing the preferred locus of active strain release along NE-SW discontinuities which probably root at depth into steep Proterozoic shear zones. At Gelai, the deformation is dominated by aseismic processes involving slow slip on a normal fault and dyke intrusion within the upper crust, and an interaction with the eruption of the nearby Oldoinyo Lengai volcano. At Manyara, the sequence reveals a long-lasting seismic activity deeply rooted (~20-35 km depth), possibly indicative of stress loading transmitted laterally. Focal solutions demonstrate a mixture of normal and strike slip faulting on sub-vertical inherited structures striking N60°E. The yield stress envelope modelled from the depth frequency distribution of earthquakes in Manyara is consistent with the presence of a mafic lower crust and further supports the strength increase of the rifted crust from south Kenya to the NTD.

  16. Evidence for the alkaline nature of parental carbonatite melts at Oka complex in Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Kamenetsky, Vadim S; Simonetti, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The Earth's sole active carbonatite volcano, Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania), is presently erupting unique natrocarbonatite lavas that are characterized by Na- and K-bearing magmatic carbonates of nyerereite [Na2Ca(CO3)2] and gregoryite [(Na2,K2,Ca)CO3]. Contrarily, the vast majority of older, plutonic carbonatite occurrences worldwide are dominated by Ca-(calcite) or Mg-(dolomite)-rich magmatic carbonates. Consequently, this leads to the conundrum as to the composition of primary, mantle-derived carbonatite liquids. Here we report a detailed chemical investigation of melt inclusions associated with intrusive (plutonic) calcite-rich carbonatites from the ~120 Ma carbonatite complex of Oka (Canada). Melt inclusions are hosted by magnetite (Fe3O4), which crystallizes through a significant period of carbonatite melt solidification. Our results indicate mineral assemblages within the melt inclusions that are consistent with those documented in natrocarbonatite lavas. We propose therefore that derivation of alkali-enriched parental carbonatite melts has been more prevalent than that preserved in the geological record. PMID:24173270

  17. Observation-centered approach to ASD assessment in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ashley J; Zimak, Eric H; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Manji, Karim P; Morrow, Eric M

    2014-10-01

    Abstract In many lower-income countries, there is a paucity of assessment services for autism spectrum disorders (ASD)., Guidelines will be provided for conducting cross-cultural assessments in the context of limited validated resources in Tanzania. By examining behavioral, social, and adaptive differences we were able to provide differential diagnostic evaluations aligning with best practice standards for 41 children in Tanzania age 2-21 years. We describe the utility of a flexible, behavioral observation instrument, the Childhood Autism Rating Scales, Second Edition (CARS2), to gather diagnostic information in a culturally sensitive manner. We observed that the ASD group was characterized by significantly higher scores on the CARS2, F  =  21.09, p < .001, η(2)  =  .37, than the general delay comparison group. Additional recommendations are provided for making cultural adaptations to current assessment instruments for use in a country without normed instruments, such as Tanzania. PMID:25247726

  18. The current status of women in physics in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Najat K.; Kazmili, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Women's representation in physics in Tanzania is generally low. Various studies have shown that Tanzanian girls face obstacles to realizing their educational and intellectual capabilities. The situation is even worse in the field of physics because of the perception that the subject is too difficult. The number of women in physics at the university level is highly associated with their number in secondary school level as well as their performance. This paper analyzes the current status of women engaged in physics in Tanzania in the academic and research institutions.

  19. Contextualized IT Education in Tanzania: Beyond Standard IT Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedre, Matti; Bangu, Nicholas; Nyagava, Seth I.

    2009-01-01

    Tumaini University at Iringa, Tanzania, started a new B.Sc. program in IT in 2007. In the course of planning and implementation of the program, we found out that standard ACM/IEEE IT curricula are not adequate for an IT program in a poor, developing country. The standard curricula describe, in detail, the competences that IT specialists in…

  20. Financial Crisis, Structural Adjustment, and Education Policy in Tanzania. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samoff, Joel; Sumra, Suleman

    This paper assesses educational planning in Tanzania as moving from one of hope to despair as the country becomes more reliant upon foreign aid. As the country moved from colonialism, basic education was to be accessible to all children and adult illiteracy was to be eliminated. By the 1980s financial crisis and the conditions that accompanied…

  1. Resistance to Information Technology in Public Procurement in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nditi, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Organizations have become more dependent on information technology (IT) in the 21st century. But IT implementation and use is resisted in certain sectors of Tanzania, particularly in government-run enterprises. The purpose of this study was to investigate the causes and consequences of resistance to IT development and implementation in the…

  2. Higher Education System and Jobless Graduates in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndyali, Lyata

    2016-01-01

    The Tanzania's higher education institutions haven't raised much of expectations the graduates lack the skills required by the labor market and this trend results in mass graduate unemployment, otherwise this would have assisted them to be more self-reliant. The study explores the importance of higher-level business education human resources…

  3. Successful Community Nutrition Programming: Lessons from Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannotti, Lora; Gillespie, Stuart

    This report on the key findings from a series of assessments of successful community nutrition programming conducted in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda between 1999 and 2000. The aim of the assessments was to identify key lessons learned from the successful processes and outcomes in these programs. The report is divided into eight chapters: (1)…

  4. Did Tanzania Achieve the Second Millennium Development Goal? Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoti, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Development Goal "Achieve universal primary education", the challenges faced, along with the way forward towards achieving the fourth Sustainable Development Goal "Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all". Statistics show that Tanzania has made very promising steps…

  5. Etiologies of Autism in a Case-Series from Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mankoski, Raymond E.; Collins, Martha; Ndosi, Noah K.; Mgalla, Ella H.; Sarwatt, Veronica V.; Folstein, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    Most autism has a genetic cause although post-encephalitis cases are reported. In a case-series (N = 20) from Tanzania, 14 met research criteria for autism. Three (M:F = 1:2) had normal development to age 22, 35, and 42 months, with onset of autism upon recovery from severe malaria, attended by prolonged high fever, convulsions, and in one case…

  6. Tanzania Higher Education--Fifty Years after Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mnubi, Godfrey M.

    2013-01-01

    As Tanzania celebrates fifty years of independence at the crossroads of globalization, the country has experienced a changing landscape and a major transformation in higher learning education with spectacular expansion in student enrollment rates. This requires its higher education institutions, particularly universities, to function effectively…

  7. High Seroprevalence for Typhus Group Rickettsiae, Southwestern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Tatjana; Dobler, Gerhard; Saathoff, Elmar; Clowes, Petra; Kroidl, Inge; Ntinginya, Elias; Machibya, Harun; Maboko, Leonard; Löscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsioses caused by typhus group rickettsiae have been reported in various African regions. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,227 participants from 9 different sites in the Mbeya region, Tanzania; overall seroprevalence of typhus group rickettsiae was 9.3%. Risk factors identified in multivariable analysis included low vegetation density and highway proximity. PMID:23347529

  8. Engaged Learning and Peace Corps Service in Tanzania: An Autoethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Brianna; Thorp, Laurie; Chung, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    The Peace Corps Masters International program offers students the opportunity to combine their Peace Corps service with their master's education. This article demonstrates how classroom learning strengthened the author's Peace Corps service in Tanzania, which in turn strengthened her master's thesis. Peace Corps supports an approach…

  9. Classroom Discourse and Discursive Practices in Higher Education in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Hashim Issa; Banda, Felix

    2008-01-01

    The paper problematises student writing as social practice from the perspective of lecturers' discursive practices. The paper uses data from a major study at a higher learning institution in Tanzania to explore lecturers' discursive practices and familiarity with the university orders of discourse including English medium of instruction, in…

  10. Literacy and Power--The Cases of Tanzania and Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedin, Asa

    2008-01-01

    In this paper it is claimed that the relation between literacy and power is complex. What people do with literacy has effects on power relations but literacy is not democratic "per se". Drawing from two cases from Tanzania and Rwanda it is argued that plans for adult education and literacy education should consider the perspectives of target…

  11. Women's Access to Higher Education in Tanzania: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Megan Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…

  12. Clinical and epidemiologic variations of esophageal cancer in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Gabel, Jaime V; Chamberlain, Robert M; Ngoma, Twalib; Mwaiselage, Julius; Schmid, Kendra K; Kahesa, Crispin; Soliman, Amr S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the incidence of esophageal cancer (EC) in Kilimanjaro in comparison to other regions in Tanzania. METHODS: We also examined the clinical, epidemiologic, and geographic distribution of the 1332 EC patients diagnosed and/or treated at Ocean Road Cancer Institute (ORCI) during the period 2006-2013. Medical records were used to abstract patient information on age, sex, residence, smoking status, alcohol consumption, tumor site, histopathologic type of tumor, date and place of diagnosis, and type and date of treatment at ORCI. Regional variation of EC patients was investigated at the level of the 26 administrative regions of Tanzania. Total, age- and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated. RESULTS: Male patients 55 years and older had higher incidence of EC than female and younger patients. Of histopathologically-confirmed cases, squamous-cell carcinoma represented 90.9% of histopathologic types of tumors. The administrative regions in the central and eastern parts of Tanzania had higher incidence rates than western regions, specifically administrative regions of Kilimanjaro, Dar es Salaam, and Tanga had the highest rates. CONCLUSION: Further research should focus on investigating possible etiologic factors for EC in regions with high incidence in Tanzania. PMID:26989467

  13. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  14. Evaluating a School-Based Trachoma Curriculum in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewallen, Susan; Massae, Patrick; Tharaney, Manisha; Somba, Margareth; Geneau, Robert; MacArthur, Chad; Courtright, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Trachoma remains a public health problem in a number of sub-Saharan Africa countries; behavioral change and environmental improvements are cornerstones of prevention efforts. Evidence of successful health education are few in Africa. Health education efforts through primary schools have recently been developed and adopted in Tanzania. We evaluated…

  15. The Implementation of Curricular Reform: Tanzania and Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Murray; Vulliamy, Graham

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the origins and policy characteristics of the Education for Self Reliance project in Tanzania and the Secondary Schools Community Extension Project in Papua New Guinea. Compares the sociopolitical climate, the policy characteristics, the role of academic assessment, policy change, and examples of the existing policy in the two countries.…

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse among University Students in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrann, Denis; Lalor, Kevin; Katabaro, Joviter Kamugisha

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: There are no prevalence data for childhood sexual abuse among Tanzanian university students. This investigation addressed this paucity. The nature of sexual abuse was also investigated. Method: Participants (N=487) from a university in Tanzania completed a questionnaire which assessed abusive childhood sexual experiences, gathering…

  17. Child Sexual Abuse: Community Concerns in Urban Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisanga, Felix; Nystrom, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore community perceptions about child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Thirteen focus group discussions were conducted with adult community members. The core category, "children's rights challenged by lack of agency", was supported by eight categories. "Aware but distressed" portrayed feelings of hopelessness, "lack of…

  18. Schooling, Child Labor, and the Returns to Healthcare in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adhvaryu, Achyuta R.; Nyshadham, Anant

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of accessing better healthcare on the schooling and labor supply decisions of sick children in Tanzania. Using variation in the cost of formal-sector healthcare to predict treatment choice, we show that accessing better healthcare decreases length of illness and changes children's allocation of time to school and work.…

  19. School Proximity and Child Labor: Evidence from Rural Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondylis, Florence; Manacorda, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Is improved school accessibility an effective policy tool for reducing child labor in developing countries? We address this question using microdata from rural Tanzania and a regression strategy that attempts to control for nonrandom location of households around schools as well as classical and nonclassical measurement error in self-reported…

  20. Investigating Motivations for Women's Skin Bleaching in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kelly M.; Robkin, Navit; Gaska, Karie; Njoki, Lillian Carol

    2011-01-01

    Why do many African women continue to use damaging skin-bleaching cosmetics that contain dangerous chemicals (e.g., mercury) that may increase their rates of infertility, skin cancer, and serious skin/brain/kidney disease? To address this question, our study investigated motivations driving the preservation of skin-bleaching practices in Tanzania.…

  1. Continuing education. The experience of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pemba, S; Ndeki, S

    1994-01-01

    The continuing education program in Tanzania aims, as part of primary health care (PHC) training, to provide leadership in planning, implementing, and monitoring PHC training; and to implement PHC educational activities. The program was initiated in 1981 under the Ministry of Health with support from the African Medical and Research Foundation. Pilot projects were begun in the Arusha region until funding ceased in 1986. In 1988, the Danish International Development Authority funded the integration and decentralization of continuing education into the existing health system for all 6 zones. Career-based training for health workers was emphasized. Methods involved distance learning and institutional training. The Arusha Center for Educational Development in Health had developed teacher training, research and curriculum development, management training, and production of health learning materials. The Expanded Program on Immunization and Oral Health, as separately funded vertical programs, have been successfully integrated into the health system. Distance learning has been incorporated into the continuing education program, because it permits studying away from the institutions and is affordable for training all types of health workers. The technique has been effectively used after donor support has ended. Distance learning modules were developed for teaching about essential drugs, environmental sanitation and water, food quality control, and diarrheal diseases. Rural medical officers have been trained with distance learning and use of modules on obstructed labor, acute respiratory infections, and epidemiology, which were field tested and evaluated in a pilot project. District Action Research and Evaluation aims to strengthen management capabilities through long and short workshops. The skills emphasized include problem identification, analyzing causes of problems, identifying possible solutions, development of action plans, implementing action plans, and evaluation

  2. Hydrogeochemical features of Lake Ngozi (SW Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delalande-Le Mouëllic, Manuëlla; Gherardi, Fabrizio; Williamson, David; Kajula, Stephen; Kraml, Michael; Noret, Aurélie; Abdallah, Issah; Mwandapile, Ezekiel; Massault, Marc; Majule, Amos; Bergonzini, Laurent

    2015-03-01

    Located on the triple rift junction hosting the Karonga-Usungu depression in Tanzania, Lake Ngozi is the second largest crater lake of the East African Rift. The lake has a number of peculiar features: it has a near constant water level, no permanent surface inlets and outlets, it is vertically well-mixed, with homogeneous distribution of temperature and chemical composition, and it is characterised by near neutral to slightly acid Na-Cl waters of comparatively high salinity and high P-CO2. Based on the different chemical signature of surface and ground waters (low-Cl type) from lake waters, mass balance methods have been applied to investigate lake dynamics. Water enters the lake mainly by precipitation and groundwater inflow, and leaves by groundwater outflow and evaporation. A large groundwater outflow of 2.4 m yr-1 has been estimated. The high salinity, Na-Cl signature of Lake Ngozi waters, together with 3He/4He ratios measured on dissolved gases (between 7 and 8.3 Ra) and high-PCO2 values estimated all along the water vertical column indicate the inflow of deep-seated fluids, likely magmatic in origin, into the lake. The existence of a hydrothermal system possibly at 250 °C in the root of the volcanic edifice is also hypothesised on the basis of solute geothermometry. Despite the current lack of vertical stratification, the lake is suspected to act as condenser for CO2 and other gases of deep magmatic origin, and should be then further monitored for the risk of limnic eruptions as well as for environmental and climatic concerns.

  3. Wetland plant waxes from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamalavage, A.; Magill, C. R.; Barboni, D.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    Olduvai Gorge, northern Tanzania, exposes a Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary record that includes lake and lake-margin sediments and fossil remains of ancient plants and early humans. There are rich paleontological and cultural records at Olduvai Gorge that include thousands of vertebrate fossils and stone tools. Previous studies of plant biomarkers in lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge reveal repeated, abrupt changes in landscape dominance by woodland or grassland vegetation during the early Pleistocene, about 1.8 million years ago. However, the reconstruction of wetland vegetation in the past is limited by a dearth of published lipid signatures for modern wetland species. Here, we present lipid and isotopic data for leaf tissues from eight modern plants (i.e., sedge and Typha species) living in wetlands near Olduvai Gorge. Trends in values for molecular and leaf δ13C and average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes in plant tissues are similar to values for underlying soils. Compound-specific δ13C values for n-alkanes C25 to C33 range between -36.4 to -23.1‰ for C3 plants and -22.3 to -19.5‰ for C4 plants. Fractionation factors between leaf and lipids, ɛ29 and ɛ33, fall within the range reported in the literature, but they differ more widely within a single plant. For C3 plants, the average difference between ɛ29 and ɛ33 is 6.5 ‰, and the difference between ɛ29 and ɛ33 for C4 plants is less than 2‰. Both plant types show a parabolic relationship between chain length and δ13C values, in which C29 typically has the most depleted value, and typically shift by 3-5‰ between alkane homologs. This pattern has not been previously reported, and could be unique for sedge lipids. If so, these data help constrain the application of plant wax biomarkers from sedges for paleo-vegetation reconstruction in paleoclimate studies and at archaeological sites.

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors in Tanzania: a revisit.

    PubMed

    Njelekela, M; Negishi, H; Nara, Y; Tomohiro, M; Kuga, S; Noguchi, T; Kanda, T; Yamori, M; Mashalla, Y; Jian Liu, L; Mtabaji, J; Ikeda, K; Yamori, Y

    2001-06-22

    mean levels and prevalence of selected cardiovascular risk factors in Tanzania.

  5. Rift initiation with volatiles and magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinger, Cynthia; Muirhead, James; Roecker, Steve; Tiberi, Christel; Muzuka, Alfred; Ferdinand, Rrichard; Mulibo, Gabrile; Kianji, Gladys

    2015-04-01

    Rift initiation in cratonic lithosphere remains an outstanding problem in continental tectonics, but strain and magmatism patterns in youthful sectors of the East African rift provide new insights. Few teleseisms occur in the Eastern rift arm of the East African rift system, except the southernmost sector in northern Tanzania where extension occurs in Archaean lithosphere. The change in seismic energy release occurs over a narrow along-axis zone, and between sectors with and without volcanoes in the central rift valley. Are these differences in strain behavior indicative of along-strike variations in a) rheology; b) strain transfer from border faults to magma intrusion zones; c) dike vs fault slip; and/or d) shallow vs deep magma chambers? We present time-space relations of seismicity recorded on a 38-station array spanning the Kenya-Tanzania border, focal mechanisms for the largest events during those time periods, and compare these to longer-term strain patterns. Lower crustal seismicity occurs along the rift length, including sectors on and off craton, and those with and without central rift valley volcanoes, and we see no clear along-strike variation in seismogenic layer thickness. One explanation for widespread lower crustal seismicity is high gas pressures and volatile migration from active metasomatism of upper mantle and magma degassing, consistent with very high volatile flux along fault zones, and widespread metasomatism of xenoliths. Volatile release and migration may be critical to strength reduction of initially cold, strong cratonic lithosphere. Seismicity patterns indicate strain (and fluid?) transfer from the Manyara border fault to Gelai shield volcano (faulting, diking) via Oldoinyo Lengai volcano. Our focal mechanisms and Global CMTs from an intense fault-dike episode (2007) show a local, temporally stable, rotation from ~E-W extension to NE-SE extension in this linkage zone, consistent with longer term patterns recorded in vent and eruptive

  6. Lower Crustal Seismicity, Volatiles, and Evolving Strain Fields During the Initial Stages of Cratonic Rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, C.; Muirhead, J.; Ebinger, C. J.; Tiberi, C.; Roecker, S. W.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Kianji, G.; Mulibo, G. D.

    2014-12-01

    The volcanically active East African rift system in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania transects thick cratonic lithosphere, and comprises several basins characterized by deep crustal seismicity. The US-French-Tanzania-Kenya CRAFTI project aims to understand the role of magma and volatile movement during the initiation and evolution of rifting in cratonic lithosphere. Our 38-station broadband network spans all or parts of fault-bounded rift segments, enabling comparison of lithospheric structure, fault kinematics, and seismogenic layer thickness with age and proximity to the deeply rooted Archaen craton. Seismicity levels are high in all basins, but we find profound differences in seismogenic layer thickness along the length of the rift. Seismicity in the Manyara basin occurs almost exclusively within the lower crust, and in spatial clusters that have been active since 1990. In contrast, seismicity in the ~ 5 My older Magadi basin is localized in the upper crust, and the long border fault bounding the west side of the basin is seismically inactive. Between these two basins lies the Natron rift segment, which shows seismicity between ~ 20 and ~2 km depth, and high concentrations at Oldoinyo Lengai and Gelai volcanoes. Older volcanoes on the uplifted western flank (e.g., Ngorongoro) experience swarms of activity, suggesting that active magmatism and degassing are widespread. Focal mechanisms of the frequent earthquakes recorded across the array are spatially variable, and indicate a stress field strongly influenced by (1) Holocene volcanoes, (2) mechanical interactions between adjacent rift basins, and (3) a far-field ESE-WNW extensional stress regime. We explore the spatial correlation between zones of intense degassing along fault systems and seismicity, and examine the influence of high gas pressures on lower and upper crustal seismicity in this youthful cratonic rift zone.

  7. Epidemiology and control of human schistosomiasis in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In Tanzania, the first cases of schistosomiasis were reported in the early 19th century. Since then, various studies have reported prevalences of up to 100% in some areas. However, for many years, there have been no sustainable control programmes and systematic data from observational and control studies are very limited in the public domain. To cover that gap, the present article reviews the epidemiology, malacology, morbidity, and the milestones the country has made in efforts to control schistosomiasis and discusses future control approaches. The available evidence indicates that, both urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis are still highly endemic in Tanzania and cause significant morbidity.Mass drug administration using praziquantel, currently used as a key intervention measure, has not been successful in decreasing prevalence of infection. There is therefore an urgent need to revise the current approach for the successful control of the disease. Clearly, these need to be integrated control measures. PMID:23192005

  8. Parents' experiences of reporting child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kisanga, Felix; Nyström, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This article reports parental experiences of legally reporting child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Based on in-depth interviews, four types of sexual abuse incidents are portrayed. Each evokes different reactions from parents and the community. An incident characterized as the innocent child was associated with a determination to seek justice. The forced-sex youth elicited feelings of parental betrayal of their child. The consenting curious youth resulted in uncertainty of how to proceed, while the transactional-sex youth evoked a sense of parental powerlessness to control the child because of low economic status. Differentiating between types of sexual abuse incidents may increase awareness of the complexities of child sexual abuse reporting. Education on laws regulating sexual offenses and a functional national child protection system are needed to address child sexual abuse complexities and safeguard the rights of children in Tanzania.

  9. Factors associated with road traffic injuries in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Boniface, Respicious; Museru, Lawrence; Kiloloma, Othman; Munthali, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Injuries represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and road traffic crashes accounts for a significant proportion of these injuries. Tanzania is among the countries with high rates of road traffic crashes. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern, associated factors and management of road traffic injury patients in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study of patients involved in motor traffic crashes and attended in six public hospitals of Tanzania mainland between April 2014 and September 2014. Results A total of 4675 road traffic injury patients were seen in studied hospitals, 76.6% were males. Majority (70.2%) were between 18 - 45 years age group. Motorcycles were the leading cause of road traffic crashes (53.4%), and drivers (38.3%) accounted for majority of victims. Fractures accounted for 34.1%, and injuries were severe in 2.2% as determined by the Kampala trauma score II (KTS II). Majorities 57.4% were admitted and 2.2% died at the casualty. Factors associated with mortality were; using police vehicles to hospital (P = 0.000), receiving medical attention within 2 to 10 hours after injury (P = 0.000), 18 - 45 years age group (P = 0.019), not using helmet (P = 0.007), severe injuries (P = 0.000) and sustaining multiple injury (P = 0.000). Conclusion Road traffic Injuries in Tanzania are an important public health problem, predominantly in adult males, mostly due to motorcycle crashes. It is therefore important to reinforce preventive measures and pre-hospital emergency service is urgently needed. PMID:27217872

  10. The past, present and future of domestic equines in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Equines are minor species in Tanzania's array of domestic livestock. Attempts to use them for transport by early explorers from the mid-nineteenth century usually failed. Donkeys were used extensively as pack animals to complement human porters by both British and German forces in the First World War, but their advantages were often outweighed by slow progress and competition with troops and porters for water, and they died in huge numbers. The British had regular cavalry troops in their campaign and mules found limited use as individual mounts for officers. In modern times, there are very few horses in Tanzania but they find several uses. Exotic safaris are made on horseback, they are used as stock horses on ranches, there is a polo club in northern Tanzania and there are leisure riding activities around the capital city. Official census records for donkeys estimate numbers at under 300,000 with concentrations in the northern pastoral and agropastoral areas where they are used as pack animals with water being the main commodity transported. Elsewhere donkeys are used to a limited extent in transport and traction work. There is little interest in equines by the central and local governments or the general public and the status quo can be expected to continue. PMID:24834000

  11. UPE in Tanzania: SWAP-ing Quality for Quantity--Again?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuder, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, Tanzania renewed its 1974 commitment to universal primary education. This paper explores differences in the current policy-formulation context, examining how development discourse and aid practice have shifted the space and scale of public governance in Tanzania, legitimising international agendas and the participation of non-Tanzanians…

  12. Performance of Andean common bean under low fertility stress in Tanzania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low soil fertility is a limiting factor for bean production in East Africa. In Tanzania low available N and P soils are widespread. Average bean yields in Tanzania are around 500 kg/ha although the potential yield under reliable rain-fed conditions is 1500–3000kg/ha, using improved varieties and pro...

  13. Provision of Pre-Primary Education as a Basic Right in Tanzania: Reflections from Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtahabwa, Lyabwene

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to assess provision of pre-primary education in Tanzania as a basic right through analyses of relevant policy documents. Documents which were published over the past decade were considered, including educational policies, action plans, national papers, the "Basic Education Statistics in Tanzania" documents, strategy documents,…

  14. Early Child Development and Care in Tanzania: Challenges for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtahabwa, Lyabwene

    2009-01-01

    Much remains unknown about the status of early child development and care in Tanzania. The little information available has never been put together to provide a holistic picture of the progress so far made in this important area. This paper intends to synchronise the information available in Tanzania for the purpose of depicting the country's…

  15. Walking in Unfamiliar Territory: Headteachers' Preparation and First-Year Experiences in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onguko, Brown Bully; Abdalla, Mohamed; Webber, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the preappointment experiences of early-career headteachers in Tanzania and to discuss implications for postsecondary institutions and ministries of education in East Africa. Research Design: Seven novice headteachers in a suburb of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, completed questionnaires and participated…

  16. Tanzania at the Turn of the Century: Background Papers and Statistics. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report presents lessons from Tanzania's development experience of the past four decades, with emphasis on the period since the last report (1996), and assesses the imperatives for higher sustained growth and better livelihood for its citizens in the future. The background papers review and assess Tanzania's actual growth and poverty reduction…

  17. Angular leaf spot disease status and characterization of the causative pathgen (P. Griseola) in Tanzania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angular leaf spot caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola is one of the most important disease of common bean in Tanzania. Breeding for resistance to this disease is complicated by the variable nature of the pathogen. In Tanzania no thorough attempt has been completed to evaluate the variabil...

  18. Nutritional Problems and Policy in Tanzania. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 7 (1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mgaza, Olyvia

    This monograph discusses policies designed to deal with food and nutrition problems in Tanzania. Available information on food supplies and nutritional conditions in Tanzania clearly shows that the country faces nutritional problems; protein energy malnutrition is the most serious and requires priority action. Iron deficiency anemia, goiter, and…

  19. Academia-Industry-Government Linkages in Tanzania: Trends, Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpehongwa, Gasper

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed trends, challenges and prospects of academia-industry-government linkages in Tanzania. Using case study design, and documentary review to gather the required data, the study sought to answer three research questions: (1) what are the trends of academia-industry-government linkages in Tanzania?, (2) what are the challenges…

  20. The influence of climate change on Tanzania's hydropower sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Boehlert, Brent; Meijer, Karen; Schellekens, Jaap; Magnell, Jan-Petter; Helbrink, Jakob; Kassana, Leonard; Liden, Rikard

    2015-04-01

    Economic costs induced by current climate variability are large for Tanzania and may further increase due to future climate change. The Tanzanian National Climate Change Strategy addressed the need for stabilization of hydropower generation and strengthening of water resources management. Increased hydropower generation can contribute to sustainable use of energy resources and stabilization of the national electricity grid. To support Tanzania the World Bank financed this study in which the impact of climate change on the water resources and related hydropower generation capacity of Tanzania is assessed. To this end an ensemble of 78 GCM projections from both the CMIP3 and CMIP5 datasets was bias-corrected and down-scaled to 0.5 degrees resolution following the BCSD technique using the Princeton Global Meteorological Forcing Dataset as a reference. To quantify the hydrological impacts of climate change by 2035 the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was set-up for Tanzania at a resolution of 3 minutes and run with all 78 GCM datasets. From the full set of projections a probable (median) and worst case scenario (95th percentile) were selected based upon (1) the country average Climate Moisture Index and (2) discharge statistics of relevance to hydropower generation. Although precipitation from the Princeton dataset shows deviations from local station measurements and the global hydrological model does not perfectly reproduce local scale hydrographs, the main discharge characteristics and precipitation patterns are represented well. The modeled natural river flows were adjusted for water demand and irrigation within the water resources model RIBASIM (both historical values and future scenarios). Potential hydropower capacity was assessed with the power market simulation model PoMo-C that considers both reservoir inflows obtained from RIBASIM and overall electricity generation costs. Results of the study show that climate change is unlikely to negatively affect the

  1. Educational, scientific, tourist and outreach potential of the September 1, 2016 Annular Solar Eclipse in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayabali Jiwaji, Noorali

    2015-08-01

    Tanzania will witness a major astronomical spectacle of an annular eclipse on September 1, 2016. The central part of the eclipse will pass through southern Tanzania, crossing national parks and game reserves such as Katavi and the world famous Selous. For the rest of Tanzania and neighbouring countries it will be a memorable event with large of the proportion of the Sun being covered up. The climate in Tanzania during September is cool and dry which will provide ideal viewing conditions. Solar eclipse events attract "eclipse chasers" from around the globe.Scientific interest in measuring the properties of the Sun and the effects of the eclipse on the atmosphere will allow local scientists to partner with leading scientists to gain valuable experience and knowledge.Local population's wonder and interest in eclipses can be exploited through public-private partnerships by encouraging students and local people to travel to the central path or to observe from their backyards. Large number of eclipse glasses can be manufactured cheaply using safe solar filters for supplying to students and general population in Tanzania and neigbouring countries. This will raise science awareness about the wonders of our Universe.When combined with the attraction of Tanzania's treasures in the north and the 16 tonne Mbozi meteorite in southern Tanzania, the touristic potential of this event can be exploited through tour packages and worldwide advertisements during the coming year.

  2. Partial genetic characterization of peste des petits ruminants virus from goats in northern and eastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kgotlele, T; Macha, E S; Kasanga, C J; Kusiluka, L J M; Karimuribo, E D; Van Doorsselaere, J; Wensman, J J; Munir, M; Misinzo, G

    2014-08-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute viral disease of small ruminants. The disease was first reported in Tanzania in 2008 when it was confined to the Northern Zone districts bordering Kenya. The present study was carried out to confirm the presence of PPR virus (PPRV) in Tanzania and to establish their phylogenetic relationships. Samples (oculonasal swabs, tissues and whole blood) were obtained from live goats with clinical presentation suggestive of PPR and goats that died naturally in Ngorongoro (Northern Tanzania) and Mvomero (Eastern Tanzania) districts. The clinical signs observed in goats suspected with PPR included fever, dullness, diarrhea, lacrimation, matting of eye lids, purulent oculonasal discharges, cutaneous nodules, erosions on the soft palate and gums and labored breathing. Post mortem findings included pneumonia, congestion of the intestines, and hemorrhages in lymph nodes associated with the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. PPRV was detected in 21 out of 71 tested animals using primers targeting the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the N gene, indicated that PPRV obtained from Northern and Eastern Tanzania clustered with PPRV strains of Lineage III, together with PPRV from Sudan and Ethiopia. The findings of this study indicate that there are active PPRV infections in Northern and Eastern Tanzania, suggesting risks for potential spread of PPR in the rest of Tanzania.

  3. African Oral Traditions: Riddles Among The Haya of Northwestern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishengoma, Johnson M.

    2005-05-01

    This study argues for the integration of African oral traditions and other elements of traditional learning into the modern school curriculum. It thus contributes to supporting the increased relevance of education to local communities. In particular, using the example of riddles collected from one of the main ethnic groups in Northwestern Tanzania, the Haya people, the present study challenges the views of those social and cultural anthropologists who hold that African riddles have no substantially meaningful educational value. Instead, it is maintained that riddles make an important contribution to children's full participation in the social, cultural, political, and economic life of African communities, especially by fostering critical thinking and transmitting indigenous knowledge.

  4. The risk factors for human cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwang'onde, Beda J; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Chacha, Mwita

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the reasons for the persistence of human cysticercosis (HCC) transmission in Mbulu District, northern Tanzania. The study was carried out in 25 villages, whereby five major risks were identified. The risks were indiscriminate defaecation and improper use of toilets; a free-range system of keeping pigs; indiscriminate or unregulated slaughtering and inadequate meat hygiene and inspection; consumption of undercooked and porcine cysticerci infected pork; and social structure and roles. All of the identified risks were backed up by the immanent lifestyles of the community involved. These findings are important for the development of intervention strategies in the study area. PMID:25005750

  5. Income and Health in Tanzania. An Instrumental Variable Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fichera, Eleonora; Savage, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is a substantial debate over the direction of the causal relation between income and health. This is important for our understanding of the health production process and for the policy debate over improving healthcare. We instrument income with rainfall measurements by matching satellite information on timing and positioning of 21 rainfall stations to longitudinal data (1991–94) of over 4,000 individuals in 51 villages in Tanzania. A 10% increase in income reduces the number of illnesses by 0.02. We also find that a 10% increase in income implies an increase of about 0.1 vaccinations of children under six. PMID:25648157

  6. Brucellosis among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Bouley, Andrew J.; Biggs, Holly M.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Afwamba, Isaac A.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from febrile inpatients identified at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed brucellosis was defined as a positive blood culture or a ≥ 4-fold increase in microagglutination test titer, and probable brucellosis was defined as a single reciprocal titer ≥ 160. Among 870 participants enrolled in the study, 455 (52.3%) had paired sera available. Of these, 16 (3.5%) met criteria for confirmed brucellosis. Of 830 participants with ≥ 1 serum sample, 4 (0.5%) met criteria for probable brucellosis. Brucellosis was associated with increased median age (P = 0.024), leukopenia (odds ratio [OR] 7.8, P = 0.005), thrombocytopenia (OR 3.9, P = 0.018), and evidence of other zoonoses (OR 3.2, P = 0.026). Brucellosis was never diagnosed clinically, and although all participants with brucellosis received antibacterials or antimalarials in the hospital, no participant received standard brucellosis treatment. Brucellosis is an underdiagnosed and untreated cause of febrile disease among hospitalized adult and pediatric patients in northern Tanzania. PMID:23091197

  7. Brucellosis among hospitalized febrile patients in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Bouley, Andrew J; Biggs, Holly M; Stoddard, Robyn A; Morrissey, Anne B; Bartlett, John A; Afwamba, Isaac A; Maro, Venance P; Kinabo, Grace D; Saganda, Wilbrod; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A

    2012-12-01

    Acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from febrile inpatients identified at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed brucellosis was defined as a positive blood culture or a ≥ 4-fold increase in microagglutination test titer, and probable brucellosis was defined as a single reciprocal titer ≥ 160. Among 870 participants enrolled in the study, 455 (52.3%) had paired sera available. Of these, 16 (3.5%) met criteria for confirmed brucellosis. Of 830 participants with ≥ 1 serum sample, 4 (0.5%) met criteria for probable brucellosis. Brucellosis was associated with increased median age (P = 0.024), leukopenia (odds ratio [OR] 7.8, P = 0.005), thrombocytopenia (OR 3.9, P = 0.018), and evidence of other zoonoses (OR 3.2, P = 0.026). Brucellosis was never diagnosed clinically, and although all participants with brucellosis received antibacterials or antimalarials in the hospital, no participant received standard brucellosis treatment. Brucellosis is an underdiagnosed and untreated cause of febrile disease among hospitalized adult and pediatric patients in northern Tanzania. PMID:23091197

  8. The Past, Present and Future of Domestic Equines in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    WILSON, R. Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Equines are minor species in Tanzania’s array of domestic livestock. Attempts to use them for transport by early explorers from the mid-nineteenth century usually failed. Donkeys were used extensively as pack animals to complement human porters by both British and German forces in the First World War, but their advantages were often outweighed by slow progress and competition with troops and porters for water, and they died in huge numbers. The British had regular cavalry troops in their campaign and mules found limited use as individual mounts for officers. In modern times, there are very few horses in Tanzania but they find several uses. Exotic safaris are made on horseback, they are used as stock horses on ranches, there is a polo club in northern Tanzania and there are leisure riding activities around the capital city. Official census records for donkeys estimate numbers at under 300,000 with concentrations in the northern pastoral and agropastoral areas where they are used as pack animals with water being the main commodity transported. Elsewhere donkeys are used to a limited extent in transport and traction work. There is little interest in equines by the central and local governments or the general public and the status quo can be expected to continue. PMID:24834000

  9. Child sexual abuse in Tanzania: much noise, little justice.

    PubMed

    Rajani, R R

    1998-01-01

    Every day in Tanzania, newspapers report horrible stories of the sexual abuse of children. This serious situation has aroused calls for stricter punishment of perpetrators, but little is being done to help the abused children. A 1997 analysis of these reports by the Tanzania Legal Human Rights Center has revealed that the majority of the perpetrators are adult males who are close to their victims and who hold positions of respect in society. The sexual abuse of children is fundamentally an expression of power over a child's life, and Tanzanian children have little control over their lives and are usually disciplined with corporeal punishment. Tanzanian children are accustomed to seeing men hurt weaker people without censure, and the children do not have the status to defend themselves against physical, psychological, or sexual abuse. Thus, child sexual abuse is an inevitable consequence in a society where children have no voice. It is impossible to condone physical and verbal abuse while condemning sexual abuse, and punishing the abusers will not solve the problem. Instead, perpetrators must be held accountable and made to understand the seriousness of their actions. In order to make amends to their victims, they should be required to pay for the child's health care and education and to perform mandatory community service to make children safer. Children must be given the opportunity to learn that they can say no to adults and refuse to accept abuse.

  10. Experience on healthcare utilization in seven administrative regions of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Health care utilization in many developing countries, Tanzania included, is mainly through the use of traditional medicine (TRM) and its practitioners despite the presence of the conventional medicine. This article presents findings on the study that aimed to get an experience of health care utilization from both urban and rural areas of seven administrative regions in Tanzania. A total of 33 health facility managers were interviewed on health care provision and availability of supplies including drugs, in their respective areas. The findings revealed that the health facilities were overburden with higher population to serve than it was planned. Consequently essential drugs and other health supplies were available only in the first two weeks of the month. Conventional health practitioners considered traditional health practitioners to be more competent in mental health management, and overall, they were considered to handle more HIV/AIDS cases knowingly or unknowingly due to shear need of healthcare by this group. In general conventional health practitioners were positive towards traditional medicine utilization; and some of them admitted using traditional medicines. Traditional medicines like other medical health systems worldwide have side effects and some contentious ethical issues that need serious consideration and policy direction. Since many people will continue using traditional/alternative medicine, there is an urgent need to collaborate with traditional/alternative health practitioners through the institutionalization of basic training including hygiene in order to improved healthcare in the community and attain the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. PMID:22284539

  11. Human migration, protected areas, and conservation outreach in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Jonathan D; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Kefauver, Shawn C

    2014-06-01

    A recent discussion debates the extent of human in-migration around protected areas (PAs) in the tropics. One proposed argument is that rural migrants move to bordering areas to access conservation outreach benefits. A counter proposal maintains that PAs have largely negative effects on local populations and that outreach initiatives even if successful present insufficient benefits to drive in-migration. Using data from Tanzania, we examined merits of statistical tests and spatial methods used previously to evaluate migration near PAs and applied hierarchical modeling with appropriate controls for demographic and geographic factors to advance the debate. Areas bordering national parks in Tanzania did not have elevated rates of in-migration. Low baseline population density and high vegetation productivity with low interannual variation rather than conservation outreach explained observed migration patterns. More generally we argue that to produce results of conservation policy significance, analyses must be conducted at appropriate scales, and we caution against use of demographic data without appropriate controls when drawing conclusions about migration dynamics.

  12. Animal research ethics in Africa: is Tanzania making progress?

    PubMed

    Seth, Misago; Saguti, Fredy

    2013-12-01

    The significance of animals in research cannot be over-emphasized. The use of animals for research and training in research centres, hospitals and schools is progressively increasing. Advances in biotechnology to improve animal productivity require animal research. Drugs being developed and new interventions or therapies being invented for cure and palliation of all sorts of animal diseases and conditions need to be tested in animals for their safety and efficacy at some stages of their development. Drugs and interventions for human use pass through a similar development process and must be tested pre-clinically in laboratory animals before clinical trials in humans can be conducted. Therefore, animals are important players in research processes which directly and indirectly benefit animals and humans. However, questions remain as to whether these uses of animals consider the best interests of animals themselves. Various research and training institutions in Tanzania have established some guidelines on animal use, including establishing animal ethics committees. However, most institutions have not established oversight committees. In institutions where there may be guidelines and policies, there are no responsible committees or units to directly oversee if and how these guidelines and policies are enforced; thus, implementation becomes difficult or impossible. This paper endeavours to raise some issues associated with the responsible use of animals in research and training in Tanzania and highlights suggestions for improvement of deficiencies that exist in order to bridge the gap between what ought to be practised and what is practised.

  13. Modelling and mapping the topsoil organic carbon content for Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempen, Bas; Kaaya, Abel; Ngonyani Mhaiki, Consolatha; Kiluvia, Shani; Ruiperez-Gonzalez, Maria; Batjes, Niels; Dalsgaard, Soren

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), held in soil organic matter, is a key indicator of soil health and plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The soil can act as a net source or sink of carbon depending on land use and management. Deforestation and forest degradation lead to the release of vast amounts of carbon from the soil in the form of greenhouse gasses, especially in tropical countries. Tanzania has a high deforestation rate: it is estimated that the country loses 1.1% of its total forested area annually. During 2010-2013 Tanzania has been a pilot country under the UN-REDD programme. This programme has supported Tanzania in its initial efforts towards reducing greenhouse gas emission from forest degradation and deforestation and towards preserving soil carbon stocks. Formulation and implementation of the national REDD strategy requires detailed information on the five carbon pools among these the SOC pool. The spatial distribution of SOC contents and stocks was not available for Tanzania. The initial aim of this research, was therefore to develop high-resolution maps of the SOC content for the country. The mapping exercise was carried out in a collaborative effort with four Tanzanian institutes and data from the Africa Soil Information Service initiative (AfSIS). The mapping exercise was provided with over 3200 field observations on SOC from four sources; this is the most comprehensive soil dataset collected in Tanzania so far. The main source of soil samples was the National Forest Monitoring and Assessment (NAFORMA). The carbon maps were generated by means of digital soil mapping using regression-kriging. Maps at 250 m spatial resolution were developed for four depth layers: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, and 0-30 cm. A total of 37 environmental GIS data layers were prepared for use as covariates in the regression model. These included vegetation indices, terrain parameters, surface temperature, spectral reflectances, a land cover map and a small

  14. Research Trends in Emerging Contaminants on the Aquatic Environments of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Miraji, H.; Othman, O. C.; Ngassapa, F. N.; Mureithi, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    The continuity for discovery and production of new chemicals, allied products, and uses has currently resulted into generation of recent form of contaminants known as Emerging Contaminants (ECs). Once in the aquatic environment ECs are carcinogenic and cause other threats to both human's and animals' health. Due to their effects this study was aimed at investigating research trends of ECs in Tanzania. Findings revealed that USA and EU countries were leading in ECs researches, little followed by Asia, South Africa, and then Zambia. Only few guidelines from USA-EPA, WHO, Canada, and Australia existed. Neither published guidelines nor regulations for ECs existed in Tanzania; rather only the occurrence of some disinfection by-products and antibiotics was, respectively, reported in Arusha and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. As these reports had a limited coverage of ECs, henceforth, these findings constitute the first-line reference materials for ECs research in Tanzania which shall be useful for future monitoring and regulation planning. PMID:26998381

  15. Community-based advocacy opportunities for tobacco control: experience from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kagaruki, Lutgard K

    2010-06-01

    Tanzania is third in Africa in tobacco production after Malawi and Zimbabwe. In spite of increased production, Tanzania remains a poor country, with tobacco farmers getting poorer and the country losing more than 16,500 hectares of forests annually from tobacco curing alone. Tanzania grows fire-cured and air-cured tobacco. Regarding tobacco use, 35% of Tanzanians smoke tobacco regularly and about 32% of all cancers at Ocean Road Cancer Institute are attributed to tobacco use, with the country spending more than $30m annually to treat tobacco-related cancers. Unfortunately, knowledge on tobacco-related hazards is limited even among policy/decision makers. However, surveys indicate that more than 65% of resource-poor tobacco farmers favour alternative livelihoods when assured of sustainable markets. There is need of intensifying advocacy campaigns against tobacco, in order to improve the socio-economic status of tobacco farmers, enhance public health and sustain the environment in Tanzania. PMID:20595340

  16. Community-based advocacy opportunities for tobacco control: experience from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kagaruki, Lutgard K

    2010-06-01

    Tanzania is third in Africa in tobacco production after Malawi and Zimbabwe. In spite of increased production, Tanzania remains a poor country, with tobacco farmers getting poorer and the country losing more than 16,500 hectares of forests annually from tobacco curing alone. Tanzania grows fire-cured and air-cured tobacco. Regarding tobacco use, 35% of Tanzanians smoke tobacco regularly and about 32% of all cancers at Ocean Road Cancer Institute are attributed to tobacco use, with the country spending more than $30m annually to treat tobacco-related cancers. Unfortunately, knowledge on tobacco-related hazards is limited even among policy/decision makers. However, surveys indicate that more than 65% of resource-poor tobacco farmers favour alternative livelihoods when assured of sustainable markets. There is need of intensifying advocacy campaigns against tobacco, in order to improve the socio-economic status of tobacco farmers, enhance public health and sustain the environment in Tanzania.

