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Sample records for oleamide suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced

  1. Bitter gourd suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Kobori, Masuko; Nakayama, Hirosuke; Fukushima, Kenji; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Ono, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Tatsunobu; Akimoto, Yukari; Masumoto, Saeko; Yukizaki, Chizuko; Hoshi, Yoshikazu; Deguchi, Tomoaki; Yoshida, Mitsuru

    2008-06-11

    Bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia L.) is a popular tropical vegetable in Asian countries. Previously it was shown that bitter gourd placenta extract suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNFalpha production in RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. Here it is shown that the butanol-soluble fraction of bitter gourd placenta extract strongly suppresses LPS-induced TNFalpha production in RAW 264.7 cells. Gene expression analysis using a fibrous DNA microarray showed that the bitter gourd butanol fraction suppressed expression of various LPS-induced inflammatory genes, such as those for TNF, IL1alpha, IL1beta, G1p2, and Ccl5. The butanol fraction significantly suppressed NFkappaB DNA binding activity and phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. Components in the active fraction from bitter gourd were identified as 1-alpha-linolenoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), 2-alpha-linolenoyl-LPC, 1-lynoleoyl-LPC, and 2-linoleoyl-LPC. Purified 1-alpha-linolenoyl-LPC and 1-linoleoyl-LPC suppressed the LPS-induced TNFalpha production of RAW 264.7 cells at a concentration of 10 microg/mL.

  2. Harpagoside suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression through inhibition of NF-kappa B activation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Tran, Van H; Duke, Rujee K; Tan, Sharon; Chrubasik, Sigrun; Roufogalis, Basil D; Duke, Colin C

    2006-03-08

    Preparations of Harpagophytum procumbens, known as devil's claw, are used as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of pain and osteoarthritis. Pharmacological evaluations have proven the effectiveness of this herbal drug as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent. The present study has investigated the mechanism of action of harpagoside, one of the major components of Harpagophytum procumbens, using human HepG2 hepatocarcinoma and RAW 264.7 macrophage cell lines. Harpagoside inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA levels and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide in HepG2 cells. These inhibitions appeared to correlate with the suppression of NF-kappaB activation by harpagoside, as pre-treating cells with harpagoside blocked the translocation of NF-kappaB into the nuclear compartments and degradation of the inhibitory subunit IkappaB-alpha. Furthermore, harpagoside dose-dependently inhibited LPS-stimulated NF-kappaB promoter activity in a gene reporter assay in RAW 264.7 cells, indicating that harpagoside interfered with the activation of gene transcription. These results suggest that the inhibition of the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide by harpagoside involves suppression of NF-kappaB activation, thereby inhibiting downstream inflammation and subsequent pain events.

  3. Nardosinone Suppresses RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis and Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Alveolar Bone Resorption

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Chenguang; Xiao, Fei; Yuan, Keyong; Hu, XuChen; Lin, Wenzhen; Ma, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoling; Huang, Zhengwei

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that damages the integrity of the tooth-supporting tissues, known as the periodontium, and comprising the gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. In this study, the effects of nardosinone (Nd) on bone were tested in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced alveolar bone loss, and the associated mechanisms were elucidated. Nd effectively suppressed LPS-induced alveolar bone loss and reduced osteoclast (OC) numbers in vivo. Nd suppressed receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated OC differentiation, bone resorption, and F-actin ring formation in a dose-dependent manner. Further investigation revealed that Nd suppressed osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the ERK and JNK signaling pathways, scavenging reactive oxygen species, and suppressing the activation of PLCγ2 that consequently affects the expression and/or activity of the OC-specific transcription factors, c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1). In addition, Nd significantly reduced the expression of OC-specific markers in mouse bone marrow-derived pre-OCs, including c-Fos, cathepsin K (Ctsk), VATPase d2, and Nfatc1. Collectively, these findings suggest that Nd has beneficial effects on bone, and the suppression of OC number implies that the effect is exerted directly on osteoclastogenesis. PMID:28955231

  4. IFN-τ Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Suppressing NF-κB and MAPKs Pathway Activation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haichong; Zhao, Gan; Jiang, Kangfeng; Chen, Xiuying; Rui, Guangze; Qiu, Changwei; Guo, Mengyao; Deng, Ganzhen

    2016-06-01

    IFN-τ, which is a type I interferon with low cytotoxicity, is defined as a pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants. Type I interferons have been used as anti-inflammatory agents, but their side effects limit their clinical application. The present study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of IFN-τ in a lipopolysaccharide-stimulated acute lung injury (ALI) model and in RAW264.7 cells and to confirm the mechanism of action involved. The methods used included histopathology, measuring the lung wet/dry ratio, determining the myeloperoxidase activity, ELISA, qPCR, and western blot. The results revealed that IFN-τ greatly ameliorated the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Further analysis revealed that IFN-τ down-regulated the expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 mRNA and the activity of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways both in a lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI model and in RAW264.7 cells. The results demonstrated that IFN-τ suppressed the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the phosphorylation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Thus, IFN-τ may be an optimal target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  5. Peripheral and central mediators of lipopolysaccharide induced suppression of defensive rage behavior in the cat.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, S; Bhatt, R S; Zalcman, S S; Siegel, A

    2009-11-10

    Based upon recent findings in our laboratory that cytokines microinjected into the medial hypothalamus or periaqueductal gray (PAG) powerfully modulate defensive rage behavior in cat, the present study determined the effects of peripherally released cytokines following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge upon defensive rage. The study involved initial identification of the effects of peripheral administration of LPS upon defensive rage by electrical stimulation from PAG and subsequent determination of the peripheral and central mechanisms governing this process. The results revealed significant elevation in response latencies for defensive rage from 60 to 300 min, post LPS injection, with no detectable signs of sickness behavior present at 60 min. In contrast, head turning behavior elicited by stimulation of adjoining midbrain sites was not affected by LPS administration, suggesting a specificity of the effects of LPS upon defensive rage. Direct administration of LPS into the medial hypothalamus had no effect on defensive rage, suggesting that the effects of LPS were mediated by peripheral cytokines rather than by any direct actions upon hypothalamic neurons. Complete blockade of the suppressive effects of LPS by peripheral pretreatment with an Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) antibody but not with an anti- interleukin-1 (IL-1) antibody demonstrated that the effects of LPS were mediated through TNF-alpha rather than through an IL-1 mechanism. A determination of the central mechanisms governing LPS suppression revealed that pretreatment of the medial hypothalamus with PGE(2) or 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists each completely blocked the suppressive effects of LPS, while microinjections of a TNF-alpha antibody into the medial hypothalamus were ineffective. Microinjections of -Iodo-N-[2-[4-(methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl) benzamide monohydrochloride (p-MPPI) into lateral hypothalamus (to test for anatomical specificity) had no effect upon

  6. Prenylated Flavonoids from Cudrania tricuspidata Suppress Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammatory Activities in BV2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Cheol; Yoon, Chi-Su; Quang, Tran Hong; Ko, Wonmin; Kim, Jong-Su; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Youn-Chul

    2016-01-01

    In Korea and China, Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau (Moraceae) is an important traditional medicinal plant used to treat lumbago, hemoptysis, and contusions. The C. tricuspidata methanol extract suppressed both production of NO and PGE2 in BV2 microglial cells. Cudraflavanone D (1), isolated from this extract, remarkably suppressed the protein expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, and decreased the levels of NO and PGE2 in BV2 microglial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Cudraflavanone D (1) also decreased IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-1β production, blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB heterodimers (p50 and p65) by interrupting the degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitor of IκB-α, and inhibited NF-κB binding. In addition, cudraflavanone D (1) suppressed the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK pathways. This study indicated that cudraflavanone D (1) can be a potential drug candidate for the cure of neuroinflammation. PMID:26907256

  7. Prunella vulgaris extract and rosmarinic acid suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced alteration in human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zdarilová, A; Svobodová, A; Simánek, V; Ulrichová, J

    2009-04-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic disease associated with inflammation of the tooth-supporting tissues. The inflammation is initiated by a group of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. These express a number of irritating factors including a lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which plays a key role in periodontal disease development. Plant extracts with anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties have been shown to inhibit bacterial plaque formation and thus prevent chronic gingivitis. In this study we tested effects of Prunella vulgaris L. extract (PVE; 5, 10, 25microg/ml) and its component rosmarinic acid (RA; 1microg/ml) on LPS-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in human gingival fibroblasts. PVE and RA reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, intracellular glutathione (GSH) depletion as well as lipid peroxidation in LPS-treated cells. Treatment with PVE and RA also inhibited LPS-induced up-regulation of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and suppressed expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The results indicate that PVE and RA are able to suppress LPS-induced biological changes in gingival fibroblasts. The effects of PVE and RA are presumably linked to their anti-inflammatory activities and thus use of PVE and RA may be relevant in modulating the inflammation process, including periodontal disease.

  8. Papaverine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation by suppressing NF-κB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yalong; Mu, Yalin; Wang, Kun; Xu, Ke; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Yu; Luo, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of papaverine (PAP) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation and its possible mechanisms. Materials and methods BV2 microglial cells were first pretreated with PAP (0, 0.4, 2, 10, and 50 μg/mL) and then received LPS stimulation. Transcription and production of proinflammatory factors (IL1β, TNFα, iNOS, and COX-2) were used to evaluate microglial activation. The transcriptional changes undergone by M1/M2a/M2b markers were used to evaluate phenotype transformation of BV2 cells. Immunofluorescent staining and Western blot were used to detect the location and expression of P65 and p-IKK in the presence or absence of PAP pretreatment. Results Pretreatment with PAP significantly inhibited the expression of IL1β and TNFα, and suppressed the transcription of M1/M2b markers Il1rn, Socs3, Nos2 and Ptgs2, but upregulated the transcription of M2a markers (Arg1 and Mrc1) in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, PAP pretreatment significantly decreased the expression of p-IKK and inhibited the nuclear translocation of P65 after LPS stimulation. Conclusion PAP not only suppressed the LPS-induced microglial activity by inhibiting transcription/production of proinflammatory factors, but also promoted the transformation of activated BV2 cells from cytotoxic phenotypes (M1/M2b) to a neuroprotective phenotype (M2a). These effects were probably mediated by NF-κB signaling pathway. Thus, it would be a promising candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27013863

  9. Paeonol suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokines in macrophage cells and protects mice from lethal endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Liu, Dianfeng; Soromou, Lanan Wassy; Sun, Jingjing; Zhong, Weiting; Guo, Weixiao; Huo, Meixia; Li, Hongyu; Guan, Shuang; Chen, Zhenwen; Feng, Haihua

    2014-06-01

    Paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone) is the main phenolic compound of the radix of Paeonia suffruticosa which has been used as traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, we primarily investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of paeonol in RAW macrophage cells; and based on these effects, we assessed the protective effects of paeonol on lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia in mice. The in vitro study showed that paeonol regulated the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 via inactivation of IκBα, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK. In mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are significantly regulated, and thus the survival rates of lipolysaccharide-challenged mice are improved by paeonol (150, 200, or 250 mg/kg). Therefore, paeonol has a beneficial activity against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cell and mouse models.

  10. Cepharanthine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mice mastitis by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ershun, Zhou; Yunhe, Fu; Zhengkai, Wei; Yongguo, Cao; Naisheng, Zhang; Zhengtao, Yang

    2014-04-01

    Cepharanthine (CEP), a biscoclaurine alkaloid isolated from Stephania cepharantha Hayata, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of CEP on a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CEP on LPS-induced mouse mastitis. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by inoculation of LPS through the canals of the mammary gland. CEP was administered intraperitoneally at 1 h before and 12 h after induction of LPS. The results show that CEP significantly attenuates the infiltration of neutrophils, suppresses myeloperoxidase activity, and reduces the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Furthermore, CEP inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor IκBα. All the results suggest that CEP exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Accordingly, CEP might be a potential therapeutic agent for mastitis.

  11. Cross-linked bromelain inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production involving cellular signaling suppression in rats.

    PubMed

    Hou, Rolis Chien-Wei; Chen, Yuh-Shuen; Huang, Jing-Rong; Jeng, Kee-Ching G

    2006-03-22

    Bromelain has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. It has been cross-linked with organic acids and polysaccharides by gamma irradiation. The cross-linked (CL)-bromelain preparation resisted an acidic environment of pH 3 for 2 h and preserved 80% of its enzyme activity. Pretreatment of rats with CL-bromelain intragastrically for 7 days significantly reduced serum cytokine production induced by injected i.p. with 2.5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Bromelain significantly reduced serum glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase induced by LPS. The anti-inflammatory effect of CL-bromelain was correlated with reduced LPS-induced NF-kappaB activity and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA expression in rat livers. In addition, CL-bromelain dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced COX-2 mRNA and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in BV-2 microglial cells. CL-Bromelain also suppressed the LPS-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory effects of the CL-bromelain preparation in vivo and in vitro suggest its therapeutic potentials.

  12. Apigenin attenuates heart injury in lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemic model by suppressing sphingosine kinase 1/sphingosine 1-phosphate signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianzhu; Yan, Tianhua; Du, Juan; Wang, Shumin; Yang, Huilin

    2015-05-25

    Sepsis is a cluster of heterogeneous syndromes associated with progressive endotoxemic developments, ultimately leading to damage of multiple organs, including the heart. This study is to investigate the effects of apigenin on heart injury in lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemic rat model. Normal Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, LPS group (15 mg/kg), LPS plus apigenin groups with different apigenin doses (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg). Serum levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were measured after the rats were sacrificed. SphK1/S1P signaling pathway proteins, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, Bax and Bcl-2 in heart were measured by Western blot. In vitro, we evaluated the protective effect of apigenin on rat embryonic heart-derived myogenic cell line H9c2 induced by LPS. Apigenin decreased serum levels of CK-MB, LDH, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β. SphK1/S1P signaling pathway proteins, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, Bax in heart were found inhibited and Bcl-2 increased in the apigenin groups in vivo. In addition, apigenin inhibited intracellular calcium, the MAPK pathway and SphK1/S1P signaling pathway in vitro. Apigenin exerts pronounced cardioprotection in rats subjected to LPS likely through suppressing myocardial apoptosis and inflammation by inhibiting the SphK1/S1P signaling pathway.

  13. DHA suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jin, Ji-Young; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2014-04-14

    Several reports have indicated that dietary intake of DHA is associated with lower prevalence of periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DHA on the production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in inflammatory periodontal disease, and its mechanisms of action. LPS was isolated from lyophilised P. intermedia ATCC 25,611 cells using the standard hot-phenol-water protocol. Culture supernatants were collected and assayed for NO, IL-1β and IL-6. Real-time PCR analysis was carried out to detect the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA. Immunoblot analysis was carried out to quantify the expression of iNOS and HO-1 protein and concentrations of signalling proteins. DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits were determined using an ELISA-based assay kit. DHA significantly attenuated the production of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 at both gene transcription and translation levels in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. DHA induced the expression of HO-1 in cells treated with P. intermedia LPS. Selective inhibition of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin IX significantly mitigated the inhibitory effects of DHA on LPS-induced NO production. DHA significantly attenuated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase induced by LPS. In addition, DHA suppressed the transcriptional activity of NF-κB by regulating the nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB p50 subunit and inhibited the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. Further in vivo studies are needed to better evaluate the potential of DHA in humans as a therapeutic agent to treat periodontal disease.

  14. Echinocystic acid isolated from Eclipta prostrata suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-6 expressions via NF-κB inactivation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Suran; Shin, Ji-Sun; Jung, Ji Yun; Cho, Young-Wuk; Kim, Su Jung; Jang, Dae Sik; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to identify the compounds in Eclipta prostrata responsible for its anti-inflammatory effects using an in vitro bioassay. Three triterpenoids, eclalbasaponin I, eclalbasaponin II, and echinocystic acid, were isolated from an EtOAc fraction of the 70 % EtOH extract of E. prostrata by activity-guided fractionation based on the inhibition of nitric oxide release from lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Of these three triterpenoids, echinocystic acid inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6. Consistent with these observations, echinocystic acid concentration-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase expression at the protein level and inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 expression at the mRNA level, and inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS promoter binding activity. In addition, echinocystic acid suppressed the lipopolysaccharide-induced transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-κB by blocking the nuclear translocation of p65. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Chitosan oligosaccharides suppress production of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-induced N9 murine microglial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wei, Peng; Ma, Pan; Xu, Qing-Song; Bai, Qun-Hua; Gu, Jian-Guo; Xi, Hao; Du, Yu-Guang; Yu, Chao

    2012-08-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) have been reported to exert many biological activities, such as antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we examined the effect of COS on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS induced N9 microglial cells. Pretreatment with COS (50~200 μg/ml) could markedly inhibit NO production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in activated microglial cells. Signal transduction studies showed that COS remarkably inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2. COS pretreatment could also inhibit the activation of both nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). In conclusion, our results suggest that COS could suppress the production of NO in LPS-induced N9 microglial cells, mediated by p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways.

  16. Antrodia camphorata suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation in transgenic mice evaluated by bioluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Hseu, You-Cheng; Huang, Hui-Chi; Hsiang, Chien-Yun

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier study, we found that Antrodia camphorata inhibited the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 by blocking nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages. This study was aimed at evaluating the inhibitory effects of the fermented culture broth of A. camphorata in terms of LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation in transgenic mice by using a non-invasive, real-time NF-kappaB bioluminescence imaging technique. Transgenic mice carrying the luciferase gene under the control of NF-kappaB were given A. camphorata (570 mg/kg, p.o.) for three consecutive days and then injected with LPS (4 mg/kg, i.p.). In vivo imaging showed that treatment with LPS increased the luminescent signal, whereas A. camphorata suppressed the LPS-induced inflammatory response significantly. Ex vivo imaging showed that A. camphorata suppressed LPS-induced NF-kappaB activity in the small intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and kidney. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that A. camphorata suppressed production of the LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and NF-kappaB p65 subunit in these organs. Furthermore, A. camphorata attenuated the productions of LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in serum from transgenic mice. We report the first confirmation of the anti-inflammatory action in vivo of this potentially beneficial mushroom.

  17. Methyl p-Hydroxycinnamate Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses through Akt Phosphorylation in RAW264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Van Anh; Lee, Jae-Won; Shin, Seung-Yeon; Kwon, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hee Jae; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Chun, Wanjoo

    2014-01-01

    Derivatives of caffeic acid have been reported to possess diverse pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and neuroprotective effects. However, the biological activity of methyl p-hydroxycinnamate, an ester derivative of caffeic acid, has not been clearly demonstrated. This study aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of methyl p-hydroxycinnamate in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Methyl p-hydroxycinnamate significantly inhibited LPS-induced excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2 and the protein expression of iNOS and COX-2. Methyl p-hydroxycinnamate also suppressed LPS-induced overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α. In addition, methyl p-hydroxycinnamate significantly suppressed LPS-induced degradation of IκB, which retains NF-κB in the cytoplasm, consequently inhibiting the transcription of pro-inflammatory genes by NF-κB in the nucleus. Methyl p-hydroxycinnamate exhibited significantly increased Akt phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, inhibition of Akt signaling pathway with wortmaninn abolished methyl p-hydroxycinnamate-induced Akt phosphorylation. Taken together, the present study clearly demonstrates that methyl p-hydroxycinnamate exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through the activation of Akt signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. PMID:24596616

  18. Haloperidol Suppresses NF-kappaB to Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Response in RAW 264 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Ohta, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Atsuhiro; Horiguchi, Yu; Koide, Moe; Fujino, Yuji

    2016-02-04

    BACKGROUND Haloperidol, a tranquilizing agent, is administered both to treat symptoms of psychotic disorders and to sedate agitated and delirious patients. Notably, haloperidol has been suggested to inhibit the immune response through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that the sedative modulates the immune response via NF-κB. MATERIAL AND METHODS Using flow cytometry, we analyzed the effects of haloperidol on expression CD80 and CD86 in RAW 264 cells and in primary macrophages derived from bone marrow. Secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, NF-κB activation was evaluated using a reporter assay based on secretory embryonic alkaline phosphatase. Finally, synthetic antagonists were used to identify the dopamine receptor that mediates the effects of haloperidol. RESULTS Haloperidol inhibited NF-κB activation, and thereby suppressed expression of CD80, as well as secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 p40. CD80 and IL-6 levels were similarly attenuated by a D2-like receptor antagonist, but not by a D1-like receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS The data strongly suggest that haloperidol inhibits the immune response by suppressing NF-kB signaling via the dopamine D2 receptor.

  19. Inhibition of sphingosine kinase prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm birth and suppresses proinflammatory responses in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Vibhuti; Ashby, Charles R; Olgun, Nicole S; Sundaram, Sruthi; Salami, Oluwabukola; Munnangi, Swapna; Pekson, Ryan; Mahajan, Prathamesh; Reznik, Sandra E

    2015-03-01

    Premature delivery occurs in 12% of all births, and accounts for nearly half of long-term neurological morbidity, and 60% to 80% of perinatal mortality. Despite advances in obstetrics and neonatology, the rate of premature delivery has increased approximately 12% since 1990. The single most common cause of spontaneous preterm birth is infection. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated the role of endothelin-1 as both a constrictor of uterine myometrial smooth muscle and a proinflammatory mediator. Endothelin-1 activates the phospholipase C pathway, leading to activation of protein kinase C and, in turn, sphingosine kinase (SphK). The inhibition of SphK has been recently shown to control the proinflammatory response associated with sepsis. We show herein, for the first time, that SphK inhibition prevents inflammation-associated preterm birth in a murine model. Rescue of pups from premature abortion with an SphK inhibitor occurs by suppression of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α, Il-1β, and Il-6 and attenuation of polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells into the placental labyrinth. Moreover, we postulate that inhibition of SphK leads to suppression of endothelin-converting enzyme-1 expression, indicating the presence of an endothelin-converting enzyme 1/endothelin 1-SphK positive feedback loop. This work introduces a novel approach for the control of infection-triggered preterm labor, a condition for which there is no effective treatment.

  20. Robust suppression of cardiac energy catabolism with marked accumulation of energy substrates during lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiac dysfunction in mice.

    PubMed

    Umbarawan, Yogi; Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A A; Obinata, Hideru; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Sunaga, Hiroaki; Matsui, Hiroki; Hishiki, Takako; Matsuura, Tomomi; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Obokata, Masaru; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Haque, Anwarul; Kunimoto, Fumio; Tsushima, Yoshito; Suematsu, Makoto; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Iso, Tatsuya

    2017-09-20

    Myocardial contractile dysfunction in sepsis has been attributed mainly to increased inflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance, and impaired oxidative phosphorylation of fatty acids (FAs). However, precise molecular mechanisms underlying the cardiac dysfunction in sepsis remain to be determined. We previously reported major shift in myocardial energy substrates from FAs to glucose, and increased hepatic ketogenesis in mice lacking fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) and FABP5 (DKO). We sought to determine whether a shift of energy substrates from FAs to glucose and increased availability of ketone bodies are beneficial or detrimental to cardiac function under the septic condition. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected into wild-type (WT) and DKO mice. Twelve hours after injection, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and serum and hearts were collected for further analyses. Cardiac contractile function was more deteriorated by LPS injection in DKO mice than WT mice despite comparable changes in pro-inflammatory cytokine production. LPS injection reduced myocardial uptake of FA tracer by 30% in both types of mice, while uptake of the glucose tracer did not significantly change in either group of mice in sepsis. Storage of glycogen and triacylglycerol in hearts was remarkably increased by LPS injection in both mice. Metabolome analysis revealed that LPS-induced suppression of pool size in the TCA cycle was more enhanced in DKO hearts. A tracing study with (13)C6-glucose further revealed that LPS injection substantially reduced glucose-derived metabolites in the TCA cycle and related amino acids in DKO hearts. Consistent with these findings, glucose oxidation in vitro was similarly and markedly reduced in both mice. Serum concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate and cardiac expression of genes associated with ketolysis were reduced in septic mice. Our study demonstrated that LPS-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction is

  1. Baicalin Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Inflammation in Chicken by Suppressing TLR4-Mediated NF-κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ping; Wang, Tong; Li, Wei; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Wang, He; Sun, Xiaoqi; Yang, Yuqi; Li, Jiarui; Xiao, Tianshi; Zhang, Xiuying

    2017-01-01

    As a kind of potent stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has the ability to cause cell damage by activating toll-like receptor(TLR)4, then nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) translocates into the nucleus and changes the expression of related inflammatory genes. Baicalin is extracted from Radix Scutellariae, which possesses anti-inflammation, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. However, the effects of it on LPS-induced liver inflammation have not been fully elucidated. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Baicalin on the LPS-induced liver inflammation and its underlying molecular mechanisms in chicken. The results of histopathological changes, serum biochemical analysis, NO levels and myeloperoxidase activity showed that Baicalin pretreatment ameliorated LPS-induced liver inflammation. ELISA and qPCR assays showed that Baicalin dose-dependently suppressed the production of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were significantly decreased by Baicalin. TLR4 is an important sensor in LPS infection. Molecular studies showed that the expression of TLR4 was inhibited by Baicalin pretreatment. In addition, Baicalin pretreatment inhibited NF-kB signaling pathway activation. All results demonstrated the protective effects of Baicalin pretreatment against LPS-induced liver inflammation in chicken via negative regulation of inflammatory mediators through the down-regulation of TLR4 expression and the inhibition of NF-kB activation.

  2. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in rats via suppressing MAPK mediated inflammatory responses and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinglou; Xu, Jun; Li, Jingjing; Du, Lifen; Chen, Tao; Liu, Ping; Peng, Sisi; Wang, Mingwei; Song, Hongping

    2015-05-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is an extremely popular beverage worldwide. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is one of the major catechins isolated from green tea and contributes to its beneficial therapeutic functions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. However, the effect of EGCG on mastitis is not yet known. This study was to investigate the protective potential of EGCG against mastitis in rats. The rat mastitis model was induced by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the duct of mammary gland. The mammary gland was collected after the experimental period. The levels of mammary oxidative stress and inflammatory responses were assessed by measuring the local activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of inflammatory cytokines. The mammary expressions of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor κB-p65 (NFκB-p65) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were evaluated by western blot analysis. It was found that EGCG obviously normalized LPS-induced low activities of antioxidant enzymes as well as decreased the high levels of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, EGCG inhibited the mammary over-expression of MAPKs, NFκB-p65 and HIF-1α. These results indicated that EGCG was able to attenuate LPS-induced mastitis in rats by suppressing MAPK related oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  3. Berberine hydrochloride attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced endometritis in mice by suppressing activation of NF-κB signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kaiqiang; Lv, Xiaopei; Li, Weishi; Wang, Yu; Li, Huatao; Tian, Wenru; Cao, Rongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Endometritis is a common disease in animal production and influences breeding all over the world. Berberine is one of the main alkaloids isolated from Rhizoma coptidis. Previous reports showed that berberine has anti-inflammatory potential. However, there have been a limited number of published reports on the anti-inflammatory effect of berberine hydrochloride on LPS-induced endometritis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of berberine hydrochloride on LPS-induced mouse endometritis. Berberine hydrochloride was administered intraperitoneally at 1h before and 12h after LPS induction. Then, a biopsy was performed, and uterine myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were determined. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels in the uterus homogenate were measured by ELISA. The extent of IκB-α and P65 phosphorylation was detected by Western blot. The results showed that berberine hydrochloride significantly attenuated neutrophil infiltration, suppressed myeloperoxidase activity and decreased NO, TNF-αand IL-1βproduction. Furthermore, berberine hydrochloride inhibited the phosphorylation of the NF-κB p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor, IκBα. These findings suggest that berberine hydrochloride exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced mouse endometritis and might be a potential therapeutic agent for endometritis.

  4. A potential suppressive effect of natural antisense IL-1β RNA on lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-1β expression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jiawei; Wu, Xiurong; Hong, Mao; Tobias, Peter; Han, Jiahuai

    2013-01-01

    Although more than half of genomic loci are believed to have antisense transcription, whether antisense transcription is involved in cytokine expression has not been studied. Here we show that some loci of innate immunity related genes do have antisense transcripts. We investigated the effect of several antisense RNAs, including anti-4-1BBL, anti-p100 and anti-IL-1β, on their cognate sense gene’s expression in macrophages. We found that overexpression of antisense IL-1β transcript suppressed IL-1β expression. Anti-IL-1β is complementary to the sequence in the 5′ upstream region of the IL-1β promoter. Its mediated inhibition of IL-1β production occurred at the transcriptional level. Anti-IL-1β did not alter the methylation status of the IL-1β promoter. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that the anti-IL-1β transcript can change the chromatin structure of the IL-1β promoter by decreasing H3K4 trimethylation on the promoter, which is at least part of the mechanism underlying the reduced binding of RNA polymerase II to the IL-1β promoter upon anti-IL-1β expression. Our data suggest that some antisense-transcripts of innate immunity related genes play a role by regulating cytokine expression. PMID:23677478

  5. Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Cyanidins in Black Raspberry as Candidates for Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jo, Young-Hee; Park, Hyun-Chang; Choi, Seulgi; Kim, Sugyeong; Bao, Cheng; Kim, Hyung Woo; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Lee, Hong Jin; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

    2015-06-10

    The extracts produced by multisolvent extraction and subfractionation with preparative liquid chromatography of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) cultivated in Gochang, South Korea, were tested for their anti-inflammatory effects. The metabolomic profiling and analysis by orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OLPS-DA) suggested that cyanidin, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R) were key components for the anti-inflammatory responses in the most active fraction BF3-1, where they were present at 0.44, 1.26, and 0.56 μg/mg of BF3-1, respectively. Both BF3-1 and mixture of these cyanidins at the same ratio reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced protein level of iNOS expression and suppressed mRNA and protein expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β through inhibiting the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and STAT3 in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Overall, the results suggested that co-administration of cyanidin, C3G, and C3R is more effective than that of cyanidin alone and that the coexistence of these anthocyanin components in black raspberry plays a vital role in regulating LPS-induced inflammation even at submicromolar concentrations, making it possible to explain the health beneficial activity of its extracts.

  6. Trametinib, a novel MEK kinase inhibitor, suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production and endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Du, Shi-lin; Yuan, Xue; Zhan, Sun; Tang, Luo-jia; Tong, Chao-yang

    2015-03-13

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the most prominent pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), activates macrophages, causing release of toxic cytokines (i.e. tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α) that may provoke inflammation and endotoxin shock. Here, we tested the potential role of trametinib, a novel and highly potent MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor, against LPS-induced TNF-α response in monocytes, and analyzed the underlying mechanisms. We showed that trametinib, at nM concentrations, dramatically inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α mRNA expression and protein secretion in transformed (RAW 264.7 cells) and primary murine macrophages. In ex-vivo cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), this MEK inhibitor similarly suppressed TNF-α production by LPS. For the mechanism study, we found that trametinib blocked LPS-induced MEK-ERK activation in above monocytes, which accounted for the defective TNF-α response. Macrophages or PBMCs treated with a traditional MEK inhibitor PD98059 or infected with MEK1/2-shRNA lentivirus exhibited a similar defect as trametinib, and nullified the activity of trametinib. On the other hand, introducing a constitutively-active (CA) ERK1 restored TNF-α production by LPS in the presence of trametinib. In vivo, mice administrated with trametinib produced low levels of TNF-α after LPS stimulation, and these mice were protected from LPS-induced endotoxin shock. Together, these results show that trametinib inhibits LPS-induced TNF-α expression and endotoxin shock probably through blocking MEK-ERK signaling.

  7. Enterococcus faecalis lipoteichoic acid suppresses Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-8 expression in human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Im, Jintaek; Baik, Jung Eun; Kim, Kyoung Whun; Kang, Seok-Seong; Jeon, Jun Ho; Park, Ok-Jin; Kim, Hyun Young; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-08-01

    Periodontitis is caused by multi-bacterial infection and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Enterococcus faecalis are closely associated with inflammatory periodontal diseases. Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa.LPS) and lipoteichoic acid of E. faecalis (Ef.LTA) are considered to be major virulence factors evoking inflammatory responses, their combinatorial effect on the induction of chemokines has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the interaction between Aa.LPS and Ef.LTA on IL-8 expression in human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. Aa.LPS, but not Ef.LTA, substantially induced IL-8 expression at the protein and mRNA levels. Interestingly, Ef.LTA suppressed Aa.LPS-induced IL-8 expression without affecting the binding of Aa.LPS to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Ef.LTA reduced Aa.LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, including ERK, JNK and p38 kinase. Furthermore, Ef.LTA inhibited the Aa.LPS-induced transcriptional activities of the activating protein 1, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and nuclear factor-kappa B transcription factors, all of which are known to regulate IL-8 gene expression. Ef.LTA augmented the expression of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-M (IRAK-M), a negative regulator of TLR intracellular signaling pathways, in the presence of Aa.LPS at both the mRNA and protein levels. Small interfering RNA silencing IRAK-M reversed the attenuation of Aa.LPS-induced IL-8 expression by Ef.LTA. Collectively, these results suggest that Ef.LTA down-regulates Aa.LPS-induced IL-8 expression in human PDL cells through up-regulation of the negative regulator IRAK-M.

  8. Propionate Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mastitis in Mice by Restoring Blood-Milk Barrier Disruption and Suppressing Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Wei, Zhengkai; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yanan; Yang, Zhengtao; Fu, Yunhe

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary glands, is a major disease affecting dairy animal worldwide. Propionate is one of the main short-chain fatty acid that can exert multiple effects on the inflammatory process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of sodium propionate against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis model in mice. The data mainly confirm that inflammation and blood-milk barrier breakdown contribute to progression of the disease in this model. In mice with LPS, sodium propionate attenuates the LPS-induced histopathological changes, inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production, myeloperoxidase activity in mammary tissues. Given their importance in the blood-milk barrier, tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-3 are further investigated. Our results show that sodium propionate strikingly increases the expressions of occludin and claudin-3 and reduces the blood-milk barrier permeability in this model. Furthermore, in LPS-stimulated mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs), LPS increased the expressions of phosphorylated (p)-p65, p-IκB proteins, which is attenuated by sodium propionate. Finally, we examine the possibility that propionate acts as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, the results show that both sodium propionate and trichostatin A increase the level of histone H3 acetylation and inhibit the increased production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated mMECs. These data suggest that sodium propionate protects against LPS-induced mastitis mainly by restoring blood-milk barrier disruption and suppressing inflammation via NF-κB signaling pathway and HDAC inhibition.

  9. Enhanced radiosensitization of p53 mutant cells by oleamide

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Chung, Da Yeon; Lee, Su-Jae; Ja Jhon, Gil; Lee, Yun-Sil . E-mail: yslee@kcch.re.kr

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: Effect of oleamide, an endogenous fatty-acid primary amide, on tumor cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) has never before been explored. Methods and Materials: NCI H460, human lung cancer cells, and human astrocytoma cell lines, U87 and U251, were used. The cytotoxicity of oleamide alone or in combination with IR was determined by clonogenic survival assay, and induction of apoptosis was estimated by FACS analysis. Protein expressions were confirmed by Western blotting, and immunofluorescence analysis of Bax by use of confocal microscopy was also performed. The combined effect of IR and oleamide to suppress tumor growth was studied by use of xenografts in the thighs of nude mice. Results: Oleamide in combination with IR had a synergistic effect that decreased clonogenic survival of lung-carcinoma cell lines and also sensitized xenografts in nude mice. Enhanced induction of apoptosis of the cells by the combined treatment was mediated by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which resulted in the activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 accompanied by cytochrome c release and Bid cleavage. The synergistic effects of the combined treatment were more enhanced in p53 mutant cells than in p53 wild-type cells. In p53 wild-type cells, both oleamide and radiation induced Bax translocation to mitochondria. On the other hand, in p53 mutant cells, radiation alone slightly induced Bax translocation to mitochondria, whereas oleamide induced a larger translocation. Conclusions: Oleamide may exhibit synergistic radiosensitization in p53 mutant cells through p53-independent Bax translocation to mitochondria.

  10. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and interleukin-1β in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2015-10-05

    This study was performed to analyze the effect of carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3) in alleviating the production of proinflammatory mediators in macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen associated with periodontal disease, and its possible mechanisms of action. LPS was isolated using the hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were assayed for nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR, and protein expression by immunoblotting. DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits were determined using an ELISA-based kit. CORM-3 suppressed the production of inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO and IL-1β at both gene transcription and translation levels in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. CORM-3 enhanced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cells stimulated with P. intermedia LPS, and inhibition of HO-1 activity by SnPP notably reversed the suppressive effect of CORM-3 on LPS-induced production of NO. LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 and JNK was not affected by CORM-3. CORM-3 did not influence P. intermedia LPS-induced degradation of IκB-α. Instead, nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits was blocked by CORM-3 in LPS-treated cells. In addition, CORM-3 reduced LPS-induced p65 and p50 binding to DNA. Besides, CORM-3 significantly suppressed P. intermedia LPS-induced phosphorylation of STAT1. Overall, this study indicates that CORM-3 suppresses the production of NO and IL-1β in P. intermedia LPS-activated murine macrophages via HO-1 induction and inhibition of NF-κB and STAT1 pathways. The modulation of host inflammatory response by CORM-3 would be an attractive therapeutic approach to attenuate the progression of periodontal disease.

  11. Pyranocoumarins isolated from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in murine macrophages through inhibition of NF-κB and STAT3 activation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng-Jiu; Jin, Hong; Zhang, Jun-Yan; Wang, Guang-Fa; Li, Jing-Rong; Zhu, Zheng-Guang; Tian, Yuan-Xin; Wu, Shao-Yu; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Jia-Jie; Wu, Shu-Guang

    2012-06-01

    Praeruptorin C, D, and E (PC, PD, and PE) are three pyranocoumarins isolated from the dried root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn of Umbelliferae. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Pyranocoumarins significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The mRNA and protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase, IL-6, and TNF-α were also suppressed by these compounds. Both PD and PE exhibited greater anti-inflammatory activities than PC. Further study showed that pyranocoumarins suppressed the cytoplasmic loss of inhibitor κB-α protein and inhibited the translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus. In addition, pyranocoumarins suppressed LPS-induced STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation. Taken together, the results suggest that pyranocoumarins may exert anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages through the inhibition of NF-κB and STAT3 activation.

  12. Zinc Carnosine Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Mediators by Suppressing NF-κb Activation in Raw 264.7 Macrophages, Independent of the MAPKs Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Theng Choon; Chan, Kok Meng; Sharif, Razinah

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway in the anti-inflammatory effects of zinc carnosine (ZnC) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Cells were pretreated with ZnC (0-100 μM) for 2 h prior to the addition of LPS (1 μg/ml). Following 24 h of treatment, ZnC was found not to be cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 cells up to the concentration of 100 μM. Our current findings showed that ZnC did not protect RAW 264.7 cells from LPS-induced "respiratory burst". Significant increment in intracellular glutathione (GSH) level and reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration can only be observed in cell pretreated with high doses of ZnC only (50 and 100 μM for GSH and 100 μM only for TBARS). On the other hand, pretreatment of cells with ZnC was able to inhibit LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression significantly. Furthermore, results from immunoblotting showed that ZnC was able to suppress nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation, and highest suppression can be observed at 100 μM of ZnC pretreatment. However, pretreatment of ZnC did not inhibit the early activation of MAPKs. In conclusion, pretreatment with ZnC was able to inhibit the expression of inflammatory mediators in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, mainly via suppression of NF-κB activation, and is independent of the MAPKs signaling pathway.

  13. Zinc L-carnosine suppresses inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages cell line via activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Theng Choon; Chan, Kok Meng; Sharif, Razinah

    2017-10-01

    Zinc L-carnosine (ZnC) is a chelate of Zn and L-carnosine and is used clinically in the treatment of peptic ulcer. In this study, we aim to investigate the involvement of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the anti-inflammatory effects of ZnC in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. We used immunoblotting analysis to evaluate the involvement of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory effects of ZnC and the signaling pathway involved was measured using Dual luciferase reporter assay. Results from immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that pretreatment of cells with ZnC enhanced the expression of HO-1 in RAW 264.7 cells. Pretreatment of cells with HO-1 inhibitor (tin protoporphyrin IX dichloride) significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of ZnC on nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NF-κB activation in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting that HO-1 play an important role in the suppression of inflammatory responses induced by ZnC. Furthermore, results from co-immunoprecipitation of Nrf2 and Keap1 and dual luciferase reporter assay showed that pretreatment of ZnC was able to activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Treatment of cells with p38 inhibitor (SB203580), c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor (SP600125), and MEK 1/2 inhibitor (U0126) did not significantly suppress the induction of HO-1 by ZnC. Moreover, our present findings suggest that the effects of ZnC on NO production, HO-1 expression, and Nrf2 activation were attributed to its Zn subcomponent, but not l-carnosine. Pretreatment with ZnC was able to activate Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, thus suppressing the expression of inflammatory mediators, such as NO and iNOS in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells.

  14. Suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 by Sanguis Draconis, a dragon's blood resin, in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Choy, Cheuk-Sing; Hu, Chien-Ming; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Lam, Carlos-Shu Kei; Ting, Yih; Tsai, Shin-Han; Wang, Tzu-Chien

    2008-02-12

    Sanguis Draconis (SD) is a kind of dragon's blood resin that is obtained from Daemomorops draco (Palmae). It is used in traditional medicine and has shown anti-inflammatory activity in some diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of Sanguis Dranonis ethanol extract (SDEE) on LPS-induced inflammation using RAW 264.7 cells. Our data indicated that SDEE inhibits LPS-stimulated NO, PGE2, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha release, and iNOS and COX-2 expression. Furthermore, SDEE suppressed the LPS-induced p65 expression of NF-kappa B, which was associated with the inhibition of I kappa B-alpha degradation. We also found that the expression of HO-1 was significantly increased in RAW 264.7 cells by SDEE. These results suggest among possibilities of anti-inflammation that SDEE inhibits the production of NO and PGE2 by the down-regulation of iNOS and COX-2 gene expression via the suppression of NF-kappaB (p65) activation. SDEE can induce HO-1 over-expression in macrophage cells, which indicates that it may possess antioxidant properties. This result means that SEDD its anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages may be through a novel mechanism that involves the action of HO-1. Thus, SD could provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammation-associated disorders.

  15. Protective Effect of Yinhua Miyanling Tablet on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation through Suppression of NLRP3/Caspase-1 Inflammasome in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sai, Jingying; Zheng, Jingtong; Liu, Chuangui; Lu, Yanjiao; Wang, Guoqiang; Wang, Ting; Guan, Xuewa; Chen, Fang; Fang, Keyong; Zhang, Chao; Lu, Junying; Zhang, Xiaotian; Zhu, Hailin

    2016-01-01

    Yinhua Miyanling Tablet (YMT), the Chinese formula, has long been administrated in clinical practice for the treatment of acute pyelonephritis and acute urocystitis. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of YMT in vitro and to evaluate the association between anti-inflammation and innate immune response. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated using Ficoll density gradient centrifugation and then were stimulated by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The differential gene expression of inflammation-related genes after drug administration was assessed using PCR array, and the protein levels of differential genes were measured by ELISA and Western blot. The result showed that YMT significantly inhibited the expression of NLRP3, Caspase-1, and the downstream cytokine IL-1β and suppressed the production of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 in a dose-dependent manner compared to the LPS group (P < 0.01). The finding indicated that YMT exhibited anti-inflammatory effect in vitro by suppressing the NLRP3/Caspase-1 inflammasome, and that may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:27795729

  16. Auraptene and Other Prenyloxyphenylpropanoids Suppress Microglial Activation and Dopaminergic Neuronal Cell Death in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama, Satoshi; Semba, Tomoki; Toyoda, Nobuki; Epifano, Francesco; Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Sawamoto, Atsushi; Nakajima, Mitsunari; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    In patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), hyperactivated inflammation in the brain, particularly microglial hyperactivation in the substantia nigra (SN), is reported to be one of the triggers for the delayed loss of dopaminergic neurons and sequential motor functional impairments. We previously reported that (1) auraptene (AUR), a natural prenyloxycoumain, suppressed inflammatory responses including the hyperactivation of microglia in the ischemic brain and inflamed brain, thereby inhibiting neuronal cell death; (2) 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin (7-IP), another natural prenyloxycoumain, exerted anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects against excitotoxicity; and (3) 4′-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA), a natural prenyloxycinnamic acid, also exerted anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, using an intranigral lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD-like mouse model, we investigated whether AUR, 7-IP, and GOFA suppress microglial activation and protect against dopaminergic neuronal cell death in the SN. We successfully showed that these prenyloxyphenylpropanoids exhibited these prospective abilities, suggesting the potential of these compounds as neuroprotective agents for patients with PD. PMID:27763495

  17. Quercetin-3-O-β-D-Glucuronide Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced JNK and ERK Phosphorylation in LPS-Challenged RAW264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Lim, Man-Sup; Kim, Song-In; Lee, Hee Jae; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Chun, Wanjoo

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, a flavonol, has been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological properties including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, pharmacological properties of quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (QG), a glycoside derivative of quercetin, have not been extensively examined. The objective of this study is to elucidate the anti-inflammatory property and underlying mechanism of QG in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged RAW264.7 macrophage cells in comparison with quercetin. QG significantly suppressed LPS-induced extracellular secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2, and pro-inflammatory protein expressions of iNOS and COX-2. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of the anti-inflammatory property of QG, involvement of MAPK signaling pathways was examined. QG significantly attenuated LPS-induced activation of JNK and ERK in concentration-dependent manners with a negligible effect on p38. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates QG exerts anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of JNK and ERK signaling pathways in LPS-challenged RAW264.7 macrophage cells. PMID:27257013

  18. Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation by Morin via MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and PKA/HO-1 Signaling Pathway Modulation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Sun; Choi, Min-Ji; Lee, Yu Young; Moon, Byung-In; Park, Jin-Sun; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2017-01-18

    Morin is a flavonoid isolated from certain fruits and Chinese herbs and is known to possess various medicinal properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of morin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation, both in vitro and in vivo. We found that morin inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Furthermore, morin suppressed the microglial activation and cytokine expression in the brains of LPS-stimulated mice. Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that morin inhibited the action of LPS-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and activating protein-1 (AP-1). Further, the phosphorylation and DNA binding activity of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) was enhanced by morin. Moreover, morin suppressed the LPS-induced expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits, while it increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. Therefore, our data suggest that morin exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated microglia by downregulating MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways while upregulating protein kinase A (PKA)/CREB and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways.

  19. Melatonin inhibits Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and interleukin-6 in murine macrophages by suppressing NF-κB and STAT1 activity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jin, Ji-Young; Lee, Ju-Youn; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2011-03-01

    Although a range of biological and pharmacological activities of melatonin have been reported, little is known about its potential anti-inflammatory efficacy in periodontal disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of melatonin on the production of inflammatory mediators by murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a major cause of inflammatory reactions in the periodontium, and sought to determine the underlying mechanisms of action. Melatonin suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) at both gene transcription and translation levels in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. P. intermedia LPS-induced NF-κB-dependent luciferase activity was significantly inhibited by melatonin. Melatonin did not reduce NF-κB transcriptional activity at the level of IκB-α degradation. Melatonin blocked NF-κB signaling through the inhibition of nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB p50 subunit and suppressed STAT1 signaling. Although further research is required to clarify the detailed mechanism of action, we conclude that melatonin may contribute to blockade of the host-destructive processes mediated by these two proinflammatory mediators and could be a highly efficient modulator of host response in the treatment of inflammatory periodontal disease.