  17. Molecular Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses Collected in Tanzania Between 1967 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Kasanga, C J; Wadsworth, J; Mpelumbe-Ngeleja, C A R; Sallu, R; Kivaria, F; Wambura, P N; Yongolo, M G S; Rweyemamu, M M; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) recovered from outbreaks in Tanzania that occurred between 1967 and 2009. A total of 44 FMDV isolates, containing representatives of serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 from 13 regions of Tanzania, were selected from the FAO World Reference Laboratory for FMD (WRLFMD) virus collection. VP1 nucleotide sequences were determined for RT-PCR amplicons, and phylogenetic reconstructions were determined by maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining methods. These analyses showed that Tanzanian type O viruses fell into the EAST AFRICA 2 (EA-2) topotype, type A viruses fell into the AFRICA topotype (genotype I), type SAT 1 viruses into topotype I and type SAT 2 viruses into topotype IV. Taken together, these findings reveal that serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 that caused FMD outbreaks in Tanzania were genetically related to lineages and topotypes occurring in the East African region. The close genetic relationship of viruses in Tanzania to those from other countries suggests that animal movements can contribute to virus dispersal in sub-Saharan Africa. This is the first molecular description of viruses circulating in Tanzania and highlights the need for further sampling of representative viruses from the region so as to elucidate the complex epidemiology of FMD in Tanzania and sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Lithium Isotope Systematics of Rift-related Alkaline Igneous Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halama, R.; McDonough, W. F.; Rudnick, R. L.; Trumbull, R.; Klaudius, J.; Keller, J.; Taubald, H.

    2006-05-01

    Intracontinental alkaline igneous rocks from the Proterozoic Gardar Province (Greenland), the Cretaceous Damaraland Province (Namibia), the Tertiary Kaiserstuhl complex (Germany) and from the Holocene volcano Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania) were analyzed to characterize Li isotopic compositions of their mantle sources and to determine the processes affecting δ7Li in alkaline igneous rocks. The inferred mantle Li isotope signatures of the primitive alkaline rocks (δ7Li = +1 to +7) are similar to those of present- day MORB, OIB and carbonatites, and appear to be relatively constant in time and space. Gabbros from the Gardar Province define a relatively small field of Li isotope compositions (δ7Li = +4 to +7). Mineral separates (clinopyroxene, plagioclase) mostly overlap with the whole-rock values, which we interpret to reflect the δ7Li of the mantle sources of the gabbros. Mantle-like δ7Li values are also observed for primitive alkaline rocks from the other regions. Li isotope compositions in more differentiated rocks (syenites, phonolites and rhyolites) are highly variable (+11 to -22 per mil) and reflect a diversity of evolutionary processes that may vary from complex to complex. δ7Li values vary independently of Sr and Nd isotope values and indices of differentiation (e.g. MgO content) or weathering (e.g. LOI). Consistently light δ7Li values (+2 to -22) occur in Gardar syenites associated with a carbonatite. These may be explained by weathering and sub-solidus alteration, as indicated by petrographic observations. Alternatively, fluid-assisted diffusion processes, related to a fenitizing fluid from the carbonatite, may have led to extreme Li isotope fractionation. Whole-rock oxygen isotope analyses will be carried out to evaluate interaction with meteoric water, which would be reflected in a decrease in δ18O compared to magmatic values. The heaviest Li isotopic composition (+11 per mil) was obtained for a rhyolite, probably related to the presence of quartz

  19. Uranium and thorium decay series disequilibria in young volcanic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Two of the central questions in igneous geochemistry that study of radioactive disequilibria can help to answer are: what are the rates of magma genesis; and what are the timescales of magma separation and transport. In addition to the temporal information that may be extracted from disequilibria data, the {sup 230}Th/{sup 232}Th of a young rock may be used as a tracer of the Th/U ratio of its source region. Measurements were made by isotope dilution alpha-spectrometry of {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 232}Th in 20 subduction related, 3 oceanic intraplate, and 10 continental intraplate volcanics. {sup 210}Pb was measured in all, {sup 226}Ra was measured in about half, and {sup 228}Th was measured in 10 of the most recent samples. Disequilibrium between {sup 228}Th and {sup 232}Th was found only in the Nacarbonatite samples from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania, which is attributable to {sup 228}Ra/{sup 232}Th {approximately} 27 at the time of eruption. These rocks also have {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th > 60. Three Ra-enrichment models are developed which constrain carbonatite magma formation at less than 20 years before eruption. The effects of different partial melting processes on the {sup 238}U decay series are investigated. If mid-ocean ridge basalts are formed by a dynamic melting process, the {sup 230}Th/{sup 232}Th of the basalts provides a minimum estimate of the Th/U ratio of the source region. The {sup 238}U enrichment in arc volcanics is probably the results of metasomatism of the source by fluids derived from the subducting slab, and the {sup 230}Th enrichment observed for other volcanics is probably due to the partial melting process in the absence of U-bearing fluids.

  20. Contrasted seismogenic and rheological behaviours from shallow and deep earthquake sequences in the North Tanzanian Divergence, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albaric, J.; Perrot, J.; Déverchère, J.; Deschamps, A.; Le Gall, B.; Ferdinand, R. W.; Petit, C.; Tiberi, C.; Sue, C.; Songo, M.

    2010-12-01

    We report preliminary results of a seismological experiment, SEISMO-TANZ' 07, which consisted in the deployment of a local network (35 stations) in the East African Rift System (EARS), North Tanzania, during 6 months in 2007. We compare two earthquake sequences (Gelai and Manyara) occurring, respectively, in the southern end of the Kenya rift and in the North Tanzanian Divergence (NTD). Only distant of ˜150 km, their triggering mechanisms are different. None of the sequences depicts typical swarm or mainshock-aftershock patterns. They highlight the change in the magmatic/tectonic nature of the rift where the eastern branch of the EARS enters the Tanzanian craton. The similar shape and long-axis of the elongate sequences emphasize the preferred locus of active strain release along NE-SW discontinuities which probably root at depth into steep Proterozoic shear zones. At Gelai, the deformation is dominated by aseismic process involving slow slip on normal fault and dyke intrusion within the upper crust (Calais et al., 2008). The spatial and temporal earthquake distribution indicates a possible correlation between the Gelai crisis and the eruption of the nearby Oldoinyo Lengai volcano. At Manyara, the sequence is more uncommon, revealing a long-lasting seismic activity deeply rooted (˜20-35 km depth) possibly related to stress loading transmitted laterally. The yield strength envelope modelled from the depth frequency distribution of earthquakes in the NTD is consistent with the presence of a mafic lower crust and further supports the strength increase of the rifted crust from south Kenya to the NTD.

  1. Carbonatite diversity in the Central Andes: the Ayopaya alkaline province, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Frank; Lehmann, Bernd; Tawackoli, Sohrab; Rössling, Reinhard; Belyatsky, Boris; Dulski, Peter

    2004-12-01

    The Ayopaya province in the eastern Andes of Bolivia, 100 km NW of Cochabamba, hosts a Cretaceous alkaline rock series within a Palaeozoic sedimentary sequence. The alkaline rock association comprises nepheline-syenitic/foyaitic to ijolitic intrusions, carbonatite, kimberlite, melilititic, nephelinitic to basanitic dykes and diatremes, and a variety of alkaline dykes. The carbonatites display a wide petrographic and geochemical spectrum. The Cerro Sapo area hosts a small calciocarbonatite intrusion and a multitude of ferrocarbonatitic dykes and lenses in association with a nepheline-syenitic stock. The stock is crosscut by a spectacular REE-Sr-Th-rich sodalite-ankerite-baryte dyke system. The nearby Chiaracke complex represents a magnesiocarbonatite intrusion with no evidence for a relationship to igneous silicate rocks. The magnesiocarbonatite (Σ REE up to 1.3 wt%) shows strong HREE depletion, i.e. unusually high La/Yb ratios (520 1,500). Calciocarbonatites (Σ REE up to 0.5 wt%) have a flatter REE distribution pattern (La/Yb 95 160) and higher Nb and Zr contents. The sodalite-ankerite-baryte dyke system shows geochemical enrichment features, particularly in Na, Ba, Cl, Sr, REE, which are similar to the unusual natrocarbonatitic lavas of the recent volcano of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. The Cerro Sapo complex may be regarded as an intrusive equivalent of natrocarbonatitic volcanism, and provides an example for carbonatite genesis by late-stage crystal fractionation and liquid immiscibility. The magnesiocarbonatite intrusion of Chiaracke, on the other hand, appears to result from a primary carbonatitic mantle melt. Deep seated mantle magmatism/metasomatism is also expressed by the occurrence of a kimberlite dyke. Neodymium and strontium isotope data (ɛNd 1.4 5.4, 87Sr/86 Sr

  2. District health managers’ perceptions of supervision in Malawi and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mid-level cadres are being used to address human resource shortages in many African contexts, but insufficient and ineffective human resource management is compromising their performance. Supervision plays a key role in performance and motivation, but is frequently characterised by periodic inspection and control, rather than support and feedback to improve performance. This paper explores the perceptions of district health management teams in Tanzania and Malawi on their role as supervisors and on the challenges to effective supervision at the district level. Methods This qualitative study took place as part of a broader project, “Health Systems Strengthening for Equity: The Power and Potential of Mid-Level Providers”. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 district health management team personnel in Malawi and 37 council health team members in Tanzania. The interviews covered a range of human resource management issues, including supervision and performance assessment, staff job descriptions and roles, motivation and working conditions. Results Participants displayed varying attitudes to the nature and purpose of the supervision process. Much of the discourse in Malawi centred on inspection and control, while interviewees in Tanzania were more likely to articulate a paradigm characterised by support and improvement. In both countries, facility level performance metrics dominated. The lack of competency-based indicators or clear standards to assess individual health worker performance were considered problematic. Shortages of staff, at both district and facility level, were described as a major impediment to carrying out regular supervisory visits. Other challenges included conflicting and multiple responsibilities of district health team staff and financial constraints. Conclusion Supervision is a central component of effective human resource management. Policy level attention is crucial to ensure a systematic, structured process that

  3. Auditory impairments in HIV-infected individuals in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Maro, Isaac I.; Moshi, Ndeserua; Clavier, Odile H.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Kline-Schoder, Robert J.; Wilbur, Jed C.; Chambers, Robert D.; Fellows, Abigail M.; Jastrzembski, Benjamin G.; Mascari, John E.; Bakari, Muhammad; Matee, Mecky; Musiek, Frank E.; Waddell, Richard D.; von Reyn, C. Fordham; Buckey, Jay C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Abnormal hearing tests have been noted in HIV-infected patients in several studies, but the nature of the hearing deficit has not been clearly defined. We performed a cross-sectional study of both HIV+ and HIV− individuals in Tanzania using an audiological test battery. We hypothesized that HIV+ adults would have a higher prevalence of abnormal central and peripheral hearing test results compared to HIV− controls. Additionally, we anticipated that the prevalence of abnormal hearing assessments would increase with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) use, and treatment for tuberculosis (TB). Design Pure-tone thresholds, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), tympanometry, and a gap detection test were performed using a laptop-based hearing testing system on 751 subjects (100 HIV− in the U.S., plus 651 in Dar es Salaam Tanzania including 449 HIV+ [130 ART− and 319 ART+], and 202 HIV−, subjects. No U.S. subjects had a history of TB treatment. In Tanzania, 204 of the HIV+, and 23 of the HIV−, subjects had a history of TB treatment. Subjects completed a video and audio questionnaire about their hearing as well as a health history questionnaire. Results HIV+ subjects had reduced DPOAE levels compared to HIV− subjects, but their hearing thresholds, tympanometry results, and gap detection thresholds were similar. Within the HIV+ group, those on ART reported significantly greater difficulties understanding speech-in-noise, and were significantly more likely to report that they had difficulty understanding speech than the ART− group. The ART+ group had a significantly higher mean gap detection threshold compared to the ART− group. No effects of TB treatment were seen. Conclusions The fact that the ART+/ART− groups did not differ in measures of peripheral hearing ability (DPOAEs, thresholds), or middle ear measures (tympanometry), but that the ART+ group had significantly more trouble understanding speech and higher gap detection thresholds

  4. The evolutionary ecology of early weaning in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wander, Katherine; Mattison, Siobhán M

    2013-10-01

    Public health recommendations promote prolonged breastfeeding of all children; however, parental investment (PI) theory predicts that breastfeeding will be allocated among a mothers' offspring to maximize her reproductive success. We evaluated PI in terms of risk for weaning before age two among 283 children in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Results demonstrate: (i) a Trivers-Willard effect--high socioeconomic status (SES) females and low SES males were more likely to be weaned early; (ii) later-born children were less likely to be weaned early; (iii) higher birthweight children were less likely to be weaned early, and (iv) no effect of cattle (a source of supplementary milk) ownership. These associations were largely independent and remained significant in models controlling for potential confounders; however, the inverse association between early weaning and birth order lost significance in the model containing birthweight. These patterns were observed despite public health recommendations encouraging breastfeeding for at least two years. PMID:23926151

  5. The impact of privatization on access in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Benson, J S

    2001-06-01

    In the late 1980s, many developing countries were forced to adopt structural adjustment policies as a condition for securing loans from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. One of the World Bank's recommended policies was to change the mix of private and public health facilities. This study, based on fieldwork done in Tanzania in 1993, examines the impact of this policy on health-care accessibility in two northern Tanzanian districts, one rural and one urban. Accessibility was measured in terms of equality and equity of coverage. The placement of the very few government clinics opened during the years 1985-1993 did much more to improve coverage than the haphazard location of many new private clinics. Equity was not improved as very few clinics were placed in demographically needy areas.

  6. East African and Kuunga Orogenies in Tanzania - South Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H.; Hauzenberger, C. A.; Tenczer, V.

    2012-04-01

    Tanzania and southern Kenya hold a key position for reconstructing Gondwana consolidation because here different orogen belts with different tectonic styles interfere. The older, ca. 650-620 Ma East African Orogeny resulted from the amalgamation of arc terranes in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and continental collision between East African pieces and parts of the Azania terrane in the south (Collins and Pisarevsky, 2005). The change form arc suturing to continental collision settings is found in southern Kenya where southernmost arcs of the ANS conjoin with thickened continental margin suites of the Eastern Granulite Belt. The younger ca. 570-530 Ma Kuunga orogeny heads from the Damara - Zambesi - Irumide Belts (De Waele et al., 2006) over Tanzania - Mozambique to southern India and clashes with the East African orogen in southern-central Tanzania. Two transitional orogen settings may be defined, (1) that between island arcs and inverted passive continental margin within the East African Orogen and, (2) that between N-S trending East African and W-E trending Kuungan orogenies. The Neoproterozoic island arc suites of SE-Kenya are exposed as a narrow stripe between western Azania and the Eastern Granulite belt. This suture is a steep, NNW stretched belt that aligns roughly with the prominent southern ANS shear zones that converge at the southern tip of the ANS (Athi and Aswa shear zones). Oblique convergence resulted in low-vorticity sinstral shear during early phases of deformation. Syn-magmatic and syn-tectonic textures are compatible with deformation at granulite metamorphic conditions and rocks exhumed quickly during ongoing transcurrent motion. The belt is typified as wrench tectonic belt with horizontal northwards flow of rocks within deeper portions of an island arc. The adjacent Eastern Granulite Nappe experienced westward directed, subhorizontal, low-vorticity, high temperature flow at partly extreme metamorphic conditions (900°C, 1.2 to 1.4 GPa

  7. Linking lake variability, climate, and human activity in Basotu, Tanzania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Lindsey; Westerberg, Lars-Ove; Risberg, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Lake Basotu (4.3697°S, 35.0728°E) is a crater lake in north-central Tanzania. This lake is an important source of freshwater for local people as no perennial rivers are present. Due to intensive agricultural methods and climatic factors, lake level has fluctuated greatly over time. A history of environmental variability of the past 1800 years was established using the diatom record, magnetic parameters, and carbon content from a three meter long sediment core. Fluctuations in modern lake extent (1973 - 2015) were calculated using archived Landsat images and compared to meteorological records and documents of activity around the lake to determine the greatest impacts and their consequences on this essential water resource. Variations in the paleo-record indicate that fluctuations in lake level are not abnormal, however human influence has likely increased the sensitivity of Lake Basotu to climatic fluctuations.

  8. The evolutionary ecology of early weaning in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Wander, Katherine; Mattison, Siobhán M.

    2013-01-01

    Public health recommendations promote prolonged breastfeeding of all children; however, parental investment (PI) theory predicts that breastfeeding will be allocated among a mothers' offspring to maximize her reproductive success. We evaluated PI in terms of risk for weaning before age two among 283 children in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Results demonstrate: (i) a Trivers–Willard effect—high socioeconomic status (SES) females and low SES males were more likely to be weaned early; (ii) later-born children were less likely to be weaned early; (iii) higher birthweight children were less likely to be weaned early, and (iv) no effect of cattle (a source of supplementary milk) ownership. These associations were largely independent and remained significant in models controlling for potential confounders; however, the inverse association between early weaning and birth order lost significance in the model containing birthweight. These patterns were observed despite public health recommendations encouraging breastfeeding for at least two years. PMID:23926151

  9. Creating a national culture of quality: the Tanzania experience.

    PubMed

    Mwidunda, Patrick E; Eliakimu, Eliudi

    2015-07-01

    Although quality improvement has been a priority for Tanzania's health sector since the 1970s, few effective quality improvement initiatives were implemented, due to limited expertise, political commitment and resources. More recently, as the HIV epidemic gained momentum within the country, an influx of funding and of international organizations with quality improvement expertise accelerated the implementation of quality improvement projects, as well as efforts to institutionalize quality improvement at the national level. The support of US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and other donors, and the increasing numbers of HIV-implementing partners focused on quality management, and quality improvement strategies catalysed the development of HIV-specific quality improvement initiatives first, and then of national quality improvement frameworks. The diversity of quality improvement approaches championed by various donors and partners also presented important challenges to harmonization and institutionalization of quality improvement programmes.

  10. Conservation biology: lion attacks on humans in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Packer, Craig; Ikanda, Dennis; Kissui, Bernard; Kushnir, Hadas

    2005-08-18

    Large carnivores inspire opposition to conservation efforts owing to their impact on livestock and human safety. Here we analyse the pattern of lion attacks over the past 15 years on humans in Tanzania, which has the largest population of lions in Africa, and find that they have killed more than 563 Tanzanians since 1990 and injured at least 308. Attacks have increased dramatically during this time: they peak at harvest time each year and are most frequent in areas with few prey apart from bush pigs (Potamochoerus larvatus), the most common nocturnal crop pest. Our findings provide an important starting point for devising strategies to reduce the risk to rural Tanzanians of lion attacks.

  11. Appropriate deflouridation technology for use in flourotic areas in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mjengera, H.; Mkongo, G.

    High fluoride in drinking water is a problem found in both ground and surface water in various parts of Tanzania. Several defluoridation methods have been tested and detailed studies have been carried on bone-char method, alum/lime method and the combination of the two methods. In bone char method, the bones are charred in special kilns fuelled by wood charcoal. Different sizes of the kiln have been fabricated and tested. Crushing and sieving devices have been developed. The effectiveness of bone char particles sizes in fluoride removal has been studied and the results favoured small particle sizes. However, experimental conditions discouraged the use of very fine particles sizes of bone char due easy clogging. Household and institutional levels bone char defluoridation systems have been developed and tested. Filter columns packed with heat-activated bones are found to be more effective than fill and draw bucket type defluoridator. The bone char media used has the capability of producing water with a residual fluoride concentration of less than 0.1 mg/l from an initial fluoride of 12.0 mg/l. Use of alum and lime in fluoride removal from waters with excessive fluoride has been experimented upon. A plant with an automatic chemical dosing and mixing system for use at institutional levels has been developed and tested. The method was able to treat water with an initial fluoride concentration of 12 mg/l to a residual fluoride concentration ranging from 2 to 3 mg/l. During the study it was established, that the bone char method is appropriate for use in rural areas of Tanzania due its simplicity, local availability of materials and the possibility of processing the material locally.

  12. Economic cost of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ngalesoni, Frida; Ruhago, George; Norheim, Ole F; Robberstad, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    Tanzania is facing a double burden of disease, with non-communicable diseases being an increasingly important contributor. Evidence-based preventive measures are important to limit the growing financial burden. This article aims to estimate the cost of providing medical primary prevention interventions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among at-risk patients, reflecting actual resource use and if the World Health Organization (WHO)’s CVD medical preventive guidelines are implemented in Tanzania. In addition, we estimate and explore the cost to patients of receiving these services. Cost data were collected in four health facilities located in both urban and rural settings. Providers’ costs were identified and measured using ingredients approach to costing and resource valuation followed the opportunity cost method. Unit costs were estimated using activity-based and step-down costing methodologies. The patient costs were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The unit cost of providing CVD medical primary prevention services ranged from US$30–41 to US$52–71 per patient per year at the health centre and hospital levels, respectively. Employing the WHO’s absolute risk approach guidelines will substantially increase these costs. The annual patient cost of receiving these services as currently practised was estimated to be US$118 and US$127 for urban and rural patients, respectively. Providers’ costs were estimated from two main viewpoints: ‘what is’, that is the current practice, and ‘what if’, reflecting a WHO guidelines scenario. The higher cost of implementing the WHO guidelines suggests the need for further evaluation of whether these added costs are reasonable relative to the added benefits. We also found considerably higher patient costs, implying that distributive and equity implications of access to care require more consideration. Facility location surfaced as the main explanatory variable for both direct and indirect patient costs in

  13. Two treatments, one disease: childhood malaria management in Tanga, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In the Tanga District of coastal Tanzania, malaria is one of the primary causes of mortality for children under the age of five. While some children are treated with malaria medications in biomedical facilities, as the World Health Organization recommends, others receive home-care or treatment from traditional healers. Recognition of malaria is difficult because symptoms can range from fever with uncomplicated malaria to convulsions with severe malaria. This study explores why caregivers in the Tanga District of Tanzania pursue particular courses of action to deal with malaria in their children. Methods Qualitative data were collected through interviews with three samples: female caregivers of children under five (N = 61), medical practitioners (N = 28), and traditional healers (N = 18) in urban, peri-urban, and rural areas. The female caregiver sample is intentionally stratified to reflect the greater population of the Tanga District in level of education, marital status, gender of household head, religion, and tribal group affiliation. Qualitative data were counted, coded and analysed using NVivo7 software. Results Results indicate that a variety of factors influence treatment choice, including socio-cultural beliefs about malaria symptoms, associations with spiritual affliction requiring traditional healing, knowledge of malaria, and fear of certain anti-malaria treatment procedures. Most notably, some caregivers identified convulsions as a spiritual condition, unrelated to malaria. While nearly all caregivers reported attending biomedical facilities to treat children with fever (N = 60/61), many caregivers stated that convulsions are best treated by traditional healers (N = 26/61). Qualitative interviews with medical practitioners and traditional healers confirmed this belief. Conclusion Results offer insight into current trends in malaria management and have implications in healthcare policy, educational campaigns, and the importance of integrating

  14. Economic cost of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngalesoni, Frida; Ruhago, George; Norheim, Ole F; Robberstad, Bjarne

    2015-09-01

    Tanzania is facing a double burden of disease, with non-communicable diseases being an increasingly important contributor. Evidence-based preventive measures are important to limit the growing financial burden. This article aims to estimate the cost of providing medical primary prevention interventions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among at-risk patients, reflecting actual resource use and if the World Health Organization (WHO)'s CVD medical preventive guidelines are implemented in Tanzania. In addition, we estimate and explore the cost to patients of receiving these services. Cost data were collected in four health facilities located in both urban and rural settings. Providers' costs were identified and measured using ingredients approach to costing and resource valuation followed the opportunity cost method. Unit costs were estimated using activity-based and step-down costing methodologies. The patient costs were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The unit cost of providing CVD medical primary prevention services ranged from US$30-41 to US$52-71 per patient per year at the health centre and hospital levels, respectively. Employing the WHO's absolute risk approach guidelines will substantially increase these costs. The annual patient cost of receiving these services as currently practised was estimated to be US$118 and US$127 for urban and rural patients, respectively. Providers' costs were estimated from two main viewpoints: 'what is', that is the current practice, and 'what if', reflecting a WHO guidelines scenario. The higher cost of implementing the WHO guidelines suggests the need for further evaluation of whether these added costs are reasonable relative to the added benefits. We also found considerably higher patient costs, implying that distributive and equity implications of access to care require more consideration. Facility location surfaced as the main explanatory variable for both direct and indirect patient costs in the regression

  15. Storage Mixing Variability Across Seasons and Scales in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsouris, A. J.; Lyon, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Our ability to accurately assess water residence times and storage volumes hinges on data availability. However, hydrological data is often limited or non-existing in most regions of the world. This study synthesizes hydrological tracer data with hydroclimatic information in order to disentangle storage volume dynamics and variability across data-limited African catchments. Specifically, we focus on the Kilombero Valley in Tanzania where there is a large potential to develop and expand the agricultural sector and thus increasing food security nationally. The lack hydrological data and subsequent limited process understanding hinders our capacity to assess the sustainability of such an increased and intensified agriculture landscape. We demonstrate how hydrological tracers constitute an exceptionally valuable piece of information for constraining model parameterizations, improving process understanding and representing storage volumes in data limited regions. Geochemical (e.g., Ca2+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, SO42-, Cl-) and stable water isotope (d18O and d2H) tracers were used to estimate recharge rates and seasonal shifts in hydrologic flow pathways. End member mixing analysis (EMMA) applied within the GLUE uncertainty framework was used to assess relative source contributions to streamflow and storage volume connectivity across scales. Strong variations in stable water isotopes between rainfall seasons in Tanzania and geological partitioning of storages allowed for clear characterization of seasonal variations in hydrologic flow pathway development. Wetlands dominated the wet season flows while variability in the connectivity of water storages could be seen during the dry season. Differences in the wetting up versus drying down storage mixing across the landscape highlights process shifts. This characterization improves our ability to utilize the limited data available in Kilombero Valley as it provides the basis for modelling surface-groundwater interactions regionally and

  16. Characterization of the common bean host and Pseudocercospora griseola the causative agent of angular leaf spot disease in Tanzania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola is one of the most important diseases of common bean in Tanzania. Breeding for resistance to this disease is complicated by the variable nature of the pathogen. In Tanzania no thorough analysis of the variability of this pathogen...

  17. National and Global: A History of Scholars' Experiences with Research at the University of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania (1961-Present)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Amy J.

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I draw on research carried out at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Tanzania in 2008 to examine Tanzanian academics' experience with research throughout the history of this institution. This dissertation is designed as an historical case study and investigates how economic and political changes in Tanzania's…

  18. Significance of Trends on Enrolment, Budget and Actual Expenditure in the Examination of Higher Education Financing in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memba, Albert Zephaniah; Feng, Zhao Jun

    2016-01-01

    Financing of higher education in Tanzania is considered a crucial factor in realizing the country's development vision. It is for these reasons that Tanzania has been financing its higher education since its inception. Diminishing resource capacity and competing interests for government finance plunged the higher education into financial doldrums.…

  19. Development of a Brief Intervention to Improve Knowledge of Autism and Behavioral Strategies among Parents in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Ashley Johnson; Long, Kristin A.; Manji, Karim P.; Blane, Karyn K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the global presence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a paucity of treatment services exists in Tanzania and other low- and middle-income countries. The effect of delayed or low-quality treatments is enduring and contributes to lifelong variability in ASD-related functional impairments. Service disparities in Tanzania derive in part from…

  20. Smallholder Information Sources and Communication Pathways for Cashew Production and Marketing in Tanzania: An Ex-Post Study in Tandahimba and Lindi Rural Districts, Southern Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyambo, Brigitte; Ligate, Elly

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and review production and marketing information sources and flows for smallholder cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) growers in Tanzania and recommend systems improvements for better technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: Two-stage purposive samples were drawn. First, two districts in the main cashew producing areas,…

  1. Care-seeking patterns for fatal malaria in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    de Savigny, Don; Mayombana, Charles; Mwageni, Eleuther; Masanja, Honorati; Minhaj, Abdulatif; Mkilindi, Yahya; Mbuya, Conrad; Kasale, Harun; Reid, Graham

    2004-01-01

    Background Once malaria occurs, deaths can be prevented by prompt treatment with relatively affordable and efficacious drugs. Yet this goal is elusive in Africa. The paradox of a continuing but easily preventable cause of high mortality raises important questions for policy makers concerning care-seeking and access to health systems. Although patterns of care-seeking during uncomplicated malaria episodes are well known, studies in cases of fatal malaria are rare. Care-seeking behaviours may differ between these groups. Methods This study documents care-seeking events in 320 children less than five years of age with fatal malaria seen between 1999 and 2001 during over 240,000 person-years of follow-up in a stable perennial malaria transmission setting in southern Tanzania. Accounts of care-seeking recorded in verbal autopsy histories were analysed to determine providers attended and the sequence of choices made as the patients' condition deteriorated. Results As first resort to care, 78.7% of malaria-attributable deaths used modern biomedical care in the form of antimalarial pharmaceuticals from shops or government or non-governmental heath facilities, 9.4% used initial traditional care at home or from traditional practitioners and 11.9% sought no care of any kind. There were no differences in patterns of choice by sex of the child, sex of the head of the household, socioeconomic status of the household or presence or absence of convulsions. In malaria deaths of all ages who sought care more than once, modern care was included in the first or second resort to care in 90.0% and 99.4% with and without convulsions respectively. Conclusions In this study of fatal malaria in southern Tanzania, biomedical care is the preferred choice of an overwhelming majority of suspected malaria cases, even those complicated by convulsions. Traditional care is no longer a significant delaying factor. To reduce mortality further will require greater emphasis on recognizing danger signs

  2. Agricultural Development, Land Change, and Livelihoods in Tanzania's Kilombero Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, John Patrick

    The Kilombero Valley lies at the intersection of a network of protected areas that cross Tanzania. The wetlands and woodlands of the Valley, as well as the forest of surrounding mountains are abundant in biodiversity and are considered to be critical areas for conservation. This area, however, is also the home to more than a half million people, primarily poor smallholder farmers. In an effort to support the livelihoods and food security of these farmers and the larger Tanzanian population, the country has recently targeted a series of programs to increase agricultural production in the Kilombero Valley and elsewhere in the country. Bridging concepts and methods from land change science, political ecology, and sustainable livelihoods, I present an integrated assessment of the linkages between development and conservation efforts in the Kilombero Valley and the implications for food security. This dissertation uses three empirical studies to understand the process of development in the Kilombero Valley and to link the priorities and perceptions of conservation and development efforts to the material outcomes in food security and land change. The first paper of this dissertation examines the changes in land use in the Kilombero Valley between 1997 and 2014 following the privatization of agriculture and the expansion of Tanzania's Kilimo Kwanza program. Remote sensing analysis reveals a two-fold increase in agricultural area during this short time, largely at the expense of forest. Protected areas in some parts of the Valley appear to be deterring deforestation, but rapid agricultural growth, particularly surrounding a commercial rice plantation, has led to loss of extant forest and sustained habitat fragmentation. The second paper focuses examines livelihood strategies in the Valley and claims regarding the role of agrobiodiversity in food security. The results of household survey reveal no difference or lower food security among households that diversify their

  3. Domestic water supply, competition for water resources and IWRM in Tanzania: a review and discussion paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maganga, Faustin P.; Butterworth, John A.; Moriarty, Patrick

    This paper reviews the historical development of domestic water supplies in Tanzania, the consequences of major policy shifts during the last seven decades, and some of the reasons for the failure of water supply systems. It considers the extent to which water resource issues are constraints in meeting the water supply needs of rural and urban populations, and the relevance of integrated water resources management to the WSS sector. Drawing upon case-study material from two major river basins, the Pangani and Rufiji, it reviews some of the practical steps being taken to implement IWRM principles in Tanzania.

  4. Lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments from southern Tanzania: Tanzania Drilling Project Sites 27-35

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimènez Berrocoso, Àlvaro; Huber, Brian T.; MacLeod, Kenneth G.; Petrizzo, Maria Rose; Lees, Jacqueline A.; Wendler, Ines; Coxall, Helen; Mweneinda, Amina K.; Falzoni, Francesca; Birch, Heather; Singano, Joyce M.; Haynes, Shannon; Cotton, Laura; Wendler, Jens; Bown, Paul R.; Robinson, Stuart A.; Gould, Jeremy

    2012-07-01

    The 2008 Tanzania Drilling Project (TDP) expedition recovered common planktonic foraminifera (PF), calcareous nannofossils (CN) and calcareous dinoflagellates with extraordinary shell preservation at multiple Cenomanian-Campanian sites that will be used for paleoclimatic, paleoceanographic, and biostratigraphic studies. New cores confirm the existence of a more expanded and continuous Upper Cretaceous sequence than had previously been documented in the Lindi and Kilwa regions of southeastern coastal Tanzania. This TDP expedition cored 684.02 m at eight Upper Cretaceous sites (TDP Sites 28-35) and a thin Paleocene section (TDP Site 27). TDP Sites 29, 30, 31 and 34 together span the lowermost Turonian to Coniacian (PF Whiteinella archaeocretacea to Dicarinella concavata Zones and CN Zones UC6a-9b), with TDP Site 31 being the most biostratigraphically complete Turonian section found during TDP drilling. A discontinuous section from the Santonian-upper Campanian (PF D. asymetrica to Radotruncana calcarata Zones and CN Zones UC12-16) was collectively recovered at TDP Sites 28, 32 and 35, while thin sequences of the lower Cenomanian (PF Thalmanninella globotruncanoides Zone and CN subzones UC3a-b) and middle Paleocene (Selandian; PF Zone P3a and CN Zone NP5) were cored in TDP Sites 33 and 27, respectively. Records of δ13Corg and δ13Ccarb from bulk sediments generated for all the Cretaceous sites show largely stable values through the sections. Only a few parallel δ13Corg and δ13Ccarb shifts have been found and they are interpreted to reflect local processes. The δ18Ocarb record, however, is consistent with Late Cretaceous cooling trends from the Turonian into the Campanian. Lithologies of these sites include thick intervals of claystones and siltstones with locally abundant, finely-laminated fabrics, irregular occurrences of thin sandstone layers, and sporadic bioclastic debris (e.g., inoceramids, ammonites). Minor lithologies represent much thinner units of up to

  5. Interpreting characteristic drainage timescale variability across Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, S. W.; Koutsouris, A.

    2013-12-01

    We derived the characteristic drainage timescale (K) from river discharge records across the Kilombero Valley in central Tanzania to explore seasonal variability and spatiotemporal patterns in dominant hydrologic processes. This was done using streamflow recession analysis to isolate storage-discharge relationships drawing from hydraulic groundwater theory. Such an approach may be advantageous in this and other data limited environments as it allows utilization of streamflow records with large time gaps and limited consistency. The observed K values during the wet season and for the relatively smaller catchments draining upland positions are consistent with those expected from hydraulic groundwater theory (e.g., K = 45 × 15 days). In the dry season, however, the timescales estimated for these catchments are larger than expected from hydraulic groundwater theory. Further, larger catchments draining part of the valley bottom, which is dominated by wetlands, never exhibited K values consistent with those expected from hydraulic groundwater theory. These hydrometric results are consistent with initial hydrologic tracer investigations with implications for the transit times of water moving through this upland-wetland seasonally-connected region and resultant regional groundwater recharge. Identifying these spatiotemporal shifts (i.e., isolating when general hydraulic groundwater theory may not be valid) facilitates process representation relevant for improved hydrologic modeling and water resources management in regions like Kilombero Valley.

  6. Seroprevalence of Sparganosis in Rural Communities of Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kavana, Nicholas; Sonaimuthu, Parthasarathy; Kasanga, Christopher; Kassuku, Ayub; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Fong, Mun Yik; Khan, Mohammad Behram; Mahmud, Rohela; Lau, Yee Ling

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the seroprevalence of sparganosis and its relationship with sociodemographic factors in northern Tanzania have been assessed. A total of 216 serum samples from two rural districts, Monduli and Babati, were tested for sparganosis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The seroprevalence of anti-sparganum IgG antibodies was 62.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 56.1–68.9) in all age groups. There were significant associations between district (relative risk [RR] = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.42–2.69), education (RR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.15–1.70), and pet ownership with seropositivity (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.02–2.16) based on univariate analysis. However, only the district was significantly associated with seropositivity (odds ratio = 4.20, 95% CI = 1.89–9.32) in binary logistic regression analysis. Providing health education to people residing in sparganosis-endemic areas is likely to improve the efficacy of preventative measures and reduce human disease burden. PMID:27481059

  7. Gender and performance of community treatment assistants in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Jenson, Alexander; Gracewello, Catherine; Mkocha, Harran; Roter, Debra; Munoz, Beatriz; West, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of gender and demographics of community treatment assistants (CTAs) on their performance of assigned tasks and quantity of speech during mass drug administration of azithromycin for trachoma in rural Tanzania. Design Surveys of CTAs and audio recordings of interactions between CTAs and villagers during drug distribution. Setting Mass drug administration program in rural Kongwa district. Participants Fifty-seven randomly selected CTAs, and 3122 residents of villages receiving azithromycin as part of the Kongwa Trachoma Project. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Speech quantity graded by Roter interaction analysis system, presence of culturally appropriate greeting and education on facial hygiene for trachoma prevention from coded analysis of audio-recorded interactions. Results At sites with all female CTAs, each CTA spent more time and spoke more in each interaction in comparison with CTAs at sites with only male CTAs and CTAs at ‘mixed gender’ sites (sites with both male and female CTAs). At ‘mixed gender’ sites, males spoke significantly more than females. Female CTAs mentioned trachoma prevention with facial cleanliness more than twice as often as male CTAs; however, both genders mentioned hygiene in <10% of interactions. Both genders had culturally appropriate greetings in <25% of interactions. Conclusions Gender dynamics affect the amount of time that CTAs spend with villagers during drug distribution, and the relative amount of speech when both genders work together. Both genders are not meeting expectations for trachoma prevention education and greeting villagers, and novel training methods are necessary. PMID:25022350

  8. Tanzania's policy on biodiversity prospecting and drug discovery programs.

    PubMed

    Mahunnah, R L; Mshigeni, K E

    1996-04-01

    Tanzania is endowed with a rich natural resource. The biodiversity comprises over 10,000 plant species, a rich fauna and marine resources. The collection of biological resources is guided by a set of formalities, namely: (i) entry visas, (ii) research permits, (iii) designation of a relevant collaborating host institution or organization, and (iv) eventual joint field work with the collaborating host institution. A facility exists whereby an institution within the country can collaborate with a technologically developed institution or country through mutual research agreement in short and long-term programs. In such a case, Tanzanian scientists collect and export biological materials for drug testing by the collaborating partner. The research agreement is based on the understanding that benefits of the discovery are shared among all parties, namely, the host country's collaborating institution(s), government and indigenous cultures. Rules and regulations governing biodiversity prospecting fall under the categories of (a) floristic resources, (b) fauna or animal substances and (c) marine biological resources. The collection and export of CITES-listed organisms is governed by a separate policy package. Various national institutions are directly involved in overseeing the implementation of these policies. In this paper, these are reviewed to accommodate new conventions concerning research management policies on biological diversity and the sustainable utilization and conservation of these resources. PMID:9213620

  9. Language promotion for educational purposes: The example of Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubagumya, Casmir M.

    1991-03-01

    Kiswahili is one of the most widely used languages in East and Central Africa. In Tanzania, where it is the national language, attempts have been made to develop it so that it can be used as an efficient tool of communication in all sectors of the society, including education. This paper shows that although Kiswahili has successfully been promoted as the medium of primary and adult education, at secondary and tertiary levels of education, its position is still precarious. The notion that English and Kiswahili are in complementary distribution is rejected. It is argued that the two languages are in conflict, and that those who are in a better socio-political/economic position have more control of, and better access to, English. In such a situation the right question to ask is not in which domains English is used, but why it is used in such domains and who uses it. The paper further argues that the present sociolinguistic environment makes the use of English as a viable medium unsustainable. For this reason, insistence on the use of English adversely affects the learning process. It is suggested that if Kiswahili became the medium of education at secondary school level and English was taught well as a foreign language, this would help to promote both languages without jeopardising the learning process.

  10. Developing a national program. Clinical services in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J; Wambwa, G

    1995-01-01

    Tanzania's national and other family planning (FP) programs shifted focus in the 1990s to ensuring high quality FP services and moving toward a large national clinical services program. AVSC, which is funded by USAID, is helping to develop quality assurance standards and national supervisory systems, helping local area supervisors assess needs in local areas, and problem solve. The Tanzanian program has moved from support for 1 site in Dar es Salaam serving 230 clients to 40 sites in 1994 serving 5000 clients. During 1992-95, 12,000 clients obtained long-term or permanent methods of contraception. In 1988, it was observed that supervision was weak. By mid-1994 a collaborative effort was underway to conduct supervisory training, materials development, and improve transportation systems for supervisors. Supervisors are responsible for managing the quality improvement process. However, there is a critical shortage of trained personnel. Supervisors are learning how to assess training needs and to plan for meeting those needs with limited availability of resources. Supervisors will assist with training while the system expands sites to 80 by June 1996 and 112 by 1999.

  11. Rupture of the uterus in Malawi and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Armon, P J

    1977-09-01

    This paper describes the presenting features and possible etiology of 115 cases of rupture of the uterus occurring in Malawi and Tanzania. The series included 62 spontaneous ruptures, 24 traumatic ruptures, and 29 scar ruptures. The rupture was complete in 100 cases but the peritoneum was intact in 15. 72 cases involved obstructed labor and 29 occurred in women with previous cesarean sections. Only 22% of subjects were grand multiparae (7 or more pregnancies), and the average parity was 4.5. Classical symptoms and signs either did not occur or were late in appearing in most cases, and none of the women complained of a tearing or bursting sensation. 23 of the cases died during treatment. Sterilization is recommended in cases where the initial rupture extends into or is primarily situated in the upper segment of the uterus due to the probability of recurrence. Delays in reaching medical care and a lack of medical facilities contribute to the incidence of uterine rupture in developing countries. Careful screening for at-riskmothers and use of partograms to diagnose cephalopelvic disproportion during labor would diminish the occurrence of this complication, however. Also recommended is avoidance of unnecessary cesarean section procedures and extreme caution in the management of patients with uterine scars. The limitation of family size and improvements in maternal haalth education are further important preventive measures.

  12. The Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania - A volcanological review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontijn, Karen; Williamson, David; Mbede, Evelyne; Ernst, Gerald G. J.

    2012-02-01

    The Rungwe Volcanic Province in SW Tanzania is a densely populated area that is considered volcanically active. As part of the East African Rift System, a significant control of tectonic activity seems to exist on the location and also potential destabilization of volcanic edifices. Three large volcanoes, Ngozi, Rungwe, and Kyejo, dominate the landscape and all show contrasting eruptive behaviour in the recent geological past. Kyejo volcano is a flow-dominated volcano that had a historic lava flow eruption. Lake sediment cores, drilled in Lakes Malawi, Masoko, Rukwa, and Tanganyika, provide a record of frequent explosive eruptions in the last few tens of thousands of years. In combination with on-land stratigraphic observations, they constrain the minimum eruptive frequency of especially Rungwe and Ngozi volcanoes. Both volcanoes had Plinian-style eruptions in the Holocene. The most striking documented Rungwe eruption, the ca. 4 ka Rungwe Pumice, is a rare case of a Plinian eruption in near-wind-free conditions. Furthermore, the Rungwe Pumice, just like any other Rungwe tephra deposit, does not show any evidence of pyroclastic density current deposits. Apart from explosive eruptions at a range of scales happening every few hundred years at Rungwe, the volcano also experienced at least two sector collapse events generating debris avalanches. All existing evidence shows that the Rungwe Volcanic Province is prone to future significant explosive eruptions. To further assess, quantify and mitigate volcanic hazard risks, extensive and systematic multidisciplinary geological research, and both volcanic and tectonic monitoring are needed.

  13. Parasitology of five primates in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kooriyama, Takanori; Hasegawa, Hideo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio; Nishida, Toshisada; Iwaki, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Parasitological surveillance in primates has been performed using coprological observation and identification of specimens from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania (Mahale). In this study, we conducted coprological surveillance to identify the fauna of parasite infection in five primate species in Mahale: red colobus (Procolobus badius tephrosceles), red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti), vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), and chimpanzees. Fecal samples were examined microscopically, and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, larvae, and adult worms. Three nematodes (Oesophagostomum spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichuris sp.), Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba spp. were found in all five primate species. The following infections were identified: Bertiella studeri was found in chimpanzees and yellow baboons; Balantidium coli was found in yellow baboons; three nematodes (Streptopharagus, Primasubulura, an undetermined genus of Spirurina) and Dicrocoeliidae gen. sp. were found in red-tailed monkeys, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons; Chitwoodspirura sp. was newly identified in red colobus and red-tailed monkeys; Probstmayria gombensis and Troglocorys cava were newly identified in chimpanzees, together with Troglodytella abrassarti; and Enterobius sp. was newly identified in red colobus. The parasitological data reported for red colobus, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons in Mahale are the first reports for these species. PMID:22661394

  14. Magma supply rates inferred from cinder cone volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, K. G.; Borgia, A.; Neri, M.; Kervyn, M.

    2010-12-01

    Revisiting the question of how cinder cones grow suggests the possibility of inferring magma supply rates from cinder cones sizes. We start with a conceptual model of cinder cone growth: (1) Eruption volume flux increases rapidly and then decreases exponentially. (2) Cinder cones get steeper during the initiation of the eruption and then maintain a constant steepness. (3) The initial basal diameter varies with volume flux into the cone. Based on these constraints, we propose a general form for the relationship between cinder cone volume and magma supply rate: V = Q(exp(-t/b)/b - exp(-t/a)/a), where V is volume (in m3), Q is the maximum potential magma flux (in m3/s), t is time (in s), a is a damping factor (in s) controlling the decline in volume flux, and b is a factor controlling the initial increase in volume flux. Then we use the data available on the growth of cinder cones from four modern eruptions to show the relevance of our model and to constrain the supply curves. All four modern cones (Paricutin, Mexico which erupted 1943-1974; Tolbachik, Kamchatka which erupted in 1975-1976; Cono del Laghetto, Mount Etna, Italy which formed in 2001; and a small cone on the summit of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, which formed during the 2007 eruption) show the basic growth pattern: initial rapid growth followed by declining growth (Figure 1). The regression results yeild the following magma supply rates: The southern Tolbachik cones have the largest predicted magma supply at ~100 m3/s. Paricutin and Laghetto are around 9 m3/s. The Oldoinyo Lengai cone has a magma supply of ~0.5 m3/s. The northern Tolbachik cone has the lowest magma supply of ~0.1 m3/s. In contrast, the damping factor a is generally on the order of 107 (it varies from 8 x 106 at southern Tolbachik to 4 x 107 at northern Tolbachik). The parameter b controlling the initial increase is generally small (<1). The predicted magma supply does not seem to be very sensitive to either parameter. Thus we suggest that

  15. Students' Attitudes towards School-Based Sex and Relationships Education in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper was to assess students' attitudes towards school-based sex and relationships education (SRE). Design: This study featured a cross-sectional survey design. Method: A sample of 715 students from two districts in Tanzania completed a survey questionnaire assessing various aspects related to their attitudes…

  16. First report of Phakopsora pachyrhizi on soybean causing rust in Tanzania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. was reported on legume hosts other than soybean in Tanzania as early as 1979. Soybean rust (SBR), caused by P. pachyrhizi, was first reported on soybean in Africa in Uganda in 1996, and its introduction into Africa was proposed to occur through urediniospores blowing from ...

  17. Parental Demand, Choice and Access to Early Childhood Education in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtahabwa, Lyabwene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parental demand for early childhood education (ECE) in relation to choice and access to early childhood programmes in Tanzania. Extensive analyses of both Government and privately written documents over the past decade were used to determine parental demand, choice and access to ECE. The literature revealed that although…

  18. Girls' Education in Pastoral Communities: An Ethnographic Study of Monduli District, Tanzania. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Adella

    2014-01-01

    This research report notes that despite the focus on girls' education in the Millennium Development Goals, there remains a huge number of girls out of education, a situation which, although improving, is still a significant concern in Tanzania, Africa. Women and girls in pastoral communities are subject to a particularly challenging…

  19. Dividing the Labor of Development: Education and Participation in Rural Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kristin D.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1940s, the concept of community participation has framed, mobilized, and legitimated national development agendas in the Singida Region of rural central Tanzania. Based on 19 months of ethnographic and archival research, this study examines the forms of community participation elicited through state and international development…

  20. Results of Co-Teaching Instruction to Special Education Teacher Candidates in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Laura M.; Kaff, Marilyn S.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-method descriptive pilot investigation addressed co-teaching as an inclusive school practice for special education teacher candidates at Sebastian Kolowa Memorial University (SEKOMU) in Tanzania. The investigation results, though preliminary, indicate that course content and instruction in co-teaching had a positive impact on the…

  1. Uranium-series dating of bone from the Isimila prehistoric site, Tanzania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, F.C.; Cole, G.H.; Kleindienst, M.R.; Szabo, B. J.; Oakley, K.P.

    1972-01-01

    EXCAVATIONS in 1957 and 1958 at the Isimila prehistoric site, in Tanzania1, sampled Acheulian occurrences in horizons at various levels in the Isimila Beds which are approximately 18 m thick. No significant breaks were observed in the sedimentary sequence, although there are numerous local hiatuses. ?? 1972 Nature Publishing Group.

  2. Children's Behavioral Adjustment in Pre-Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Multilevel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavega, Theresia J.; Brugman, Daniel; van Tuijl, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study concerns children's behavioral adjustment in the context of pre-primary schools in Tanzania. Twenty teachers and 320 children from 20 pre-primary schools participated in the study. Teacher-child relationships, children's behavioral adjustment, and teachers' cultural beliefs were reported by…

  3. Higher Education as an Instrument of Social Integration in Tanzania: Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkude, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries, higher education is a powerful instrument for social mobility and economic prosperity. An in-depth study of the relationship between higher education and certain equity issues has revealed that in Ghana and Tanzania there is inadequate effort to widen higher education participation to include traditionally disadvantaged…

  4. Pupils' Perceptions of Sex and Reproductive Health Education in Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapinga, Orestes Silverius; Hyera, Daniel Frans

    2015-01-01

    This study explored pupils' perceptions of sex and reproductive health education in primary schools in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at (i) exploring pupils' views on sex and reproductive health education in primary schools; (ii) determining opinions on the appropriateness of sex and reproductive health education for pupils in primary…

  5. Adolescent Hopefulness in Tanzania: Street Youth, Former Street Youth, and School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalkur, Priya G.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares hope in street youth, former street youth, and school youth (aged 12-18) in Tanzania. Responding to Snyder's hope theory, the author argues that not only personal agency but also the stability of living context (street, shelter, home) shapes hopefulness. Employing qualitative and quantitative analyses, the author presents a…

  6. Development and Education in the Mwanza District (Tanzania), A Case Study of Migration and Peasant Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heijnen, Johannes Daniel

    The objectives and functions of the primary school in Tanzania, Africa, are evaluated and analyzed in terms of the agricultural needs and employment of the residents. The document includes discussions on the people, the land, Mwanza Township (the area under study), migration (causes and consequences), influences of primary education on migration,…

  7. Sex, Grades and Power in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative increases tell a partial story about the quality of women's participation in higher education. Women students' reporting of sexual harassment has been noteworthy in a recent study that I directed on widening participation in higher education in Ghana and Tanzania. The hierarchical and gendered power relations within universities have…

  8. Learning to Negotiate Sexual Relationships: A Girls' School in Tanzania as a Restrictive and Agentic Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemsen, Laura Wangsness; DeJaeghere, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Literature on schooling in Africa often frames sexual relationships as threatening girls' educational participation, health, and general well-being. Schooling practices aimed at sheltering girls reflect the prevalence of discourses emphasising danger and abstinence. This article presents the case of one all-girls school in Tanzania which provides…

  9. Pre-Primary Education in Tanzania: Observations from Urban and Rural Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtahabwa, Lyabwene; Rao, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between pre-primary educational policy and actual practice in Tanzania. Policy relevant to pre-primary education was analyzed and 15 pre-primary lessons from two urban and two rural schools were videotaped. Although the national educational policy specifies the same standards for pre-primary education…

  10. How Children Living in Poor Areas of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania Perceive Their Own Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Pauline; Humble, Steve; Chan, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out with 1,857 poor children from 17 schools, living in low-income areas of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. All children took the "Student Multiple Intelligences Profile" (SMIP) questionnaire as part of a bigger project that gathered data around concepts and beliefs of talent. This paper sets out two aims, first to…

  11. Developing and Piloting Interactive Physics Experiments for Secondary Schools in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msoka, Vidate C.; Mtebe, Joel S.; Kissaka, Mussa M.; Kalinga, Ellen C.

    2015-01-01

    Students in secondary schools in Tanzania have been facing difficulties in conducting laboratory experiments. This has been due to the acute shortage of laboratory facilities and poor teaching methodologies. Consequently, students perceive science subjects as unattractive, difficult and irrelevant to understanding the world around them. An…

  12. Torches in the Night. Educational Experiences in Tanzania and the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muncie, Peter C.

    This booklet describes two educational projects financed by the World Bank in cooperation with UNESCO. Tanzania was the site of one project, where agricultural training at the intermediate and farmer levels was the focus. The second project was in the Ivory Coast and involved construction of technical, vocational, agricultural, teacher training…

  13. The Success of Students' Loans in Financing Higher Education in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyahende, Veronica R.

    2013-01-01

    Students' loans in financing higher education in Tanzania have been subjected to many researches. However, less information is available on how the success of students' loans in financing higher education can be revealed. Therefore the purpose of this study is to examine the factors indicating the success of students' loans in financing higher…

  14. Unexpected results from large-scale cryptosporidiosis screening study in calves in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chang'a, J S; Robertson, L J; Mtambo, M M A; Mdegela, R H; Løken, T; Reksen, O

    2011-10-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate Cryptosporidium infection in crossbreed dairy calves in two districts in Tanzania. A total of 943 fecal samples from 601 dairy calves were included in the study, with calves from both smallholder dairy farms and from large-scale and medium-scale dairy farms. The modified Ziehl-Neelsen (mZN) technique was used to examine 710 samples, and 13 of these were considered to be positive for Cryptosporidium. These 13 samples considered positive by mZN, along with the remaining 233 samples, were analysed by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Of these 246 samples examined by IFAT, 15 samples, 10 of which were considered positive by mZN, were also examined by the auramine phenol technique, and 5 samples, all of which were considered positive by mZN, were analysed by PCR. The results from the IFAT, auramine phenol and PCR analyses demonstrated that none of the samples contained Cryptosporidium oocysts, indicating that, cryptosporidiosis is currently not a problem in dairy calves in these regions of Tanzania. These unexpected results are discussed with respect to other reports on cryptosporidiosis in calves that suggest that this parasite is a serious calf disease globally, and particularly in relation to studies from Tanzania. We suggest that results from studies of cattle in Tanzania, in which mZN has been used as the sole analytical method, should be treated with caution.

  15. Social Capital: A Neglected Resource to Create Viable and Sustainable Youth Economic Groups in Urban Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyerere, David J.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an alarming increase in the rate of unemployment among active urban population in Tanzania whereby the youth are severely affected. In this regard Youth Economic Groups (YEGs) program was formed as one among the best alternative strategies to address this perennial problem. Membership in YEGs act as a means to complement youth…

  16. Effects of trophy hunting on lion and leopard populations in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Packer, C; Brink, H; Kissui, B M; Maliti, H; Kushnir, H; Caro, T

    2011-02-01

    Tanzania holds most of the remaining large populations of African lions (Panthera leo) and has extensive areas of leopard habitat (Panthera pardus), and both species are subjected to sizable harvests by sport hunters. As a first step toward establishing sustainable management strategies, we analyzed harvest trends for lions and leopards across Tanzania's 300,000 km(2) of hunting blocks. We summarize lion population trends in protected areas where lion abundance has been directly measured and data on the frequency of lion attacks on humans in high-conflict agricultural areas. We place these findings in context of the rapidly growing human population in rural Tanzania and the concomitant effects of habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and cultural practices. Lion harvests declined by 50% across Tanzania between 1996 and 2008, and hunting areas with the highest initial harvests suffered the steepest declines. Although each part of the country is subject to some form of anthropogenic impact from local people, the intensity of trophy hunting was the only significant factor in a statistical analysis of lion harvest trends. Although leopard harvests were more stable, regions outside the Selous Game Reserve with the highest initial leopard harvests again showed the steepest declines. Our quantitative analyses suggest that annual hunting quotas be limited to 0.5 lions and 1.0 leopard/1000 km(2) of hunting area, except hunting blocks in the Selous Game Reserve, where harvests should be limited to 1.0 lion and 3.0 leopards/1000 km(2) .

  17. Sibling Negotiations and the Construction of Literacy Events in an Urban Area of Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg, Sofia Johnson; Holmqvist, Rolf; Rubenson, Birgitta; Rindstedt, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    This study presents findings from analyses of naturally occurring literacy events, where children jointly focus on reading and writing letters of the alphabet, illustrating social constructions of learning created through language and embodied action. Video recorded data from two different families living in an urban low-income area in Tanzania is…

  18. Antecedents of Continued Usage Intentions of Web-Based Learning Management System in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lwoga, Edda Tandi; Komba, Mercy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that predict students' continued usage intention of web-based learning management systems (LMS) in Tanzania, with a specific focus on the School of Business of Mzumbe University. Specifically, the study investigated major predictors of actual usage and continued usage intentions of…

  19. Building an Agricultural Extension Services System Supported by ICTs in Tanzania: Progress Made, Challenges Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanga, C.; Kalungwizi, V. J.; Msuya, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    The conventional agricultural extension service in Tanzania is mainly provided by extension officers visiting farmers to provide agricultural advisory service. This system of extension service provision faces a number of challenges including the few number of extension officers and limited resources. This article assesses the effectiveness of an…

  20. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Work Stress in Academia in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkumbo, Kitila

    2014-01-01

    Work stress has been identified as a common phenomenon in the teaching profession. However, little research has been done to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with work stress among employees in university context in Tanzania and sub-Saharan African countries in general. Using survey design within the quantitative approach, this…

  1. ICT Use in Science and Mathematics Teacher Education in Tanzania: Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub; Fisser, Petra; Pieters, Jules; Voogt, Joke

    2015-01-01

    Currently, teacher education colleges in Tanzania are being equipped with computers to prepare teachers who can integrate technology in teaching. Despite these efforts, teachers are not embracing the use of technology in their teaching. This study adopted Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) as a framework for describing the…

  2. Critical Success Factors for Adoption of Web-Based Learning Management Systems in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lwoga, Edda Tandi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines factors that predict students' continual usage intention of web-based learning content management systems in Tanzania, with a specific focus at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Science (MUHAS). This study sent a questionnaire surveys to 408 first year undergraduate students, with a rate of return of 66.7. This study…

  3. Factors Influencing Teachers' Use of Multimedia Enhanced Content in Secondary Schools in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Mbwilo, Betty; Kissaka, Mussa M.

    2016-01-01

    Tanzania is faced with a severe shortage of qualified in-service school science and mathematics teachers. While science and mathematics account for 46% of the curriculum, only 28% of teachers are qualified to teach these subjects. In order to overcome this challenge, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT) implemented a project…

  4. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  5. Field Performance of Andean Diversity Panel lines in two locations in Tanzania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important grain legume in human diets in East Africa. For example, it is estimated that over 75 % of rural households in Tanzania depend on it for daily dietary requirements. Despite its importance, bean yield in the East African region is among the lo...

  6. Exploring Levels of Job Satisfaction among Teachers in Public Secondary Schools in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msuya, Ombeni William

    2016-01-01

    A case study on the role of extrinsic factors (hygiene factors) and socio-demographic factors in determining job satisfaction among teachers in public secondary schools in Tanzania was undertaken. Biographical variables pertaining to teachers' age, sex, marital status and work experience were investigated to determine whether they had any…

  7. "Drugs, Religion and Chemistry in Tanzania": An Interactive Seminar for Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Malcolm S.

    2015-01-01

    Most Tanzanian Higher Education Institutes do not have the materials and technology to give students a significant practical experience in the sciences. In 2013 Tanzania was rated 159th out of 187 countries for "human development" (United Nations Development Program 2014 Report). In order to supplement their current, limited practical…

  8. Preparing Tanzania's Young Children for the Economic World: Possibilities for Collaboration with Other Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushi, Selina L. P.

    This paper is a critical analysis of the role of the Tanzanian education system in enhancing young children's awareness of economic aspects around them. The major factors the paper considers are: the poverty of the country; the prominence of the education system as a socializing agent for children; the aim of early education in Tanzania; and young…

  9. A Bibliography on Rural Development in Tanzania. MSU Rural Development Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocher, James E.; Fleisher, Beverly

    Rural development is understood to mean both the increased productivity of agriculture and other rural economic activities and the enhancement of the material well-being of the rural people (who comprise about 90% of Tanzania's 16 million population) through education, improved health, and better nutrition. Seven hundred and sixty-one books,…

  10. Affirmative Action, Gender Equity and University Admissions--Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onsongo, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the outcomes of affirmative action policies aimed at improving access for women students to university education in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Different interpretations of affirmative action are found in the three countries. These include lower entry scores, remedial pre-university programmes and financial assistance. There…

  11. Adult Education in Tanzania: Life-Long Process for National Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbunda, Daniel

    For Tanzanians, education to be meaningful implies human development through education. Tanzania's commitment to build a socialist state, based on traditional African socialism, is also a commitment to socialist education, the necessary tool for social development. Since work is a lifelong duty for any socialist, work-oriented education is also a…

  12. The Successful Education Sector Development in Tanzania--Comment on Gender Balance and Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okkolin, Mari-Anne; Lehtomaki, Elina; Bhalalusesa, Eustella

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss to what extent the international and national equality goals regarding gender balance and inclusive education have been reached in the education sector development in Tanzania. According to recent reports, the development trend has been generally positive, and the country is close to achieving its primary education…

  13. Developing Multimedia Enhanced Content to Upgrade Subject Content Knowledge of Secondary School Teachers in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Kibga, Elia Y.; Mwambela, Alfred A.; Kissaka, Mussa M.

    2015-01-01

    The failure rates and lack of interest amongst students in science and mathematics in secondary schools in Tanzania is a serious problem. The Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT) implemented a project to enhance and upgrade the pedagogical knowledge and subject content knowledge of teachers in selected difficult topics in science…

  14. Exploring Understandings of Inclusion in Schools in Zambia and Tanzania Using Reflective Writing and Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Susie

    2011-01-01

    In this article I explore insights gained from participating in an exploratory, small-scale study led by the Enabling Education Network (EENET) in 17 schools in northern Zambia and five schools in Tanzania. Facilitating South-based research, while based in a Northern university, raises complex ethical issues about voice and control which are…

  15. Coteaching in Tanzania Benefits Both the School of St. Jude and Collegiate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Independent School, 2016

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, Louisville Collegiate School (Kentucky) formed a partnership with The School of St. Jude in Arusha, Tanzania. As part of their professional development, six Collegiate faculty members travel each summer to spend two weeks coteaching and interacting with Tanzanian faculty and students. This professional development experience forces…

  16. The 1977 Universal Primary Education in Tanzania: A Historical Base for Quantitative Enquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates, Ricardo; Westbrook, Jo; Hernandez-Fernandez, Jimena

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the importance of increasing women's education as a result of Universal Primary Education (UPE) and its further impact on improving children's educational access in Tanzania. The study uses data from the 2007 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) for empirical analysis and it is informed by the historical accounts of the UPE reform…

  17. The Occurrence and Prevalence of Giraffe Skin Disease in Protected Areas of Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lee, Derek E; Bond, Monica L

    2016-07-01

    Giraffe skin disease (GSD) is a disorder of undetermined etiology that causes lesions on the forelimbs of Masai giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi). We estimated occurrence and prevalence of GSD in six wildlife conservation areas of Tanzania. The disjunct spatial pattern of occurrence implies that environmental factors may influence GSD. PMID:27310168

  18. Trachoma and Health Education in Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Pointer to Community Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdow, Richard; Issae, Wahab; Katala, Sidney; Mwaisumo, Rose

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the work reported here is to determine whether a low cost teaching approach which had been successfully used in one region of Tanzania (Tanga) could be introduced to other teachers in a different region by teachers, rather than outside experts. A second aim is to determine whether changes occurred in children's…

  19. Empathy-Based Stories Capturing the Voice of Female Secondary School Students in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posti-Ahokas, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Tanzania, like many other African countries, has experienced a rapid expansion of its secondary education sector. This has resulted in large numbers of secondary school graduates struggling to build a future through continuing education or finding employment.1 Students are faced with the difficult task of assessing their opportunities in the face…

  20. Roots of Traditional Personality Development Among the Zaramo in Coastal Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forssen, Anja

    The manner in which the traditional way of life and the traditional rituals of the Zaramo of Tanzania affect the personality development of Zaramo children and individuals in general was the focus of this preliminary study for an envisioned longitudinal program of research. Data was gathered during 1970 and 1974 in a typical traditional rural…

  1. Predicting Participation in Environmental Education by Teachers in Coastal Regions of Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruyere, Brett; Nash, Peter E.; Mbogella, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Theories of responsible environmental behavior (REB) have most often been applied in developed countries and to direct forms of REB such as recycling and conserving water. This study applied a model of REB to a developing country setting in Tanzania based in part on variables from a Hungerford and Volk (1990) model and targeting an indirect form…

  2. Clinical, Virologic, and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Dengue Outbreak, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mboera, Leonard E.G.; De Nardo, Pasquale; Oriyo, Ndekya M.; Meschi, Silvia; Rumisha, Susan F.; Colavita, Francesca; Mhina, Athanas; Carletti, Fabrizio; Mwakapeje, Elibariki; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Castilletti, Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Nicastri, Emanuele; Malecela, Mwelecele N.; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    We investigated a dengue outbreak in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in 2014, that was caused by dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2. DENV infection was present in 101 (20.9%) of 483 patients. Patient age and location of residence were associated with infection. Seven (4.0%) of 176 patients were co-infected with malaria and DENV. PMID:27088845

  3. Students' Perceived Level of English Proficiency in Secondary Schools in Dodoma, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makewa, Lazarus Ndiku; Role, Elizabeth; Tuguta, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This paper looked at students' perceived level of English proficiency among Dodoma secondary schools in Tanzania. Factors like attitude, anxiety, classroom activities, motivation, and learning resources were considered as influencing English learning. The study was guided by three theories: Input Hypothesis, Interlanguage and Vygotsky's theory of…

  4. Students' Perceived Level of English Proficiency in Secondary Schools in Dodoma, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makewa, Lazarus Ndiku; Role, Elizabeth; Tuguta, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This paper looked at students' perceived level of English proficiency among Dodoma secondary schools in Tanzania. Factors like attitude, anxiety, classroom activities, motivation, and learning resources were considered as influencing English learning. The study was guided by three theories: Input Hypothesis, Inter-language and Vygotsky's theory of…

  5. New Phlugidia species (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Meconematinae, Phlugidini) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania, Africa.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Phlugidia (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Meconematinae) are described from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. P. planicercus Hemp n. sp. occurs in lowland forest at the foothills of the Uluguru Mountains, while P. ob- tusicercus Hemp n. sp. was collected in the Nguru Mountains. A key to Phlugidia species is provided.

  6. An Assessment of the Development and Modernization of the Kiswahili Language in Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massamba, David P. B.

    Although the development of Kiswahili in Tanzania has had a number of stumbling blocks, it is slowly developing into a language of modern technology. Individual institutions have contributed greatly to its spread and promotion. More books are now published in Kiswahili than ever before, and scientific and technical terminology has been developed.…

  7. The Cultural Politics of Constructivist Pedagogies: Teacher Education Reform in the United Republic of Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrus, Frances

    2009-01-01

    This article examines recent educational reforms in Tanzania by looking at the cultural politics of pedagogical change in secondary and teacher education. It presents an ethnography of a teachers college founded on the principles of social constructivism in a country where formalistic, teacher-centered pedagogy is the norm. Using data collected…

  8. CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA, TANZANIA, MALAWI, ZAMBIA, AND UGANDA--EXPERIENCES, NEEDS, AND INTEREST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDSTROEM, LARS-OLOF

    THIS REPORT ON THE SALIENT FEATURES AND CONCERNS OF CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA, TANZANIA, MALAWI, ZAMBIA, AND UGANDA--(1) DISCUSSES ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES, AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE CORRESPONDENCE METHOD IN AN AFRICAN CONTEXT, (2) SURVEYS CONDITIONS AND FACILITIES (POSTAL SERVICES, ROADS, INSTRUCTIONAL RADIO AND TELEVISION,…

  9. Dialogue Conferences and Empowerment: Transforming Primary Education in Tanzania through Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Athman Kyaruzi; Gjøtterud, Sigrid; Krogh, Erling

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present and discuss experiences developed through a dialogue conference which we organised as part of a three-year participatory action research project related to primary education and agricultural education in Tanzania. We explore how dialogue conference as a research method can fill a gap between traditional ways of mutual…

  10. Epidemiological studies on Schistosoma bovis in Iringa Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kassuku, A; Christensen, N O; Monrad, J; Nansen, P; Knudsen, J

    1986-06-01

    Various aspects of the epidemiology of Schistosoma bovis were studied over a one-year period in Iringa Region, Tanzania. An abattoir survey revealed an overall prevalence rate of 30.8% in cattle and 3.8% in goats in the area, and field studies on two dairy farms both providing good opportunities for schistosome transmission provided information concerning the transmission ecology of S. bovis in relation to different types of grazing and water supply. The traditional management system on one farm with a large number of cattle utilizing a limited water resource highly suitable for sustaining populations of the snail host Bulinus africanus resulted in intensive transmission as evidenced by uptake of massive infections in calves and development of resistance to S. bovis challenge in dairy cows. On another farm, appropriate management comprising watering of cattle at a B. africanus-free pond provided the background for less intensive transmission in that transmission risk was confined to occasional contact with water contact sites of secondary importance. Besides, the transmission pattern as regards intensity and seasonality was affected markedly by the geographical and seasonal distribution of the host snail B. africanus. Thus, transmission in canals and temporary ponds was limited mainly to the dry season and the end of the rainy season, respectively, while transmission in permanent ponds occurred intermittently throughout at least most of the year. It is concluded that prevention of severe loss of productivity in domestic ruminants due to schistosome infections should be possible using strategic management procedures provided that essential information is available concerning the pattern of transmission in the particular area. PMID:2874712

  11. Modelling the implications of moving towards universal coverage in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Josephine; Mtei, Gemini; Ally, Mariam

    2012-03-01

    A model was developed to assess the impact of possible moves towards universal coverage in Tanzania over a 15-year time frame. Three scenarios were considered: maintaining the current situation ('the status quo'); expanded health insurance coverage (the estimated maximum achievable coverage in the absence of premium subsidies, coverage restricted to those who can pay); universal coverage to all (government revenues used to pay the premiums for the poor). The model estimated the costs of delivering public health services and all health services to the population as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and forecast revenue from user fees and insurance premiums. Under the status quo, financial protection is provided to 10% of the population through health insurance schemes, with the remaining population benefiting from subsidized user charges in public facilities. Seventy-six per cent of the population would benefit from financial protection through health insurance under the expanded coverage scenario, and 100% of the population would receive such protection through a mix of insurance cover and government funding under the universal coverage scenario. The expanded and universal coverage scenarios have a significant effect on utilization levels, especially for public outpatient care. Universal coverage would require an initial doubling in the proportion of GDP going to the public health system. Government health expenditure would increase to 18% of total government expenditure. The results are sensitive to the cost of health system strengthening, the level of real GDP growth, provider reimbursement rates and administrative costs. Promoting greater cross-subsidization between insurance schemes would provide sufficient resources to finance universal coverage. Alternately, greater tax funding for health could be generated through an increase in the rate of Value-Added Tax (VAT) or expanding the income tax base. The feasibility and sustainability of efforts to

  12. Risk distribution across multiple health insurance funds in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Chomi, Eunice Nahyuha; Mujinja, Phares Gamba; Enemark, Ulrika; Hansen, Kristian; Kiwara, Angwara Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Multiple insurance funds serving different population groups may compromise equity due to differential revenue raising capacity and an unequal distribution of high risk members among the funds. This occurs when the funds exist without mechanisms in place to promote income and risk cross-subsidisation across the funds. This paper analyses whether the risk distribution varies across the Community Health Fund (CHF) and National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) in two districts in Tanzania. Specifically we aim to 1) identify risk factors associated with increased utilisation of health services and 2) compare the distribution of identified risk factors among the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. Methods Data was collected from a survey of 695 households. A multivariate logisitic regression model was used to identify risk factors for increased health care utilisation. Chi-square tests were performed to test whether the distribution of identified risk factors varied across the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. Results There was a higher concentration of identified risk factors among CHF households compared to those of the NHIF. Non-member households have a similar wealth status to CHF households, but a lower concentration of identified risk factors. Conclusion Mechanisms for broader risk spreading and cross-subsidisation across the funds are necessary for the promotion of equity. These include risk equalisation to adjust for differential risk distribution and revenue raising capacity of the funds. Expansion of CHF coverage is equally important, by addressing non-financial barriers to CHF enrolment to encourage wealthy non-members to join, as well as subsidised membership for the poorest. PMID:25574326

  13. Greenhouse gas fluxes from agricultural soils of Kenya and Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenstock, Todd S.; Mpanda, Mathew; Pelster, David E.; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Rufino, Mariana C.; Thiong'o, Margaret; Mutuo, Paul; Abwanda, Sheila; Rioux, Janie; Kimaro, Anthony A.; Neufeldt, Henry

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in soils is a prerequisite to constrain national, continental, and global GHG budgets. However, data characterizing fluxes from agricultural soils of Africa are markedly limited. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) fluxes at 10 farmer-managed sites of six crop types for 1 year in Kenya and Tanzania using static chambers and gas chromatography. Cumulative emissions ranged between 3.5-15.9 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1, 0.4-3.9 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1, and -1.2-10.1 kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1, depending on crop type, environmental conditions, and management. Manure inputs increased CO2 (p = 0.03), but not N2O or CH4, emissions. Soil cultivation had no discernable effect on emissions of any of the three gases. Fluxes of CO2 and N2O were 54-208% greater (p < 0.05) during the wet versus the dry seasons for some, but not all, crop types. The heterogeneity and seasonality of fluxes suggest that the available data describing soil fluxes in Africa, based on measurements of limited duration of only a few crop types and agroecological zones, are inadequate to use as a basis for estimating the impact of agricultural soils on GHG budgets. A targeted effort to understand the magnitude and mechanisms underlying African agricultural soil fluxes is necessary to accurately estimate the influence of this source on the global climate system and for determining mitigation strategies.

  14. Wetland Diagenesis and Traces of Early Hominids, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deocampo, Daniel M.; Blumenschine, Robert J.; Ashley, Gail M.

    2002-03-01

    Lateral variations in whole-rock and clay geochemistry of basal Bed II claystones in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, reflect water quality differences across the Eastern Lacustrine Plain ∼1.75 myr ago. Bulk Ba/Sr and (Na2O+K2O+MgO)/Al2O3 range from 1.4 to 4.2 and from 0.7 to 1.4, respectively, and indicate leaching of lacustrine claystones beneath freshwater wetlands at times following lake retreat. Bulk MgO/Al2O3 (0.3-1.0) and molar Mg/Al (0.5-3.9) ratios of <0.2-μm clays reflect alteration of Mg-rich lacustrine clays. These indicators point to freshest conditions near Locality 43 of Hay (1976; HWK-East; Leakey, 1971), moderate conditions to the east (Locality 40-MCK), and high salinity and alkalinity to the west (Localities 85-VEK, 45-FLK). Clay geochemistry and artifact abundances are well correlated (r=-0.67, p<0.005), suggesting a relationship between paleo-water quality and hominid paleoecology. This pattern is consistent with predictions of greatest artifact discard/loss around freshwater sources where scavanging opportunities were greatest for hominids. This quantifies a relationship between artifact density distribution and a paleoecological proxy over landscape scales for the first time in Early Stone Age archaeology. In contrast, fossil bone abundance is uncorrelated (r=0.14, p=0.6), reflecting more complex taphonomic processes. Quantitative tests of landscape-scale land-use models are important for understanding early hominid behavior and its evolution.

  15. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Reti, Jay S

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1) models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2) develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3) statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite) and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt) suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated with stone tool

  16. Rangeland management and fluvial geomorphology in northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brian W.; Doyle, Martin W.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have independently documented the effects of land use on rivers and threats to river management institutions, but the relationship between changes in institutional context and river condition is not well described. This study assesses the connections between resource management institutions, land use, and rivers by integrating social science, geospatial analysis, and geomorphology. In particular, we measured hydraulic geometry, sediment size distributions, and estimated sediment yield for four rivers in northern Tanzania and conducted semistructured interviews that assessed corresponding resource management institutions. Communities managed rivers through both customary (traditional, nonstate) and government institutions, but the differences in the resource management policies and practices of the study rivers themselves were fairly subtle. Clearer differences were found at broader scales; the four watersheds exhibited substantial differences in land cover change and sediment yield associated with the location of settlements, roadways, and cultivation. Unexpectedly, these recent land use changes did not initiate a geomorphic response in rivers. The long history of grazing by domestic and wild ungulates may have influenced water and sediment supplies such that river channel dimensions are more resistant to changes in land use than other systems or have already adjusted to predominant changes in boundary conditions. This would suggest that not all rivers will have the anticipated responses to contemporary land use changes because of antecedent land use patterns; over long time scales (centuries to millennia), the presence of grazers may actually increase the ability of rivers to withstand changes in land use. Our findings point to a need for further interdisciplinary study of dryland rivers and their shifts between system states, especially in areas with a long history of grazing, relatively recent changes in land use, and a dynamic social and

  17. Sleeping site selection by savanna chimpanzees in Ugalla, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hideshi; Yoshikawa, Midori; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2014-04-01

    We examined sleeping site selection by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in the Ugalla savanna woodland area, western Tanzania, from 1994 to 2012. We established 488 km of line transects and recorded 379 chimpanzee beds within 30 m perpendicular to the transects. Comparisons between 60 × 60 m(2) quadrats containing new and recent beds and the remaining quadrats without beds along the transects indicated that evergreen forests accounted for disproportionately more area in quadrats with beds than in those without beds during both the dry and rainy seasons. In Ugalla, chimpanzees coexist with lions (Panthera leo) and leopards (Panthera pardus). They may sleep in forests to reduce predation risk by these carnivores, as trees are dense and the canopy is high and closed. The angle of slope was steeper in quadrats containing beds than in those without beds during the dry season, whereas the angle was less steep in quadrats with beds than in those without beds during the rainy season. Additionally, fewer beds were found further from forests. The distance between beds and forests during the dry season was shorter than that during the rainy season. Chimpanzees may sleep in or near forests and on slopes because of water pools in the valley forests along the slopes during the dry season. Quadrats with beds were at slightly higher altitude than those without beds during the rainy season; however, the difference was not significant during the dry season. The number of beds found in or close to feeding trees was not related to the fruiting period. Sleeping site selection by chimpanzees may be affected by predation pressure and water availability in the savanna woodland area.

  18. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Reti, Jay S

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1) models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2) develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3) statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite) and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt) suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated with stone tool

  19. Homicide of children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2005

    PubMed Central

    Outwater, Anne; Mgaya, Edward; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Becker, Stan; Kinabo, Linna; Menick, Daniel Mbassa

    2014-01-01

    Background Although data are sparse, it has been estimated that the highest rates of homicide death amongst children are in Africa. Little information is available on ages 0 -< 15 years. No reliable quantitative surveillance analysis of neonaticide (killed at less than one week) has been done. Methods A Violent Death Survey following WHO/CDC Guidelines was completed in Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania (DSM) (population 2.845 million) in 2005. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered and analyzed using mixed methods techniques. Results The overall age adjusted rate of discarded and killed children in DSM was 2.05. The rate of neonaticide was 27.7 per 100,000) while the rate of homicide incidence for children > one day was Discussion The overall estimated homicide rate for Africa of children under age 15 was 4.53 per 100,000, whereas. The estimated global rate is 1.7 per 100,000 closer to DSM‘s rate. The results in DSM show that broad age groupings such as ” <1 year” or “0–4 years” or “0 – <15 years” may mask a high incidence of neonaticide and an otherwise low incidence of murdered children. The print media provided good in-depth coverage for a few cases but it is not known if the reported cases are representative. Conclusion Eighty percent of homicides of children in DSM are neonaticides. Since it is believed that the forces behind neonaticide are fundamentally different than homicides of older children, it is suggested that data of future surveys be parsed to include neonates, until the phenomenon is more clearly understood and addressed. Further understanding of the mother and father of the deceased is needed. Continued surveillance data collection is important to expand the sample size. PMID:22066333

  20. The school as a force for community change in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliyamkono, T. L.

    1980-09-01

    In newly independent countries where traditional theories of educational policy have continued to be followed, education has persisted as little more than a sophisticated mechanism for the recruitment of elites, and there has been an increased dependence on the advanced industrial nations for aid, experts and educational models. Tanzania, however, has attempted to break away from traditional strategies, and the author here describes and analyses the impact of two of the most far-reaching reforms — Education for Self-Reliance, and Decentralization — on national goals and policies. President Nyerere enunciated the objectives for Education for Self-Reliance in 1967 as relating education to rural life, correcting the elitist bias of education, and changing negative attitudes among students towards agriculture and rural life. Five major programmes of reform covering primary and secondary education, teacher and higher education, and examinations were to be pursued, ensuring a closer integration of schools with local communities, e.g., through school farms and co-operative shops, and making curricula directly relevant to local needs. A policy of Decentralization is being implemented, allowing, theoretically at least, a much greater participation at community level in decision-making. In primary and adult education this has already been effected to some extent, though there is evidence to suggest that decentralization in some regions and districts has resulted in the creation of local bureaucratic machinery for control, defeating the intention of the reform. Decentralization of secondary and teacher education is likely to follow, leaving only higher education centrally controlled for manpower training and allocation purposes. Finally the author discusses the question of the transferability of the Tanzanian reforms.

  1. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Reti, Jay S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1) models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2) develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3) statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite) and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt) suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated with stone tool

  2. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Gosoniu, Laura; Drescher, Axel W; Fillinger, Ulrike; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Castro, Marcia C

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  3. Rangeland management and fluvial geomorphology in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian W; Doyle, Martin W

    2014-06-01

    Researchers have independently documented the effects of land use on rivers and threats to river management institutions, but the relationship between changes in institutional context and river condition is not well described. This study assesses the connections between resource management institutions, land use, and rivers by integrating social science, geospatial analysis, and geomorphology. In particular, we measured hydraulic geometry, sediment size distributions, and estimated sediment yield for four rivers in northern Tanzania and conducted semistructured interviews that assessed corresponding resource management institutions. Communities managed rivers through both customary (traditional, nonstate) and government institutions, but the differences in the resource management policies and practices of the study rivers themselves were fairly subtle. Clearer differences were found at broader scales; the four watersheds exhibited substantial differences in land cover change and sediment yield associated with the location of settlements, roadways, and cultivation. Unexpectedly, these recent land use changes did not initiate a geomorphic response in rivers. The long history of grazing by domestic and wild ungulates may have influenced water and sediment supplies such that river channel dimensions are more resistant to changes in land use than other systems or have already adjusted to predominant changes in boundary conditions. This would suggest that not all rivers will have the anticipated responses to contemporary land use changes because of antecedent land use patterns; over long time scales (centuries to millennia), the presence of grazers may actually increase the ability of rivers to withstand changes in land use. Our findings point to a need for further interdisciplinary study of dryland rivers and their shifts between system states, especially in areas with a long history of grazing, relatively recent changes in land use, and a dynamic social and

  4. Rangeland management and fluvial geomorphology in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian W; Doyle, Martin W

    2014-06-01

    Researchers have independently documented the effects of land use on rivers and threats to river management institutions, but the relationship between changes in institutional context and river condition is not well described. This study assesses the connections between resource management institutions, land use, and rivers by integrating social science, geospatial analysis, and geomorphology. In particular, we measured hydraulic geometry, sediment size distributions, and estimated sediment yield for four rivers in northern Tanzania and conducted semistructured interviews that assessed corresponding resource management institutions. Communities managed rivers through both customary (traditional, nonstate) and government institutions, but the differences in the resource management policies and practices of the study rivers themselves were fairly subtle. Clearer differences were found at broader scales; the four watersheds exhibited substantial differences in land cover change and sediment yield associated with the location of settlements, roadways, and cultivation. Unexpectedly, these recent land use changes did not initiate a geomorphic response in rivers. The long history of grazing by domestic and wild ungulates may have influenced water and sediment supplies such that river channel dimensions are more resistant to changes in land use than other systems or have already adjusted to predominant changes in boundary conditions. This would suggest that not all rivers will have the anticipated responses to contemporary land use changes because of antecedent land use patterns; over long time scales (centuries to millennia), the presence of grazers may actually increase the ability of rivers to withstand changes in land use. Our findings point to a need for further interdisciplinary study of dryland rivers and their shifts between system states, especially in areas with a long history of grazing, relatively recent changes in land use, and a dynamic social and

  5. Calf health and management in smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mdegela, Robinson H.; Ryoba, Ruth; Løken, Torleiv; Reksen, Olav

    2010-01-01

    Smallholder farmers’ knowledge and practice of dairy calf management on 129 farms with calves less than 10 months of age in Southeastern and Southern Highland areas of Tanzania was assessed. The method of study included both a farm visit and completion of a questionnaire. Most of the farmers were female, with a primary level of education, and majority kept 1–3 milking cows that yielded 6–10 l milk/cow/day. Most of the calves were fed milk using a residual calf suckling system. Weaning age was 3–8 months. Overall, the body condition of the calves was poor, ranged from 1 to 2.5 with a mode of 2. The majority of the farmers believed that helminthosis was the most common disease condition affecting the calves; diarrhea was ranked as the second. Calf death was reported by 20% of the farmers to have occurred in their herd lasting the 2 years prior to the study. Calf body condition score was related to body weight for calves younger than 9 weeks, and older than 23 weeks of age, whereas no such relationship existed in the age group 9 to 23 weeks. The sex distribution was skewed with less male calves being older than 23 weeks. We hypothesize that male calves experience inferior management compared with female calves. This study demonstrates a low level of knowledge on, and poor practices of calf management among the surveyed farmers that suggest the need for educational intervention. PMID:20577807

  6. The Determinants of Traditional Medicine Use in Northern Tanzania: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Stanifer, John W.; Patel, Uptal D.; Karia, Francis; Thielman, Nathan; Maro, Venance; Shimbi, Dionis; Kilaweh, Humphrey; Lazaro, Matayo; Matemu, Oliver; Omolo, Justin; Boyd, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Traditional medicines are an important part of healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa, and building successful disease treatment programs that are sensitive to traditional medicine practices will require an understanding of their current use and roles, including from a biomedical perspective. Therefore, we conducted a mixed-method study in Northern Tanzania in order to characterize the extent of and reasons for the use of traditional medicines among the general population so that we can better inform public health efforts in the region. Methods Between December 2013 and June 2014 in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, we conducted 5 focus group discussions and 27 in-depth interviews of key informants. The data from these sessions were analyzed using an inductive framework method with cultural insider-outsider coding. From these results, we developed a structured survey designed to test different aspects of traditional medicine use and administered it to a random sample of 655 adults from the community. The results were triangulated to explore converging and diverging themes. Results Most structured survey participants (68%) reported knowing someone who frequently used traditional medicines, and the majority (56%) reported using them themselves in the previous year. The most common uses were for symptomatic ailments (42%), chronic diseases (15%), reproductive problems (11%), and malaria/febrile illnesses (11%). We identified five major determinants for traditional medicine use in Northern Tanzania: biomedical healthcare delivery, credibility of traditional practices, strong cultural identities, individual health status, and disease understanding. Conclusions In order to better formulate effective local disease management programs that are sensitive to TM practices, we described the determinants of TM use. Additionally, we found TM use to be high in Northern Tanzania and that its use is not limited to lower-income areas or rural settings. After symptomatic ailments

  7. Further Paleogene and Cretaceous sediment cores from the Kilwa area of coastal Tanzania: Tanzania Drilling Project Sites 6 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Paul N.; Nicholas, Christopher J.; Singano, Joyce M.; Bown, Paul R.; Coxall, Helen K.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Huber, Brian T.; Karega, Amina; Lees, Jackie A.; MacLeod, Kenneth; McMillan, Ian K.; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearson, Marion; Msaky, Emma

    2006-07-01

    Initial results from scientific drilling in southern coastal Tanzania are described. In a field season in 2003, a total of five sites was drilled (mostly using continuous coring) by the Tanzania Drilling Project for paleoclimate studies. The sediments are predominantly marine clays and claystones deposited in an outer shelf or slope environment and often contain excellently preserved microfossils suitable for geochemical analysis. The studies reported here include summaries of the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy (planktonic foraminifers, calcareous nannofossils, benthic foraminifers, and palynology) and organic geochemistry. TDP Site 6 was drilled near Kilwa Masoko (UTM 37L 555752, 9014922), 350 m to the south-east of a previous site, TDP Site 1. The top 59.58 m, which was mostly drilled without coring, consists of an Oligocene clay formation belonging to nannofossil Zone NP23. The rest of the hole, to a total depth of 61.25 m, consists of a fault zone in which the Oligocene sediments are intermixed with middle Eocene clays of planktonic foraminifer Zone E9 and nannofossil Subzone NP15b. TDP Site 7 consists of two holes (Hole TDP7A: UTM 37L 547126, 9030142; Hole TDP7B: UTM 37L 0547130, 9030140) drilled just 5 m apart at Kwamatola, a creek to the south of Kilwa Kivinje. Underneath approximately 20 m of unconsolidated sands and gravels, claystones and siltstones were recovered to a total depth of 128.00 m. The site spans lower Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zones E1, E2 and E3 and nannofossil Subzones NP 9b and NP10. The bottom of Hole TDP7B approaches the Paleocene-Eocene boundary but no unambiguously Paleocene sediments were recovered. TDP Site 8 was drilled to the south-east of Singino Hill (UTM 37L 548033, 9025811). Below a covering of surface gravels, it yielded predominantly dark greenish-grey claystones to a total depth of 22.95 m. The sediments are from the lower Eocene and span the boundary between planktonic foraminifer Zones E3 and E4 and fall within

  8. Greenhouse gas exchange in tropical mountain ecosystems in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kikoti, Imani; Kiese, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Tropical mountain ecosystems with their mostly immense biodiversity are important regions for natural resources but also for agricultural production. Their supportive ecosystem processes are particularly vulnerable to the combined impacts of global warming and the conversion of natural to human-modified landscapes. Data of impacts of climate and land use change on soil-atmosphere interactions due to GHG (CO2, CH4, and N2O) exchange from these ecosystems are still scarce, in particular for Africa. Tropical forest soils are underestimated as sinks for atmospheric CH4 with regard to worldwide GHG budgets (Werner et al. 2007, J GEOPHYS RES Vol. 112). Even though these soils are an important source for the atmospheric N2O budget, N2O emissions from tropical forest ecosystems are still poorly characterized (Castaldi et al. 2013, Biogeosciences 10). To obtain an insight of GHG balances of selected ecosystems soil-atmosphere exchange of N2O, CH4 and CO2 was investigated along the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. We will present results for tropical forests in three different altitudes (lower montane, Ocotea, and Podocarpus forest), home garden (extensive agro-forestry), and coffee plantation (intensive agro-forestry). Therefore we used a combined approach consisting of a laboratory parameterization experiment (3 temperature and 2 moisture levels) and in situ static chamber measurements for GHG exchange. Field measurements were conducted during different hygric seasons throughout two years. Seasonal variation of temperature and especially of soil moisture across the different ecosystems resulted in distinct differences in GHG exchange. In addition environmental parameters like soil bulk density and substrate availability varying in space strongly influenced the GHG fluxes within sites. The results from parameterization experiments and in situ measurements show that natural forest ecosystems and extensive land use had higher uptakes of CH4. For the investigated

  9. Mapping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Genetic Diversity Profiles in Tanzania and Other African Countries.