  20. A novel compound DSC suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses by inhibition of Akt/NF-κB signalling in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Pan, Li-Long; Jia, Yao-Ling; Wu, Dan; Xiong, Qing-Hui; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2013-05-15

    A novel compound [4-(2-acetoxy-3-((R)-3-(benzylthio)-1-methoxy-1-oxopropan-2-ylamino)-3-oxopropyl)-1,2-phenylene diacetate (DSC)], derived from Danshensu, exerted cytoprotective effects by anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic activities in vitro. Herein, we reported the protective effects of DSC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in murine RAW264.7 macrophages and the underlying mechanisms. We showed that DSC concentration-dependently attenuated nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression with less cytotoxicity. Signal transduction studies indicated that DSC significantly inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2, p38, or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Meanwhile, LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 was decreased by DSC. Furthermore, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 significantly suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, iNOS expression, and NO production, which was also mimicked by pretreatment with DSC. These results suggested that DSC attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory response in macrophages, at least in part, through suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling and NF-κB activation.

  1. Veronicastrum axillare Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury via Suppression of Proinflammatory Mediators and Downregulation of the NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Quanxin; Yang, Qinqin; Ping, Shun; Shou, Qiyang; Zhou, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Veronicastrum axillare is a traditional medical plant in China which is widely used in folk medicine due to its versatile biological activities, especially for its anti-inflammatory effects. However, the detailed mechanism underlying this action is not clear. Here, we studied the protective effects of V. axillare against acute lung injury (ALI), and we further explored the pharmacological mechanisms of this action. We found that pretreatment with V. axillare suppressed the release of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum of ALI mice. Histological analysis of lung tissue demonstrated that V. axillare inhibited LPS-induced lung injury, improved lung morphology, and reduced the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the lungs. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory actions of V. axillare were investigated in vitro. We observed that V. axillare suppressed the mRNA expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in RAW264.7 cells challenged with LPS. Furthermore, pretreatment of V. axillare in vitro reduced the phosphorylation of p65 and IκB-α which is activated by LPS. In conclusion, our data firstly demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effects of V. axillare against ALI were achieved through downregulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, thereby reducing the production of inflammatory mediators. PMID:27890971

  2. Arctigenin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression in RAW264.7 cells through suppressing JAK-STAT signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Kou, Xianjuan; Qi, Shimei; Dai, Wuxing; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2011-08-01

    Arctigenin has been demonstrated to have an anti-inflammatory function, but the precise mechanisms of its action remain to be fully defined. In the present study, we determined the effects of arctigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of proinflammatory mediators and the underlying mechanisms involved in RAW264.7 cells. Our results indicated that arctigenin exerted its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting ROS-dependent STAT signaling through its antioxidant activity. Arctigenin also significantly reduced the phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT 3 as well as JAK2 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The inhibitions of STAT1 and STAT 3 by arctigenin prevented their translocation to the nucleus and consequently inhibited expression of iNOS, thereby suppressing the expression of inflammation-associated genes, such as IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1, whose promoters contain STAT-binding elements. However, COX-2 expression was slightly inhibited at higher drug concentrations (50 μM). Our data demonstrate that arctigenin inhibits iNOS expression via suppressing JAK-STAT signaling pathway in macrophages. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardioprotective effect of metformin in lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis via suppression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in heart.

    PubMed

    Vaez, Haleh; Rameshrad, Maryam; Najafi, Moslem; Barar, Jaleh; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Garjani, Alireza

    2016-02-05

    Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction is a serious organ complication. In the present study, we investigated the effect of metformin on myocardial dysfunction and TLR4 activity in LPS-induced sepsis. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=6): control received normal saline (0.5ml), LPS group received lipopolysaccharide (0.5mg/kg; i.p), and metformin treated group received LPS (0.5mg/kg)+metformin (100mg/kg; i.p). 9h later the hemodynamic parameters were recorded, blood samples were collected, and the hearts were removed and weighted. The concentration of TNF-α, content of MYD88, the phosphorylation of AMPK, and the rate of TLR4 expression in the heart were assessed. In the animals treated with metformin, the preservation of left ventricular function was associated with the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (31%, P<0.01) in the heart and decrease of TNF-α level both in the serum and heart tissue (20%, P<0.01 and 42%, P<0.05, respectively). It was found that the level of phosphorylated AMPK in heart was significantly upregulated by 43% (P<0.001) in the metformin group while the content of TLRs adapter protein of MyD88 was reduced by 45% (P<0.05). This was associated with a remarkable decrease in the expression of myocardial TLR4. Furthermore, in a mice model of sepsis, coadministration of compound C (20mg/kg) as an AMPK inhibitor reversed the suppressive effects of metformin on TLR4 expression and MYD88 protein level. These results suggest that metformin exhibits cardioprotective effects in sepsis by suppression of TLR4 activity, at least in part through pathways involving AMPK activation.

  4. SIRT1 regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced CD40 expression in renal medullary collecting duct cells by suppressing the TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qin-Qin; Geng, Yuan-Wen; Jiang, Zhong-Wei; Tian, Zhen-Jun

    2017-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that sirtuin1 (SIRT1), an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, exerts a protective effect against inflammatory kidney injury by suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines production. The co-stimulatory molecule, CD40, is expressed in a variety of inflammatory diseases in the kidney. Here, we aimed to investigate the potential effect of SIRT1 on CD40 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to disclose the underlying mechanisms in renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells. mRNA and protein expressions were identified by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot respectively. Subcellular localization of SIRT1 and CD40 were respectively detected by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA) was carried out for mechanism study. LPS reduced SIRT1 expression and up-regulated the expression of CD40, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phospho-NF-κBp65 (p-NF-κBp65) in time- and concentration-dependent manners. Moreover, SIRT1 overexpression or activation by SRT1720 diminished the expression of CD40, TLR4 and p-NF-κBp65, which was reversed by SIRT1 siRNA or inhibitors Ex527 and sirtinol in LPS-stimulated IMCD cells. In addition, knockdown of TLR4 decreased the expression of CD40 and p-NF-κBp65 in IMCD cells exposed to LPS. Knockdown of NF-κBp65 or NF-κBp65 inhibition by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) reduced LPS-induced CD40 expression in IMCD cells. Importantly, the inhibitory effect of SIRT1 on the expression of CD40 and p-NF-κBp65 was augmented by pre-treating with TLR4 siRNA. Our data indicate that SIRT1 inhibits LPS-induced CD40 expression in IMCD cells by suppressing the TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway, which might provide novel insight into understanding the protective effect of SIRT1 in kidney. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Phellinus linteus inhibits inflammatory mediators by suppressing redox-based NF-kappaB and MAPKs activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Gyoung; Yoon, Deok Hyo; Lee, Won Ho; Han, Sang Kuk; Shrestha, Bhushan; Kim, Chun Hoi; Lim, Mi Hee; Chang, Woochul; Lim, Soyeon; Choi, Sunga; Song, Won O; Sung, Jae Mo; Hwang, Ki Chul; Kim, Tae Woong

    2007-12-03

    The mushroom Phellinus linteus has been known to exhibit potent biological activity. In contrast to the immuno-potentiating properties of Phellinus linteus, the anti-inflammatory properties of Phellinus linteus have rarely been investigated. Recently, ethanol extract and n-BuOH fractions from Phellinus linteus were deemed most effective in anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The regulatory mechanisms of Phellinus linteus butanol fractions (PLBF) on the pharmacological and biochemical actions of macrophages involved in inflammation have not been clearly defined yet. In the present study, we tested the role of PLBF on anti-inflammation patterns in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. To investigate the mechanism by which PLBF inhibits NO and PGE2 production as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, we examined the activation of IkappaB and MAPKs in LPS-activated macrophages. PLBF clearly inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunits, which correlated with PLBF's inhibitory effects on IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation. PLBF also suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases including p38 and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK). Furthermore, macrophages stimulated with LPS generated ROS via activation of membrane-bound NADPH oxidase, and ROS played an important role in the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and MAPKs. We demonstrated that PLBF directly blocked intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with LPS much as the NADPH oxidase inhibitors, diphenylene iodonium, and antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate did. The suppression of NADPH oxidase also inhibited NO production and iNOS protein expression. Cumulatively, these results suggest that PLBF inhibits the production of NO and PGE2 through the down-regulation of iNOS and COX-2 gene

  6. Methyl Gallate Inhibits Osteoclast Formation and Function by Suppressing Akt and Btk-PLCγ2-Ca2+ Signaling and Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Chang Hoon; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Myeung Su

    2017-01-01

    In the field of bone research, various natural derivatives have emerged as candidates for osteoporosis treatment by targeting abnormally elevated osteoclastic activity. Methyl gallate, a plant-derived phenolic compound, is known to have numerous pharmacological effects against inflammation, oxidation, and cancer. Our purpose was to explore the relation between methyl gallate and bone metabolism. Herein, we performed screening using methyl gallate by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and revealed intracellular mechanisms responsible for methyl gallate-mediated regulation of osteoclastogenesis by Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, we assessed the effects of methyl gallate on the characteristics of mature osteoclasts. We found that methyl gallate significantly suppressed osteoclast formation through Akt and Btk-PLCγ2-Ca2+ signaling. The blockade of these pathways was confirmed through transduction of cells with a CA-Akt retrovirus and evaluation of Ca2+ influx intensity (staining with Fluo-3/AM). Indeed, methyl gallate downregulated the formation of actin ring-positive osteoclasts and resorption pit areas. In agreement with in vitro results, we found that administration of methyl gallate restored osteoporotic phenotype stimulated by acute systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide in vivo according to micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. Our data strongly indicate that methyl gallate may be useful for the development of a plant-based antiosteoporotic agent. PMID:28272351

  7. Sasa quelpaertensis phenylpropanoid derivative suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide synthase and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expressions in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Young; Yang, Eun-Jin; Kim, Sang Suk; Kang, Ji-Yong; Kim, Gi-Ok; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2011-01-01

    3-O-p-Coumaroyl-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-O-β-D-gulcopyranosylpropanol (ESQ10) is a naturally occurring phenylpropanoid derivative isolated from Sasa quelpaertensis (Gramineae). In the present study, we discovered that ESQ10 inhibits nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. ESQ10 attenuated LPS-induced synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in parallel and inhibited LPS-induced interleukin-6 production, as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the macrophages. The mechanism of the antiinflammatory action of ESQ10, i.e., suppression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, has been documented. However, ESQ10 could not influence LPS-mediated IκB-α degradation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/c-Jun amino-terminal kinase phosphorylation at concentrations of up to 373 µM. To test the potential application of ESQ10 as a topical material, we also conducted a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on human HaCaT keratinocytes as well as human dermal fibroblast cells. In this assay, ESQ10 did not induce cytotoxicity. Taken together, the results suggest that ESQ10 may be considered an antiinflammatory candidate for treating inflammatory and skin diseases.

  8. Febuxostat, an Inhibitor of Xanthine Oxidase, Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced MCP-1 Production via MAPK Phosphatase-1-Mediated Inactivation of JNK

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Johji; Busso, Nathalie; Ives, Annette; Tsujimoto, Syunsuke; Tamura, Mizuho; So, Alexander; Yamanaka, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation can trigger various pathological conditions such as inflammation, in which xanthine oxidase (XO) is one major enzymatic source of ROS. Although XO has been reported to play essential roles in inflammatory conditions, the molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of XO in inflammatory pathways remain unclear. Febuxostat, a selective and potent inhibitor of XO, effectively inhibits not only the generation of uric acid but also the formation of ROS. In this study, therefore, we examined the effects of febuxostat on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory responses. Here we show that febuxostat suppresses LPS-induced MCP-1 production and mRNA expression via activating MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) which, in turn, leads to dephosphorylation and inactivation of JNK in macrophages. Moreover, these effects of febuxostat are mediated by inhibiting XO-mediated intracellular ROS production. Taken together, our data suggest that XO mediates LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK through ROS production and MKP-1 inactivation, leading to MCP-1 production in macrophages. These studies may bring new insights into the novel role of XO in regulating inflammatory process through MAPK phosphatase, and demonstrate the potential use of XO inhibitor in modulating the inflammatory processes. PMID:24086554

  9. The α-cyclodextrin complex of the Moringa isothiocyanate suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells through Akt and p38 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; Iori, Renato; Rollin, Patrick; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2017-03-13

    In the last decades, a growing need to discover new compounds for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases has led researchers to consider drugs derived from natural products as a valid option in the treatment of inflammation-associated disorders. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of a new formulation of Moringa oleifera-derived 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate as a complex with alpha-cyclodextrin (moringin + α-CD) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, a common model used for inflammation studies. In buffered/aqueous solution, the moringin + α-CD complex has enhanced the water solubility and stability of this isothiocyanate by forming a stable inclusion system. Our results showed that moringin + α-CD inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated macrophages by down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), by preventing IκB-α phosphorylation, translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and also via the suppression of Akt and p38 phosphorylation. In addition, as a consequence of upstream inhibition of the inflammatory pathway following treatment with moringin + α-CD, the modulation of the oxidative stress (results focused on the expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine) and apoptotic pathway (Bax and Bcl-2) was demonstrated. Therefore, moringin + α-CD appears to be a new relevant helpful tool to use in clinical practice for inflammation-associated disorders.

  10. Methanol extract of the aerial parts of barley (Hordeum vulgare) suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki-Choon; Hwang, Jung-Min; Bang, Sung-Jun; Son, Young-Ok; Kim, Beom-Tae; Kim, Dong-Hern; Lee, Seung-Ah; Chae, Minseon; Kim, Da Hye; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2013-08-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Poaceae) as a functional food and for its medicinal properties. This study examines the anti-inflammatory potential of the active fractions of barley and the mechanisms involved. The macrophages were exposed to 100 μg/mL of each of the barley extracts in the presence of 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and after 24 or 48 h of incubation, cells or culture supernatants were analyzed by various assays. The anti-inflammatory potential of barley fractions was also investigated using the LPS-injected septic mouse model. The active constituents in the fractions were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The active fractions, named F₄, F₇, F₉ and F₁₂, inhibited almost completely the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and inducible NO synthase. Pre-treatment with these fractions at 100 μg/mL diminished the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels to 19.8, 3.5, 1.2 and 1.7 ng/mL, respectively, compared to LPS treatment alone (41.5 ng/mL). These fractions at 100 μg/mL also suppressed apparently the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB in LPS-stimulated cells. Mice injected intraperitoneally with LPS (30 mg/kg BW) showed 20% survival at 48 h after injection, whereas oral administration of the fractions improved the survival rates to 80%. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of the derivatives of benzoic and cinnamic acids and fatty acids in the fractions. The aerial parts of barley are useful as functional food to prevent acute inflammatory responses.

  11. 5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone suppresses pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and protects mice from lethal endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Rim, Hong-Kun; Yun, Chang Hyeon; Shin, Ji-Sun; Cho, Young-Wuk; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Park, Haeil; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-12-01

    5,6,7-Trimethoxyflavone (TMF), methylations of the hydroxyl groups of oroxylin A or baicalein, was found to significantly inhibit the productions of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, no report has been issued on the anti-inflammatory potential of TMF and the underlying molecular mechanism. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of TMF in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and LPS-induced septic shock in mice. TMF dose-dependently inhibits iNOS and COX-2 at the protein, mRNA, and promoter binding levels and that these inhibitions cause attendant decreases in the productions of NO and PGE2. TMF inhibits the productions and mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 induced by LPS. Furthermore, TMF suppress the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), and nuclear translocations of NF-κB, AP-1, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1/3 (STAT1/3). Pretreatment with TMF increase the survival rate of mice with LPS-induced endotoxemia and reduced the serum levels of cytokines. Taken together, these findings suggest that TMF down-regulates the expressions of the pro-inflammatory iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 genes in macrophages by interfering with the activation of NF-κB, AP-1, and STAT1/3.

  12. Arylbenzofuran isolated from Dalbergia odorifera suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse BV2 microglial cell activation, which protects mouse hippocampal HT22 cells death from neuroinflammation-mediated toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Sung; Jeong, Gil-Saeng

    2014-04-05

    Neuroinflammation is a key mechanism against infection, injury, and trauma in the central nervous system (CNS). The heartwood of Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen is an important source of traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. (2R, 3R)-Obtusafuran (1) and isoparvifuran (2) are arylbenzofuran compounds isolated from D. odorifera. This study determined the efficacy of (1) and (2) in modulating the regulation of anti-inflammatory activity through the upregulation of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in BV2 microglia. Compound (1) inhibited the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), iNOS-derived nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and COX-2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse BV2 microglia. (2R, 3R)-Obtusafuran (1) also reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production, and these anti-neuroinflammatory effects were shown to be correlated with the suppression of the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B-α (IκB-α), and nuclear factor kappa B nuclear (NF-κB) translocation and DNA binding activity. In addition, (1) upregulated HO-1 expression via nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in mouse BV2 microglia. Using tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), an HO activity inhibitor, we verified that the inhibitory effects of (1) on the proinflammatory mediators and proteins were associated with the induction of HO-1 expression. Activated microglia-mediated cell death of mouse hippocampal HT22 cells was significantly repressed by (1). Our data suggest that (2R, 3R)-obtusafuran (1) has therapeutic potential against neurodegenerative diseases caused by neuroinflammation.

  13. Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Suppression of Innate-Like B Cell Apoptosis Is Enhanced by CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide and Requires Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiang; Hu, Yang; Kawai, Toshihisa; Taubman, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Innate-like B lymphocytes play an important role in innate immunity in periodontal disease through Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. However, it is unknown how innate-like B cell apoptosis is affected by the periodontal infection-associated innate signals. This study is to determine the effects of two major TLR ligands, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN), on innate-like B cell apoptosis. Spleen B cells were isolated from wild type (WT), TLR2 knockout (KO) and TLR4 KO mice and cultured with E. coli LPS alone, P. gingivalis LPS alone, or combined with CpG-ODN for 2 days. B cell apoptosis and expressions of specific apoptosis-related genes were analyzed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR respectively. P. gingivalis LPS, but not E. coli LPS, reduced the percentage of AnnexinV+/7-AAD- cells within IgMhighCD23lowCD43-CD93- marginal zone (MZ) B cell sub-population and IgMhighCD23lowCD43+CD93+ innate response activator (IRA) B cell sub-population in WT but not TLR2KO or TLR4KO mice. CpG-ODN combined with P. gingivalis LPS further reduced the percentage of AnnexinV+/7-AAD- cells within MZ B cells and IRA B cells in WT but not TLR2 KO or TLR4 KO mice. Pro-apoptotic CASP4, CASP9 and Dapk1 were significantly down-regulated in P. gingivalis LPS- and CpG-ODN-treated B cells from WT but not TLR2 KO or TLR4 KO mice. Anti-apoptotic IL-10 was significantly up-regulated in P. gingivalis LPS- and CpG-ODN-treated B cells from WT and TLR2 KO but not TLR4 KO mice. These results suggested that both TLR2 and TLR4 signaling are required for P. gingivalis LPS-induced, CpG-ODN-enhanced suppression of innate-like B cell apoptosis. PMID:27812176

  14. Oryza sativa (Rice) Hull Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response in RAW264.7 Macrophages by Suppressing Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase, and Nuclear Factor-κB Activation.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sang Keun; Sung, Jeehye; Choi, Inwook; Kim, Yoonsook

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is a major cereal crop in many Asian countries and an important staple food source. Rice hulls have been reported to possess antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the antiinflammatory effects of rice hull extract and associated signal transduction mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively. The release of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α was also reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, rice hull extract attenuated the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), as well as the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. This suggests that rice hull extract decreases the production of inflammatory mediators by downregulating ERK and JNK and the NF-κB signal pathway in RAW 264.7 cells. Rice hull extract inhibits the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages.Rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively.Rice hull extract exerted anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways.Rice hull extract may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Abbreviations used: COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2, ERK: extracellular signal-regulated kinase, IκB: inhibitory kappa B, IL-1β: interleukin-1β, iNOS: inducible NO synthase, JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase, LPS: lipopolysaccharide, MAPKs: mitogen-activated protein kinases, NF-κB: nuclear factor-κB, NO: nitric oxide, PGE2: prostaglandin E2, RHE: rice hull extract, ROS: reactive oxygen species, TNF

  15. Oryza sativa (Rice) Hull Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response in RAW264.7 Macrophages by Suppressing Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase, and Nuclear Factor-κB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sang Keun; Sung, Jeehye; Choi, Inwook; Kim, Yoonsook

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rice (Oryza sativa) is a major cereal crop in many Asian countries and an important staple food source. Rice hulls have been reported to possess antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated the antiinflammatory effects of rice hull extract and associated signal transduction mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results: We found that rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively. The release of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α was also reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, rice hull extract attenuated the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), as well as the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Conclusion: This suggests that rice hull extract decreases the production of inflammatory mediators by downregulating ERK and JNK and the NF-κB signal pathway in RAW 264.7 cells. SUMMARY Rice hull extract inhibits the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages.Rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively.Rice hull extract exerted anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways.Rice hull extract may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Abbreviations used: COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2, ERK: extracellular signal-regulated kinase, IκB: inhibitory kappa B, IL-1β: interleukin-1β, iNOS: inducible NO synthase, JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase, LPS: lipopolysaccharide, MAPKs: mitogen-activated protein kinases, NF-κB: nuclear factor-κB, NO: nitric oxide, PGE2: prostaglandin

  16. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Park, Sung Kwang; Kim, Won

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Knockout of SIRT2 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression. • Lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production is decreased in SIRT2 KO macrophage. • SIRT2 deficiency suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced ROS production in macrophage. • M1-macrophage related factors are decreased in SIRT2 deficient cells. • SIRT2 deficiency decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NFκB. - Abstract: Introduction: SIRT2 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases and associated with numerous processes such as infection, carcinogenesis, DNA damage and cell cycle regulation. However, the role of SIRT2 in inflammatory process in macrophage remains unclear. Materials and methods: In the present study, we have evaluated the regulatory effects of SIRT2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages isolated from SIRT2 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice or Raw264.7 macrophage cells. As inflammatory parameters, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the productions of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and M1-macrophage-related factors were evaluated. We also examined the effects of SIRT2 on activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) signaling. Results: SIRT2 deficiency inhibits LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression in bone marrow derived macrophages. SIRT2-siRNA transfection also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS expression in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from SIRT2 KO mice produced lower nitric oxide and expressed lower levels of M1-macrophage related markers including iNOS and CD86 in response to LPS than WT mice. Decrease of SIRT2 reduced the LPS-induced reactive oxygen species production. Deficiency of SIRT2 resulted in inhibition of NFκB activation through reducing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. The phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 was significantly decreased in SIRT2-deficient macrophages after LPS stimulation. Discussion: Our data suggested that

  17. Stereoselective modulatory actions of oleamide on GABA(A) receptors and voltage-gated Na(+) channels in vitro: a putative endogenous ligand for depressant drug sites in CNS.

    PubMed

    Verdon, B; Zheng, J; Nicholson, R A; Ganelli, C R; Lees, G

    2000-01-01

    1. cis-9,10-octadecenoamide ('oleamide') accumulates in CSF on sleep deprivation. It induces sleep in animals (the trans form is inactive) but its cellular actions are poorly characterized. We have used electrophysiology in cultures from embryonic rat cortex and biochemical studies in mouse nerve preparations to address these issues. 2. Twenty microM cis-oleamide (but not trans) reversibly enhanced GABA(A) currents and depressed the frequency of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity in cultured networks. 3. cis-oleamide stereoselectively blocked veratridine-induced (but not K(+)-induced) depolarisation of mouse synaptoneurosomes (IC(50), 13. 9 microM). 4. The cis isomer stereoselectively blocked veratridine-induced (but not K(+)-induced) [(3)H]-GABA release from mouse synaptosomes (IC(50), 4.6 microM). 5. At 20 microM cis-oleamide, but not trans, produced a marked inhibition of Na(+) channel-dependent rises in intrasynaptosomal Ca(2+). 6. The physiological significance of these observations was examined by isolating Na(+) spikes in cultured pyramidal neurones. Sixty-four microM cis-oleamide did not significantly alter the amplitude, rate of rise or duration of unitary action potentials (1 Hz). 7. cis-Oleamide stereoselectively suppressed sustained repetitive firing (SRF) in these cells with an EC(50) of 4.1 microM suggesting a frequency- or state-dependent block of voltage-gated Na(+) channels. 8. Oleamide is a stereoselective modulator of both postsynaptic GABA(A) receptors and presynaptic or somatic voltage-gated Na(+) channels which are crucial for synaptic inhibition and conduction. The modulatory actions are strikingly similar to those displayed by sedative or anticonvulsant barbiturates and a variety of general anaesthetics. 9. Oleamide may represent an endogenous modulator for drug receptors and an important regulator of arousal.

  18. Stereoselective modulatory actions of oleamide on GABAA receptors and voltage-gated Na+ channels in vitro: a putative endogenous ligand for depressant drug sites in CNS

    PubMed Central

    Verdon, Bernard; Zheng, Jian; Nicholson, Russell A; Ganelli, C Robin; Lees, George

    2000-01-01

    cis-9,10-octadecenoamide (‘oleamide') accumulates in CSF on sleep deprivation. It induces sleep in animals (the trans form is inactive) but its cellular actions are poorly characterized. We have used electrophysiology in cultures from embryonic rat cortex and biochemical studies in mouse nerve preparations to address these issues. Twenty μM cis-oleamide (but not trans) reversibly enhanced GABAA currents and depressed the frequency of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity in cultured networks. cis-oleamide stereoselectively blocked veratridine-induced (but not K+-induced) depolarisation of mouse synaptoneurosomes (IC50, 13.9 μM). The cis isomer stereoselectively blocked veratridine-induced (but not K+-induced) [3H]-GABA release from mouse synaptosomes (IC50, 4.6 μM). At 20 μM cis-oleamide, but not trans, produced a marked inhibition of Na+ channel-dependent rises in intrasynaptosomal Ca2+. The physiological significance of these observations was examined by isolating Na+ spikes in cultured pyramidal neurones. Sixty-four μM cis-oleamide did not significantly alter the amplitude, rate of rise or duration of unitary action potentials (1 Hz). cis-Oleamide stereoselectively suppressed sustained repetitive firing (SRF) in these cells with an EC50 of 4.1 μM suggesting a frequency- or state-dependent block of voltage-gated Na+ channels. Oleamide is a stereoselective modulator of both postsynaptic GABAA receptors and presynaptic or somatic voltage-gated Na+ channels which are crucial for synaptic inhibition and conduction. The modulatory actions are strikingly similar to those displayed by sedative or anticonvulsant barbiturates and a variety of general anaesthetics. Oleamide may represent an endogenous modulator for drug receptors and an important regulator of arousal. PMID:10694234

  19. In Vivo Evidence that N-Oleoylglycine Acts Independently of Its Conversion to Oleamide

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Shalini; Driscoll, William J.; Elliot, Brenda M.; Faraday, Martha M.; Grunberg, Neil E.; Mueller, Gregory P.

    2006-01-01

    Oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) is a member of an emerging class of lipid-signaling molecules, the primary fatty acid amides. A growing body of evidence indicates that oleamide mediates fundamental neurochemical processes including sleep, thermoregulation, and nociception. Nevertheless, the mechanism for oleamide biosynthesis remains unknown. The leading hypothesis holds that oleamide is synthesized from oleoylglycine via the actions of the peptide amidating enzyme, peptidylglycine alpha amidating monooxygenase (PAM). The present study investigated this hypothesis using pharmacologic treatments, physiologic assessments, and measurements of serum oleamide levels using a newly development enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Oleamide and oleoylglycine both induced profound hypothermia and decreased locomotion, over equivalent dose ranges and time courses, whereas, closely related compounds, stearamide and oleic acid, were essentially without effect. While the biologic actions of oleamide and oleoylglycine were equivalent, the two compounds differed dramatically with respect to their effects on serum levels of oleamide. Oleamide administration (80 mg/kg) elevated blood-borne oleamide by eight-fold, whereas, the same dose of oleoylglycine had no effect on circulating oleamide levels. In addition, pretreatment with the established PAM inhibitor, disulfiram, produced modest reductions in the hypothermic responses to both oleoylglycine and oleamide, suggesting that the effects of disulfiram were not mediated through inhibition of PAM and a resulting decrease in the formation of oleamide from oleoylglycine. Collectively, these findings raise the possibilities that: (1) oleoylglycine possesses biologic activity that is independent of its conversion to oleamide, and (2) the increased availability of oleoylglycine as a potential substrate does not drive the biosynthesis of oleamide. PMID:17085322

  20. Isobutyrylshikonin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in BV2 microglial cells by suppressing the PI3K/Akt-mediated nuclear transcription factor-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Lee, Kyoung-Tae; Kang, Chang-Hee; Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Lee, Hak-Ju; Choi, Yung Hyun; Choi, Il-Whan; Kim, Gi-Young

    2014-12-01

    Microglia are important macrophages to defend against pathogens in the central nervous system (CNS); however, persistent or acute inflammation of microglia lead to CNS disorders via neuronal cell death. Therefore, we theorized that a good strategy for the treatment of CNS disorders would be to target inflammatory mediators from microglia in disease. Consequently, we investigated whether isobutyrylshikonin (IBS) attenuates the production of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Treatment with IBS inhibited the secretion of NO and prostaglandin E2 (as well as the expression of their key regulatory genes), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Isobutyrylshikonin also suppressed LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB), by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of p50 and p65 in addition to blocking the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Pretreatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, a specific NF-κB inhibitor, showed the down-regulation of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 messenger RNA by suppressing NF-κB activity. This indirectly suggests that IBS-mediated NF-κB inhibition is the main signaling pathway involved in the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. In addition, IBS attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt, which are upstream molecules of NF-κB, in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. The functional aspects of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway were analyzed with LY294002, which is a specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor that attenuated LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression by suppressing NF-κB activity. These data suggest that an IBS-mediated anti-inflammatory effect may be involved in suppressing the PI3K/Akt-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway.

  1. α-Chaconine isolated from a Solanum tuberosum L. cv Jayoung suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory mediators via AP-1 inactivation in RAW 264.7 macrophages and protects mice from endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Goo; Lee, Suel-Gie; Lee, Hwi-Ho; Lee, Hae Jun; Shin, Ji-Sun; Kim, Nan-Jung; An, Hyo-Jin; Nam, Jung-Hwan; Jang, Dae Sik; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2015-06-25

    In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of α-chaconine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and in LPS-induced septic mice. α-Chaconine inhibited the expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at the transcriptional level, and attenuated the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) by reducing the translocation and phosphorylation of c-Jun. α-Chaconine also suppressed the phosphorylation of TGF-β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), which lies upstream of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (MKK7)/Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. JNK knockdown using siRNA prevented the α-chaconine-mediated inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators. In a sepsis model, pretreatment with α-chaconine reduced the LPS-induced lethality and the mRNA and production levels of pro-inflammatory mediators by inhibiting c-Jun activation. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of α-chaconine are associated with the suppression of AP-1, and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of sepsis.

  2. Ebselen Is a Potential Anti-Osteoporosis Agent by Suppressing Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation In vitro and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Bone Destruction In vivo

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Oh, Jaemin; Lee, Myeung Su

    2016-01-01

    Ebselen is a non-toxic seleno-organic drug with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that is currently being examined in clinical trials to prevent and treat various diseases, including atherosclerosis, stroke, and cancer. However, no reports are available for verifying the pharmacological effects of ebselen on major metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. In this study, we observed that ebselen suppressed the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells in an osteoblast/osteoclast co-culture by regulating the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin secreted by osteoblasts. In addition, ebselen treatment in the early stage of osteoclast differentiation inhibited RANKL-dependent osteoclastogenesis by decreasing the phosphorylation of IκB, PI3K, and Akt in early signaling pathways and by subsequently inducing c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1. Further, ebselen induced apoptosis of osteoclasts in the late stage of osteoclast differentiation. In addition, ebselen treatment suppressed filamentous actin ring formation and bone resorption activity of mature osteoclasts. Reflecting these in vitro effects, administration of ebselen recovered bone loss and its µ-CT parameters in lipopolysaccharide-mediated mouse model. Histological analysis confirmed that ebselen prevented trabecular bone matrix degradation and osteoclast formation in the bone tissues. Finally, it was proved that the anti-osteoclastogenic action of ebselen is achieved through targeting N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. These results indicate that ebselen is a potentially safe drug for treating metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:27019631

  3. Production of ex vivo lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 is suppressed by trans-resveratrol in a concentration-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Trans-resveratrol is a biologically active compound present in certain foods that has anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. These beneficial effects are derived from both the immune system and cytokines. The purpose of this study was to determine the immunomodulatory effect of trans-resveratrol on the ex vivo production of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Trans-resveratrol (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 μM) was added to blood samples from male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6) along with 100 U of LPS (Escherichia coli serotype, O55B5). The samples were then incubated for 4 h at 37°C and centrifuged. Finally, concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 in the plasma were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The production of inflammatory (TNF-α and IL-1β) and anti-inflammatory (IL-6) cytokines was suppressed by trans-resveratrol in a concentration-dependent manner. These results support the hypothesis that the immunomodulatory effect of trans-resveratrol plays an important role in disease conditions that involve an overproduction of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:15971681

  4. Puerarin suppresses production of nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase in lipopolysaccharide-induced N9 microglial cells through regulating MAPK phosphorylation, O-GlcNAcylation and NF-κB translocation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Gao-Ming; Yu, Chao; Yang, Zhu

    2012-05-01

    Microglial cells play a critical role in mediating central nervous system inflammatory processes. Activated microglial cells induced by proinflammatory factor, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), release many kinds of neurotoxic cytokines including reactive oxygen species (ROS) which contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Puerarin, extracted from kudzu root, possesses the characteristic of neuroprotection, antioxidation and anticancer. In the present study, we observed that LPS induced over-production of nitric oxide (NO) and increased the level of intracellular ROS in N9 microglial cells, but it was inhibited by puerarin. Furthermore, treatment with puerarin on N9 cells suppressed the over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced by LPS which is implicated in intracellular O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) level, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. We also observed that the enhanced phosphorylation of p38, JNK and ERK1/2 in N9 cells induced by LPS were inhibited by puerarin, otherwise the down-regulation of O-GlcNAcylation level of protein in N9 cell induced by LPS was up-regulated by pretreatment with puerarin. These results indicate that puerarin effectively inhibits microglia activation induced by LPS through inhibiting expression of iNOS, production of NO and ROS which was mediated via regulating O-GlcNAcylation, phosphorylation of MAPK and NF-κB translocation.

  5. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activity via 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Bao, Suqing; Cao, Yanli; Zhou, Haicheng; Sun, Xin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2015-03-18

    Obesity-related insulin resistance is associated with chronic systemic low-grade inflammation, and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) regulates inflammation. We investigated the pathways involved in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) modulation of insulin and TLR4 signaling in adipocytes. Inflammation was induced in adipocytes by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). An antibody against the 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR, to which EGCG exclusively binds) was used to examine the effect of EGCG on TLR4 signaling, and a TLR4/MD-2 antibody was used to inhibit TLR4 activity and to determine the insulin sensitivity of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that EGCG dose-dependently inhibited LPS stimulation of adipocyte inflammation by reducing inflammatory mediator and cytokine levels (IKKβ, p-NF-κB, TNF-α, and IL-6). Pretreatment with the 67LR antibody prevented EGCG inhibition of inflammatory cytokines, decreased glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) expression, and inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. TLR4 inhibition attenuated inflammatory cytokine levels and increased glucose uptake by reversing GLUT4 levels. These data suggest that EGCG suppresses TLR4 signaling in LPS-stimulated adipocytes via 67LR and attenuates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake associated with decreased GLUT4 expression.

  6. A novel ligand-independent peptide inhibitor of TREM-1 suppresses tumor growth in human lung cancer xenografts and prolongs survival of mice with lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Sigalov, Alexander B.

    2014-01-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) amplifies the inflammatory response and plays a role in cancer and sepsis. Inhibition of TREM-1 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in macrophages suppresses cancer cell invasion in vitro. In the clinical setting, high levels of TREM-1 expression on tumor-associated macrophages are associated with cancer recurrence and poor survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). TREM-1 upregulation on peritoneal neutrophils has been found in human sepsis patients and in mice with experimental lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock. However, the precise function of TREM-1 and the nature of its ligand are not yet known. In this study, we used the signaling chain homooligomerization (SCHOOL) model of immune signaling to design a novel, ligand-independent peptide-based TREM-1 inhibitor and demonstrated that this peptide specifically silences TREM-1 signaling in vitro and in vivo. Utilizing two human lung tumor xenograft nude mouse models (H292 and A549) and mice with LPS-induced sepsis, we show for the first time that blockade of TREM-1 function using non-toxic and non-immunogenic SCHOOL peptide inhibitors: 1) delays tumor growth in xenograft models of human NSCLC, 2) prolongs survival of mice with LPS-induced septic shock, and 3) substantially decreases cytokine production in vitro and in vivo. In addition, targeted delivery of SCHOOL peptides to macrophages utilizing lipoprotein-mimicking nanoparticles significantly increased peptide half-life and dosage efficacy. Together, the results suggest that ligand-independent modulation of TREM-1 function using small synthetic peptides might be a suitable treatment for sepsis and NSCLC and possibly other types of inflammation-associated disorders. PMID:24836682

  7. Curcumin alleviates lipopolysaccharide induced sepsis and liver failure by suppression of oxidative stress-related inflammation via PI3K/AKT and NF-κB related signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenhui; Qian, Kejian; Xiong, Jibin; Ma, Ke; Wang, Aizhong; Zou, Yan

    2016-10-01

    In many liver disorders, oxidative stress-related inflammation and apoptosis are important pathogenic components, finally resulting in acute liver failure. Erythropoietin and its analogues are well known to influence the interaction between apoptosis and inflammation in brain and kidney. The study is to clarify the effect of curcumin, a natural plant phenolic food additive, on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced acute liver injury of mice with endotoxemia and associated molecular mechanism from inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress levels. And curcumin, lowered serum cytokines, including Interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and improved liver apoptosis through suppressing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway and inhibiting Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)/Caspase expression, and decreased oxidative stress-associated protein expression, mainly involving 2E1 isoform of cytochrome P450/nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/reactive oxygen species (CYP2E/Nrf2/ROS) signaling pathway, as well as liver nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-induced mice. Moreover, curcumin regulated serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), accelerated liver antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) levels, and inhibited activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (P38/JNK) cascade in the livers of LPS-induced rats. Thus, curcumin treatment attenuates LPS-induced PI3K/AKT and CYP2E/Nrf2/ROS signaling and liver injury. Strategies to inhibit inflammation and apoptosis signaling may provide alternatives to the current clinical approaches to improve oxidative responses of endotoxemia.

  8. α-Mangostin suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced invasion by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 and increasing E-cadherin expression through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, JIANGTAO; WU, YAOLU; LU, GUIFANG

    2013-01-01

    Invasion and metastasis are major factors in the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer, which remains one of the most aggressive and lethal diseases worldwide. α-mangostin, a major xanthone compound identified in the pericarp of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana, Linn; GML), possesses unique biological activities, including antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects. Whether α-mangostin is able to inhibit the invasive ability of pancreatic cancer cells has not been elucidated. In the present study, α-mangostin was shown to inhibit the invasive ability of the pancreatic cancer cell lines MIAPaCa-2 and BxPC-3. The results showed that α-mangostin inhibited the growth of the pancreatic cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. At concentrations of <5 μM, α-mangostin had no significant effects on cytotoxicity, but significantly inhibited the invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while increasing the expression of E-cadherin. The present data also showed that α-mangostin exerted an inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, the reduction of ERK phosphorylation by small interfering RNA (siRNA) potentiated the effect of α-mangostin. Taken together, the data suggest that α-mangostin inhibited the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells by reducing MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression, increasing E-cadherin expression and suppressing the ERK signaling pathway. The present study suggests that α-mangostin may be a promising agent against pancreatic cancer. PMID:23833675

  9. Glycyrrhizic acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid modulate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response by suppression of NF-κB through PI3K p110δ and p110γ inhibitions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Kao, Tzu-Chien; Lo, Wen-Hsieh; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2011-07-27

    The roots and rhizomes of licorice ( Glycyrrhia ) species have been used extensively as natural sweeteners and herbal medicines. The aim of this work was to determine the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (18βGA) from licorice in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage model. The results showed that treatment with 25-75 μM GA or 18βGA did not reduce RAW 264.7 cell viability but did significantly inhibit the production of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Western blotting and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that GA and 18βGA significantly reduced the protein and mRNA levels of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-induced macrophages. Both GA and 18βGA inhibited the activation of NF-κB and the activities of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) p110δ and p110γ isoforms and then reduced the production of LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, these results indicate that GA and 18βGA may provide an anti-inflammatory effect by attenuating the generation of excessive NO, PGE(2), and ROS and by suppressing the expression of pro-inflammatory genes through the inhibition of NF-κB and PI3K activity. Thus, the results suggest that GA and 18βGA might serve as potential agents for the treatment of inflammatory-mediated diseases.

  10. Oleamide: a fatty acid amide signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system?

    PubMed

    Hiley, C Robin; Hoi, Pui Man

    2007-01-01

    Oleamide (cis-9,10-octadecenoamide), a fatty acid primary amide discovered in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats, has a variety of actions that give it potential as a signaling molecule, although these actions have not been extensively investigated in the cardiovascular system. The synthetic pathway probably involves synthesis of oleoylglycine and then conversion to oleamide by peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM); breakdown of oleamide is by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Oleamide interacts with voltage-gated Na(+) channels and allosterically with GABA(A) and 5-HT(7) receptors as well as having cannabinoid-like actions. The latter have been suggested to be due to potentiation of the effects of endocannabinoids such as anandamide by inhibiting FAAH-mediated hydrolysis. This might underlie an "entourage effect" whereby co-released endogenous nonagonist congeners of endocannabinoids protect the active molecule from hydrolysis by FAAH. However, oleamide has direct agonist actions at CB(1) cannabinoid receptors and also activates the TRPV1 vanilloid receptor. Other actions include inhibition of gap-junctional communication, and this might give oleamide a role in myocardial development. Many of these actions are absent from the trans isomer of 9,10-octadecenoamide. One of the most potent actions of oleamide is vasodilation. In rat small mesenteric artery the response does not involve CB(1) cannabinoid receptors but another pertussis toxin-sensitive, G protein-coupled receptor, as yet unidentified. This receptor is sensitive to rimonabant and O-1918, an antagonist at the putative "abnormal-cannabidiol" or endothelial "anandamide" receptors. Vasodilation is mediated by endothelium-derived nitric oxide, endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization, and also through activation of TRPV1 receptors. A physiological role for oleamide in the heart and circulation has yet to be demonstrated, as has production by cells of the cardiovascular system, but

  11. Anxiolytic-like effects of oleamide in group-housed and socially isolated mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiu Yan; Yang, Jing Yu; Dong, Ying Xu; Wu, Chun Fu

    2007-08-15

    Oleamide (cis-9,10-octadecenoamide) is an endogenous sleep-inducing lipid and prototypic member of a new class of biological signaling molecules identified in recent years. In the present study, the anxiolytic-like effect of oleamide was studied in several experimental models of anxiety in group-housed and socially isolated mice. As the results show, socially isolated mice exhibited an anxiogenic-like profile in the elevated plus-maze test, the light/dark test, and the hole-board test, which could be significantly reversed by oleamide (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, oleamide significantly reduced the anxiety levels in grouped-housed mice. In the isolation-induced aggressive test, oleamide markedly reduced the attacking duration and increased the attacking latency. It is concluded that oleamide has an anxiolytic-like effect in socially isolated or group-housed mice, which suggests that fatty acid amides might be involved in the regulation of anxiety-related behavior in mice.

  12. The sleep hormone oleamide modulates inhibitory ionotropic receptors in mammalian CNS in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Leanne; Lees, George; Nicholson, Russell A; Zheng, Jian; Neufield, Katherine D

    2002-01-01

    We examine the sensitivity of GABAA and glycine receptors (same ionotropic superfamily) to oleamide. We address subunit-dependence/modulatory mechanisms and analogies with depressant drugs. Oleamide modulated human GABAA currents (α1β2γ2L) in oocytes (EC50, 28.94±s.e.mean of 1.4 μM; Maximum 216%±35 of control, n=4). Modulation of human α1 glycine homo-oligomers (significant), was less marked, with a lower EC50 (P<0.05) than GABA receptors (EC50, 22.12±1.4 μM; Maximum 171%±30, n=11). Only the hypnogenic cis geometric isomer enhanced glycine currents (without altering slope or maximal current, it reduced the glycine EC50 from 322 to 239 μM: P<0.001). Modulation was not voltage-dependent or associated with a shift in Er. β1 containing GABAA receptors (insensitive to many depressant drugs) were positively modulated by oleamide. Oleamide efficacy was circa 2× greater at α1β1γ2L than α1β2γ2L (P=0.007). Splice variation in γ subunits did not alter oleamide sensitivity. cis-9,10-Octadecenoamide had no effect on the equilibrium binding of [3H]-muscimol or [3H]-EBOB to mouse brain membranes. It does not directly mimic GABA, or operate as a neurosteroid-, benzodiazepine- or barbiturate-like modulator of GABAA-receptors. The transport of [3H]-GABA into mouse brain synaptoneurosomes was unaffected by high micromolar concentrations of cis-9,10-octadecenoamide. Oleamide does not enhance GABA-ergic currents or prolong IPSCs by inhibiting GABA transport. Oleamide is a non-selective modulator of inhibitory ionotropic receptors. The sleep lipid exerts its effects indirectly, or at a novel recognition site on the GABAA complex. PMID:11959801

  13. The sleep hormone oleamide modulates inhibitory ionotropic receptors in mammalian CNS in vitro.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Leanne; Lees, George; Nicholson, Russell A; Zheng, Jian; Neufield, Katherine D

    2002-04-01

    1. We examine the sensitivity of GABA(A) and glycine receptors (same ionotropic superfamily) to oleamide. We address subunit-dependence/modulatory mechanisms and analogies with depressant drugs. 2. Oleamide modulated human GABA(A) currents (alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2L)) in oocytes (EC(50), 28.94+/-s.e.mean of 1.4 microM; Maximum 216%+/-35 of control, n=4). Modulation of human alpha1 glycine homo-oligomers (significant), was less marked, with a lower EC(50) (P<0.05) than GABA receptors (EC(50), 22.12+/-1.4 microM; Maximum 171%+/-30, n=11). 3. Only the hypnogenic cis geometric isomer enhanced glycine currents (without altering slope or maximal current, it reduced the glycine EC(50) from 322 to 239 microM: P<0.001). Modulation was not voltage-dependent or associated with a shift in E(r). 4. beta 1 containing GABA(A) receptors (insensitive to many depressant drugs) were positively modulated by oleamide. Oleamide efficacy was circa 2x greater at alpha(1)beta(1)gamma(2L) than alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2L) (P=0.007). Splice variation in gamma subunits did not alter oleamide sensitivity. 5. cis-9,10-Octadecenoamide had no effect on the equilibrium binding of [(3)H]-muscimol or [(3)H]-EBOB to mouse brain membranes. It does not directly mimic GABA, or operate as a neurosteroid-, benzodiazepine- or barbiturate-like modulator of GABA(A)-receptors. 6. The transport of [(3)H]-GABA into mouse brain synaptoneurosomes was unaffected by high micromolar concentrations of cis-9,10-octadecenoamide. Oleamide does not enhance GABA-ergic currents or prolong IPSCs by inhibiting GABA transport. 7. Oleamide is a non-selective modulator of inhibitory ionotropic receptors. The sleep lipid exerts its effects indirectly, or at a novel recognition site on the GABA(A) complex.

  14. Antiallergic Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Arctium lappa L. Undried Roots and Its Active Compound, Oleamide, in Regulating FcεRI-Mediated and MAPK Signaling in RBL-2H3 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Woong-Suk; Lee, Sung Ryul; Jeong, Yong Joon; Park, Dae Won; Cho, Young Mi; Joo, Hae Mi; Kim, Inhye; Seu, Young-Bae; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Kang, Se Chan

    2016-05-11

    The antiallergic potential of Arctium lappa L. was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats, ICR mice, and RBL-2H3 cells. Ethanol extract (90%) of A. lappa (ALE, 100 μg/mL) inhibited the degranulation rate by 52.9%, determined by the level of β-hexosaminidase. ALE suppressed passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rats and attenuated anaphylaxis and histamine release in mice. To identify the active compound of ALE, we subsequently fractionated and determined the level of β-hexosaminidase in all subfractions. Oleamide was identified as an active compound of ALE, which attenuated the secretion of histamine and the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in cells treated with compound 48/80 or A23187/phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Oleamide suppressed FcεRI-tyrosine kinase Lyn-mediated pathway, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK/SAPK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38-MAPKs). These results showed that ALE and oleamide attenuated allergic reactions and should serve as a platform to search for compounds with antiallergic activity.

  15. Determination of oleamide and erucamide in polyethylene films by pressurised fluid extraction and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Garrido-López, Alvaro; Esquiu, Vanesa; Tena, María Teresa

    2006-08-18

    A pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) method is proposed to determine the slip agents in polyethylene (PE) films. The study of PFE variables was performed using a fractional factorial design (FFD) for screening and a central composite design (CCD) for optimizing the main variables obtained from the Pareto charts. The variables that were studied include temperature, static time, percentage of cyclohexane and the number of extraction cycles. The final condition selected was pure isopropanol (two times) at 105 degrees C for 16min. The recovery of spiked oleamide and erucamide was around 100%. The repeatability of the method was between 9.6% for oleamide and 8% for erucamide, expressed as relative standard deviation. Finally, the method was applied to determine oleamide and erucamide in several polyethylene films and the results were statistically equal to those obtained by pyrolysis and gas-phase chemiluminescence (CL).

  16. Efficiency Enhancement of Inverted Structure Perovskite Solar Cells via Oleamide Doping of PCBM Electron Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fei; Wu, Qiliang; Zhou, Pengcheng; Li, Yi; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Qing; Zhu, Jun; Dai, Songyuan; Lu, Yalin; Yang, Shangfeng

    2015-06-24

    An amphiphilic surfactant, oleamide, was applied to dope the PCBM electron transport layer (ETL) of inverted structure perovskite solar cells (ISPSCs), resulting in a dramatic efficiency enhancement. Under the optimized oleamide doping ratio of 5.0 wt %, the power conversion efficiency of the CH3NH3PbIxCl(3-x) perovskite-based ISPSC device is enhanced from 10.05% to 12.69%, and this is primarily due to the increases of both fill factor and short-circuit current. According to the surface morphology study of the perovskite/PCBM bilayer film, oleamide doping improves the coverage of PCBM ETL onto the perovskite layer, and this is beneficial for the interfacial contact between the perovskite layer and the Ag cathode and consequently the electron transport from perovskite to the Ag cathode. Such an improved electron transport induced by oleamide doping is further evidenced by the impedance spectroscopic study, revealing the prohibited electron-hole recombination at the interface between the perovskite layer and the Ag cathode.

  17. Circulating leptin mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced anorexia and fever in rats.

    PubMed

    Sachot, Christelle; Poole, Stephen; Luheshi, Giamal N

    2004-11-15

    Anorexia and fever are important features of the host's response to inflammation that can be triggered by the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the appetite suppressant leptin. Previous studies have demonstrated that LPS induces leptin synthesis and secretion in the periphery, and that the action of leptin on appetite suppression and fever are dependent on brain interleukin (IL)-1beta. However, the role of leptin as a neuroimmune mediator of LPS-induced inflammation has not been fully elucidated. To address this issue, we neutralized circulating leptin using a leptin antiserum (LAS) and determined how this neutralization affected LPS-induced anorexia, fever and hypothalamic IL-1beta. Adult male rats were separated into four treatment groups, namely LPS + normal sheep serum (NSS), LPS + LAS, saline + LAS and saline + NSS. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS (100 microg kg(-1)) induced a significant reduction in food intake and body weight, which were significantly reversed in the presence of LAS (1 ml kg(-1)), 8 and 24 h after treatment. In addition, LPS-induced fever was significantly attenuated by LAS over the duration of the fever response (8 h). Lipopolysaccharide induced an increase of circulating IL-6, another potential circulating pyrogen, which was not affected by neutralization of leptin at 2 h. Interleukin-1beta mRNA at 1 and 8 h, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (ra) at 2 h were significantly upregulated in the hypothalamus of LPS-treated animals. The induction of these cytokines was attenuated in the presence of LAS. These results are the first to demonstrate that leptin is a circulating mediator of LPS-induced anorexia and fever, probably through a hypothalamic IL-1beta-dependent mechanism.

  18. Preventive Effects of Carnosine on Lipopolysaccharide-induced Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Ken-Ichiro; Sugizaki, Toshifumi; Kanda, Yuki; Tamura, Fumiya; Niino, Tomomi; Kawahara, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a potentially devastating form of acute lung injury, which involves neutrophilic inflammation and pulmonary cell death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in ARDS development. New compounds for inhibiting the onset and progression of ARDS are required. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is a small di-peptide with numerous activities, including antioxidant effects, metal chelation, proton buffering capacity and the inhibition of protein carbonylation and glycoxidation. We have examined the preventive effects of carnosine on tissue injury, oedema and inflammation in a murine model for ARDS. Oral administration of carnosine suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced vascular permeability, tissue injury and inflammation in the lung. In vivo imaging analysis revealed that LPS administration increased the level of ROS and that this increase was inhibited by carnosine administration. Carnosine also suppressed LPS-induced neutrophilic inflammation (evaluated by activation of myeloperoxidase in the lung and increased extracellular DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid). Furthermore, carnosine administration suppressed the LPS-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress response in vivo. These results suggest that the oral administration of carnosine suppresses LPS-induced lung injury via carnosine’s ROS-reducing activity. Therefore, carnosine may be beneficial for suppressing the onset and progression of ARDS. PMID:28205623

  19. Blockade of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Glutamate Receptor Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in rat kidney reduces renal perfusion and ultrafiltration. Hypoperfusion-induced ischemia is the most frequent cause of functional insufficiency in the endotoxemic kidney. Here, we used non-hypotensive rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia to examine whether NMDA receptor hyperfunction contributes to acute kidney injury. Lipopolysaccharide-induced renal damage via increased enzymuria and hemodynamic impairments were ameliorated by co-treatment with the NMDA receptor blocker, MK-801. The NMDA receptor NR1 subunit in the rat kidney mainly co-localized with serine racemase, an enzyme responsible for synthesizing the NMDA receptor co-agonist, D-serine. The NMDA receptor hyperfunction in lipopolysaccharide-treated kidneys was demonstrated by NR1 and serine racemase upregulation, particularly in renal tubules, and by increased D-serine levels. Lipopolysaccharide also induced cell damage in cultured tubular cell lines and primary rat proximal tubular cells. This damage was mitigated by MK-801 and by small interfering RNA targeting NR1. Lipopolysaccharide increased cytokine release in tubular cell lines via toll-like receptor 4. The release of interleukin-1β from these cells are the most abundant. An interleukin-1 receptor antagonist not only attenuated cell death but also abolished lipopolysaccharide-induced NR1 and serine racemase upregulation and increases in D-serine secretion, suggesting that interleukin-1β-mediated NMDA receptor hyperfunction participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced tubular damage. The results of this study indicate NMDA receptor hyperfunction via cytokine effect participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced renal insufficiency. Blockade of NMDA receptors may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis-associated renal failure. PMID:26133372

  20. ATF-2 regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced transcription in macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Noriyuki; Maekawa, Toshio; Shinagawa, Toshie; Ishii, Shunsuke

    2009-07-17

    The transcription factor ATF-2, a member of the ATF/CREB family, is a target of p38 that are involved in stress-induced apoptosis and in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signaling. Phosphorylation of ATF-2 at Thr-71 was enhanced by treating of RAW264.7 macrophage cells with either LPS, MALP-2, or CpG-ODN. LPS treatment enhanced the trans-activation capacity of ATF-2. Among multiple LPS-induced genes, the LPS-induced expression of Socs-3 was significantly reduced by the treatment of RAW264.7 cells with an Atf-2 siRNA. Transcription from the Socs-3 promoter was synergistically stimulated by ATF-2 and LPS, whereas it was suppressed by Atf-2 siRNA. Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) interacted with ATF-2 after LPS treatment, but not before treatment. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with trichostatin A, an inhibitor of HDAC, suppressed the LPS-induced Socs-3 expression, suggesting that HDAC1 positively regulates the LPS-induced transcription of Socs-3. Thus, ATF-2 plays an important role in TLR-mediated transcriptional control in macrophage cells.

  1. Intermittent fasting attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Andrea R; Yshii, Lidia M; Viel, Tania A; Buck, Hudson S; Mattson, Mark P; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa M

    2014-05-06

    Systemic bacterial infections often result in enduring cognitive impairment and are a risk factor for dementia. There are currently no effective treatments for infection-induced cognitive impairment. Previous studies have shown that intermittent fasting (IF) can increase the resistance of neurons to injury and disease by stimulating adaptive cellular stress responses. However, the impact of IF on the cognitive sequelae of systemic and brain inflammation is unknown. Rats on IF for 30 days received 1 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline intravenously. Half of the rats were subjected to behavioral tests and the other half were euthanized two hours after LPS administration and the hippocampus was dissected and frozen for analyses. Here, we report that IF ameliorates cognitive deficits in a rat model of sepsis by a mechanism involving NF-κB activation, suppression of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and enhancement of neurotrophic support. Treatment of rats with LPS resulted in deficits in cognitive performance in the Barnes maze and inhibitory avoidance tests, without changing locomotor activity, that were ameliorated in rats that had been maintained on the IF diet. IF also resulted in reduced levels of mRNAs encoding the LPS receptor TLR4 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus. Moreover, IF prevented LPS-induced elevation of IL-1α, IL-1β and TNF-α levels, and prevented the LPS-induced reduction of BDNF levels in the hippocampus. IF also significantly attenuated LPS-induced elevations of serum IL-1β, IFN-γ, RANTES, TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Taken together, our results suggest that IF induces adaptive responses in the brain and periphery that can suppress inflammation and preserve cognitive function in an animal model of systemic bacterial infection.

  2. Intermittent fasting attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and memory impairment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Systemic bacterial infections often result in enduring cognitive impairment and are a risk factor for dementia. There are currently no effective treatments for infection-induced cognitive impairment. Previous studies have shown that intermittent fasting (IF) can increase the resistance of neurons to injury and disease by stimulating adaptive cellular stress responses. However, the impact of IF on the cognitive sequelae of systemic and brain inflammation is unknown. Methods Rats on IF for 30 days received 1 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline intravenously. Half of the rats were subjected to behavioral tests and the other half were euthanized two hours after LPS administration and the hippocampus was dissected and frozen for analyses. Results Here, we report that IF ameliorates cognitive deficits in a rat model of sepsis by a mechanism involving NF-κB activation, suppression of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and enhancement of neurotrophic support. Treatment of rats with LPS resulted in deficits in cognitive performance in the Barnes maze and inhibitory avoidance tests, without changing locomotor activity, that were ameliorated in rats that had been maintained on the IF diet. IF also resulted in reduced levels of mRNAs encoding the LPS receptor TLR4 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus. Moreover, IF prevented LPS-induced elevation of IL-1α, IL-1β and TNF-α levels, and prevented the LPS-induced reduction of BDNF levels in the hippocampus. IF also significantly attenuated LPS-induced elevations of serum IL-1β, IFN-γ, RANTES, TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that IF induces adaptive responses in the brain and periphery that can suppress inflammation and preserve cognitive function in an animal model of systemic bacterial infection. PMID:24886300

  3. 6'-O-Caffeoyldihydrosyringin isolated from Aster glehni suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 expression via NF-κB and AP-1 inactivation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seunghwan; Lee, Kyoung-Goo; Shin, Ji-Sun; Chung, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Jae Yeol; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2016-10-01

    Previously, we found that ethyl acetate extract fraction of Aster glehni exhibited anti-hyperuricemic effects in animal models and also five new caffeoylglucoside derivatives were isolated from this fraction. In this work, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these caffeoylglucoside derivatives and found that 6'-O-caffeoyldihydrosyringin (2, CDS) most potently inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, CDS was found to concentration-dependently reduce the production of NO, PGE2, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induced by LPS in macrophages. Consistent with these observations, CDS concentration-dependently inhibited LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxidase-2 (COX-2) expression at the protein level and also iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6, IL-1β expression at the mRNA level. Furthermore, CDS suppressed the LPS-induced transcriptional activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) as well as the phosphorylation of p65 and c-Fos. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of CDS is associated with the downregulation of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 expression via the negative regulation of NF-κB and AP-1 activation in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential proteomic analysis of the anti-depressive effects of oleamide in a rat chronic mild stress model of depression.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lin; Zhu, Ming-Ming; Yang, Jing-Yu; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Jing-Hai; Shen, Jing; Tian, Hui-Fang; Wu, Chun-Fu

    2015-04-01

    Depression is a complex psychiatric disorder, and its etiology and pathophysiology are not completely understood. Depression involves changes in many biogenic amine, neuropeptide, and oxidative systems, as well as alterations in neuroendocrine function and immune-inflammatory pathways. Oleamide is a fatty amide which exhibits pharmacological effects leading to hypnosis, sedation, and anti-anxiety effects. In the present study, the chronic mild stress (CMS) model was used to investigate the antidepressant-like activity of oleamide. Rats were exposed to 10weeks of CMS or control conditions and were then subsequently treated with 2weeks of daily oleamide (5mg/kg, i.p.), fluoxetine (10mg/kg, i.p.), or vehicle. Protein extracts from the hippocampus were then collected, and hippocampal maps were generated by way of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Altered proteins induced by CMS and oleamide were identified through mass spectrometry and database searches. Compared to the control group, the CMS rats exhibited significantly less body weight gain and decreased sucrose consumption. Treatment with oleamide caused a reversal of the CMS-induced deficit in sucrose consumption. In the proteomic analysis, 12 protein spots were selected and identified. CMS increased the levels of adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1 (AK1), nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDKB), histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1), acyl-protein thioesterase 2 (APT-2), and glutathione S-transferase A4 (GSTA4). Compared to the CMS samples, seven spots changed significantly following treatment with oleamide, including GSTA4, glutathione S-transferase A6 (GSTA6), GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran (Ran-GTP), ATP synthase subunit d, transgelin-3, small ubiquitin-related modifier 2 (SUMO2), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 (eIF5A1). Of these seven proteins, the level of eIF5A1 was up-regulated, whereas the remaining proteins were down-regulated. In conclusion, oleamide has antidepressant

  5. Carbachol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal epithelial tight junction damage by down-regulating NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Jianguo

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide-induced ileal tight junction damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol prevented the LPS-induced NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol exerted its beneficial effects in an {alpha}7 nicotinic receptor-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist that protects the intestines after trauma or burn injury. The present study determines the beneficial effects of carbachol and the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10 mg/kg LPS. Results showed that the gut barrier permeability was reduced, the ultrastructural disruption of tight junctions (TJs) was prevented, the redistribution of zonula occludens-1 and claudin-2 proteins was partially reversed, and the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-{kappa}{beta}) and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) activation in the intestinal epithelium were suppressed after carbachol administration in LPS-exposed rats. Pretreatment with the {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7nAchR) antagonist {alpha}-bungarotoxin blocked the protective action of carbachol. These results suggested that carbachol treatment can protect LPS-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Carbachol exerts its beneficial effect on the amelioration of the TJ damage by inhibiting the NF-{kappa}{beta} and MLCK pathways in an {alpha}7nAchR-dependent manner.

  6. Alpinetin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Zhou, Li-shan; Yan, Li; Ren, Juan; Zhou, Dai-xing; Li, Shu-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    Alpinetin, a novel plant flavonoid isolated from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, the effects of alpinetin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury have not been reported. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects and the underlying mechanism of alpinetin against LPS-induced acute kidney injury in mice. The results showed that alpinetin inhibited LPS-induced kidney histopathologic changes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels. Alpinetin also inhibited LPS-induced ROS, MDA, and inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β production in kidney tissues. Meanwhile, Western blot analysis showed that alpinetin suppressed LPS-induced TLR4 expression and NF-κB activation in kidney tissues. In addition, alpinetin was found to up-regulate the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, alpinetin protected LPS-induced kidney injury through activating Nrf2 and inhibiting TLR4 expression.

  7. Arctigenin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xianbao; Sun, Hongzhi; Zhou, Dun; Xi, Huanjiu; Shan, Lina

    2015-04-01

    Arctigenin (ATG) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effects of ATG on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains not well understood. In the present study, our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of ATG on LPS-induced ALI in rats. We found that ATG pretreatment attenuated the LPS-induced ALI, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and wet-to-dry weight ratio in the lung tissues. This was accompanied by the decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-1 (IL-6) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Furthermore, ATG downregulated the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, promoted the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB-α (IκBα) and activated the adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPKα) in the lung tissues. Our results suggested that ATG attenuates the LPS-induced ALI via activation of AMPK and suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway.

  8. Adrenomedullin ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Takefumi; Obata, Hiroaki; Murakami, Shinsuke; Hamada, Kaoru; Kangawa, Kenji; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nagaya, Noritoshi

    2007-08-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM), an endogenous peptide, has been shown to have a variety of protective effects on the cardiovascular system. However, the effect of AM on acute lung injury remains unknown. Accordingly, we investigated whether AM infusion ameliorates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in rats. Rats were randomized to receive continuous intravenous infusion of AM (0.1 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) or vehicle through a microosmotic pump. The animals were intratracheally injected with either LPS (1 mg/kg) or saline. At 6 and 18 h after intratracheal instillation, we performed histological examination and bronchoalveolar lavage and assessed the lung wet/dry weight ratio as an index of acute lung injury. Then we measured the numbers of total cells and neutrophils and the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In addition, we evaluated BALF total protein and albumin levels as indexes of lung permeability. LPS instillation caused severe acute lung injury, as indicated by the histological findings and the lung wet/dry weight ratio. However, AM infusion attenuated these LPS-induced abnormalities. AM decreased the numbers of total cells and neutrophils and the levels of TNF-alpha and CINC in BALF. AM also reduced BALF total protein and albumin levels. In addition, AM significantly suppressed apoptosis of alveolar wall cells as indicated by cleaved caspase-3 staining. In conclusion, continuous infusion of AM ameliorated LPS-induced acute lung injury in rats. This beneficial effect of AM on acute lung injury may be mediated by inhibition of inflammation, hyperpermeability, and alveolar wall cell apoptosis.

  9. Acetaminophen attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment through antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Xing; Zhang, Jun-Han; Cao, Jiang-Bei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Dong-Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Yong-Yi; Zhang, You-Zhi; Mi, Wei-Dong

    2017-01-21

    Considerable evidence has shown that neuroinflammation and oxidative stress play an important role in the pathophysiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and other progressive neurodegenerative disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that acetaminophen (APAP) has unappreciated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the impact of APAP on the cognitive sequelae of inflammatory and oxidative stress is unknown. The objective of this study is to explore whether APAP could have neuroprotective effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive impairment in mice. A mouse model of LPS-induced cognitive impairment was established to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of APAP against LPS-induced cognitive impairment. Adult C57BL/6 mice were treated with APAP half an hour prior to intracerebroventricular microinjection of LPS and every day thereafter, until the end of the study period. The Morris water maze was used to assess cognitive function from postinjection days 1 to 3. Animal behavioural tests as well as pathological and biochemical assays were performed to evaluate LPS-induced hippocampal damage and the neuroprotective effect of APAP. Mice treated with LPS exhibited impaired performance in the Morris water maze without changing spontaneous locomotor activity, which was ameliorated by treatment with APAP. APAP suppressed the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and microglial activation induced by LPS in the hippocampus. In addition, APAP increased SOD activity, reduced MDA levels, modulated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity and elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. Moreover, APAP significantly decreased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and neuron apoptosis in the hippocampus of LPS-treated mice. Our results suggest that APAP may possess a neuroprotective effect against LPS-induced cognitive impairment and inflammatory and oxidative stress via mechanisms involving its antioxidant and

  10. Role of Notch signaling during lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Varkha; Jaiswal, Mukesh K; Pamarthy, Sahithi; Katara, Gajendra K; Kulshrestha, Arpita; Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Hirsch, Emmet; Beaman, Kenneth D

    2016-08-01

    Notch signaling pathways exert effects throughout pregnancy and are activated in response to TLR ligands. To investigate the role of Notch signaling in preterm labor, Notch receptors (Notch1-4), its ligand Delta-like protein-1, transcriptional repressor hairy and enhancer of split-1, and Notch deregulator Numb were assessed. Preterm labor was initiated on gestation d 14.5 by 1 of 2 methods: 1) inflammation-induced preterm labor: intrauterine injection of LPS (a TLR4 agonist) and 2) hormonally induced preterm labor: subcutaneous injection of mifepristone. Delta-like protein-1, Notch1, and hairy and enhancer of split-1 were elevated significantly, and Numb was decreased in the uterus and placenta of inflammation-induced preterm labor mice but remained unchanged in hormonally induced preterm labor compared with their respective controls. F4/80(+) macrophage polarization was skewed in the uterus of inflammation-induced preterm labor toward M1-positive (CD11c(+)) and double-positive [CD11c(+) (M1) and CD206(+) (M2)] cells. This process is dependent on activation of Notch signaling, as shown by suppression of M1 and M2 macrophage-associated cytokines in decidual macrophages in response to γ-secretase inhibitor (an inhibitor of Notch receptor processing) treatment ex vivo. γ-Secretase inhibitor treatment also diminished the LPS-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in decidual and placental cells cultured ex vivo. Furthermore, treatment with recombinant Delta-like protein-1 ligand enhanced the LPS-induced proinflammatory response. Notch ligands (Jagged 1 and 2 and Delta-like protein-4) and vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor involved in angiogenesis were reduced significantly in the uterus and placenta during inflammation-induced preterm labor. These results suggest that up-regulation of Notch-related inflammation and down-regulation of angiogenesis factors may be associated with inflammation-induced preterm labor but not with

  11. Metformin Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Lung Injury through Suppressing Toll-like Receptor 4 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Vaez, Haleh; Najafi, Moslem; Toutounchi, Negisa Seyed; Barar, Jaleh; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Garjani, Alireza

    2016-12-01

    Signaling AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensing enzyme, has been implicated in controlling inflammation. In this study we investigated whether activation of AMPK by metformin could protect the lung from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute injury by inhibitingng TLR4 pathway. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=6): control group received normal saline (0.5 mL), LPS group received LPS (0.5 mg/kg), and metformin-treated group received LPS and metformin (100 mg/kg). Nine hours later nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), phosphorylated, and non-phosphorylated AMPK using western blot, and the rate of TLR4 mRNA expression using real-time PCR were assessed in the lung tissue. To evaluate neutrophil infiltration, the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured. The severity of the lung damage was assessed by histological examinations. It was found that the ratio of p-AMPKα to AMPKα was significantly upregulated by 22% (p<0.05) in the lungs obtained from the metformin group. In LPS-treated rats, we observed a high expression of TLR4 in the tissue along with increased levels of MyD88, NF-κB, and TNFα. Metformin considerably reduced all these parameters. Histological examinations revealed that metformin remarkably attenuated congestion and inflammatory cellular infiltration into the alveolar walls and also decreased MPO activity by 37% (p<0.05). We conclude that metformin could protect the lung tissue against LPS-evoked TLR4 activation and the protective effect can be related to the activation of AMPK.

  12. Vitamin C suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced procoagulant response of human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Parahuleva, M S; Jung, J; Burgazli, M; Erdogan, A; Parviz, B; Hölschermann, H

    2016-05-01

    Although vitamin C is a strong antioxidant, the epidemiologic evidence to support its role in lowering risk of cardiovascular disease is inconsistent. In order to define the role of vitamin C in vascular pathophysiology, we have investigated the effect of vitamin C on the tissue factor (TF) and Factor VII Activating Protease (FSAP) expression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Vitamin C at clinically relevant doses was tested to its ability to influence the LPS- and reactive oxygen species (ROS) - generating system of xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) NF-kB activity in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Vitamin C-treatment prevents LPS- and ROS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-kB in a concentration-dependent fashion. Vitamin C also inhibited the phosphorylation and proteolytic degradation of the inhibitor protein IkBa. In parallel to regulate NF-kB activity, vitamin C reduced the expression of TF and FSAP, genes known to be induced by bacterial LPS and triggered the extrinsic coagulation cascade and linked thrombosis with inflammation. Vitamin C alters pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulatory processes via inhibition of NF-kB activation and exerts beneficial antiatherogenic effects on human monocyte-derived macrophages in addition to its anti-oxidant properties.

  13. Resveratrol attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury by suppressing inflammation driven by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Yang, Sixing; Zumbrun, Elizabeth E; Guan, Hongbing; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2015-05-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most frequent and serious complication in sepsis, a potentially deadly inflammatory response induced by bacterial, viral, or fungal infection. LPS-induced AKI is associated with an abnormal inflammatory response, including renal endothelial dysfunction and renal inflammation. Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin with low toxicity and anti-inflammatory properties, is known to protect endothelial cells and modulate the immune response in sepsis. This study investigates the potential protective effects of resveratrol on AKI induced by LPS exposure of mice. Resveratrol was administered as a pre- and posttreatment, or as a posttreatment alone following LPS injection and compared to control groups. Resveratrol significantly improved kidney function and lowered serum and kidney tissue inflammatory cytokine levels. Consistently, resveratrol prevented endotoxin-induced disruption of endothelial cell permeability and inhibited inflammation of kidney tissue. Resveratrol treatment attenuated the effects of LPS on macrophages, with significant inhibition of activation, cytokine release, and Toll-like receptor 4 activation. Resveratrol treatment also resulted in decreased expression of iNOS, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL in macrophages, which was linked with induction of apoptosis in macrophages. Our studies suggest that resveratrol might represent a novel therapeutic agent to prevent and treat sepsis-induced AKI. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Protein Kinase C is a Mediator of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Vascular Suppression in the Rat Aorta

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    28). A possible require- 0 ,] ment for multiple LPS-stimulated mediators to full\\ induce300o •"NOS activity in VSM can explain the apparent paradox...A D - A 286 074 )AGE 0704-0pprove IIIo- 1 DC 199 AGENC U EPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 1994L N S-TIL Journal article 4. ITE ND UBITES. Fý;.:DlNG...ADDRESS(ES) 110. SAPOENSCOYRINEGO/RMONNITNOR~ING Naval Medical Research and Development Command AEC EOTNME National Naval Medical Center Building 1 , Towver

  15. Influence of feeding status on neuronal activity in the hypothalamus during lipopolysaccharide-induced anorexia in rats.

    PubMed

    Gautron, L; Mingam, R; Moranis, A; Combe, C; Layé, S

    2005-01-01

    Fasting attenuates disease-associated anorexia, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which a 48 h fast alters hypothalamic neuronal activity in response to the anorectic effects of lipopolysaccharide in rats. Male rats were fed ad libitum or fasted, and were injected with i.p. saline or lipopolysaccharide (250 microg/kg). Immunohistochemistry for Fos protein was used to visualize neuronal activity in response to lipopolysaccharide within selected hypothalamic feeding regulatory nuclei. Additionally, food intake, body weight, plasma interleukin-1 and leptin levels, and the expression of mRNA for appetite-related neuropeptides (neuropeptide Y, proopiomelanocortin and cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript) were measured in a time-related manner. Our data show that the pattern of lipopolysaccharide-induced Fos expression was similar in most hypothalamic nuclei whatever the feeding status. However, we observed that fasting significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus, in association with an attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Moreover, lipopolysaccharide reduced fasting-induced Fos expression in the perifornical area of the lateral hypothalamus. Lipopolysaccharide-induced circulating levels of interleukin-1 were similar across feeding status. Finally, fasting, but not lipopolysaccharide, affected circulating level of leptin and appetite-related neuropeptides expression in the arcuate nucleus. Together, our data show that fasting modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced anorexia and body weight loss in association with neural changes in specific hypothalamic nuclei.

  16. Involvement of Prokineticin 2 and Prokineticin Receptor 1 in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Testitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Biao; Yu, Lili; Wang, Jiaojiao; Li, Cuiling; Zhao, Kai; Zhang, Huiping

    2016-04-01

    Prokineticin 2, a newly discovered proinflammatory peptide, has been amply evidenced to be involved in the occurrence and progress of local and systematical inflammation. Although the presence of Prokineticn 2 in mammal testis has been documented clearly, research targeting the involvement of prokineticin 2 in testicular pathology, especially testitis, is rather scarce. Employing a lipopolysaccharide-induced testitis rat model, we for the first time demonstrated the expression and upregulation of prokineticin 2 in orchitis at several levels. Our effort also addressed the differential expression patterns of prokineticin 2 and interleukin-1β, a key inflammation indicator, during testitis suggesting Prokineticn 2 serves more than a proinflammatory factor in the context of testitis. Given one of the cognate receptors of prokineticin 2, prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1) was also significantly upregulated in orchitis as discussed in the current study, it is very likely that PK2/PKR1 signaling contribute to the development of inflammation-related testicular diseases.

  17. An interleukin-1 receptor antagonist blocks lipopolysaccharide-induced colony-stimulating factor production and early endotoxin tolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, B E; Neta, R; Vogel, S N

    1991-01-01

    In this report, administration of a recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein to mice was found to inhibit induction of colony-stimulating factor as well as induction of early endotoxin tolerance by lipopolysaccharide. These findings provide direct evidence that interleukin-1 is an intermediate in these two lipopolysaccharide-induced phenomena. PMID:1825485

  18. Protective effect of mangiferin against lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive and anxiety-like behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Jangra, Ashok; Lukhi, Manish M; Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Baruah, Chandana C; Lahkar, Mangala

    2014-10-05

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that inflammation, oxidative stress and altered level of neurotrophins are involved in the pathogenesis of depressive illness. Mangiferin, a C-glucosylxanthone is abundant in the stem and bark of Mangifera indica L. The compound has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of mangiferin pretreatment on lipopolysaccharide-induced increased proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (0.83 mg/kg, i.p.) after 14 days of mangiferin (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) pretreatment. Mangiferin pretreatment significantly ameliorated the anxiety-like behaviour as evident from the results of an elevated plus maze, light-dark box and open field test. Mangiferin pretreatment also improved the anhedonic behaviour as revealed by sucrose preference test and increased social interaction time. It also prevented the lipopolysaccharide-evoked depressive-like effect by reducing the immobility time in forced swim and tail suspension test. Lipopolysaccharide-induced elevated oxidative stress was decreased with mangiferin pretreatment due to its potential to increase reduced glutathione concentration, Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and decrease lipid peroxidation and nitrite level in the hippocampus as well as in the prefrontal cortex. Mangiferin pretreatment also attenuated neuroinflammation by reducing the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) level in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that mangiferin possessed antidepressant and anti-anxiety properties due to its ability to attenuate IL-1β level and oxidative stress evoked by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide. Mangiferin may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of depressive and anxiety illness.

  19. Methylprednisolone Stiffens Aortas in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Chronic Inflammation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Ming-Shian; Lee, Po-Huang; Liang, Jin-Tung; Chang, Kuo-Chu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Glucocorticoids are commonly used as therapeutic agents in many acute and chronic inflammatory and auto-immune diseases. The current study investigated the effects of methylprednisolone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) on aortic distensibility and vascular resistance in lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation in male Wistar rats. Methods Chronic inflammation was induced by implanting a subcutaneous slow-release ALZET osmotic pump (1 mg kg−1 day−1 lipopolysaccharide) for either 2 or 4 weeks. Arterial wave transit time (τ) was derived to describe the elastic properties of aortas using the impulse response function of the filtered aortic input impedance spectra. Results Long-term lipopolysaccharide challenge enhanced the expression of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the aortas. Lipopolysaccharide also upregulated the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase to produce high levels of nitric oxide (NO), which resulted in vasodilation, as evidenced by the fall in total peripheral resistance (Rp). However, lipopolysaccharide challenge did not influence the elastic properties of aortas, as shown by the unaltered τ. The NO-mediated vascular relaxation may counterbalance the AGEs-induced arterial stiffening so that the aortic distensibility remained unaltered. Treating lipopolysaccharide-challenged rats with methylprednisolone prevented peripheral vasodilation because of its ability to increase Rp. However, methylprednisolone produced an increase in aorta stiffness, as manifested by the significant decline in τ. The diminished aortic distensibility by methylprednisolone paralleled a significant reduction in NO plasma levels, in the absence of any significant changes in AGEs content. Conclusion Methylprednisolone stiffens aortas and elastic arteries in lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation in rats, for NO activity may be dominant as a counteraction of AGEs. PMID:23874978

  20. Effects of D-003 on Lipopolysaccharides-induced Osteonecrosis in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Noa, Miriam; Valle, M; Mendoza, Sarahí; Mas, Rosa; Mendoza, Nilda

    2011-09-01

    D-003, a mixture of high molecular weight acids, inhibits cholesterol synthesis prior to mevalonate and prevents osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy in rats, and both osteoporosis and osteonecrosis induced by corticoids in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of D-003 on lipopolysaccharides-induced osteonecrosis in rabbits. Animals were randomized into 5 groups: a sham and four groups injected with lipopolysaccharides: one treated orally with vehicle and three with D-003 (5, 25 and 200 mg/kg, respectively) during four weeks. We assessed the effects of treatments on the incidence of osteonecrosis (number of animals with osteonecrosis lesions/animals per group), the mean numbers and areas of osteonecrosis per animal and on the mean sizes of the bone marrow fat cells. The incidence of osteonecrosis in the groups of D-003 25 and 200 mg/kg was significantly lower than in the positive controls. The reduction of osteonecrosis increased with the doses, but significant dose-dependence relationship was not achieved. D-003 significantly and dose-dependently decreased the number of osteonecrosis lesions per animal as compared to the positive controls. Likewise, the mean osteonecrosis areas in the proximal femoral and humeral bones were significantly decreased by D-003. The injection of lipopolysaccharides significantly increased the average size of bone marrow fat cells as compared to the negative controls, and such increase was significantly and markedly reduced with D-003. It is concluded that D-003 reduced the incidence, number and percent areas of osteonecrosis lesions, and the size of bone marrow fat cells, a marker of adipogenesis, in rabbits with lipopolysaccharides-induced ostenonecrosis.

  1. The effects of anandamide and oleamide on cognition depend on diurnal variations.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E; Montes-Rodriguez, Corinne J; Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra E; Mendez-Diaz, Monica; Prospero-Garcia, Oscar

    2017-10-01

    Cannabinergic receptor 1 (CB1r) is highly expressed in almost the entire brain; hence, its activation affects diverse functions, including cognitive processes such as learning and memory. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that CB1r expression fluctuates along the light-dark cycle. In this context, the objective of this work was to characterize the cannabinergic influence over cognitive processes and its relationship with the light-dark cycle. To this aim we studied the effects of two endogenous cannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and oleamide (ODA), on the consolidation of memory and event-related potentials (ERPs) depending on the light-dark cycle. Our results indicate that AEA and ODA impair the consolidation of spatial and emotional memories and reduce the amplitude of several components of the ERP complex, depending on the phase of the light-dark cycle. This study further supports the notion that endocannabinoids participate in the regulation of cognitive processes with strong influence of environmental variables such as the light-dark cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Oleamide activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dionisi, Mauro; Alexander, Stephen P H; Bennett, Andrew J

    2012-05-14

    Oleamide (ODA) is a fatty acid primary amide first identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats, which exerts effects on vascular and neuronal tissues, with a variety of molecular targets including cannabinoid receptors and gap junctions. It has recently been reported to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Here, we have investigated the nuclear receptor family of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as potential targets for ODA action. Activation of PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ was assessed using recombinant expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells with a luciferase reporter gene assay. Direct binding of ODA to the ligand binding domain of each of the three PPARs was monitored in a cell-free fluorescent ligand competition assay. A well-established assay of PPARγ activity, the differentiation of 3T3-L1 murine fibroblasts into adipocytes, was assessed using an Oil Red O uptake-based assay. ODA, at 10 and 50 μM, was able to transactivate PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ receptors. ODA bound to the ligand binding domain of all three PPARs, although complete displacement of fluorescent ligand was only evident for PPARγ, at which an IC50 value of 38 μM was estimated. In 3T3-L1 cells, ODA, at 10 and 20 μM, induced adipogenesis. We have, therefore, identified a novel site of action of ODA through PPAR nuclear receptors and shown how ODA should be considered as a weak PPARγ ligand in vitro.

  3. Effect of Capparis spinosa Linn. extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ashish; Digvijaya; Garg, Arun; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive disorders in mankind are not uncommon. Apart from neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD), various stresses also affect cognitive functions. Plants are known to be potential source of compounds that ameliorate several diseases including cognitive impairment. Here, we evaluated effect of aqueous extract of caper (Capparis spinosa) buds on lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in rats using two different oral doses i.e. 10 (pre-treatment) and 30 mg/rat(post-treatment) through assessment of behavioural (Morris Water maze test and Y maze test), biochemical (Cholinesterase assay) and histopathological (H&E staining) parameters. Lipopolysaccharide (from E. coli) administration resulted in an increased neurodegeneration and time taken to reach the platform (in Morris water maze). The increased neurodegeneration in CA1 region of hippocampus was significantly reduced in animals which received caper bud extract; they showed marked reduction in time taken to reach the platform at both the dose levels. The experiment demonstrated that caper bud extract exhibits potential protective effect against learning and memory damage induced by chronic administration of lipopolysaccharide (175 μg/kg) for 7 days. The results suggest that the caper bud extract could be explored for its use in the treatment of cognitive disorders.

  4. Paeonol attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weiwei; Wang, Hanqing; Su, Qiang; Chen, Yanyan; Xue, Wenda; Xia, Baomei; Duan, Jinao; Chen, Gang

    2016-04-30

    The present study was designed to detect the anti-depressant effects of paeonol and the possible mechanisms in the lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior. Open-field test(OFT), tail suspension test(TST) and forced swimming test(FST) were used to evaluate the behavioral activity. The contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) in mice hippocampus were determined by HPLC-ECD. Serum interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that LPS significantly decreased the levels of 5-HT and NE in the hippocampus. LPS also reduced open-field activity, as well as increased immobility duration in FST and TST. Paeonol administration could effectively reverse the alterations in the concentrations of 5-HT, NE and reduce the IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Moreover, paeonol effectively downregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in hippocampal. In conclusion, paeonol administration exhibited significant antidepressant-like effects in mice with LPS-induced depression.

  5. Identification and Characterization of Lipopolysaccharide Induced TNFα Factor from Blunt Snout Bream, Megalobrama amblycephala

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yina; Xiang, Xinying; Jiang, Yuhong; Tang, Leilei; Zhou, Yi; Zhong, Huan; Xiao, Jun; Yan, Jinpeng

    2017-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide induced TNFα factor (LITAF) is an important transcription factor responsible for regulation of tumor necrosis factor α. In this study, a novel litaf gene (designated as Malitaf) was identified and characterized from blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala. The full-length cDNA of Malitaf was of 956 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 161 amino acids with high similarity to other known LITAFs. A phylogenetic tree also showed that Malitaf significantly clustered with those of other teleost, indicating that Malitaf was a new member of fish LITAF family. The putative maLITAF protein possessed a highly conserved LITAF domain with two CXXC motifs. The mRNA transcripts of Malitaf were detected in all examined tissues of healthy M. amblycephala, including kidney, head kidney, muscle, liver, spleen, gill, and heart, and with the highest expression in immune organs: spleen and head kidney. The expression level of Malitaf in spleen was rapidly up-regulated and peaked (1.29-fold, p < 0.05) at 2 h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Followed the stimulation of Malitaf, Matnfα transcriptional level was also transiently induced to a high level (51.74-fold, p < 0.001) at 4 h after LPS stimulation. Taken together, we have identified a putative fish LITAF ortholog, which was a constitutive and inducible immune response gene involved in M. amblycephala innate immunity during the course of a pathogenic infection. PMID:28212275

  6. Oleamide activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oleamide (ODA) is a fatty acid primary amide first identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats, which exerts effects on vascular and neuronal tissues, with a variety of molecular targets including cannabinoid receptors and gap junctions. It has recently been reported to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Here, we have investigated the nuclear receptor family of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as potential targets for ODA action. Results Activation of PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ was assessed using recombinant expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells with a luciferase reporter gene assay. Direct binding of ODA to the ligand binding domain of each of the three PPARs was monitored in a cell-free fluorescent ligand competition assay. A well-established assay of PPARγ activity, the differentiation of 3T3-L1 murine fibroblasts into adipocytes, was assessed using an Oil Red O uptake-based assay. ODA, at 10 and 50 μM, was able to transactivate PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ receptors. ODA bound to the ligand binding domain of all three PPARs, although complete displacement of fluorescent ligand was only evident for PPARγ, at which an IC50 value of 38 μM was estimated. In 3T3-L1 cells, ODA, at 10 and 20 μM, induced adipogenesis. Conclusions We have, therefore, identified a novel site of action of ODA through PPAR nuclear receptors and shown how ODA should be considered as a weak PPARγ ligand in vitro. PMID:22584002

  7. Murine P-glycoprotein Deficiency Alters Intestinal Injury Repair and Blunts Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Radioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Staley, Elizabeth M.; Yarbrough, Vanisha R.; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Daft, Joseph G.; Tanner, Scott M.; Steverson, Dennis; Lorenz, Robin G.

    2012-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been reported to increase stem cell proliferation and regulate apoptosis. Absence of P-gp results in decreased repair of intestinal epithelial cells after chemical injury. To further explore the mechanisms involved in the effects of P-gp on intestinal injury and repair, we used the well-characterized radiation injury model. In this model, injury repair is mediated by production of prostaglandins (PGE2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to confer radioprotection. B6.mdr1a−/− mice and wild-type controls were subjected to 12 Gy total body X-ray irradiation and surviving crypts in the proximal jejunum and distal colon were evaluated 3.5 days after irradiation. B6.mdr1a−/−mice exhibited normal baseline stem cell proliferation and COX dependent crypt regeneration after irradiation. However, radiation induced apoptosis was increased and LPS-induced radioprotection was blunted in the C57BL6.mdr1a−/−distal colon, compared to B6 wild-type controls. The LPS treatment induced gene expression of the radioprotective cytokine IL-1α, in B6 wild-type controls but not in B6.mdr1a−/− animals. Lipopolysaccharid-induced radioprotection was absent in IL-1R1−/− animals, indicating a role for IL-1α in radioprotection, and demonstrating that P-gp deficiency interferes with IL-1α gene expression in response to systemic exposure to LPS. PMID:22780103

  8. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles do not modulate the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Salik; Al-Nsour, Faris; Rice, Annette B; Marshburn, Jamie; Ji, Zhaoxia; Zink, Jeffery I; Yingling, Brenda; Walker, Nigel J; Garantziotis, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerium dioxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have potential therapeutic applications and are widely used for industrial purposes. However, the effects of these nanoparticles on primary human cells are largely unknown. The ability of nanoparticles to exacerbate pre-existing inflammatory disorders is not well documented for engineered nanoparticles, and is certainly lacking for CeO2 nanoparticles. We investigated the inflammation-modulating effects of CeO2 nanoparticles at noncytotoxic concentrations in human peripheral blood monocytes. Methods CD14+ cells were isolated from peripheral blood samples of human volunteers. Cells were exposed to either 0.5 or 1 μg/mL of CeO2 nanoparticles over a period of 24 or 48 hours with or without lipopolysaccharide (10 ng/mL) prestimulation. Modulation of the inflammatory response was studied by measuring secreted tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, macrophage chemotactic protein-1, interferon-gamma, and interferon gamma-induced protein 10. Results CeO2 nanoparticle suspensions were thoroughly characterized using dynamic light scattering analysis (194 nm hydrodynamic diameter), zeta potential analysis (−14 mV), and transmission electron microscopy (irregular-shaped particles). Transmission electron microscopy of CD14+ cells exposed to CeO2 nanoparticles revealed that these nanoparticles were efficiently internalized by monocytes and were found either in vesicles or free in the cytoplasm. However, no significant differences in secreted cytokine profiles were observed between CeO2 nanoparticle-treated cells and control cells at noncytotoxic doses. No significant effects of CeO2 nanoparticle exposure subsequent to lipopolysaccharide priming was observed on cytokine secretion. Moreover, no significant difference in lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production was observed after exposure to CeO2 nanoparticles followed by lipopolysaccharide exposure. Conclusion CeO2 nanoparticles at noncytotoxic concentrations neither

  9. Probucol attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced leukocyte recruitment and inflammatory hyperalgesia: effect on NF-кB activation and cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Zucoloto, Amanda Z; Manchope, Marília F; Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Zarpelon, Ana C; Saraiva, André L L; Cecílio, Nerry Tatiana; Alves-Filho, José C; Cunha, Thiago M; Menezes, Gustavo B; Cunha, Fernando Q; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2017-08-15

    Probucol 4,4'- (Isopropylidenedithio)bis(2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) is a synthetic molecule clinically used for prevention and treatment of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial effects of probucol mainly derive from its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Gram-negative bacteria are common infectious agents and their wall components, e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are important elicitors of inflammation. LPS is sensed by tissue resident cells and it triggers a Toll-like receptor 4/MyD88-dependent signaling cascade resulting in endothelial activation, leukocyte recruitment and nociception. Therefore the present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of probucol in models of LPS-induced acute inflammation. Probucol at 0.3-30mg/kg was administrated to male Swiss mice per oral 1h before intraplantar or intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide stimulus. Probucol at 3mg/kg reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. These effects were accompanied by reduced leukocyte influx and cytokine production in both paw skin and peritoneum exudate. Unexpectedly, probucol did not alter lipopolysaccharide-induced tissue oxidative stress at anti-inflammatory /analgesic dose. On the other hand, probucol inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-кB) activation in paw tissue as well as NF-кB activity in cultured macrophages in vitro, reinforcing the inhibitory effect of probucol over the NF-кB signaling pathway. In this sense, we propose that probucol acts on resident immune cells, such as macrophages, targeting the NF-кB pathway. As a result, it prevents the amplification and persistence of the inflammatory response by attenuating NF-кB-dependent cytokine production and leukocyte recruitment explaining its analgesic effects as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chlorogenic acid attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mice mastitis by suppressing TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ruifeng, Gao; Yunhe, Fu; Zhengkai, Wei; Ershun, Zhou; Yimeng, Li; Minjun, Yao; Xiaojing, Song; Zhengtao, Yang; Naisheng, Zhang

    2014-04-15

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA), one of the most abundant polyphenols in the diet, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of CGA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice mastitis has not been investigated. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate whether CGA could ameliorate the inflammation response in LPS-induced mice mastitis and to clarify the possible mechanism. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. CGA was administered intraperitoneally with the dose of 12.5, 25, and 50mg/kg respectively 1h before and 12h after induction of LPS. In this study, the effect of CGA on LPS-induced mice mastitis was assessed through histopathological examination, ELISA assay, and western blot analysis. The results showed that CGA significantly reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production compared with LPS group. Besides, western blot analysis showed that CGA could inhibit the expression of TLR4 and the phosphorylation of NF-κB and IκB induced by LPS. These results suggested that anti-inflammatory effects of CGA against LPS-induced mastitis may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway. Therefore, CGA may be a potent therapeutic reagent for the prevention of the immunopathology encountered during Escherichia coli elicited mastitis.