    PubMed

    Mbugi, Erasto V; Katale, Bugwesa Z; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Keyyu, Julius D; Kendall, Sharon L; Dockrell, Hazel M; Michel, Anita L; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Warren, Robin M; Matee, Mecky I; van Helden, Paul D; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotypic diversity in Tanzania, as well as in neighbouring East and other several African countries. We used spoligotyping to identify a total of 293 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (one isolate per patient) collected in the Bunda, Dar es Salaam, Ngorongoro and Serengeti areas in Tanzania. The results were compared with results in the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Genotyping and phylogeographical analyses highlighted the predominance of the CAS, T, EAI, and LAM MTBC lineages in Tanzania. The three most frequent Spoligotype International Types (SITs) were: SIT21/CAS1-Kili (n = 76; 25.94%), SIT59/LAM11-ZWE (n = 22; 7.51%), and SIT126/EAI5 tentatively reclassified as EAI3-TZA (n = 18; 6.14%). Furthermore, three SITs were newly created in this study (SIT4056/EAI5 n = 2, SIT4057/T1 n = 1, and SIT4058/EAI5 n = 1). We noted that the East-African-Indian (EAI) lineage was more predominant in Bunda, the Manu lineage was more common among strains isolated in Ngorongoro, and the Central-Asian (CAS) lineage was more predominant in Dar es Salaam (p-value<0.0001). No statistically significant differences were noted when comparing HIV status of patients vs. major lineages (p-value = 0.103). However, when grouping lineages as Principal Genetic Groups (PGG), we noticed that PGG2/3 group (Haarlem, LAM, S, T, and X) was more associated with HIV-positive patients as compared to PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS, EAI, and Manu) (p-value = 0.03). This study provided mapping of MTBC genetic diversity in Tanzania (containing information on isolates from different cities) and neighbouring East African and other several African countries highlighting differences as regards to MTBC genotypic distribution between Tanzania and other African countries. This work also allowed underlining of spoligotyping patterns tentatively grouped within the newly designated EAI3-TZA

  10. Mapping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Genetic Diversity Profiles in Tanzania and Other African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mbugi, Erasto V.; Katale, Bugwesa Z.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Keyyu, Julius D.; Kendall, Sharon L.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Michel, Anita L.; Rweyemamu, Mark M.; Warren, Robin M.; Matee, Mecky I.; van Helden, Paul D.; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotypic diversity in Tanzania, as well as in neighbouring East and other several African countries. We used spoligotyping to identify a total of 293 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (one isolate per patient) collected in the Bunda, Dar es Salaam, Ngorongoro and Serengeti areas in Tanzania. The results were compared with results in the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Genotyping and phylogeographical analyses highlighted the predominance of the CAS, T, EAI, and LAM MTBC lineages in Tanzania. The three most frequent Spoligotype International Types (SITs) were: SIT21/CAS1-Kili (n = 76; 25.94%), SIT59/LAM11-ZWE (n = 22; 7.51%), and SIT126/EAI5 tentatively reclassified as EAI3-TZA (n = 18; 6.14%). Furthermore, three SITs were newly created in this study (SIT4056/EAI5 n = 2, SIT4057/T1 n = 1, and SIT4058/EAI5 n = 1). We noted that the East-African-Indian (EAI) lineage was more predominant in Bunda, the Manu lineage was more common among strains isolated in Ngorongoro, and the Central-Asian (CAS) lineage was more predominant in Dar es Salaam (p-value<0.0001). No statistically significant differences were noted when comparing HIV status of patients vs. major lineages (p-value = 0.103). However, when grouping lineages as Principal Genetic Groups (PGG), we noticed that PGG2/3 group (Haarlem, LAM, S, T, and X) was more associated with HIV-positive patients as compared to PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS, EAI, and Manu) (p-value = 0.03). This study provided mapping of MTBC genetic diversity in Tanzania (containing information on isolates from different cities) and neighbouring East African and other several African countries highlighting differences as regards to MTBC genotypic distribution between Tanzania and other African countries. This work also allowed underlining of spoligotyping patterns tentatively grouped within the newly designated EAI3-TZA

  11. [Three patients with African sleeping sickness following a visit to Tanzania].

    PubMed

    Mendonça Melo, M; Rasica, M; van Thiel, P P A M; Richter, C; Kager, P A; Wismans, P J

    2002-12-28

    Three Dutch tourists, a man aged 57 and two women aged 55 en 52 years, acquired African trypanosomiasis in the national parks of Tanzania. Two, without central nervous system involvement, were cured after treatment in the Netherlands, albeit one after having suffered a relapse. In the third patient, involvement of the central nervous system was diagnosed in Africa and she was treated with melarsoprol. After an apparently uneventful recovery she was readmitted with cerebral complaints and symptoms. While being treated with melarsoprol she lapsed into coma. She died following repatriation. An epidemic of trypanosomiasis is currently raging through Central Africa. In several western countries, trypanosomiasis has been diagnosed recently in tourists who visited Tanzania.

  12. Water supply development and tariffs in Tanzania: From free water policy towards cost recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashauri, Damas A.; Katko, Tapio S.

    1993-01-01

    The article describes the historical development of water tariff policy in Tanzania from the colonial times to present. After gaining independence, the country introduced “free” water policy in its rural areas. Criticism against this policy was expressed already in the 1970s, but it was not until the late 1980s that change became unavoidable. All the while urban water tariffs continued to decline in real terms. In rural and periurban areas of Tanzania consumers often have to pay substantial amounts of money for water to resellers and vendors since the public utilities are unable to provide operative service. Besides, only a part of the water bills are actually collected. Now that the free water supply policy has been officially abandoned, the development of water tariffs and the institutions in general are a great challenge for the country.

  13. The Political Economy of Biofuels and Farming: The Case of Smallholders in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Kristen

    Following decades of neoliberal policies promoting commodity driven export production, the small scale farming sector in many developing countries has suffered from declining market share, lessening productivity and deepening poverty. In recent years, biofuels have been promoted within developing countries to foster rural development and provide new markets for the smallholders. Using Tanzania as a case study, this thesis evaluates the extent to which the emerging biofuel sector provides opportunities for smallholders to gain beneficial access to markets -- or whether the sector is following the trajectory of other export-oriented commodity projects of the past and resulting in the marginalisation of smallholders. This thesis asserts that the biofuel sector in Tanzania presents more threats than benefits for smallholders; a pattern can be witnessed that favours foreign investors and dispossesses farmers of existing land, while providing few opportunities at a local level for income generation and employment.

  14. Language of instruction in Tanzania: Why are research findings not heeded?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qorro, Martha A. S.

    2013-06-01

    The issue of language of instruction (LOI) and its effects on education in Tanzanian secondary education has been widely researched since the early 1980s. In 2009, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training proposed a new education and training policy that allows English to be used as LOI from nursery school to tertiary education. The proposed policy goes against what researchers in this area have recommended over the years. In the light of the proposed policy, the author of this article felt the need to review studies done on LOI in Tanzania from 1974 to date, aiming to eliminate or greatly reduce the negative effects of the policy on education in Tanzania. Quoting examples, the paper demonstrates students' levels of proficiency in English; suggests reasons why governmental policy has over time ignored research findings; and recommends as well as proposes the way forward.

  15. First-class health: amenity wards, health insurance, and normalizing health care inequalities in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ellison, James

    2014-06-01

    In 2008, a government hospital in southwest Tanzania added a "first-class ward," which, unlike existing inpatient wards defined by sex, age, and ailment, would treat patients according to their wealth. A generation ago, Tanzanians viewed health care as a right of citizenship. In the 1980s and 1990s, structural adjustment programs and user fees reduced people's access to biomedical attention. Tanzania currently promotes "amenity" wards and health insurance to increase health care availability, generate revenue from patients and potential patients, and better integrate for-profit care. In this article, I examine people's discussions of these changes, drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in the 2000s and 1990s. I argue that Tanzanians criticize unequal access to care and health insurance, although the systemic structuring of inequalities is becoming normalized. People transform the language of socialism to frame individualized market-based care as mutual interdependence and moral necessity, articulating a new biomedical citizenship.

  16. Risk factors for the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, H A; Kassuku, A A; Maeda, G E M; Boa, M E; Carabin, H; Willingham, A L

    2004-04-15

    To estimate prevalence of and risk factors for the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Tanzania, 770 live pigs were examined by lingual examination in 21 villages. Structured observations and questionnaire interviews were used to assess pig rearing practices and household use of latrines. Associations between factors were analyzed using a Bayesian hierarchical model to obtain prevalence odds ratio (OR) and 95% Bayesian Credible Intervals (95% BCI). Prevalence was 17.4% (village-specific range 3.2-46.7%). Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was considerably higher in pigs reared in households lacking latrines than in those reared in households that were using latrines (OR = 2.04; 95% BCI = 1.25, 3.45). About 96% of the pigs were kept under free-range conditions. This study suggests the need for further studies in order to design and implement effective prevention and control measures for porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Tanzania.

  17. Spatially continuous dataset at local scale of Taita Hills in Kenya and Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwalusepo, Sizah; Massawe, Estomih S; Johansson, Tino

    2016-09-01

    Climate change is a global concern, requiring local scale spatially continuous dataset and modeling of meteorological variables. This dataset article provided the interpolated temperature, rainfall and relative humidity dataset at local scale along Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro altitudinal gradients in Kenya and Tanzania, respectively. The temperature and relative humidity were recorded hourly using automatic onset (TH)HOBO data loggers and rainfall was recorded daily using GENERAL(R) wireless rain gauges. Thin plate spline (TPS) was used to interpolate, with the degree of data smoothing determined by minimizing the generalized cross validation. The dataset provide information on the status of the current climatic conditions along the two mountainous altitudinal gradients in Kenya and Tanzania. The dataset will, thus, enhance future research. PMID:27536713

  18. Determinants of extramarital sex by men in Tanzania: a case study of Mbeya region.

    PubMed

    Mbago, Maurice C Y; Sichona, Francis J

    2010-12-01

    This paper attempts to identify some factors associated with extramarital sex by men in the Mbeya region of Tanzania using data from a survey conducted in 2003/2004. The choice of Mbeya region was prompted by the fact that it has been found by previous studies to be one of the regions with the highest HIV prevalence rate in Tanzania. Correlates of extramarital sex that were considered include current age, education, residence, age at first sexual intercourse, age at first marriage and sex before marriage. A bivariate analysis of the survey data, which comprised a sample size of 568 married men aged between 15 and 62 years revealed statistically significant association between extramarital sex with current age, education, age at first intercourse and sex before marriage. The effect of these variables was tested through a multivariate logistic regression analysis and all the four independent variables were found to be statistically significant predictors of extramarital sex in Mbeya region.

  19. Spatially continuous dataset at local scale of Taita Hills in Kenya and Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwalusepo, Sizah; Massawe, Estomih S; Johansson, Tino

    2016-09-01

    Climate change is a global concern, requiring local scale spatially continuous dataset and modeling of meteorological variables. This dataset article provided the interpolated temperature, rainfall and relative humidity dataset at local scale along Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro altitudinal gradients in Kenya and Tanzania, respectively. The temperature and relative humidity were recorded hourly using automatic onset (TH)HOBO data loggers and rainfall was recorded daily using GENERAL(R) wireless rain gauges. Thin plate spline (TPS) was used to interpolate, with the degree of data smoothing determined by minimizing the generalized cross validation. The dataset provide information on the status of the current climatic conditions along the two mountainous altitudinal gradients in Kenya and Tanzania. The dataset will, thus, enhance future research.

  20. Ixodid tick infestation in cattle and wild animals in Maswa and Iringa, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kwak, You Shine; Kim, Tae Yun; Nam, Sung-Hyun; Lee, In-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Pyo; Mduma, Simon; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2014-10-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are important in human and livestock health worldwide. In November 2012, ixodid ticks were collected and identified morphologically from cattle and wild animals in the Maswa district and Iringa urban, Tanzania. Amblyomma gemma, A. lepidum, and A. variegatum were identified from Maswa cattle, and A. variegatum was the predominant species. A. marmoreum, Hyalomma impeltatum, and Rhipicephalus pulchellus were identified from Iringa cattle in addition to the above 3 Amblyomma species, and A. gemma was the most abundant species. Total 4 Amblyomma and 6 Rhipicephalus species were identified from wild animals of the 2 areas. A. lepidum was predominant in Maswa buffaloes, whereas A. gemma was predominant in Iringa buffaloes. Overall, A. variegatum in cattle was predominant in the Maswa district and A. gemma was predominant in Iringa, Tanzania.

  1. Globalisation, Language and Education: A Comparative Study of the United States and Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy-Campbell, Zaline M.

    2001-07-01

    Educational language choice has been one of the most provocative issues of the 20th century and continues to be a dominant issue at the turn of the new millennium. Efforts to naturalize English as the only suitable language for post primary school education persist in many African countries, including Tanzania. In the United States the campaign for "English only" in the schools is gaining momentum, despite the increasing multilingual population in the schools. Focusing on Tanzania and the United States, this article examines the fallacy of a monolingual, English only, policy in education. It examines the ethos surrounding the debate about the language of instruction, and considers some of the detrimental effects upon students of attempting to impose a monolingual policy. Finally, the paper suggests possible roles of educators and researchers in fostering international understanding of educational language issues as one aspect of the quest for global peace and social justice in the 21st century.

  2. The seismotectonics of Southeastern Tanzania: Implications for the propagation of the eastern branch of the East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, Gabriel D.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2016-04-01

    Seismicity patterns and focal mechanisms in southeastern Tanzania, determined from data recorded on temporary and permanent AfricaArray seismic stations, have been used to investigate the propagation direction of the Eastern branch of the East African Rift System southward from the Northern Tanzania Divergence Zone (NTDZ). Within the NTDZ, the rift zone is defined by three segments, the Eyasi segment to the west, the Manyara segment in the middle, and the Pangani segment to the east. Results show that most of the seismicity (~ 75%) extends to the south of the Manyara segment along the eastern margin of the Tanzania Craton, and at ~ 6-7° S latitude trends to the SE along the northern boundary of the Ruvuma microplate, connecting with a N-S zone of seismicity offshore southern Tanzania and Mozambique. A lesser amount of seismicity (~ 25%) is found extending from the SE corner of the Tanzania Craton at ~ 6-7° S latitude southwards towards Lake Nyasa. This finding supports a model of rift propagation via the Manyara segment to the southeast of the Tanzania Craton along the northern boundary of the Ruvuma microplate. However, given the limited duration of the seismic recordings used in this study, the possibility of another zone of extension developing to the south towards Lake Nyasa (Malawi) cannot be ruled out. Focal mechanisms along the boundary between the Victoria and the Ruvuma microplates and offshore southeastern Tanzania show a combination of normal and strike slip faulting indicating mainly extension with some sinistral motion, consistent with the mapped geologic faults and a clockwise rotation of the Ruvuma microplate.

  3. [Tropical medicine/tropical dermatology training in Tanzania and Ghana: Personal experience and selected case reports].

    PubMed

    Völker, K

    2015-05-01

    As a consultant for dermatology with special interested in tropical diseases, I accepted my employers offer (German Armed Forces) to start my training in tropical medicine and tropical dermatology in Africa. The dermatological part of the training was completed at the Regional Dermatology Training Centre (RDTC) in Moshi, Tanzania. This was followed by tropical medicine training at the Presbyterian Hospital in Agogo, Ghana. In this article, I report on my experiences in Africa and present selected case reports.

  4. Risk factors for foot-and-mouth disease in Tanzania, 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Allepuz, A; Stevenson, M; Kivaria, F; Berkvens, D; Casal, J; Picado, A

    2015-04-01

    We developed a model to quantify the effect of factors influencing the spatio-temporal distribution of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Tanzania. The land area of Tanzania was divided into a regular grid of 20 km × 20 km cells and separate grids constructed for each of the 12-month periods between 2001 and 2006. For each year, a cell was classified as either FMD positive or negative dependent on an outbreak being recorded in any settlement within the cell boundaries. A Bayesian mixed-effects spatial model was developed to assess the association between the risk of FMD occurrence and distance to main roads, railway lines, wildlife parks, international borders and cattle density. Increases in the distance to main roads decreased the risk of FMD every year from 2001 to 2006 (ORs ranged from 0.43 to 0.97). Increases in the distance to railway lines and international borders were, in general, associated with a decreased risk of FMD (ORs ranged from 0.85 to 0.99). Increases in the distance from a national park decreased the risk of FMD in 2001 (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.68-0.93) but had the opposite effect in 2004 (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.12). Cattle population density was, in general, positively associated with the risk of FMD (ORs ranged from 1.01 to 1.30). The spatial distribution of high-risk areas was variable and corresponded to endemic (2001, 2002 and 2005) and epidemic (2003, 2004 and 2006) phases. Roads played a dominant role in both epidemiological situations; we hypothesize that roads are the main driver of FMD expansion in Tanzania. Our results suggest that FMD occurrence in Tanzania is more related to animal movement and human activity via communication networks than transboundary movements or contact with wildlife.

  5. Widespread occurrence and diversity of Cassava brown streak virus (Potyviridae: Ipomovirus) in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Rwegasira, G M; Momanyi, G; Rey, M E C; Kahwa, G; Legg, J P

    2011-10-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has been a problem in Tanzania since 1936. Existing literature indicated limited distribution of the disease to low altitudes, usually <100 m above sea level, but the current geographical distribution of the disease was not known. Whether a single or many strains for the virus exist in Tanzania had not been reported to date. In this study, CBSD was recorded from sea level to ≈1,800 m above sea level. In total, 2,730 cassava plants were assessed for CBSD leaf symptoms in 91 fields and root symptoms were assessed at 81 sites. A sample was taken from each site for laboratory screening for Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV). CBSD mean foliar and root incidences were 38 and 36%, respectively. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of a partial 3'-terminal coat protein (CP) region of CBSV indicated the presence of CBSV in 67 of the 91 (73%) samples. Forty-three amplicons were sequenced, and phylogenetic comparisons with nucleotide sequences from GenBank (National Center for Biotechnology Information database) suggested that one major clade of CBSV primarily exists in Tanzania. However, there was nucleotide sequence divergence of up to 19% among the 42 isolates. In all, 42 of the 43 sequences had 80 to 100% nucleotide identity with 6 previously reported CP-CBSV sequences (from Mozambique and Tanzania). In total, 13 of 42 isolates had <80% nucleotide identities with three previously reported Ugandan CBSV sequences. One isolate, FJ687177, shared <78% sequence identity with the other Tanzanian sequences but was closely related (93%) to Ugandan isolates. It is likely that isolate FJ687177 may belong to a less widely distributed recently described species (clade 2) of CBSV, named Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV).

  6. DENTAL PRACTITIONERS' ATTITUDES, SUBJECTIVE NORMS AND INTENTIONS TO PRACTICE ATRAUMATIC RESTORATIVE TREATMENT (ART) IN TANZANIA

    PubMed Central

    Kikwilu, Emil N.; Frencken, Jo E.; Mulder, Jan; Masalu, Joyce R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the attitude and subjective norm of dental practitioners towards practicing the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) in Tanzania. A pre-tested questionnaire on attitudes and subjective norms to practice ART was mailed to all 147 dental practitioners working in the regional and district government clinics. The independent variables were: gender, working experience, qualification and ever heard of ART. The dependent variables were: attitude, subjective norm and intention to practice ART. Chi-square tests and multiple regression analysis were used to test for effects between independent and dependent variables. Significance level was set at 5%. A total of 138 practitioners returned completed questionnaires. More experienced dental practitioners encountered moderate social pressure than less experienced dental practitioners, who met strong social pressure (p=0.045). A total of 73.2% of dental practitioners felt that ART was worth introducing in Tanzania, 92.8% recommended ART training for all dental practitioners and 97.8% recommended inclusion of ART in dental curricula. Positive attitude, strong subjective norm and high intention to practice ART were recorded in 76.3%, 28.1% and 90.6% of the practitioners, respectively. Only subjective norm had a statistically significant influence on the intention to practice ART (p<0.0001). The results indicated that dental practitioners were willing to have ART introduced in Tanzania and had positive attitudes towards practicing this technique. Nevertheless, their intention to perform ART was strongly influenced by social pressures. Therefore, in order to have a successful introduction of ART in Tanzania, people who matter in the daily practice of dental practitioners need to accept and appraise the ART approach positively. PMID:19274393

  7. Noninvasive Tuberculosis Screening in Free-Living Primate Populations in Gombe National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Tiffany M; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Singer, Randall S; Lipende, Iddi; Collins, Anthony; Gillespie, Thomas R; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Travis, Dominic A

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in noninvasive detection methods for mycobacterial infection in primates create new opportunities for exploring the epidemiology of tuberculosis in free-living species. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and baboons (Papio anubis) in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, were screened for infection with pathogens of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex using Fecal IS6110 PCR; none was positive. This study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale mycobacterial screening in wild primates. PMID:26419483

  8. The Demand for Cigarettes in Tanzania and Implications for Tobacco Taxation Policy

    PubMed Central

    Kidane, Asmerom; Mduma, John; Naho, Alexis; Ngeh, Ernest Tingum; Hu, Teh-wei

    2016-01-01

    The study attempts to estimate the demand for cigarettes in Tanzania and presents simulation results on the effect of the cigarette excise tax on smoking participation, government revenue, and related topics. After briefly summarizing the magnitude and spread of cigarette consumption in the country, the paper reviews some empirical estimates from African and other countries. The 2008 Tanzanian household budget survey was used to estimate the demand for cigarettes in Tanzania. The descriptive statistics suggest that the smoking prevalence for Tanzania is 15.35 percent with low variability across expenditure (income) groups. Smoking intensity and per capita consumption were estimated at 7.08 cigarettes and 1.33 cigarettes, respectively, a relatively low value. A two-part demand equation model was used to estimate various elasticities. For the overall equation, the price elasticities of smoking participation, smoking intensity, and total elasticity were estimated at −0.879, −0.853, and −1.732, respectively. Compared to similar results in other developing countries, the estimates appear quite high. When estimated by expenditure (income) groups, the magnitude of the elasticity appears higher among high expenditure groups than among low expenditure groups. Two simulation exercises were undertaken. First, the effect of different excise rates on smoking participation rate, cigarette consumption, tax revenue, and related responses was estimated and highlighted. Second, the same exercise was undertaken to determine the effect of a given increase in the cigarette excise tax on various expenditure groups. The overall results suggest that an increase in the excise tax on cigarettes in Tanzania would reduce cigarette consumption and increase government tax revenue. PMID:27358905

  9. Past and present vegetation ecology of Laetoli, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Peter; Bamford, Marion

    2008-01-01

    We are attempting to set up a new protocol for palaeoecological reconstruction in relation to the fossil hominin site Laetoli, Tanzania. This is based on the premise that habitat variability in the past was at least as great as at present; that this variability at the landscape level is a function of variations in geology, soils, and topography rather than climate; and that vegetation type at the landscape level can be reconstructed from these environmental variables. Measurable variation in climate in tropical Africa today occurs over distances of at least 100 km, so that ranges of habitat variation within the limited area of Laetoli today can be reconstructed in relation to soils and topography, and the effects of climate changes are then estimated in relation to these other factors. In order to document the modern vegetation, we have made voucher collections of plants in the Laetoli region, recorded distributions of plants by habitat, climate, soil, and topography, and mapped the vegetation distributions. Results show that areas of low relief have soils with impeded drainage and dense Acacia drepanolobium woodland, having low canopies when disturbed by human action, higher when not; shallow brown soils on volcanic lavas have four woodland associations, two dominated by Acacia species, two by Combretum-Albizia species; shallow volcanic soils to the east have a woodland association with Croton-Dombeya-Albizia species; elevated land to the east on volcanic soils has two associations of montane-edge species, one with Croton-Celtis-Lepidotrichilia, and the other with Acacia lahai; the eastern highlands above 2,750 m have montane forest; seasonal water channels flowing from east to west have three Acacia riverine woodland associations; three deep valleys to the north of the area have dense riverine woodland with Celtis, Albizia, Euclea, Combretum, Acacia spp.; emergence of springs at Endulen feed a perennial stream with closed gallery forest with Ficus

  10. Past and present vegetation ecology of Laetoli, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Peter; Bamford, Marion

    2008-01-01

    We are attempting to set up a new protocol for palaeoecological reconstruction in relation to the fossil hominin site Laetoli, Tanzania. This is based on the premise that habitat variability in the past was at least as great as at present; that this variability at the landscape level is a function of variations in geology, soils, and topography rather than climate; and that vegetation type at the landscape level can be reconstructed from these environmental variables. Measurable variation in climate in tropical Africa today occurs over distances of at least 100 km, so that ranges of habitat variation within the limited area of Laetoli today can be reconstructed in relation to soils and topography, and the effects of climate changes are then estimated in relation to these other factors. In order to document the modern vegetation, we have made voucher collections of plants in the Laetoli region, recorded distributions of plants by habitat, climate, soil, and topography, and mapped the vegetation distributions. Results show that areas of low relief have soils with impeded drainage and dense Acacia drepanolobium woodland, having low canopies when disturbed by human action, higher when not; shallow brown soils on volcanic lavas have four woodland associations, two dominated by Acacia species, two by Combretum-Albizia species; shallow volcanic soils to the east have a woodland association with Croton-Dombeya-Albizia species; elevated land to the east on volcanic soils has two associations of montane-edge species, one with Croton-Celtis-Lepidotrichilia, and the other with Acacia lahai; the eastern highlands above 2,750 m have montane forest; seasonal water channels flowing from east to west have three Acacia riverine woodland associations; three deep valleys to the north of the area have dense riverine woodland with Celtis, Albizia, Euclea, Combretum, Acacia spp.; emergence of springs at Endulen feed a perennial stream with closed gallery forest with Ficus

  11. SU-E-E-03: Developing Solutions to Critical Radiation Oncology Challenges in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Kenton, O; Dachi, J; Metz, J; Avery, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Develop solutions to critical medical physics challenges in Tanzania. Methods: In September of 2013 we began working with Jumaa Bin Dachi, a Therapy Physicist at the Ocean Road Cancer Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We developed a bi-lateral learning partnership over the course of eight qualitative Skype meetings with Jumaa. From these meetings we have ascertained that there is a gap between the installation of new equipment and treating patients. This gap has often been overlooked by international partners attempting to improve radiation therapy access. Relationships with academic institutions abroad can fill these gaps, and lead to sustained care of patients needing radiation. Results: Our efforts are best given in a supporting role to help develop solutions and new technology that can reduce the burden on the Medical Physicist. Solutions may include: training material, support for radiation therapy classes, development of appropriate local protocols, and peer-review on documents being produced. New technology needs to focus around simple and easy field shaping, improved patient imaging systems, and systems for patient set-up. We believe our work can help alleviate some of the burdens faced by this institute. Conclusion: While we are just in the beginning stage of this partnership, we believe there is great potential for success between both parties. We hope that the Ocean Road Cancer Institute will benefit from potential funding and resources by partnering with a High Income Country to develop affordable solutions to clinical problems in Tanzania.

  12. The Costs of Climate Change: A Study of Cholera in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Trærup, Sara L. M.; Ortiz, Ramon A.; Markandya, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Increased temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns as a result of climate change are widely recognized to entail potentially serious consequences for human health, including an increased risk of diarrheal diseases. This study integrates historical data on temperature and rainfall with the burden of disease from cholera in Tanzania and uses socioeconomic data to control for the impacts of general development on the risk of cholera. The results show a significant relationship between temperature and the incidence of cholera. For a 1 degree Celsius temperature increase the initial relative risk of cholera increases by 15 to 29 percent. Based on the modeling results, we project the number and costs of additional cases of cholera that can be attributed to climate change by 2030 in Tanzania for a 1 and 2 degree increase in temperatures, respectively. The total costs of cholera attributable to climate change are shown to be in the range of 0.32 to 1.4 percent of GDP in Tanzania 2030. The results provide useful insights into national-level estimates of the implications of climate change on the health sector and offer information which can feed into both national and international debates on financing and planning adaptation. PMID:22408580

  13. Early Cenozoic tropical climate: report from the Tanzania Onshore Paleogene Integrated Coring (TOPIC) workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, P. N.; Hudson, W.

    2014-12-01

    We are currently developing a proposal for a new International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) project to recover a stratigraphic and paleoclimatic record from the full succession of Eocene hemipelagic sediments that are now exposed on land in southern Tanzania. Funding for a workshop was provided by ICDP, and the project was advertised in the normal way. A group of about 30 delegates assembled in Dar-es-Salaam for 3 intensive days of discussion, project development, and proposal writing. The event was hosted by the Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation (TPDC) and was attended by several geologists, geochemists, geophysicists, and micropaleontologists from TPDC and the University of Dar-es-Salaam. International delegates were from Canada, Germany, India, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (and we also have project partners from Australia, Belgium, and Sweden who were not able to attend). Some of the scientists are veterans of previous scientific drilling in the area, but over half are new on the scene, mostly having been attracted by Tanzania's reputation for world-class paleoclimate archives. Here we outline the broad aims of the proposed drilling and give a flavor of the discussions and the way our proposal developed during the workshop. A video of the workshop with an introduction to the scientific goals and interviews of many of the participants is available at http://vimeo.com/107911777.

  14. Structure and performance of infectious disease surveillance and response, United Republic of Tanzania, 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Nsubuga, Peter; Eseko, Nicholas; Tadesse, Wuhib; Ndayimirije, Nestor; Stella, Chungong; McNabb, Scott

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the structure and performance of and support for five infectious disease surveillance systems in the United Republic of Tanzania: Health Management Information System (HMIS); Infectious Disease Week Ending; Tuberculosis/Leprosy; Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; and Acute Flaccid Paralysis/Poliomyelitis. METHODS: The systems were assessed by analysing the core activities of surveillance and response and support functions (provision of training, supervision, and resources). Data were collected using questionnaires that involved both interviews and observations at regional, district, and health facility levels in three of the 20 regions in the United Republic of Tanzania. FINDINGS: An HMIS was found at 26 of 32 health facilities (81%) surveyed and at all 14 regional and district medical offices. The four other surveillance systems were found at <20% of health facilities and <75% of medical offices. Standardized case definitions were used for only 3 of 21 infectious diseases. Nineteen (73%) health facilities with HMIS had adequate supplies of forms; 9 (35%) reported on time; and 11 (42%) received supervision or feedback. Four (29%) medical offices with HMIS had population denominators to use for data analyses; 12 (86%) were involved in outbreak investigations; and 11 (79%) had conducted community prevention activities. CONCLUSION: While HMIS could serve as the backbone for IDSR in the United Republic of Tanzania, this will require supervision, standardized case definitions, and improvements in the quality of reporting, analysis, and feedback. PMID:11984605

  15. The costs of climate change: a study of cholera in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Trærup, Sara L M; Ortiz, Ramon A; Markandya, Anil

    2011-12-01

    Increased temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns as a result of climate change are widely recognized to entail potentially serious consequences for human health, including an increased risk of diarrheal diseases. This study integrates historical data on temperature and rainfall with the burden of disease from cholera in Tanzania and uses socioeconomic data to control for the impacts of general development on the risk of cholera. The results show a significant relationship between temperature and the incidence of cholera. For a 1 degree Celsius temperature increase the initial relative risk of cholera increases by 15 to 29 percent. Based on the modeling results, we project the number and costs of additional cases of cholera that can be attributed to climate change by 2030 in Tanzania for a 1 and 2 degree increase in temperatures, respectively. The total costs of cholera attributable to climate change are shown to be in the range of 0.32 to 1.4 percent of GDP in Tanzania 2030. The results provide useful insights into national-level estimates of the implications of climate change on the health sector and offer information which can feed into both national and international debates on financing and planning adaptation.

  16. Comparison of Methods for Xenomonitoring in Vectors of Lymphatic Filariasis in Northeastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Irish, Seth R; Stevens, William M B; Derua, Yahya A; Walker, Thomas; Cameron, Mary M

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring Wuchereria bancrofti infection in mosquitoes (xenomonitoring) can play an important role in determining when lymphatic filariasis has been eliminated, or in focusing control efforts. As mosquito infection rates can be low, a method for collecting large numbers of mosquitoes is necessary. Gravid traps collected large numbers of Culex quinquefasciatus in Tanzania, and a collection method that targets mosquitoes that have already fed could result in increased sensitivity in detecting W. bancrofti-infected mosquitoes. The aim of this experiment was to test this hypothesis by comparing U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps with CDC gravid traps in northeastern Tanzania, where Cx. quinquefasciatus is a vector of lymphatic filariasis. After an initial study where small numbers of mosquitoes were collected, a second study collected 16,316 Cx. quinquefasciatus in 60 gravid trap-nights and 240 light trap-nights. Mosquitoes were pooled and tested for presence of W. bancrofti DNA. Light and gravid traps collected similar numbers of mosquitoes per trap-night, but the physiological status of the mosquitoes was different. The estimated infection rate in mosquitoes collected in light traps was considerably higher than in mosquitoes collected in gravid traps, so light traps can be a useful tool for xenomonitoring work in Tanzania. PMID:26350454

  17. An Overview of HIV Prevention Interventions for People Who Inject Drugs in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ratliff, Eric A.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Mbwambo, Jessie K. K.; Lambdin, Barrot H.; Voets, Ancella; Pont, Sandrine; Maruyama, Haruka; Kilonzo, Gad P.

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, Tanzania has seen a rapid rise in the number of people who inject drugs (PWID), specifically heroin. While the overall HIV prevalence in Tanzania has declined recently to 5.6%, in 2009, the HIV prevalence among PWID remains alarmingly high at 35%. In this paper, we describe how the Tanzania AIDS Prevention Program (TAPP), Médecins du Monde France (MdM-F), and other organisations have been at the forefront of addressing this public health issue in Africa, implementing a wide array of harm reduction interventions including medication-assisted treatment (MAT), needle and syringe programs (NSP), and “sober houses” for residential treatment in the capital, Dar es Salaam, and in Zanzibar. Looking toward the future, we discuss the need to (1) extend existing services and programs to reach more PWID and others at risk for HIV, (2) develop additional programs to strengthen existing programs, and (3) expand activities to include structural interventions to address vulnerabilities that increase HIV risk for all Tanzanians. PMID:23346410

  18. Promoters of and barriers to cervical cancer screening in a rural setting in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Perng, Powell; Perng, Wei; Ngoma, Twalib; Kahesa, Crispin; Mwaiselage, Julius; Merajver, Sofia D.; Soliman, Amr S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate promoters and barriers for cervical cancer screening in rural Tanzania. Methods We interviewed 300 women of reproductive age living in Kiwangwa village, Tanzania. The odds of attending a free, 2-day screening service were compared with sociodemographic variables, lifestyle factors, and knowledge and attitudes surrounding cervical cancer using multivariable logistic regression. Results Compared with women who did not attend the screening service (n = 195), women who attended (n = 105) were older (OR 4.29; 95% CI, 1.61–11.48, age 40–49 years versus 20–29 years), listened regularly to the radio (OR 24.76; 95% CI, 11.49–53.33, listened to radio 1–3 times per week versus not at all), had a poorer quality of life (OR 4.91; CI, 1.96–12.32, lowest versus highest score), had faced cost barriers to obtaining health care in the preceding year (OR 2.24; 95% CI, 1.11–4.53, yes versus no), and held a more positive attitude toward cervical cancer screening (OR 4.64; 95% CI, 1.39–15.55, least versus most averse). Conclusion Efforts aimed at improving screening rates in rural Tanzania need to address both structural and individual-level barriers, including knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer prevention, cost barriers to care, and access to health information. PMID:24095307

  19. Determination of essential and toxic elements in clay soil commonly consumed by pregnant women in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwalongo, D.; Mohammed, N. K.

    2013-10-01

    A habit of eating clay soil especially among pregnant women is a common practice in Tanzania. This practice known as geophagy might introduce toxic elements in the consumer's body to endanger the health of the mother and her child. Therefore it is very important to have information on the elemental composition of the eaten soil so as to assess the safety nature of the habit. In this study 100 samples of clay soil, which were reported to be originating from five regions in Tanzania and are consumed by pregnant women were analyzed to determine their levels of essential and toxic elements. The analysis was carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent technique (EDXRF) of Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, Arusha. Essential elements Fe, Zn, Cu, Se and Mn and toxic elements As, Pb, Co, Ni, U and Th were detected in concentrations above WHO permissible limits in some of the samples. The results from this study show that the habit of eating soil is exposing the pregnant mothers and their children to metal toxicity which is detrimental to their health. Hence, further actions should be taken to discourage the habit of eating soil at all levels.

  20. Crustal Structure in Northern Malawi and Southern Tanzania surrounding Lake Malawi and the Rungwe Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrego, D.; Kachingwe, M.; Nyblade, A.; Shillington, D. J.; Gaherty, J. B.; Ebinger, C. J.; Accardo, N. J.; O'Donnell, J. P.; Mbogoni, G. J.; Mulibo, G. D.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Mphepo, F.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Tepp, G.

    2015-12-01

    Crustal Structure in Northern Malawi and Southern Tanzania surrounding Lake Malawi and the Rungwe Volcanic Province David Borrego, Marsella Kachingwe, Andrew Nyblade, Donna Shillington, James Gaherty, Cynthia Ebinger, Natalie Accardo, J.P. O'Donnell, Gabriel Mbogoni, Gabriel Mulibo, Richard Ferdinand, Patrick Chindandali, Felix Mphepo, Gabrielle Tepp, Godson Kamihanda We investigate crustal structure around the northern end of Lake Malawi and in the Rungwe Volcanic Province using teleseismic receiver functions from the SEGMeNT broadband seismic network. The SEGMeNT network includes 55 broadband stations deployed in northern Malawi and southern Tanzania, with station spacing of 20-50 km. Fourteen stations were deployed in August 2013, and an additional of 41 stations were added to the study region beginning June/July 2014. Fifteen stations are located in Malawi and 40 stations in Tanzania. Data from teleseismic earthquakes with magnitude 5.5 or greater in the 30 to 90 degrees distance range have been used to calculate P-wave receiver functions. Estimates of Moho depth and Vp/Vs ratios have been obtained by using the H-k stacking method and by jointly inverting the receiver functions with Rayleigh wave phase velocities. Preliminary results show an average Moho depth of 40 km and an average Vp/Vs ratio of 1.72. Little evidence is found for magmatic underplating beneath the Rungwe Volcanic Province.

  1. Comparison of Methods for Xenomonitoring in Vectors of Lymphatic Filariasis in Northeastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Irish, Seth R; Stevens, William M B; Derua, Yahya A; Walker, Thomas; Cameron, Mary M

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring Wuchereria bancrofti infection in mosquitoes (xenomonitoring) can play an important role in determining when lymphatic filariasis has been eliminated, or in focusing control efforts. As mosquito infection rates can be low, a method for collecting large numbers of mosquitoes is necessary. Gravid traps collected large numbers of Culex quinquefasciatus in Tanzania, and a collection method that targets mosquitoes that have already fed could result in increased sensitivity in detecting W. bancrofti-infected mosquitoes. The aim of this experiment was to test this hypothesis by comparing U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps with CDC gravid traps in northeastern Tanzania, where Cx. quinquefasciatus is a vector of lymphatic filariasis. After an initial study where small numbers of mosquitoes were collected, a second study collected 16,316 Cx. quinquefasciatus in 60 gravid trap-nights and 240 light trap-nights. Mosquitoes were pooled and tested for presence of W. bancrofti DNA. Light and gravid traps collected similar numbers of mosquitoes per trap-night, but the physiological status of the mosquitoes was different. The estimated infection rate in mosquitoes collected in light traps was considerably higher than in mosquitoes collected in gravid traps, so light traps can be a useful tool for xenomonitoring work in Tanzania.

  2. Building "Capacity" for Education Research among Scholars of the Global South: Learning from the Case of an International Research Collaboration in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Matthew Aaron Martin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the process of engaging in transnational knowledge production vis-a-vis a case study of one research collaboration between scholars based in Tanzania and the United States. The Teaching in Action Research Project involved nine faculty based in Tanzania in an applied, multi-sited team ethnography that examined aspects of…

  3. Conference on Resource Sharing in Southern and Central Africa (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, December 16-19, 1985). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Information Programme.

    This document summarizes the activities of a conference held at the Institute of Finance Management in Tanzania on information resource sharing in Southern and Central Africa. Delegates and observers from Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania attended the conference. The 15 participants, 8 sponsored by…

  4. Educating a Nation towards Self-Reliance: Tanzania's Journey in Search for an Education That Is Meaningful to Its People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wabike, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Since independence in 1961, Tanzania's political ideology (known as Ujamaa-familyhood) has gone hand in hand with the country's education philosophy. The most important feature of this combination is that people should be educated to fit in Tanzania's environment and culture. Education should emancipate man from mental slavery…

  5. Ruminant methane reduction through livestock development in Tanzania. Final report for US Department of Energy and US Initiative on Joint Implementation--Activities Implemented Jointly

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Roderick

    1999-07-01

    This project was designed to help develop the US Initiative on Joint Implementation activities in Eastern Africa. It has been communicated in meetings with representatives from the Ministry of Environment of Tanzania and the consultant group that developed Tanzania's National Climate Change Action Plan, the Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, that this project fits very well with the developmental and environmental goals of the Government of Tanzania. The goal of the Activities Implemented Jointly ruminant livestock project is to reduce ruminant methane emissions in Eastern Africa. The project plans a sustainable cattle multiplication unit (CMU) at Mabuki Ranch in the Mwanza Region of Tanzania. This CMU will focus on raising genetically improved animals to be purchased by farmers, developmental organizations, and other CMUs in Tanzania. Through the purchase of these animals farmers will raise their income generation potential and reduce ruminant methane emissions.

  6. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Brink, Henry; Smith, Robert J; Skinner, Kirsten; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR), the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul of the system in

  7. Science-based health innovation in Tanzania: bednets and a base for invention

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tanzania is East Africa’s largest country. Although it is socially diverse, it has experienced general political stability since independence in 1964. Despite gradual economic development and Tanzania’s status as one of the biggest recipients of aid in Africa, health status remains poor. This paper explores Tanzania’s science-based health innovation system, and highlights areas which can be strengthened. Methods Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents, and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 52 people from across the science-based health innovation system over two visits to Tanzania from July to October 2007. Results and discussion Tanzania has a rich but complex S&T governance landscape, with the public sector driving the innovation agenda through a series of different bodies which are not well-coordinated. It has some of the leading health research on the continent at the University of Dar es Salaam, Muhimbili University of Health and Applied Sciences, the National Institute for Medical Research and the Ifakara Medical Institute, with strong donor support. Tanzania has found developing an entrepreneurial culture difficult; nevertheless projects such as the clusters initiative at the University of Dar es Salaam are encouraging low-tech innovation and overcoming knowledge-sharing barriers. In the private sector, one generics company has developed a South-South collaboration to enable technology transfer and hence the local production of anti-retrovirals. Local textile company A to Z Textiles is now manufacturing 30 million insecticide impregnated bednets a year. Conclusions To have a coherent vision for innovation, Tanzania may wish to address some key issues: coordination across stakeholders involved with health research, increasing graduates in health-related disciplines, and building capabilities in biological testing, preclinical testing

  8. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Henry; Skinner, Kirsten; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR), the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul of the system in

  9. Maternal health in fifty years of Tanzania independence: Challenges and opportunities of reducing maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Shija, Angela E; Msovela, Judith; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2011-12-01

    High rate of maternal death is one of the major public health concerns in Tanzania. Most of maternal deaths are caused by factors attributed to pregnancy, childbirth and poor quality of health services. More than 80% of maternal deaths can be prevented if pregnant women access essential maternity care and assured of skilled attendance at childbirth as well as emergency obstetric care. The objective of this review was to analyse maternal mortality situation in Tanzania during the past 50 years and to identify efforts, challenges and opportunities of reducing it. This paper was written through desk review of key policy documents, technical reports, publications and available internet-based literature. From 1961 to 1990 maternal mortality ratio in Tanzania had been on a downward trend from 453 to 200 per 100,000 live births. However, from 1990's there been an increasing trend to 578 per 100,000 live births. Current statistics indicate that maternal mortality ratio has dropped slightly in 2010 to 454 per 100,000 live births. Despite a high coverage (96%) in pregnant women who attend at least one antenatal clinic, only half of the women (51%) have access to skilled delivery. Coverage of emergence obstetric services is 64.5% and utilization of modern family planning method is 27%. Only about 13% of home deliveries access post natal check-up. Despite a number of efforts maternal mortality is still unacceptably high. Some of the efforts done to reduce maternal mortality in Tanzania included the following initiatives: reproductive and child survival; increased skilled delivery; maternal death audit; coordination and integration of different programs including maternal and child health services, family planning, malaria interventions, expanded program on immunization and adolescent health and nutrition programmes. These initiatives are however challenged by inadequate access to maternal health care services. In order to considerably reduce maternal deaths some of recommended

  10. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Brink, Henry; Smith, Robert J; Skinner, Kirsten; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR), the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul of the system in

  11. Two new cytoforms of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Malawi and Tanzania and potential onchocerciasis vectors.