  11. Tim-4 protects mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liyun; Zhao, Peiqing; Xu, Yong; Gao, Lishuang; Wang, Hongxing; Jia, Xiaoxia; Ma, Hongxin; Liang, Xiaoxong; Ma, Chunxong; Gao, Lifen

    2016-11-01

    Endotoxic shock is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in hospital patients, creating an urgent need to explore the mechanisms involved in sepsis. Our previous studies showed that T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-4 (Tim-4) attenuated the inflammatory response through regulating the functions of macrophages. However, the mechanism by which Tim-4 does this has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we found that Tim-4 expression was increased in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic shock. Interestingly, the survival rate of mice in the Tim-4 overexpression group was higher than that of the control group after LPS administration. To investigate the function of Tim-4 in LPS-induced inflammation, we further demonstrated that Tim-4 attenuated LPS-induced endotoxic shock by inhibiting cytokine production by macrophages. Blocking expression of Tim-4 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signal inhibition showed that Tim-4 inhibited cytokine production via NF-κB signaling pathway. This study indicates that Tim-4 may exert its immune modulation by regulating inflammatory factor secretion and might act as a novel potential target for inflammatory diseases, especially endotoxic shock.

  12. A fraction of stem bark extract of Entada africana suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Ayissi Owona, Brice; Njayou, Nico Frederic; Laufer, Stefan; Moundipa, Paul Fewou; Schluesener, Hermann J

    2013-08-26

    Entada africana is a plant used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of stomachache, fever, liver related diseases, wound healing, cataract and dysentery. This study aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of fractions of the stem bark extract of the plant using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages model. The crude extract was prepared using the mixture CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1, v/v) and fractionated by flash chromatography using solvents of increasing polarity to obtain five different fractions. The effects of the fractions on the cells viability were studied by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and their inhibitory activity against LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production screened by Griess test. The most active fraction was further investigated for its effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production using flux cytometry, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL1β, TNFα, IL6, IL10 and IL13) by RT-PCR, and the activity of the enzyme p38 MAPK kinase by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The fractions presented no significant effect on the viability of macrophages at 100 μg/ml after 24h incubation. The CH2Cl2/MeOH 5% (Ea5) fraction was found to be the most potent in inhibiting NO production with a half inhibition concentration (IC50)=18.36 μg/ml, and showed the highest inhibition percentage (89.068%) in comparison with Baicalin (63.34%), an external standard at 50 μg/ml. Ea5, as well as Baicalin significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the expression of TNFα, IL6 and IL1β mRNA, attenuated mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase in a concentration-dependent manner, stimulated the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10 and IL13), and showed a 30% inhibition of the activity of p38 MAPK kinase. The results of the present study indicate that the fraction Ea5 of Entada africana possesses most potent in vitro anti-inflammatory activity and may contain compounds useful as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory related diseases cause by over-activation of macrophages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxidized low density lipoprotein suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in microglia: Oxidative stress acts through control of inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ohn Soon; Lee, Chang Seok; Joe, Eun-hye; Jou, Ilo . E-mail: jouilo@ajou.ac.kr

    2006-03-31

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is readily oxidized under certain conditions, resulting in the formation of oxidized LDL (oxLDL). Despite numerous in vitro reports that reveal the pathogenic role of oxidative stress, anti-oxidative strategies have underperformed in the clinic. In this study, we examine the role of oxLDL in brain inflammatory responses using cultured rat brain microglia. We demonstrate that oxLDL inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in these cells. It also decreases LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and production of nitric oxide, and reduces LPS-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Oxysterols, known components of oxLDL and endogenous agonists of liver X receptor, can simulate the inhibitory effects of oxLDL in LPS-activated microglia. In addition, their inhibitory effects were mimicked by liver X receptor (LXR) agonists and potentiated by a retinoid X receptor agonist, suggesting these molecules heterodimerize to function as oxysterol receptors. Taken together, our results demonstrate that oxLDL inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses in brain microglia and that these inhibitory effects are mediated by oxysterols and, at least in part, by the nuclear receptor LXR. Our results suggest an additional mechanism of action for oxidative stress that acts indirectly via modulation of inflammatory responses. Although further studies are needed, these results answer in part the question of why anti-oxidative strategies have not been successful in clinical situations. Moreover, as brain inflammation participates in the initiation and progression of several neurodegenerative disorders, the present data provide information that should prove a useful guide for designing therapeutic strategies to combat oxidative brain diseases.

  14. Pyrrole Oligoglycosides from the Starfish Acanthaster planci Suppress Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in RAW264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Vien, Le Thi; Hanh, Tran Thi Hong; Huong, Phan Thi Thanh; Dang, Nguyen Hai; Thanh, Nguyen Van; Lyakhova, Ekaterina; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Kiem, Phan Van; Kicha, Alla; Minh, Chau Van

    2016-11-01

    Two new pyrrole oligoglycosides, plancipyrrosides A and B (1 and 2), were isolated from methanol extract of the Vietnamese starfish Acanthaster planci using various chromatographic procedures. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including one and two dimensional (1D- and 2D)-NMR and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)-MS. The finding of 1 and 2 represents the third case of pyrrole oligoglycosides obtaining reported to date. Moreover, plancipyrroside B (2) exhibits a potent inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells with IC50 of 5.94±0.34 µM, whereas plancipyrroside A (1) shows this inhibitory activity with IC50 of 16.61±1.85 µM.

  15. Effect of non-toxic mercury, zinc or cadmium pretreatment on the capacity of human monocytes to undergo lipopolysaccharide-induced activation

    PubMed Central

    Koropatnick, J; Zalups, R K

    1997-01-01

    Metal salts can inhibit cell activity through direct toxicity to critical cellular molecules and structures. On the other hand, they can also change cell behaviour by inducing specific genes (including genes encoding members of the metallothionein [MT] gene family). Therefore, transition metals may affect cell functions either by acting as a toxin, or by transmitting or influencing signals controlling gene expression.To explore the latter possibility, we measured the ability of low, non-toxic metal pretreatment to alter immune cell behaviour. We previously found that pretreatment of human monocytes with zinc induces metallothionein gene expression and alters their capacity to undergo a bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced respiratory burst. We showed here that cadmium and mercury salts, at concentrations that exert no discernible toxicity, inhibit activation of human monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cells. CdCl2 1 μM, ZnCl2 20–40 μM or HgCl2 2 μM pretreatment for 20 h induced MT-2 mRNA and total MT protein accumulation and had no effect on proliferation potential or metabolic activity, but significantly inhibited the ability of subsequent lipopolysaccharide treatment to induce the oxidative burst, increased adhesion to plastic, and MT-2 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA accumulation.The phenomenon of metal-induced suppression of monocyte activation, at metal concentrations that have no effect on cell viability, has important implications for assessment of acceptable levels of human exposure to cadmium, zinc and mercury. PMID:9138684

  16. Bowman-Birk inhibitor and genistein among soy compounds that synergistically inhibit nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 pathways in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inflammation has an important role in the development of chronic diseases. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of eight soybean bioactive compounds using lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Genistein, daidzein, mix isoflavone glucosides, saponin A group glyco...

  17. Fish Oil Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior by Inhibiting Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhe; Ren, Huixia; Huang, Zhijian; Peng, Yu; He, Baixuan; Yao, Xiaoli; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Su, Huanxing

    2016-11-04

    Depression is associated with somatic immune changes, and neuroinflammation is now recognized as hallmark for depressive disorders. N-3 (or omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are well known to suppress neuroinflammation, reduce oxidative stress, and protect neuron from injury. We pretreated animals with fish oil and induced acute depression-like behaviors with systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. The levels of cytokines and stress hormones were determined from plasma and different brain areas. The results showed that fish oil treatment prevent LPS-induce depressive behavior by suppression of neuroinflammation. LPS induced acute neuroinflammation in different brain regions, which were prevented in fish oil fed mice. However, neither LPS administration nor fish oil treatment has strong effect on stress hormone secretion in the hypothalamus and adrenal. Fish oil might provide a useful therapy against inflammation-associated depression.

  18. Inhibitory effects of β-chamigrenal, isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis, on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in RAW 264.7 macrophages [corrected].

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Ryu, Suran; Cho, Young-Wuk; Kim, Hyun Ji; Jang, Dae Sik; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2014-06-01

    Much is known about the bioactive properties of lignans from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis. However, very little work has been done to determine the properties of sesquiterpenes in the fruits of S. chinensis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of new sesquiterpenes (β-chamigrenal, β-chamigrenic acid, α-ylangenol, and α-ylangenyl acetate) isolated from the fruits of S. chinensis and to explore their effect on macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Of these four sesquiterpenes, β-chamigrenal most significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in RAW 264.7 macrophages (47.21 ± 4.54 % and 51.61 ± 3.95 % at 50 µM, respectively). Molecularly, the inhibitory activity of β-chamigrenal on nitric oxide production was mediated by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase activity but not its expression. In the prostaglandin E2 synthesis pathway, β-chamigrenal prevented the upregulation of inducible microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 expression after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Conversely, β-chamigrenal had no effect on the expression and enzyme activity of cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, the expression of early growth response factor-1, a key transcription factor of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 expression, was inhibited by β-chamigrenal. These results may suggest a possible anti-inflammatory activity of β-chamigrenal which has to be proven in in vivo experiments.

  19. Conditioned media from adipose stromal cells limit lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury, endothelial hyperpermeability and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongyan; Poirier, Christophe; Cook, Todd; Traktuev, Dmitry O; Merfeld-Clauss, Stephanie; Lease, Benjamin; Petrache, Irina; March, Keith L; Bogatcheva, Natalia V

    2015-02-21

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a condition that contributes to morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. We investigated whether factors secreted by adipose stromal cells (ASC) into conditioned media (ASC-CM) will effectively decrease lung injury in the model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS. To assess the effect of ASC-CM on ARDS indices, intravenous delivery of ASC and ASC-CM to C57Bl/6 mice was carried out 4 h after LPS oropharyngeal aspiration; Evans Blue Dye (EBD) was injected intravenously 1 h prior to animal sacrifice (48 h post-LPS). Lungs were either fixed for histopathology, or used to extract bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or EBD. To assess the effect of ASC-CM on endothelial barrier function and apoptosis, human pulmonary artery endothelial cells were treated with ASC-CM for 48-72 h. ASC-CM markedly reduced LPS-induced histopathologic changes of lung, protein extravasation into BALF, and suppressed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL6. White Blood Cells (WBC) from BALF of LPS-challenged mice receiving ASC-CM had decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation compared to WBC from LPS-challenged mice receiving control media injection. Treatment of pulmonary endothelial monolayers with ASC-CM significantly suppressed H2O2-induced leakage of FITC dextran and changes in transendothelial resistance, as well as gap formation in endothelial monolayer. ASC-CM exposure reduced the percentage of endothelial cells expressing ICAM-1, and suppressed TNFα-induced expression of E-selectin and cleavage of caspase-3. ASC-CM reduced the endothelial level of pro-apoptotic protein Bim, but did not affect the level of Bcl-2, Bad, or Bad phosphorylation. Factors secreted by ASC efficiently reduce ARDS indices, endothelial barrier hyperpermeability, and activation of pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic pathways in endothelium.

  20. Ethanol extract of Elaeocarpus petiolatus inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Park, Ji-Won; Jang, Ha-Young; Joung, Hyouk; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Oh, Sei-Ryang

    2012-04-01

    Elaeocarpus petiolatus is known to exert active oxygen scavenging, anti-aging, and whitening actions. However, the biological effects of E. petiolatus on inflammation and the underlying mechanisms are yet to be established. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanol extract from E. petiolatus (EPE) bark in murine Raw264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). EPE inhibited the production of PGE(2), TNF-α, and IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner in Raw264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. The decrease in PGE(2) production was correlated with reduced COX-2 expression. Furthermore, EPE suppressed the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 as well as translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit from the cytosol to nucleus. Our results suggest that EPE exerts anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of inflammatory mediators, such as PGE(2), TNF-α, and IL-1β, and downregulation of COX-2 via suppression of NF-κB translocation and phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 cells.

  1. Interleukin-13 Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced BPIFA1 Expression in Nasal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Chen; Hsu, Hui-Ying; Wu, Lii-Tzu; Chiang-Ni, Chuan; Chen, Chih-Jung; Wu, Tsu-Fang; Kao, Min-Chuan; Chen, Yu-An; Peng, Ming-Te; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Lai, Chih-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) protein is expressed in human nasopharyngeal and respiratory epithelium and has demonstrated antimicrobial activity. SPLUNC1 is now referred to as bactericidal/permeability-increasing fold containing family A, member 1 (BPIFA1). Reduced BPIFA1 expression is associated with bacterial colonization in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Interleukin 13 (IL-13), predominately secreted by T helper 2 (TH2) cells, has been found to contribute to airway allergies and suppress BPIFA1 expression in nasal epithelial cells. However, the molecular mechanism of IL-13 perturbation of bacterial infection and BPIFA1 expression in host airways remains unclear. In this study, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BPIFA1 expression in nasal epithelial cells was mediated through the JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway and AP-1 activation. We further demonstrated that IL-13 downregulated the LPS-induced activation of phosphorylated JNK and c-Jun, followed by attenuation of BPIFA1 expression. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis showed that IL-13 prominently suppressed BPIFA1 expression in eosinophilic CRSwNP patients with bacterial infection. Taken together, these results suggest that IL-13 plays a critical role in attenuation of bacteria-induced BPIFA1 expression that may result in eosinophilic CRSwNP. PMID:26646664

  2. Sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation will increase in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Wen-Qi; Hu, Yu-Juan; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Kong, Wen; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2015-05-29

    .01). Short-term exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation could not directly induce DNA damage in normal spiral ganglion neurons, but it could cause the changes of cellular ultrastructure at special SAR 4.0 W/kg when cells are in fragile or micro-damaged condition. It seems that the sensitivity of SGN to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation will increase in a lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro model.

  3. Sesamin Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Inhibition of TLR4 Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Li; Yuan, Jiang; Shouyin, Jiang; Yulin, Li; Libing, Jiang; Jian-An, Wang

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies suggested that TLR4 signaling pathways played an important role in the development of LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Sesamin, a sesame lignan exacted from sesame seeds, has been shown to exhibit significant anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of sesamin on LPS-induced ALI in mice. Mice ALI model was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS. Sesamin was given 1 h after LPS challenge. Our results showed that sesamin inhibited LPS-induced lung pathological change, edema, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Sesamin suppressed LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production. Furthermore, sesamin inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 expression and NF-κB activation. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that sesamin protected against LPS-induced ALI by inhibition of TLR4 signaling pathways.

  4. Ceramide-CD300f Binding Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-induced Skin Inflammation*

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Emiko; Izawa, Kumi; Kaitani, Ayako; Isobe, Masamichi; Maehara, Akie; Uchida, Koichiro; Maeda, Keiko; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Kitamura, Toshio; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Kitaura, Jiro

    2017-01-01

    LPS triggers inflammatory responses; however, the negative regulation of LPS responses in vivo remains poorly understood. CD300f is an inhibitory receptor among the CD300 family of paired activating and inhibitory receptors. We have previously identified ceramide as a ligand for CD300f and shown that the binding of ceramide to CD300f inhibits IgE-mediated mast cell activation and allergic responses in mouse models. Here we identify the critical role of CD300f in inhibiting LPS-induced skin inflammation. CD300f deficiency remarkably enhanced LPS-induced skin edema and neutrophil recruitment in mice. Higher levels of factors that increase vascular permeability and of factors that induce neutrophil recruitment were detected in LPS-injected skin pouch exudates of CD300f−/− mice as compared with wild-type mice. CD300f was highly expressed in mast cells and recruited neutrophils, but not in macrophages, among skin myeloid cells. CD300f deficiency failed to influence the intrinsic migratory ability of neutrophils. Ceramide-CD300f binding suppressed the release of chemical mediators from mast cells and from neutrophils in response to LPS. Adoptive transfer experiments indicated that mast cells mediated enhanced edema in LPS-stimulated skin of CD300f−/− mice, whereas mast cells together with recruited neutrophils mediated robust neutrophil accumulation. Importantly, administering a ceramide antibody or ceramide-containing vesicles enhanced or suppressed LPS-induced skin inflammation of wild-type mice, respectively. Thus, ceramide-CD300f binding inhibits LPS-induced skin inflammation, implicating CD300f as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in vivo. PMID:28073916

  5. Pharmacologic studies on ET-26 hydrochloride in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Jiang, Junli; Yang, Jun; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Zhaoqiong; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wensheng

    2017-09-04

    ET-26 hydrochloride (ET-26 HCl) is a promising sedation-hypnotic compound with stable hemodynamic features that elicits virtually no adrenocortical suppression. However, whether it preserves better pharmacologic characteristics in a rat model of sepsis is not known. This study compared the survival rate, levels of corticosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and histologic injury in the lungs and kidneys of rats suffering from sepsis treated with ET-26 HCl, etomidate, or normal saline (NS). Rats were given lipopolysaccharide (1mg/kg body weight, i.v.) to establish a sepsis model. Thirty minutes after lipopolysaccharide administration, ET-26 HCl, etomidate or NS were given as a bolus injection at equivalent doses. Plasma levels of corticosterone, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24h after administration. Histologic injury was observed at the time of death or 24h after drug administration. The survival rate for rats in the etomidate, ET-26 HCl and NS groups was 40%, 90% and 90%, respectively. Corticosterone concentrations in the etomidate group were lower than those in the other groups 1h after administration of hypnotic compounds. Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the ET-26 HCl group and NS group were not significantly different, but were significantly lower than those in the etomidate group. The injury scores of kidneys and lungs in the etomidate group were higher than those in ET-26 HCl and NS groups. ET-26 HCl showed virtually no suppression of corticosterone synthesis, lower concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, higher survival rate, and less organ injury in rats suffering from sepsis compared with the etomidate group. It may be safer to induce anesthesia using ET-26 HCl, rather than etomidate, in patients suffering from sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ceramide-CD300f Binding Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-induced Skin Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Emiko; Izawa, Kumi; Kaitani, Ayako; Isobe, Masamichi; Maehara, Akie; Uchida, Koichiro; Maeda, Keiko; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Kitamura, Toshio; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Kitaura, Jiro

    2017-02-17

    LPS triggers inflammatory responses; however, the negative regulation of LPS responses in vivo remains poorly understood. CD300f is an inhibitory receptor among the CD300 family of paired activating and inhibitory receptors. We have previously identified ceramide as a ligand for CD300f and shown that the binding of ceramide to CD300f inhibits IgE-mediated mast cell activation and allergic responses in mouse models. Here we identify the critical role of CD300f in inhibiting LPS-induced skin inflammation. CD300f deficiency remarkably enhanced LPS-induced skin edema and neutrophil recruitment in mice. Higher levels of factors that increase vascular permeability and of factors that induce neutrophil recruitment were detected in LPS-injected skin pouch exudates of CD300f(-/-) mice as compared with wild-type mice. CD300f was highly expressed in mast cells and recruited neutrophils, but not in macrophages, among skin myeloid cells. CD300f deficiency failed to influence the intrinsic migratory ability of neutrophils. Ceramide-CD300f binding suppressed the release of chemical mediators from mast cells and from neutrophils in response to LPS. Adoptive transfer experiments indicated that mast cells mediated enhanced edema in LPS-stimulated skin of CD300f(-/-) mice, whereas mast cells together with recruited neutrophils mediated robust neutrophil accumulation. Importantly, administering a ceramide antibody or ceramide-containing vesicles enhanced or suppressed LPS-induced skin inflammation of wild-type mice, respectively. Thus, ceramide-CD300f binding inhibits LPS-induced skin inflammation, implicating CD300f as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in vivo. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Effects of tylosin, tilmicosin and tulathromycin on inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Er, Ayse; Yazar, Enver

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides through kinetic parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. Rats were divided into four groups: lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + tylosin, LPS + tilmicosin and LPS + tulathromycin. BALF samples were collected at sampling times. TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2α (PGM) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analysed. Area under the curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values of inflammatory mediators were determined by a pharmacokinetic computer programme. When inflammatory mediator concentrations were compared between the LPS group and other groups for each sampling time, the three macrolides had no pronounced depressor effect on cytokine levels, but they depressed PGM and CRP levels. In addition, tylosin and tilmicosin decreased the AUC0-24 level of TNF, while tilmicosin decreased the AUC0-24 level of IL-10. Tylosin and tulathromycin decreased the AUC0-24 of PGM, and all three macrolides decreased the AUC0-24 of CRP. Especially tylosin and tulathromycin may have more expressed anti-inflammatory effects than tilmicosin, via depressing the production of inflammatory mediators in the lung. The AUC may be used for determining the effects of drugs on inflammation. In this study, the antiinflammatory effects of these antibiotics were evaluated with kinetic parameters as a new and different approach.

  8. Ilex kaushue and Its Bioactive Component 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid Protected Mice from Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Li; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Yu, Huang-Ping; Fang, Jia-You; Chong, Kowit Yu; Chang, Yao-Wen; Chen, Chun-Yu; Yang, Hsuan-Wu; Chang, Wen-Yi; Hsieh, Pei-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe respiratory disease with high mortality rates worldwide. Recent reports suggest that human neutrophil elastase (HNE) plays a key role in the inflammatory response that is characteristic of ALI, which indicates that the development of HNE inhibitors could be an efficient treatment strategy. In the current study, an enzyme-based screening assay was used to identify effective HNE inhibitors from a number of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). Among them, a water extract of Ilex kaushue (IKWE) effectively inhibited HNE activity (IC50, 11.37 ± 1.59 μg/mL). Using bioactivity-guided fractionation, one new compound and 23 known compounds were identified. Compound 6 (identified as 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid; 3,5-DCQA) exerted the most potent and selective inhibitory effect on HNE activity (IC50, 1.86 ± 0.06 μM). In a cell-based assay, 3,5-DCQA not only directly reduced superoxide generation and elastase activity but also attenuated the Src family kinase (SRKs)/Vav signaling pathway in N-formyl-L-Met-L-Leu-L-Phe (fMLF)-stimulated human neutrophils. In an animal disease model, both 3,5-DCQA and standardized IKWE protected against lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI in mice, which provides support for their potential as candidates in the development of new therapeutic agents for neutrophilic inflammatory diseases. PMID:27681838

  9. Inhibitory activity of phenolic glycosides from the fruits of Idesia polycarpa on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in BV2 microglia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jang, Young Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun; Kim, Young Choong

    2007-02-01

    Two new phenolic glycosides characterized as idesin salicylate (1) and 2-hydroxyphenol-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(6-->1)- alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2) were isolated with four known compounds, idescarpin (3), idesin (4), 1-hydroxy-6-oxocyclohex-2-enecarboxylic acid methyl ester (5) and salirepin (6), from the fruits of IDESIA POLYCARPA. All six compounds significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in BV2 microglia at concentrations from 1 microM to 100 microM.

  10. Bis(bibenzyls) from liverworts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible NOS in RAW 264.7 cells: a study of structure-activity relationships and molecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Harinantenaina, Liva; Quang, Dang Ngoc; Takeshi, Nishizawa; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Kohchi, Chie; Soma, Gen-Ichiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2005-12-01

    The inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced NOS by 19 bis(bibenzyls) isolated from liverworts in RAW 264.7 macrophages was evaluated. The presence of phenolic hydroxyls and saturation at 7,8 and/or 7'/8' are required for inhibition of NO production. Among the compounds tested, marchantin A was the most potent, and its inhibitory activity was consistent with the inhibition of LPS-induced iNOS mRNA.

  11. Astragalus mongholicus polysaccharide inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced production of TNF-α and interleukin-8

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Mei; Li, Ke-Shen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of Astragalus mongholicus polysaccharide (APS) on gene expression and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) transcriptional activity in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). METHODS: IEC were divided into control group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group, LPS+ 50 μg/mL APS group, LPS+ 100 μg/mL APS group, LPS+ 200 μg/mL APS group, and LPS+ 500 μg/mL APS group. Levels of mRNAs in LPS-induced inflammatory factors, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8, were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. MAPK protein level was measured by Western blotting. RESULTS: The levels of TNF-α and IL-8 mRNAs were significantly higher in IEC with LPS-induced damage than in control cells. APS significantly abrogated the LPS-induced expression of the TNF-α and IL-8 genes. APS did not block the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase or c Jun amino-terminal kinase, but inhibited the activation of p38, suggesting that APS inhibits LPS-induced production of TNF-α and IL-8 mRNAs, possibly by suppressing the p38 signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: APS-modulated bacterial product-mediated p38 signaling represents an attractive strategy for prevention and treatment of intestinal inflammation. PMID:19653348

  12. Melatonin Attenuates Manganese and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Activation of BV2 Microglia.

    PubMed

    Park, Euteum; Chun, Hong Sung

    2017-02-01

    Melatonin, a naturally occurring neurohormone in the pineal gland, has been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the effects of melatonin on manganese (Mn) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation. Melatonin (10 μM) inhibited Mn (100 μM) and/or LPS (0.5 μg/ml)-induced phagocytotic activity of activated BV2 microglia. It also inhibited the lipid peroxidation and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion induced by Mn and/or LPS. Melatonin effectively suppressed the upregulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at both mRNA and protein levels in Mn and/or LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. In addition, melatonin pretreatment attenuated Mn and/or LPS-induced degradation of IκB-α, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its activation, and the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) in BV2 microglial cells. These results suggest that melatonin can effectively modulate phagocytosis and expression of proinflammatory mediators, and can prevent neuroinflammatory disorders accompanied by microglial activation.

  13. Protective effects of melatonin on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Guoxi; Tian, Yinggang; Wang, Haiyu; Liu, Fangning; Xie, Guanghong

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin, a secretory product of the pineal gland, has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the protective effects of melatonin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of melatonin on LPS-induced mastitis both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, our results showed that melatonin attenuated LPS-induced mammary histopathologic changes and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Melatonin also inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in mammary tissues. In vitro, melatonin was found to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in mouse mammary epithelial cells. Melatonin also suppressed LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, melatonin was found to up-regulate the expression of PPAR-γ. Inhibition of PPAR-γ by GW9662 reduced the anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin. In conclusion, we found that melatonin, for the first time, had protective effects on LPS-induced mastitis in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of melatonin was through activating PPAR-γ which subsequently inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory responses.

  14. Protective Effect of Isorhamnetin on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Li, Xiao-Ping; Ni, Yun-Feng; Du, Hong-Yin; Wang, Rong; Li, Ming-Jiang; Wang, Wen-Chen; Li, Ming-Ming; Wang, Xu-Hui; Li, Lei; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Jiang, Tao

    2016-02-01

    Isorhamnetin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-proliferative effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of isorhamnetin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice by inhibiting the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The effects of isorhamnetin on LPS-induced lung pathological damage, wet/dry ratios and the total protein level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inflammatory cytokine release, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were examined. In addition, the COX-2 activation in lung tissues was detected by Western blot. Isorhamnetin pretreatment improved the mice survival rates. Moreover, isorhamnetin pretreatment significantly attenuated edema and the pathological changes in the lung and inhibited protein extravasation in BALF. Isorhamnetin also significantly decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines in BALF. In addition, isorhamnetin markedly prevented LPS-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, isorhamnetin pretreatment significantly suppressed LPS-induced activation of COX-2. Isorhamnetin has been demonstrated to protect mice from LPS-induced ALI by inhibiting the expression of COX-2.

  15. Protective effects of kaempferol on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Rongfeng; Fu, Kaiqiang; Lv, Xiaopei; Li, Weishi; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Kaempferol isolated from the root of Zingiberaceae plants galangal and other Chinese herbal medicines have been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis are unknown and their underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of kaempferol on LPS-induced mouse mastitis. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. Kaempferol was injected 1 h before and 12 h after induction of LPS intraperitoneally. The present results showed that kaempferol markedly reduced infiltration of neutrophilic granulocyte, activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO), expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner, which were increased in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Furthermore, kaempferol suppressed the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor IκBα. All results suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol against the LPS-induced mastitis possibly through inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Kaempferol may be a potential therapeutic agent for mastitis.

  16. Vitexin alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced islet cell injury by inhibiting HMGB1 release

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feifei; Yin, Jiajing; Ma, Yujin; Jiang, Hongwei; Li, Yanbo

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease, where the predominant pathogenesis is pancreatic β-cells dysfunction or injury. It has been well established that inflammation leads to a gradual exhaustion of pancreatic β-cell function with decreased β-cell mass likely resulting from pancreatic β-cells apoptosis or death. Vitexin, a major bioactive flavonoid compound in plants has numerous pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimyeloperoxidase. Whether vitexin can protect pancreatic β-cells against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and apoptosis has received little attention. The present study investigated the potential effects of vitexin on LPS-induced pancreatic β-cell injury and apoptosis. It was revealed that apoptosis and damage induced by LPS in islet tissue of rats and INS-1 cells was significantly decreased in response to vitexin treatment. In addition, pretreatment with vitexin decreased the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in LPS-induced rats. Further experiments demonstrated that vitexin pretreatment suppressed the activation of P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in LPS-induced INS-1 cells. In conclusion, the results indicated that vitexin prevented LPS-induced islet tissue damage in rats, and INS-1 cells injury and apoptosis by inhibiting HMGB1 release. Therefore, the present study provided clear evidence indicating that vitexin may be a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DM. PMID:28098903

  17. Chemical Profiles and Protective Effect of Hedyotis diffusa Willd in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Inflammation Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jian-Hong; Liu, Meng-Hua; Zhang, Xu-Lin; He, Jing-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Protective effect of Hedyotis diffusa (H. diffusa) Willd against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced renal inflammation was evaluated by the productions of cytokines and chemokine, and the bioactive constituents of H. diffusa were detected by the ultra-fast liquid chromatography -diode array detector-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS) method. As the results showed, water extract of H. diffusa (equal to 5.0 g/kg body weight) obviously protected renal tissues, significantly suppressed the productions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, as well as significantly promoted the production of IL-10 in serum and renal tissues. According the chemical profiles of H. diffusa, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides and anthraquinones were greatly detected in serum from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. Two main chemotypes, including eight flavonoids and four iridoid glycosides were found in renal tissues from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. The results demonstrated that water extract of H. diffusa had protective effect on renal inflammation, which possibly resulted from the bioactive constituents consisting of flavonoids, iridoids and anthraquinones. PMID:26580602

  18. Hypersensitivity of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Deficient Mice to Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Septic Shock▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Hiroki; Mimura, Junsei; Oshima, Motohiko; Okawa, Hiromi; Kanno, Jun; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Ikuta, Togo; Kawajiri, Kaname; Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, is known to mediate a wide variety of pharmacological and toxicological effects caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Recent studies have revealed that AhR is involved in the normal development and homeostasis of many organs. Here, we demonstrate that AhR knockout (AhR KO) mice are hypersensitive to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock, mainly due to the dysfunction of their macrophages. In response to LPS, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) of AhR KO mice secreted an enhanced amount of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Since the enhanced IL-1β secretion was suppressed by supplementing Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (Pai-2) expression through transduction with Pai-2-expressing adenoviruses, reduced Pai-2 expression could be a cause of the increased IL-1β secretion by AhR KO mouse BMDM. Analysis of gene expression revealed that AhR directly regulates the expression of Pai-2 through a mechanism involving NF-κB but not AhR nuclear translocator (Arnt), in an LPS-dependent manner. Together with the result that administration of the AhR ligand 3-methylcholanthrene partially protected mice with wild-type AhR from endotoxin-induced death, these results raise the possibility that an appropriate AhR ligand may be useful for treating patients with inflammatory disorders. PMID:19822660

  19. Therapeutic Effect of the Tuber of Alisma orientale on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kwun, Min Jung; Choi, Jun-Yong; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Yong Gyu; Christman, John W.; Sadikot, Ruxana T.

    2013-01-01

    Although Alisma orientale, an ethnic herb, has been prescribed for treating various diseases in Asian traditional medicine, experimental evidence to support its therapeutic effects is lacking. Here, we sought to determine whether A. orientale has a therapeutic effect on acute lung injury (ALI). Ethanol extract of the tuber of A. orientale (EEAO) was prepared and fingerprinted by HPLC for its constituents. Mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for the induction of ALI. At 2 h after LPS treatment, mice received an intratracheal (i.t.) spraying of various amounts of EEAO to the lung. Bioluminescence imaging of transgenic NF-κB/luciferase reporter mice shows that i.t. EEAO posttreatment suppressed lung inflammation. In similar experiments with C57BL/6 mice, EEAO posttreatment significantly improved lung inflammation, as assessed by H&E staining of lung sections, counting of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and semiquantitative RT-PCR analyses of proinflammatory cytokines and Nrf2-dependent genes in the inflamed lungs. Furthermore, EEAO posttreatment enhanced the survival of mice that received a lethal dose of LPS. Together, our results provide evidence that A. orientale has a therapeutic effect on ALI induced by sepsis. PMID:23983806

  20. Mucoactive effects of naringin in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury mice and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Wu, Hao; Nie, Yi-chu; Li, Pei-bo; Shen, Jian-gang; Su, Wei-wei

    2014-07-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that naringin attenuates EGF-induced MUC5AC hypersecretion in A549 cells by suppressing the cooperative activities of MAPKs/AP-1 and IKKs/IκB/NF-κB signaling pathways. However, the volume of airway mucus is determined by two factors including the number of mucous cells and capacity of mucus secretion. The aim of the present study is to explore the mucoactive effects of naringin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mice and beagle dogs. The results demonstrated that naringin of 12.4 mg/kg treatment significantly decreased LPS-induced enhancement of sputum volume and pulmonary inflammation, remarkably increased the subglottic sputum volume and solids content in sputum of lower trachea, while partially, but not fully, significantly increased the elasticity and viscosity of sputum in lower trachea of beagle dogs. Moreover, the MUC5AC content in BALF and goblet-cells in large airways of LPS-induced ALI mice were significantly attenuated by dexamethasone (5 mg/kg), ambroxol (25 mg/kg), and naringin (15, 60 mg/kg). However, the goblet-cells hyperplasia in small airways induced by LPS was only significantly inhibited by dexamethasone and naringin (60 mg/kg). In conclusion, naringin exhibits mucoactive effects through multiple targets which including reduction of goblet cells hyperplasia and mucus hypersecretion, as well as promotion of sputum excretion.

  1. Biochanin A inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokines and mediators production in BV2 microglia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Wei-An

    2015-01-01

    Biochanin A, one of the major isoflavonoids in red clover or cabbage, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of biochanin A has not been completely elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. The results showed that biochanin A suppressed LPS-induced inflammatory mediators nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β production. LPS-induced NF-κB activation was also inhibited by biochanin A. In addition, biochanin A up-regulated the expression of PPAR-γ and the anti-inflammatory effects of biochanin A can be abolished by PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662. These results suggest that biochanin A exerts an anti-inflammatory property by activating PPAR-γ, thereby attenuating NF-κB activation and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

  2. Effect of azithromycin on Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of interleukin-6 in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jin, Ji-Young; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2014-04-15

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key proinflammatory cytokine which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Host modulatory agents targeting at inhibiting IL-6, therefore, appear to be beneficial in slowing the progression of periodontal disease and potentially reducing destructive aspects of the host response. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin on IL-6 generation in murine macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in inflammatory periodontal disease, and its mechanisms of action. Azithromycin significantly suppressed IL-6 production as well as its mRNA expression in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. LPS-induced activation of JNK and p38 was not affected by azithromycin treatment. Azithromycin failed to prevent P. intermedia LPS from degrading IκB-α. Instead, azithromycin significantly diminished nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-κB p50 subunit induced with LPS. Azithromycin inhibited P. intermedia LPS-induced STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, azithromycin up-regulated the mRNA level of SOCS1 in cells treated with LPS. In conclusion, azithromycin significantly attenuated P. intermedia LPS-induced production of IL-6 in murine macrophages via inhibition of NF-κB, STAT1 and STAT3 activation, which is possibly related to the activation of SOCS1 signaling. Further in vivo studies are required to better evaluate the potential of azithromycin in the treatment of periodontal disease.

  3. Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenjiao; Chen, Qianying; Li, Peijin; Lu, Qianfeng; Pei, Xue; Sun, Yilin; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Kun

    2017-02-01

    Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate (MI) is a magnesium salt of 18α-GA stereoisomer which has been reported to exert hepatoprotective activity. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the underlying mechanisms behind the action of Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate on neuroinflammatation and oxidative stress in LPS-stimulated mice. Mice were pretreated with Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate (MI, 25, 50mg/kg) as well as fluoxetine (Flu, positive control, 20mg/kg) once daily for one week before intraperitoneal injection of LPS (0.83mg/kg). Pretreatments with MI and Flu significantly improved immobility time in tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST) as well as locomotor activity in open-field test (OFT). In addition, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in serum and hippocampus were also suppressed effectively by MI and Flu administrations. Western blot analysis showed the up-regulated levels of p-Jak3, p-STAT3, p-NF-κBp65, and p-IκBα in mice exposed to LPS, while different degrees of down-regulation in these expression were observed in MI (25, 50mg/kg) and Flu (20mg/kg) groups respectively. Taken together, our obtained results demonstrated that Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate (MI) exhibited an antidepressant-like effect in LPS-induced mice, which might be mediated by JAK/STAT/NF-κB signaling pathway.

  4. Sesamin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and extracellular matrix catabolism in rat intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Li, Kang; Li, Yan; Xu, Bo; Mao, Lu; Zhao, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration contributes to most spinal degenerative diseases, while treatment inhibiting IVD degeneration is still in the experimental stage. Sesamin, a bioactive component extracted from sesame, has been reported to exert chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we analyzed the anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects of sesamin on rat IVD in vitro and ex vivo. Results show that sesamin significantly inhibits the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of catabolic enzymes (MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, ADAMTS-5) and inflammation factors (IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, NO, COX-2, PGE2) in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. It is also proven that migration of macrophages induced by LPS can be inhibited by treatment with sesamin. Organ culture experiments demonstrate that sesamin protects the IVD from LPS-induced depletion of the extracellular matrix ex vivo. Moreover, sesamin suppresses LPS-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway through inhibiting phosphorylation of JNK, the common downstream signaling pathway of LPS and IL-1β, which may be the potential mechanism of the effects of sesamin. In light of our results, sesamin protects the IVD from inflammation and extracellular matrix catabolism, presenting positive prospects in the treatment of IVD degenerative diseases.

  5. Lipopolysaccharide Induces Human Pulmonary Micro-Vascular Endothelial Apoptosis via the YAP Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Lei; Huang, Xiaoqin; Guo, Feng; Zhou, Zengding; Chang, Mengling; Tang, Jiajun; Huan, Jingning

    2016-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a pathologic increase in lung vascular leakage under septic conditions. LPS-induced human pulmonary micro-vascular endothelial cell (HPMEC) apoptosis launches and aggravates micro-vascular hyper-permeability and acute lung injury (ALI). Previous studies show that the activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway is vital for LPS-induced EC apoptosis. Yes-associated protein (YAP) has been reported to positively regulate intrinsic apoptotic pathway in tumor cells apoptosis. However, the potential role of YAP protein in LPS-induced HPMEC apoptosis has not been determined. In this study, we found that LPS-induced activation and nuclear accumulation of YAP accelerated HPMECs apoptosis. LPS-induced YAP translocation from cytoplasm to nucleus by the increased phosphorylation on Y357 resulted in the interaction between YAP and transcription factor P73. Furthermore, inhibition of YAP by small interfering RNA (siRNA) not only suppressed the LPS-induced HPMEC apoptosis but also regulated P73-mediated up-regulation of BAX and down-regulation of BCL-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that activation of the YAP/P73/(BAX and BCL-2)/caspase-3 signaling pathway played a critical role in LPS-induced HPMEC apoptosis. Inhibition of the YAP might be a potential therapeutic strategy for lung injury under sepsis. PMID:27807512

  6. Viola yedoensis liposoluble fraction ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Xie, Jun-Yun; Li, Hong; Zhang, Yun-Yi; Cao, Jie; Cheng, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Viola yedoensis is a component of traditional Chinese herb medicine for inflammatory diseases. Chemical constituents of V. yedoensis have been shown to possess antibacterial, anti-HIV, and anticoagulant effects in experimental research; however, their anti-inflammatory properties remain to be demonstrated. In this study, a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury was used to investigate the effect of petroleum ether fraction of V. yedoensis (PEVY) on inflammation in vivo. After being shown to have anti-complementary activity in vitro, PEVY was orally administered to the mice at doses of 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg. Treatment with PEVY significantly decreased the wet-to-dry weight ratio of the lung, total cells, red blood cells, protein concentration, and myeloperoxidase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. PEVY markedly attenuated lung injury with improved lung morphology and reduced complement deposition. In addition, PEVY suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Taken together, PEVY protects the lung from acute injury, potentially via inhibiting the activation of the complement system and excessive production of proinflammatory mediators.

  7. Astragalus mongholicus polysaccharide inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced production of TNF-alpha and interleukin-8.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Mei; Li, Ke-Shen

    2009-08-07

    To explore the effect of Astragalus mongholicus polysaccharide (APS) on gene expression and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) transcriptional activity in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). IEC were divided into control group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group, LPS+ 50 microg/mL APS group, LPS+ 100 microg/mL APS group, LPS+ 200 microg/mL APS group, and LPS+ 500 microg/mL APS group. Levels of mRNAs in LPS-induced inflammatory factors, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-8, were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. MAPK protein level was measured by Western blotting. The levels of TNF-alpha and IL-8 mRNAs were significantly higher in IEC with LPS-induced damage than in control cells. APS significantly abrogated the LPS-induced expression of the TNF-alpha and IL-8 genes. APS did not block the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase or c Jun amino-terminal kinase, but inhibited the activation of p38, suggesting that APS inhibits LPS-induced production of TNF-alpha and IL-8 mRNAs, possibly by suppressing the p38 signaling pathway. APS-modulated bacterial product-mediated p38 signaling represents an attractive strategy for prevention and treatment of intestinal inflammation.

  8. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in BV-2 microglia.

    PubMed

    Wang, M J; Huang, H M; Chen, H L; Kuo, J S; Jeng, K C

    2001-05-01

    Levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated derivative (DHEAS) decline during aging and reach even lower levels in Alzheimer's disease (AD). DHEA is known to exhibit a variety of functional activities in the CNS, including an increase of memory and learning, neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects, and the reduction of risk of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. However, the influence of DHEA on the immune functions of glial cells is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of DHEA on activated glia. The production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglia, as a model of glial activation. The results showed that DHEA but not DHEAS significantly inhibited the production of nitrite in the LPS-stimulated BV-2 cell cultures. Pretreatment of BV-2 cells with DHEA reduced the LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. The LPS-induced iNOS activity in BV-2 cells was decreased by the exposure of 100 microM DHEA. Moreover, DHEA suppressed iNOS gene expression in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells did not require de novo synthesis of new proteins or destabilize of iNOS mRNA. Since DHEA is biosynthesized by astrocytes and neurons, our findings suggest that it might have an important regulatory function on microglia.

  9. Clausena anisata-mediated protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Chan-Mi; Shin, In-Sik; Shin, Na-Rae; Hong, Ju-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Kim, Jung-Hee; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Bach, Tran-The; Hai, Do-Van; Quang, Bui-Hong; Choi, Sang-Ho; Lee, Joongku; Myung, Pyung-Keun; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2016-04-01

    Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook.f. ex Benth. (CA), which is widely used in traditional medicine, reportedly exerts antitumor, anti-inflammatory and other important therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential therapeutic effects of CA in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered treatments for 3 days by oral gavage. On day 3, the mice were instilled intranasally with LPS or PBS followed 3 h later by oral CA (30 mg/kg) or vehicle administration. In vitro, CA decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. CA also reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase-2. In vivo, CA administration significantly reduced inflammatory cell numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-1β, as well as reactive oxygen species production in the BALF. CA also effectively reduced airway inflammation in mouse lung tissue of an LPS-induced ALI mouse model, in addition to decreasing inhibitor κB (IκB) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 phosphorylation. Taken together, the findings demonstrated that CA inhibited inflammatory responses in a mouse model of LPS-induced ALI and in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Thus, CA is a potential candidate for development as an adjunctive treatment for inflammatory disorders, such as ALI.