    PubMed

    Krüger, A; Kalinga, A K; Post, R J; Maegga, B T A

    2004-07-01

    During a distribution survey of Simulium damnosum s.l. around the Tukuyu onchocerciasis focus at the northern tip of Lake Malawi/Nyasa (Tanzania), we discovered two new cytoforms of the S. damnosum complex in onchocerciasis-free areas. The Nyika form is related to Simulium thyolense, a vector of onchocerciasis, and can be identified by the new inversion 3L-L on the long arm of chromosome 3. It was found breeding in five rivers in northern Malawi and neighbouring Tanzania and is assumed to be zoophilic. The Njombe form represents a member of the Sanje group of the complex and is characterized by the new diagnostic inversion 2L-35 on chromosome 2. So far, it is only known from around Njombe town in southern Tanzania, where it breeds at remarkably high altitudes. Anthropophily for the Njombe form is well known. The medical importance and systematic position of the new forms within the S. damnosum complex are discussed.

  12. An outbreak of East Coast Fever on the Comoros: a consequence of the import of immunised cattle from Tanzania?

    PubMed

    De Deken, R; Martin, V; Saido, A; Madder, M; Brandt, J; Geysen, D

    2007-02-28

    In 2003 and 2004, a severe epidemic decimated the cattle population on Grand Comore, the largest island of the Union of Comoros. Fatalities started soon after the import of cattle from Tanzania. Theileria parva and its vector, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, could be identified as the main culprits of the epidemic. Characterisation by multilocus genotyping revealed that the T. parva parasites isolated on the Comoros were identical to the components of the Muguga cocktail vaccine used in Tanzania to immunise cattle. Therefore, it is believed that East Coast Fever reached the Comoros while some of the imported livestock got infected in Tanzania by ticks of which the immature stadia fed on Muguga cocktail vaccinated animals. Since the Comorian government neither has the financial means nor the competent staff to pursue an adequate epidemiosurveillance, the danger exists that without external assistance and in a context of continuing globalisation more transboundary diseases will affect the Comorian livestock sector in the future. PMID:16996692

  13. An outbreak of East Coast Fever on the Comoros: a consequence of the import of immunised cattle from Tanzania?

    PubMed

    De Deken, R; Martin, V; Saido, A; Madder, M; Brandt, J; Geysen, D

    2007-02-28

    In 2003 and 2004, a severe epidemic decimated the cattle population on Grand Comore, the largest island of the Union of Comoros. Fatalities started soon after the import of cattle from Tanzania. Theileria parva and its vector, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, could be identified as the main culprits of the epidemic. Characterisation by multilocus genotyping revealed that the T. parva parasites isolated on the Comoros were identical to the components of the Muguga cocktail vaccine used in Tanzania to immunise cattle. Therefore, it is believed that East Coast Fever reached the Comoros while some of the imported livestock got infected in Tanzania by ticks of which the immature stadia fed on Muguga cocktail vaccinated animals. Since the Comorian government neither has the financial means nor the competent staff to pursue an adequate epidemiosurveillance, the danger exists that without external assistance and in a context of continuing globalisation more transboundary diseases will affect the Comorian livestock sector in the future.

  14. Contrasting rainfall declines in northern and southern Tanzania: Potential differential impacts of west Pacific warming and east Pacific cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, L.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Pedreros, D. H.; Shukla, S.; Husak, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Here, we present analysis of a new 1900-2014 rainfall record for the Greater Horn of Africa with high station density (CenTrends), and evaluate potential climate change "hot spots" in Tanzania. We identify recent (1981-2014) downward trends in Tanzanian rainfall, use CenTrends to place these in a longer historical context, and relate rainfall in these regions to decadal changes in global sea surface temperatures (SSTs). To identify areas of concern, we consider the potential food security impacts of the recent rainfall declines and also rapid population growth. Looking forward, we consider what the links to SSTs might mean for rainfall in the next several decades based on SST projections. In addition to CenTrends, we use a variety of geographic data sets, including 1981-2014 rainfall from the Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPSv2.0), simulated crop stress from the USGS Geospatial Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (GeoWRSI) model, NOAA Extended Reconstructed SSTs (ERSST v4), SST projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), and land cover and population maps from SERVIR, WorldPOP, and CIESIN's Gridded Population of the World. The long-term CenTrends record allows us to suggest an interesting dichotomy in decadal rainfall forcing. During the March to June season, SSTs in the west Pacific appear to be driving post-1980 rainfall reductions in northern Tanzania. In the 2000s, northern Tanzania's densely populated Pangani River, Internal Drainage, and Lake Victoria basins experienced the driest period in more than a century. During summer, negative trends in southern Tanzania appear linked to a negative SST trend in the Nino3.4 region. Since the SST trend in the west (east) Pacific appears strongly influenced by global warming (natural decadal variability), we suggest that water resources in northern Tanzania may face increasing challenges, but that this will be less the case in southern Tanzania.

  15. Emergency health and risk management in sub-saharan Africa: a lesson from the embassy bombings in Tanzania and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Clack, Zoanne A; Keim, Mark E; Macintyre, Anthony G; Yeskey, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, terrorists simultaneously bombed United States Embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. The local response to these bombings was unorganized and ad hoc, indicating the need for basic disaster preparedness and improvement of emergency management capabilities in both countries. In this context, risk and risk management are defined and are related to the health hazards affecting Tanzanians and Kenyans. In addition, the growing number of injuries in Tanzania is addressed and the relationship between risk management and injury is explored. Also, an emergency medicine-based strategy for injury control and prevention is proposed. Implications of implementing such a protocol in developing nations also are discussed.

  16. Disparities in Risk Factors Associated with Obesity between Zanzibar and Tanzania Mainland among Women of Reproductive Age Based on the 2010 TDHS

    PubMed Central

    Mtumwa, Abdalla H.; Ntwenya, Julius Edward; Vuai, Said A. H.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of overweight and obesity has serious health implications. The 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey data set was reanalysed to compare the prevalences of overweight and obesity between Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar and to determine how demographic factors can predict overweight and obesity across the United Republic of Tanzania. About 7.92% of the Tanzanian women of reproductive age were obese, 15% were overweight, and 11.5% were underweight. Women from Mainland Tanzania (6.56%) were significantly less likely (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.53–0.82) to be affected by obesity as compared to women from Zanzibar (12.19%). The common predictors of obesity in Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar were wealth index, marital status, and age. Whereas the place of residence and education level emerged as predictors of obesity in the Mainland Tanzania alone, the number of meals per day did so in Zanzibar. Most importantly, Zanzibar had a greater prevalence of obesity compared to Mainland Tanzania. PMID:27721990

  17. Perceived unfairness in working conditions: The case of public health services in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The focus on the determinants of the quality of health services in low-income countries is increasing. Health workers' motivation has emerged as a topic of substantial interest in this context. The main objective of this article is to explore health workers' experience of working conditions, linked to motivation to work. Working conditions have been pointed out as a key factor in ensuring a motivated and well performing staff. The empirical focus is on rural public health services in Tanzania. The study aims to situate the results in a broader historical context in order to enhance our understanding of the health worker discourse on working conditions. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit detailed information on health workers' experience of their working conditions. The data comprise focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with administrators, clinicians and nursing staff in the public health services in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in the same part of Tanzania. Results The article provides insights into health workers' understanding and assessment of their working conditions. An experience of unsatisfactory working conditions as well as a perceived lack of fundamental fairness dominated the FGDs and IDIs. Informants reported unfairness with reference to factors such as salary, promotion, recognition of work experience, allocation of allowances and access to training as well as to human resource management. The study also revealed that many health workers lack information or knowledge about factors that influence their working conditions. Conclusions The article calls for attention to the importance of locating the discourse of unfairness related to working conditions in a broader historical/political context. Tanzanian history has been characterised by an ambiguous and shifting landscape of state regulation, economic reforms

  18. Where There Is No Toilet: Water and Sanitation Environments of Domestic and Facility Births in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Benova, Lenka; Cumming, Oliver; Gordon, Bruce A.; Magoma, Moke; Campbell, Oona M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Inadequate water and sanitation during childbirth are likely to lead to poor maternal and newborn outcomes. This paper uses existing data sources to assess the water and sanitation (WATSAN) environment surrounding births in Tanzania in order to interrogate whether such estimates could be useful for guiding research, policy and monitoring initiatives. Methods We used the most recent Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to characterise the delivery location of births occurring between 2005 and 2010. Births occurring in domestic environments were characterised as WATSAN-safe if the home fulfilled international definitions of improved water and improved sanitation access. We used the 2006 Service Provision Assessment survey to characterise the WATSAN environment of facilities that conduct deliveries. We combined estimates from both surveys to describe the proportion of all births occurring in WATSAN-safe environments and conducted an equity analysis based on DHS wealth quintiles and eight geographic zones. Results 42.9% (95% confidence interval: 41.6%–44.2%) of all births occurred in the woman's home. Among these, only 1.5% (95% confidence interval: 1.2%–2.0%) were estimated to have taken place in WATSAN-safe conditions. 74% of all health facilities conducted deliveries. Among these, only 44% of facilities overall and 24% of facility delivery rooms were WATSAN-safe. Combining the estimates, we showed that 30.5% of all births in Tanzania took place in a WATSAN-safe environment (range of uncertainty 25%–42%). Large wealth-based inequalities existed in the proportion of births occurring in domestic environments based on wealth quintile and geographical zone. Conclusion Existing data sources can be useful in national monitoring and prioritisation of interventions to improve poor WATSAN environments during childbirth. However, a better conceptual understanding of potentially harmful exposures and better data are needed in order to devise and apply

  19. Ending Open Defecation in Rural Tanzania: Which Factors Facilitate Latrine Adoption?

    PubMed Central

    Sara, Stephen; Graham, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases account for 7% of deaths in children under five years of age in Tanzania. Improving sanitation is an essential step towards reducing these deaths. This secondary analysis examined rural Tanzanian households’ sanitation behaviors and attitudes in order to identify barriers and drivers to latrine adoption. The analysis was conducted using results from a cross-sectional study of 1000 households in five rural districts of Tanzania. Motivating factors, perceptions, and constraints surrounding open defecation and latrine adoption were assessed using behavioral change theory. Results showed a significant association between use of improved sanitation and satisfaction with current sanitation facility (OR: 5.91; CI: 2.95–11.85; p = 0.008). Livestock-keeping was strongly associated with practicing open defecation (OR: 0.22; CI 0.063–0.75; p < 0.001). Of the 93 total households that practiced open defecation, 79 (85%) were dissatisfied with the practice, 62 (67%) had plans to build a latrine and 17 (18%) had started saving for a latrine. Among households that planned to build a latrine, health was the primary reason stated (60%). The inability to pay for upgrading sanitation infrastructure was commonly reported among the households. Future efforts should consider methods to reduce costs and ease payments for households to upgrade sanitation infrastructure. Messages to increase demand for latrine adoption in rural Tanzania should integrate themes of privacy, safety, prestige and health. Findings indicate a need for lower cost sanitation options and financing strategies to increase household ability to adopt sanitation facilities. PMID:25247427

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kashoma, Isaac P.; Kassem, Issmat I.; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country. PMID:26617582

  1. Is Development Assistance for Health fungible? Findings from a mixed methods case study in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Martínez Álvarez, Melisa; Borghi, Josephine; Acharya, Arnab; Vassall, Anna

    2016-06-01

    The amount of Development Assistance for Health (DAH) available to low- and middle-income countries has increased exponentially over the past decade. However, there are concerns that DAH increases have not resulted in increased spending on health at the country level. This is because DAH may be fungible, resulting from the recipient government decreasing its contribution to the health sector as a result of external funding. The aim of this research is to assess whether DAH funds in Tanzania are fungible, by exploring government substitution of its own resources across sectors and within the health sector. A database containing 28140 projects of DAH expenditure between 2000 and 2010 was compiled from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's Creditor Reporting System (OECD-CRS) and AidData databases. Government health expenditure data for the same period were obtained from the Government of Tanzania, World Bank, public expenditure reviews and budget speeches and analysed to assess the degree of government substitution. 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Development Partners (DPs), government and non-government stakeholders between April and June 2012 to explore stakeholder perceptions of fungibility. We found some evidence of substitution of government funds at the health sector and sub-sector levels and two mechanisms through which it takes place: the resource allocation process and macro-economic factors. We found fungibility of external funds may not necessarily be detrimental to Tanzania's development (as evidence suggests the funds displaced may be reallocated to education) and the mechanisms used by DPs to prevent substitution were largely ineffective. We recommend DPs engage more effectively in the priority-setting process, not just with the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW), but also with the Ministry of Finance, to agree on priorities and mutual funding responsibilities at a macroeconomic level. We also call for

  2. The status of occupational safety among health service providers in hospitals in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Manyele, S V; Ngonyani, H A M; Eliakimu, E

    2008-07-01

    Occupational hazards exist wherever health care is practised. However, there is dearth of information on the status of occupational safety among hospital workers in Tanzania. This study was therefore carried to assess the current status of occupational health and safety (OHS) in Tanzanian hospitals and identify key areas for intervention. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire randomly distributed to the health service providers (HSPs) working in 14 district, regional and referral hospitals in Tanzania. A total of 430 HSPs (mean age = 42+/-8.8 years) were involved in the study. Female workers accounted for the majority (71%) of the respondents. None of the 430 respondents had received training on OHS as a profession. Most of the supervisors were holders of certificates (54.4%). Only 42.9% (6/14) of the hospitals, had at least a supervisor with post-graduate degree. Needlestick injuries accounted for the largest part of the most common accidents (52.9%); followed by splash of blood from patients (21.7%); burn injury from chemicals (10.6%); and slippery floors (5.9%). There was lack of qualified personnel for OHS in all hospitals. Most of the hazardous activities were carried out by nurses and attendants. Chemicals used in hospitals were mainly antiseptics and disinfectants, which causes skin burns during handling and use. Seminars and workshops were the major source (N = 429; 33%) of information on OHS. The seven major hazardous activities were injection, cleaning, patient care, bedding, dressing of wounds, medication and surgical operation. The largest proportion of HSPs involved in hazardous activities was found at referral hospitals. The mostly available antiseptics were 70-90% alcohol, 3% aqueous iodine, chlorhexidine gluconate and cetrimide. In conclusion, the OHS was observed to be inadequate in most workplaces in Tanzanian hospitals. Special efforts including training, exposure to information and creation of awareness, are recommended for

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country. PMID:26617582

  4. Incidence of Induced Abortion and Post-Abortion Care in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Sarah C.; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Background Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. Objectives To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). Methods A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. Results In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15–49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. Conclusions The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies. PMID:26361246

  5. Ultra-high temperature granulite-facies metamorphic rocks from the Mozambique belt of SW Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, H.; Kröner, A.

    2013-06-01

    The metamorphic rocks in the Neoproterozoic (Pan-African) Mozambique belt of southwestern Tanzania, around the town of Songea, can be subdivided into one- and two pyroxene bearing charnockitic gneisses, migmatitic granitoid gneisses and amphibolite-facies metapelites. Lower-grade amphibolite-facies rocks are rare and can be classified as sillimanite- and/or garnet-bearing metapelites. Most of the studied charnockitic gneisses show excellent corona textures with large orthopyroxene grains rimmed by clinopyroxene, followed by quartz and well developed garnet rims due to the reaction Opx + Pl = Grt + Cpx + Qtz that formed during isobaric cooling. These and other charnockitic gneisses show symplectites of orthopyroxene and An-rich plagioclase that resulted from the breakdown of garnet during isothermal decompression due to the reaction Grt + Cpx + Qtz = Opx + Pl. Geothermobarometric calculations yield up to ~ 1050 °C and up to ~ 12 kbar for peak metamorphic conditions. These are higher temperature and slightly lower pressure conditions than reported for other granulite-facies terrains in the Mozambique belt of Tanzania. Single zircon Pb-Pb evaporation and U-Pb SHRIMP ages for magmatic zircons extracted from two charnockitic and two granitic gneisses cluster in two groups, one at ~ 750 Ma and one at ~ 1150 Ma with the older reflecting the time of emplacement of the igneous precursors, and the younger approximating the time of charnockitization. These protolith ages are similar to those farther east in the Masasi area of southern Tanzania, as well as in northern Mozambique and in southern Malawi, and suggest that the Mozambique belt consists of chronologically heterogeneous assemblages whose pre-metamorphic tectonic setting remains obscure.

  6. Domestic pigs as potential reservoirs of human and animal trypanosomiasis in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pig keeping is becoming increasingly common across sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic pigs from the Arusha region of northern Tanzania were screened for trypanosomes using PCR-based methods to examine the role of pigs as a reservoir of human and animal trypanosomiasis. Methods A total of 168 blood samples were obtained from domestic pigs opportunistically sampled across four districts in Tanzania (Babati, Mbulu, Arumeru and Dodoma) during December 2004. A suite of PCR-based methods was used to identify the species and sub-species of trypanosomes including: Internally Transcribed Sequence to identify multiple species; species specific PCR to identify T. brucei s. l. and T. godfreyi and a multiplex PCR reaction to distinguish T. b. rhodesiense from T. brucei s. l. Results Of the 168 domestic pigs screened for animal and human infective trypanosome DNA, 28 (16.7%) were infected with one or more species of trypanosome; these included: six pigs infected with Trypanosoma vivax (3.6%); three with Trypanosoma simiae (1.8%); two with Trypanosoma congolense (Forest) (1%) and four with Trypanosoma godfreyi (2.4%). Nineteen pigs were infected with Trypanosoma brucei s. l. (10.1%) of which eight were identified as carrying the human infective sub-species Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (4.8%). Conclusion These results show that in Tanzania domestic pigs may act as a significant reservoir for animal trypanosomiasis including the cattle pathogens T. vivax and T. congolense, the pig pathogen T. simiae, and provide a significant reservoir for T. b. rhodesiense, the causative agent of acute Rhodesian sleeping sickness. PMID:24499540

  7. Is Development Assistance for Health fungible? Findings from a mixed methods case study in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Martínez Álvarez, Melisa; Borghi, Josephine; Acharya, Arnab; Vassall, Anna

    2016-06-01

    The amount of Development Assistance for Health (DAH) available to low- and middle-income countries has increased exponentially over the past decade. However, there are concerns that DAH increases have not resulted in increased spending on health at the country level. This is because DAH may be fungible, resulting from the recipient government decreasing its contribution to the health sector as a result of external funding. The aim of this research is to assess whether DAH funds in Tanzania are fungible, by exploring government substitution of its own resources across sectors and within the health sector. A database containing 28140 projects of DAH expenditure between 2000 and 2010 was compiled from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's Creditor Reporting System (OECD-CRS) and AidData databases. Government health expenditure data for the same period were obtained from the Government of Tanzania, World Bank, public expenditure reviews and budget speeches and analysed to assess the degree of government substitution. 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Development Partners (DPs), government and non-government stakeholders between April and June 2012 to explore stakeholder perceptions of fungibility. We found some evidence of substitution of government funds at the health sector and sub-sector levels and two mechanisms through which it takes place: the resource allocation process and macro-economic factors. We found fungibility of external funds may not necessarily be detrimental to Tanzania's development (as evidence suggests the funds displaced may be reallocated to education) and the mechanisms used by DPs to prevent substitution were largely ineffective. We recommend DPs engage more effectively in the priority-setting process, not just with the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW), but also with the Ministry of Finance, to agree on priorities and mutual funding responsibilities at a macroeconomic level. We also call for

  8. Ethnicity and Child Health in Northern Tanzania: Maasai Pastoralists Are Disadvantaged Compared to Neighbouring Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, David W.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E.; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic

  9. Sources of community health worker motivation: a qualitative study in Morogoro Region, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a renewed interest in community health workers (CHWs) in Tanzania, but also a concern that low motivation of CHWs may decrease the benefits of investments in CHW programs. This study aimed to explore sources of CHW motivation to inform programs in Tanzania and similar contexts. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 CHWs in Morogoro Region, Tanzania. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and coded prior to translation and thematic analysis. The authors then conducted a literature review on CHW motivation and a framework that aligned with our findings was modified to guide the presentation of results. Results Sources of CHW motivation were identified at the individual, family, community, and organizational levels. At the individual level, CHWs are predisposed to volunteer work and apply knowledge gained to their own problems and those of their families and communities. Families and communities supplement other sources of motivation by providing moral, financial, and material support, including service fees, supplies, money for transportation, and help with farm work and CHW tasks. Resistance to CHW work exhibited by families and community members is limited. The organizational level (the government and its development partners) provides motivation in the form of stipends, potential employment, materials, training, and supervision, but inadequate remuneration and supplies discourage CHWs. Supervision can also be dis-incentivizing if perceived as a sign of poor performance. Conclusions Tanzanian CHWs who work despite not receiving a salary have an intrinsic desire to volunteer, and their motivation often derives from support received from their families when other sources of motivation are insufficient. Policy-makers and program managers should consider the burden that a lack of remuneration imposes on the families of CHWs. In addition, CHWs’ intrinsic desire to volunteer does not preclude a desire for external rewards

  10. An interdisciplinary clinic in rural Tanzania – observations on chiropractic care in a developing nation

    PubMed Central

    Lemire, Joe; Budgell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    It appears that a great many chiropractors and chiropractic institutions are involved in health care initiatives in developing countries. Developing nations present extraordinary opportunities to do good, but also carry risks, for practitioners and organizations, which may not be obvious prior to actual local engagement. This paper describes the guiding principles under which one international collaboration has evolved in rural Tanzania, a so-called ‘low resource’ setting where the majority of families subsist in extreme poverty. Several challenges to effective care are also identified. PMID:27385832

  11. Outcomes of Swedish nursing students' field experiences in a hospital in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Sandin, Ingrid; Grahn, Kristina; Kronvall, Ewa

    2004-07-01

    This study describes the experiences of a group of nursing students from Sweden in a hospital in Tanzania. Students were interviewed on their return after the trip. Although students experienced considerable upheaval and frustration working in a different context, they learned valuable lessons as to how nursing can be conducted in conditions entirely different from those familiar to them. They attempted to understand the value and behavioral divergences they encountered, yet values of their home culture remained their frame of reference. This project reflected the importance of working through students' experience if knowledge and understanding of self and others are to be enhanced or developed. PMID:15189644

  12. Evaluation of a eucalyptus-based repellent against Anopheles spp. in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Trigg, J K

    1996-06-01

    A eucalyptus-based insect repellent (PMD) with the principal active ingredient p-menthane-3,8-diol was evaluated in the field in comparison with deet. In human landing catches in Tanzania, 3 formulations of PMD were tested against Anopheles gambiae and An. funestus. Repellents, applied to the legs and feet at doses chosen as used in practice, gave complete protection from biting for between 6 and 7.75 h, depending upon the formulation type, with no significant difference between PMD and deet in terms of efficacy and duration of protection. PMID:8827599

  13. Tanzania national survey on iodine deficiency: impact after twelve years of salt iodation

    PubMed Central

    Assey, Vincent D; Peterson, Stefan; Kimboka, Sabas; Ngemera, Daniel; Mgoba, Celestin; Ruhiye, Deusdedit M; Ndossi, Godwin D; Greiner, Ted; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2009-01-01

    Background In many low-income countries, children are at high risk of iodine deficiency disorders, including brain damage. In the early 1990s, Tanzania, a country that previously suffered from moderate to severe iodine deficiency, adopted universal salt iodation (USI) as an intervention strategy, but its impact remained unknown. Methods We report on the first national survey in mainland Tanzania, conducted in 2004 to assess the extent to which iodated salt was used and its apparent impact on the total goitre prevalence (TGP) and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) among the schoolchildren after USI was initiated. In 2004, a cross-sectional goitre survey was conducted; covering 140,758 schoolchildren aged 6 - 18 years were graded for goitre according to new WHO goitre classification system. Comparisons were made with district surveys conducted throughout most of the country during the 1980s and 90s. 131,941 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using rapid field test kits. UIC was determined spectrophotometrically using the ammonium persulfate digestion method in 4523 sub-sampled children. Results 83.6% (95% CI: 83.4 - 83.8) of salt samples tested positive for iodine. Whereas the TGP was about 25% on average in the earlier surveys, it was 6.9% (95%CI: 6.8-7.0) in 2004. The TGP for the younger children, 6-9 years old, was 4.2% (95%CI: 4.0-4.4), n = 41,965. In the 27 goitre-endemic districts, TGP decreased from 61% (1980s) to 12.3% (2004). The median UIC was 204 (95% CF: 192-215) μg/L. Only 25% of children had UIC <100 μg/L and 35% were ≥ 300 μg/L, indicating low and excess iodine intake, respectively. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a marked improvement in iodine nutrition in Tanzania, twelve years after the initiation of salt iodation programme. The challenge in sustaining IDD elimination in Tanzania is now two-fold: to better reach the areas with low coverage of iodated salt, and to reduce iodine intake in areas where it is excessive

  14. Returns to Treatment in the Formal Health Care Sector: Evidence from Tanzania*

    PubMed Central

    Adhvaryu, Achyuta; Nyshadham, Anant

    2014-01-01

    Improving access to the formal health care sector is a primary public health goal in many low-income countries. But the returns to this access are unclear, given that the quality of care at public health facilities is often considered inadequate. We exploit temporal and geographic variation in the cost of traveling to formal sector health facilities to show that treatment at these facilities improves short-term health outcomes for acutely ill children in Tanzania. Our results suggest that these improvements are driven in part by more timely receipt of and better adherence to antimalarial treatment. PMID:26240677

  15. Women's property rights and gendered policies: implications for women's long-term welfare in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Peterman, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates effects of community-level women's property and inheritance rights on women's economic outcomes using a 13 year longitudinal panel from rural Tanzania. In the preferred model specification, inverse probability weighting is applied to a woman-level fixed effects model to control for individual-level time invariant heterogeneity and attrition. Results indicate that changes in women's property and inheritance rights are significantly associated with women's employment outside the home, self-employment and earnings. Results are not limited to sub-groups of marginalised women. Findings indicate lack of gender equity in sub-Saharan Africa may inhibit economic development for women and society as a whole.

  16. The Pindiro Group (Triassic to Early Jurassic Mandawa Basin, southern coastal Tanzania): Definition, palaeoenvironment, and stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, W. E.; Nicholas, C. J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper defines the Pindiro Group of the Mandawa Basin, southern coastal Tanzania based on studies conducted between 2006 and 2009 with the objective of understanding the evolution of this basin. This work draws upon field data, hydrocarbon exploration data, unconventional literature, and the scant published materials available. The paper focuses on the evolution, depositional environments, and definition of the lowermost sedimentary package, which overlies unconformably the metamorphic basement of Precambrian age. The package is described here as the Pindiro Group and it forms the basal group of the Mandawa Basin stratigraphy.

  17. Burned area, active fires and biomass burning - approaches to account for emissions from fires in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Hoffmann, Anja; Leimbach, David; Tiemann, Joachim; Ng'atigwa, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Eleven years of data from the globally available MODIS burned area and the MODS Active Fire Product have been analysed for Tanzania in conjunction with GIS data on land use and cover to provide a baseline for fire activity in this East African country. The total radiated energy (FRE) emitted by fires that were picked up by the burned area and active fire product is estimated based on a spatio-temporal clustering algorithm over the burned areas, and integration of the fire radiative power from the MODIS Active Fires product over the time of burning and the area of each burned area cluster. Resulting biomass combusted by unit area based on Woosteŕs scaling factor for FRE to biomass combusted is compared to values found in the literature, and to values found in the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Pyrogenic emissions are then estimated using emission factors. According to our analysis, an average of 11 million ha burn annually (ranging between 8.5 and 12.9 million ha) in Tanzania corresponding to between 10 and 14 % of Tanzaniás land area. Most burned area is recorded in the months from May to October. The land cover types most affected are woodland and shrubland cover types: they comprise almost 70 % of Tanzania's average annual burned area or 6.8 million ha. Most burning occurs in gazetted land, with an annual average of 3.7 million ha in forest reserves, 3.3 million ha in game reserves and 1.46 million ha in national parks, totalling close to 8.5 million ha or 77 % of the annual average burned area of Tanzania. Annual variability of burned area is moderate for most of the analysed classes, and in most cases there is no clear trend to be detected in burned area, except for the Lindi region were annual burned area appears to be increasing. Preliminary results regarding emissions from fires show that for larger fires that burn over a longer time, biomass burned derived through the FRP method compares well to literature values, while the integration over

  18. Livelihood Diversification through Migration among a Pastoral People: Contrasting Case Studies of Maasai in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, J. Terrence; Smith, Nicole M.; Leslie, Paul W.; Telligman, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper brings together over two decades of research concerning the patterns and processes of livelihood diversification through migration among Maasai pastoralists and agro-pastoralists of northern Tanzania. Two case studies, one from the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and the other from the Simanjiro plains, jointly demonstrate the complexity of migration within a single ethnic group. We analyze the relationship between wealth and migration and examine some of the consequences of migration for building herds, expanding cultivation, and influencing political leadership. We further argue that migration in Maasai communities is becoming a cultural norm and not only a response to economic conditions. PMID:25745192

  19. A new tetraploid species of Solanum L. sect. Solanum (Solanaceae) from Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Manoko, Mkabwa L. K.; van Weerden, Gerard M.; van Berg, Ronald G.; Mariani, Celestina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Solanum umalilaense Manoko sp. nov. (Solanaceae) is described from the Umalila area, in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Its novelty is supported with both morphological and AFLP data. Phenetic and phylogenetic analyses place Solanum umalilaense as a unique and well-supported taxon among tetraploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Africa. It can be distinguished from other African species by its extremely developed branching, each branch producing many multi-flowered inflorescences, flowers with short calyx lobes and its persistent, small, light yellowish brown fruits. PMID:23233812

  20. Why do health workers in rural Tanzania prefer public sector employment?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe shortages of qualified health workers and geographical imbalances in the workforce in many low-income countries require the national health sector management to closely monitor and address issues related to the distribution of health workers across various types of health facilities. This article discusses health workers' preferences for workplace and their perceptions and experiences of the differences in working conditions in the public health sector versus the church-run health facilities in Tanzania. The broader aim is to generate knowledge that can add to debates on health sector management in low-income contexts. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit in-depth information on health workers' preferences for workplace. The data comprise ten focus group discussions (FGDs) and 29 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with auxiliary staff, nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector and in a large church-run hospital in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results The study found a clear preference for public sector employment. This was associated with health worker rights and access to various benefits offered to health workers in government service, particularly the favourable pension schemes providing economic security in old age. Health workers acknowledged that church-run hospitals generally were better equipped and provided better quality patient care, but these concerns tended to be outweighed by the financial assets of public sector employment. In addition to the sector specific differences, family concerns emerged as important in decisions on workplace. Conclusions The preference for public sector employment among health workers shown in this study seems to be associated primarily with the favourable pension scheme. The overall shortage of health workers and the distribution between health facilities is a challenge in a

  1. An interdisciplinary clinic in rural Tanzania - observations on chiropractic care in a developing nation.

    PubMed

    Lemire, Joe; Budgell, Brian

    2016-06-01

    It appears that a great many chiropractors and chiropractic institutions are involved in health care initiatives in developing countries. Developing nations present extraordinary opportunities to do good, but also carry risks, for practitioners and organizations, which may not be obvious prior to actual local engagement. This paper describes the guiding principles under which one international collaboration has evolved in rural Tanzania, a so-called 'low resource' setting where the majority of families subsist in extreme poverty. Several challenges to effective care are also identified. PMID:27385832

  2. Pre-service teachers' experiences teaching secondary mathematics in English-medium schools in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmer, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    In order to promote mathematical understanding among English Language Learners (ELLs), it is necessary to modify instructional strategies to effectively communicate mathematical content. This paper discusses the instructional strategies used by four pre-service teachers to teach mathematics to secondary students in English-medium schools in Arusha, Tanzania as a result of the tensions they faced and reflections on their teaching. Strategies such as code switching, attending to sentence structure, non-linguistic representations, and placing the content within a familiar context proved to be beneficial strategies for conveying mathematical ideas.

  3. A Call to Learning Focus in East Africa: Uwezo's Measurement of Learning in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugo, John Kabutha; Ruto, Sara Jerop; Nakabugo, Mary Goretti; Mgalla, Zaida

    2015-01-01

    From the late 1990s, education in East Africa started to be appraised on the basis of enrolment. The universalisation of primary education that started in Uganda in 1997--and peaked in Tanzania in 2002, as well as in Kenya in 2003--was politicised as the epitome of education reform. Yet, alternative voices called for consideration of improving…

  4. Intimate Partner Violence and the Association with HIV Risk Behaviors among Young Men in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maman, Suzanne; Yamanis, Thespina; Kouyoumdjian, Fiona; Watt, Melissa; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the association between gender-based violence and HIV from the perspective and experiences of women. The purpose of this study is to examine these associations from the perspective of young men living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A community-based sample of 951 men were interviewed, of whom 360 had sex in the past 6…

  5. How Do Members of Different Stakeholder Groups Balance Concerns for Increasing Access with Improving Quality in the Tanzania Education System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telli, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how education stakeholders in Tanzania express and balance their priorities, perspectives, and concerns regarding the expansion of education access on the one hand, and improving quality of education on the other, as a means to enhance educational achievement. The study also explores how each group of…

  6. Evaluation of Primary English Books I and II for Tanzania. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation, No. 124.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosi, Salma

    A study conducted to determine the effectiveness of books one and two of "Primary English for Tanzania," currently in use in all elementary schools in that country, had two primary purposes: to provide feedback to curriculum developers and publishers for effective revision of the texts, and to increase the awareness and involvement of the college…

  7. Post-Project Assessment of Community-Supported Emergency Transport Systems for Health Care Services in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Indu B.; Robinson, Dorcas; Vallely, Lisa; Myeya, Juliana; Ngitoria, Lukumay; Kitambi, Victor; Kabakama, Alfreda

    2012-01-01

    We examined the continuation of community-organized and financed emergency transport systems implemented by the Community-Based Reproductive Health Project (CBRHP) from 1998 to 2000 in two rural districts in Tanzania. The CBRHP was a multipronged program, one component of which focused on affordable transport to health facilities from the…

  8. Science Teacher Learning of MBL-Supported Student-Centered Science Education in the Context of Secondary Education in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, Joke; Tilya, Frank; van den Akker, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Science teachers from secondary schools in Tanzania were offered an in-service arrangement to prepare them for the integration of technology in a student-centered approach to science teaching. The in-service arrangement consisted of workshops in which educative curriculum materials were used to prepare teachers for student-centered education and…

  9. Influence of Leadership Styles on Teachers' Job Satisfaction: A Case of Selected Primary Schools in Songea and Morogoro Districts, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machumu, Haruni J.; Kaitila, Mafwimbo M.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on the kind of school leadership style that best suits for promoting teachers' job satisfaction in primary schools in Tanzania. The study employed cross sectional research design with samples of 200 teachers from 20 selected primary schools in Songea and Morogoro districts. Interviews, documentary analysis and questionnaires…

  10. A new species of Pachytrechodes Jeannel, 1960 (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae) from Tanzania, with a key to species.

    PubMed

    Belousov, Igor A; Nyundo, Bruno A

    2013-01-01

    Pachytrechodes brevis Belousov & Nyundo, new species, is described from the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. This species is the first member of the genus found outside of the Uluguru Mountains. A key to the four currently known species of Pachytrechodes is included, based on Uéno's (1987) key. The distribution of all species is mapped. PMID:26046178

  11. Innovation in Distance Education Learning Systems: The Case of the National Correspondence Institute of Tanzania, 1972-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutanyatta, J. N. S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper attempts to provide relevant data on the achievements, albeit quantitatively, of the National Correspondence Institute of Tanzania over the past 30 years as a case study in distance education innovation. The case-study data reveal reasons for the near collapse of the distance education programme during the 1990s, and the renewed policy…

  12. Challenges and Instructors' Intention to Adopt and Use Open Educational Resources in Higher Education in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtebe, Joel Samson; Raisamo, Roope

    2014-01-01

    Higher education in Tanzania like in many other Sub-Saharan countries suffers from unavailability of quality teaching and learning resources due to lack of tradition, competence, and experience to develop such resources. Nevertheless, there are thousands of open educational resources (OER) freely available in the public domain that can potentially…

  13. Professional Development through Teacher Collaboration: An Approach to Enhance Teaching and Learning in Science and Mathematics in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub Cherd

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces "teachers' collaboration" as an approach to teachers' professional development geared at enhancing science and mathematics teaching in Tanzania secondary schools. Teachers' professional development through teachers' collaboration has been reported to be effective for the improvement of schools' performance and…

  14. Spillover of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus from Domestic to Wild Ruminants in the Serengeti Ecosystem, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Mana; Sayalel, Kuya; Muniraju, Murali; Eblate, Ernest; Fyumagwa, Robert; Shilinde, Ligge; Mdaki, Maulid; Keyyu, Julius; Parida, Satya; Kock, Richard

    2015-12-01

    We tested wildlife inhabiting areas near domestic livestock, pastures, and water sources in the Ngorongoro district in the Serengeti ecosystem of northern Tanzania and found 63% seropositivity for peste des petits ruminants virus. Sequencing of the viral genome from sick sheep in the area confirmed lineage II virus circulation.

  15. Availability and Usage of ICTs and E-Resources by Livestock Researchers in Tanzania: Challenges and Ways Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angello, Consolata; Wema, Evans

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the accessibility and use of e-resources in Tanzania. The methodology adopted for the study was survey in which questionnaires, interviews and observations were used in collection of the data. A total of 50 respondents participated in the study. The study revealed that livestock research institutes in Tanzania…

  16. A SWOT Analysis of the Integration of E-Learning at a University in Uganda and a University in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Chang; Justice Mugenyi, Kintu

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) to integrating e-learning perceived by academic staff at a university in Uganda and a university in Tanzania. Mixed-methods research was used in which a main qualitative study was complemented by a quantitative method. The sample participants were academic staff…

  17. Situation Report--Australia, The Gambia, Papua and New Guinea, Rhodesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, and Western Samoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, The Gambia, Papua and New Guinea, Rhodesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, and Western Somoa. Information is provided under three topics, statistical information, general background information,…

  18. Spillover of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus from Domestic to Wild Ruminants in the Serengeti Ecosystem, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Mana; Sayalel, Kuya; Muniraju, Murali; Eblate, Ernest; Fyumagwa, Robert; Shilinde, Ligge; Mdaki, Maulid; Keyyu, Julius; Parida, Satya; Kock, Richard

    2015-12-01

    We tested wildlife inhabiting areas near domestic livestock, pastures, and water sources in the Ngorongoro district in the Serengeti ecosystem of northern Tanzania and found 63% seropositivity for peste des petits ruminants virus. Sequencing of the viral genome from sick sheep in the area confirmed lineage II virus circulation. PMID:26583961

  19. Spillover of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus from Domestic to Wild Ruminants in the Serengeti Ecosystem, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Mana; Sayalel, K.; Muniraju, Murali; Eblate, Ernest; Fyumagwa, R.; Shilinde, S.; MaulidMdaki, M.; Keyyu, J.

    2015-01-01

    We tested wildlife inhabiting areas near domestic livestock, pastures, and water sources in the Ngorongoro district in the Serengeti ecosystem of northern Tanzania and found 63% seropositivity for peste des petits ruminants virus. Sequencing of the viral genome from sick sheep in the area confirmed lineage II virus circulation. PMID:26583961

  20. Management of Information Services. Reports and Papers of a Training Course (Arusha, Tanzania, April 11-22, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musana, A., Ed.; And Others

    These reports and papers from a training course which brought together information services professionals from Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, the Sudan, Ethiopia, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Botswana, and Swaziland address the following topics: (1) information systems analysis; (2) the state of the art in bibliographic control in Eastern and…

  1. The Education and Training of Artisans for the Informal Sector in Tanzania. Education Research. Serial No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, David W.; Mushi, Paul S. D.

    This study examines the structures and processes that assist in the training of youth who aspire to become artisans working in the informal sector. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction to the report. Chapter 2 addresses political and socioeconomic developments in post-independence Tanzania. Chapter 3 considers education, training, and youth…

  2. The Books-in-a-Bag Project: Developing a Literacy Initiative for Children with Disabilities in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaff, Marilyn S.; Fees, Bronwyn; Wiseman, Nicole; Evans, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    This column describes a long-term service-learning project by faculty from an American university who travelled to Tanzania to consult with educators who work with and care for children with a wide range of disabilities. The project is focused on literacy education and has resulted in several books being developed and distributed in the Kiswahili…

  3. The Rights-Based Approach to Adult Education: Implications for NGO-Government Partnerships in Southern Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This article relates key findings from an ethnographic study into the implementation of the Rights-Based Approach in Tanzania. The Rights-Based Approach is a burgeoning approach in international development that emphasises the rights of citizens and the duties of the State to provide services to the poor. By using the theoretical frameworks of…

  4. Vocational Education and Training in Tanzania and Zimbabwe in the Context of Economic Reform. Education Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennell, Paul; Bendera, Shane; Kanyenze, Godfrey; Kimambo, Emrode; Kiwia, Sixtus; Mbiriyakura, Tichafa; Mukyanuzi, Faustin; Munetsi, N.; Muzulu, Jo; Parsalaw, Willy; Temu, John

    Developments in vocational education and training (VET) in Tanzania and Zimbabwe since the 1980s were examined in the context of economic reform. Formal VET provision in each country's public and private sectors was reviewed, and case studies of one firm in each country's manufacturing and tourism industries were conducted. The research identified…

  5. The Social and Political Context of Literacy Education for Pastoral Societies: The Case of the Maasai of Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semali, Ladislaus

    Part of a large study in Tanzania, a study provides a broad context of obstacles to literacy, particularly those affecting migratory subpopulation groups. Subjects, 480 adults who participated in national literacy programs and belonged to one of two communities of the Maasai, were interviewed. The first group--the Maasai of Longido--represent a…

  6. Impact of Instructional Resources on Mathematics Performance of Learners with Dyscalculia in Integrated Primary Schools, Arusha City, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusta, Nyudule; Karugu, Geoffrey; Muthee, Jessica; Tekle, Tesfu

    2016-01-01

    Learners with dyscalculia in the integrated primary schools in Arusha have been performing poorly in the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE). Thus, the journal sought to investigate the impact of instructional resources on mathematics performance of learners with dyscalculia in integrated primary schools found in Arusha city, Tanzania. The…

  7. Information, Affect and Action: Motivating Reduction of Risk Behaviors for HIV/AIDS in Kenya and Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Garcia, Fe; Apamo, Peter; Mutheu, Lucy; Ndege, Monica

    2012-01-01

    This study reports assessment of motivational and perceptual components of a youth and community AIDS awareness education program, focusing on effectiveness across program sites. The design of this investigation was quasi-experimental, with two intervention districts and one control each, in Kenya and Tanzania. Methods included questionnaires…

  8. Nd, Pb and Sr isotopic data from the Mount Elgon volcano, eastern Uganda-western Kenya: Implications for the origin and evolution of nephelinite lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetti, A.; Bell, K.

    1995-11-01

    Nd, Pb and Sr isotope ratios for nephelinites from the Tertiary Mount Elgon alkaline volcanic centre, eastern Uganda-western Kenya, are highly variable and indicate open system behaviour. The variation in {143Nd }/{144Nd } (0.51219-0.51286) and {87Sr }/{86Sr } (0.70314-0.70604) ratios span almost the entire range documented for carbonatites from several East African alkaline complexes. The whole rock chemical data, mineralogy, composition of diopside phenocrysts, and variation in isotopic ratios from the Mount Elgon nephelinites are similar to those from the nephelinite lavas from the Tertiary Napak volcano, Uganda (Simonetti and Bell, 1994a). The diopside phenocrysts from Mount Elgon nephelinite lavas reveal large core-to-rim compositional variations (which include normal, oscillatory and reverse zoning), and their Nd, Pb and Sr isotopic ratios are not in isotopic equilibrium with their host lavas. Microprobe data along with textural evidence from the Mount Elgon diopside phenocrysts support a model that involves crystallization in an open magma system that was undergoing continuous chemical and isotopic change. The large variation in Pb isotopic ratios (whole rocks- {206Pb }/{204Pb }: 18.45-21.51; {207Pb }/{204Pb }: 15.61-15.88; {208Pb }/{204Pb }: 38.62-41.02), from the Mount Elgon lavas, best fit a model involving mixing between EM I and HIMU mantle components, and correlations in Pb-Sr and Pb-Nd isotopic plots partly support this interpretation. The isotopic data from Mount Elgon and Napak nephelinites suggest complex evolutionary histories involving magma mixing, and support the presence of a heterogeneous sub-continental source beneath eastern Uganda, similar to that documented for various types of peralkaline nephelinite lavas from the only active carbonatite-nephelinite volcano, Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania (Bell and Dawson, 1995) and other East African volcanoes (e.g. Vollmer and Norry, 1983). The chemical data and large variation in isotopic ratios for the

  9. Understanding Structural Properties of Carbonate-Silicate Melts: An EXAFS Study on Y and Sr in the System Na2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlenz, J.; Pascarelli, S.; Mathon, O.; Belin, S.; Shiryaev, A.; Safonov, O.; Murzin, V.; Shablinskaya, K.; Irifune, T.; Wilke, M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonatite volcanism generally occurs in intra-plate settings associated with continental rifting. The only active carbonatitic volcano is the Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, which generates sodium-rich carbonatites in close association with phonolites and nephelinites1. The processes of carbonatite genesis are still unresolved, however carbonate-bearing melts evidently play a crucial role during mantle melting, in diamond formation and as metasomatic agents. Carbonate melts show extraordinary properties, especially in regard to their low melt viscosities and densities, high surface tensions and electrical conductivities as well as distinct geochemical affinities to a wide range of trace elements2. Understanding the structural properties of carbonate-bearing melts is fundamental to explaining their chemical and physical behaviour as well as modeling processes operating in the deep Earth. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy is a versatile tool for element specific investigation of the short to medium range structure of melts and glasses. This study focuses on unraveling the influence of carbonate concentration on the structural incorporation of the geochemically important trace elements Y and Sr in silicate and carbonate melts in the system Na2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CO2. First, we present structural data of silicate glasses with up to 10 wt% CO2, quenched from melts under high temperature and pressure, which indicate that the local structure of Y and Sr is not or only slightly affected by CO2. Melts with higher CO2 contents could not be quenched to glass, so far. Second, we show results of high pressure, high temperature experiments conducted in the Paris Edinburgh-Press, which provides in-situ insight into carbonate-silicate melts. All EXAFS measurements were performed at the synchrotron facility beamlines SAMBA (SOLEIL) and BM23 (ESRF). Information derived from the trace elements' local structure is used to develop a structural model for carbonate

  10. Challenges in the diagnosis and management of sleeping sickness in Tanzania: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sindato, C; Kibona, S N; Nkya, G M; Mbilu, T J N K; Manga, C; Kaboya, J S; Rawille, F

    2008-07-01

    In Tanzania sleeping sickness presents a serious threat to human health with a country-wide average of 400 cases reported annually. Both wild and domestic animals have been found to play a significant role in the epidemiology of sleeping sickness. Serengeti National Park in northern Tanzania, has experienced a number of sleeping sickness epidemics since 1922. The epidemics were associated with abundant game animals in the areas and Glossina swynnertoni was incriminated as the main vector. However since 2001 there has been no case of sleeping sickness reported from the park. This case report highlights on the possibility of resurgence and challenges in the diagnosis and management of sleeping sickness in Serengeti. A 38 years old Tanzanian man working in the Serengeti National Park who had experienced various tsetse bites was presented with a febrile condition and history of unsuccessful case management at different health facilities. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were examined for the presence oftrypanosomes using wet film, Field's stain and concentration techniques. Typanosoma brucei rhodesiense were detected in both the blood and CSF samples. The patient was treated successfully with melarsoprol. The results of this case study highlight the possibility of resurgence of sleeping sickness in the park hence calls for the need to create more awareness among the community and clinicians. There is need for early reporting to health facility and strengthening the diagnostic capacity of healthcare facilities in and around national parks endemic for sleeping sickness.