  10. Vitamin D3 pretreatment alleviates renal oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shen; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Tan, Zhu-Xia; Xie, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Cheng; Xia, Mi-Zhen; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Hui; Xu, De-Xiang; Yu, De-Xin

    2015-08-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that reactive oxygen species plays important roles in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. This study investigated the effects of VitD3 pretreatment on renal oxidative stress in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2.0mg/kg) to establish an animal model of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. In VitD3+LPS group, mice were orally pretreated with three doses of VitD3 (25 μg/kg) at 1, 24 and 48 h before LPS injection. As expected, oral pretreatment with three daily recommended doses of VitD3 markedly elevated serum 25(OH)D concentration and efficiently activated renal VDR signaling. Interestingly, LPS-induced renal GSH depletion and lipid peroxidation were markedly alleviated in VitD3-pretreated mice. LPS-induced serum and renal nitric oxide (NO) production was obviously suppressed by VitD3 pretreatment. In addition, LPS-induced renal protein nitration, as determined by 3-nitrotyrosine residue, was obviously attenuated by VitD3 pretreatment. Further analysis showed that LPS-induced up-regulation of renal inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) was repressed in VitD3-pretreated mice. LPS-induced up-regulation of renal p47phox and gp91phox, two NADPH oxidase subunits, were normalized by VitD3 pretreatment. In addition, LPS-induced down-regulation of renal superoxide dismutase (sod) 1 and sod2, two antioxidant enzyme genes, was reversed in VitD3-pretreated mice. Finally, LPS-induced tubular epithelial cell apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL, was alleviated by VitD3 pretreatment. Taken together, these results suggest that VitD3 pretreatment alleviates LPS-induced renal oxidative stress through regulating oxidant and antioxidant enzyme genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Iron oxide nanoparticles modulate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in primary human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, Susann; Stenvik, Jørgen; Nilsen, Asbjørn M

    2016-01-01

    Co-stimulation of the immune system to more than one agent concomitantly is very common in real life, and considering the increasing use of engineered nanoparticles and nanomaterials, it is highly relevant to assess the ability of these materials to modulate key innate immune responses, which has not yet been studied in detail. We investigated the immunomodulatory effects of 10 nm and 30 nm iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) on primary human monocytes in the presence and absence of Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Prior to the cell studies, we characterized the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles in cell culture medium and ensured that the nanoparticles were free from biological contamination. Cellular uptake of the IONPs in monocytes was assessed using transmission electron microscopy. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that the IONPs per se did not induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. However, the IONPs had the ability to suppress LPS-induced nuclear factor kappa B activation and production of proinflammatory cytokines in primary human monocytes in an LPS and a particle dose-dependent manner. Using confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled LPS, we showed that the effects correlated with impaired LPS internalization by monocytes in the presence of IONPs, which could be partly explained by LPS adsorption onto the nanoparticle surface. Additionally, the results from particle pretreatment experiments indicate that other cellular mechanisms might also play a role in the observed effects, which warrants further studies to elucidate the additional mechanisms underlying the capacity of IONPs to alter the reactivity of monocytes to LPS and to mount an appropriate cellular response. PMID:27695322

  12. Iloprost improves endothelial barrier function in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Birukova, Anna A; Wu, Tinghuai; Tian, Yufeng; Meliton, Angelo; Sarich, Nicolene; Tian, Xinyong; Leff, Alan; Birukov, Konstantin G

    2013-01-01

    The protective effects of prostacyclin and its stable analogue iloprost are mediated by elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) leading to enhancement of the peripheral actin cytoskeleton and cell-cell adhesive structures. This study tested the hypothesis that iloprost may exhibit protective effects against lung injury and endothelial barrier dysfunction induced by bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Endothelial barrier dysfunction was assessed by measurements of transendothelial permeability, morphologically and by analysis of LPS-activated inflammatory signalling. In vivo, C57BL/6J mice were challenged with LPS with or without iloprost or 8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (Br-cAMP) treatment. Lung injury was monitored by measurements of bronchoalveolar lavage protein content, cell count and Evans blue extravasation. Iloprost and Br-cAMP attenuated the disruption of the endothelial monolayer, and suppressed the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway, Rho signalling, intercellular adhesion molecular (ICAM)-1 expression and neutrophil migration after LPS challenge. In vivo, iloprost was effective against LPS-induced protein and neutrophil accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced myeloperoxidase activation, ICAM-1 expression and Evans blue extravasation in the lungs. Inhibition of Rac activity abolished the barrier-protective and anti-inflammatory effects of iloprost and Br-cAMP. Iloprost-induced elevation of intracellular cAMP triggers Rac signalling, which attenuates LPS-induced NF-κB and p38 MAPK inflammatory pathways and the Rho-dependent mechanism of endothelial permeability.

  13. Glucocorticoid inhibition of leptin- and lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-6 production in obesity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Acevedo, Edmund O; Mari, David C; Randazzo, Christopher; Shibata, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is considered a chronic inflammatory condition that enhances the risk of numerous inflammatory diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids (GCs) and synthetic therapeutic GCs are anti-inflammatory agents, but the exact functions of GCs in obesity-related inflammation are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the inhibitory effect of an exogenous GC (dexamethasone, DEX) on leptin- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) ex vivo in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects. Blood samples were drawn from 14 obese (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) and 14 normal-weight (BMI<25 kg/m(2)) subjects. Plasma cortisol, TNF-α and IL-6 levels, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were quantified. Subjects' PBMCs (1×10(6) cells/mL) were isolated and cultured with leptin (18.75 and 250 ng/mL) or LPS (10ng/mL) in the presence of DEX (0, 10(-8), 10(-7), and 10(-6) M), a synthetic GC, for 24 h; IL-6 levels and GC sensitivity (IC50) were assessed in the cultured supernatants. No differences in the plasma cortisol levels were found between the two groups. We found that obese subjects showed greater leptin- and LPS-induced IL-6 production compared to normal-weight subjects. The suppressive effect of DEX on leptin- and LPS-induced IL-6 production (IC50) was not different between the two groups. However, the IC50 of DEX for LPS-induced was correlated with BMI, waist circumference, and hip circumference. These findings suggest that reduced GC sensitivity may be an important mechanism in the up-regulation of selected obese inflammation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Iron oxide nanoparticles modulate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in primary human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Grosse, Susann; Stenvik, Jørgen; Nilsen, Asbjørn M

    Co-stimulation of the immune system to more than one agent concomitantly is very common in real life, and considering the increasing use of engineered nanoparticles and nanomaterials, it is highly relevant to assess the ability of these materials to modulate key innate immune responses, which has not yet been studied in detail. We investigated the immunomodulatory effects of 10 nm and 30 nm iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) on primary human monocytes in the presence and absence of Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Prior to the cell studies, we characterized the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles in cell culture medium and ensured that the nanoparticles were free from biological contamination. Cellular uptake of the IONPs in monocytes was assessed using transmission electron microscopy. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that the IONPs per se did not induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. However, the IONPs had the ability to suppress LPS-induced nuclear factor kappa B activation and production of proinflammatory cytokines in primary human monocytes in an LPS and a particle dose-dependent manner. Using confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled LPS, we showed that the effects correlated with impaired LPS internalization by monocytes in the presence of IONPs, which could be partly explained by LPS adsorption onto the nanoparticle surface. Additionally, the results from particle pretreatment experiments indicate that other cellular mechanisms might also play a role in the observed effects, which warrants further studies to elucidate the additional mechanisms underlying the capacity of IONPs to alter the reactivity of monocytes to LPS and to mount an appropriate cellular response.

  15. Microgravity inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α expression in macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chongzhen; Luo, Haiying; Zhu, Linnan; Yang, Fan; Chu, Zhulang; Tian, Hongling; Feng, Meifu; Zhao, Yong; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Microgravity environments in space can cause major abnormalities in human physiology, including decreased immunity. The underlying mechanisms of microgravity-induced inflammatory defects in macrophages are unclear. RAW264.7 cells and primary mouse macrophages were used in the present study. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine expression in mouse macrophages was detected under either simulated microgravity or 1g control. Freshly isolated primary mouse macrophages and RAW264.7 cells were cultured in a standard simulated microgravity situation using a rotary cell culture system (RCCS-1) and 1g control conditions. The cytokine expression was determined by real-time PCR and ELISA assays. Western blots were used to investigate the related intracellular signals. LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression, but not interleukin-1β expression, in mouse macrophages was significantly suppressed under simulated microgravity. The molecular mechanism studies showed that LPS-induced intracellular signal transduction including phosphorylation of IKK and JNK and nuclear translocation of NF-κB in macrophages was identical under normal gravity and simulated microgravity. Furthermore, TNF-α mRNA stability did not decrease under simulated microgravity. Finally, we found that heat shock factor-1 (HSF1), a known repressor of TNF-α promoter, was markedly activated under simulated microgravity. Short-term treatment with microgravity caused significantly decreased TNF-α production. Microgravity-activated HSF1 may contribute to the decreased TNF-α expression in macrophages directly caused by microgravity, while the LPS-induced NF-κB pathway is resistant to microgravity.

  16. Vitamin D3 pretreatment regulates renal inflammatory responses during lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shen; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Tan, Zhu-Xia; Xie, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Hui; Yu, De-Xin; Xu, De-Xiang

    2015-12-22

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is highly expressed in human and mouse kidneys. Nevertheless, its functions remain obscure. This study investigated the effects of vitamin D3 (VitD3) pretreatment on renal inflammation during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS. In VitD3 + LPS group, mice were pretreated with VitD3 (25 μg/kg) at 48, 24 and 1 h before LPS injection. As expected, an obvious reduction of renal function and pathological damage was observed in LPS-treated mice. VitD3 pretreatment significantly alleviated LPS-induced reduction of renal function and pathological damage. Moreover, VitD3 pretreatment attenuated LPS-induced renal inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. In addition, pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3, the active form of VitD3, alleviated LPS-induced up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human HK-2 cells, a renal tubular epithelial cell line, in a VDR-dependent manner. Further analysis showed that VitD3, which activated renal VDR, specifically repressed LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit in the renal tubules. LPS, which activated renal NF-κB, reciprocally suppressed renal VDR and its target gene. Moreover, VitD3 reinforced the physical interaction between renal VDR and NF-κB p65 subunit. These results provide a mechanistic explanation for VitD3-mediated anti-inflammatory activity during LPS-induced acute kidney injury.

  17. An Analog of the Antimicrobial Peptide CopA5 Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Macrophage Activation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, I Na; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Hwang, Jae Sam; Kim, Ho

    2017-02-28

    We previously reported that the CopA3 peptide (LLCIALRKK, D-form) originally isolated from the Korean dung beetle has antimicrobial and immunosuppressive effects. However, the high cost of producing the synthetic peptide, especially the D-form, has limited the development of CopA3 for therapeutic purposes. Here, we investigated whether the CopA3 deletion derivative, CopA5, which is composed of only five amino acids (LLCIA) and has the L-form structure, could inhibit the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of macrophages. Peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEM) were isolated from mice and exposed to LPS in the presence or absence of CopA5, and biomarkers of macrophage activation were measured. Our results revealed that LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion, and phagocytic activity of PEM were significantly inhibited by CopA5 treatment. Similar to CopA3, the structurally modified CopA5 peptide had no cell toxicity (as assessed by measurement of cell viability loss and apoptosis) in PEM. Moreover, the LPS-induced upregulation of the activating phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) was markedly inhibited by CopA5 treatment. These results suggest that, similar to CopA3, CopA5 inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting STAT1 phosphorylation and blocking the release of NO and TNF-α. CopA5 may therefore prove therapeutically useful in the realm of immune suppression.

  18. Effect of Ambroxol and Beclomethasone on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitrosative Stress in Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Ricciardolo, Fabio L M; Sorbello, Valentina; Benedetto, Sabrina; Paleari, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Nitrosative stress is involved in different airway diseases. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces neutrophil-related cytokine release and nitrosative stress in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells alone or with human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Ambroxol protects against oxidative stress, and beclomethasone dipropionate is an anti-inflammatory drug. We evaluated the ability of ambroxol and/or beclomethasone dipropionate to inhibit LPS-induced expression/release of RANTES, IL-8, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT: nitrosative stress biomarker) in BEAS-2B ± PMNs stimulated with LPS (1 μg/ml). The effect of ambroxol and/or beclomethasone dipropionate on IL-8, RANTES and iNOS levels was assessed by Western blot analysis; IL-8, MPO and 3-NT levels were measured by ELISA. Cell viability was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion test. In BEAS-2B alone, LPS (at 12 h) increased RANTES/iNOS expression and IL-8 levels (p < 0.001). Ambroxol suppressed LPS-induced RANTES expression and IL-8 release (p < 0.001), whilst inhibiting iNOS expression (p < 0.05). Beclomethasone dipropionate had no effect on RANTES but halved iNOS expression and IL-8 release. Coculture of BEAS-2B with PMNs stimulated IL-8, MPO and 3-NT production (p < 0.001), potentiated by LPS (p < 0.001). Ambroxol and beclomethasone dipropionate inhibited LPS-stimulated IL-8, MPO and 3-NT release (p < 0.05). Ambroxol/beclomethasone dipropionate combination potentiated the inhibition of IL-8 and 3-NT production in BEAS-2B with PMNs (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Ambroxol and/or beclomethasone dipropionate inhibited nitrosative stress and the release of neutrophilic inflammatory products in vitro. The additive effect of ambroxol and beclomethasone dipropionate on IL-8 and 3-NT inhibition suggests new therapeutic options in the treatment of neutrophil-related respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections.

  19. Dietary broccoli mildly improves neuroinflammation in aged mice but does not reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behavior

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Brigitte E.; Chen, Yung-Ju; Jeffery, Elizabeth H.; Johnson, Rodney W.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress and heightened inflammatory response to infection. Dietary interventions to reduce these changes are therefore desirable. Broccoli contains glucoraphanin, which is converted to sulforaphane (SFN) by plant myrosinase during cooking preparation or digestion. SFN increases antioxidant enzymes including NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and heme oxygenase I (HMOX1) and inhibits inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that dietary broccoli would support an antioxidant response in brain and periphery of aged mice and inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and sickness. Young adult and aged mice were fed control or 10% broccoli diet for 28 days prior to an intraperitoneal LPS injection. Social interactions were assessed 2, 4, 8, and 24 h following LPS, and mRNA quantified in liver and brain at 24 h. Dietary broccoli did not ameliorate LPS-induced decrease in social interactions in young or aged mice. Interleukin (IL)-1β expression was unaffected by broccoli consumption but was induced by LPS in brain and liver of adult and aged mice. Additionally, IL-1β was elevated in brain of aged mice without LPS. Broccoli consumption decreased age-elevated cytochrome b-245 β, an oxidative stress marker, and reduced glial activation markers in aged mice. Collectively, these data suggest that 10% broccoli diet provides a modest reduction in age-related oxidative stress and glial reactivity, but is insufficient to inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. Thus, it is likely that SFN would need to be provided in supplement form to control the inflammatory response to LPS. PMID:25439028

  20. Lipopolysaccharide-induced carotid body inflammation in cats: functional manifestations, histopathology and involvement of tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ricardo; González, Sergio; Rey, Sergio; Cortés, Paula P; Maisey, Kevin R; Reyes, Edison-Pablo; Larraín, Carolina; Zapata, Patricio

    2008-07-01

    In the absence of information on functional manifestations of carotid body (CB) inflammation, we studied an experimental model in which lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to pentobarbitone-anaesthetized cats was performed by topical application upon the CB surface or by intravenous infusion (endotoxaemia). The latter caused: (i) disorganization of CB glomoids, increased connective tissue, and rapid recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells into the vascular bed and parenchyma within 4 h; (ii) increased respiratory frequency and diminished ventilatory chemoreflex responses to brief hypoxia (breathing 100% N(2) for 10 s) and diminished ventilatory chemosensory drive (assessed by 100% O(2) tests) during normoxia and hypoxia; (iii) tachycardia, increased haematocrit and systemic hypotension in response to LPS i.v.; and (iv) increased basal frequency of carotid chemosensory discharges during normoxia, but no change in maximal chemoreceptor responses to brief hypoxic exposures. Lipopolysaccharide-induced tachypnoea was prevented by prior bilateral carotid neurotomy. Apoptosis was not observed in CBs from cats subjected to endotoxaemia. Searching for pro-inflammatory mediators, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was localized by immunohistochemistry in glomus and endothelial cells; reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the CB expresses the mRNAs for both type-1 (TNF-R1) and type-2 TNF-alpha receptors (TNF-R2); Western blot confirmed a band of the size expected for TNF-R1; and histochemistry showed the presence of TNF-R1 in glomus cells and of TNF-R2 in endothelial cells. Experiments in vitro showed that the frequency of carotid nerve discharges recorded from CBs perfused and superfused under normoxic conditions was not significantly modified by TNF-alpha, but that the enhanced frequency of chemosensory discharges recorded along responses to hypoxic stimulation was transiently diminished in a dose-dependent manner by TNF-alpha injections

  1. The effects of Nigella sativa hydro-alcoholic extract and thymoquinone on lipopolysaccharide - induced depression like behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Zakeri, Samaneh; Khoshdast, Sadieh; Yousefian, Fatemeh T.; Rastegar, Monireh; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Kahdouee, Shamsi; Ghorbani, Fatemeh; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Kazemi, S. Abolfazl

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neuroimmune factors have been proposed as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects including neuroprotective, antioxidant, anticonvulsant and analgesic effects, Nigella sativa and its main ingredient, thymoquinone (TQ), have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of Nigella sativa hydro-alcoholic extract and thymoquinone was investigated on lipopolysaccharide- induced depression like behavior in rats. Materials and Methods: 50 male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of NS extract, thymoquinone or lipopolysaccharide. The animals in group 2 (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) were treated by saline instead of NS extract and were injected LPS (100μg/kg, ip) 2 hours before conducting each forced swimming test. Groups 3 (LPS + NS 200) and 4 (LPS + NS 400) were treated by 200 and 400 mg/kg of NS (ip), respectively, from the day before starting the experiments and before each forced swimming test. These animals were also injected LPS 2hours before conducting each swimming test. The animals in group 5 received TQ instead of NS extract. Forced swimming test was performed 3 times for all groups (in alternative days), and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in an open- field apparatus, and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the LPS group was higher than that in the control group in all 3 times (P<0.001). The animals in LPS + NS 200, LPS + NS 400 and LPS + TQ had lower immobility times in comparison with LPS groups (P<0.01, and P<0.01). In the open- field test, the crossing number of peripheral in the LPS group was higher than that of the control one (P<0.01) while the animals of LPS + NS 200, LPS + NS 400 and LPS + TQ groups had lower crossing number of peripheral compared with the LPS group (P <0.05, and P<0.001). Furthermore, in the LPS group, the

  2. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Middle Ear Inflammation Disrupts the cochlear Intra-Strial Fluid–Blood Barrier through Down-Regulation of Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinhui; Chen, Songlin; Hou, Zhiqiang; Cai, Jing; Dong, Mingmin; Shi, Xiaorui

    2015-01-01

    Middle ear infection (or inflammation) is the most common pathological condition that causes fluid to accumulate in the middle ear, disrupting cochlear homeostasis. Lipopolysaccharide, a product of bacteriolysis, activates macrophages and causes release of inflammatory cytokines. Many studies have shown that lipopolysaccharides cause functional and structural changes in the inner ear similar to that of inflammation. However, it is specifically not known how lipopolysaccharides affect the blood-labyrinth barrier in the stria vascularis (intra-strial fluid–blood barrier), nor what the underlying mechanisms are. In this study, we used a cell culture-based in vitro model and animal-based in vivo model, combined with immunohistochemistry and a vascular leakage assay, to investigate lipopolysaccharide effects on the integrity of the mouse intra-strial fluid–blood barrier. Our results show lipopolysaccharide-induced local infection significantly affects intra-strial fluid–blood barrier component cells. Pericytes and perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes are particularly affected, and the morphological and functional changes in these cells are accompanied by substantial changes in barrier integrity. Significant vascular leakage is found in the lipopolysaccharide treated-animals. Consistent with the findings from the in vivo animal model, the permeability of the endothelial cell monolayer to FITC-albumin was significantly higher in the lipopolysaccharide-treated monolayer than in an untreated endothelial cell monolayer. Further study has shown the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation to have a major effect on the expression of tight junctions in the blood barrier. Lipopolysaccharide was also shown to cause high frequency hearing loss, corroborated by previous reports from other laboratories. Our findings show lipopolysaccharide-evoked middle ear infection disrupts inner ear fluid balance, and its particular effects on the intra-strial fluid

  3. Lipopolysaccharide-induced middle ear inflammation disrupts the cochlear intra-strial fluid-blood barrier through down-regulation of tight junction proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinhui; Chen, Songlin; Hou, Zhiqiang; Cai, Jing; Dong, Mingmin; Shi, Xiaorui

    2015-01-01

    Middle ear infection (or inflammation) is the most common pathological condition that causes fluid to accumulate in the middle ear, disrupting cochlear homeostasis. Lipopolysaccharide, a product of bacteriolysis, activates macrophages and causes release of inflammatory cytokines. Many studies have shown that lipopolysaccharides cause functional and structural changes in the inner ear similar to that of inflammation. However, it is specifically not known how lipopolysaccharides affect the blood-labyrinth barrier in the stria vascularis (intra-strial fluid-blood barrier), nor what the underlying mechanisms are. In this study, we used a cell culture-based in vitro model and animal-based in vivo model, combined with immunohistochemistry and a vascular leakage assay, to investigate lipopolysaccharide effects on the integrity of the mouse intra-strial fluid-blood barrier. Our results show lipopolysaccharide-induced local infection significantly affects intra-strial fluid-blood barrier component cells. Pericytes and perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes are particularly affected, and the morphological and functional changes in these cells are accompanied by substantial changes in barrier integrity. Significant vascular leakage is found in the lipopolysaccharide treated-animals. Consistent with the findings from the in vivo animal model, the permeability of the endothelial cell monolayer to FITC-albumin was significantly higher in the lipopolysaccharide-treated monolayer than in an untreated endothelial cell monolayer. Further study has shown the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation to have a major effect on the expression of tight junctions in the blood barrier. Lipopolysaccharide was also shown to cause high frequency hearing loss, corroborated by previous reports from other laboratories. Our findings show lipopolysaccharide-evoked middle ear infection disrupts inner ear fluid balance, and its particular effects on the intra-strial fluid-blood barrier

  4. Polymethoxy flavonoids, nobiletin and tangeretin, prevent lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory bone loss in an experimental model for periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Tominari, Tsukasa; Hirata, Michiko; Matsumoto, Chiho; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2012-01-01

    Nobiletin, a polymethoxy flavonoid (PMF), inhibits systemic bone resorption and maintains bone mass in estrogen-deficient ovariectomized mice. This study examined the anti-inflammatory effects of PMFs, nobiletin, and tangeretin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone resorption. Nobiletin and tangeretin suppressed LPS-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption and suppressed the receptor activator of NFκB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 macrophages. Nobiletin clearly restored the alveolar bone mass in a mouse experimental model for periodontitis by inhibiting LPS-induced bone resorption. PMFs may therefore provide a new therapeutic approach for periodontal bone loss.

  5. FlexPro MD, a Mixture of Krill Oil, Astaxanthin, and Hyaluronic Acid, Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production Through Inhibition of NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Park, Doo Ri; Ko, Ryeojin; Kwon, Suk Hyung; Min, Bokkee; Yun, Seong Ho; Kim, Manh Heun; Minatelli, John; Hill, Stephen; Lee, Soo Young

    2016-01-01

    Abstract FlexPro MD® (FP-MD), a novel multi-ingredient dietary supplement formulation, has been demonstrated to relieve knee joint pain in humans. However, the mechanisms of action responsible for the activity of FP-MD have not been elucidated. In this study, we show the anti-inflammatory effects of FP-MD in RAW264.7 macrophage cells and mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). FP-MD significantly inhibited the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-1β. In contrast, it elevated the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. FP-MD markedly reduced LPS-induced phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and inhibitor of κB-α (IκB-α). Importantly, the anti-inflammatory effects of FP-MD were demonstrated in mice with LPS-induced inflammatory arthritis in which FP-MD significantly reduced the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory markers. Thus, this study suggests that FP-MD has anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NF-κB that may offer a molecular basis for its pain relief property. PMID:27982753

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of apigenin in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory in acute lung injury by suppressing COX-2 and NF-kB pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Yu-Tao; Xiao, Lu; Zhu, Lingpeng; Wang, Qiujuan; Yan, Tianhua

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the possible mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of apigenin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory in acute lung injury. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of apigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice and the possible mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated. Pretreatment with apigenin prior to the administration of intratracheal LPS significantly induced a decrease in lung wet weight/dry weight ratio in total leukocyte number and neutrophil percent in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in IL-6 and IL-1β, the tumor neurosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the BALF. These results showed that anti-inflammatory effects of apigenin against the LPS-induced ALI may be due to its ability of primary inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression and nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) gene expression of lung. The results presented here suggest that the protective mechanism of apigenin may be attributed partly to decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines through the inhibition of COX-2 and NF-kB activation. The results support that use of apigenin is beneficial in the treatment of ALI.

  7. Curcumin attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yunhe; Gao, Ruifeng; Cao, Yongguo; Guo, Mengyao; Wei, Zhengkai; Zhou, Ershun; Li, Yimeng; Yao, Minjun; Yang, Zhengtao; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-05-01

    Curcumin, the main constituent of the spice turmeric, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of curcumin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice mastitis has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether curcumin could ameliorate the inflammation response in LPS-induced mice mastitis and to clarify the possible mechanism. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of the mammary gland. Curcumin was applied 1h before and 12h after LPS treatment. The results showed that curcumin attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Western blotting results showed that curcumin inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB p65 and the expression of TLR4. These results indicated that curcumin has protective effect on mice mastitis and the anti-inflammatory mechanism of curcumin on LPS-induced mastitis in mice may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways. Curcumin may be a potential therapeutic agent against mastitis.

  8. Astragalin suppresses inflammatory responses via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengyang; Liang, Dejie; Yang, Zhengtao; Wang, Tiancheng; Wang, Wei; Song, Xiaojing; Guo, Mengyao; Zhou, Ershun; Li, Depeng; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2013-10-01

    Mastitis is a prevalent and economic disease around the world and defined as infection and inflammation of the mammary gland. Astragalin, a bioactive component isolated from persimmon or Rosa agrestis, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. To investigate the potential therapeutic effect of astragalin in mastitis, a murine model of mastitis was induced by administration of LPS in mammary gland. Astragalin was applied 1h before and 12h after LPS treatment. The results showed that astragalin attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Western blotting results showed that astragalin efficiently blunt decreased nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation by inhibiting the degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα and the nuclear translocation of p65. These results suggested that astragalin exerts anti-inflammatory properties in LPS-mediated mastitis, possibly through inhibiting inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway, which mediates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Astragalin may be a potential therapeutic agent against mastitis.

  9. Genistein suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in macrophages and attenuates alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Bae, Seung Han; Ha, Min Hee; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2016-02-01

    Genistein is a major isoflavone subclass of flavonoids found in soybean and a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The present study aimed to assess the effect of genistein on the production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen associated with different forms of periodontal disease, and to evaluate its possible influence on alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis as well. LPS was isolated from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 by using the standard hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were analyzed for nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein expression was evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Real-time PCR was carried out to measure iNOS and IL-6 mRNA expression. In addition, effect of genistein on alveolar bone loss was evaluated in a rat model of experimental periodontitis using micro-CT analysis. Genistein significantly attenuated P. intermedia LPS-induced production of iNOS-derived NO and IL-6 with attendant decrease in their mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, when genistein was administered to rats, decreases in alveolar bone height and bone volume fraction induced by ligature placement were significantly inhibited. Genistein administration also prevented ligature-induced alterations in the microstructural parameters of trabecular bone, including trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, bone mineral density and structure model index. While additional studies are required, we suggest that genistein could be utilized for the therapy of human periodontitis in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ulinastatin suppresses lipopolysaccharide induced neuro-inflammation through the downregulation of nuclear factor-κB in SD rat hippocampal astrocyte.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuting; Zhao, Lei; Fu, Huiqun; Wu, Yan; Wang, Tianlong

    2015-03-20

    Astrocyte activation plays a pivotal role in neuroinflammation, which contributes to neuronal damage, so the inhibition of astrocyte activation may alleviate the progression of neurodegeneration. Recent studies have proved that urinary trypsin inhibitor ulinastatin could inhibit NF-kB activation. In our study, the inhibitory effects of ulinastatin on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-reduced primary astrocyte. Our results showed that ulinastatin significantly inhibited LPS-induced astrogliosis, which is measured by MTT and BrdU. Ulinastatin decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, it significantly decreased both the mRNA and the protein levels of these pro-inflammatory cytokines and also increased the protein levels of IκB-α binded to NF-κB, which blocked NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and prevented its activity. Our results suggest that ulinastatin is able to inhibit neuroinflammation by interfering with NF-κB signaling. The study provides direct evidence of potential therapy methods of ulinastatin for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ulinastatin suppresses lipopolysaccharide induced neuro-inflammation through the downregulation of nuclear factor-κB in SD rat hippocampal astrocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuting; Zhao, Lei; Fu, Huiqun; Wu, Yan; Wang, Tianlong

    2015-03-20

    Astrocyte activation plays a pivotal role in neuroinflammation, which contributes to neuronal damage, so the inhibition of astrocyte activation may alleviate the progression of neurodegeneration. Recent studies have proved that urinary trypsin inhibitor ulinastatin could inhibit NF-kB activation. In our study, the inhibitory effects of ulinastatin on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-reduced primary astrocyte. Our results showed that ulinastatin significantly inhibited LPS-induced astrogliosis, which is measured by MTT and BrdU. Ulinastatin decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, it significantly decreased both the mRNA and the protein levels of these pro-inflammatory cytokines and also increased the protein levels of IκB-α binded to NF-κB, which blocked NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and prevented its activity. Our results suggest that ulinastatin is able to inhibit neuroinflammation by interfering with NF-κB signaling. The study provides direct evidence of potential therapy methods of ulinastatin for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • The anti-inflammatory effect of UTI on hippocampal astrocyte. • UTI showed protective effect on neuroinflammation by the downregulation of NF-κB. • UTI led to expression of cytokines decreased in concentration and time dependence.

  12. Methanol extract of Antrodia camphorata protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by suppressing NF-κB and MAPK pathways in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guan-Jhong; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Chen, Chin-Chu; Huang, Ching-Jang; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2014-06-11

    Antrodia camphorata (AC) has been used as a herbal medicine for drug intoxication for the treatment of inflammation syndromes and liver-related diseases in Taiwan. This study demonstrates the protective effect of the methanol extract of AC (MAC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Mice were treated with MAC 1 h before the intratracheal (I.T.) instillation of LPS challenge model. Lung injury was evaluated 6 h after LPS induction. Pretreatment with MAC markedly improved LPS-induced histological alterations and edema in lung tissues. Moreover, MAC also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and IL-6 at 6 h in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) during LPS-induced lung injury. Furthermore, MAC reduced total cell number and protein concentrations in the BALF the pulmonary wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity and enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in lung tissues. MAC also efficiently blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and inhibited the degradation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and IκBα. This is the first investigation in which MAC inhibited acute lung edema effectively, which may provide a potential target for treating ALI. MAC may utilize the NF-κB and MAPKs pathways and the regulation of SOD activity to attenuate LPS-induced nonspecific pulmonary inflammation.

  13. Suppression of the lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of MARCKS-related protein (MRP) affects transmigration in activated RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kwang-Rok; Bae, Eun Mi; Kim, Jae-Kwan; Suk, Kyoungho; Lee, Won-Ha

    2009-01-01

    The molecular action mechanism of MRP, one of the protein kinase C (PKC) substrates, has been under intense investigation, but reports on its role in macrophage function remain controversial. The treatment of macrophage cell lines with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a high level of MRP expression suggesting that MRP plays a role in the function of activated macrophages. In order to investigate the role of MRP in activated RAW264.7 cells, we stably transfected MRP-specific shRNA expression constructs and tested for alterations in macrophage-related functions. The down-regulation of MRP expression resulted in a marked reduction in chemotaxis toward MCP-1 or extracellular matrix proteins. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibitors of PKC significantly inhibited the chemotaxis in RAW264.7 cells. These data reveals the pivotal role of MRP in the transmigration of activated RAW264.7 cells.

  14. Amomum tsao-ko fruit extract suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase by inducing heme oxygenase-1 in macrophages and in septic mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Ryu, Suran; Jang, Dae Sik; Cho, Young-Wuk; Chung, Eun Kyung; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2015-12-01

    Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemarié (Zingiberaceae) has traditionally been used to treat inflammatory and infectious diseases, such as throat infections, malaria, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. This study was designed to assess the anti-inflammatory effects and the molecular mechanisms of the methanol extract of A. tsao-ko (AOM) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and in a murine model of sepsis. In LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, AOM reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression at the protein and mRNA levels. Pretreatment with SnPP (a selective inhibitor of HO-1) and silencing HO-1 using siRNA prevented the AOM-mediated inhibition of NO production and iNOS expression. Furthermore, AOM increased the expression and nuclear accumulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which enhanced Nrf2 binding to antioxidant response element (ARE). In addition, AOM induced the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and generated reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, pretreatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC; a ROS scavenger) diminished the AOM-induced phosphorylation of ERK and JNK and AOM-induced HO-1 expression, suggesting that ERK and JNK are downstream mediators of ROS during the AOM-induced signalling of HO-1 expression. In LPS-induced endotoxaemic mice, pretreatment with AOM reduced NO serum levels and liver iNOS expression and increased HO-1 expression and survival rates. These results indicate that AOM strongly inhibits LPS-induced NO production by activating the ROS/MAPKs/Nrf2-mediated HO-1 signalling pathway, and supports its pharmacological effects on inflammatory diseases.

  15. 5-Methoxyl Aesculetin Abrogates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Suppressing MAPK and AP-1 Pathways in RAW 264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; Li, Xueqin; Wu, Haifeng; Long, Wei; Jiang, Xiaojian; Shen, Ting; Qiang, Qian; Si, Chuanling; Wang, Xinfeng; Jiang, Yunyao; Hu, Weicheng

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, a pale amorphous coumarin derivative, 5-methoxyl aesculetin (MOA), was isolated from the dried bark of Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance (Oleaceae). MOA modulates cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, but the precise mechanisms are still not fully understood. We determined the effects of MOA on the production of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the LPS-induced inflammatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages. MOA significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. It also effectively attenuated inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and TNF-α mRNA expression and significantly decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. It inhibited phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), thus blocking nuclear translocation of activation protein (AP)-1. In a molecular docking study, MOA was shown to target the binding site of ERK via the formation of three hydrogen bonds with two residues of the kinase, which is sufficient for the inhibition of ERK. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of MOA in RAW 264.7 macrophages derive from its ability to block both the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and one of their downstream transcription factors, activator protein-1 (AP-1). Our observations support the need for further research into MOA as a promising therapeutic agent in inflammatory diseases. PMID:26938526

  16. 1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine release via suppression of NF-{kappa}B p65 phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Xiaojie; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Nawa, Yuko; Miura, Naoki; Shrestha, Binita; Tancharoen, Salunya; Sameshima, Hisayo; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2009-03-06

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates macrophages by activating NF-{kappa}B, which contributes to the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} and interleukin (IL)-6. 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose (1,5-AF), a monosaccharide formed from starch and glycogen, exhibits anti-oxidant activity and enhances insulin secretion. This study examined the effects of 1,5-AF on LPS-induced inflammatory reactions and elucidated its molecular mechanisms. Before LPS challenge, mice were pretreated with 1,5-AF (38.5 mg/kg). We found that 1,5-AF pretreatment attenuated cytokine release into the serum, including TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Furthermore, pretreatment with 1,5-AF (500 {mu}g/ml) attenuated cytokine release, and 1,5-AF directly inhibited the nuclear translocalization of the NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit in LPS-stimulated murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. This inhibition was responsible for decreased LPS-induced phosphorylation on Ser536 of the NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit, which is a posttranslational modification involved in the non-canonical pathway. Collectively, these findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory activity of 1,5-AF occurs via inactivation of NF-{kappa}B.

  17. Arctigenin Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pulmonary Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in a Mouse Model via Suppression of MAPK, HO-1, and iNOS Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-zhou; Jiang, Zheng-kui; He, Bao-xia; Liu, Xian-ben

    2015-08-01

    Arctigenin, a bioactive component of Arctium lappa (Nubang), has anti-inflammatory activity. Here, we investigated the effects of arctigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Mice were divided into four groups: control, LPS, LPS + DMSO, and LPS + Arctigenin. Mice in the LPS + Arctigenin group were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of arctigenin 1 h before an intratracheal administration of LPS (5 mg/kg). Lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) were collected. Histological changes of the lung were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Arctigenin decreased LPS-induced acute lung inflammation, infiltration of inflammatory cells into BALF, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, arctigenin pretreatment reduced the malondialdehyde level and increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and glutathione peroxidase/glutathione disulfide ratio in the lung. Mechanically, arctigenin significantly reduced the production of nitric oxygen and inducible nitric oxygen synthase (iNOS) expression, enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, and decreased the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Arctigenin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects on LPS-induced acute lung injury, which are associated with modulation of MAPK, HO-1, and iNOS signaling.

  18. Febrile-Range Hyperthermia Augments Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Injury by a Mechanism of Enhanced Alveolar Epithelial Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lipke, Anne B.; Matute-Bello, Gustavo; Herrero, Raquel; Kurahashi, Kiyoyasu; Wong, Venus A.; Mongovin, Stephen M.; Martin, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Fever is common in critically ill patients and is associated with worse clinical outcomes, including increased intensive care unit mortality. In animal models, febrile-range hyperthermia (FRH) worsens acute lung injury, but the mechanisms by which this occurs remain uncertain. We hypothesized that FRH augments the response of the alveolar epithelium to TNF-α receptor family signaling. We found that FRH augmented LPS-induced lung injury and increased LPS-induced mortality in mice. At 24 h, animals exposed to hyperthermia and LPS had significant increases in alveolar permeability without changes in inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung tissue as compared with animals exposed to LPS alone. The increase in alveolar permeability was associated with an increase in alveolar epithelial apoptosis and was attenuated by caspase inhibition with zVAD.fmk. At 48 h, the animals exposed to hyperthermia and LPS had an enhanced lung inflammatory response. In murine lung epithelial cell lines (MLE-15, LA-4) and in primary type II alveolar epithelial cells, FRH enhanced apoptosis in response to TNF-α but not Fas ligand. The increase in apoptosis was caspase-8 dependent and associated with suppression of NF-κB activity. The FRH-associated NF-κB suppression was not associated with persistence of IκB-α, suggesting that FRH-mediated suppression of NF-κB occurs by means other than alteration of IκB-α kinetics. These data show for the first time that FRH promotes lung injury in part by increasing lung epithelial apoptosis. The enhanced apoptotic response might relate to FRH-mediated suppression of NF-κB activity in the alveolar epithelium with a resultant increase in susceptibility to TNF-α–mediated cell death. PMID:20200273

  19. 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, a plant-derived oxylipin, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in microglia

    SciTech Connect

    Taki-Nakano, Nozomi; Kotera, Jun; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-13

    Jasmonates are plant lipid–derived oxylipins that act as key signaling compounds in plant immunity, germination, and development. Although some physiological activities of natural jasmonates in mammalian cells have been investigated, their anti-inflammatory actions in mammalian cells remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether jasmonates protect mouse microglial MG5 cells against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced inflammation. Among the jasmonates tested, only 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) suppressed LPS-induced expression of the typical inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α. In addition, only OPDA reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide production through a decrease in the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Further mechanistic studies showed that OPDA suppressed neuroinflammation by inhibiting nuclear factor κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in LPS-activated MG5 cells. In addition, OPDA induced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), a negative regulator of inflammation, in MG5 cells. Finally, we found that the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 signaling cascade induced by OPDA is not involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of OPDA. These results demonstrate that OPDA inhibited LPS-induced cell inflammation in mouse microglial cells via multiple pathways, including suppression of nuclear factor κB, inhibition of p38, and activation of SOCS-1 signaling. -- Highlights: •OPDA attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. •OPDA reduces LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO production. •OPDA suppresses NF-κB and p38 pathways and activates SOCS-1 signaling.

  20. 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, a plant-derived oxylipin, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in microglia.

    PubMed

    Taki-Nakano, Nozomi; Kotera, Jun; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-13

    Jasmonates are plant lipid-derived oxylipins that act as key signaling compounds in plant immunity, germination, and development. Although some physiological activities of natural jasmonates in mammalian cells have been investigated, their anti-inflammatory actions in mammalian cells remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether jasmonates protect mouse microglial MG5 cells against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Among the jasmonates tested, only 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) suppressed LPS-induced expression of the typical inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α. In addition, only OPDA reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide production through a decrease in the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Further mechanistic studies showed that OPDA suppressed neuroinflammation by inhibiting nuclear factor κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in LPS-activated MG5 cells. In addition, OPDA induced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), a negative regulator of inflammation, in MG5 cells. Finally, we found that the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 signaling cascade induced by OPDA is not involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of OPDA. These results demonstrate that OPDA inhibited LPS-induced cell inflammation in mouse microglial cells via multiple pathways, including suppression of nuclear factor κB, inhibition of p38, and activation of SOCS-1 signaling.

  1. Inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of Nannochloropsis oceanica on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, amyloidogenesis and memory impairment

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Yeon; Hwang, Chul Ju; Lee, Hee Pom; Kim, Hee Sik; Han, Sang-Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigated the suppressive possibility of ethanol extract of Nannochloropsis oceanica (N. oceanica) on memory deficiency along with the fundamental mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice model. Among several extracts of 32 marine microalgae, ethanol extract of N. oceanica showed the most significant inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) generation, NF-κB activity and β-secretase activity in cultured BV-2 cells, neuronal cells and Raw 264.7 cells. Ethanol extract of N. oceanica (50, 100 mg/kg) also ameliorated LPS (250 μg/kg)-induced memory impairment. We also found that ethanol extract of N. oceanica inhibited the LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2. Furthermore, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) level as well as glutathione (GSH) level was also decreased by treatment of ethanol extract of N.oceanica. The ethanol extract of N. oceanica also suppresses IκB degradation as well as p50 and p65 translocation into the nucleus in LPS-treated mice brain. Associated with the inhibitory effect on neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, ethanol extract of N. oceanica suppressed Aβ1-42 generation through down-regulation of APP and BACE1 expression in in vivo. These results suggest that ethanol extract of N. oceanica ameliorated memory impairment via anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-amyloidogenic mechanisms. PMID:28489589

  2. Lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in transformed bovine brain endothelial cells and human dermal microvessel endothelial cells: the role of JNK.

    PubMed

    Karahashi, Hisae; Michelsen, Kathrin S; Arditi, Moshe

    2009-06-01

    Stimulation of transformed bovine brain endothelial cells (TBBEC) with LPS leads to apoptosis while human microvessel endothelial cells (HMEC) need the presence of cycloheximide (CHX) with LPS to induce apoptosis. To investigate the molecular mechanism of LPS-induced apoptosis in HMEC or TBBEC, we analyzed the involvement of MAPK and PI3K in TBBEC and HMEC. LPS-induced apoptosis in TBBEC was hallmarked by the activation of caspase 3, caspase 6, and caspase 8 after the stimulation of LPS, followed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and lactate dehydrogenase release. We also observed DNA cleavage determined by TUNEL staining in TBBEC treated with LPS. Herbimycin A, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, suppressed the activation of caspases and lactate dehydrogenase release. Moreover, a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) suppressed activation of caspases and combined treatment with both SP600125 and LY294002 completely inhibited the activation of caspases. These results suggest that the JNK signaling pathway through the tyrosine kinase and PI3K pathways is involved in the induction of apoptosis in LPS-treated TBBEC. On the other hand, we observed sustained JNK activation in HMEC treated with LPS and CHX, and neither ERK1/2 nor AKT were activated. The addition of SP600125 suppressed phosphorylation of JNK and the activation of caspase 3 in HMEC treated with LPS and CHX. These results suggest that JNK plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis in endothelial cells.

  3. Results from in vitro and ex vivo skin aging models assessing the antiglycation and anti-elastase MMP-12 potential of glycylglycine oleamide

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanowicz, Patrick; Haure, Marie-José; Ceruti, Isabelle; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; Castex-Rizzi, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Background Glycation is an aging reaction of naturally occurring sugars with dermal proteins. Type I collagen and elastin are most affected by glycation during intrinsic chronological aging. Aim To study the in vitro and ex vivo assays in human skin cells and explants and the antiaging effects of glycylglycine oleamide (GGO). Materials and methods The antiglycation effect of GGO was assessed in a noncellular in vitro study on collagen and, ex vivo, by immunohistochemical staining on human skin explants (elastin network glycation). The ability of GGO to contract fibroblasts was assessed in a functional assay, and its anti-elastase (MMP-12) activity was compared to that of oleic acid alone, glycylglycine (GG) alone, and oleic acid associated with GG. Results In vitro, GGO reduced the glycation of type I collagen. Ex vivo, GGO restored the expression of fibrillin-1 inhibited by glycation. Furthermore, GGO induced a tissue retraction of almost 30%. Moreover, the MMP-12 activity was inhibited by up to 60%. Conclusion Under the present in vitro and ex vivo conditions, GGO prevents glycation of the major structural proteins of the dermis, helping to reduce the risk of rigidification. By maintaining the elastic function of the skin, GGO may be a promising sparring partner for other topical antiaging agents. PMID:27382322

  4. Indirubin Treatment of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mastitis in a Mouse Model and Activity in Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jin-lun; Liu, Yu-hui; Peng, Yong-chong; Ge, Pan; He, Chen-fei; Liu, Chang; Chen, Ying-yu; Guo, Ai-zhen

    2017-01-01

    Indirubin is a Chinese medicine extracted from indigo and known to be effective for treating chronic myelogenous leukemia, neoplasia, and inflammatory disease. This study evaluated the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of indirubin in a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced mouse mastitis model. The indirubin mechanism and targets were evaluated in vitro in mouse mammary epithelial cells. In the mouse model, indirubin significantly attenuated the severity of inflammatory lesions, edema, inflammatory hyperemia, milk stasis and local tissue necrosis, and neutrophil infiltration. Indirubin significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity and downregulated the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 caused by LPS. In vitro, indirubin inhibited LPS-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. It also downregulated LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and inhibited phosphorylation of LPS-induced nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB) P65 protein and inhibitor of kappa B. In addition to its effect on the NF-κB signaling pathway, indirubin suppressed the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by inhibiting phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), P38, and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Indirubin improved LPS-induced mouse mastitis by suppressing TLR4 and downstream NF-κB and MAPK pathway inflammatory signals and might be a potential treatment of mastitis and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:28255203

  5. PKC412 (CGP41251) modulates the proliferation and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Miyatake, Katsutoshi; Inoue, Hiroshi . E-mail: hinoue@genome.tokushima-u.ac.jp; Hashimoto, Kahoko; Takaku, Hiroshi; Takata, Yoichiro; Nakano, Shunji; Yasui, Natsuo; Itakura, Mitsuo

    2007-08-17

    PKC412 (CGP41251) is a multitarget protein kinase inhibitor with anti-tumor activities. Here, we investigated the effects of PKC412 on macrophages. PKC412 inhibited the proliferation of murine RAW 264.7 macrophages through induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. At non-toxic drug concentrations, PKC412 significantly suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of TNF-{alpha} and nitric oxide, while instead enhancing IL-6 secretion. PKC412 attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylations of MKK4 and JNK, as well as AP-1 DNA binding activities. Furthermore, PKC412 suppressed LPS-induced Akt and GSK-3{beta} phosphorylations. These results suggest that the anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory effects of PKC412 are, at least in part, mediated through its interference with the MKK4/JNK/AP-1 and/or Akt/GSK-3{beta} pathways. Since macrophages contribute significantly to the development of both acute and chronic inflammation, PKC412 may have therapeutic potential and applications in treating inflammatory and/or autoimmune diseases.