  11. Neoproterozoic collision tectonics in the Mozambique Belt of East Africa: evidence from the Uluguru mountains, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhongo, Sospeter

    1994-10-01

    The fault-bounded Proterozoic metamorphic terranes lying to the E of the Tanzanian craton make up the Usagara tectonic domain and are a part of the transcontinental Mozambique Orogenic Belt (MB). The lithotectonic units in the MB of the East Africa consist of comparable rock assembles which underwent the same complex deformational history and are thought to represent large thrust sheets or nappes. Their shelf- and fore-deep terranes border the Tanzanian craton and make up the foreland terranes of the Pan-African Mozambique Belt. Granulite-gneiss nappes are ubiquitous in the orogen. Granulite-facies metamorphism, associated with recumbent folds, was due to crustal thickening, which took place during the collision between Gondwana fragments. Isotope data suggest a collision (and concomitant granulite-facies metamorphism) age of between 700 and 550 Ma. The orientations of planar and linear fabrics in the granulite-facies rocks of the Uluguru mountains are used to infer the relative crustal block motions during this collisional event. This Pan-African collisional event was characterized by NW-directed movements, oblique to the N-S trend of the orogen, and involved SE-directed backthrusting. The Ubendian Belt of Tanzania and the Aswa Shear Zone in Uganda and Kenya, which both bifurcate around the Tanzania craton, accommodated the tectonically thickened crust, created by the collisional event, through NW-SE sinistral strike-slip movements.

  12. Spatial and temporal distribution of rabies in northern Tanzania in the period of 1993-2002.

    PubMed

    Swai, E S; Moshy, W E; Kaaya, J E; Mtui, P F

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and distribution patterns of rabies cases in northern Tanzania. Data on laboratory confirmed brain samples and associated case reports submitted to the Arusha Veterinary Investigation Centre, for a period of ten years (1993-2002) was retrieved and reviewed. A total of 98 suspected rabies brain specimens from different animal species and geographical areas were submitted and processed during the period under review. Rabies was confirmed using Fluorescent Antibody Technique test. Of the 98 brain specimens processed, 65 (66.3%) were confirmed to be rabies cases. Canine rabies accounted for 73.8% of the cases and was diagnosed in dogs (43), jackals (4) and hyenas (1). Rabies in wildlife accounted for 5 out of 48 canine confirmed cases. Most of the cases were from Arusha Municipality (20) followed by Arumeru (19), Ngorongoro (9) and Moshi (8) districts. Rabies positive cases in other animal species were in the following order of frequencies: bovine (9 out of 11); feline (5 out of 10); equine (1 out of 2); caprine (2 out of 2). One porcine brain specimen was rabies negative. The high proportion of rabies positive cases confirmed suggests the level of their endemicity in the northern regions of Tanzania. Moreover, the findings highlights the need for sustained surveillance and institution of control measures among dog population and awareness creation particularly among general public and children whom are at high risk of contracting rabies because of their close contact with dogs. PMID:20737833

  13. Elevational Distribution and Ecology of Small Mammals on Tanzania's Second Highest Mountain

    PubMed Central

    Kihaule, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Mt. Meru is Tanzania’s second highest mountain and the ninth highest in Africa. The distribution and abundance of small mammals on this massif are poorly known. Here we document the distribution of shrews and rodents along an elevational gradient on the southeastern versant of Mt. Meru. Five sites were sampled with elevational center points of 1950, 2300, 2650, 3000, and 3600 m, using a systematic methodology of standard traps and pitfall lines, to inventory the shrews and rodents of the slope. Ten species of mammal were recorded, comprising 2 shrew and 8 rodent species with the greatest diversity for each group at 2300 m. No species previously unrecorded on Mt. Meru was observed. Two rodent genera that occur in nearby Eastern Arc Mountains (Hylomyscus and Beamys) were not recorded. The rodent Lophuromys verhageni and a recently described species of shrew, Crocidura newmarki, are the only endemic mammals on Mt. Meru, and were widespread across the elevational gradient. As in similar small mammal surveys on other mountains of Tanzania, rainfall positively influenced trap success rates for shrews, but not for rodents. This study provides new information on the local small mammal fauna of the massif, but numerous other questions remain to be explored. Comparisons are made to similar surveys of other mountains in Tanzania. PMID:27653635

  14. Estimating human rabies mortality in the United Republic of Tanzania from dog bite injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Cleaveland, Sarah; Fèvre, Eric M.; Kaare, Magai; Coleman, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To make quantitative predictions about the magnitude of underreporting of human rabies deaths in the United Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: Human rabies deaths were estimated by using a series of probability steps to calculate the likelihood of rabies developing after the bite of a suspected rabid dog, incorporating field data on the incidence of animal bite injuries, the accuracy of rabies recognition, the distribution of bite wounds, and post-exposure treatment. FINDINGS: Predicted human rabies mortality was estimated to be (a) 1499 deaths per year (95% confidence interval 891-2238), equivalent to an annual incidence of 4.9 (2.9-7.2) deaths/100,000, when active surveillance data on bite incidence were used, and (b) 193 deaths per year (32-409), corresponding to an annual incidence of 0.62 (0.1-1.32) deaths/100,000, when national bite statistics were used. The annual mean number of rabies deaths officially recorded for the same period was 10.8 (7.7-14.0). CONCLUSION: In the United Republic of Tanzania, cases of rabies in humans have been greatly underreported. Dog bite injuries are an accessible source of epidemiological data that may be used to estimate the public health burden of rabies and to monitor epidemiological trends in developing countries. PMID:12075367

  15. The use of social media among adolescents in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Constanze; Kleeb, Matthis; Mbelwa, Alice; Ahorlu, Collins

    2014-05-01

    Social media form part of the rapid worldwide digital development that is re-shaping the life of many young people. While the use of social media by youths is increasingly researched in the North, studies about youth in the South are missing. It therefore remains unclear how social media can be included in interventions that aim at informing young people in many countries of the global South about sexual and reproductive health. This paper presents findings of a mixed-methods study of young people's user behaviour on the internet and specifically of social media as a platform for sexual health promotion in Tanzania. The study used questionnaires with 60 adolescents and in-depth interviews with eight students aged 15 to 19 years in Dar es Salaam, and in Mtwara, Southern Tanzania. Findings show that youth in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara access the internet mainly through mobile phones. Facebook is by far the most popular internet site. Adolescents highlighted their interest in reproductive and sexual health messages and updates being delivered through humorous posts, links and clips, as well as by youth role models like music stars and actors that are entertaining and reflect up-to-date trends of modern youth culture.

  16. Distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Julian T; Lyaruu, Lucille J; Ooi, Eng Eong; Mosha, Franklin W; Crump, John A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the presence and distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in northern Tanzania despite the occurence of viruses transmitted by these mosquitoes such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) in the region. Adult and larval mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban settings across a wide range of altitudes in the Kilimanjaro Region using the Mosquito Magnet CO2 Trap for collection of adults and old tires for breeding of larvae. Polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on captured adult mosquitoes to detect the presence of CHIKV and DENV. A total of 2609 Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes were collected; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Mosquito yields were significantly higher in urban settings than rural settings (26.5 vs. 1.9 mosquitoes per day, p = 0.037). A total of 6570 Ae. aegypti larvae were collected from old tires; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Of the 2609 adult mosquitoes collected, none tested positive for CHIKV or DENV. As far as we are aware, this paper reports for the first time the presence of Ae. aegypti in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania. Although CHIKV and DENV were not isolated from any of the collected mosquitoes in this study, the apparent absence of other Aedes species in the area suggests that Ae. aegypti is the primary local vector of these infections.

  17. Leptospira infections in freshwater fish in Morogoro Tanzania: a hidden public health threat.

    PubMed

    Mgode, Georgis F; Mhamphi, Ginethon G; Katkweba, Abdul S; Thomas, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Leptospirosis caused by spirochete bacterium of genus Leptospira affects humans and animals worldwide. Rodents are major reservoirs of leptospires whereas wetland and aquatic migratory birds also carry and transmit leptospires. Leptospirosis studies in fish are lacking in African countries despite favourable environment and abundant reservoirs, which can spread leptospires into aquatic habitats and infect fish. The objectives of this study were to determine presence of Leptospira in fish; the prevalent Leptospira serovars and whether are related to serovars reported in animals; and to ascertain potential public health risk. Live tilapia, catfish and eel fish (n = 48) were caught in Mindu Dam in Morogoro Municipality in eastern Tanzania. Blood sample was collected using syringes and needles to obtain serum for serological detection of leptospirosis using gold standard microagglutination test utilizing local and reference Leptospira serovars Sokoine, Kenya, Pomona and Hebdomadis. Twenty-six fish (54.2%) were positive for serovar Kenya (29.2%) and Sokoine (25%). Leptospira prevalence was high in both catfish (58.3%) and tilapia fish (47.8%). Thus, different fish types are infected with Leptospira found in animals. Fish could be source of Leptospira infection to humans since tilapia and catfish are the common fish type widely consumed in Tanzania. Further study covering lakes, rivers and dams is required to better understand the prevalence of Leptospira in fish and actual public health threats. PMID:26875305

  18. Potential for Rabies Control through Dog Vaccination in Wildlife-Abundant Communities of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Meagan C.; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2012-01-01

    Canine vaccination has been successful in controlling rabies in diverse settings worldwide. However, concerns remain that coverage levels which have previously been sufficient might be insufficient in systems where transmission occurs both between and within populations of domestic dogs and other carnivores. To evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination targeted at domestic dogs when wildlife also contributes to transmission, we applied a next-generation matrix model based on contract tracing data from the Ngorongoro and Serengeti Districts in northwest Tanzania. We calculated corresponding values of R0, and determined, for policy purposes, the probabilities that various annual vaccination targets would control the disease, taking into account the empirical uncertainty in our field data. We found that transition rate estimates and corresponding probabilities of vaccination-based control indicate that rabies transmission in this region is driven by transmission within domestic dogs. Different patterns of rabies transmission between the two districts exist, with wildlife playing a more important part in Ngorongoro and leading to higher recommended coverage levels in that district. Nonetheless, our findings indicate that an annual dog vaccination campaign achieving the WHO-recommended target of 70% will control rabies in both districts with a high level of certainty. Our results support the feasibility of controlling rabies in Tanzania through dog vaccination. PMID:22928056

  19. The use of social media among adolescents in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Constanze; Kleeb, Matthis; Mbelwa, Alice; Ahorlu, Collins

    2014-05-01

    Social media form part of the rapid worldwide digital development that is re-shaping the life of many young people. While the use of social media by youths is increasingly researched in the North, studies about youth in the South are missing. It therefore remains unclear how social media can be included in interventions that aim at informing young people in many countries of the global South about sexual and reproductive health. This paper presents findings of a mixed-methods study of young people's user behaviour on the internet and specifically of social media as a platform for sexual health promotion in Tanzania. The study used questionnaires with 60 adolescents and in-depth interviews with eight students aged 15 to 19 years in Dar es Salaam, and in Mtwara, Southern Tanzania. Findings show that youth in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara access the internet mainly through mobile phones. Facebook is by far the most popular internet site. Adolescents highlighted their interest in reproductive and sexual health messages and updates being delivered through humorous posts, links and clips, as well as by youth role models like music stars and actors that are entertaining and reflect up-to-date trends of modern youth culture. PMID:24908469

  20. Vegetation habitats and small mammals in a plague endemic area in Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ralaizafisoloarivony, Njaka A; Kimaro, Didas N; Kihupi, Nganga I; Mulungu, Loth S; Leirs, Herwig; Msanya, Balthazar M; Deckers, Jozef A; Gulinck, Hubert

    2014-07-01

    Human plague still exists in different parts of the world, including some landscapes in north-eastern Tanzania. Wherever the hotspot of plague, small mammals seem to play a key role as host. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between vegetation habitats types and small mammals in a plague endemic area of Lushoto District in Tanzania. A combination of field survey and Landsat images was used to identify the vegetation habitats. Small mammals were trapped in the mapped vegetation units, and identified. In total, six main types of vegetation habitats were investigated. A total of 13 small mammal species, potentially related to plague were trapped. Results show that annual cultivated crops habitat accounted for 80% of Mastomys natalensis while natural forest accounted for 60% of Praomys delectorum. These findings have shed new light on the diversity of rodents in different habitats of natural and semi-natural vegetations, and agricultural crops in the study area, which is an important intermediate step in unravelling the complex human plague system.

  1. [Trypanosomiasis--a real risk for tourists visiting national parks in Tanzania].

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Eelco

    2002-01-10

    African sleeping sickness is no longer a rare disease among tourists visiting national parks in Tanzania. The disease is caused by a parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, which is transmitted by the tsetse fly. Two species infect humans: Trypanosoma brucci gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; the last form is re-emerging in parts of Africa. Untreated this disease carries a mortality of nearly 100%. This article describes a case of African sleeping sickness in a tourist visiting Tanzania, which was diagnosed at the Nordic Clinic, Dar es Salaam. The most important symptoms, diagnostic investigations as well as the main principles of treatment are described. Patients with this condition need to be admitted and treated at centres with competence in tropical diseases. African sleeping sickness should be kept in mind in tourists returning to their home country with fever after visits to national parks in Eastern Africa. With early treatment, cure is almost certain. The only way to prevent this condition is through protection against bites of the tsetse fly.

  2. Establishing an Anaesthesia and Intensive Care partnership and aiming for national impact in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ulisubisya, Mpoki; Jörnvall, Henrik; Irestedt, Lars; Baker, Tim

    2016-03-18

    Anaesthesia and Intensive Care is a neglected specialty in low-income countries. There is an acute shortage of health workers - several low-income countries have less than 1 anaesthesia provider per 100,000 population. Only 1.5% of hospitals in Africa have the intensive care resources needed for managing patients with sepsis. Health partnerships between institutions in high and low-income countries have been proposed as an effective way to strengthen health systems. The aim of this article is to describe the origin and conduct of a health partnership in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care between institutions in Tanzania and Sweden and how the partnership has expanded to have an impact at regional and national levels.The Muhimbili-Karolinska Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Collaboration was initiated in 2008 on the request of the Executive Director of Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam. The partnership has conducted training courses, exchanges, research projects and introduced new equipment, routines and guidelines. The partnership has expanded to include all hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Through the newly formed Life Support Foundation, the partnership has had a national impact assisting the reanimation of the Society of Anaesthesiologists of Tanzania and has seen a marked increase of the number of young doctors choosing a residency in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.

  3. Distribution and spread of pyrethroid and DDT resistance among the Anopheles gambiae complex in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kabula, B; Tungu, P; Malima, R; Rowland, M; Minja, J; Wililo, R; Ramsan, M; McElroy, P D; Kafuko, J; Kulkarni, M; Protopopoff, N; Magesa, S; Mosha, F; Kisinza, W

    2014-09-01

    The development of insecticide resistance is a threat to the control of malaria in Africa. We report the findings of a national survey carried out in Tanzania in 2011 to monitor the susceptibility of malaria vectors to pyrethroid, organophosphate, carbamate and DDT insecticides, and compare these findings with those identified in 2004 and 2010. Standard World Health Organization (WHO) methods were used to detect knock-down and mortality rates in wild female Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) collected from 14 sentinel districts. Diagnostic doses of the pyrethroids deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin and permethrin, the carbamate propoxur, the organophosphate fenitrothion and the organochlorine DDT were used. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was resistant to permethrin in Muleba, where a mortality rate of 11% [95% confidence interval (CI) 6-19%] was recorded, Muheza (mortality rate of 75%, 95% CI 66-83%), Moshi and Arumeru (mortality rates of 74% in both). Similarly, resistance was reported to lambdacyhalothrin in Muleba, Muheza, Moshi and Arumeru (mortality rates of 31-82%), and to deltamethrin in Muleba, Moshi and Muheza (mortality rates of 28-75%). Resistance to DDT was reported in Muleba. No resistance to the carbamate propoxur or the organophosphate fenitrothion was observed. Anopheles gambiae s.l. is becoming resistant to pyrethoids and DDT in several parts of Tanzania. This has coincided with the scaling up of vector control measures. Resistance may impair the effectiveness of these interventions and therefore demands close monitoring and the adoption of a resistance management strategy.

  4. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae identified in estuaries of Tanzania using PCR techniques.

    PubMed

    Dalusi, Lucy; Lyimo, Thomas J; Lugomela, Charles; Hosea, Ken M M; Sjöling, Sara

    2015-03-01

    The current study assessed the occurrence of the Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 in environmental samples along salinity gradients in three selected estuaries of Tanzania both through culture independent methods and by cultured bacteria. Occurrence of V. cholerae was determined by PCR targeting the V. cholerae outer membrane protein gene ompW. Furthermore, the presence of toxigenic strains and serogroups O1 and O139 was determined using multiplex PCR with specific primers targeting the cholera toxin gene subunit A, ctxA, and serotype specific primers, O1-rfb and O139-rfb, respectively. Results showed that V. cholerae occurred in approximately 10% (n = 185) of both the environmental samples and isolated bacteria. Eight of the bacteria isolates (n = 43) were confirmed as serogroup O1 while one belonged to serogroup O139, the first reported identification of this epidemic strain in East African coastal waters. All samples identified as serogroup O1 or O139 and a number of non-O1/O139 strains were ctxA positive. This study provides in situ evidence of the presence of pathogenic V. cholerae O1 and O139 and a number of V. cholerae non-O1/O139 that carry the cholera toxin gene in estuaries along the coast of Tanzania.

  5. Mercury contamination associated with small-scale gold mining in Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    van Straaten, P

    2000-10-01

    Mercury contamination associated with small-scale gold mining and processing represents a major environmental and human health concern in Eastern and Southern Africa. Approximately 200,000-300,000 persons are involved in small-scale gold mining activities in Tanzania and > 200,000 persons in Zimbabwe. Mercury (Hg) is used mainly for the processing of primary gold quartz veins and supergene gold mineralizations. Gravimetric material flow analyses show that 70-80% of the Hg is lost to the atmosphere during processing, 20-30% are lost to tailings, soils, stream sediments and water. For every 1 g Au produced, 1.2-1.5 g Hg are lost to the environment. Cumulatively, the anthropogenic Hg released annually into the atmosphere is approximately 3-4 t in the whole Lake Victoria Goldfields of Tanzania and > 3 t in Zimbabwe. Tailings are local 'hot spots' with high concentrations of As, Pb, Cu and Hg. Lateral and vertical dispersion of Hg lost to soils and stream sediments is very limited (laterally < 260 m, vertically < 20 cm). Dispersion of mercury from tailings is low because Hg is transported largely in the elemental, metallic form. In addition, Fe-oxide rich laterites and swamps appear to be natural barriers for the dispersion of metals in soils and streams. Ground and surface water quality data indicate very low dispersion rates during the dry season.

  6. Morphologic and genetic identification of Taenia tapeworms in Tanzania and DNA genotyping of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Eom, Keeseon S; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Kihamia, Charles; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

    2011-12-01

    Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovered from 1 of the 4 cases. This established that the species were T. solium (n = 1) and T. saginata (n = 3). One further T. solium specimen was found among 128 fecal samples collected from Mbulu district in Arusha, and this had an intact strobila with the scolex. Phylegenetic analysis of the mtDNA cox1 gene sequences of these 5 isolates showed that T. saginata was basal to the T. solium clade. The mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences of 3 of these Tanzanian isolates showed 99% similarity to T. saginata, and the other 2 isolates showed 100% similarity to T. solium. The present study has shown that Taenia tapeworms are endemic in Kongwa district of Tanzania, as well as in a previously identified Mbulu district. Both T. solium isolates were found to have an "African/Latin American" genotype (cox1).

  7. Essential medicines in Tanzania: does the new delivery system improve supply and accountability?

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen-Lopez, Inez; Cowley, Peter; Kasale, Harun; Mbuya, Conrad; Reid, Graham; de Savigny, Don

    2014-02-01

    Objective: Assess whether reform in the Tanzanian medicines delivery system from a central 'push' kit system to a decentralized 'pull' Integrated Logistics System (ILS) has improved medicines accountability. Methods: Rufiji District in Tanzania was used as a case study. Data on medicines ordered and patients seen were compiled from routine information at six public health facilities in 1999 under the kit system and in 2009 under the ILS. Three medicines were included for comparison: an antimalarial, anthelmintic and oral rehydration salts (ORS). Results: The quality of the 2009 data was hampered by incorrect quantification calculations for orders, especially for antimalarials. Between the periods 1999 and 2009, the percent of unaccounted antimalarials fell from 60 to 18%, while the percent of unaccounted anthelmintic medicines went from 82 to 71%. Accounting for ORS, on the other hand, did not improve as the unaccounted amounts increased from 64 to 81% during the same period. Conclusions: The ILS has not adequately addressed accountability concerns seen under the kit system due to a combination of governance and system-design challenges. These quantification weaknesses are likely to have contributed to the frequent periods of antimalarial stock-out experienced in Tanzania since 2009. We propose regular reconciliation between the health information system and the medicines delivery system, thereby improving visibility and guiding interventions to increase the availability of essential medicines. PMID:25013720

  8. Implementation of Community Health Fund in Tanzania: why do some districts perform better than others?

    PubMed

    Maluka, Stephen Oswald; Bukagile, Godfrey

    2014-01-01

    In early 1990s, Tanzania, like other African countries, introduced user fees in public health systems. Although user fees were considered important in promoting health, they appear to reduce people's access to health services. To counteract the detrimental effects of the user fees, various types of health insurances were introduced, including the Community Health Fund (CHF). Drawing from the review of minutes, health facility visits and key informant interviews, this study explored why implementation of the CHF in Tanzania has been more successful in some districts than in others. The findings indicate that in Lindi district, the enrolment rate for the CHF was very low. This was attributed to high premium rates, frequent drug stock-out, lack of trust by the community members to the health providers, low incentives and local politics. In contrast, in Iramba district, the performance was better. Availability of drugs in the health facilities, effective supervision, commitment of the top district-level officials and incentives to the health facility committees were the main factors that facilitated good performance of the fund in Iramba district. The focus of the implementation needs to be placed on the active engagement of the local-level leaders and politicians who are responsible for the implementation of the policy. Equally important is the availability of quality health services in the health facilities. PMID:25551166

  9. Molecular diagnosis of African tick bite fever using eschar swabs in a traveller returning from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicole; Burgmann, Heinz; Forstner, Christina; Ramharter, Michael; Széll, Marton; Schötta, Anna-Margarita; Stanek, Gerold; Markowicz, Mateusz

    2016-08-01

    African tick bite fever is an emerging infectious disease among travellers caused by the pathogen Rickettsia africae. Most travel-associated cases have been reported from countries in southern Africa. So far it has rarely been reported among travellers to eastern Africa and our patient is one of the first described cases imported from Tanzania. A woman presented with fever, chills, headache, myalgia and a rickettsial eschar on her ankle after returning from Tanzania. The diagnosis of African tick bite fever is often based on clinical grounds due to a lack of reliable diagnostic tests at commencement of symptoms. In this patient direct molecular detection of R. africae was performed by PCR from a sample obtained non-invasively with a swab from the rickettsial eschar. A positive PCR result was achieved although the patient had already started antibiotic treatment with doxycycline. In conclusion, this non-invasive method enables early diagnosis of African tick bite fever by direct molecular detection of R. africae and might improve the management of undifferentiated fever in travellers from Africa. PMID:27488618

  10. Chikungunya and dengue fever among hospitalized febrile patients in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Julian T; Munishi, O Michael; Ooi, Eng Eong; Howe, Shiqin; Lim, Wen Yan; Chow, Angelia; Morrissey, Anne B; Bartlett, John A; Onyango, Jecinta J; Maro, Venance P; Kinabo, Grace D; Saganda, Wilbrod; Gubler, Duane J; Crump, John A

    2012-01-01

    Consecutive febrile admissions were enrolled at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed acute Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Dengue virus (DENV), and flavivirus infection were defined as a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result. Presumptive acute DENV infection was defined as a positive anti-DENV immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunsorbent assay (ELISA) result, and prior flavivirus exposure was defined as a positive anti-DENV IgG ELISA result. Among 870 participants, PCR testing was performed on 700 (80.5%). Of these, 55 (7.9%) had confirmed acute CHIKV infection, whereas no participants had confirmed acute DENV or flavivirus infection. Anti-DENV IgM serologic testing was performed for 747 (85.9%) participants, and of these 71 (9.5%) had presumptive acute DENV infection. Anti-DENV IgG serologic testing was performed for 751 (86.3%) participants, and of these 80 (10.7%) had prior flavivirus exposure. CHIKV infection was more common among infants and children than adults and adolescents (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, P = 0.026) and among HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression (OR 10.5, P = 0.007). CHIKV infection is an important but unrecognized cause of febrile illness in northern Tanzania. DENV or other closely related flaviviruses are likely also circulating.

  11. Dynamite fishing in northern Tanzania--pervasive, problematic and yet preventable.

    PubMed

    Wells, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Dynamite fishing, although illegal, has resurfaced in recent years as a major threat to the reefs of northern Tanzania. This is despite the fact that institutional arrangements for co-management of the inshore fisheries by local communities and the district governments have been put in place and, through a 12-year donor-funded programme, numerous activities undertaken to build capacity for effective fisheries management. The use of dynamite is having widespread negative impacts, including damage to the reefs and their long-term productivity, deterrence of tourism investors, and potential threat to the large population of coelacanths in the area. The dynamite fishers are able to continue, even though enforcement efforts have been stepped up, because they are members of influential families or otherwise well-connected. Previous similar cases in Tanzania, and examples from elsewhere in the world, suggest that a major initiative is now needed to develop a zero-tolerance approach on the part of fishers and local and national leaders, that will shame the dynamiters through peer pressure, promote full implementation of sanctions and penalties by the judiciary, and lead to public recognition of and support for the work of the enforcement agencies.

  12. Improving institutional childbirth services in rural Southern Tanzania: a qualitative study of healthcare workers’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jaribu, Jennie; Penfold, Suzanne; Manzi, Fatuma; Schellenberg, Joanna; Pfeiffer, Constanze

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe health workers’ perceptions of a quality improvement (QI) intervention that focused on improving institutional childbirth services in primary health facilities in Southern Tanzania. Design A qualitative design was applied using in-depth interviews with health workers. Setting This study involved the Ruangwa District Reproductive and Child Health Department, 11 dispensaries and 2 health centres in rural Southern Tanzania. Participants 4 clinical officers, 5 nurses and 6 medical attendants from different health facilities were interviewed. Results The healthcare providers reported that the QI intervention improved their skills, capacity and confidence in providing counselling and use of a partograph during labour. The face-to-face QI workshops, used as a platform to refresh their knowledge on maternal and newborn health and QI methods, facilitated peer learning, networking and standardisation of care provision. The onsite follow-up visits were favoured by healthcare providers because they gave the opportunity to get immediate help, learn how to perform tasks in practice and be reminded of what they had learnt. Implementation of parallel interventions focusing on similar indicators was mentioned as a challenge that led to duplication of work in terms of data collection and reporting. District supervisors involved in the intervention showed interest in taking over the implementation; however, funding remained a major obstacle. Conclusions Healthcare workers highlighted the usefulness of applying a QI approach to improve maternal and newborn health in rural settings. QI programmes need careful coordination at district level in order to reduce duplication of work. PMID:27660313

  13. Can mothers afford maternal health care costs? User costs of maternity services in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Marga; Mujinja, Phare; Jahn, Albrecht

    2002-04-01

    Following the difficult economic situation various countries introduced health sector reforms, including user charges to finance the system. The assessment of user costs for maternity services in Tanzania was part of a larger study, which covered inputs, outputs and efficiency of services. The study was carried out from October 1997 to January 1998 in Mtwara urban and rural district in South Tanzania. One hundred and seven women attending a quarter of government health facilities were randomly selected and interviewed. Twenty one key informants were also interviewed and service procedures observed. Users of maternity services pay mainly for admission, drugs, other supplies and travel costs. Travel costs represent about half of these financial costs. The average total costs vary between US$11.60 for antenatal consultation and US$135.40 for caesarean section at the hospital. Unofficial payments are not included in the calculation. The amounts vary and payment is irregular. We therefore conclude that time costs are constantly higher than financial costs. High direct payments and the fear of unofficial costs are acute barriers to the use of maternity services. User costs can substantially be reduced by the re-organisation of service delivery especially at antenatal consultation. PMID:12476730

  14. The health-related microbiological quality of bottled drinking water sold in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kassenga, Gabriel R

    2007-03-01

    The consumption of bottled and plastic-bagged drinking water in Tanzania has increased largely because of the deteriorating quality of tap water. It is uncertain whether these water products are safe for drinking. In this study, the microbiological quality of bottled and plastic-bagged drinking water sold in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, was investigated. One hundred and thirty samples representing 13 brands of bottled water collected from shops, supermarkets and street vendors were analysed for total coliform and faecal coliform organisms as well as heterotrophic bacteria. These were compared with 61 samples of tap water. Heterotrophic bacteria were detected in 92% of the bottled water samples analysed. Total and faecal coliform bacteria were present in 4.6% and 3.6%, respectively, of samples analysed with a tendency for higher contamination rates in plastic-bagged drinking water. Microbiological quality of tap water was found to be worse compared with bottled water, with 49.2% and 26.2% of sampling points showing the presence of total coliform and faecal coliform organisms, respectively. The results suggest caution and vigilance to avert outbreaks of waterborne diseases from these types of drinking water.

  15. The Burden of Rabies in Tanzania and Its Impact on Local Communities

    PubMed Central

    Sambo, Maganga; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ferguson, Heather; Lembo, Tiziana; Simon, Cleophas; Urassa, Honorati; Hampson, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Background Rabies remains a major public health threat in many parts of the world and is responsible for an estimated 55,000 human deaths annually. The burden of rabies is estimated to be around US$20 million in Africa, with the highest financial expenditure being the cost of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, these calculations may be substantial underestimates because the costs to households of coping with endemic rabies have not been investigated. We therefore aimed to estimate the household costs, health-seeking behaviour, coping strategies, and outcomes of exposure to rabies in rural and urban communities in Tanzania. Methods and Findings Extensive investigative interviews were used to estimate the incidence of human deaths and bite exposures. Questionnaires with bite victims and their families were used to investigate health-seeking behaviour and costs (medical and non-medical costs) associated with exposure to rabies. We calculated that an average patient in rural Tanzania, where most people live on less than US$1 per day, would need to spend over US$100 to complete WHO recommended PEP schedules. High costs and frequent shortages of PEP led to poor compliance with PEP regimens, delays in presentation to health facilities, and increased risk of death. Conclusion The true costs of obtaining PEP were twice as high as those previously reported from Africa and should be considered in re-evaluations of the burden of rabies. PMID:24244767

  16. Distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Julian T; Lyaruu, Lucille J; Ooi, Eng Eong; Mosha, Franklin W; Crump, John A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the presence and distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in northern Tanzania despite the occurence of viruses transmitted by these mosquitoes such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) in the region. Adult and larval mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban settings across a wide range of altitudes in the Kilimanjaro Region using the Mosquito Magnet CO2 Trap for collection of adults and old tires for breeding of larvae. Polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on captured adult mosquitoes to detect the presence of CHIKV and DENV. A total of 2609 Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes were collected; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Mosquito yields were significantly higher in urban settings than rural settings (26.5 vs. 1.9 mosquitoes per day, p = 0.037). A total of 6570 Ae. aegypti larvae were collected from old tires; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Of the 2609 adult mosquitoes collected, none tested positive for CHIKV or DENV. As far as we are aware, this paper reports for the first time the presence of Ae. aegypti in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania. Although CHIKV and DENV were not isolated from any of the collected mosquitoes in this study, the apparent absence of other Aedes species in the area suggests that Ae. aegypti is the primary local vector of these infections. PMID:27376502

  17. Adopting Cultivation to Remain Pastoralists: The Diversification of Maasai Livelihoods in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, J. Terrence; DeLuca, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Over the past four decades, Maasai pastoralists in Tanzania have adopted agriculture, integrating it with their traditional pastoralism. This livelihood diversification has complex origins and profound implications for Maasai social organization, culture, and demography, and ultimately for their health and well being and for the local and regional environment. In this paper, we examine the process by which this engagement with, and increasing dependence upon, agriculture came about in Ngorongoro District, northern Tanzania. The process there was more complex and influenced by a wider variety of factors than has been reported by previous descriptions of Maasai livelihood diversification. It generally involved two stages: planting a garden first, and later expanding the garden to a farm. We found that some households adopted cultivation out of necessity, but far more did so by choice. Among the latter, some adopted cultivation to reduce risk, while for others it was a reflection of changing cultural and social norms. Motivations for adopting cultivation differed among people of different wealth categories. Diversification was part of wider cultural changes, and was also influenced by power differentials among Maasai age sets and by government policies. PMID:21915157

  18. Medicalization and morality in a weak state: health, hygiene and water in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Brigit

    2004-04-01

    Inspired by Foucault, many studies have examined the medicalization of everyday life in Western societies. This paper reconsiders potentials and limitations of this concept in an African city. Grounded in ethnographic research in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, it concentrates on cleanliness, health and water in a lower middle-class neighbourhood. The findings show that women are familiar with professional health development discourses emphasizing cleanliness as a high value linked to bodily and domestic health. These discourses have been diffused in schools, clinics and other institutions during the colonial and socialist period. Women not only refer to these discourses, they try to reproduce them in daily practice and even demand them. This coercive yet voluntary nature of institutionalized discourses points to 'paradoxes of medicalization' also found in Western societies. It acquires, however, different meanings in a weak state like contemporary Tanzania which hardly manages to institutionalize medicalization through professional practice. Under such conditions, women who choose to follow health development discourses suffer a heavier practical, intellectual and emotional burden than those who are less committed. This may at least partly explain why many women assume a pragmatic stance towards the medicalization of everyday life.

  19. Spatial Heterogeneity of Habitat Suitability for Rift Valley Fever Occurrence in Tanzania: An Ecological Niche Modelling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sindato, Calvin; Stevens, Kim B.; Karimuribo, Esron D.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Paweska, Janusz T.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the long history of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Tanzania, extent of its suitable habitat in the country remains unclear. In this study we investigated potential effects of temperature, precipitation, elevation, soil type, livestock density, rainfall pattern, proximity to wild animals, protected areas and forest on the habitat suitability for RVF occurrence in Tanzania. Materials and Methods Presence-only records of 193 RVF outbreak locations from 1930 to 2007 together with potential predictor variables were used to model and map the suitable habitats for RVF occurrence using ecological niche modelling. Ground-truthing of the model outputs was conducted by comparing the levels of RVF virus specific antibodies in cattle, sheep and goats sampled from locations in Tanzania that presented different predicted habitat suitability values. Principal Findings Habitat suitability values for RVF occurrence were higher in the northern and central-eastern regions of Tanzania than the rest of the regions in the country. Soil type and precipitation of the wettest quarter contributed equally to habitat suitability (32.4% each), followed by livestock density (25.9%) and rainfall pattern (9.3%). Ground-truthing of model outputs revealed that the odds of an animal being seropositive for RVFV when sampled from areas predicted to be most suitable for RVF occurrence were twice the odds of an animal sampled from areas least suitable for RVF occurrence (95% CI: 1.43, 2.76, p < 0.001). Conclusion/Significance The regions in the northern and central-eastern Tanzania were more suitable for RVF occurrence than the rest of the regions in the country. The modelled suitable habitat is characterised by impermeable soils, moderate precipitation in the wettest quarter, high livestock density and a bimodal rainfall pattern. The findings of this study should provide guidance for the design of appropriate RVF surveillance, prevention and control strategies which target areas with

  20. Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus from domestic pigs in northern Tanzania during an outbreak in 2013.

    PubMed

    Misinzo, Gerald; Kwavi, David E; Sikombe, Christopher D; Makange, Mariam; Peter, Emma; Muhairwa, Amandus P; Madege, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an acute, highly contagious and deadly viral hemorrhagic fever of domestic pigs caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a double-stranded DNA virus of the family Asfarviridae. In this study, molecular diagnosis and characterization of outbreak ASFV in northern Tanzania, was performed on spleen, lymph node, kidney, and heart samples collected in June and July 2013 from domestic pigs that died during a hemorrhagic disease outbreak. Confirmatory diagnosis of ASF was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by partial amplification of B646L gene of ASFV encoding the major capsid protein p72 using PPA1/PPA2 primers. PCR using PPA1/PPA2 primers produced an expected PCR product size, confirming ASF outbreak in northern Tanzania. In addition, nucleotide amplification and sequencing, and phylogenetic reconstruction of the variable 3'-end of the B646L gene and complete E183L gene encoding the inner envelope transmembrane protein p54 showed that the 2013 outbreak ASFV from northern Tanzania were 100 % identical and clustered into ASFV B646L (p72) and E183L (p54) genotype X. Furthermore, the tetrameric amino acid repeats within the central variable region (CVR) of the B602L gene coding for the J9L protein had the signature BNBA(BN)5NA with a single novel tetramer NVDI (repeat code N). The results of the present study confirm an ASF outbreak in northern Tanzania in the year 2013 and show that the present outbreak ASFV is closely related to other ASFV from ticks, warthogs, and domestic pigs previously reported from Tanzania.

  1. From non-aligned medicines to market-based herbals: China's relationship to the shifting politics of traditional medicine in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Langwick, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    The institutionalization of traditional medicine in Tanzania reveals how strategies for socialist liberation are morphing into strategies for neoliberalization. In the 1960s and 1970s, traditional medicine promised the raw material for the scientific development of an indigenous pharmaceutical industry. At the turn of the millennium, however, traditional medicine has re-emerged in Tanzania as a new path into the fast-growing global herbals market. Tanzania's relationship with China has been central to these dynamics. Development programs rooted in socialist friendship trained Tanzanian doctors in China throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s. These practitioners forged Tanzanian efforts to develop and modernize traditional medicine. In this article, I look with particular detail at one woman who was chosen to start the Office of Traditional Medicine in the Ministry of Health in Tanzania, in order to elaborate the continuities and discontinuities central to the emerging field of market-based traditional medicines.