  6. Indirubin Treatment of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mastitis in a Mouse Model and Activity in Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jin-Lun; Liu, Yu-Hui; Peng, Yong-Chong; Ge, Pan; He, Chen-Fei; Liu, Chang; Chen, Ying-Yu; Guo, Ai-Zhen; Hu, Chang-Min

    2017-01-01

    Indirubin is a Chinese medicine extracted from indigo and known to be effective for treating chronic myelogenous leukemia, neoplasia, and inflammatory disease. This study evaluated the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of indirubin in a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced mouse mastitis model. The indirubin mechanism and targets were evaluated in vitro in mouse mammary epithelial cells. In the mouse model, indirubin significantly attenuated the severity of inflammatory lesions, edema, inflammatory hyperemia, milk stasis and local tissue necrosis, and neutrophil infiltration. Indirubin significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity and downregulated the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 caused by LPS. In vitro, indirubin inhibited LPS-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. It also downregulated LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and inhibited phosphorylation of LPS-induced nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB) P65 protein and inhibitor of kappa B. In addition to its effect on the NF-κB signaling pathway, indirubin suppressed the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by inhibiting phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), P38, and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Indirubin improved LPS-induced mouse mastitis by suppressing TLR4 and downstream NF-κB and MAPK pathway inflammatory signals and might be a potential treatment of mastitis and other inflammatory diseases.

  7. Inhibitory effects of Chikusetsusaponin IVa on lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory responses in THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Qi, J; Li, L; Wu, T; Wang, Y; Wang, X; Ning, Q

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated anti-inflammatory effects and possible mechanisms of Chikusetsusaponin IVa (Chi IVa), one of the main bioactive components in saponins from Panacis japonica (SPJ), which is used in traditional Tujia and Hmong Chinese medicine. To this end, changes in the inflammatory profiles of lipopolysacchride (LPS)-stimulated phrobol 12-myristate 13-acetate(PMA)-differented THP-1 macrophages were evaluated following Chi IVa treatment. The results showed that Chi IVa markedly decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at both the mRNA and protein level, which proved to be dose-dependent. Further studies revealed that Chi IVa strongly suppressed NF-κB activation and downregulated the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK. Our present study demonstrates that Chi IVa suppresses the production of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells likely by inhibiting NF-κB activation and ERK, JNK, and p38 signal pathway phosphorylation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Zingerone ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury by inhibiting Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Fan, Hao-jun; Li, Hui; Ding, Hui; Lv, Qi; Hou, Shi-ke

    2016-02-05

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication of sepsis. Zingerone, a phenolic alkanone isolated from ginger, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of zingerone on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI in mice. Zingerone was administrated 1h after LPS challenge. The production of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were measured in this study. The expressions of inflammatory cytokines in serum and kidney tissues were detected by ELISA. The expressions of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MyD88, TRIF, Nuclear factor Kappa B (NF-κB) and IκB were measured by Western blotting. The results showed that zingerone suppressed LPS-induced BUN, creatinine, and inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β levels in a dose-dependent manner. Zingerone also attenuated LPS-induced kidney histopathologic changes. Furthermore, zingerone was found to inhibit LPS-induced TLR4, MyD88, TRIF expression and NF-κB activation. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that zingerone inhibited LPS-induced AKI by suppressing TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

  9. The transcription factor ATF7 mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced epigenetic changes in macrophages involved in innate immunological memory.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Maekawa, Toshio; Zhu, Yujuan; Renard-Guillet, Claire; Chatton, Bruno; Inoue, Kentaro; Uchiyama, Takeru; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Yamada, Takuji; Ohno, Naohito; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Ishii, Shunsuke

    2015-10-01

    Immunological memory is thought to be mediated exclusively by lymphocytes. However, enhanced innate immune responses caused by a previous infection increase protection against reinfection, which suggests the presence of innate immunological memory. Here we identified an important role for the stress-response transcription factor ATF7 in innate immunological memory. ATF7 suppressed a group of genes encoding factors involved in innate immunity in macrophages by recruiting the histone H3K9 dimethyltransferase G9a. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide, which mimics bacterial infection, induced phosphorylation of ATF7 via the kinase p38, which led to the release of ATF7 from chromatin and a decrease in repressive histone H3K9me2 marks. A partially disrupted chromatin structure and increased basal expression of target genes were maintained for long periods, which enhanced resistance to pathogens. ATF7 might therefore be important in controlling memory in cells of the innate immune system.

  10. Vitamin K3 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, S; Nishiumi, S; Nishida, M; Mizushina, Y; Kobayashi, K; Masuda, A; Fujita, T; Morita, Y; Mizuno, S; Kutsumi, H; Azuma, T; Yoshida, M

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin K is a family of fat-soluble compounds including phylloquinone (vitamin K1), menaquinone (vitamin K2) and menadione (vitamin K3). Recently, it was reported that vitamin K, especially vitamins K1 and K2, exerts a variety of biological effects, and these compounds are expected to be candidates for therapeutic agents against various diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin K3 in in vitro cultured cell experiments and in vivo animal experiments. In human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells, vitamin K3 inhibited the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α-evoked translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB into the nucleus, although vitamins K1 and K2 did not. Vitamin K3 also suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and production of TNF-α in mouse macrophage RAW264·7 cells. Moreover, the addition of vitamin K3 before and after LPS administration attenuated the severity of lung injury in an animal model of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which occurs in the setting of acute severe illness complicated by systemic inflammation. In the ARDS model, vitamin K3 also suppressed the LPS-induced increase in the serum TNF-α level and inhibited the LPS-evoked nuclear translocation of NF-κB in lung tissue. Despite marked efforts, little therapeutic progress has been made, and the mortality rate of ARDS remains high. Vitamin K3 may be an effective therapeutic strategy against acute lung injury including ARDS. PMID:20030669

  11. Anti-inflammatory potency of nano-formulated puerarin and curcumin in rats subjected to the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok K; Jiang, Yin; Gupta, Shveta; Younus, Mohamod; Ramzan, Mohamod

    2013-10-01

    Puerarin (PU) and curcumin (CU), used commonly in traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurveda, have been shown to possess potent anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, and neuro-protective properties. Despite the experimental success of CU and PU in in vitro and animal models, their effectiveness has not yet been demonstrated in clinical trials, possibly because of their poor bioavailability. We hypothesized that gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-formulated PU (PU-AuNP), CU (CU-AuNP), or a combination of PU and CU (PU-CU-AuNP) were a more effective and nontoxic alternative to their bulk (nonformulated) counterparts. To test the hypothesis, bioavailability, therapeutic potency, and toxicity of bulk CU and/or PU were compared with those of their nanotized counterparts in rats subjected to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. This study showed that a 20-mg/kg dose of bulk PU or a mixture of PU and CU did not, while their nanotized counterparts, PU-AuNP, CU-AuNP, or PU-CU-AuNP, effectively suppressed the LPS-induced inflammation and cytotoxicity in rats. In addition, PU-CU-AuNP was more potent than PU-AuNP or CU-AuNP alone. The blank AuNP (bAuNP) at ≤40 mg/kg dose did not cause any adverse effects (blood and brain lactic acid concentrations, kidney function, and neuronal apoptosis were measured) in animals. Therefore, the present observations suggest that a bi-functional AuNP loaded with CU and PU may effectively suppress the LPS-induced inflammation and cytotoxicity provided the following conditions are met: (1) The AuNP dose is at or below the no-effect dose; (2) the nanoparticles release a therapeutic dose of CU and PU in vivo; and (3) the active ingredients are released into the intracellular component of the brain.

  12. Inhibition by rebamipide of cytokine-induced or lipopolysaccharide-induced chemokine synthesis in human corneal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ken; Ishida, Waka; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Harada, Yosuke; Fukushima, Atsuki

    2014-12-01

    The dry-eye drug rebamipide has mucin secretagogue activity in and anti-inflammatory effects on corneal epithelial cells. Corneal stromal fibroblasts (transdifferentiated keratocytes) function as immune modulators in the pathogenesis of chronic ocular allergic inflammation and in innate immune responses at the ocular surface. The possible anti-inflammatory effects of rebamipide on human corneal stromal fibroblasts were examined. Serum-deprived cells were incubated for 1 h with rebamipide and then for various times in the additional absence or presence of cytokines or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The release of chemokines into culture supernatants was determined with ELISAs. The intracellular abundance of chemokine mRNAs was quantitated by reverse transcription and real-time PCR analysis. Degradation of the nuclear factor κB (NFκB) inhibitor IκBα was detected by immunoblot analysis. Rebamipide suppressed the release of interleukin (IL)-8 and the upregulation of IL-8 mRNA induced by tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) or LPS in corneal fibroblasts. It also inhibited eotaxin-1 (CCL-11) expression at the protein and mRNA levels induced by the combination of TNF-α and IL-4. In addition, rebamipide attenuated the degradation of IκBα induced by TNF-α or LPS. Rebamipide inhibited the synthesis of chemokines by corneal fibroblasts in association with suppression of NFκB signalling. Rebamipide may therefore prove effective for the treatment of corneal stromal inflammation associated with allergy or bacterial infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Tyrosol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced ocular inflammation in rats via inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation

    PubMed Central

    SATO, Kazuaki; MIHARA, Yuko; KANAI, Kazutaka; YAMASHITA, Yohei; KIMURA, Yuya; ITOH, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of tyrosol (Tyr) on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. EIU was induced in male Lewis rats by subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Tyr (10, 50 or 100 mg/kg) was intravenously injected 2 hr before, simultaneously and 2 hr after LPS injection. The aqueous humor (AqH) was collected 24 hr after LPS injection; the infiltrating cell number, protein concentration, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, prostaglandin (PG)-E2 and nitric oxide (NO) levels were determined. Histopathologic examination and immunohistochemical studies for nuclear factor (NF)-κB, inhibitor of κB (IκB)-α, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the iris–ciliary body (ICB) were performed at 3 or 24 hr after LPS injection. To further clarify the anti-inflammatory effects, RAW264.7 macrophages were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of Tyr. Tyr reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the infiltrating cell number, protein concentration, and TNF-α, PGE2 and NO levels in AqH and improved histopathologic scores of EIU. Tyr also inhibited LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression, IκB-α degradation and nuclear translocation of activated NF-κB in ICB. Tyr significantly suppressed inflammatory mediator production in the culture medium and COX-2 and iNOS expression and activated NF-κB translocation in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that Tyr suppresses ocular inflammation of EIU by inhibiting NF-κB activation and subsequent proinflammatory mediator production. PMID:27238160

  14. Oregonin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS gene transcription and upregulates HO-1 expression in macrophages and microglia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Jui; Lee, Shoei-Sheng; Chen, Su-Chung; Ho, Feng-Ming; Lin, Wan-Wan

    2005-01-01

    Oregonin isolated from Alnus formosana is a diarylheptanoid derivative, which appears to have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, our data demonstrated inhibitory actions of oregonin on the LPS-induced iNOS protein in RAW264.7 macrophages and BV-2 microglial cells. We also suggested that HO-1 induction by oregonin might contribute to this action. Oregonin is able to dose-dependently reduce NO production, iNOS protein and iNOS promoter activity stimulated by LPS in RAW264.7 and BV-2 cells. Oregonin also showed inhibition of LPS-mediated NF-κB promoter activity and DNA-binding ability, as well as p65 nuclear translocation and phosphorylation. However, oregonin had no effect on IKK activity. AP-1 promoter activity and p38 MAPK activation but not PKC, ERK and JNK activation induced by LPS were attenuated by oregonin. Accompanying with iNOS protein reduction, moreover, we found that oregonin was able to induce HO-1 protein level. Results using a CO donor, [Ru(CO)3Cl2]2 further showed the ability of CO in reduction of iNOS protein level induced by LPS through the blockade of NF-κB and AP-1. Taken together, these results provide new evidences into the anti-inflammatory actions of oregonin, which include the inhibition of iNOS gene transcription via suppressing transcriptional activity of NF-κB and AP-1, as well as the upregulation of anti-inflammatory molecule HO-1. The HO-1-derived CO may also be involved in the suppressive effect on iNOS gene regulation. PMID:16025135

  15. Tanreqing Injection Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Airway Inflammation through MAPK/NF-κB Signaling Pathways in Rats Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Hong-li; Cai, Lin-li; Yan, Min; Dong, Shou-jin; Mao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tanreqing injection (TRQ) is a commonly used herbal patent medicine for treating inflammatory airway diseases in view of its outstanding anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we explored the signaling pathways involved in contributions of TRQ to LPS-induced airway inflammation in rats. Methods/Design. Adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats randomly divided into different groups received intratracheal instillation of LPS and/or intraperitoneal injection of TRQ. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) and lung samples were collected at 24 h, 48 h, and 96 h after TRQ administration. Protein and mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, Interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and IL-8 in BALF and lung homogenate were observed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. Lung sections were stained for p38 MAPK and NF-κB detection by immunohistochemistry. Phospho-p38 MAPK, phosphor-extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2, phospho-SAPK/JNK, phospho-NF-κB p65, phospho-IKKα/β, and phospho-IκB-α were measured by western blot analysis. Results. The results showed that TRQ significantly counteracted LPS-stimulated release of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, attenuated cells influx in BALF, mitigated mucus hypersecretion, suppressed phosphorylation of NF-κB p65, IκB-α, ΙKKα/β, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK, and inhibited p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 expression in rat lungs. Conclusions. Results of the current research indicate that TRQ possesses potent exhibitory effects in LPS-induced airway inflammation by, at least partially, suppressing the MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways, in a general dose-dependent manner. PMID:27366191

  16. The structure of oleamide films at the aluminum/oil interface and aluminum/air interface studied by Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy (RAIRS).

    PubMed

    Casford, Michael T L; Davies, Paul B

    2009-08-01

    The structure of oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) films on aluminum has been investigated by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Three different film deposition strategies were investigated: (i) films formed by equilibrium adsorption from oleamide solutions in oil, (ii) Langmuir-Blodgett films cast at 1 and 25 mN m(-1), (iii) thick spin-cast films. Both L-B and spin-cast films were examined in air and under oil. The adsorbate formed in the 1 mN m(-1) film in air showed little orientational order. For this film, the spectroscopic results and the ellipsometric thickness point to a relatively conformationally disordered monolayer that is oriented principally in the plane of the interface. Direct adsorption to the metal interface from oil results in SFG spectra of oleamide that are comparable to those observed for the 1 mN m(-1) L-B film in air. In contrast, SFG and RAIRS results for the 25 mN m(-1) film in air and SFG spectra of the spin-cast film in air both show strong conformational ordering and orientational alignment normal to the interface. The 25 mN m(-1) film has an ellipsometric thickness almost twice that of the 1 mN m(-1) L-B film. Taken in combination with the spectroscopic results, this is indicative of a well packed monolayer in air in which the hydrocarbon chain is in an essentially defect-free extended conformation with the methyl terminus oriented away from the surface. A similar structure is also deduced for the surface of the spin-cast film in air. Upon immersion of the 25 mN m(-1) L-B film in oil the SFG spectra show that this film rapidly adopts a relatively disordered structure similar to that seen for the 1 mN m(-1) L-B film in air. Immersion of the spin-cast film in oil results in the gradual disordering of the amide film over a period of several days until the observed spectra become essentially identical to those observed for direct adsorption of oleamide from oil.

  17. Sirtuin-activating compounds (STACs) alleviate D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats: involvement of sirtuin 1 and heme oxygenase 1.

    PubMed

    Kemelo, M K; Kutinová Canová, N; Horinek, A; Farghali, H

    2017-02-28

    Sirtuin activating compounds (STACs) attenuate various type of liver insults through mechanisms which are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the ameliorative potential of quercetin (natural polyphenol) and SRT1720 (synthetic SIRT1 activator) against D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatotoxicity (an experimental model of acute liver failure). Moreover, we compared and contrasted the roles of stress responsive enzymes, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in hepatoprotection/ hepatotoxicity. Liver injury was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (400 mg/kg) and lipopolysaccharide (10 microg/kg). Some animals were pretreated with quercetin (50 mg/kg i.p.) or SRT1720 (5 mg/kg i.p.). Twenty-four hours later, the effects of these treatments were evaluated by biochemical studies and Western blot. D-GalN/LPS treatment upregulated HO-1 expression, downregulated SIRT1 expression, decreased AST: ALT ratio and markedly increased bilirubin, catalase and conjugated diene levels. Pretreatment of D-GalN/LPS rats with either quercetin or SRT1720 returned SIRT1 expression, HO-1 expression and all the aforementioned markers towards normal. Collectively, these findings suggest that elevated HO-1 and low SIRT1 expressions are involved in the pathogenesis of D-GalN/LPS-induced hepatotoxicity. Drugs that downregulate HO-1 and/or upregulate SIRT1 seem to have antihepatotoxic effects and need further exploration.

  18. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the inner ear and middle ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Hisashi; Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Zhao, Pengfei; Maeda, Yukihide; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Significant expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its receptor (CD74) was observed in both the middle ear and inner ear in experimental otitis media in mice. Modulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its signaling pathway might be useful in the management of inner ear inflammation due to otitis media. Inner ear dysfunction secondary to otitis media has been reported. However, the specific mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the middle ear and inner ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media. BALB/c mice received a transtympanic injection of either lipopolysaccharide or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The mice were sacrificed 24 h after injection, and temporal bones were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, histologic examination, and immunohistochemistry. PCR examination revealed that the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice showed a significant up-regulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in both the middle ear and inner ear as compared with the PBS-injected control mice. The immunohistochemical study showed positive reactions for macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in infiltrating inflammatory cells, middle ear mucosa, and inner ear in the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice.

  19. Effect of dietary supplementation of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma on lipopolysaccharide-induced early inflammatory responses in male broiler chickens (Gallus gallus) fed a corn-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Sato, Kan; Akiba, Yukio

    2011-12-01

    Effect of dietary supplementation of astaxanthin (Ax) from Phaffia rhodozyma on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses was investigated in male broiler chickens fed a corn-based diet. Birds (1 week of age) were fed a corn-enriched diet containing either 0 or 100 ppm Ax for 2 weeks and were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg body weight). Inflammatory responses were evaluated by determining changes in expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) in cytokines and mediators related to inflammatory responses (interleukin (IL)-1 beta and -6, inducible nitrite synthase (iNOS), interferon (IFN)- γ and cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2 in the liver and spleen after 2 h of LPS injection and plasma ceruloplasmin concentration as an acute phase protein. Birds fed Ax showed significantly higher iNOS mRNA expression in the liver and spleen compared to that of control birds. Ax-fed birds also showed greater increase in mRNA expression in the liver of IL-1, IL-6 and IFN-γ compared to that of control birds. The enhancing effect of Ax was further progressed when LPS was injected. No difference was found in plasma ceruloplasmin concentration between the Ax-fed group and control group. The results suggest that feeding supplementation of Ax (100 ppm) to a corn-enriched diet possibly does not have anti-inflammatory effect in male broiler chickens. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Calorie restriction increases lipopolysaccharide-induced neuropeptide Y immunolabeling and reduces microglial cell area in the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Radler, M E; Wright, B J; Walker, F R; Hale, M W; Kent, S

    2015-01-29

    Calorie restriction (CR) increases longevity and elicits many health promoting benefits including delaying immunosenescence and reducing the incidence of age-related diseases. Although the mechanisms underlying the health-enhancing effects of CR are not known, a likely contributing factor is alterations in immune system functioning. CR suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, blocks LPS-induced fever, and shifts hypothalamic signaling pathways to an anti-inflammatory bias. Furthermore, we have recently shown that CR attenuates LPS-stimulated microglial activation in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), a brain region containing neurons that synthesize neuropeptide Y (NPY), an orexigenic neuropeptide that is upregulated by a CR diet and has anti-inflammatory properties. To determine if increased NPY expression in the ARC following CR was associated with changes in microglial activation, a set of brain sections from mice that were exposed to 50% CR or ad libitum feeding for 28 days before being injected with LPS were immunostained for NPY. The density of NPY-immunolabeling was assessed across the rostrocaudal extent of the ARC and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). An adjacent set of sections were immunostained for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba1) and immunostained microglia in the ARC were digitally reconstructed to investigate the effects of CR on microglial morphology. We demonstrated that exposure to CR increased NPY expression in the ARC, but not the PVN. Digital reconstruction of microglia revealed that LPS increased Iba1 intensity in ad libitum fed mice but had no effect on Iba1 intensity in CR mice. CR also decreased the size of ARC microglial cells following LPS. Correlational analyses revealed strong associations between NPY and body temperature, and body temperature and microglia area. Together these results suggest that CR-induced changes in NPY are not directly involved in the

  1. autoregulatory role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) on Lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular inducible NO synthase expression and function.

    PubMed

    Vo, Phuong A; Lad, Bhavini; Tomlinson, James A P; Francis, Stephanie; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2005-02-25

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is responsible for sepsis-induced hypotension and plays a major contributory role in the ensuing multiorgan failure. The present study aimed to elucidate the role of endothelial NO in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced iNOS expression, in isolated rat aortic rings. Exposure to LPS (1 mug/ml, 5 h) resulted in a reversal of phenylephrine precontracted tone in aortic rings (70.7 +/- 3.2%). This relaxation was associated with iNOS expression and NF-kappaB activation. Positive immunoreactivity for iNOS protein was localized in medial and adventitial layers of LPS-treated aortic rings. Removal of the endothelium rendered aortic rings resistant to LPS-induced relaxation (8.9 +/- 4.5%). Western blotting of these rings demonstrated an absence of iNOS expression. However, treatment of endothelium-denuded rings with the NO donor, diethylamine-NONOate (0.1 mum), restored LPS-induced relaxation (61.6 +/- 6.6%) and iNOS expression to levels comparable with arteries with intact endothelium. Blockade of endothelial NOS (eNOS) activation using geldanamycin and radicicol, inhibitors of heat shock protein 90, in endothelium-intact arteries suppressed both LPS-induced relaxation and LPS-induced iNOS expression (9.0 +/- 8.0% and 2.0 +/- 6.2%, respectively). Moreover, LPS treatment (12.5 mg/kg, intravenous, 15 h) of wild-type mice resulted in profound elevation of plasma [NO(x)] measurements that were reduced by approximately 50% in eNOS knock-out animals. Furthermore, LPS-induced changes in vascular reactivity and iNOS expression evident in wild-type tissues were profoundly suppressed in tissues taken from eNOS knockout animals. Together, these data suggest that eNOS-derived NO, in part via activation of NF-kappaB, regulates iNOS-induction by LPS. This study provides the first demonstration of a proinflammatory role of vascular eNOS in sepsis.

  2. Preventive effect of Hochu-ekki-to on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shunji; Bando, Masashi; Yamasawa, Hideaki; Ohno, Shoji; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Takada, Toshinori; Suzuki, Eiichi; Gejyo, Fumitake; Sugiyama, Yukihiko

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of Hochu-ekki-to (TJ-41), a Japanese herbal medicine, on the development of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. ALI was induced in female BALB/c mice by the intranasal administration of 0.1 mg/kg LPS. The mice were divided into a group receiving normal feed and another group receiving feed mixed with TJ-41 at a dose of 1 g/kg/day for 8 weeks before LPS challenge. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the preadministration of TJ-41 caused significant reduction in the absolute number of total cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. The preadministration of TJ-41 significantly inhibited increases in the serum level of keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), which is a murine chemotaxin for neutrophils that corresponds to human interleukin-8, with respect to its concentration at 24 h after LPS challenge. Furthermore, the histopathologic findings indicated that alveolitis with leukocyte infiltration in the alveolar space was less severe in the TJ-41-treated mice than in the control mice. These findings indicated that the preadministration of TJ-41 could show an inhibitory effect on ALI in this experimental murine system associated with the suppression of chemokine production.

  3. Sarcandra glabra combined with lycopene protect rats from lipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injury via reducing inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian-Yin; Chen, Shi-Biao

    2016-12-01

    Sarcandra glabra (Chinese name, Zhongjiefeng) is an important herb widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Lycopene has been shown to be a powerful antioxidant. This study aims to test the hypothesis that Sarcandra glabra combined with lycopene protect rats from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury (ALI). Metabolomics approach combined with pathological inspection, serum biochemistry examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting were used to explore the protective effects of Sarcandra glabra and lycopene on LPS-induced ALI, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that Sarcandra glabra and lycopene could significantly ameliorate LPS-induced histopathological injuries, improve the anti-oxidative activities of rats, decrease the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, suppress the activations of MAPK and transcription factor NF-κB and reverse the disturbed metabolism towards the normal status. Taken together, this integrated study revealed that Sarcandra glabra combined with lycopene had great potential in protecting rats from LPS-induced ALI, which would be helpful to guide the clinical medication.

  4. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury drives a progenitor cell-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshio; Tada, Yuji; Nishimura, Rintaro; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Sekine, Ayumi; Urushibara, Takashi; Kato, Fumiaki; Kinoshita, Taku; Ikari, Jun; West, James; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary vascular endothelial function may be impaired by oxidative stress in endotoxemia-derived acute lung injury. Growing evidence suggests that endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) could play a pivotal role in various respiratory diseases; however, it remains unclear whether EndMT participates in the injury/repair process of septic acute lung injury. Here, we analyzed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice whose total number of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVECs) transiently decreased after production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while the population of EndMT-PVECs significantly increased. NAD(P)H oxidase inhibition suppressed EndMT of PVECs. Most EndMT-PVECs derived from tissue-resident cells, not from bone marrow, as assessed by mice with chimeric bone marrow. Bromodeoxyuridine-incorporation assays revealed higher proliferation of capillary EndMT-PVECs. In addition, EndMT-PVECs strongly expressed c-kit and CD133. LPS loading to human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-Ls) induced reversible EndMT, as evidenced by phenotypic recovery observed after removal of LPS. LPS-induced EndMT-HMVEC-Ls had increased vasculogenic ability, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and expression of drug resistance genes, which are also fundamental properties of progenitor cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that LPS induces EndMT of tissue-resident PVECs during the early phase of acute lung injury, partly mediated by ROS, contributing to increased proliferation of PVECs. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Fisetin Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury via TLR4-Mediated NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guang; Jiang, Ze-Yu; Sun, Bo; Fu, Jie; Li, Tian-Zuo

    2016-02-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI), a common component of systemic inflammatory disease, is a life-threatening condition without many effective treatments. Fisetin, a natural flavonoid from fruits and vegetables, was reported to have wide pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. The aim of this study was to detect the effects of fisetin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury and investigate the potential mechanism. Fisetin was injected (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.v.) 30 min before LPS administration (5 mg/kg, i.v.). Our results showed that fisetin effectively reduced the inflammatory cytokine release and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF), decreased the lung wet/dry ratios, and obviously improved the pulmonary histology in LPS-induced ALI. Furthermore, fisetin inhibited LPS-induced increases of neutrophils and macrophage infiltration and attenuated MPO activity in lung tissues. Additionally, fisetin could significantly inhibit the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and the activation of NF-κB in lung tissues. Our data indicates that fisetin has a protective effect against LPS-induced ALI via suppression of TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways, and fisetin may be a promising candidate for LPS-induced ALI treatment.

  6. Hyperoside inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in microglial cells via p38 and NFκB pathways.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hui-Hui; Zhu, Lan-Bing; Li, Ting; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Ya-Nan; Ren, Xiao-Li; Hu, Bei-Lei; Huang, Chen-Ping; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Zhang, Xiong

    2017-09-01

    Hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-β-d-galactoside) is an active compound isolated from herbs. Neuroinflammation is a key mechanism involved in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potentiality of hyperoside in inhibiting microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. BV2 microglial cells were pretreated with hyperoside and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results showed that hyperoside significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Similar results were observed in primary microglial cells isolated from neonatal mice. Analyses in MAPK and NFκB signaling combined with specific inhibitors suggested that hyperoside attenuated the LPS-induced inflammatory responses via p38 and NFκB pathways. Furthermore, hyperoside suppressed reactive microglia-mediated neurotoxicity as evidenced by conditioned media culture, but had no direct impact on MPP(+)-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Collectively, our data suggest that hyperoside may serve as a protective agent by alleviating microglia activation in disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Resveratrol attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced dysfunction of blood-brain barrier in endothelial cells via AMPK activation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, is reported to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in vascular cells. The blood-brain barrier (BBB), formed by specialized brain endothelial cells that are interconnected by tight junctions, strictly regulates paracellular permeability to maintain an optimal extracellular environment for brain homeostasis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of resveratrol and the role of AMPK in BBB dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exposure of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) to LPS (1 µg/ml) for 4 to 24 hours week dramatically increased the permeability of the BBB in parallel with lowered expression levels of occluding and claudin-5, which are essential to maintain tight junctions in HBMECs. In addition, LPS significantly increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) productions. All effects induced by LPS in HBVMCs were reversed by adenoviral overexpression of superoxide dismutase, inhibition of NAD(P) H oxidase by apocynin or gain-function of AMPK by adenoviral overexpression of constitutively active mutant (AMPK-CA) or by resveratrol. Finally, upregulation of AMPK by either AMPK-CA or resveratrol abolished the levels of LPS-enhanced NAD(P)H oxidase subunits protein expressions. We conclude that AMPK activation by resveratrol improves the integrity of the BBB disrupted by LPS through suppressing the induction of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS in HBMECs. PMID:27382348

  8. Mechanisms of anti-inflammatory property of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor: inhibition of JNK signaling in lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Wen; Maharjan, Sailendra; Cui, Zhaoqiang; Wang, Xingli; Tang, Dongqi; Nie, Lin

    2014-02-01

    Microglia are important resident immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and involved in the neuroinflammation caused by CNS disorders, including brain trauma, ischemia, stroke, infections, inflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases. Our study explores the hypothesis that conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF), a secretory neurotrophic factor, may provide a novel therapy for associated with neuroinflammation related to the microglia. We observed that CDNF was upregulated in rat primary microglia treated with 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide, an inflammatory inducer, for 24 h. Thus, we hypothesize that CDNF may play a role, mediator or inhibitor, in regulating the inflammation in microglial cells induced by LPS. Finally, our data showed that CDNF significantly attenuated the production of proinflammatory cytokines (PGE2 and IL-1β) and remarkably alleviated the cytotoxicity (percentage of lactate dehydrogenase released) in the LPS-induced microglia by suppressing the phosphorylation of JNK, but not the P38 or ERK pathways. These results demonstrate the anti-inflammatory property of CDNF by inhibition of JNK signaling in LPS-induced microglia, suggesting that CDNF may be a potential novel agent for the treatment of neuroinflammation in the CNS disorders.

  9. Inhibition of leukotriene B4 receptor 1 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiac dysfunction: role of AMPK-regulated mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meng; Wang, Rui; Han, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Leukotriene B4 (LTB4)-mediated leukocyte recruitment and inflammatory cytokine production make crucial contributions to chronic inflammation and sepsis; however, the role of LTB4 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiac dysfunction remains unclear. Therefore, the present study addressed this issue using an LTB4 receptor 1 (BLT1) inhibitor. Administration of LPS to mice resulted in decreased cardiovascular function. Inhibition of LTB4/BLT1 with the BLT1 inhibitor U75302 significantly improved survival and attenuated the LPS-induced acute cardiac dysfunction. During LPS challenge, the phosphorylated AMPK/ACC signaling pathway was slightly activated, and this effect was enhanced by U75302. Additionally, pNF-κB, Bax and cleaved caspase-3 were upregulated by LPS, and Bcl-2, IκB-α, mitochondrial complex I, complex II, and OPA1 were downregulated; however, these effects were reversed by U75302. The results indicated that the BLT1 antagonist suppressed cardiac apoptosis, inflammation, and mitochondrial impairment. Furthermore, the protection provided by the BLT1 inhibitor against LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction was significantly reversed by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C. In conclusion, inhibiting the LTB4/BLT1 signaling pathway via AMPK activation is a potential treatment strategy for septic cardiac dysfunction because it efficiently attenuates cardiac apoptosis, which may occur via the inhibition of inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:28290498

  10. Natural small molecule FMHM inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response by promoting TRAF6 degradation via K48-linked polyubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ke-Wu; Liao, Li-Xi; Lv, Hai-Ning; Song, Fang-Jiao; Yu, Qian; Dong, Xin; Li, Jun; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2015-10-01

    TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a key hub protein involved in Toll-like receptor-dependent inflammatory signaling pathway, and it recruits additional proteins to form multiprotein complexes capable of activating downstream NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway. Ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a crucial role in various protein degradations, such as TRAF6, leading to inhibitory effects on inflammatory response and immunologic function. However, whether ubiquitination-dependent TRAF6 degradation can be used as a novel anti-inflammatory drug target still remains to be explored. FMHM, a bioactive natural small molecule compound extracted from Chinese herbal medicine Radix Polygalae, suppressed acute inflammatory response by targeting ubiquitin protein and inducing UPS-dependent TRAF6 degradation mechanism. It was found that FMHM targeted ubiquitin protein via Lys48 site directly induced Lys48 residue-linked polyubiquitination. This promoted Lys48 residue-linked polyubiquitin chain formation on TRAF6, resulting in increased TRAF6 degradation via UPS and inactivation of downstream NF-κB inflammatory pathway. Consequently, FMHM down-regulated inflammatory mediator levels in circulation, protected multiple organs against inflammatory injury in vivo, and prolong the survival of endotoxemia mouse models. Therefore, FMHM can serve as a novel lead compound for the development of TRAF6 scavenging agent via ubiquitination-dependent mode, which represents a promising strategy for treating inflammatory diseases.

  11. Protective effect of zerumbone reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via antioxidative enzymes and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Leung, Wai-Shing; Yang, Ming-Ling; Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Kuo, Chi-Wen; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Huang-Liu, Rosa; Lin, Hui-Wen; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2017-05-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious disease with high morbidity and mortality rate. Although there are effective strategies for treatment of ALI; a widely accepted specific pharmacotherapy has not yet established. Zerumbone, the major active phytochemical compound from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, exhibits various beneficial biological and pharmacological activities, such as antioxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, and anti-cancer. We aimed to study the potential protective effects and mechanisms of zerumbone in mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Pretreatment with zerumbone inhibited the histopatholgical changes such as neutrophils infiltration, increased in alveolar barrier thickness, hemorrhage, and hyaline membrane formation occurred in lungs in LPS-induced ALI. In addition, not only LPS-induced activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) was suppressed by zerumbone, but also lipid peroxidation in lungs was inhibited as well. Moreover, pretreatment with zerumbone reversed the antioxidative enzymes activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, decreased by LPS and enhanced the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase (HO-1) induced by LPS. These results from present study suggested that the protective mechanisms of zerumbone on LPS-induced ALI were via up-regulation of antioxidative enzymes and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  12. Evaluation of an Aqueous Extract from Horseradish Root (Armoracia rusticana Radix) against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cellular Inflammation Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Herz, Corinna; Tran, Hoai Thi Thu; Márton, Melinda-Rita; Maul, Ronald; Schreiner, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial crop and its root is used in condiments. Traditionally, horseradish root is used to treat bacterial infections of the respiratory tract and urinary bladder. The antiphlogistic activity, determined in activated primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), was evaluated for an aqueous extract and its subfractions, separated by HPLC. Compound analysis was done by UHPLC-QToF/MS and GC-MS. The aqueous extract concentration-dependently inhibited the anti-inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in terms of TNF-α release at ≥37 μg/mL. Further, the cyclooxygenase as well as lipoxygenase pathway was blocked by the extract as demonstrated by inhibition of COX-2 protein expression and PGE2 synthesis at ≥4 μg/mL and leukotriene LTB4 release. Mechanistic studies revealed that inhibition of ERK1/2 and c-Jun activation preceded COX-2 suppression upon plant extract treatment in the presence of LPS. Chemical analysis identified target compounds with a medium polarity as relevant for the observed bioactivity. Importantly, allyl isothiocyanate, which is quite well known for its anti-inflammatory capacity and as the principal pungent constituent in horseradish roots, was not relevant for the observations. The results suggest that horseradish root exerts an antiphlogistic activity in human immune cells by regulation of the COX and LOX pathway via MAPK signalling. PMID:28182113

  13. Heat Shock Protein 72 Enhances Autophagy as a Protective Mechanism in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Peritonitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu; Zhou, Yi; Fan, Jinjin; Cao, Shirong; Cao, Tao; Huang, Fengxian; Zhuang, Shougang; Wang, Yihan; Yu, Xueqing; Mao, Haiping

    2011-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis–related peritonitis causes the denudation of mesothelial cells and, ultimately, membrane integrity alterations and peritoneal dysfunction. Because heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) confers protection against apoptosis and because autophagy mediates survival in response to cellular stresses, we examined whether autophagy contributes to HSP72-mediated cytoprotection in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced peritonitis. Exposure of cultured peritoneal mesothelial cells to LPS resulted first in autophagy and later, apoptosis. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine or Beclin-1 small-interfering RNA sensitized cells to apoptosis and abolished the antiapoptotic effect of HSP72, suggesting that autophagy activation acts as a prosurvival mechanism. Overexpression of HSP72 augmented autophagy through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and Beclin-1 up-regulation. Suppression of JNK activity reversed HSP72-mediated Beclin-1 up-regulation and autophagy, indicating that HSP72-mediated autophagy is JNK dependent. In a rat model of LPS-associated peritonitis, autophagy occurred before apoptosis in peritoneum. Up-regulation of HSP72 by geranylgeranylacetone increased autophagy, inhibited apoptosis, and attenuated peritoneal injury, and these effects were blunted by down-regulation of HSP72 with quercetin. Additionally, blocking autophagy by chloroquine promoted apoptosis and aggravated LPS-associated peritoneal dysfunction. Thus, HSP72 protects peritoneum from LPS-induced mesothelial cells injury, at least in part by enhancing JNK activation–dependent autophagy and inhibiting apoptosis. These findings imply that HSP72 induction might be a potential therapy for peritonitis. PMID:22001349

  14. Protective effect of porphyran isolated from discolored nori (Porphyra yezoensis) on lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxin shock in mice.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Cho, Kichul; Isaka, Shogo; Ueno, Mikinori; Jin, Jun-O; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Kim, Daekyung; Oda, Tatsuya

    2016-12-01

    Porphyran, a sulfated polysaccharide, isolated from discolored nori (Porphyra yezoensis) (dc-porphyran) and one fraction (F1) purified from dc-porphyran by DEAE-chromatography showed the protective effects on LPS-induced endotoxin shock in mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment with dc-porphyran or F1 (100mg/kg) 60min prior to i.p. injection of LPS (30mg/kg) completely protected mice from LPS lethality. At 10mg/kg concentration, F1 demonstrated more protection than dc-porphyran. Intravenous (i.v.) challenge of LPS, even at 20mg/kg, was more lethal than i.p. administration; i.v. injection of F1 (100mg/kg) with LPS significantly improved the survival rate. However, i.v. dc-porphyran (100mg/kg) produced an even lower survival rate than that of LPS alone. We examined pro-inflammatory mediators such as NO and TNF-α in serum. F1 significantly reduced the levels of these markers. Additionally, F1 significantly decreased the malondialdehyde level in the liver, a marker of oxidative stress, while dc-porphyran had almost no effect. Furthermore, F1 significantly decreased the production of TNF-α and NO in peritoneal exudate cells harvested from LPS-challenged mice, while dc-porphyran treatment showed a lesser decrease. Our results suggest that porphyran isolated from discolored nori, especially F1, is capable of suppressing LPS-induced endotoxin shock in vivo.

  15. Bromelain inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production in human THP-1 monocytes via the removal of CD14.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing-Rong; Wu, Chia-Chuan; Hou, Rolis Chien-Wei; Jeng, Kee-Ching

    2008-01-01

    Bromelain has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of bromelain is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of bromelain on cytokine production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells. The result showed that bromelain (50-100 microg/ml) significantly and reversibly reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha interleukin- (IL)-1beta and IL-6 from LPS-induced PBMC and THP-1 cells. This effect was correlated with reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha mRNA and NF-kappaB activity in THP-1 cells. In addition, bromelain dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced prostaglandin E(2), thromboxane B(2) and COX-2 mRNA but not COX-1 mRNA. Importantly, bromelain degraded TNF-alpha and IL-1beta molecules, reduced the expression of surface marker CD14 but not Toll-like receptor 4 from THP-1 cells. Taken together, the results suggest that the suppression of signaling pathways by bromelain's proteolytic activity may contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of bromelain.

  16. Heat shock protein 72 enhances autophagy as a protective mechanism in lipopolysaccharide-induced peritonitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Zhou, Yi; Fan, Jinjin; Cao, Shirong; Cao, Tao; Huang, Fengxian; Zhuang, Shougang; Wang, Yihan; Yu, Xueqing; Mao, Haiping

    2011-12-01

    Peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis causes the denudation of mesothelial cells and, ultimately, membrane integrity alterations and peritoneal dysfunction. Because heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) confers protection against apoptosis and because autophagy mediates survival in response to cellular stresses, we examined whether autophagy contributes to HSP72-mediated cytoprotection in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced peritonitis. Exposure of cultured peritoneal mesothelial cells to LPS resulted first in autophagy and later, apoptosis. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine or Beclin-1 small-interfering RNA sensitized cells to apoptosis and abolished the antiapoptotic effect of HSP72, suggesting that autophagy activation acts as a prosurvival mechanism. Overexpression of HSP72 augmented autophagy through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and Beclin-1 up-regulation. Suppression of JNK activity reversed HSP72-mediated Beclin-1 up-regulation and autophagy, indicating that HSP72-mediated autophagy is JNK dependent. In a rat model of LPS-associated peritonitis, autophagy occurred before apoptosis in peritoneum. Up-regulation of HSP72 by geranylgeranylacetone increased autophagy, inhibited apoptosis, and attenuated peritoneal injury, and these effects were blunted by down-regulation of HSP72 with quercetin. Additionally, blocking autophagy by chloroquine promoted apoptosis and aggravated LPS-associated peritoneal dysfunction. Thus, HSP72 protects peritoneum from LPS-induced mesothelial cells injury, at least in part by enhancing JNK activation-dependent autophagy and inhibiting apoptosis. These findings imply that HSP72 induction might be a potential therapy for peritonitis.

  17. A new dermocosmetic containing retinaldehyde, delta-tocopherol glucoside and glycylglycine oleamide for managing naturally aged skin: results from in vitro to clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Rouvrais, Céline; Bacqueville, Daniel; Bogdanowicz, Patrick; Haure, Marie-José; Duprat, Laure; Coutanceau, Christine; Castex-Rizzi, Nathalie; Duplan, Hélène; Mengeaud, Valérie; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Natural aging of skin tissues, the addition of the cumulative action of the time and radiation exposure result in skin atrophy, wrinkles and degeneration of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The aim of the study was to investigate the beneficial effect of a combination containing retinaldehyde (RAL), delta-tocopherol glucoside (delta-TC) and glycylglycine ole-amide (GGO) and of a dermocosmetic containing the combination. Materials and methods The protective effect of the combination was assessed through in vitro gene expression of ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated fibroblasts. A skin aging assay using UV light on ex vivo skin samples and a clinical study conducted in 36 women aged from 35 to 55 years with a minimum of level 4 to a maximum of level 6 on the crow’s feet photoscale assessed the antiaging effect of the dermocosmetic. Results When added to UV-irradiated fibroblasts, the combination substantially improved the ECM in activating the elastin fiber production (fibrillin 2, fibulin 1 and 5 and lysyl oxidase-like 2) as well as that of proteins involved in the cellular ECM interactions (integrin b1, paxillin and actin a2). An ex vivo photodamaged human skin model showed that the dermocosmetic formulation containing the combination of the active ingredients protected the elastic network against UV-induced alterations including both elastin and fibrillin-rich fibers in the dermis. A daily application of the dermocosmetic for 2 months on naturally aged skin resulted in a statistically significant improvement (p<0.05) of visible signs of aging comprising crow’s feet, wrinkles and periocular fine lines. Finally, the formulation was well tolerated. Conclusion The dermocosmetic containing RAL, delta-TC and GGO provides a substantial benefit in the daily care of naturally aged skin in women aged 35–55 years. PMID:28203099

  18. The sleep lipid oleamide may represent an endogenous anticonvulsant: an in vitro comparative study in the 4-aminopyridine rat brain-slice model.

    PubMed

    Dougalis, Antonios; Lees, George; Ganellin, C Robin

    2004-03-01

    cis-Oleamide (cOA) is a putative endocannabinoid, which modulates GABA(A) receptors, Na+ channels and gap-junctions (important targets for clinical and experimental anticonvulsants). Here we address the hypothesis that cOA possesses seizure limiting properties and might represent an endogenous anticonvulsant. Field potentials were recorded from the rat hippocampus and visual cortex. The effects of cOA, were compared to carbamazepine (CBZ), pentobarbital (PB) and carbenoxolone (CRX) on 4-Aminopyridine(4AP)-induced epileptiform discharges. CBZ (100 microM), PB (50 microM) and CRX (100 microM), but not cOA (64 microM), significantly attenuated the duration of the evoked epileptiform discharges in CA1. Interictal activity in CA3 was significantly depressed by CRX and cOA (irreversible by AM251), increased by CBZ and remained unaffected by PB. CBZ, PB and CRX abolished spontaneous ictal events and attenuated evoked ictal discharges in the visual cortex. cOA did not abolish spontaneous ictal events, but significantly (albeit weakly) reduced the duration of evoked ictal events. cOA and CRX, in contrast to CBZ or PB, caused a significant delay in the development of the evoked (tonic phase) epileptiform discharges. The weak effects of cOA seem independent of cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. Enzymatic cleavage and lack of specific antagonists for cOA confound simple interpretations of its actions in slices. Its high lipophilicity, imposing a permeability barrier, may also explain the lack of anticonvulsant activity. The effects of cOA may well be masked by release of the endogenous ligand upon ictal depolarisation as we demonstrate here for established endocannabinoids. cOA does not possess profound antiepileptic actions in our hands compared to CBZ, PB or CRX.