  2. The decentralisation-centralisation dilemma: recruitment and distribution of health workers in remote districts of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The implementation of decentralisation reforms in the health sector of Tanzania started in the 1980s. These reforms were intended to relinquish substantial powers and resources to districts to improve the development of the health sector. Little is known about the impact of decentralisation on recruitment and distribution of health workers at the district level. Reported difficulties in recruiting health workers to remote districts led the Government of Tanzania to partly re-instate central recruitment of health workers in 2006. The effects of this policy change are not yet documented. This study highlights the experiences and challenges associated with decentralisation and the partial re-centralisation in relation to the recruitment and distribution of health workers. Methods An exploratory qualitative study was conducted among informants recruited from five underserved, remote districts of mainland Tanzania. Additional informants were recruited from the central government, the NGO sector, international organisations and academia. A comparison of decentralised and the reinstated centralised systems was carried out in order to draw lessons necessary for improving recruitment, distribution and retention of health workers. Results The study has shown that recruitment of health workers under a decentralised arrangement has not only been characterised by complex bureaucratic procedures, but by severe delays and sometimes failure to get the required health workers. The study also revealed that recruitment of highly skilled health workers under decentralised arrangements may be both very difficult and expensive. Decentralised recruitment was perceived to be more effective in improving retention of the lower cadre health workers within the districts. In contrast, the centralised arrangement was perceived to be more effective both in recruiting qualified staff and balancing their distribution across districts, but poor in ensuring the retention of employees

  3. Evaluating landscape and wildlife changes over time in Tanzania's protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtui, Devolent Tomas

    Declines in wildlife and their habitats associated with land cover changes are documented worldwide. Wildlife protected areas are established as a strategy to maintain and protect viable wildlife populations. International and national policies and regulations are set-forth in countries across the globe to emphasize wildlife species protection. Tanzania has allocated 26.5% (250,425 km2) of its total land area for wildlife protection, and its government established in 1998 a National Wildlife Policy to ensure the maintenance of viable protected areas and survival of important species, habitat and ecosystems. After more than a decade of its implementation, the level and rate of anthropogenic activities experienced in and around protected areas, and the consequent declines of wildlife species, was expected to be reduced to a minimum. Yet, recent studies show that degradation and isolation of wildlife habitats and declines in species populations continue to occur in Tanzanian protected areas. I evaluated changes in landscape and wildlife in three protected areas in Tanzania from the 1980s to the 2010s. Specifically, we investigated changes in land cover and species abundance over time, inside and outside the protected areas, and determined the effects of changes in the types of land cover on wildlife abundance. First, I used Maximum Likelihood classification procedure to derive land cover classes from Landsat TM and ETM+ satellite images of the 1980s, 1990s and 2010s, and to detect changes using post-classification comparison technique and landscape metrics approach. Second, I analysed animal density data for six species or groups of large herbivores, from 1991 to 2012. Thirdly, I evaluated the effect of land cover change on three species of large herbivores. The results show evidence of loss and degradation of types of land covers utilized by large herbivores. Habitats for large herbivores species have shrunken, inside and outside protected areas, resulting in

  4. Sociodemographic drivers of multiple sexual partnerships among women in three rural districts of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Exavery, Amon; Kanté, Almamy Malick; Tani, Kassimu; Hingora, Ahmed; Phillips, James F

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines prevalence and correlates of multiple sexual partnerships (MSP) among women aged 15+ years in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania. Materials and methods Data were collected in a cross-sectional household survey in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts in Tanzania in 2011. From the survey, a total of 2,643 sexually active women ages 15+ years were selected for this analysis. While the chi-square test was used for testing association between MSP and each of the independent variables, logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Results Number of sexual partners reported ranged from 1 to 7, with 7.8% of the women reporting multiple sexual partners (2+) in the past year. MSP was more likely among both ever married women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40–10.49) and single women (AOR =6.13, 95% CI 2.45–15.34) than currently married women. There was an interaction between marital status and education, whereby MSP was 85% less likely among single women with secondary or higher education compared to married women with no education (AOR =0.15, 95% CI 0.03–0.61). Furthermore, women aged 40+ years were 56% less likely compared to the youngest women (<20 years) to report MSP (AOR =0.44, 95% CI 0.24–0.80). The odds of MSP among Muslim women was 1.56 times as high as that for Christians women (AOR =1.56, 95% CI 1.11–2.21). Ndengereko women were 67% less likely to report MSP compared to Pogoro women (AOR =0.33, 95% CI 0.18–0.59). Conclusion Eight percent of the women aged 15+ in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania are engaged in MSP. Encouraging achievement of formal education, especially at secondary level or beyond, may be a viable strategy toward partner reduction among unmarried women. Age, religion, and ethnicity are also important dimensions for partner reduction efforts. PMID:25914557

  5. Impact of climate change on human health and health systems in Tanzania: a review.

    PubMed

    Mboera, Leonard E G; Mayala, Benjamin K; Kweka, Eliningaya J; Mazigo, Humphrey D

    2011-12-01

    Climate change (CC) has a number of immediate and long-term impacts on the fundamental determinants of human health. A number of potential human health effects have been associated either directly or indirectly with global climate change. Vulnerability to the risks associated with CC may exacerbate ongoing socio-economic challenges. The objective of this review was to analyse the potential risk and vulnerability in the context of climate-sensitive human diseases and health system in Tanzania. Climate sensitive vector- and waterborne diseases and other health related problems and the policies on climate adaptation in Tanzania during the past 50 years are reviewed. The review has shown that a number of climate-associated infectious disease epidemics have been reported in various areas of the country; mostly being associated with increase in precipitation and temperature. Although, there is no single policy document that specifically addresses issues of CC in the country, the National Environmental Management Act of 1997 recognizes the importance of CC and calls for the government to put up measures to address the phenomenon. A number of strategies and action plans related to CC are also in place. These include the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, the National Action Programme, and the National Bio-safety Framework. The government has put in place a National Climate Change Steering Committee and the National Climate Change Technical Committee to oversee and guide the implementation of CC activities in the country. Recognizing the adverse impacts of natural disasters and calamities, the government established a Disaster Management Division under the Prime Minister's Office. Epidemic Preparedness and Response Unit of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare is responsible for emergency preparedness, mostly disease outbreaks. However, specific climate changes associated with human health issues are poorly addressed in the MoHSW strategies and the national

  6. Genetic Diversity of Circulating Rotavirus Strains in Tanzania Prior to the Introduction of Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Moyo, Sabrina J.; Blomberg, Bjørn; Hanevik, Kurt; Kommedal, Oyvind; Vainio, Kirsti; Maselle, Samuel Y.; Langeland, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Background Tanzania currently rolls out vaccination against rotavirus-diarrhea, a major cause of child illness and death. As the vaccine covers a limited number of rotavirus variants, this study describes the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus among children under two years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, prior to implementation of vaccination. Methods Stool specimens, demographic and clinical information, were collected from 690 children admitted to hospital due to diarrhea (cases) and 545 children without diarrhea (controls) during one year. Controls were inpatient or children attending child health clinics. Rotavirus antigen was detected using ELISA and positive samples were typed by multiplex semi-nested PCR and sequencing. Results The prevalence of rotavirus was higher in cases (32.5%) than in controls (7.7%, P<0.001). The most common G genotypes were G1 followed by G8, G12, and G4 in cases and G1, G12 and G8 in controls. The Tanzanian G1 variants displayed 94% similarity with the Rotarix vaccine G1 variant. The commonest P genotypes were P[8], P[4] and P[6], and the commonest G/P combination G1 P[8] (n = 123), G8 P[4] and G12 P[6]. Overall, rotavirus prevalence was higher in cool (23.9%) than hot months (17.1%) of the year (P = 0.012). We also observed significant seasonal variation of G genotypes. Rotavirus was most frequently found in the age group of four to six months. The prevalence of rotavirus in cases was lower in stunted children (28.9%) than in non-stunted children (40.1%, P = 0.003) and lower in HIV-infected (15.4%, 4/26) than in HIV-uninfected children (55.3%, 42/76, P<0.001). Conclusion This pre-vaccination study shows predominance of genotype G1 in Tanzania, which is phylogenetically distantly related to the vaccine strains. We confirm the emergence of genotype G8 and G12. Rotavirus infection and circulating genotypes showed seasonal variation. This study also suggests that rotavirus may not be an opportunistic pathogen in children

  7. Burns in Tanzania: morbidity and mortality, causes and risk factors: a review

    PubMed Central

    Outwater, Anne H; Ismail, Hawa; Mgalilwa, Lwidiko; Justin Temu, Mary; Mbembati, Naboth A

    2013-01-01

    Burn injuries in low and middle income countries still remain a significant health problem, even though numbers of burn injuries in high income countries have decreased showing that such events are not “accidents” but are usually preventable. WHO states that the vast majority (over 95%) of fire-related burns occur in low and middle income countries. Burn injuries are a major cause of prolonged hospital stays, disfigurement, disability, and death in Africa Region. Evidence shows that prevention strategies can work. However prevention strategies need to be tailored to the specific environment taking into account local risk factors and available resources. An examination of the patterns and causes of burns should allow site specific recommendations for interventions. This literature review, specific to the United Republic of Tanzania, was conducted by researching PubMed, SafetyLit, and African Journals on Line data bases for primary sources using key words <Tanzania> plus . Two sets of student data collected as part of Bachelor’s degree final dissertations at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences were used. In all, twenty two primary sources were found. Risk factors for burn morbidity in Tanzania are: 1/ a young age, especially years 1-3, 2/ home environment, especially around cooking fires, 3/ epilepsy, during seizures, and 4/ perceived inevitability of the incident. It was expected that ground level cooking fires would be found to be a risk factor, but several studies have shown non-significant results about raised cooking fires, types of fuel used, and cooking appliances. Risk factors for burn mortality are: being male, between 20-30 years of age, and being punished for alleged thieving by community mobs. An important factor in reducing burn morbidity, especially in children, is to educate people that burns are preventable in most cases and that most burns occur in the home around

  8. Community perceptions of intimate partner violence - a qualitative study from urban Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. Results The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Conclusions Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to intervene but further

  9. Professionalism and the know-do gap: exploring intrinsic motivation among health workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Kenneth L; Masatu, Melkiory C

    2010-12-01

    Professionalism can be defined generally as adhering to the accepted standards of a profession and placing the interests of the public above the individual professional's immediate interests. In the field of medicine, professionalism should lead at least some practitioners in developing countries to effectively care for their patients despite the absence of extrinsic incentives to do so. In this study we examine the behavior of 80 practitioners from the Arusha region of Tanzania for evidence of professionalism. We show that about 20% of these practitioners behave professionally, and almost half of those who do so practice in the public sector. These professional health care workers provide high quality care even when they work in an environment that does not reward this effort, a finding that has important implications for the use of performance-based incentives. PMID:19960481

  10. Intergenerational differences in perceptions of heritage tourism among the Maasai of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kalavar, Jyotsna M; Buzinde, Christine N; Melubo, Kokel; Simon, Josephine

    2014-03-01

    Besides wildlife tourism in the African savannah, cultural heritage tourism (sometimes known only as heritage tourism) is a big draw in Tanzania. In order to attract cultural tourism dollars, Maasai communities have established cultural bomas, typically pseudo Maasai villages where they display cultural performances and crafts before tourists. Such cultural contact has resulted in the growing influence of globalization that challenges traditional ways. The economic, social and environmental impact of heritage tourism on intergenerational relationships and community well-being has not been examined among the Maasai people. In this study, focus groups were conducted with different age-groups of Maasai people residing in Esilalei and Oltukai villages. Results suggest that for the Maasai, heritage tourism appears to be a double-edged sword. While tourism results in some trickled down economic benefits for the Maasai community, economic change appears to have created a social distance between generations. PMID:24390314

  11. (Bio)sociality and HIV in Tanzania: finding a living to support a life.

    PubMed

    Marsland, Rebecca

    2012-12-01

    This article addresses life on antiretroviral therapy in rural Tanzania. It argues that a nuanced understanding of theories of biosociality requires us to take sociality and locality as seriously as we do "bio." People living with HIV associate on the basis of preexisting social relations, not just on the basis of their biological status. Their CD4 counts do not only measure immunological processes but also index social conditions of hunger. The pharmaceutical that gives them life insists that they eat and rest more than austere financial circumstances allow. Many join HIV groups, but these do not enable the kinds of "citizenship" that have been described elsewhere. Patient activism is stifled by bureaucratic antipolitics mechanisms inherited from postcolonial restrictions on political association. Instead, they enter an NGO economy that values their biological status because they attract income from donors, but does little to enable the living that they need.

  12. Satellite monitoring of vegetation and geology in semi-arid environments. [Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kihlblom, U.; Johansson, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of mapping various characteristics of the natural environment of Tanzania by various LANDSAT techniques was assessed. Interpretation and mapping were carried out using black and white as well as color infrared images on the scale of 1:250,000. The advantages of several computer techniques were also assessed, including contrast-stretched rationing, differential edge enhancement; supervised classification; multitemporal classification; and change detection. Results Show the most useful image for interpretation comes from band 5, with additional information being obtained from either band 6 or band 7. The advantages of using color infrared images for interpreting vegetation and geology are so great that black and white should be used only to supplement the colored images.

  13. Integrating the Management of Ruaha Landscape of Tanzania with Local Needs and Preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masozera, Michel; Erickson, Jon D.; Clifford, Deana; Coppolillo, Peter; Sadiki, Harrison G.; Mazet, Jonna K.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable management of landscapes with multiple competing demands such as the Ruaha Landscape is complex due to the diverse preferences and needs of stakeholder groups involved. This study uses conjoint analysis to assess the preferences of representatives from three stakeholder groups—local communities, district government officials, and non-governmental organizations—toward potential solutions of conservation and development tradeoffs facing local communities in the Ruaha Landscape of Tanzania. Results demonstrate that there is little consensus among stakeholders about the best development strategies for the Ruaha region. This analysis suggests a need for incorporating issues deemed important by these various groups into a development strategy that aims to promote conservation of the Ruaha Landscape and improve the livelihood of local communities.

  14. Malaria in the United Republic of Tanzania: cultural considerations and health-seeking behaviour.

    PubMed Central

    Oberländer, L.; Elverdan, B.

    2000-01-01

    Malaria is one of the biggest health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. Large amounts of resources have been invested to control and treat it. Few studies have recognized that local explanations for the symptoms of malaria may lead to the attribution of different causes for the disease and thus to the seeking of different treatments. This article illustrates the local nosology of Bondei society in the north-eastern part of the United Republic of Tanzania and shows how sociocultural context affects health-seeking behaviour. It shows how in this context therapy is best viewed as a process in which beliefs and actions are continuously debated and evaluated throughout the course of treatment. PMID:11143196

  15. Mobile Phone Use and Human-Wildlife Conflict in Northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Ashley L.; Baird, Timothy D.; Sorice, Michael G.

    2016-07-01

    Throughout the developing world, mobile phones are spreading rapidly into rural areas where subsistence livelihoods, biodiversity conservation, and human-wildlife conflict (HWC) are each common. Despite this trend, little is known about the relationship between mobile phones and HWC in conservation landscapes. This paper examines this relationship within ethnically Maasai communities in northern Tanzania on the border of Tarangire National Park. Mixed qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and analysis are used to (1) describe how Maasai agro-pastoralists use phones to manage human-wildlife interactions; and (2) assess the relationship between phone use and measures of HWC, controlling for other factors. The findings indicate that households use phones to reduce the number and severity of HWC events and that the relationship between phones and HWC varies according to the type of HWC.

  16. Caught in transition: the struggle to live a 'normal' life with HIV in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    According to global health discourses, antiretroviral treatment (ART) enables ever more people living with HIV to resume a 'normal' life: a return to health and the reconstruction of social relations. Based on 15 months of fieldwork in Tanga, Tanzania, I explore the extent to which patients 'on the ground' have experienced the shift of HIV from an acute and rapidly deteriorating condition to a 'normal chronic' condition. Drawing on semistructured interviews and participant observation in treatment centers and private households, I juxtapose the discourse of health care providers on 'normalcy' with patients' narratives of everyday life with HIV. I argue that in the context of severe poverty and persistent stigmatization, the transition to normalcy suggested by health care providers during treatment preparation has been difficult for many patients to achieve. Their social quandaries and moral dilemmas suggest that ART introduces new uncertainties into their lives, which keep them trapped in a state of 'permanent transition.' PMID:24422743

  17. Transdisciplinary Project Communication and Knowledge Sharing Experiences in Tanzania and Zambia through a One Health Lens

    PubMed Central

    Bagnol, Brigitte; Clarke, Elizabeth; Li, Mu; Maulaga, Wende; Lumbwe, Hilda; McConchie, Robyn; de Bruyn, Julia; Alders, Robyn Gwen

    2016-01-01

    The project “Strengthening food and nutrition security through family poultry and crop integration in Tanzania and Zambia” brings together animal, crop, and human health specialists, economists, ecologists, social scientists, and practitioners to work with participating communities. It aims to increase poultry value chain, crop farming systems efficiency, and household food and nutrition security and thus requires understanding of, and ability to work effectively within, complex systems. In this context, communication knowledge sharing and synthesis between stakeholders from diverse backgrounds and a range of experiences, perspectives, agendas, and knowledge is a challenge. To address this situation, communication is conceived as a dialog and a participatory process bringing together all stakeholders. This process results in unanticipated and unexpected results that require a high degree of flexibility and adaptability from team members. The paper analyses the approach and aim of the communication strategy developed for the project and the challenges faced. PMID:26904532

  18. Learning, Misallocation, and Technology Adoption: Evidence from New Malaria Therapy in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Adhvaryu, Achyuta

    2014-01-01

    I study how the misallocation of new technology to individuals who have low ex post returns to its use affects learning and adoption behavior. I focus on antimalarial treatment, which is frequently over-prescribed in many low-income country contexts where diagnostic tests are inaccessible. I show that misdiagnosis reduces average therapeutic effectiveness, because only a fraction of adopters actually have malaria, and slows the rate of social learning due to increased noise. I use data on adoption choices, the timing and duration of fever episodes, and individual blood slide confirmations of malarial status from a pilot study for a new malaria therapy in Tanzania to show that individuals whose reference groups experienced fewer misdiagnoses exhibited stronger learning effects and were more likely to adopt. PMID:25729112

  19. Predicting Potential Risk Areas of Human Plague for the Western Usambara Mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Neerinckx, Simon; Peterson, A. Townsend; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef; Kimaro, Didas; Leirs, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    A natural focus of plague exists in the Western Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. Despite intense research, questions remain as to why and how plague emerges repeatedly in the same suite of villages. We used human plague incidence data for 1986–2003 in an ecological-niche modeling framework to explore the geographic distribution and ecology of human plague. Our analyses indicate that plague occurrence is related directly to landscape-scale environmental features, yielding a predictive understanding of one set of environmental factors affecting plague transmission in East Africa. Although many environmental variables contribute significantly to these models, the most important are elevation and Enhanced Vegetation Index derivatives. Projections of these models across broader regions predict only 15.5% (under a majority-rule threshold) or 31,997 km2 of East Africa as suitable for plague transmission, but they successfully anticipate most known foci in the region, making possible the development of a risk map of plague. PMID:20207880

  20. A new species in the tree genus Polyceratocarpus (Annonaceae) from the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Andrew R; Couvreur, Thomas L P; Summers, Abigail L; Deere, Nicolas J; Luke, W R Quentin; Ndangalasi, Henry J; Sparrow, Sue; Johnson, David M

    2016-01-01

    Polyceratocarpus askhambryan-iringae, an endemic tree species of Annonaceae from the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania, is described and illustrated. The new species is identified as a member of the genus Polyceratocarpus by the combination of staminate and bisexual flowers, axillary inflorescences, subequal outer and inner petals, and multi-seeded monocarps with pitted seeds. From Polyceratocarpus scheffleri, with which it has previously been confused, it differs in the longer pedicels, smaller and thinner petals, shorter bracts, and by generally smaller, less curved monocarps that have a clear stipe and usually have fewer seeds. Because Polyceratocarpus askhambryan-iringae has a restricted extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, and ongoing degradation of its forest habitat, we recommend classification of it as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List. PMID:27489479

  1. Intergenerational differences in perceptions of heritage tourism among the Maasai of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kalavar, Jyotsna M; Buzinde, Christine N; Melubo, Kokel; Simon, Josephine

    2014-03-01

    Besides wildlife tourism in the African savannah, cultural heritage tourism (sometimes known only as heritage tourism) is a big draw in Tanzania. In order to attract cultural tourism dollars, Maasai communities have established cultural bomas, typically pseudo Maasai villages where they display cultural performances and crafts before tourists. Such cultural contact has resulted in the growing influence of globalization that challenges traditional ways. The economic, social and environmental impact of heritage tourism on intergenerational relationships and community well-being has not been examined among the Maasai people. In this study, focus groups were conducted with different age-groups of Maasai people residing in Esilalei and Oltukai villages. Results suggest that for the Maasai, heritage tourism appears to be a double-edged sword. While tourism results in some trickled down economic benefits for the Maasai community, economic change appears to have created a social distance between generations.

  2. "Protect Your Loved Ones From Fataki": Discouraging Cross-Generational Sex in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Tsang, Samantha W; Mooney, Alyssa; McCartney-Melstad, Anna; Mushi, Adiel K; Kamala, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    The Fataki campaign aired in Tanzania via radio from 2008 to 2011 to address cross-generational sex, a major driver of HIV in the region. The campaign sought to incite social disapproval of men who engage in such relationships, generate dialogue around the issue, and encourage community interventions in these relationships through social learning. Using qualitative methods, we explored campaign reactions, use of the term Fataki to describe men in relationships with much younger women, and the nature of discussions spurred by the campaign. We conducted focus group discussions and individual interviews in Iringa and Pwani regions with young women, older men, and community leaders. Results showed that the Fataki term was widely used and had negative connotations reflecting social disapproval of men who participate in such relationships. Dialogue spurred by the campaign, primarily directed toward young women, focused on reasons for avoiding these relationships. We conclude with suggestions for relevant future interventions.

  3. Transportation for maternal emergencies in Tanzania: empowering communities through participatory problem solving.

    PubMed

    Schmid, T; Kanenda, O; Ahluwalia, I; Kouletio, M

    2001-10-01

    Inadequate health care and long delays in obtaining care during obstetric emergencies are major contributors to high maternal death rates in Tanzania. Formative research conducted in the Mwanza region identified several transportation-related reasons for delays in receiving assistance. In 1996, the Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began an effort to build community capacity for problem-solving through participatory development of community-based plans for emergency transportation in 50 villages. An April 2001 assessment showed that 19 villages had begun collecting funds for transportation systems; of 13 villages with systems available, 10 had used the system within the last 3 months. Increased support for village health workers and greater participation of women in decision making were also observed.

  4. Occupational health, mercury exposure, and environmental justice: learning from experiences in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Samuel J

    2009-11-01

    Mercury is a potent neurotoxin that is used by poverty-driven miners to extract gold in more than 50 countries. This article examines efforts of the United Nations to address occupational health and environmental justice amid these challenges, focusing on a 3-year campaign in one of the fastest-growing mining communities in Tanzania. By providing an integrative analysis of environmental health risks, labor practices, public health policies, and drivers of social inequity and marginalization, this study highlights the need for interdisciplinary public health approaches that support community development by strengthening local capacities. It illustrates why, to ensure that the needs of vulnerable populations are met, environmental justice and public health paradigms have to expand beyond the conventionally narrow attention paid to toxic exposure and emissions issues.

  5. On two pterosaur humeri from the Tendaguru beds (Upper Jurassic, Tanzania).

    PubMed

    Costa, Fabiana R; Kellner, Alexander W A

    2009-12-01

    Jurassic African pterosaur remains are exceptionally rare and only known from the Tendaguru deposits, Upper Jurassic, Tanzania. Here we describe two right humeri of Tendaguru pterosaurs from the Humboldt University of Berlin: specimens MB.R. 2828 (cast MN 6661-V) and MB.R. 2833 (cast MN 6666-V). MB.R. 2828 consists of a three-dimensionally preserved proximal portion. The combination of the morphological features of the deltopectoral crest not observed in other pterosaurs suggests that this specimen belongs to a new dsungaripteroid taxon. MB.R. 2833 is nearly complete, and because of a long and round proximally placed deltopectoral crest it could be referred to the Archaeopterodactyloidea. It is the smallest pterosaur from Africa and one of the smallest flying reptiles ever recorded. These specimens confirm the importance of the Tendaguru deposits for the Jurassic pterosaur record. This potential, however, has to be fully explored with more field work.

  6. Effects of land use on plague (Yersinia pestis) activity in rodents in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Douglas J; Salkeld, Daniel J; Young, Hillary S; Makundi, Rhodes; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Eckerlin, Ralph P; Lambin, Eric F; Gaffikin, Lynne; Barry, Michele; Helgen, Kristofer M

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the effects of land-use change on zoonotic disease risk is a pressing global health concern. Here, we compare prevalence of Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, in rodents across two land-use types-agricultural and conserved-in northern Tanzania. Estimated abundance of seropositive rodents nearly doubled in agricultural sites compared with conserved sites. This relationship between land-use type and abundance of seropositive rodents is likely mediated by changes in rodent and flea community composition, particularly via an increase in the abundance of the commensal species, Mastomys natalensis, in agricultural habitats. There was mixed support for rodent species diversity negatively impacting Y. pestis seroprevalence. Together, these results suggest that land-use change could affect the risk of local transmission of plague, and raise critical questions about transmission dynamics at the interface of conserved and agricultural habitats. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding disease ecology in the context of rapidly proceeding landscape change.

  7. Indigenous and Invasive Fruit Fly Diversity along an Altitudinal Transect in Eastern Central Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Geurts, Katrien; Mwatawala, Maulid; De Meyer, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The relative abundance of indigenous and invasive frugivorous fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) was evaluated spatially and temporally along an altitudinal transect between 581–1650 m in the Uluguru Mountains near Morogoro, Tanzania. The polyphagous invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and the indigenous fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch show a similar temporal pattern, but are largely separated spatially, with B. invadens being abundant at lower elevation and C. rosa predominant at higher elevation. The polyphagous indigenous C. cosyra (Walker) coincides with B. invadens but shows an inverse temporal pattern. The cucurbit feeders B. cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus bivittatus (Bigot) show a similar temporal pattern, but the former is restricted to lower elevations. Host availability and climatic differences seem to be the determining factors to explain the differences in occurrence and abundance in time and space. PMID:22935017

  8. Midterm review of national health plans: an example from the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mboera, Leonard E G; Ipuge, Yahya; Kumalija, Claud J; Rubona, Josbert; Perera, Sriyant; Masanja, Honorati; Boerma, Ties

    2015-04-01

    In the health sector, planning and resource allocation at country level are mainly guided by national plans. For each such plan, a midterm review of progress is important for policy-makers since the review can inform the second half of the plan's implementation and provide a situation analysis on which the subsequent plan can be based. The review should include a comprehensive analysis using recent data - from surveys, facility and administrative databases - and global health estimates. Any midterm analysis of progress is best conducted by a team comprising representatives of government agencies, independent national institutions and global health organizations. Here we present an example of such a review, done in 2013 in the United Republic of Tanzania. Compared to similar countries, the results of this midterm review showed good progress in all health indicators except skilled birth attendance.

  9. Language of instruction and student performance: new insights from research in Tanzania and South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2007-11-01

    This article, drawing on a set of studies conducted in the framework of the Language of Instruction in Tanzania and South Africa (LOITASA) research project, shows how well African students express themselves if they are allowed to use a familiar African language, and conversely the difficulties they have when forced to use a foreign language, a language they hardly hear and never use outside of school, as a language of instruction. A key finding of the research is that when the foreign language, English in this case, is used, there is a much larger spread in test performance between students. This means that a small group of students succeed while the vast majority sinks. The author therefore argues for working towards a goal whereby African children like children in industrialized countries may study in their own language. Pursuing this goal should be a centrepiece in poverty reduction strategies.

  10. Parenting practices and styles associated with adolescent sexual health in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kajula, Lusajo J; Darling, Nancy; Kaaya, Sylvia F; De Vries, Hein

    2016-11-01

    Parenting styles and practices are suggested to be important predictors of adolescent sexual health, mostly in Europe and North America. Limited research has been conducted on these processes in Sub-Saharan Africa, which has different patterns of adolescent sexual behavior and family traditions. This study qualitatively explored parenting practices and styles associated with adolescent sexual health in Tanzania, with 12 adolescents and 12 parents of adolescents. The themes we identified from the data included parental monitoring, preventive, and punitive behaviors. Parents were reported to use mostly punitive behaviors to correct or prohibit sexual behavior; parents also set clear rules about appropriate sexual behavior (e.g., modesty and abstinence). Parents were also reported to closely monitor their adolescent children's friendships and sexual behavior to minimize sexual behavior. However, some parents also engaged in positive preventive practices aimed at protecting their adolescent children.

  11. Woodworking activities by early humans: a plant residue analysis on Acheulian stone tools from Peninj (Tanzania).

    PubMed

    Dominguez- Rodrigo, M; Serrallonga, J; Juan-Tresserras, J; Alcala, L; Luque, L

    2001-04-01

    The emergence of the Acheulian stone tool industry, between 1.7 and 1.5 m.y.a., constitutes one of the earliest evidences of complex behavior in the process of human evolution. The major technological breakthrough with the Acheulian industry was the beginning of the manufacture of bifacially shaped heavy-duty tools. Handaxes made with a predetermined form and a high degree of symmetry are the main characteristic of the Acheulian tradition. The tools are shaped through a long knapping sequence with a remarkable increase in the technical skills of the makers, compared with the older Oldowan tradition, implying a high degree of planning and foresight. Until recently, the function of these early bifacial tools remained unknown. A large number of these artefacts were found at Peninj in Tanzania, and phytolith analyses on handaxes have yielded for the first time unambiguous evidence of their function as woodworking tools.

  12. Rabies in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in the Serengeti region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Gascoyne, S C; Laurenson, M K; Lelo, S; Borner, M

    1993-07-01

    Rabies was confirmed as the cause of death of one African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in the Serengeti region, Tanzania. One adult African wild dog in the same pack showed central nervous signs consistent with rabies infection. Inactivated rabies vaccine was administered intramuscularly to African wild dogs in two packs, by dart or by hand following anesthesia. These individuals comprised all known adults in the Serengeti National Park. In a limited study of seroprevalence of rabies antibody carried out at the time of vaccination, 3 of 12 African wild dogs sampled in the Serengeti had rabies serum neutralizing antibody titers before vaccination. Paired serum samples from two individuals sampled after vaccination showed increased antibody titers.

  13. Occupational Health, Mercury Exposure, and Environmental Justice: Learning From Experiences in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Mercury is a potent neurotoxin that is used by poverty-driven miners to extract gold in more than 50 countries. This article examines efforts of the United Nations to address occupational health and environmental justice amid these challenges, focusing on a 3-year campaign in one of the fastest-growing mining communities in Tanzania. By providing an integrative analysis of environmental health risks, labor practices, public health policies, and drivers of social inequity and marginalization, this study highlights the need for interdisciplinary public health approaches that support community development by strengthening local capacities. It illustrates why, to ensure that the needs of vulnerable populations are met, environmental justice and public health paradigms have to expand beyond the conventionally narrow attention paid to toxic exposure and emissions issues. PMID:19890157

  14. A demographic perspective on the Middle to Later Stone Age transition from Nasera rockshelter, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tryon, Christian A; Faith, J Tyler

    2016-07-01

    Increased population density is among the proposed drivers of the behavioural changes culminating in the Middle to Later Stone Age (MSA-LSA) transition and human dispersals from East Africa, but reliable archaeological measures of demographic change are lacking. We use Late Pleistocene-Holocene lithic and faunal data from Nasera rockshelter (Tanzania) to show progressive declines in residential mobility-a variable linked to population density-and technological shifts, the latter associated with environmental changes. These data suggest that the MSA-LSA transition is part of a long-term pattern of changes in residential mobility and technology that reflect human responses to increased population density, with dispersals potentially marking a complementary response to larger populations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. PMID:27298469

  15. Partnerships for HIV / AIDS prevention. Promoting collaboration in Ethiopia and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nwankwo, E; Takele, A

    1996-07-01

    In most parts of the world, nongovernmental organizations (NGO) have been at the forefront of HIV/AIDS prevention and care efforts. Many believe that the key to sustaining prevention and care efforts is giving such grassroots organizations the resources and skills they need to design, manage, and evaluate HIV/AIDS projects. Such capacity building is the central purpose of the programs carried out by the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project with US Agency for International Development funding in more than 40 countries. Capacity building involves training in technical skills, strengthening organizational and management skills, and improving the ability of NGOs to work together. Examples of mechanisms to help organizations coordinate prevention resources and activities include AIDSCAP-initiated focus site intervention teams (FSITs) in Ethiopia and NGO clusters in Tanzania. Forming NGO clusters, cluster management, lessons learned, FSITs at work, and FSIT results are discussed. PMID:12347591

  16. Chemical Composition of Ethanolic Extracts of Some Wild Mushrooms from Tanzania and Their Medicinal Potentials.

    PubMed

    Chelela, Baraka Luca; Chacha, Musa; Matemu, Athanasia

    2016-01-01

    The ethanolic extracts of 5 edible and inedible wild mushrooms collected from the Southern Highlands of Tanzania were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 75 chemical compounds were obtained, mainly fatty acids, carotenoids, alkaloids, phenols, terpernes, steroids, pyranoside, saccharides, and amino acids. Chemical compounds were identified from the ethanolic extract of Russula cellulata, R. kivuensis, Lactarius densifolius, L. gymnocarpoides, and Lactarius sp. In addition, mass spectra of 4 major groups of compounds were also determined. This study confirms the presence of some important bioactive compounds, such as essential fatty acids (oleic and linoleic), amino acids, and carotenoids. The reported chemical profiles give an insight into the use of wild mushrooms as a potential source of bioactive compounds for nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. PMID:27649607

  17. A new species in the tree genus Polyceratocarpus (Annonaceae) from the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Andrew R.; Couvreur, Thomas L.P.; Summers, Abigail L.; Deere, Nicolas J.; Luke, W.R. Quentin; Ndangalasi, Henry J.; Sparrow, Sue; Johnson, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Polyceratocarpus askhambryan-iringae, an endemic tree species of Annonaceae from the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania, is described and illustrated. The new species is identified as a member of the genus Polyceratocarpus by the combination of staminate and bisexual flowers, axillary inflorescences, subequal outer and inner petals, and multi-seeded monocarps with pitted seeds. From Polyceratocarpus scheffleri, with which it has previously been confused, it differs in the longer pedicels, smaller and thinner petals, shorter bracts, and by generally smaller, less curved monocarps that have a clear stipe and usually have fewer seeds. Because Polyceratocarpus askhambryan-iringae has a restricted extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, and ongoing degradation of its forest habitat, we recommend classification of it as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List. PMID:27489479

  18. Transdisciplinary Project Communication and Knowledge Sharing Experiences in Tanzania and Zambia through a One Health Lens.

    PubMed

    Bagnol, Brigitte; Clarke, Elizabeth; Li, Mu; Maulaga, Wende; Lumbwe, Hilda; McConchie, Robyn; de Bruyn, Julia; Alders, Robyn Gwen

    2016-01-01

    The project "Strengthening food and nutrition security through family poultry and crop integration in Tanzania and Zambia" brings together animal, crop, and human health specialists, economists, ecologists, social scientists, and practitioners to work with participating communities. It aims to increase poultry value chain, crop farming systems efficiency, and household food and nutrition security and thus requires understanding of, and ability to work effectively within, complex systems. In this context, communication knowledge sharing and synthesis between stakeholders from diverse backgrounds and a range of experiences, perspectives, agendas, and knowledge is a challenge. To address this situation, communication is conceived as a dialog and a participatory process bringing together all stakeholders. This process results in unanticipated and unexpected results that require a high degree of flexibility and adaptability from team members. The paper analyses the approach and aim of the communication strategy developed for the project and the challenges faced. PMID:26904532

  19. The Use of Guidelines for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Tanzania: A Lesson from Kilimanjaro Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Mbwele, B; Slot, A; De Mast, Q; Kweka, P; Msuya, M; Hulscher, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evaluations of the guidelines for the management of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (LRTI) Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Tanzania is scant. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of the current Tanzanian treatment guideline for the management lower respiratory tract infection. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study in 11 hospitals of different levels in the Kilimanjaro region Data were collected from May 2012 to July 2012 by semi-structured interview for clinicians using 2 dummy cases for practical assessment. Data were analyzed by STATA v11 (StataCorp, TX, USA). Qualitative narratives from the interviews were translated, transcribed then coded by colors into meaningful themes. Results: A variety of principles for diagnosing and managing LRTI were demonstrated by 53 clinicians of Kilimanjaro. For the awareness, 67.9% (36/53) clinicians knew their responsibility to use Standard Treatment Guideline for managing LRTI. The content derived from Standard Treatment Guideline could be cited by 11.3% of clinicians (6/53) however they all showed concern of gaps in the guideline. Previous training in the management of patients with LRTI was reported by 25.9% (14/53), majority were pulmonary TB related. Correct microorganisms causing different forms of LRTI were mentioned by 11.3% (6/53). Exact cause of Atypical pneumonia and Q fever as an example was stated by 13.0% (7/53) from whom the need of developing the guideline for LRTI was explicitly elaborated. Conclusion: The current guidelines have not been used effectively for the management of LRTI in Tanzania. There is a need to review its content for the current practical use. PMID:27213093

  20. Frequent intra-subtype recombination among HIV-1 circulating in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kiwelu, Ireen E; Novitsky, Vladimir; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Manongi, Rachel; Sam, Noel; Shao, John; McLane, Mary F; Kapiga, Saidi H; Essex, M

    2013-01-01

    The study estimated the prevalence of HIV-1 intra-subtype recombinant variants among female bar and hotel workers in Tanzania. While intra-subtype recombination occurs in HIV-1, it is generally underestimated. HIV-1 env gp120 V1-C5 quasispecies from 45 subjects were generated by single-genome amplification and sequencing (median (IQR) of 38 (28-50) sequences per subject). Recombination analysis was performed using seven methods implemented within the recombination detection program version 3, RDP3. HIV-1 sequences were considered recombinant if recombination signals were detected by at least three methods with p-values of ≤0.05 after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. HIV-1 in 38 (84%) subjects showed evidence for intra-subtype recombination including 22 with HIV-1 subtype A1, 13 with HIV-1 subtype C, and 3 with HIV-1 subtype D. The distribution of intra-patient recombination breakpoints suggested ongoing recombination and showed selective enrichment of recombinant variants in 23 (60%) subjects. The number of subjects with evidence of intra-subtype recombination increased from 29 (69%) to 36 (82%) over one year of follow-up, although the increase did not reach statistical significance. Adjustment for intra-subtype recombination is important for the analysis of multiplicity of HIV infection. This is the first report of high prevalence of intra-subtype recombination in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Tanzania, a region where multiple HIV-1 subtypes co-circulate. HIV-1 intra-subtype recombination increases viral diversity and presents additional challenges for HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:23940702

  1. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Joel M.; Weiss, Helen A.; Mshana, Gerry; Baisley, Kathy; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kapiga, Saidi H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD) among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15–24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers) in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza) of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB) method. Results A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47–70% ever users and 20–45% current users) than females (24–54% ever users and 12–47% current users). Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females) and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females) followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8) than females, with 11–28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners. Conclusions Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking

  2. Adaptive livelihood strategies for coping with water scarcity in the drylands of central Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liwenga, Emma T.

    In this paper, it is argued that local knowledge for adapting to water scarcity is important for integrated resource management by taking into consideration both the natural and social constraints in a particular setting based on accumulated experience. The paper examines the relevance of local knowledge in sustaining agricultural production in the semiarid areas of central Tanzania. The paper specifically focuses on how water scarcity, as the major limiting factor, is addressed in the study area using local knowledge to sustain livelihoods of its people. The study was conducted in four villages; Mzula, Ilolo, Chanhumba and Ngahelezi, situation in Mvumi Division in Dodoma Region. The study mainly employed qualitative data collection techniques. Participatory methods provided a means of exploring perceptions and gaining deeper insights regarding natural resource utilization in terms of problems and opportunities. The main data sources drawn upon in this study were documentation, group interviews and field observations. Group interviews involved discussions with a group of 6-12 people selected on the basis of gender, age and socio-economic groups. Data analysis entailed structural and content analysis within the adaptive livelihood framework in relation to management of water scarcity using local knowledge. The findings confirm that rainfall is the main limiting factor for agricultural activities in the drylands of Central Tanzania. As such, local communities have developed, through time, indigenous knowledge to cope with such environments utilizing seasonality and diversity of landscapes. Use of this local knowledge is therefore effective in managing water scarcity by ensuring a continuous production of crops throughout the year. This practice implies increased food availability and accessibility through sales of such agricultural products. Local innovations for water management, such as cultivation in sandy rivers, appear to be very important means of accessing

  3. Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from tuberculosis patients in the Serengeti ecosystem in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mbugi, Erasto V; Katale, Bugwesa Z; Siame, Keith K; Keyyu, Julius D; Kendall, Sharon L; Dockrell, Hazel M; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Michel, Anita L; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Warren, Robin M; Matee, Mecky I; van Helden, Paul D

    2015-03-01

    This study was part of a larger cross-sectional survey that was evaluating tuberculosis (TB) infection in humans, livestock and wildlife in the Serengeti ecosystem in Tanzania. The study aimed at evaluating the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from TB patients attending health facilities in the Serengeti ecosystem. DNA was extracted from 214 sputum cultures obtained from consecutively enrolled newly diagnosed untreated TB patients aged ≥18 years. Spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) and Mycobacterium Interspersed Repetitive Units and Variable Number Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) were used to genotype M. tuberculosis to establish the circulating lineages. Of the214 M. tuberculosis isolates genotyped, 55 (25.7%) belonged to the Central Asian (CAS) family, 52 (24.3%) were T family (an ill-defined family), 38 (17.8%) belonged to the Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) family, 25 (11.7%) to the East-African Indian (EAI) family, 25 (11.7%) comprised of different unassigned ('Serengeti') strain families, while 8 (3.7%) belonged to the Beijing family. A minority group that included Haarlem, X, U and S altogether accounted for 11 (5.2%) of all genotypes. MIRU-VNTR typing produced diverse patterns within and between families indicative of unlinked transmission chains. We conclude that, in the Serengeti ecosystem only a few successful families predominate namely CAS, T, LAM and EAI families. Other types found in lower prevalence are Beijing, Haarlem, X, S and MANU. The Haarlem, EAI_Somalia, LAM3 and S/convergent and X2 subfamilies found in this study were not reported in previous studies in Tanzania.

  4. Health-care worker engagement in HIV-related quality improvement in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Maria E.; Li, Michelle S.; Siril, Hellen; Hawkins, Claudia; Kaaya, Sylvia; Ismail, Shabbir; Chalamilla, Guerino; Mdingi, Sarah Geoffrey; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess health-care worker (HCW) awareness, interest and engagement in quality improvement (QI) in HIV care sites in Tanzania. Design Cross-sectional survey distributed in May 2009. Setting Sixteen urban HIV care sites in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 1 year after the introduction of a quality management program. Participants Two hundred seventy-nine HCWs (direct care, clinical support staff and management). Main Outcome Measures HCW perceptions of care delivered, rates of engagement, knowledge and interest in QI. HCW-identified barriers to and facilitators of the delivery of quality HIV care. Results Two hundred seventy-nine (73%) of 382 HCWs responded to the survey. Most (86%) felt able to meet clients’ needs. HCW-identified facilitators of quality included: teamwork (88%), staff communication (79%), positive work environment (75%) and trainings (84%). Perceived barriers included: problems in patients’ lives (73%) and too few staff or too high patient volumes (52%). Many HCWs knew about specific QI activities (52%) or had been asked for input on QI (63%), but fewer (40.5%) had participated in activities and only 20.1% were currently QI team members. Managers were more likely to report QI involvement than direct care or clinical support staff (P < 0.01). No difference in QI involvement was seen based on patient load or site type. Conclusions HCWs can provide important insights into barriers and facilitators of providing quality care and can be effectively engaged in QI activities. HCW participation in efforts to improve services will ensure that HIV/AIDS quality of care is achieved and maintained as countries strive for universal antiretroviral access. PMID:21441571

  5. Understanding the link between trafficking in persons and HIV and AIDS risk in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kamazima, Switbert R; Ezekiel, Mangi J; Kazaura, Method R; Fimbo, Benett

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude of trafficking in persons in Tanzania is unknown. Consequently, available information on health risks of persons trafficked for different forms of exploitation is extremely scanty. We conducted a baseline study in eight administrative regions of Tanzania using both qualitative and quantitative methods to generate data on the health conditions of trafficked persons to inform trafficking in persons control measures through HIV and AIDS interventions. Study participants included the national, regional and district community development officers, district medical officers, local government leaders, managers or representatives of non-governmental organizations involved in anti-trafficking in persons activities, members of the community and victims. Findings indicated that common forms of labour into which persons are trafficked include domestic services, agriculture (farming), construction, mining/quarrying, fishing, lumbering and manufacturing. Trafficked persons are reported to be exposed to risks like overcrowding, long working hours, psychological problems, physical injuries, impotence, breathing problems and sexually transmitted infections including HIV. It is concluded that the reported occupational hazards in industries where trafficked persons are forced into are not specific to trafficked persons as they affect all labourers. However, the underground nature of the trafficking in persons process increases health problems and risks, including the vulnerability to HIV infection. More tailored research is needed, especially to find means of how to reach out and provide services to this particular vulnerable population, validate labour forms of exploitation into which persons are trafficked to enable the integration or mainstreaming of HIV and AIDS and trafficking in persons at the policy and programmatic levels. In addition, findings would facilitate the understanding of the link between increased risk of IRV and trafficking in persons. PMID:26591750

  6. A field vaccine trial in Tanzania demonstrates partial protection against malignant catarrhal fever in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lankester, F.; Russell, G.C.; Lugelo, A.; Ndabigaye, A.; Mnyambwa, N.; Keyyu, J.; Kazwala, R.; Grant, D.; Percival, A.; Deane, D.; Haig, D.M.; Cleaveland, S.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle that, in East Africa, results from transmission of the causative virus, alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), from wildebeest. A vaccine field trial involving an attenuated AlHV-1 virus vaccine was performed over two wildebeest calving seasons on the Simanjiro Plain of northern Tanzania. Each of the two phases of the field trial consisted of groups of 50 vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle, which were subsequently exposed to AlHV-1 challenge by herding toward wildebeest. Vaccination resulted in the induction of virus-specific and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Some cattle in the unvaccinated groups also developed virus-specific antibody responses but only after the start of the challenge phase of the trial. PCR of DNA from blood samples detected AlHV-1 infection in both groups of cattle but the frequency of infection was significantly lower in the vaccinated groups. Some infected animals showed clinical signs suggestive of MCF but few animals went on to develop fatal MCF, with similar numbers in vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. This study demonstrated a baseline level of MCF-seropositivity among cattle in northern Tanzania of 1% and showed that AlHV-1 virus-neutralizing antibodies could be induced in Tanzanian zebu shorthorn cross cattle by our attenuated vaccine, a correlate of protection in previous experimental trials. The vaccine reduced infection rates by 56% in cattle exposed to wildebeest but protection from fatal MCF could not be determined due to the low number of fatal cases. PMID:26706270

  7. Feasibility of nurse-led antidepressant medication management of depression in an HIV clinic in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Julie L.; Almond, Maria L. G.; Ringo, Edward J.; Shangali, Wahida H.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest HIV prevalence worldwide and depression is highly prevalent among those infected. The negative impact of depression on HIV outcomes highlights the need to identify and treat it in this population. A model for doing this in lower-resourced settings involves task-shifting depression treatment to primary care; however, HIV-infected individuals are often treated in a parallel HIV specialty setting. We adapted a model of task-shifting, measurement based care (MBC), for an HIV clinic setting and tested its feasibility in Tanzania. MBC involves measuring depressive symptoms at meaningful intervals and adjusting antidepressant medication treatment based on the measure of illness. Method Twenty adults presenting for care at an outpatient HIV clinic in Tanzania were enrolled and followed by a nurse care manager who measured depressive symptoms at baseline and every four weeks for 12 weeks. An algorithm-based decision-support tool was utilized by the care manager to recommend individualized antidepressant medication doses to participants’ HIV providers at each visit. Results Retention was high and fidelity of the care manager to the MBC protocol was exceptional. Follow through of antidepressant prescription dosing recommendations by the prescriber was low. Limited availability of antidepressants was also noted. Despite challenges, baseline depression scores decreased over the 12- week period. Conclusions Overall, the model of algorithm-based nursing support of prescription decisions was feasible. Future studies should address implementation issues of medication supply and dosing. Further task-shifting to relatively more abundant and lower-skilled health workers, such as nurses’ aides warrants examination. PMID:22849034

  8. Community-based monitoring of safe motherhood in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Mswia, Robert; Lewanga, Mary; Moshiro, Candida; Whiting, David; Wolfson, Lara; Hemed, Yusuf; Alberti, K. G. M. M.; Kitange, Henry; Mtasiwa, Deo; Setel, Philip

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the progress made towards the Safe Motherhood Initiative goals in three areas of the United Republic of Tanzania during the 1990s. METHODS: Maternal mortality in the United Republic of Tanzania was monitored by sentinel demographic surveillance of more than 77,000 women of reproductive age, and by prospective monitoring of mortality in the following locations; an urban site; a wealthier rural district; and a poor rural district. The observation period for the rural districts was 1992-99 and 1993-99 for the urban site. FINDINGS: During the period of observation, the proportion of deaths of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) due to maternal causes (PMDF) compared with all causes was between 0.063 and 0.095. Maternal mortality ratios (MMRatios) were 591-1099 and maternal mortality rates (MMRates; maternal deaths per 100,000 women aged 15-49 years) were 43.1-123.0. MMRatios in surveillance areas were substantially higher than estimates from official, facility-based statistics. In all areas, the MMRates in 1999 were substantially lower than at the start of surveillance (1992 for rural districts, 1993 for the urban area), although trends during the period were statistically significant at the 90% level only in the urban site. At the community level, an additional year of education for household heads was associated with a 62% lower maternal death rate, after controlling for community-level variables such as the proportion of home births and occupational class. CONCLUSION: Educational level was a major predictor of declining MMRates. Even though rates may be decreasing, they remained high in the study areas. The use of sentinel registration areas may be a cost-effective and accurate way for developing countries to monitor mortality indicators and causes, including for maternal mortality. PMID:12751416

  9. Newborn care practices in Pemba Island (Tanzania) and their implications for newborn health and survival.

    PubMed

    Thairu, Lucy; Pelto, Gretel

    2008-07-01

    Newborn mortality accounts for about one-third of deaths in children under five. Neglecting this problem may undermine the fourth Millennium Development Goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds by 2015. This study was conducted in Tanzania, where an estimated 32/1000 infants die within the first 28 days. Our objective was to describe newborn care practices and their potential impact on newborn health. We interviewed two purposive samples of mothers from Pemba Island, a predominantly Muslim community of Arab-African ethnicity, and one of Tanzania's poorest. The first sample of mothers (n = 12) provided descriptive data; the second (n = 26) reported actual practice. We identified cultural beliefs and practices that promote early initiation of breastfeeding and bonding, including 'post-partum seclusion'. We also identified practices which are potentially harmful for newborn health, such as bathing newborns immediately after delivery, a practice motivated by concerns about 'ritual pollution', which may lead to newborn hypothermia and premature breast milk supplementation (e.g. with water and other fluids) which may expose newborns to pathogens. Some traditional practices to treat illness, such as exposing sick newborns to medicinal smoke from burning herbs, are also of concern. It is unclear whether the practice of massaging newborns with coconut oil is harmful or beneficial. Interventions to reduce neonatal mortality need to identify and address the cultural rationales that underlie negative practices, as well as reinforce and protect the beliefs that support positive practices. The results suggest the need to improve use of health services through improving health worker communication skills and social management of patients, as well as by lowering healthcare costs. PMID:18582353

  10. Access to artemisinin-based anti-malarial treatment and its related factors in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Artemisinin-based combination treatment (ACT) has been widely adopted as one of the main malaria control strategies. However, its promise to save thousands of lives in sub-Saharan Africa depends on how effective the use of ACT is within the routine health system. The INESS platform evaluated effective coverage of ACT in several African countries. Timely access within 24 hours to an authorized ACT outlet is one of the determinants of effective coverage and was assessed for artemether-lumefantrine (Alu), in two district health systems in rural Tanzania. Methods From October 2009 to June 2011we conducted continuous rolling household surveys in the Kilombero-Ulanga and the Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS). Surveys were linked to the routine HDSS update rounds. Members of randomly pre-selected households that had experienced a fever episode in the previous two weeks were eligible for a structured interview. Data on individual treatment seeking, access to treatment, timing, source of treatment and household costs per episode were collected. Data are presented on timely access from a total of 2,112 interviews in relation to demographics, seasonality, and socio economic status. Results In Kilombero-Ulanga, 41.8% (CI: 36.6–45.1) and in Rufiji 36.8% (33.7–40.1) of fever cases had access to an authorized ACT provider within 24 hours of fever onset. In neither of the HDSS site was age, sex, socio-economic status or seasonality of malaria found to be significantly correlated with timely access. Conclusion Timely access to authorized ACT providers is below 50% despite interventions intended to improve access such as social marketing and accreditation of private dispensing outlets. To improve prompt diagnosis and treatment, access remains a major bottle neck and new more innovative interventions are needed to raise effective coverage of malaria treatment in Tanzania. PMID:23651521

  11. Newborn care practices in Pemba Island (Tanzania) and their implications for newborn health and survival.

    PubMed

    Thairu, Lucy; Pelto, Gretel

    2008-07-01

    Newborn mortality accounts for about one-third of deaths in children under five. Neglecting this problem may undermine the fourth Millennium Development Goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds by 2015. This study was conducted in Tanzania, where an estimated 32/1000 infants die within the first 28 days. Our objective was to describe newborn care practices and their potential impact on newborn health. We interviewed two purposive samples of mothers from Pemba Island, a predominantly Muslim community of Arab-African ethnicity, and one of Tanzania's poorest. The first sample of mothers (n = 12) provided descriptive data; the second (n = 26) reported actual practice. We identified cultural beliefs and practices that promote early initiation of breastfeeding and bonding, including 'post-partum seclusion'. We also identified practices which are potentially harmful for newborn health, such as bathing newborns immediately after delivery, a practice motivated by concerns about 'ritual pollution', which may lead to newborn hypothermia and premature breast milk supplementation (e.g. with water and other fluids) which may expose newborns to pathogens. Some traditional practices to treat illness, such as exposing sick newborns to medicinal smoke from burning herbs, are also of concern. It is unclear whether the practice of massaging newborns with coconut oil is harmful or beneficial. Interventions to reduce neonatal mortality need to identify and address the cultural rationales that underlie negative practices, as well as reinforce and protect the beliefs that support positive practices. The results suggest the need to improve use of health services through improving health worker communication skills and social management of patients, as well as by lowering healthcare costs.