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of germanium-containing Spirulina in rats with (D)-galactosamine- and lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, Orie; Shiojima, Yoshiaki; Igarashi, Kiharu

    2014-01-14

    In the present study, the protective effects of dietary Spirulina (SP) and germanium-containing Spirulina (GeSP) were compared in rats with liver injury induced by an intraperitoneal injection of d-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS). Wistar rats were fed one of the following diets: the basal diet (GalN/LPS-CON group; n 6), the basal diet supplemented with 5 % SP or GeSP (GalN/LPS-SP and GalN/LPS-GeSP group, respectively; n 7 each). After administering these diets for 7 d, each rat was intraperitoneally injected with GalN/LPS. Increases in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were suppressed in the GalN/LPS-GeSP group (GalN/LPS-CON v. GalN/LPS-GeSP: ALT 1052 (sem 187) v. 509 (sem 88) IU/l and AST 2183 (sem 368) v. 1170 (sem 196) IU/l) following the injection of GalN/LPS. Plasma levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and TNF-α in GeSP-fed rats were significantly lower when compared with those in the GalN/LPS-CON group (GalN/LPS-CON v. GalN/LPS-GeSP: IFN-γ 142·8 (sem 17·5) v. 66·8 (sem 9·7) pg/ml and TNF-α 72·3 (sem 15·4) v. 31·2 (sem 6·8) pg/ml). However, the decrease in these levels observed in the GalN/LPS-SP group was not as prominent as those observed in the GalN/LPS-GeSP group. Furthermore, the increase in liver catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, as well as the level of oxidised glutathione (GSSG), was more suppressed in GeSP-fed rats (GalN/LPS-CON v. GalN/LPS-GeSP: CAT 457 (sem 47) v. 262 (sem 54) U/mg liver protein; GPx 1·30 (sem 0·11) v. 0·53 (sem 0·09) U/mg liver protein; GSSG 2·18 (sem 0·33) v. 1·31 (sem 0·24) mmol/kg liver) after the injection of GalN/LPS. These changes were more pronounced in the GalN/LPS-GeSP group than in the GalN/LPS-SP group. These results suggest that GeSP could afford a significant protective effect in the alleviation of GalN/LPS-induced hepatic damage. In addition, the results indicate that GeSP is more effective than SP.

  20. Leptin fails to blunt the lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in rats.

    PubMed

    Basharat, Saadia; Parker, Jennifer A; Murphy, Kevin G; Bloom, Stephen R; Buckingham, Julia C; John, Christopher D

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for sepsis morbidity and mortality, whereas the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a protective role in the body's defence against sepsis. Sepsis induces a profound systemic immune response and cytokines serve as excellent markers for sepsis as they act as mediators of the immune response. Evidence suggests that the adipokine leptin may play a pathogenic role in sepsis. Mouse endotoxaemic models present with elevated leptin levels and exogenously added leptin increased mortality whereas human septic patients have elevated circulating levels of the soluble leptin receptor (Ob-Re). Evidence suggests that leptin can inhibit the regulation of the HPA axis. Thus, leptin may suppress the HPA axis, impairing its protective role in sepsis. We hypothesised that leptin would attenuate the HPA axis response to sepsis. We investigated the direct effects of an i.p. injection of 2 mg/kg leptin on the HPA axis response to intraperitoneally injected 25 μg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the male Wistar rat. We found that LPS potently activated the HPA axis, as shown by significantly increased plasma stress hormones, ACTH and corticosterone, and increased plasma interleukin 1β (IL1β) levels, 2 h after administration. Pre-treatment with leptin, 2 h before LPS administration, did not influence the HPA axis response to LPS. In turn, LPS did not affect plasma leptin levels. Our findings suggest that leptin does not influence HPA function or IL1β secretion in a rat model of LPS-induced sepsis, and thus that leptin is unlikely to be involved in the acute-phase endocrine response to bacterial infection in rats.

  1. Coumarins from Angelica decursiva inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced nitrite oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Ishita, Ishrat Jahan; Nurul Islam, Md; Kim, Yeong Shik; Choi, Ran Joo; Sohn, Hee Sook; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-01-01

    Angelica decursiva has long been used in Korean traditional medicine as an antitussive, analgesic, antipyretic, and cough remedy. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activity of 9 coumarin derivatives isolated from a 90 % methanol fraction was evaluated via inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Among the tested compounds, edulisin II (1) exhibited the most potent NO production inhibitory activity, followed by decursidin (2), Pd-C-III (3), 4-hydroxy Pd-C-III (4), Pd-C-I (5), and Pd-C-II (6). In contrast, (+)-trans-decursidinol (7) did not exhibit NO suppressive effects on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Structure-activity relationships revealed that esterification of the hydroxyl at C-3' or C-4' of 7 with an angeloyl/senecioyl/acetyl group is essential for its inhibitory activity against NO production, while the number of angeloyl or senecioyl groups, and their positions greatly affect the potency of these coumarins. Coumarins 1-6 also inhibited TNF-α production and iNOS protein expression, while compounds 1-4 inhibited COX-2 protein expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that coumarins isolated from A. decursiva might be used as potential leads for the development of therapeutic agents for inflammation-associated disorders.

  2. Inhibitory effects of dynorphin 3-14 on the lipopolysaccharide-induced toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Rahiman, Siti Sarah Fazalul; Morgan, Michael; Gray, Paul; Shaw, Paul Nicholas; Cabot, Peter John

    2017-04-01

    Dynorphin 1-17 (DYN 1-17) is biotransformed rapidly to a range of fragments in rodent inflamed tissue with dynorphin 3-14 (DYN 3-14) being the most stable and prevalent. DYN 1-17 has been shown previously to be involved in the regulation of inflammatory response following tissue injury, in which the biotransformation fragments of DYN 1-17 may possess similar features. This study investigated the effects of DYN 3-14 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear factor-kappaB/p65 (NF-κB/p65) nuclear translocation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in differentiated THP-1 cells. Treatment with DYN 3-14 (10nM) resulted in 35% inhibition of the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65. Furthermore, DYN 3-14 modulated both IL-1β and TNF-α release; inhibiting IL-1β and paradoxically augmenting TNF-α release in a concentration-independent manner. A number of opioids have been implicated in the modulation of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), highlighting the complexity of their immunomodulatory effects. To determine whether DYN 3-14 modulates TLR4, HEK-Blue™(-)hTLR4 cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence of DYN 3-14. DYN 3-14 (10μM) inhibited TLR4 activation in a concentration-dependent fashion by suppressing the LPS signals around 300-fold lower than LPS-RS, a potent TLR4 antagonist. These findings indicate that DYN 3-14 is a potential TLR4 antagonist that alters cellular signaling in response to LPS and cytokine release, implicating a role for biotransformed endogenous opioid peptides in immunomodulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rubicon deficiency enhances cardiac autophagy and protects mice from lipopolysaccharide-induced lethality and reduction in stroke volume.

    PubMed

    Zi, Zhenguo; Song, Zongpei; Zhang, Shasha; Ye, Yong; Li, Can; Xu, Mingqing; Zou, Yunzeng; He, Lin; Zhu, Hongxin

    2015-03-01

    : Rubicon has been suggested to suppress autophagosome maturation by negatively regulating PI3KC3/Vps34 activity. However, the physiological function of Rubicon remains elusive. We hypothesized that Rubicon deficiency enhances autophagic flux in the heart and affects cardiac function. Rubicon knockout (KO) mice were generated by piggyBac transposition. Loss of Rubicon was demonstrated at both mRNA and protein levels. Rubicon KO mice were born in Mendelian ratios. Autophagic flux, assessed by bafilomycin A1-induced changes in LC3 II protein abundance, was enhanced in the heart of Rubicon KO mice compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and picrosirius red staining showed that Rubicon KO mice exhibited normal baseline cardiac morphology. Echocardiography revealed that ejection fraction and fractional shortening, 2 indices of cardiac function, were comparable between Rubicon KO mice at 2, 8, and 12 months of age (n = 6-8 for each age group) and the corresponding WT controls (n = 6-8 for each age group). In a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis, the survival time of LPS-treated Rubicon KO mice (n = 10) was prolonged compared with LPS-treated WT controls (n = 11). Echocardiography revealed that Rubicon deficiency partially normalized LPS-induced reduction in stroke volume and cardiac output 12 hours after LPS administration compared with LPS-treated WT controls (n = 6 for each group). Autophagic flux was enhanced in Rubicon-deficient hearts 12 hours after LPS treatment compared with LPS-treated WT controls. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction suggested that proinflammatory cytokine expression was not significantly different between LPS-treated Rubicon KO mice and WT controls (n = 3 for each group). Our data demonstrate for the first time that Rubicon deficiency enhances autophagic flux in the heart and protects mice from lethality and reduction in stroke volume induced by LPS.

  4. Death receptors mediate the adverse effects of febrile-range hyperthermia on the outcome of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Matute-Bello, Gustavo; Herrero, Raquel; Wong, Venus A.; Mongovin, Stephen M.; Martin, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    We have shown that febrile-range hyperthermia enhances lung injury and mortality in mice exposed to inhaled LPS and is associated with increased TNF-α receptor activity, suppression of NF-κB activity in vitro, and increased apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells in vivo. We hypothesized that hyperthermia enhances lung injury and mortality in vivo by a mechanism dependent on TNF receptor signaling. To test this, we exposed mice lacking the TNF-receptor family members TNFR1/R2 or Fas (TNFR1/R2−/− and lpr) to inhaled LPS with or without febrile-range hyperthermia. For comparison, we studied mice lacking IL-1 receptor activity (IL-1R−/−) to determine the role of inflammation on the effect of hyperthermia in vivo. TNFR1/R2−/− and lpr mice were protected from augmented alveolar permeability and mortality associated with hyperthermia, whereas IL-1R−/− mice were susceptible to augmented alveolar permeability but protected from mortality associated with hyperthermia. Hyperthermia decreased pulmonary concentrations of TNF-α and keratinocyte-derived chemokine after LPS in C57BL/6 mice and did not affect pulmonary inflammation but enhanced circulating markers of oxidative injury and nitric oxide metabolites. The data suggest that hyperthermia enhances lung injury by a mechanism that requires death receptor activity and is not directly associated with changes in inflammation mediated by hyperthermia. In addition, hyperthermia appears to enhance mortality by generating a systemic inflammatory response and not by a mechanism directly associated with respiratory failure. Finally, we observed that exposure to febrile-range hyperthermia converts a modest, survivable model of lung injury into a fatal syndrome associated with oxidative and nitrosative stress, similar to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. PMID:21515659

  5. Anti-inflammatory effect of Taraxacum officinale leaves on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Koh, Yoon-Jeoung; Cha, Dong-Soo; Ko, Je-Sang; Park, Hyun-Jin; Choi, Hee-Don

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the efficacy and the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of Taraxacum officinale leaves (TOLs), the effect of a methanol extract and its fractions recovered from TOLs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses was studied in the mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Cells were pretreated with various concentrations of the methanol extract and its fractions and subsequently incubated with LPS (1 microg/mL). The levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) E(2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases were analyzed using western blotting. The methanol extract and its fractions inhibited LPS-induced production of NO, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and PGE(2) in a dose-dependent manner. The chloroform fraction significantly suppressed production of NO, PGE(2), and two pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) in a dose-dependent manner with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 66.51, 90.96, 114.76, and 171.06 microg/mL, respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction also inhibited production of the inflammatory molecules. The chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions reduced LPS-induced expressions of iNOS and COX-2 and activation of MAP kinases in a dose-dependent manner. Among the fractions of the methanol extract, the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited the most effective anti-inflammatory activities. These results show that the anti-inflammatory effects of TOLs are probably due to down-regulation of NO, PGE(2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced expressions of iNOS and COX-2 via inactivation of the MAP kinase signal pathway.

  6. Curcumin improves vascular function and alleviates oxidative stress in non-lethal lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxaemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Sompamit, Kwanjit; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Nakmareong, Saowanee; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2009-08-15

    Oxidative stress is implicated in various pathological conditions, including septic shock, and other diseases associated with local or systemic inflammation. Curcumin, a major component from turmeric (Curcuma longa), possesses diverse anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour and antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of curcumin on modulation of vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. Male ICR mice were treated with curcumin (50 or 100 mg/kg), administered intragastrically, either before or after intraperitoneal injection of LPS (10 mg/kg). Fifteen hours after LPS administration, arterial blood pressure was measured and vascular response to vasoactive agents were assessed. Aortic tissues and blood samples were taken for assays of antioxidant and oxidative stress markers. LPS caused marked hypotension, tachycardia and vascular hyporeactivity. The mean arterial pressures in responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside of LPS-treated mice were significantly decreased when compared with the untreated controls. Curcumin modulated heart rate and restored arterial blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner in both protectively- and therapeutically-treated regimens. Furthermore, the vascular responsiveness of LPS-treated mice was improved by curcumin. Interestingly, the improvements of haemodynamics and vascular response during endotoxaemia were related to alleviation of oxidative stress by reducing aortic-derived superoxide production, suppression of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and decrease in urinary nitric oxide metabolites with preservation of the ratio of glutathione/glutathione disulfide. This study provides the first evidence for the potential role of curcumin in prevention and treatment of vascular dysfunction in mice with endotoxaemia elicited by LPS.

  7. Hydroalcoholic extract of Stevia rebaudiana bert. leaves and stevioside ameliorates lipopolysaccharide induced acute liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    S, Latha; Chaudhary, Sheetal; R S, Ray

    2017-09-13

    Oxidative stress and hepatic inflammatory response is primarily implicated in the pathogenesis of LPS induced acute liver injury. Stevioside, a diterpenoidal glycoside isolated from the Stevia rebaudiana leaves, exerts potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Stevia rebaudiana leaves (STE EXT) and its major phytochemical constituent, stevioside (STE) in LPS induced acute liver injury. The hepatoprotective activity of STE EXT (500mg/kg p.o) and STE (250mg/kg p.o) was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS 5mg/kg i.p.) induced acute liver injury in male wistar rats. Our results revealed that both STE EXT and STE treatment ameliorated LPS induced hepatic oxidative stress, evident from altered levels of reduced SOD, Catalase, GSH, MDA, NO. Histopathological observations revealed that both STE EXT and STE attenuated LPS induced structural changes and hepatocellular apoptosis providing additional evidence for its hepatoprotective effect. Further, STE EXT and STE significantly restored the elevated serum and tissue levels of AST and ALT in LPS treated rats. Furthermore, both STE EXT and STE rescued hepatocellular dysfunctions to normal by altering the level of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 exhibiting its anti-inflammatory potential. In conclusion, both STE EXT and STE demonstrated excellent hepatoprotective effects against endotoxemia induced acute liver injury possibly through suppression of hepatic inflammatory response and oxidative stress, attributing to its medicinal importance in treating various liver ailments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on blood and tissue lipid peroxidation in lipopolysaccharide-induced obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Caglikulekci, Mehmet; Dirlik, Musa; Pata, Cengiz; Plasse, Marylene; Tamer, Lulufer; Ogetman, Zekai; Ercan, Bahadir

    2006-01-01

    In obstructive jaundice, free radical production is increased and antioxidative activity is reduced. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) has a beneficial effect with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, acting as a free radical scavenger. NAC inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase, suppresses cytokine expression/release, and inhibits adhesion molecule expression and nuclear factor kappa B. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NAC on liver/renal tissue and serum lipid peroxidation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced obstructive jaundice. We randomized 60 rats into 6 groups: group 1, Sham; group 2, obstructive jaundice (OJ) induced after bile-duct ligation; group 3, OJ + NAC (100 mg kg- 1 subcutaneously); group 4, OJ + LPS (10 mg kg-1); group 5, OJ + NAC + LPS; and group 6, OJ + LPS + NAC. For each group, the biochemical markers of lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant products were measured in serum and liver/renal tissue after sacrifice. Almost all lipid peroxidation products levels were increased and antioxidant products levels were decreased in groups who received LPS (groups 4, 5, and 6), but the effect was less remarkable when NAC was administered before LPS (group 5). The same trend was seen for groups with OJ +/- LPS who did not received NAC or received it after induced toxemia (groups 2, 4, and 6) as compared to groups 1 and 3. Moreover, in the case of OJ + LPS, rats treated with NAC before LPS (group 5) had lower lipid peroxidation products levels and higher antioxidant products levels as compared to those who did not received NAC (group 4). This phenomenon was not reproducible with NAC administered after LPS (group 6). Thus, results of this study showed that NAC prevents the deleterious effects of LPS in obstructive jaundice by reducing lipid peroxidation in serum and liver/renal tissue if administered before LPS. Nonetheless, NAC failed to prevent the lipid peroxidation in the case of established endotoxemia in obstructive jaundice.

  9. Effects of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xue-Hai; Ohgami, Kazuhiro; Shiratori, Kenji; Suzuki, Yukari; Koyama, Yoshikazu; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Ilieva, Iliyana; Tanaka, Tsuneo; Onoe, Kazunori; Ohno, Shigeaki

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of blue honeysuckle extract (BHE), which contains high level of phenolic compounds, on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). Male Lewis rats were randomly divided into 5 groups with 14 rats in each (eight rats for collection of aqueous humor, six rats for histologic examination). EIU was induced by a footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). 1, 10, or 100 mg of BHE was injected intravenously immediately after LPS injection. The aqueous humor was collected at 24 h after LPS injection, the number of infiltrating cells, protein concentration, nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and prostaglandin (PG)-E2 levels in the aqueous humor were determined. Some eyes were enucleated for histologic examination and immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemical staining with a monoclonal antibody against activated nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB was performed to evaluate the effect of BHE on NF-kappaB activation. To further clarify the anti-inflammatory effect, RAW264.7 cells (a mouse macrophage cell line) were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of BHE and its major phenolics, cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G), cyanidin 3-rutinoside (C3R), chlorogenic acid (CA). Expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were analyzed by Western blot method. BHE treatment significantly reduced the inflammatory cell infiltration, the protein concentration, the levels of NO, TNF-alpha and PGE2 in the aqueous humor and improved histologic status of the ocular tissue. The number of activated NF-kappaB-positive cells was lower in the iris-ciliary body treated with BHE at 3 h after LPS injection. BHE significantly suppressed the production of NO, PGE2 and TNF-alpha in the culture medium as well as the expression of iNOS and COX-2 by LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent fashion. C3G, C3R and CA showed no or weak inhibitory effects on the level of inflammatory mediators and the

  10. Diurnal variation of lipopolysaccharide-induced alterations in sleep and body temperature of interleukin-6-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Jonathan D; Opp, Mark R

    2005-01-01

    Infectious challenge triggers a broad array of coordinated changes within the host organism, including alterations in sleep-wake behavior and body temperature. Pro-inflammatory cytokines orchestrate many of the behavioral, metabolic, and endocrine responses to immune challenge. Although interleukin (IL)-6 mediates several aspects of sickness behavior, a role for this cytokine as a mediator of alterations in sleep in response to immune challenge has not been established. We evaluated sleep-wake behavior and core body temperature of IL-6-deficient (IL-6 KO; B6.129S6-Il6tm1Kopf) mice and C57BL/6J control mice after intraperitoneal (IP) administration of 10 microg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Because feedback mechanisms that regulate responses to immune challenge exhibit circadian rhythms, we evaluated responses to LPS administered at the beginning of both the light and dark portions of the light:dark cycle. LPS-induced increases in non-rapid eye movements sleep (NREMS) of both mouse strains, but this increase was less pronounced in IL-6 KO mice than in C57BL/6J mice. Strain differences in LPS-induced increases in NREMS were greatest after light-onset administration. During the 12 h light period, NREMS of C57BL/6J mice increased from 53.0+/-1.7% of recording time after vehicle to 65.4+/-1.4% of recording time after LPS. During this same time period, NREMS of IL-6 KO mice increased from 50.5+/-1.8% after vehicle to only 52.4+/-1.8% of recording time after LPS. REMS of both mouse strains was suppressed to the same extent after LPS, irrespective of timing of administration. LPS-induced fever in C57BL/6J mice, with peak magnitude of 1.4+/-0.3 degrees C and 1.8+/-0.2 degrees C after dark onset and light onset administration, respectively. In contrast, this dose of LPS-induced profound hypothermia in IL-6 KO mice, with nadirs of hypothermia reaching 4.9+/-1.0 degrees C after injection at dark onset and 2.2+/-0.5 degrees C after administration at light onset. These results

  11. Retraction Statement: Anti-inflammatory properties of tianeptine on lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in microglial cells involve toll-like receptor-related pathways.

    PubMed

    2017-09-01

    'Anti-inflammatory properties of tianeptine on lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in microglial cells involve toll-like receptor-related pathways' by Slusarczyk, J., Trojan, E., Glombik, K., Piotrowska, A., Budziszewska, B., Kubera, M., Popiolek-Barczyk, K., Lason, W., Mika, J. and Basta-Kaim, A. The above article from the Journal of Neurochemistry published on 14 February 2016 on Wiley Online Library ( www.onlinelibrary.com), and in Volume 136, pp. 958-970, is being retracted by agreement between the corresponding author Agnieszka Basta-Kaim, the Journal's Editor-in-Chief Jörg Schulz, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The Editorial Office was alerted by a science journalist that the same Western Blot lane had been used to represent two different proteins. The Western Blot signal of iNOS in Fig. 4a was supposedly identical to the Western Blot signal of phospho-JNK in Fig. 6b. The corresponding author stated that "on the final step of figure 6 preparation the first author made, by mistake, an incorrect attachment of representative p-JNK blots." A corrected Fig. 6b is enclosed below. The second concern reaching the Editorial Office was that the same Western Blot signal appeared to have been used to represent two different experimental conditions: the iNOS control signal (-/- LPS/TIA Fig. 4a) appears as a horizontal and vertical mirror image of the last signal in this line (+/10 LPS/TIA Fig. 4a). The raw membrane which was used to produce Fig. 4a is enclosed on the next page and highlights the steps that were undertaken during figure preparation. Although the initial concern was not proven, concerns remained regarding the question how an inadvertent flipping of the first Western blot lane could happen. A corrected Fig. 4a prepared by the corresponding author from the raw image of iNOS western blot depicted above, without flipped first lane, is presented below: Although the corresponding author provided a large amount of evidence to explain disparities in the

  12. Increased survival and reduced neutrophil infiltration of the liver in Rab27a- but not Munc13-4-deficient mice in lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jennifer L; Hong, Hong; Monfregola, Jlenia; Catz, Sergio D

    2011-09-01

    Genetic defects in the Rab27a or Munc13-4 gene lead to immunodeficiencies in humans, characterized by frequent viral and bacterial infections. However, the role of Rab27a and Munc13-4 in the regulation of systemic inflammation initiated by Gram-negative bacterium-derived pathogenic molecules is currently unknown. Using a model of lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation, we show that Rab27a-deficient (Rab27a(ash/ash)) mice are resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced death, while Munc13-4-deficient (Munc13-4(jinx/jinx)) mice show only moderate protection. Rab27a(ash/ash) but not Munc13-4(jinx/jinx) mice showed significantly decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plasma levels after LPS administration. Neutrophil sequestration in lungs from Rab27a(ash/ash) and Munc13-4(jinx/jinx) LPS-treated mice was similar to that observed for wild-type mice. In contrast, Rab27a- but not Munc13-4-deficient mice showed decreased neutrophil infiltration in liver and failed to undergo LPS-induced neutropenia. Decreased liver infiltration in Rab27a(ash/ash) mice was accompanied by lower CD44 but normal CD11a and CD11b expression in neutrophils. Both Rab27a- and Munc13-4-deficient mice showed decreased azurophilic granule secretion in vivo, suggesting that impaired liver infiltration and improved survival in Rab27a(ash/ash) mice is not fully explained by deficient exocytosis of this granule subset. Altogether, our data indicate that Rab27a but not Munc13-4 plays an important role in neutrophil recruitment to liver and LPS-induced death during endotoxemia, thus highlighting a previously unrecognized role for Rab27a in LPS-mediated systemic inflammation.

  13. Changes in the expression of interleukin-1beta and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor in the oviduct of laying hens in response to artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Das, Shubash Chandra; Isobe, Naoki; Yoshimura, Yukinori

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physiological significance of interleukin-1beta (IL1B) and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor (LITAF) in the fate of sperm in the oviduct of laying hens after artificial insemination (AI). Laying hens were inseminated with fresh semen, PBS or seminal plasma and tissues from different oviductal segments were collected to observe the general histology, changes in the mRNA expression of IL1B and LITAF and the localization of positive cells expressing immunoreactive IL1B (irIL1B). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to observe the changes in mRNA expression of these molecules in the infundibulum, uterus, utero-vaginal junction (UVJ), and vagina after insemination. Intact sperm in the lumen and between the primary or secondary folds of the vagina were found until 6 h after insemination but were degraded at 12 h. The mRNA expression of IL1B and LITAF was significantly increased in the vagina until 6 h after AI but remained unchanged in the other oviductal segments. In the tissue of the vagina and UVJ, irIL1B was localized in the mucosal stroma. The number of irIL1B-positive cells was increased in the vagina but almost unchanged in UVJ after insemination with semen. Significant changes were not observed in the mRNA expression and irIL1B-positive cells in the vagina after PBS or seminal plasma insemination. The increase of IL1B and LITAF in the vagina may lead to sperm degradation and elimination by cilia of surface epithelium, whereas their lower levels in UVJ may permit sperm to survive in sperm storage tubules.

  14. A computational model of lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor kappa B activation: a key signalling pathway in infection-induced preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gemma C; Ma, Hongwu; Saunders, Philippa T K; Norman, Jane E

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is the single biggest cause of significant neonatal morbidity and mortality, and the incidence is rising. Development of new therapies to treat and prevent preterm labour is seriously hampered by incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate labour at term and preterm. Computational modelling provides a new opportunity to improve this understanding. It is a useful tool in (i) identifying gaps in knowledge and informing future research, and (ii) providing the basis for an in silico model of parturition in which novel drugs to prevent or treat preterm labour can be "tested". Despite their merits, computational models are rarely used to study the molecular events initiating labour. Here, we present the first attempt to generate a dynamic kinetic model that has relevance to the molecular mechanisms of preterm labour. Using published data, we model an important candidate signalling pathway in infection-induced preterm labour: that of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced activation of Nuclear Factor kappa B. This is the first model of this pathway to explicitly include molecular interactions upstream of Nuclear Factor kappa B activation. We produced a formalised graphical depiction of the pathway and built a kinetic model based on ordinary differential equations. The kinetic model accurately reproduced published in vitro time course plots of Lipopolysaccharide-induced Nuclear Factor kappa B activation in mouse embryo fibroblasts. In this preliminary work we have provided proof of concept that it is possible to build computational models of signalling pathways that are relevant to the regulation of labour, and suggest that models that are validated with wet-lab experiments have the potential to greatly benefit the field.

  15. A novel CC chemokine receptor 4 antagonist RS-1269 inhibits ovalbumin-induced ear swelling and lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Yasuhiro; Kawashima, Kayo; Etori, Maki; Yonekubo, Kazuki; Suzuki, Chie; Jojima, Takaaki; Kuribayashi, Takeshi; Nara, Futoshi; Yamashita, Makoto

    2010-10-01

    There is growing evidence that chemokines recruit leukocytes in allergic, inflammatory and immune responses. CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) is implicated as a preferential marker for T helper 2 cells, and the cells selectively respond to CC chemokine ligand 17 (CCL17) and CCL22. We searched for compounds having a profile as a CCR4 antagonist from an in-house library and have previously reported that 3-{2-[(2R)-2-phenyl-4-(4-pyridin-4-ylbenzyl)morpholin-2-yl]ethyl}quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (named RS-1154) was capable of significantly inhibiting the binding of [(125) I]CCL17 to human CCR4-expressing CHO cells. From further synthesis of its derivatives, we newly focused on 3-(isobutyrylamino)-N-{2-[(2R)-2-phenyl-4-(4-pyridin-4-ylbenzyl)morpholin-2-yl]ethyl}benzamide (RS-1269), which showed potency comparable to RS-1154 in inhibiting CCL17-induced migration of DO11.10 mice-derived T helper 2 cells with an IC(50) value of 5.5 nM in vitro. We then investigated the pharmacological effects of RS-1269 on ovalbumin-induced ear swelling and lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock in mice. The ear thickness was significantly decreased by oral administration of RS-1269 at the dose of 30 mg/kg. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide significantly increased the serum level of tumour necrosis factor-α. Compared with an anti-CCL17 antibody, RS-1269 significantly inhibited the production at the dose of 100 mg/kg. These results raise the possibility that RS-1269 or one of its derivatives has potential to serve as a prototype compound to develop therapeutic agents for atopic dermatitis and inflammatory diseases.

  16. Suppressive effects of ketamine on macrophage functions

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Yi; Chen, T.-L.; Sheu, J.-R.; Chen, R.-M. . E-mail: rmchen@tmu.edu.tw

    2005-04-01

    Ketamine is an intravenous anesthetic agent. Clinically, induction of anesthesia with ketamine can cause immunosuppression. Macrophages play important roles in host defense. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of ketamine on macrophage functions and its possible mechanism using mouse macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells as the experimental model. Exposure of macrophages to 10 and 100 {mu}M ketamine, which correspond to 0.1 and 1 times the clinically relevant concentration, for 1, 6, and 24 h had no effect on cell viability or lactate dehydrogenase release. When the administered concentration reached 1000 {mu}M, ketamine caused a release of lactate dehydrogenase and cell death. Ketamine, at 10 and 100 {mu}M, did not affect the chemotactic activity of macrophages. Administration of 1000 {mu}M ketamine in macrophages resulted in a decrease in cell migration. Treatment of macrophages with ketamine reduced phagocytic activities. The oxidative ability of macrophages was suppressed by ketamine. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide induced TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, and IL-6 mRNA in macrophages. Administration of ketamine alone did not influence TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, or IL-6 mRNA production. Meanwhile, cotreatment with ketamine and lipopolysaccharide significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, and IL-6 mRNA levels. Exposure to ketamine led to a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. However, the activity of mitochondrial complex I NADH dehydrogenase was not affected by ketamine. This study shows that a clinically relevant concentration of ketamine (100 {mu}M) can suppress macrophage function of phagocytosis, its oxidative ability, and inflammatory cytokine production possibly via reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential instead of direct cellular toxicity.

  17. Characterization of basal and lipopolysaccharide-induced microRNA expression in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Buechner-Maxwell, Virginia A.; Witonsky, Sharon G.; Pleasant, R. Scott; Werre, Stephen R.; Ahmed, S. Ansar

    2017-01-01

    The innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide contributes substantially to the morbidity and mortality of gram-negative sepsis. Horses and humans share an exquisite sensitivity to lipopolysaccharide and thus the horse may provide valuable comparative insights into this aspect of the inflammatory response. MicroRNAs, small non-coding RNA molecules acting as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, have key roles in toll-like receptor signaling regulation but have not been studied in this context in horses. The central hypothesis of this study was that lipopolysaccharide induces differential microRNA expression in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a manner comparable to humans. Illumina Next Generation Sequencing was used to characterize the basal microRNA transcriptome in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy adult horses, and to evaluate LPS-induced changes in microRNA expression in cells cultured for up to four hours. Selected expression changes were validated using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR. Only miR-155 was significantly upregulated by LPS, changing in parallel with supernatant tumor necrosis factor-α concentration. Eight additional microRNAs, including miR-146a and miR-146b, showed significant expression change with time in culture without a clear LPS effect. Target predictions indicated a number of potential immunity-associated targets for miR-155 in the horse, including SOCS1, TAB2 and elements of the PI3K signaling pathway, suggesting that it is likely to influence the acute inflammatory response to LPS. Gene alignment showed extensive conservation of the miR-155 precursor gene and associated promoter regions between horses and humans. The basal and LPS-stimulated microRNA expression pattern characterized here were similar to those described in human leukocytes. As well as providing a resource for further research into the roles of microRNAs in immune responses in horses, this will facilitate inter

  18. Molecular evidence for the existence of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) and Rel/NF-kB pathways in disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jae-Seong; Jung, Sung-Ju; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2010-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) and Rel family nuclear factor kappaB (Rel/NF-kB) are two important transcription factors which play major roles in the regulating inflammatory cytokine, apoptosis and immune related genes. Here, we report the discovery of disk abalone LITAF (AbLITAF) and Rel/NF-kB (AbRel/NF-kB) homologues and their immune responses. Full-length cDNA of AbLITAF consists of 441 bp open reading frame (ORF) that translates into putative peptide of 147 aa. Analysis of AbLITAF sequence showed it has characteristic LITAF (Zn(+2)) binding domain with two CXXC motifs. Phylogenetic analysis results further revealed that AbLITAF is a member of LITAF family. AbRel/NF-kB is 584 aa protein that contains several characteristic motifs including Rel homology domain (RHD), Rel protein signature, DNA binding motif, nuclear localization signal (NLS) and transcription factor immunoglobulin - like fold (TIG) similar to their invertebrate and vertebrate counterparts. Tissue specific analysis results showed that both AbLITAF and AbRel/NF-kB mRNA was expressed ubiquitously in all selected tissues in constitutive manner. However, constitutive expression of AbLITAF was higher than AbRel/NF-kB in all tissues except mantle. Upon immune challenge by bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Lysteria monocytogenes) and viral hemoragic septicemia virus (VHSV), AbLITAF showed the significant up-regulation in gills while AbRel/NF-kB transcription was not change significantly. Based on transcriptional response against immune challenge, we could suggest that regulation of TNF-alpha expression may have occurred mainly by LITAF activation rather than NF-kB in disk abalone. The cumulative data from other molluscs and our data with reference to TNF-alpha, LITAF and Rel/NF-kB from disk abalone provide strong evidence that LITAF and NF-kB are independent pathways likely to occur throughout the Phylum mollusca.

  19. Transmembrane TNF-α Reverse Signaling Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Formation in Macrophages by Inducing TGF-β: Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Pallai, Anna; Kiss, Beáta; Vereb, György; Armaka, Marietta; Kollias, George; Szekanecz, Zoltán; Szondy, Zsuzsa

    2016-02-01

    TNF-α, a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is generated in a precursor form called transmembrane (m)TNF-α that is expressed as a type II polypeptide on the surface of certain cells. mTNF-α was shown to act both as a ligand by binding to TNF-α receptors, as well as a receptor that transmits outside-to-inside (reverse) signals back into the mTNF-α-bearing cells. In this study, we show that nonactivated macrophages express basal levels of mTNF-α and respond to anti-TNF-α Abs by triggering the MAPK kinase 4 signaling pathway. The pathway induces TGF-β. Based on inhibitory experiments, the production of TGF-β1 is regulated via Jun kinases, whereas that of other TGF-βs is regulated via p38 MAPKs. Exposure to LPS further induced the expression of mTNF-α, and triggering of mTNF-α strongly suppressed the LPS-induced proinflammatory response. Neutralizing TGF-β by Abs prevented the mTNF-α-mediated suppression of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine formation, indicating that the immune-suppressive effect of mTNF-α is mediated via TGF-β. Although apoptotic cells are also known to suppress LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine formation in macrophages by upregulating TGF-β, we show that they do not use the mTNF-α signaling pathway. Because TGF-β possesses a wide range of immune-suppressive effects, our data indicate that upregulation of TGF-β synthesis by those TNF-α-targeting molecules, which are able to trigger mTNF-α, might contribute to their therapeutic effect in the treatment of certain inflammatory diseases such as Crohn's disease, Wegener's granulomatosis, or sarcoidosis. Additionally, none of the TNF-α-targeting molecules is expected to interfere with the immune-silencing effects of apoptotic cells.

  20. Ocular Penetration and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Ketorolac 0.45% and Bromfenac 0.09% Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, Danielle; Villanueva, Linda; Nguyen, Cathy; Patel, Milan; Borbridge, Lisa; Attar, Mayssa; Schiffman, Rhett M.; Hollander, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Anti-inflammatory activity of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is mediated by suppression of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes. This study compared ocular penetration and inflammation suppression of topical ketorolac 0.45% and bromfenac 0.09% ophthalmic solutions in a rabbit model. Methods At hour 0, 36 rabbits received ketorolac 0.45%, bromfenac 0.09%, or an artificial tear 3 times once every 20 min. Half of the rabbits in each group then received intravenous injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)–dextran at hour 1, and the other half at hour 10. Aqueous and iris-ciliary body (ICB) samples were collected in the former group at hour 2 (peak) and in the latter group at hour 11 (trough) An additional group of 6 animals received only FITC-dextran, and samples were collected 1 h later. Peak and trough nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug concentrations were compared with previously determined half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for COX isoenzymes. Results Peak and trough aqueous and ICB concentrations of ketorolac were at least 7-fold or greater than those of bromfenac. At peak levels, both ketorolac 0.45% and bromfenac 0.09% significantly inhibited LPS-induced aqueous prostaglandin E2 and FITC-dextran elevation (P < 0.01). At trough, both study drugs significantly inhibited LPS-induced aqueous prostaglandin E2 elevation (P < 0.05), but only ketorolac 0.45% significantly reduced LPS-induced aqueous FITC-dextran elevation (P < 0.01). Aqueous and ICB ketorolac concentrations exceeded its IC50 for COX-1 and COX-2 at peak and trough. Aqueous and ICB bromfenac levels exceeded its IC50 for COX-2 at peak and trough, but not for COX-1 at trough aqueous levels and peak and trough ICB levels. Conclusions Both ketorolac 0.45% and bromfenac 0.09% effectively suppressed inflammation at peak. At trough, only ketorolac 0.45% effectively suppressed inflammation as measured by FITC

  1. Effects of isoflavones and soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis on lipopolysaccharide-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and fibrinolysis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hasumuma, Ryoichi; Kawaguchi, Kiichiro; Kikuchi, Sei-ichi; Sugiyama, Tsuyoshi; Kumazawa, Yoshio

    2007-01-01

    The effects of isoflavones and of a derivative of soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis, designated Nattoesse, on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and fibrinolysis were investigated in vivo. The dietary supplement Nattoesse contains several isoflavones. Therefore, we examined the effects of individual isoflavones (daidzein, daidzin, genistein, and genistin) on the LPS-induced production of TNF-alpha. Intraperitoneal injections of daidzein, daidzin, and genistin (but not of genistein before a challenge with LPS) resulted in significant depression of serum levels of TNF-alpha in mice. Daidzein had the strongest activity in this assay. Oral administration of daidzein to mice also had a significant suppressive effect, as compared with that of the Citrus flavanone naringin. In galactosamine-sensitized mice, by contrast, the suppression of LPS-induced lethal shock by daidzein was very weak. Nattoesse did not inhibit the production of TNF-alpha nor did it prevent lethal shock. However, oral administration of Nattoesse to mice significantly suppressed LPS-induced increases in scores of the fibrin degradation product, and the effect was both dose- and time-dependent. Thus, it appears that Nattoesse has fibrinolytic activity during LPS-induced circulatory failure.

  2. Ampelopsin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response through the inhibition of the NF-κB and JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathways in microglia.

    PubMed

    Weng, Leihua; Zhang, He; Li, Xiaoxi; Zhan, Hui; Chen, Fan; Han, Lijuan; Xu, Yun; Cao, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that microglia are a major cellular contributor to neuroinflammation. The present study investigated whether Ampelopsin (Amp), a type of flavanonol derivative from Ampelopsis grossedentata, may exert an anti-inflammatory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 and primary microglia cells. We found that pre-treatment of microglia cells with Amp before LPS with a non-cytotoxic concentration range decreased the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Amp also suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was obviously reduced by Amp. Our mechanistic study indicated that Amp suppressed LPS-induced activation of the IκB/NF-κB inflammation pathway without affecting changes in the phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in BV2 cells. Further studies revealed that Amp markedly reduced the phosphorylation levels of JAK2-STAT3 and STAT3 nuclear translocation. Overall, our data suggest that Amp can suppress the LPS-induced inflammatory response of microglial cells, indicating that Amp has potential for the treatment of inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Perfluorocarbon inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage inflammatory protein-2 expression and activation of ATF-2 and c-Jun in A549 pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Li, C S; Li, Y Q; Liang, Y; Cao, L; Chen, L A

    2016-04-30

    The signaling pathway that mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of perfluorocarbon (PFC) in alveolar epithelial cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) remains unclear. To evaluate the role of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), four A549 treatment groups were utilized: (1) untreated control, (2) 10 μg/mL of LPS, (3) 10 μg/mL of LPS+30% PFC and (4) 30% PFC. MIP-2 mRNA expression was determined by qPCR and ELISA. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was determined by Western blot analysis, and MIP-2 expression was determined by qPCR following treatment with MAPK inhibitors. PFC suppressed LPS-induced MIP-2 mRNA levels (P≤0.035) and MIP-2 secretion (P≤0.046). LPS induced ATF-2 and c-Jun phosphorylation, which was suppressed by PFC. Finally, inhibitors of ERK, JNK, and p38 suppressed LPS-induced MIP-2 mRNA expression. Thus, PFC inhibits LPS-induced MIP-2 expression and ATF-2 and c-Jun phosphorylation. To fully explore the therapeutic potential of PFC for acute lung injury (ALI), in vivo analyses are required to confirm these effects.

  4. Zuonin B Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation via Downregulation of the ERK1/2 and JNK Pathways in RAW264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mee-Young; Yuk, Ji-Eun; Kwon, Ok-Kyung; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether Zuonin B exerts immunological effects on RAW264.7 cells. Zuonin B, isolated from flower buds of Daphne genkwa, suppressed the levels of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2, as well as proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-(IL-) 6, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Moreover, the compound inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Zuonin B attenuated NF-kappaB (NF-κB) activation via suppressing proteolysis of inhibitor kappa B-alpha (IκB-α) and p65 nuclear translocation as well as phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Additionally, IL-4 and IL-13 production in ConA-induced splenocytes was inhibited by Zuonin B. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory effects of Zuonin B are attributable to the suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators via blockage of NF-κB and AP-1 activation. Based on these findings, we propose that Zuonin B is potentially an effective functional chemical candidate for the prevention of inflammatory diseases. PMID:22454678

  5. Flavonoid fraction of guava leaf extract attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response via blocking of NF-κB signalling pathway in Labeo rohita macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sen, Shib Sankar; Sukumaran, V; Giri, Sib Sankar; Park, Se Chang

    2015-11-01

    Psidium guajava L. is a well-known traditional medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine. To explore the anti-inflammatory activity of the flavonoid fraction of guava leaf extract (FGLE), we investigated its ability to suppress the levels of inflammatory mediators elevated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Labeo rohita head-kidney (HK) macrophages. HK macrophages of L. rohita were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of the FGLE. We examined the inhibitory effect of FGLE on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The inhibitory effect of FGLE on nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were investigated by RT-PCR and western blot. The effect of FGLE on proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was also investigated by ELISA and RT-PCR. The phosphorylation of three mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) molecules ERK, JNK and p38 was analysed by western blot analysis. FGLE inhibited LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production. It also effectively inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, iNOS, and COX-2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, FGLE suppressed the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that FGLE decreased both the mRNA and protein expression levels of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 in HK macrophages. FGLE suppresses the phosphorylation of MAPK molecules in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. FGLE also significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity. The molecular mechanism by which FGLE suppresses the expression of inflammatory mediators appears to involve the inhibition of NF-κB activation, through the suppression of LPS-induced IκB-α degradation. Together these results suggest that FGLE contains potential therapeutic agent(s), which regulate NF-κB activation, for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in L. rohita macrophages.

  6. Corn Silk Extract and Its Bioactive Peptide Ameliorated Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Mice via the Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tin-Yun; Li, Chia-Cheng; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Feng-Yuan; Hsiang, Chien-Yun

    2017-02-01

    Bioactive peptides derived from foods have shown beneficial anti-inflammatory potential. Inhibitory κB kinase-β (IKKβ) plays a crucial role in the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a transcription factor involved in inflammation. Here we applied proteomic and bioinformatics approaches to identify anti-inflammatory peptides that target IKKβ from corn silk. Corn silk extract significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-κB activities [(1.7 ± 0.2)-fold vs (3.0 ± 0.6)-fold, p < 0.05] in cells. Trypsin hydrolysate of corn silk also suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activities [(1.1 ± 0.3)-fold vs 3.3 ± 0.5 fold, p < 0.01]. In addition, both corn silk extract and trypsin hydrolysate significantly inhibited LPS-induced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production by 58.3 ± 4.5 and 55.1 ± 7.4%, respectively. A novel peptide, FK2, docked into the ATP-binding pocket of IKKβ, was further identified from trypsin hydrolysis of corn silk. FK2 inhibited IKKβ activities, IκB phosphorylation, and subsequent NF-κB activation [(2.3 ± 0.4)-fold vs (5.5 ± 0.4)-fold, p < 0.001]. Moreover, FK2 significantly reduced NF-κB-driven luminescent signals in organs by 5-11-fold and suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activities and IL-β production in tissues. In conclusion, our findings indicated that corn silk displayed anti-inflammatory abilities. In addition, we first identified an anti-inflammatory peptide FK2 from corn silk. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect of FK2 might be through IKKβ-NF-κB signaling pathways.

  7. Ginger and Zingerone Ameliorate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Systemic Inflammation in Mice, Assessed by Nuclear Factor-κB Bioluminescent Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Cheng, Hui-Man; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Chou, Pei-Chi; Lee, Yu-Chen; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2015-07-08

    Ginger is a commonly used spice in cooking. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of ginger and its component zingerone in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute systemic inflammation in mice via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) bioluminescent imaging. Ginger and zingerone significantly suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activities in cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the maximal inhibition (84.5% ± 3.5% and 96.2% ± 0.6%) was observed at 100 μg/mL ginger and zingerone, respectively. Moreover, dietary ginger and zingerone significantly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in sera by 62.9% ± 18.2% and 81.3% ± 6.2%, respectively, and NF-κB bioluminescent signals in whole body by 26.9% ± 14.3% and 38.5% ± 6.2%, respectively. In addition, ginger and zingerone suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB-driven luminescent intensities in most organs, and the maximal inhibition by ginger and zingerone was observed in small intestine. Immunohistochemical staining further showed that ginger and zingerone decreased interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-, CD11b-, and p65-positive areas in jejunum. In conclusion, our findings suggested that ginger and zingerone were likely to be broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory agents in most organs that suppressed the activation of NF-κB, the production of IL-1β, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells in mice.