  12. Community perceptions of rape and child sexual abuse: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rape of women and children is recognized as a health and human rights issue in Tanzania and internationally. Exploration of the prevailing perceptions in rural areas is needed in order to expand the understanding of sexual violence in the diversity of Tanzania’s contexts. The aim of this study therefore was to explore and understand perceptions of rape of women and children at the community level in a rural district in Tanzania with the added objective of exploring those perceptions that may contribute to perpetuating and/or hindering the disclosure of rape incidences. Methods A qualitative design was employed using focus group discussions with male and female community members including religious leaders, professionals, and other community members. The discussions centered on causes of rape, survivors of rape, help-seeking and reporting, and gathered suggestions on measures for improvement. Six focus group discussions (four of single gender and two of mixed gender) were conducted. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. Results The participants perceived rape of women and children to be a frequent and hidden phenomenon. A number of factors were singled out as contributing to rape, such as erosion of social norms, globalization, poverty, vulnerability of children, alcohol/drug abuse and poor parental care. Participants perceived the need for educating the community to raise their knowledge of sexual violence and its consequences, and their roles as preventive agents. Conclusions In this rural context, social norms reinforce sexual violence against women and children, and hinder them from seeking help from support services. Addressing the identified challenges may promote help-seeking behavior and improve care of survivors of sexual violence, while changes in social and cultural norms are needed for the prevention of sexual violence. PMID:25132543

  13. A field vaccine trial in Tanzania demonstrates partial protection against malignant catarrhal fever in cattle.

    PubMed

    Lankester, F; Russell, G C; Lugelo, A; Ndabigaye, A; Mnyambwa, N; Keyyu, J; Kazwala, R; Grant, D; Percival, A; Deane, D; Haig, D M; Cleaveland, S

    2016-02-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle that, in East Africa, results from transmission of the causative virus, alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), from wildebeest. A vaccine field trial involving an attenuated AlHV-1 virus vaccine was performed over two wildebeest calving seasons on the Simanjiro Plain of northern Tanzania. Each of the two phases of the field trial consisted of groups of 50 vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle, which were subsequently exposed to AlHV-1 challenge by herding toward wildebeest. Vaccination resulted in the induction of virus-specific and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Some cattle in the unvaccinated groups also developed virus-specific antibody responses but only after the start of the challenge phase of the trial. PCR of DNA from blood samples detected AlHV-1 infection in both groups of cattle but the frequency of infection was significantly lower in the vaccinated groups. Some infected animals showed clinical signs suggestive of MCF but few animals went on to develop fatal MCF, with similar numbers in vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. This study demonstrated a baseline level of MCF-seropositivity among cattle in northern Tanzania of 1% and showed that AlHV-1 virus-neutralizing antibodies could be induced in Tanzanian zebu shorthorn cross cattle by our attenuated vaccine, a correlate of protection in previous experimental trials. The vaccine reduced infection rates by 56% in cattle exposed to wildebeest but protection from fatal MCF could not be determined due to the low number of fatal cases.

  14. Cropland land surface phenology and seasonality in East Africa: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemu, W. G.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Most people in East Africa depend on rainfed agriculture. Rainfall in the region has been decreasing recently and is highly variable in space and time leading to high food insecurity. A comprehensive understanding of the regional cropland dynamics is therefore needed. Land surface phenology and land surface seasonality have important roles in monitoring cropland dynamics in a region with sparse coverage of in situ climatic and biophysical observations. However, commonly used optical satellite data are often degraded by cloud cover, aerosols, and dust and they are restricted to daytime observations. Here we used near-daily passive microwave (PM) data at 25 km spatial resolution from a series of microwave radiometers—AMSR-E, FengYun3B/MWRI, AMSR2—to study cropland dynamics for 2003-2013 in three important grain production areas of East Africa: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and South Sudan. PM data can be collected through clouds and at night. Based on Google Earth imagery, we identified several cropland areas corresponding to PM grid cells. Rainfall from TRMM and atmospheric water vapor (V) from PM data displayed temporal patterns that were unimodal in Ethiopia and South Sudan, but bimodal in Tanzania. We fitted convex quadratic models to link growing season increments of V and vegetation optical depth (VOD) to accumulated V (AV). The models yielded high coefficients of determination (r2 ≥0.8) and phenometrics calculated from the parameter coefficients. Peak rainfall lagged peak V, but preceded peak VOD. Growing degree-days (GDD), calculated from the PM air temperature data, displayed a weaker bimodal seasonality in which the lowest values occurred during the peak rainy season, due to the cooling effect of latent heat flux and coupled with higher reflection of insolation by the cloud deck. V as a function of GDD displays quasi-periodic behavior. Drier sites in the region displayed larger (smaller) intra-annual dynamic range of V (GDD) compared to the moister sites.

  15. Increased utilisation of PEPFAR-supported laboratory services by non-HIV patents in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    McNairy, Margaret L.; Gwynn, Charon; Rabkin, Miriam; Antelman, Gretchen; Wu, Yingfeng; Alemayehu, Bereket; Lim, Travis; Imtiaz, Rubina; Mosha, Fausta; Mwasekaga, Michael; Othman, Asha A.; Justman, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unknown to what extent the non-HIV population utilises laboratories supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Objectives We aimed to describe the number and proportion of laboratory tests performed in 2009 and 2011 for patients referred from HIV and non-HIV services (NHSs) in a convenience sample collected from 127 laboratories supported by PEPFAR in Tanzania. We then compared changes in the proportions of tests performed for patients referred from NHSs in 2009 vs 2011. Methods Haematology, chemistry, tuberculosis and syphilis test data were collected from available laboratory registers. Referral sources, including HIV services, NHSs, or lack of a documented referral source, were recorded. A generalised linear mixed model reported the odds that a test was from a NHS. Results A total of 94 132 tests from 94 laboratories in 2009 and 157 343 tests from 101 laboratories in 2011 were recorded. Half of all tests lacked a documented referral source. Tests from NHSs constituted 42% (66 084) of all tests in 2011, compared with 31% (29 181) in 2009. A test in 2011 was twice as likely to have been referred from a NHS as in 2009 (adjusted odds ratio: 2.0 [95% confidence interval: 2.0–2.1]). Conclusion Between 2009 and 2011, the number and proportion of tests from NHSs increased across all types of test. This finding may reflect increased documentation of NHS referrals or that the laboratory scale-up originally intended to service the HIV-positive population in Tanzania may be associated with a ‘spillover effect’ amongst the general population. PMID:26962475

  16. Access to HIV prevention services among gender based violence survivors in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mboya, Beati; Temu, Florence; Awadhi, Bayoum; Ngware, Zubeda; Ndyetabura, Elly; Kiondo, Gloria; Maridadi, Janneth

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Currently, Tanzania's HIV prevalence is 5.7%. Gender inequality and Gender Based Violence (GBV) are among factors fuelling the spread of HIV in Tanzania. This study was conducted to assess universal access to HIV prevention services among GBV survivors in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam where HIV prevalence is as high as 14.7% and 9% respectively compared to a national average of 5.7%. Methods In 2010, a mixed methods study using triangulation model was conducted in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam regions to represent rural and urban settings respectively. Questionnaires were administered to 283 randomly selected survivors and 37 health providers while 28 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions were conducted among various stakeholders. Quantitative data was analyzed in SPSS by comparing descriptive statistics while qualitative data was analyzed using thematic framework approach. Results Counseling and testing was the most common type of HIV prevention services received by GBV survivors (29%). Obstacles for HIV prevention among GBV survivors included: stigma, male dominance culture and fear of marital separation. Bribery in service delivery points, lack of confidentiality, inadequate GBV knowledge among health providers, and fear of being involved in legal matters were mentioned to be additional obstacles to service accessibility by survivors. Reported consequences of GBV included: psychological problems, physical trauma, chronic illness, HIV infection. Conclusion GBV related stigma and cultural norms are obstacles to HIV services accessibility. Initiation of friendly health services, integration of GBV into HIV services and community based interventions addressing GBV related stigma and cultural norms are recommended. PMID:23467278

  17. Feasibility and acceptability of delivering adolescent health interventions alongside HPV vaccination in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Watson-Jones, Deborah; Lees, Shelley; Mwanga, Joseph; Neke, Nyasule; Changalucha, John; Broutet, Nathalie; Maduhu, Ibrahim; Kapiga, Saidi; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Bloem, Paul; Ross, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offers an opportunity to strengthen provision of adolescent health interventions (AHI). We explored the feasibility of integrating other AHI with HPV vaccination in Tanzania. Methods: A desk review of 39 policy documents was preceded by a stakeholder meeting with 38 policy makers and partners. Eighteen key informant interviews (KIIs) with health and education policy makers and district officials were conducted to further explore perceptions of current programs, priorities and AHI that might be suitable for integration with HPV vaccination. Results: Fourteen school health interventions (SHI) or AHI are currently being implemented by the Government of Tanzania. Most are delivered as vertical programmes. Coverage of current programs is not universal, and is limited by financial, human resource and logistic constraints. Limited community engagement, rumours, and lack of strategic advocacy has affected uptake of some interventions, e.g. tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization. Stakeholder and KI perceptions and opinions were limited by a lack of experience with integrated delivery and AHI that were outside an individual’s area of expertise and experience. Deworming and educational sessions including reproductive health education were the most frequently mentioned interventions that respondents considered suitable for integrated delivery with HPV vaccine. Conclusions: Given programme constraints, limited experience with integrated delivery and concern about real or perceived side-effects being attributed to the vaccine, it will be very important to pilot-test integration of AHI/SHI with HPV vaccination. Selected interventions will need to be simple and quick to deliver since health workers are likely to face significant logistic and time constraints during vaccination visits. PMID:26768827

  18. Depression and HIV risk among men who have sex with men in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ahaneku, Hycienth; Ross, Michael W.; Nyoni, Joyce E.; Selwyn, Beatrice; Troisi, Catherine; Mbwambo, Jessie; Adeboye, Adeniyi; McCurdy, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Studies have shown high rates of depression among men who have sex with men (MSM) in developed countries. Studies have also shown association between depression and HIV risk among MSM. However, very little research has been done on depression among African MSM. We assessed depression and HIV risk among a sample of MSM in Tanzania. We reviewed data on 205 MSM who were recruited from two Tanzanian cities using the respondent driven sampling method. Demographic and behavioral data were collected using a structured questionnaire. HIV and sexually transmitted infections data were determined from biological tests. Depression scores were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). For the analysis, depression scores were dichotomized as depressed (PHQ > 4) and not depressed (PHQ ≤ 4). Bivariate and multivariable Poisson regression analyses were conducted to assess factors associated with depression. The prevalence of depression in the sample was 46.3%. The mean (±SD) age of the sample was 25 (±5) years. In bivariate analysis, depression was associated with self-identifying as gay (p = .001), being HIV positive (p < .001: <8% of MSM knew they were HIV infected) and having a high number of sexual partners in the last 6 months (p = .001). Depression was also associated with sexual (p = .007), physical (p = .003) and verbal (p < .001) abuse. In the Poisson regression analysis, depression was associated with verbal abuse (APR = 1.91, CI = 1.30–2.81). Depression rates were high among MSM in Tanzania. It is also associated with abuse, HIV and HIV risk behaviors. Thus, reducing the risk of depression may be helpful in reducing the risk of HIV among MSM in Africa. We recommend the colocation of mental health and HIV preventive services as a cost-effective means of addressing both depression and HIV risk among MSM in Africa. PMID:27002772

  19. Pesticides use by smallholder farmers in vegetable production in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Ngowi, A.V.F.; Mbise, T.J.; Ijani, A.S.M.; London, L.; Ajayi, O. C.

    2007-01-01

    Small-scale farmers in Northern Tanzania grow vegetables that include tomatoes, cabbages and onions and use many types of pesticides to control pests and diseases that attack these crops. Based on the use of questionnaires and interviews that were conducted in Arumeru, Monduli, Karatu, and Moshi rural districts, this study investigates farmers’ practices on vegetable pest management using pesticides and related cost and health effects. The types of pesticides used by the farmers in the study areas were insecticides (59%), fungicides (29%) and herbicides (10%) with the remaining 2% being rodenticides. About a third of the farmers applied pesticides in mixtures. Up to 90% had a maximum of 3 pesticides in a mixture. In all cases there were no specific instructions either from the labels or extension workers regarding these tank mixtures. Fifty three percent of the farmers reported that the trend of pesticide use was increasing, while 33% was constant and 14% was decreasing. More than 50 percent of the respondents applied pesticides up to 5 times or more per cropping season depending on the crop. Insecticides and fungicides were routinely applied by 77% and 7%, respectively by these farmers. Sixty eight percent of farmers reported having felt sick after routine application of pesticides. Pesticide-related health symptoms that were associated with pesticides use included skin problems and neurological system disturbances (dizziness, headache). Sixty one percent of farmers reported spending no money on health due to pesticides. These results can be used to develop a tool to quantify the cost of pesticide use in pest management by small-scale vegetable farmers in Northern Tanzania and contribute to the reformation of pesticide policy for safe and effective use of pesticides. PMID:18528532

  20. Who Has Mycobacterial Disease? A Cross Sectional Study in Agropastoral Communities in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kilale, Andrew Martin; Ngadaya, Esther; Muhumuza, Julius; Kagaruki, Gibson Benard; Lema, Yakobo Leonard; Ngowi, Bernard James; Mfinanga, Sayoki Godfrey; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine and describe clinical symptoms, demographic characteristics and environmental exposures as determinants of pulmonary mycobacterial diseases among patients examined for tuberculosis in agropastoral communities in Northern Tanzania. Methods This was a cross sectional study. Sputum samples were collected from patients attending three hospitals in Tanzania, and were investigated for pulmonary tuberculosis by microscopy between November 2010 and June 2012. The patients were interviewed about background information, and potential exposure to mycobacteria. Results We examined 1,711 presumptive tuberculosis cases where 936 (54.2%) were males and 775 (45.3%) females. Of all the study participants, 277 (16%) were found to have sputum samples positive for mycobacteria; 228 (13%) were smear positive, 123 (7%) were culture positive and 74 (4%) were positive by both smear microscopy and culture. Of the 123 mycobacterial culture positive, 15 (12.2%) had non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Males were more likely than females to be positive for mycobacteria. Factors associated with mycobacterial disease were loss of appetite, age groups below 41 years, and being a male. Among HIV negative patients, loss of appetite, age below 20 years and being a male were associated with being mycobacterial positive. Among HIV positive patients, males and those patients with a persistently coughing family member were more likely to harbor mycobacteria. Conclusion The findings in this study show that both M. tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial strains were prevalent in the study community. Some risk factors were identified. Although the reported predictors may improve screening for mycobacterial diseases, their use requires some precaution. PMID:27213532

  1. Understanding the link between trafficking in persons and HIV and AIDS risk in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kamazima, Switbert R; Ezekiel, Mangi J; Kazaura, Method R; Fimbo, Benett

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude of trafficking in persons in Tanzania is unknown. Consequently, available information on health risks of persons trafficked for different forms of exploitation is extremely scanty. We conducted a baseline study in eight administrative regions of Tanzania using both qualitative and quantitative methods to generate data on the health conditions of trafficked persons to inform trafficking in persons control measures through HIV and AIDS interventions. Study participants included the national, regional and district community development officers, district medical officers, local government leaders, managers or representatives of non-governmental organizations involved in anti-trafficking in persons activities, members of the community and victims. Findings indicated that common forms of labour into which persons are trafficked include domestic services, agriculture (farming), construction, mining/quarrying, fishing, lumbering and manufacturing. Trafficked persons are reported to be exposed to risks like overcrowding, long working hours, psychological problems, physical injuries, impotence, breathing problems and sexually transmitted infections including HIV. It is concluded that the reported occupational hazards in industries where trafficked persons are forced into are not specific to trafficked persons as they affect all labourers. However, the underground nature of the trafficking in persons process increases health problems and risks, including the vulnerability to HIV infection. More tailored research is needed, especially to find means of how to reach out and provide services to this particular vulnerable population, validate labour forms of exploitation into which persons are trafficked to enable the integration or mainstreaming of HIV and AIDS and trafficking in persons at the policy and programmatic levels. In addition, findings would facilitate the understanding of the link between increased risk of IRV and trafficking in persons.

  2. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolated from Dressed Beef Carcasses and Raw Milk in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; John, Julius; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter species are commonly transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated foods such as milk and meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic determinants of resistance of Campylobacter isolated from raw milk and beef carcasses in Tanzania. The antimicrobial resistance genes tested included blaOXA-61 (ampicillin), aph-3-1 (aminoglycoside), tet(O) (tetracycline), and cmeB (multi-drug efflux pump). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 9.5% in beef carcasses and 13.4% in raw milk, respectively. Using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we identified 58.1% of the isolates as Campylobacter jejuni, 30.7% as Campylobacter coli, and 9.7% as other Campylobacter spp. One isolate (1.6%) was positive for both C. jejuni and C. coli specific PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method showed resistance to: ampicillin (63% and 94.1%), ciprofloxacin (9.3% and 11.8%), erythromycin (53.7% and 70.6%), gentamicin (0% and 15.7%), streptomycin (35.2% and 84.3%), and tetracycline (18.5% and 17.7%), respectively. Resistance to azithromycin (42.6%), nalidixic acid (64.8%), and chloramphenicol (13%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (90.2%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. The blaOXA-61 (52.6% and 28.1%), cmeB (26.3% and 31.3%), tet(O) (26.3% and 31.3%), and aph-3-1 (5.3% and 3.0%) were detected in C. coli and C. jejuni. These findings highlight the extent of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter occurring in important foods in Tanzania. The potential risks to consumers emphasize the need for adequate control approaches, including the prudent use of antimicrobials to minimize the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter.

  3. Influence of satellite-derived rainfall patterns on plague occurrence in northeast Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the tropics, rainfall data are seldom accurately recorded, and are often discontinuous in time. In the scope of plague-research in northeast Tanzania, we adapted previous research to reconstruct rainfall patterns at a suitable resolution (1 km), based on time series of NDVI: more accurate satellite imagery was used, in the form of MODIS NDVI, and rainfall data were collected from the TRMM sensors instead of in situ data. First, we established a significant relationship between monthly rainfall and monthly composited MODIS NDVI. The established linear relationship was then used to reconstruct historic precipitation patterns over a mountainous area in northeastern Tanzania. Results We validated the resulting precipitation estimates with in situ rainfall time series of three meteorological stations located in the study area. Taking the region's topography into account, a correlation coefficient of 0.66 was obtained for two of the three meteorological stations. Our results suggest that the adapted strategy can be applied fruitfully to estimate rainfall variability and seasonality, despite the underestimation of overall rainfall rates. Based on this model, rainfall in previous years (1986) is modelled to obtain a dataset with which we can compare plague occurrence in the area. A positive correlation of 82% is obtained between high rainfall rates and plague incidence with a two month lag between rainfall and plague cases. Conclusions We conclude that the obtained results are satisfactory in support of the human plague research in which this study is embedded, and that this approach can be applied in other studies with similar goals. PMID:21144014

  4. Women's perceptions of antenatal, delivery, and postpartum services in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mahiti, Gladys Reuben; Mkoka, Dickson Ally; Kiwara, Angwara Dennis; Mbekenga, Columba Kokusiima; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal health care provision remains a major challenge in developing countries. There is agreement that the provision of quality clinical services is essential if high rates of maternal death are to be reduced. However, despite efforts to improve access to these services, a high number of women in Tanzania do not access them. The aim of this study is to explore women's views about the maternal health services (pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum period) that they received at health facilities in order to identify gaps in service provision that may lead to low-quality maternal care and increased risks associated with maternal morbidity and mortality in rural Tanzania. Design We gathered qualitative data from 15 focus group discussions with women attending a health facility after child birth and transcribed it verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was used for analysis. Results ‘Three categories emerged that reflected women's perceptions of maternal health care services: “mothers perceive that maternal health services are beneficial,” “barriers to accessing maternal health services” such as availability and use of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and the long distances between some villages, and “ambivalence regarding the quality of maternal health services” reflecting that women had both positive and negative perceptions in relation to quality of health care services offered’. Conclusions Mothers perceived that maternal health care services are beneficial during pregnancy and delivery, but their awareness of postpartum complications and the role of medical services during that stage were poor. The study revealed an ambivalence regarding the perceived quality of health care services offered, partly due to shortages of material resources. Barriers to accessing maternal health care services, such as the cost of transport and the use of TBAs, were also shown. These findings call for improvement on the services provided. Improvements

  5. Landform and surface attributes for prediction of rodent burrows in the Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Meliyo, Joel L; Massawe, Boniface H J; Msanya, Balthazar M; Kimaro, Didas N; Hieronimo, Proches; Mulungu, Loth S; Kihupi, Nganga I; Deckers, Jozef A; Gulinck, Hubert; Leirs, Herwig

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies suggest that rodent burrows, a proxy for rodent population are important for predicting plague risk areas. However, studies that link landform, surface attributes and rodent burrows in the Western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania are scanty. Therefore, this study was conducted in plague endemic area of the Western Usambara Mountains in northern, Tanzania, to explore the relationship between rodent burrows, and landform and surface attributes. The study was carried out in three areas corresponding to high (Lokome), medium (Lukozi) and low.(Mwangoi) frequency of reported plague cases. Data were collected from 117, 200 and 170 observation sites for Lokome, Lukozi and Mwangoi, respectively using 100 m x 200 m quadrats. Remote sensing and field surveys were used to collect data on landform and surface attributes. Rodent burrows were surveyed and quantified by counting the number of burrows in 20m x 20m grids demarcated on the main 100m x 200m quadrats. The collected data were analysed in R software using boosted regression trees (BRT) technique. Rodent burrows were found at an elevation of above 1600m in the high and medium plague frequency landscapes. No burrows were found in the low plague frequency landscape situated below 1500m. BRT analysis shows a significant relationship between landform characteristics and rodent burrows in both high and medium plague frequency landscapes. Overall, elevation and hillshade are the most important determinants of rodent burrow distribution in the studied landscapes. It is concluded that in high altitudes, specific landform attributes (hill-shade, slope, elevation) and vegetation cover- favour rodent burrowing. PMID:26867278

  6. Determinants of concurrent sexual partnerships within stable relationships: a qualitative study in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Carie Muntifering; Babalola, Stella; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Mbwambo, Jessie; Likindikoki, Samuel; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective Concurrent sexual partnerships (CP) have been identified as a potential driver in the HIV epidemic in southern Africa, making it essential to understand motivating factors for engagement in CP. We aimed to assess community attitudes and beliefs about relationship factors that influence men and women in stable relationships to engage in CP in Tanzania. Social exchange theory was used for interpreting the data. Design Qualitative study with focus group discussions (FGDs). Setting Semiurban/rural communities in four regions across Tanzania (Dar es Salaam, Shinyanga, Iringa and Mbeya). Participants 120 women aged 17–45 years and 111 men aged 18–49 years from four study areas participated in 32 FGDs. Outcome measures FGD participants were asked the following questions about CP: definitions and types, motivations and justifications for engaging or not engaging, cultural factors, gender and socialisation, and local resources and efforts available for addressing CP. Our analysis focused specifically on beliefs about how relationship factors influence engagement in CP. Results Dissatisfaction with a stable relationship was believed to be a contributing factor for engagement in CP for both men and women. Participants more commonly reported financial dissatisfaction as a contributing factor for women engaging in CP within stable relationships, whereas emotional and sexual dissatisfaction were reported as contributing factors for men and women. Furthermore, participants described how potential outside partners are often evaluated based on what they are able to offer compared with stable partners. Conclusions Efforts to reach men and women in stable relationships with HIV prevention messages must consider the various dimensions of motivation for engaging in CP, including relationship dynamics. PMID:24508848

  7. Predictors of Health Care Seeking Behavior During Pregnancy, Delivery, and the Postnatal Period in Rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anna; Exavery, Amon; Phillips, James F; Tani, Kassimu; Kanté, Almamy M

    2016-08-01

    Objectives Four antenatal visits, delivery in a health facility, and three postnatal visits are the World Health Organization recommendations for women to optimize maternal health outcomes. This study examines maternal compliance with the full recommended maternal health visits in rural Tanzania with the goal of illuminating interventions to reduce inequalities in maternal health. Methods Analysis included 907 women who had given birth within two years preceding a survey of women of reproductive age. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the influence of maternal, household, and community-level characteristics on four alternative classes defining relative compliance with optimal configuration of maternal health care seeking behavior. Results Parity, wealth index, timeliness of ANC initiation, nearest health facility type, religion, and district of residence were significant predictors of maternal health care seeking when adjusted for other factors. Multiparous women compared to primiparous were less likely to seek care at the high level [RRR 0.16, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.06-0.46], at the mid-level (RRR 0.22, 95 % CI 0.09-0.58), and the mid-low level (RRR 0.27, 95 % CI 0.09-0.80). Women in the highest wealth index compared to those in the poorest group were almost three times more likely to seek the highest two levels of care versus the lowest level (high RRR 2.92, 95 % CI 1.27-6.71, mid-level RRR 2.71, 95 % 1.31-5.62). Conclusion Results suggest that efforts to improve the overall impact of services on the continuum of care in rural Tanzania would derive particular benefit from strategies that improve maternal health coverage among multiparous and low socioeconomic status women.

  8. The make or buy debate: Considering the limitations of domestic production in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to ensure their population’s regular access to essential medicines, many least developed countries and developing countries are faced with the policy question of whether to import or manufacture drugs locally, in particular for life-saving antiretroviral medicines for HIV/AIDS patients. In order for domestic manufacturing to be viable and cost-effective, the local industry must be able to compete with international suppliers of medicines by producing sufficiently low cost ARVs. Methods This paper considers the ‘make-or-buy’ dilemma by using Tanzania as a case study. Key informant interviews, event-driven observation, and purposive sampling of documents were used to evaluate the case study. The case study focused on Tanzania’s imitation technology transfer agreement to locally manufacture a first-line ARV (3TC + d4T + NVP), reverse engineering the ARV. Results Tanzania is limited by weak political support for the use of TRIPS flexibilities, limited production capacity for ARVs and limited competitiveness in both domestic and regional markets. The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare encourages the use of flexibilities while others push for increased IP protection. Insufficient production capacity and lack of access to donor-financed tenders make it difficult to obtain economies of scale and provide competitive prices. Conclusions Within the “make-or-buy” context, it was determined that there are significant limitations in domestic manufacturing for developing countries. The case study highlights the difficulty of governments to make use of economies of scale and produce low-cost medicines, attract technology transfer, and utilize the flexibilities of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). The results demonstrate the importance of evaluating barriers to the use of TRIPS flexibilities and long-term planning across sectors in future technology transfer and manufacturing initiatives

  9. The economics of social marketing: the case of mosquito nets in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kikumbih, Nassor; Hanson, Kara; Mills, Anne; Mponda, Hadji; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation of the role of the private sector in expanding the use of key health interventions. At the policy level, this has raised questions about how public sector resources can best be used to encourage the private sector in order to achieve public health impact. Social marketing has increasingly been used to distribute public health products in developing countries. The Kilombero and Ulanga Insecticide-Treated Net Project (KINET) project used a social marketing approach in two districts of Tanzania to stimulate the development of the market for insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) for malaria control. Using evidence from household surveys, focus group discussions and a costing study in the intervention area and a control area, this paper examines two issues: (1) How does social marketing affect the market for ITNs, where this is described in terms of price and coverage levels; and (2) What does the added cost of social marketing "buy" in terms of coverage and equity, compared with an unassisted commercial sector model? It appears that supply improved in both areas, although there was a greater increase in supply in the intervention area. However, the main impact of social marketing on the market for nets was to shift demand in the intervention district, leading to a higher coverage market outcome. While social marketing was more costly per net distributed than the unassisted commercial sector, higher overall levels of coverage were achieved in the social marketing area together with higher coverage of the lowest socioeconomic group, of pregnant women and children under 5 years, and of those living on the periphery of their villages. These findings are interpreted in the context of Tanzania's national plan for scaling up ITNs.

  10. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) about Rabies Prevention and Control: A Community Survey in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Sambo, Maganga; Lembo, Tiziana; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ferguson, Heather M.; Sikana, Lwitiko; Simon, Cleophas; Urassa, Honorati; Hampson, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite being entirely preventable, canine rabies still kills 55,000 people/year in developing countries. Information about local beliefs and practices can identify knowledge gaps that may affect prevention practices and lead to unnecessary deaths. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated knowledge, attitudes and practices related to rabies and its prevention and control amongst a cross-section of households (n = 5,141) in urban and rural areas of central, southern and northern Tanzania. Over 17% of respondents owned domestic dogs (average of 2.3 dogs/household),>95% had heard about rabies, and>80% knew that rabies is transmitted through dog bites. People who (1) had greater education, (2) originated from areas with a history of rabies interventions, (3) had experienced exposure by a suspect rabid animal, (4) were male and (5) owned dogs were more likely to have greater knowledge about the disease. Around 80% of respondents would seek hospital treatment after a suspect bite, but only 5% were aware of the need for prompt wound cleansing after a bite. Although>65% of respondents knew of dog vaccination as a means to control rabies, only 51% vaccinated their dogs. Determinants of dog vaccination included (1) being a male-headed household, (2) presence of children, (3) low economic status, (4) residing in urban areas, (5) owning livestock, (6) originating from areas with rabies interventions and (7) having purchased a dog. The majority of dog-owning respondents were willing to contribute no more than US$0.31 towards veterinary services. Conclusions/Significance We identified important knowledge gaps related to, and factors influencing the prevention and control of rabies in Tanzania. Increasing knowledge regarding wound washing, seeking post-exposure prophylaxis and the need to vaccinate dogs are likely to result in more effective prevention of rabies; however, greater engagement of the veterinary and medical sectors is also needed to ensure the

  11. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined. PMID:27406110

  12. Health policy for sickle cell disease in Africa: experience from Tanzania on interventions to reduce under-five mortality

    PubMed Central

    Makani, Julie; Soka, Deogratias; Rwezaula, Stella; Krag, Marlene; Mghamba, Janneth; Ramaiya, Kaushik; Cox, Sharon E.; Grosse, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Tanzania has made considerable progress towards reducing childhood mortality, achieving a 57% decrease between 1980 and 2011. This epidemiological transition will cause a reduction in the contribution of infectious diseases to childhood mortality and increase in contribution from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Haemoglobinopathies are amongst the most common childhood NCDs, with sickle cell disease (SCD) being the commonest haemoglobinopathy in Africa. In Tanzania, 10 313 children with SCD under 5 years of age (U5) are estimated to die every year, contributing an estimated 7% of overall deaths in U5 children. Key policies that governments in Africa are able to implement would reduce mortality in SCD, focusing on newborn screening and comprehensive SCD care programmes. Such programmes would ensure that interventions such as prevention of infections using penicillin plus prompt diagnosis and treatment of complications are provided to all individuals with SCD. PMID:25365928

  13. Health policy for sickle cell disease in Africa: experience from Tanzania on interventions to reduce under-five mortality.

    PubMed

    Makani, Julie; Soka, Deogratias; Rwezaula, Stella; Krag, Marlene; Mghamba, Janneth; Ramaiya, Kaushik; Cox, Sharon E; Grosse, Scott D

    2015-02-01

    Tanzania has made considerable progress towards reducing childhood mortality, achieving a 57% decrease between 1980 and 2011. This epidemiological transition will cause a reduction in the contribution of infectious diseases to childhood mortality and increase in contribution from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Haemoglobinopathies are amongst the most common childhood NCDs, with sickle cell disease (SCD) being the commonest haemoglobinopathy in Africa. In Tanzania, 10,313 children with SCD under 5 years of age (U5) are estimated to die every year, contributing an estimated 7% of overall deaths in U5 children. Key policies that governments in Africa are able to implement would reduce mortality in SCD, focusing on newborn screening and comprehensive SCD care programmes. Such programmes would ensure that interventions such as prevention of infections using penicillin plus prompt diagnosis and treatment of complications are provided to all individuals with SCD.

  14. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined.

  15. Health policy for sickle cell disease in Africa: experience from Tanzania on interventions to reduce under-five mortality.

    PubMed

    Makani, Julie; Soka, Deogratias; Rwezaula, Stella; Krag, Marlene; Mghamba, Janneth; Ramaiya, Kaushik; Cox, Sharon E; Grosse, Scott D

    2015-02-01

    Tanzania has made considerable progress towards reducing childhood mortality, achieving a 57% decrease between 1980 and 2011. This epidemiological transition will cause a reduction in the contribution of infectious diseases to childhood mortality and increase in contribution from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Haemoglobinopathies are amongst the most common childhood NCDs, with sickle cell disease (SCD) being the commonest haemoglobinopathy in Africa. In Tanzania, 10,313 children with SCD under 5 years of age (U5) are estimated to die every year, contributing an estimated 7% of overall deaths in U5 children. Key policies that governments in Africa are able to implement would reduce mortality in SCD, focusing on newborn screening and comprehensive SCD care programmes. Such programmes would ensure that interventions such as prevention of infections using penicillin plus prompt diagnosis and treatment of complications are provided to all individuals with SCD. PMID:25365928

  16. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) in Tanzania and Zimbabwe: Service Delivery Intensity and Modality and Their Influence on the Age of Clients

    PubMed Central

    Ashengo, Tigistu Adamu; Hatzold, Karin; Mahler, Hally; Rock, Amelia; Kanagat, Natasha; Magalona, Sophia; Curran, Kelly; Christensen, Alice; Castor, Delivette; Mugurungi, Owen; Dhlamini, Roy; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) to 80% of men aged 15–49 within five years could avert 3.4 million new HIV infections in Eastern and Southern Africa by 2025. Since 2009, Tanzania and Zimbabwe have rapidly expanded VMMC services through different delivery (fixed, outreach or mobile) and intensity (routine services, campaign) models. This review describes the modality and intensity of VMMC services and its influence on the number and age of clients. Methods and Findings Program reviews were conducted using data from implementing partners in Tanzania (MCHIP) and Zimbabwe (PSI). Key informant interviews (N = 13 Tanzania; N = 8 Zimbabwe) were conducted; transcripts were analyzed using Nvivo. Routine VMMC service data for May 2009–December 2012 were analyzed and presented in frequency tables. A descriptive analysis and association was performed using the z-ratio for the significance of the difference. Key informants in both Tanzania and Zimbabwe believe VMMC scale-up can be achieved by using a mix of service delivery modality and intensity approaches. In Tanzania, the majority of clients served during campaigns (59%) were aged 10–14 years while the majority during routine service delivery (64%) were above 15 (p<0.0001). In Zimbabwe, significantly more VMMCs were done during campaigns (64%) than during routine service delivery (36%) (p<0.00001); the difference in the age of clients accessing services in campaign versus non-campaign settings was significant for age groups 10–24 (p<0.05), but not for older groups. Conclusions In Tanzania and Zimbabwe, service delivery modalities and intensities affect client profiles in conjunction with other contextual factors such as implementing campaigns during school holidays in Zimbabwe and cultural preference for circumcision at a young age in Tanzania. Formative research needs to be an integral part of VMMC programs to guide the design of service delivery modalities in the face of, or

  17. Estimating the costs of the vaccine supply chain and service delivery for selected districts in Kenya and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mvundura, Mercy; Lorenson, Kristina; Chweya, Amos; Kigadye, Rosemary; Bartholomew, Kathryn; Makame, Mohammed; Lennon, T Patrick; Mwangi, Steven; Kirika, Lydia; Kamau, Peter; Otieno, Abner; Murunga, Peninah; Omurwa, Tom; Dafrossa, Lyimo; Kristensen, Debra

    2015-05-28

    Having data on the costs of the immunization system can provide decision-makers with information to benchmark the costs when evaluating the impact of new technologies or programmatic innovations. This paper estimated the supply chain and immunization service delivery costs and cost per dose in selected districts in Kenya and Tanzania. We also present operational data describing the supply chain and service delivery points (SDPs). To estimate the supply chain costs, we collected resource-use data for the cold chain, distribution system, and health worker time and per diems paid. We also estimated the service delivery costs, which included the time cost of health workers to provide immunization services, and per diems and transport costs for outreach sessions. Data on the annual quantities of vaccines distributed to each facility, and the occurrence and duration of stockouts were collected from stock registers. These data were collected from the national store, 2 regional and 4 district stores, and 12 SDPs in each country for 2012. Cost per dose for the supply chain and immunization service delivery were estimated. The average annual costs per dose at the SDPs were $0.34 (standard deviation (s.d.) $0.18) for Kenya when including only the vaccine supply chain costs, and $1.33 (s.d. $0.82) when including immunization service delivery costs. In Tanzania, these costs were $0.67 (s.d. $0.35) and $2.82 (s.d. $1.64), respectively. Both countries experienced vaccine stockouts in 2012, bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine being more likely to be stocked out in Kenya, and oral poliovirus vaccine in Tanzania. When stockouts happened, they usually lasted for at least one month. Tanzania made investments in 2011 in preparation for planned vaccine introductions, and their supply chain cost per dose is expected to decline with the new vaccine introductions. Immunization service delivery costs are a significant portion of the total costs at the SDPs. PMID:25865467

  18. Estimating the costs of the vaccine supply chain and service delivery for selected districts in Kenya and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mvundura, Mercy; Lorenson, Kristina; Chweya, Amos; Kigadye, Rosemary; Bartholomew, Kathryn; Makame, Mohammed; Lennon, T Patrick; Mwangi, Steven; Kirika, Lydia; Kamau, Peter; Otieno, Abner; Murunga, Peninah; Omurwa, Tom; Dafrossa, Lyimo; Kristensen, Debra

    2015-05-28

    Having data on the costs of the immunization system can provide decision-makers with information to benchmark the costs when evaluating the impact of new technologies or programmatic innovations. This paper estimated the supply chain and immunization service delivery costs and cost per dose in selected districts in Kenya and Tanzania. We also present operational data describing the supply chain and service delivery points (SDPs). To estimate the supply chain costs, we collected resource-use data for the cold chain, distribution system, and health worker time and per diems paid. We also estimated the service delivery costs, which included the time cost of health workers to provide immunization services, and per diems and transport costs for outreach sessions. Data on the annual quantities of vaccines distributed to each facility, and the occurrence and duration of stockouts were collected from stock registers. These data were collected from the national store, 2 regional and 4 district stores, and 12 SDPs in each country for 2012. Cost per dose for the supply chain and immunization service delivery were estimated. The average annual costs per dose at the SDPs were $0.34 (standard deviation (s.d.) $0.18) for Kenya when including only the vaccine supply chain costs, and $1.33 (s.d. $0.82) when including immunization service delivery costs. In Tanzania, these costs were $0.67 (s.d. $0.35) and $2.82 (s.d. $1.64), respectively. Both countries experienced vaccine stockouts in 2012, bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine being more likely to be stocked out in Kenya, and oral poliovirus vaccine in Tanzania. When stockouts happened, they usually lasted for at least one month. Tanzania made investments in 2011 in preparation for planned vaccine introductions, and their supply chain cost per dose is expected to decline with the new vaccine introductions. Immunization service delivery costs are a significant portion of the total costs at the SDPs.

  19. AgriSense-STARS: Advancing Methods of Agricultural Monitoring for Food Security in Smallholder Regions - the Case for Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempewolf, J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Nakalembe, C. L.; Tumbo, S.; Maurice, S.; Mbilinyi, B.; Ntikha, O.; Hansen, M.; Justice, C. J.; Adusei, B.; Kongo, V.

    2015-12-01

    In-season monitoring of crop conditions provides critical information for agricultural policy and decision making and most importantly for food security planning and management. Nationwide agricultural monitoring in countries dominated by smallholder farming systems, generally relies on extensive networks of field data collectors. In Tanzania, extension agents make up this network and report on conditions across the country, approaching a "near-census". Data is collected on paper which is resource and time intensive, as well as prone to errors. Data quality is ambiguous and there is a general lack of clear and functional feedback loops between farmers, extension agents, analysts and decision makers. Moreover, the data are not spatially explicit, limiting the usefulness for analysis and quality of policy outcomes. Despite significant advances in remote sensing and information communication technologies (ICT) for monitoring agriculture, the full potential of these new tools is yet to be realized in Tanzania. Their use is constrained by the lack of resources, skills and infrastructure to access and process these data. The use of ICT technologies for data collection, processing and analysis is equally limited. The AgriSense-STARS project is developing and testing a system for national-scale in-season monitoring of smallholder agriculture using a combination of three main tools, 1) GLAM-East Africa, an automated MODIS satellite image processing system, 2) field data collection using GeoODK and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and 3) the Tanzania Crop Monitor, a collaborative online portal for data management and reporting. These tools are developed and applied in Tanzania through the National Food Security Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives (MAFC) within a statistically representative sampling framework (area frame) that ensures data quality, representability and resource efficiency.

  20. Expanding Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment in Tanzania: Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Structural Influences on Scale-Up

    PubMed Central

    Giattas, Mary Rose; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Jolly, Pauline E.; Martin, Michelle Y.; Usdan, Stuart Lawrence; Kohler, Connie; Lisovicz, Nedra

    2015-01-01

    Tanzania has the highest burden of cervical cancer in East Africa. This study aims to identify perceived barriers and facilitators that influence scale-up of regional and population-level cervical cancer screening and treatment programs in Tanzania. Convenience sampling was used to select participants for this qualitative study among 35 key informants. Twenty-eight stakeholders from public-sector health facilities, academia, government, and nongovernmental organizations completed in-depth interviews, and a seven-member municipal health management team participated in a focus group discussion. The investigation identified themes related to the infrastructure of health services for cervical cancer prevention, service delivery, political will, and sociocultural influences on screening and treatment. Decentralizing service delivery, improving access to screening and treatment, increasing the number of trained health workers, and garnering political will were perceived as key facilitators for enhancing and initiating screening and treatment services. In conclusion, participants perceived that system-level structural factors should be addressed to expand regional and population-level service delivery of screening and treatment. Implications for Practice: Tanzanian women have a high burden of cervical cancer. Understanding the perceived structural factors that may influence screening coverage for cervical cancer and availability of treatment may be beneficial for program scale-up. This study showed that multiple factors contribute to the challenge of cervical cancer screening and treatment in Tanzania. In addition, it highlighted systematic developments aimed at expanding services. This study is important because the themes that emerged from the results may help inform programs that plan to improve screening and treatment in Tanzania and potentially in other areas with high burdens of cervical cancer. PMID:25926351