  8. Berberine Decreased Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase mRNA Stability through Negative Regulation of Human Antigen R in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Choi, Hye-Eun; Seo, SeungHwan; Choi, Jung-Hye; Baek, Nam-In; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2016-07-01

    Berberine, a major isoquinoline alkaloid found in medicinal herbs, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory effects; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for its actions are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of berberine and the molecular mechanisms involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 and THP-1 macrophages and its effects in LPS-induced septic shock in mice. In both macrophage cell types, berberine inhibited the LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein expression, but it had no effect on iNOS mRNA transcription. Suppression of LPS-induced iNOS protein expression by berberine occurred via a human antigen R (HuR)-mediated reduction of iNOS mRNA stability. Molecular data revealed that the suppression on the LPS-induced HuR binding to iNOS mRNA by berberine was accompanied by a reduction in nucleocytoplasmic HuR shuttling. Pretreatment with berberine reduced LPS-induced iNOS protein expression and the cytoplasmic translocation of HuR in liver tissues and increased the survival rate of mice with LPS-induced endotoxemia. These results show that the suppression of iNOS protein expression by berberine under LPS-induced inflammatory conditions is associated with a reduction in iNOS mRNA stability resulting from inhibition of the cytoplasmic translocation of HuR. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Andrographolide sulfonate ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice by down-regulating MAPK and NF-κB pathways

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shuang; Hang, Nan; Liu, Wen; Guo, Wenjie; Jiang, Chunhong; Yang, Xiaoling; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe, life-threatening medical condition characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs, and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the patient population. New therapies for the treatment of ALI are desperately needed. In the present study, we examined the effect of andrographolide sulfonate, a water-soluble form of andrographolide (trade name: Xi-Yan-Ping Injection), on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI and inflammation. Andrographolide sulfonate was administered by intraperitoneal injection to mice with LPS-induced ALI. LPS-induced airway inflammatory cell recruitment and lung histological alterations were significantly ameliorated by andrographolide sulfonate. Protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were reduced by andrographolide sulfonate administration. mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue were also suppressed. Moreover, andrographolide sulfonate markedly suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) as well as p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In summary, these results suggest that andrographolide sulfonate ameliorated LPS-induced ALI in mice by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK-mediated inflammatory responses. Our study shows that water-soluble andrographolide sulfonate may represent a new therapeutic approach for treating inflammatory lung disorders. PMID:27175331

  10. Methyl 9-Oxo-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoate Isolated from Fomes fomentarius Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response by Blocking Phosphorylation of STAT3 in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Ji-Hyun; Yi, Young-Joo; Lee, Myeong-Seok; Seo, Dong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Fomes fomentarius is a fungus of the Polyporaceae family and is used in traditional oriental therapies. Although the anti-inflammatory activities of this species have been previously reported, the identity of the bioactive compounds responsible for this activity remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether methyl 9-oxo-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoate (FF-8) purified from F. fomentarius exerts anti-inflammatory activity in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). FF-8 suppressed secretion of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 through downregulation of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression induced by LPS. In addition, pretreatment of cells with FF-8 led to a reduction in levels of secreted inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in macrophages stimulated with LPS. Conversely, FF-8 did not affect nuclear factor κB, p38, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways. Instead, FF-8 specifically interfered with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation induced by LPS. Collectively, this study demonstrated that FF-8 purified from F. fomentarius suppresses inflammatory responses in macrophages stimulated with LPS by inhibiting STAT3 activation. Further studies will be required to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effect of FF-8 in vivo. PMID:26539049

  11. Lipopolysaccharide-induced α-catenin downregulation enhances the motility of human colorectal cancer cells in an NF-κB signaling-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Guoping; Yang, Shifeng; Zhang, Gu; Xu, Yanxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Sun, Wenyong; Zhu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    α-Catenin is an important molecule involved in the maintenance of cell–cell adhesion and a prognostic marker in cancer since its expression is essential for preventing cancer metastasis. However, the mechanism that leads to the downregulation of α-catenin in cancer progression remains unclear. The present study revealed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-κB signaling activation suppressed α-catenin expression and motility in SW620 colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and transwell migration assays. LPS treatment reduced both the mRNA and protein expression of α-catenin and thereby enhanced cell motility. Conversely, incubating cells with an NF-κB inhibitor disrupted these effects. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of p65 alone mimicked the effects of LPS stimulation. In CRC tissues, the presence of enteric bacterial LPS-related neutrophil-enriched foci was correlated with α-catenin downregulation. Collectively, these findings suggest that LPS-induced NF-κB signaling is related to α-catenin suppression and enhanced cell motility in CRC. Therefore, NF-κB is a novel potential therapeutic target for CRC metastasis. PMID:28008274

  12. Bilobol inhibits the lipopolysaccharide-induced expression and distribution of RhoA in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    XU, JIN; LI, YUEYING; YANG, XIAOMING; LIU, YALI; CHEN, YONGCHANG; CHEN, MIN

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the localization of RhoA protein in the cell nucleus, in addition to its distribution in the cytosol and cell membrane. The results of previous studies by our group indicated that nuclear RhoA expression is increased, or RhoA is transported into the nucleus, when cells become cancerous or damaged. Furthermore, application of the anticancer agent Taxol appeared to reduce nuclear RhoA localization, indicating an association between the nuclear translocation of RhoA and tumor progression. Bilobol is a traditional Chinese medicine ingredient, however, its anticancer effect has remained unclear. The present study aimed to demonstrate the anticarcinogenic action of bilobol against hepatocellular carcinoma, in order to lay the foundations for subsequent research into the mechanisms underlying its anticancer effects. In the present study, HepG2 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to induce inflammation, and/or bilobol. By performing an ELISA, it was observed that bilobol was able to suppress the inflammation induced by LPS. In addition, immunofluorescence and western blot analyses indicated that bilobol may reduce the expression of RhoA, suppress translocation of RhoA into the nucleus and inhibit the RhoA/Rho-associated protein kinase signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present study revealed the potential anticancer effects of bilobol. PMID:26622605

  13. Analysis of the synergistic effect of glycyrrhizin and other constituents in licorice extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production using knock-out extract.

    PubMed

    Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2012-01-06

    The pharmacological evidence for synergism between natural compounds is not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the synergistic function of one target compound in medicinal plant extract by using knock-out (KO) extract, which is one target compound-eliminated extract from whole crude extract. Licorice is the most important ingredient used in the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the Japanese Kampo medicine, and one of the major active components of licorice is glycyrrhizin (GC). To identify the potential role of GC, we prepared GC-removed extract (GC-KO extract) from licorice extract (LE) using immunoaffinity column conjugated with anti-GC monoclonal antibody (MAb), which could eliminate 99.5% of GC from LE. LE inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264 murine macrophage cells. However, treatment of GC alone could not show the suppression of NO production and iNOS expression. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of GC-KO extract was significantly attenuated compared with LE. Furthermore, the combined treatment with GC-KO extract and GC could improve the attenuated inhibition. Taken together, our results indicate that GC may exert synergistic suppression of iNOS expression when coexisting with the other constituents contained in LE, and KO extract is a useful approach for determination of real pharmacological functions of natural compound in the phytochemical mixture.

  14. Qing Hua Chang Yin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human intestinal cells by inhibiting NF-κB activation

    PubMed Central

    KE, XIAO; CHEN, JINGTUAN; ZHANG, XIN; FANG, WENYI; YANG, CHUNBO; PENG, JUN; CHEN, YOUQIN; SFERRA, THOMAS J.

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a major form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is tightly regulated by the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. Thus, the suppression of NF-κB signaling may provide a promising strategy for the treatment of UC. Qing Hua Chang Yin (QHCY) is a traditional Chinese formulation, which has been used for a number of years to clinically treat UC. However, little is known with regard to its anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Caco-2 cells were used as an in vitro inflammatory model of the human intestinal epithelium to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of QHCY and its underlying molecular mechanisms. We observed that QHCY inhibited the inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells as it significantly and concentration-dependently reduced the LPS-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-8 in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, QHCY treatment inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB in Caco-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that QHCY suppressed the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Collectively, our results suggest that the inhibition of NF-κB-mediated inflammation may constitute a potential mechanism by which QHCY treats UC. PMID:23935744

  15. Qing Hua Chang Yin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human intestinal cells by inhibiting NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xiao; Chen, Jingtuan; Zhang, Xin; Fang, Wenyi; Yang, Chunbo; Peng, Jun; Chen, Youqin; Sferra, Thomas J

    2013-07-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a major form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is tightly regulated by the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. Thus, the suppression of NF-κB signaling may provide a promising strategy for the treatment of UC. Qing Hua Chang Yin (QHCY) is a traditional Chinese formulation, which has been used for a number of years to clinically treat UC. However, little is known with regard to its anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Caco-2 cells were used as an in vitro inflammatory model of the human intestinal epithelium to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of QHCY and its underlying molecular mechanisms. We observed that QHCY inhibited the inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells as it significantly and concentration-dependently reduced the LPS-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-8 in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, QHCY treatment inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB in Caco-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that QHCY suppressed the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Collectively, our results suggest that the inhibition of NF-κB-mediated inflammation may constitute a potential mechanism by which QHCY treats UC.

  16. Vitamin D3 inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced placental inflammation through reinforcing interaction between vitamin D receptor and nuclear factor kappa B p65 subunit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Hua; Yu, Zhen; Fu, Lin; Wang, Hua; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Cheng; Lv, Zheng-Mei; Xu, De-Xiang

    2015-06-12

    It is increasingly recognized that vitamin D3 (VitD3) has an anti-inflammatory activity. The present study investigated the effects of maternal VitD3 supplementation during pregnancy on LPS-induced placental inflammation and fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). All pregnant mice except controls were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (100 μg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD)15-17. In VitD3 + LPS group, pregnant mice were orally administered with VitD3 (25 μg/kg) before LPS injection. As expected, maternal LPS exposure caused placental inflammation and fetal IUGR. Interestingly, pretreatment with VitD3 repressed placental inflammation and protected against LPS-induced fetal IUGR. Further analysis showed that pretreatment with VitD3, which activated placental vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling, specifically suppressed LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and significantly blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit in trophoblast gaint cells of the labyrinth layer. Conversely, LPS, which activated placental NF-κB signaling, suppressed placental VDR activation and its target gene expression. Moreover, VitD3 reinforced physical interaction between placental VDR and NF-κB p65 subunit. The further study demonstrates that VitD3 inhibits placental NF-κB signaling in VDR-dependent manner. These results provide a mechanistic explanation for VitD3-mediated anti-inflammatory activity. Overall, the present study provides evidence for roles of VDR as a key regulator of placental inflammation.

  17. A phenolic acid phenethyl urea compound inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jung-Min; Yu, Ji-Yeon; Jang, Young-Oh; Kim, Beom-Tae; Hwang, Ki-Jun; Jeon, Young-Mi; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2010-04-01

    We previously used the Curtius rearrangement to synthesize various phenolic acid phenethyl urea compounds from phenolic acids and demonstrated their beneficial anti-oxidant and anti-cancer effects. Here, we investigated the effects of one of these synthetic compounds, (E)-1-(3,4-dihydroxystyryl)-3-(4-hydroxyphenethyl)urea (DSHP-U), on nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and cytokine secretion in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. DSHP-U suppressed LPS-induced NO production and iNOS expression at a concentration of 50 microM and inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 kinase. Inhibitors of phosphorylated (p)-ERK and p-p38, but not of p-JNK, reduced LPS-stimulated NO production. DSHP-U also prevented the nuclear translocation of the Rel A (p65) subunit and DNA-NF-kappaB binding by suppressing IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and by the degradation of IkappaBalpha in LPS-stimulated cells. Furthermore, DSHP-U decreased the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 in LPS-treated macrophages. However, the LPS-stimulated expression of LPS receptors, such as Toll-like receptor 4, myeloid differentiation factor-2, and CD14, was unchanged after DSHP-U treatment at significantly high levels. Our data suggest that DSHP-U blocks NO and inflammatory cytokine production in LPS-stimulated macrophages and that these effects are mainly mediated through the inhibition of the ERK/p38- and NF-kappaB signaling pathways.

  18. Differences in the effects of four TRPV1 channel antagonists on lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production and COX-2 expression in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Yuki; Tanuma, Sei-Ichi; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi

    2017-03-11

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer membrane component of gram-negative bacteria, and cytokine production via LPS-induced macrophage activation is deeply involved in its pathogenesis. Effective therapy of sepsis has not yet been established. However, it was reported that transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel antagonist capsazepine (CPZ; a capsaicin analogue) attenuates sepsis in a murine model [Ang et al., PLoS ONE 6(9) (2011) e24535; J. Immunol. 187 (2011) 4778-4787]. Here, we profiled the effects of four TRPV1 channel antagonists, AMG9810, SB366791, BCTC and CPZ, on the release of IL-6, IL-1β and IL-18, and on expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in LPS-activated macrophages. Treatment of murine macrophage J774.1 cells or BALB/c mouse-derived intraperitoneal immune cells with LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines production and COX-2 expression. Pretreatment with AMG9810 or CPZ significantly suppressed the release of IL-6, IL-1β and IL-18, and COX-2 expression, whereas SB366791 and BCTC were less effective. These results support a role of TRPV1 channel in macrophage activation, but also indicate that only a subset of TRPV1 channel antagonists may be effective in suppressing inflammatory responses. These results suggest that at least some TRPV1 channel antagonists, such as AMG9810 and CPZ, may be candidate anti-inflammatory agents for treatment of sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Whitmania Pigra Whitman Extracts Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide Induced Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Migration and their Adhesion Ability to THP-1 and RAW 264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuaishuai; Cheng, Long; An, Dengkun; Song, Shuliang; Liang, Hao; Chu, Fulong; Ji, Aiguo

    2017-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a kind of chronic inflammatory disease. A crucial pathology change of atherosclerosis is the migration of activated VSMCs to the intima where they interact with leukocytes by expressing adhesion molecules, including intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Moreover, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expressed by VSMCs plays an important role in recruiting monocytes and macrophages. Leech (Whitmania pigra Whitman) is a traditional Chinese medicine to treat cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, however previous research has rarely reported the molecular mechanism for its curative effect. Thus, our study focuses on the effects of leech extracts on the expression of inflammatory factors, adhesion molecules and MCP-1 in rat VSMCs. In our present study, wound-healing assay and Boyden chamber model were applied to evaluate the anti-migration effect of LEE (Leech Enzyme Extracts) on LPS induced VSMCs. The anti-adhesion effect was assessed using DiI-labeled THP-1 and RAW264.7. LEE suppressed LPS-induced VSMCs migration and decreased the chemotaxis and adhesive capacity of THP-1 and RAW264.7 to LPS-stimulated VSMCs. LEE also attenuated the upregulation of a variety of pro-atherosclerotic factors by inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. LEE was also observed to prevent NF-κB p65 nuclear localization using immune-fluorescent staining. In conclusion, LEE suppresses LPS-induced upregulation of inflammatory factors, adhesion molecules and MCP-1 in rat VSMCs mainly via inhibiting the p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathways, thus partly uncovered LEE's molecular mechanisms for its therapeutic effect on atherosclerosis.

  20. NCX 4040, a nitric oxide-donating aspirin derivative, inhibits Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Park, Hae Ryoun; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2015-12-05

    In this study, the effects and underlying mechanisms of NCX 4040, a nitric oxide (NO)-donating aspirin derivative, on the production of proinflammatory mediators were examined using murine macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in the etiology of periodontal disease. NCX 4040 significantly reduced P. intermedia LPS-induced production of inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as their mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. Notably, NCX 4040 was much more effective than the parental compound aspirin in reducing LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators. NCX 4040 induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cells treated with P. intermedia LPS, and the suppressive effect of NCX 4040 on LPS-induced NO production was significantly reversed by SnPP, a competitive HO-1 inhibitor. NCX 4040 did not influence LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38. IκB-α degradation as well as nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activities of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits induced by P. intermedia LPS were significantly reduced by NCX 4040. Besides, LPS-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 was significantly down-regulated by NCX 4040. Further, NCX 4040 elevated the SOCS1 mRNA in cells stimulated with LPS. This study indicates that NCX 4040 inhibits P. intermedia LPS-induced production of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 in murine macrophages through anti-inflammatory HO-1 induction and suppression of NF-κB, STAT1 and STAT3 activation, which is associated with the activation of SOCS1 signaling. NCX 4040 could potentially be a promising tool in the treatment of periodontal disease, although further studies are required to verify this.

  1. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 transcription by 6-(methylsulfinyl) hexyl isothiocyanate, a chemopreventive compound from Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsumura, in mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Uto, Takuhiro; Fujii, Makoto; Hou, De-Xing

    2005-12-05

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) is a chemopreventive compound occurring in Wasabi (Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsumura), which is a very popular pungent spice in Japan. We investigated the effects of 6-MITC on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW264 cells. Treatment with 6-MITC suppressed LPS-mediated induction of COX-2 protein in a dose-dependent manner. Transfections with various COX-2 promoter reporter constructs revealed that the inhibitory effects of 6-MITC on COX-2 gene expression were directed by the core promoter elements including nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and cyclic AMP-response element (CRE) sites. Western blotting analysis showed that 6-MITC inhibited LPS-induced activation of MAPK (ERK, p38 kinase and JNK) and transcriptional factors (CREB, c-Jun and C/EBPdelta) binding the core elements of COX-2 promoter, substantiating the involvement of these signal transduction pathways in the regulation of COX-2 expression by 6-MITC. Moreover, Western blotting experiments with MAPK-specific inhibitors (U0126 for MEK1/2, SB203580 for p38 kinase and SP600125 for JNK) demonstrated that 6-MITC suppressed LPS-induced COX-2 expression by blocking the activation of JNK-mediated AP-1 and ERK/p38 kinase-mediated CREB or C/EBPdelta. Finally, the structure-activity study revealed that the inhibitory potency of methylsulfinyl isothiocyanates (MITCs) depended on the methyl chain length. These findings demonstrate for the first time that 6-MITC is an effective agent to attenuate COX-2 production, and enhance our understanding of the anti-inflammation properties of 6-MITC.

  2. Protective effect of SKLB010 against D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver failure via nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Xie, Caifeng; Jingjing, Wang; Li, Xiaolu; Zeng, Fei; Ma, Liang; Li, Chunyan; Wei, Zhe; Peng, Aihua; Chen, Lijuan

    2014-08-01

    Acute liver failure is characterized by the sudden loss of hepatic function and a high mortality. SKLB010, a derivative of thiazolidinediones, has been proved to be effective in protecting mice from acute liver failure caused by concanavalin A and carbon tetrachloride in our previous work. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether SKLB010 could prevent acute liver injury caused by d-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. In the macrophage-mediated D-GalN/LPS model of acute liver injury, serum enzyme activity was suppressed and liver injury was attenuated by SKLB010. The serum levels of TNF-α and hepatic TNF-α mRNA expression were also markedly decreased after the treatment of SKLB010. In the liver of mice receiving injections of D-GalN/LPS, hepatocytes apoptosis and the infiltration of monocytes/macrophages were blocked by SKLB010. Furthermore, the survival rate of mice following D-GalN/LPS treatment was significantly improved by a single injection with SKLB010. In vivo, the luminescence intensity was suppressed by SKLB010 in NF-κB-luc mice after D-GalN/LPS treatment. In vitro, the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nitrite/nitrate in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages was decreased by SKLB010 in a dose-dependent manner. Our further studies demonstrated that SKLB010 inhibited the phosphorylation of IκBα and p38MAPK, and the DNA binding activity of NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells. In conclusion, treatment with only a single injection of SKLB010 could significantly attenuate acute inflammation in mice induced by D-GalN/LPS, and these effects are likely associated with the inhibition of NF-κB activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Tetrahydroberberrubine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by down-regulating MAPK, AKT, and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiu; Yu, Sulan; Chen, Ling; Liu, Han; Zhang, Jian; Ge, Haixia; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Boyang; Kou, Junping

    2016-08-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening syndrome that is characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and increased microvascular permeability, which causes a high mortality worldwide. Here, we studied the protective effect of tetrahydroberberrubine (THBru), a berberine derivative, on a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury that was established in our previous studies. The results showed that a single oral administration of THBru significantly decreased the lung wet to dry weight (W/D) ratio at doses of 2, 10 and 50mg/kg administered 1h prior to LPS challenge (30mg/kg, intravenous injection). Histopathological changes, such as pulmonary edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells and coagulation, were also attenuated by THBru. In addition, THBru markedly decreased the total cell counts, total protein and nitrate/nitrite content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), significantly decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitrate/nitrite content in the plasma, and reduced the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the lung tissues. Additionally, THBru (10μM) significantly decreased the content of TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-induced THP-1 cells in vitro. Moreover, THBru significantly suppressed the activation of the MAPKs JNK and p38, AKT, and the NF-κB subunit p65 in LPS-induced THP-1 cells. These findings confirm that THBru attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting the release of inflammatory cytokines and suppressing the activation of MAPKs, AKT, and NF-κB signaling pathways, which implicates it as a potential therapeutic agent for ALI or sepsis.

  4. Salt-inducible kinase 3 deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxin shock accompanied by increased levels of pro-inflammatory molecules in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sanosaka, Masato; Fujimoto, Minoru; Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Nagatake, Takahiro; Itoh, Yumi; Kagawa, Mai; Kumagai, Ayako; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Kunisawa, Jun; Naka, Tetsuji; Takemori, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play important roles in the innate immune system during infection and systemic inflammation. When bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binds to Toll-like receptor 4 on macrophages, several signalling cascades co-operatively up-regulate gene expression of inflammatory molecules. The present study aimed to examine whether salt-inducible kinase [SIK, a member of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family] could contribute to the regulation of immune signal not only in cultured macrophages, but also in vivo. LPS up-regulated SIK3 expression in murine RAW264.7 macrophages and exogenously over-expressed SIK3 negatively regulated the expression of inflammatory molecules [interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO) and IL-12p40] in RAW264.7 macrophages. Conversely, these inflammatory molecule levels were up-regulated in SIK3-deficient thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages (TEPM), despite no impairment of the classical signalling cascades. Forced expression of SIK3 in SIK3-deficient TEPM suppressed the levels of the above-mentioned inflammatory molecules. LPS injection (10 mg/kg) led to the death of all SIK3-knockout (KO) mice within 48 hr after treatment, whereas only one mouse died in the SIK1-KO (n = 8), SIK2-KO (n = 9) and wild-type (n = 8 or 9) groups. In addition, SIK3-KO bone marrow transplantation increased LPS sensitivity of the recipient wild-type mice, which was accompanied by an increased level of circulating IL-6. These results suggest that SIK3 is a unique negative regulator that suppresses inflammatory molecule gene expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages. PMID:25619259

  5. Enhanced anti-inflammatory effects of DHA and quercetin in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 macrophages by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Si, Tian-Lei; Liu, Qi; Ren, Yu-Fei; Li, Hui; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Li, Er-Hu; Pan, Si-Yi; Zhang, Jiu-Liang; Wang, Ke-Xing

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) + quercetin (QE) used in combination. DHA and QE are natural compounds derived from various foods and have been demonstrated to exert anti‑inflammatory effects The protein mRNA expression involved in the nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway was analyzed by western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods respectively, other cytokines were detected by an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay kit. The results of the present study demonstrated that combined treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated RAW264.7 cells with DHA + QE decreased the levels of pro‑inflammatory mediators to a greater extent than QE or DHA alone. Additionally, DHA + QE synergistically suppressed nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 levels. Molecular‑level studies indicated that the DHA + QE combination can significantly inhibit the mRNA expression of NF‑κB subunits p50 and p65, extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and c‑JUN N‑terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2, which suggests that the NF‑κB signalling pathway is involved in the synergistic effects observed. Furthermore, western blot analysis demonstrated that DHA + QE synergistically inhibit the phosphorylation of p50, p65, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. This finding indicates that the enhanced anti‑inflammatory effects of the combined compounds are achieved by suppressing NF‑κB and MAPK signalling in LPS‑stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The results of the present study suggest that DHA and QE in combination may be utilized as potent anti‑inflammatory compounds, with potential preventative or palliative effects on obesity, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Identification and characterization of a putative lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) gene from Amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri): an insight into the innate immunity of Amphioxus and the evolution of LITAF.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ping; Hu, Jing; Qian, Jinjun; Chen, Liming; Xu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Fei

    2012-06-01

    Innate immunity defenses against infectious agent in all multicultural organisms. TNF-α is an important cytokine that can be stimulated by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to regulate the innate immunity. The lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) functions as a transcription factor for regulating the expression of TNF-α as well as various inflammatory cytokines in response to LPS stimulation. The physiological significance of LITAF gene in the innate immunity of various animals has recently been reported. However, no LITAF gene has yet been identified in amphioxus, which is the best available stand-in for the proximate invertebrate ancestor of the vertebrates. In this study, we identified and characterized an amphioxus LITAF gene (designated as AmphiLITAF). First, we identified the AmphiLITAF from the amphioxus and found that AmphiLITAF gene with ~1.6 kb in length has a 827bp cDNA transcription product which encodes a putative protein with 127 amino acids containing conserved LITAF-domain, and the deduced amino acid of AmphiLITAF shared 37-60% similarity with the LITAFs from other species; second, we uncovered the spatial distribution of the LITAF in different tissues, the expression level of AmphiLITAF mRNA was the highest in hepatic cecum and intestine, moderate in muscles, gills and gonad, and the lowest in notochord. Our findings provide an insight into the innate immune response in the amphioxus and the evolution of the LITAF family.

  7. Transcriptional profiles of Rel/NF-κB, inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB), and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and two Vibrio sp.-exposed intertidal copepod, Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-02-01

    The immune system and the role of immunity-related genes have rarely been studied in copepods, even though copepods have a primitive immune response system and also have a potential in pathogen transport higher trophic levels. In this study, we firstly cloned and characterized three core immune genes such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB), and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) genes in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Several in silico analyses based on conserved domains, motifs, and phylogenetic relationships were supporting their annotations. To investigate the immune-related role of three genes, we exposed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and two Vibrio sp. to T. japonicus. After exposure of different concentrations of LPS and two Vibrio sp., transcripts of TJ-IκB and TJ-LITAF genes were significantly elevated during the time course in a dose-dependent manner, while TJ-NF-κB transcripts were not significantly changed during exposure. These findings demonstrated that the copepod T. japonicus has a conserved immunity against infection.

  8. Identification of compounds in adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) seed hull extracts that inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Din-Wen; Chung, Cheng-Pei; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lin, Yun-Lian; Chiang, Wenchang

    2009-11-25

    We investigated the effects of adlay seed hull (AH) extracts on the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 macrophages. An AH ethanol extract (AHE) was partitioned into ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water fractions. Silica gel chromatography of the ethyl acetate fraction yielded 15 subfractions: AHE-Ea-A to AHE-Ea-O. Subfractions AHE-Ea-J, AHE-Ea-K, and AHE-Ea-M had anti-inflammatory activities, as they counteracted the increased cellular production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 induced by lipopolysaccharide by down-regulating inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 expression. Eriodictyol (1), the ceramide (2S,3S,4R)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxytetracosanoyl-amino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol (2), and p-coumaric acid (3) were found in the subfractions, and the first two compounds appeared to be primarily responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity. This is the first time that eriodictyol (1) and this ceramide (2) have been found in AH, and the anti-inflammatory properties of the AHE-Ea fraction can be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of these two compounds.

  9. Differential effects of the sleep-inducing lipid oleamide and cannabinoids on the induction of long-term potentiation in the CA1 neurons of the rat hippocampus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lees, George; Dougalis, Antonios

    2004-01-30

    Cannabinoids have been shown to impair cognition in vivo and block long-term potentiation (LTP), a candidate experimental model of learning and memory in vitro, via cannabinoid receptor (CB1) activation. cis-Oleamide (cOA) is an endogenous sleep-inducing lipid with putative cannabinomimetic properties. We hypothesise that cOA is cannabinomimetic and perform a comparative study with synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids on their effects on synaptic conditioning via two different patterns of stimulation in the hippocampal slice. CB1 agonists, R(+)-WIN55212-2 and anandamide, but not cOA blocked high frequency stimulation (HFS)-LTP. R(+)-WIN55212-2 and cOA (stereoselectively) attenuated responses to theta-burst-LTP, while anandamide did not. The anandamide transport inhibitor, AM404, attenuated HFS-LTP, an effect reversed by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A but not mimicked by the vanilloid receptor agonist capsaicin. TFNO, an inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for degrading anandamide, failed to block HFS-LTP alone or in combination with cOA. On the contrary, this combination was as effective as cOA on its own in attenuating theta-burst-LTP. cOA effects on theta-burst-LTP were prevented in the presence of the GABA(A) receptor blocker picrotoxin, but not by pretreatment with SR141716A. These findings suggest that cOA neither directly activates CB1 receptors nor acts via the proposed "entourage" effect [Nature 389 (1997) 25] to increase titres of anandamide through FAAH inhibition. The selective effects of cOA on theta-burst-conditioning may reflect modulation of GABAergic transmission. Anandamide uptake inhibition, but not blockade of FAAH, effectively increases synaptic concentrations of endocannabinoids.

  10. Protective role of cannabinoid receptor 2 activation in galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver failure through regulation of macrophage polarization and microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Sunil; Zumbrun, Elizabeth E; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S

    2015-05-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a potentially life-threatening disorder without any effective treatment strategies. d-Galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALF is a widely used animal model to identify novel hepato-protective agents. In the present study, we investigated the potential of a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist, JWH-133 [(6aR,10aR)-3-(1,1-dimethylbutyl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran], in the amelioration of GalN/LPS-induced ALF. JWH-133 treatment protected the mice from ALF-associated mortality, mitigated alanine transaminase and proinflammatory cytokines, suppressed histopathological and apoptotic liver damage, and reduced liver infiltration of mononuclear cells (MNCs). Furthermore, JWH-133 pretreatment of M1/M2-polarized macrophages significantly increased the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in M1 macrophages and potentiated the expression of M2 markers in M2-polarized macrophages. In vivo, JWH-133 treatment also suppressed ALF-triggered expression of M1 markers in liver MNCs, while increasing the expression of M2 markers such as Arg1 and IL-10. microRNA (miR) microarray analysis revealed that JWH-133 treatment altered the expression of only a few miRs in the liver MNCs. Gene ontology analysis of the targets of miRs suggested that Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling was among the most significantly targeted cellular pathways. Among the altered miRs, miR-145 was found to be the most significantly decreased. This finding correlated with concurrent upregulated expression of its predicted target gene, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 3, a negative regulator of TLR4 signaling. Together, these data are the first to demonstrate that CB2 activation attenuates GalN/LPS-induced ALF by inducing an M1 to M2 shift in macrophages and by regulating the expression of unique miRs that target key molecules involved in the TLR4 pathway. U.S. Government work not protected by U

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of water extract of Taraxacum mongolicum hand.-Mazz on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in acute lung injury by suppressing PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhua; Zhu, Lingpeng; Wang, Jing; He, He; Chang, Xiayun; Gao, Jin; Shumin, Wang; Yan, Tianhua

    2015-06-20

    Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz is a famous medicinal plant in China, has been listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China and used to treat infection, fever, upper respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, and other infectious diseases. This study aims to evaluate the possible mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammation effects of water extract of T. mongolicum Hand.-Mazz (WETMHM) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory in acute lung injury. Female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into five groups with 10 mice in each group: (1) control group (saline), (2) LPS group, (3) LPS+dexamethasone (LPS+Dex, 2mg/kg, administered by gavage), (4) LPS+WETMHM (5 g/kg, administered by gavage), (5) LPS+WETMHM (10 g/kg, administered by gavage). The cell counting in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured. The animal lung edema degree was evaluated by wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. The superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activity and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed by SOD and MPO kits, respectively. The levels of inflammation mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 were assayed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The levels of P-PI3K, PI3K, P-Akt, Akt, P-mTOR and mTOR were measured by Western blotting. The data showed that treatment with the WETMHM inhibited LPS-induced inflammation: (1) WETMHM attenuated inflammation cell numbers in the BALF, (2) decreased protein levels of lung PI3K/Akt/mTOR, and (3) improved SOD activity and (4) inhibited MPO activity; (5) histological studies demonstrated that WETMHM substantially inhibited LPS-induced neutrophils in lung tissue. The results indicated that the WETMHM had a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. n-Propyl gallate suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase activation through protein kinase Cδ-mediated up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Wookwang; Park, Seong Ji; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2017-04-15

    n-Propyl gallate is a synthetic phenolic antioxidant with potential anti-inflammatory effects. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that n-propyl gallate increases the expression and activity of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress-inducible protein with potent anti-inflammatory activity, in RAW264.7 macrophages. The inhibition of the HO-1 activity by treatment with zinc (II) protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) or by knockdown of the HO-1 expression with small interference RNA significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of n-Propyl gallate on activations of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). An additional mechanism study using inhibitors of signaling kinases revealed the involvement of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) in the expression of HO-1 induced by n-Propyl gallate. Consistent with these results, n-Propyl gallate increased the intracellular levels of phosphorylated PKCδ in concentration- and time-dependent manners. The inhibitory effects of n-Propyl gallate on LPS-induced iNOS expression and nitric oxide production were also significantly attenuated by pretreatment with the PKCδ inhibitor, rottlerin, or by transfection with PKCδ (K376R), a kinase-inactive form of PKCδ. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence that n-Propyl gallate exerts its anti-inflammatory effect through PKCδ-mediated up-regulation of HO-1 in macrophages.

  13. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-inducible nitric oxide synthase and IL-1beta through suppression of NF-kappaB activation by 3-(1'-1'-dimethyl-allyl)-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-coumarin isolated from Ruta graveolens L.

    PubMed

    Raghav, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Bhawna; Shrivastava, Anju; Das, Hasi Rani

    2007-03-29

    The Ruta graveolens L. plant is used in traditional medicine to treat a large number of diseases. The methanol (50%) extract of the whole plant was observed to inhibit the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage cells (J774A.1, [Raghav, S.K., Gupta, B., Agrawal, C., Goswami, K., Das, H.R., 2006b. Anti-inflammatory effect of Ruta graveolens L. in murine macrophage cells. J. Ethnopharmacol. 104, 234-239]). The effect of whole plant extract on the expression of other pro-inflammatory genes such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-12, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and the activation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kappaB) were investigated in LPS stimulated macrophage cells. An active compound was isolated from this methanol extract by further solvent fractionation and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The purified compound was identified as 3-(1'-1'-dimethyl-allyl)-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-coumarin having IUPAC nomenclature of 6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3-(2-methyl but-3-en-2yl)-2H-chromen-2-one by ESI-MS, MALDI, FT-IR and NMR. Effect of this purified compound was assessed on iNOS, COX-2 and various pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and was observed to inhibit both the protein and mRNA expression of iNOS and IL-1beta in LPS challenged macrophages. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and Western blot analyses indicated that the plant extract and the isolated active compound blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kappaB through the prevention of inhibitor-kB (IkB) degradation. The purified compound also showed the anti-oxidant activity. The active compound at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight was observed to inhibit the iNOS and IL-1beta gene expression significantly in endotoxin-induced inflammatory model of BALB/c mice. The low level of nitric oxide production was also observed in the sera of compound treated mice. The normal behavioral condition in LPS challenged BALB/c mice was noticed when these were treated with active compound.

  14. Anethum graveloens flower extracts inhibited a lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response by blocking iNOS expression and NF-κB activity in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Jae; Shin, Yusu; Lee, Kwang Ho; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a system used by a host to defend against the presence of bacteria, viruses, or yeasts. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the plasma membranes of macrophages are activated when they recognize the molecular structure of a virus or bacterium. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer cell-wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, initiates an inflammatory process via TLR4. We investigated the effect of the extract of Anethum graveloens flowers (AGFs) on LPS-mediated inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells. The extract markedly suppressed nitric oxide generation in a concentration-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the mRNA expression of cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also inhibited iNOS protein levels in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, AGF decreased the LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. AGF inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, an upstream molecule of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, and thus inhibited NF-κB activity in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that AGF exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by inhibiting iNOS expression and blocking the NF-κB pathway.

  15. Magnolol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats through PPAR-γ-dependent inhibition of NF-kB activation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Hsien; Chen, Meng-Chuan; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Chang, Heng-Yuan; Chou, Tz-Chong

    2015-09-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) has a high morbidity and mortality rate due to the serious inflammation and edema occurred in lung. Magnolol extracted from Magnolia officinalis, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are known to exert a cytoprotective effect against cellular inflammatory stress and oxidative injury. The aim of this study was to explore the involvement of PPAR-γ in the beneficial effect of magnolol in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. We found that treatment with magnolol greatly improved the pathological features of ALI evidenced by reduction of lung edema, polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration, ROS production, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the expression of iNOS and COX-2, and NF-κB activation in lungs exposed to LPS. Importantly, magnolol is capable of increasing the PPAR-γ expression and activity in lungs of ALI. However, blocking PPAR-γ activity with GW9662 markedly abolished the protective and anti-inflammatory effects of magnolol. Taken together, the present study provides a novel mechanism accounting for the protective effect of magnolol in LPS-induced ALI is at least partly attributed to induction of PPAR-γ in lungs, and in turn suppressing NF-κB-related inflammatory responses.

  16. Differential Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production by and Antioxidant Activity of Fomentariol in RAW264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dong-Won; Yi, Young-Joo; Lee, Myeong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been used worldwide to treat cancer and modulate the immune system. Over the last several years, there has been increasing interest in isolating bioactive compounds from medicinal mushrooms and evaluating their health beneficial effects. Fomes fomentarius is used in traditional oriental medicine and is known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antitumor effects. In the present study, we isolated fomentariol from Fomes fomentarius and investigated its anti-inflammatory effect in murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) stimulated with lipopolysaccharides. Fomentariol inhibited the production of nitric oxide and intracellular reactive oxygen species triggered by lipopolysaccharides. Interestingly, fomentariol differentially regulated cytokine production triggered by lipopolysaccharides. Fomentariol effectively suppressed the production of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 but not tumor necrosis factor-α. The inhibitory effect of fomentariol against nitric oxide, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 production was possibly mediated by downregulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that fomentariol differentially modulated inflammatory responses triggered by lipopolysaccharides in macrophages and is one of the bioactive compounds that mediate the physiological effects of Fomes fomentarius. PMID:26839505

  17. Gomisin A inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in N9 microglia via blocking the NF-κB/MAPKs pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Hu, Di; Zhang, Lijia; Lian, Guoning; Zhao, Siqi; Wang, Chunming; Yin, Jun; Wu, Chunfu; Yang, Jingyu

    2014-01-01

    Gomisin A, one of the major dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis Baill., has proved to possess a variety of pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of gomisin A as well as its potential molecular mechanisms. It was found that gomisin A not only inhibited the production of NO and PGE2 in a concentration-dependent manner but also suppressed the expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-stimulated N9 microglia without observable cytotoxicity. Gomisin A was also able to attenuate the mRNA expression and the production of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Moreover, LPS induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, NADPH oxidase activation, and gp91phox expression, which were markedly inhibited by gomisin A in microglia. Furthermore, the data showed that gomisin A significantly down-regulated the TLR4 protein expression, and inhibited nuclear transcription factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathways. Additionally, gomisin A alleviated the cell death of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma, rat primary cortical and hippocampal neurons induced by the conditioned-media from activated microglia. In summary, gomisin A may exert neuroprotective effects by attenuating the microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory response via inhibiting the TLR4-mediated NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways.

  18. Protective effect of erdosteine against hypochlorous acid-induced acute lung injury and lipopolysaccharide-induced neutrophilic lung inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Hosoe, H; Kaise, T; Ohmori, K

    2000-11-01

    The effect of erdosteine, a mucoactive drug, on hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-induced lung injury, and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increase in tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production and neutrophil recruitment into the airway, was investigated. Male BALB/c mice were orally administered erdosteine (3-100 mgkg(-1)), ambroxol hydrochloride (ambroxol) (3-30 mgkg(-1)), S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine (S-CMC) (100-600 mgkg(-1)) or prednisolone (10 mgkg(-1)), 1 h before intratracheal injection of HOCl or LPS. In the HOCl-injected mice, erdosteine markedly suppressed increases in the ratios of lung wet weight to bodyweight and lung dry weight to bodyweight, whereas the other mucoactive drugs ambroxol and S-CMC had little effect. Erdosteine also inhibited the LPS-induced neutrophil influx, although it did not affect the increased level of TNF-alpha in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The results suggest that attenuation of reactive oxygen species and neutrophil recruitment is involved in the clinical efficacy of erdosteine in the treatment of chronic bronchitis.

  19. Lithium ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation via inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 expression by activating the PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiang; Dai, Xiaonan; Lu, Shunmei; Gui, Bo; Jin, Wenjie; Zhang, Susu; Zhang, Shu; Qian, Yanning

    2014-08-14

    Lithium, an effective mood stabilizer for the treatment of bipolar disorders, has been recently suggested to have a role in neuroprotection during neurodegenerative diseases. The pathogenesis of neurological disorders often involves the activation of microglia and associated inflammatory processes. Thus, in this study, we aimed to understand the role of lithium in microglial activation and to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s). Primary microglial cells were pretreated with lithium and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cells were assessed regarding the responses of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the associated signaling pathways were evaluated. Lithium significantly inhibited LPS-induced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Further analysis showed that lithium could activate PI3K/Akt signaling. Analyses of the associated signaling pathways demonstrated that the lithium pretreatment led to the suppression of LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions via the PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 pathway. This study demonstrates that lithium can inhibit LPS-induced TLR4 expression and microglial activation through the PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 signaling pathway. These results suggest that lithium plays an important role in microglial activation and neuroinflammation-related diseases, which may lead to a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neuroinflammation-related disorders.

  20. Protective Effects of Platycodin D on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Activating LXRα–ABCA1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Fu, Yunhe; Lu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Zecai; Zhang, Wenlong; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of platycodin D (PLD) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and clarify the possible mechanism. An LPS-induced ALI model was used to confirm the anti-inflammatory activity of PLD in vivo. The A549 lung epithelial cells were used to investigate the molecular mechanism and targets of PLD in vitro. In vivo, the results showed that PLD significantly attenuated lung histopathologic changes, myeloperoxidase activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. In vitro, PLD inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in LPS-stimulated A549 lung epithelial cells. Western blot analysis showed that PLD suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB and IRF3 activation. Moreover, PLD did not act though affecting the expression of TLR4. We also showed that PLD disrupted the formation of lipid rafts by depleting cholesterol and prevented LPS-induced TLR4 trafficking to lipid rafts, thereby blocking LPS-induced inflammatory response. Finally, PLD activated LXRα–ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux. Knockdown of LXRα abrogated the anti-inflammatory effects of PLD. The anti-inflammatory effects of PLD was associated with upregulation of the LXRα–ABCA1 pathway, which resulted in disrupting lipid rafts by depleting cholesterol and reducing translocation of TLR4 to lipid rafts. PMID:28096801

  1. Effects of a diet containing Brazilian propolis on lipopolysaccharide-induced increases in plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohkura, Naoki; Oishi, Katsutaka; Kihara-Negishi, Fumiko; Atsumi, Gen-ichi; Tatefuji, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brazilian propolis has many biological activities including the ability to help prevent thrombotic diseases, but this particular effect has not been proven. Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), an inhibitor of fibrinolysis, increase under inflammatory conditions such as infection, obesity and atherosclerosis and such elevated levels predispose individuals to a risk of developing thrombotic diseases. Aim: This study aimed to determine the effects of a diet containing Brazilian propolis on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increases in plasma PAI-1 levels. Materials and Methods: Mice were fed with a diet containing 0.5% (w/w) Brazilian propolis for 8 weeks. Thereafter, the mice were subcutaneously injected with saline containing 0.015 mg/kg of LPS and sacrificed 4 h later. Results: Orally administered Brazilian propolis significantly suppressed the LPS-induced increase in PAI-1 antigen and its activity in mouse plasma. Conclusion: This study indicated that Brazilian propolis contains natural products that can decrease thrombotic tendencies in mice. PMID:27757277

  2. Heat-Processed Scutellariae Radix Enhances Anti-Inflammatory Effect against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via NF- κ B Signaling.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yu Ock; Park, Chan Hum; Lee, Gyeong-Hwan; Yokozawa, Takako; Roh, Seong-Soo; Rhee, Man Hee

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine whether heat-processed Scutellariae Radix has an ameliorative effect on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury in mice. The effects of Scutellariae Radix heat-processed at 160°C (HSR) were compared with those of nonheat-processed Scutellariae Radix (NSR). The LPS-treated group displayed a markedly decreased body weight and significantly increased lung weight; however, the administration of NSR or HSR improved both the body and lung weights. The increased oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarker levels in the serum and lung were reduced significantly with HSR. The reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase increased significantly by both NSR and HSR. Also, the dysregulated oxidative stress and inflammation were significantly ameliorated by NSR and HSR. The expression of inflammatory mediators and cytokines by nuclear factor-kappa B activation was modulated through inhibition of a nuclear factor kappa Bα degradation. Also, lung histological change was markedly suppressed by HSR rather than NSR. Overall, the ameliorative effects of HSR were superior to those when being nonheat-processed. The representative flavonoid contents of Scutellariae Radix that include baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin were greater by heat process. These data reveal heat-processed Scutellariae Radix may be a critical factor involved in the improvement of lung disorders caused by LPS.

  3. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Mechanisms of Eupafolin in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chin-Chaun; Lin, Ming-Wei; Liang, Chan-Jung; Wang, Shu-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Eupafolin is a flavone isolated from Artemisia princeps Pampanini (family Asteraceae). The aim of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of eupafolin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 macrophages and LPS-induced mouse skin and lung inflammation models and to identify the mechanism underlying these effects. Eupafolin decreased the LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators (iNOS, COX-2 and NO) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) from the RAW264.7 macrophages. Eupafolin inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, JNK, AKT and p65 and the nuclear translocation of p65 and c-fos. These effects were mainly mediated by the inhibition of JNK. In the mouse paw and lung models, eupafolin effectively suppressed the LPS-induced edema formation and down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expression. These results demonstrated that eupafolin exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and suggested that eupafolin can be developed as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:27414646

  4. Protective Effect of Ginsenosides Rg1 and Re on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sepsis by Competitive Binding to Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Xue, Yin; Wang, Yuemin; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Wangxue

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that ginsenosides Rg1 and Re enhanced the immune response in C3H/HeB mice but not in C3H/HeJ mice carrying a mutation in the Tlr4 gene. The results of the present study showed that both Rg1 and Re inhibited mRNA expression and production of proinflammatory mediators that included tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Rg1 was found to be distributed both extracellularly and intracellularly but Re was located only extracellularly to compete with LPS for binding to Toll-like receptor 4. Preinjection of Rg1 and Re into rats suppressed LPS-induced increases in body temperature, white blood cell counts, and levels of serum proinflammatory mediators. Preinjection of Rg1 and Re into mice prevented the LPS-induced decreases in total white blood cell counts and neutrophil counts, inhibited excessive expression of multiple proinflammatory mediators, and successfully rescued 100% of the mice from sepsis-associated death. More significantly, when administered after lethal LPS inoculation, Rg1, but not Re, still showed a potent antisepsis effect and protected 90% of the mice from death. The better protection efficacy of Rg1 could result from its intracellular distribution, suggesting that Rg1 may be an ideal antisepsis agent. PMID:26149990

  5. Phellinus baumii ethyl acetate extract inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS, COX-2, and proinflammatory cytokine expression in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Yayeh, Taddesse; Oh, Won Jun; Park, Seung-Choon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Hwa-Jin; Lee, In-Kyoung; Kim, Sang-Keun; Hong, Seung-Bok; Yun, Bong-Sik; Rhee, Man Hee

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms are valuable sources of biologically active compounds possessing anticancer, antiplatelet, and anti-inflammatory properties. Phellinus baumii is a mushroom used in folk medicine for a variety of human diseases. However, its potential anti-inflammatory effect has remained unclear. Therefore, we studied the effect of P. baumii ethyl acetate extract (PBEAE) on inflammatory mediator and proinflammatory cytokine protein and/or mRNA expression levels using the nitric oxide (NO) assay, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), western blot, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage like RAW264.7 cells. PBEAE markedly inhibited NO generation and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) synthesis in a concentration-dependent pattern without any cytotoxic effect at the concentration range used. PBEAE also suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression. In addition, LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression levels were dose-dependently inhibited by PBEAE pretreatment. Furthermore, PBEAE attenuated the mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, specifically interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), in a concentration-dependent fashion. Our study suggests that P. baumii might exhibit anti-inflammatory properties by downregulating proinflammatory mediators. Thus, further study on compounds isolated from PBEAE is warranted to investigate the associated molecular mechanisms and identify the potential therapeutic targets.

  6. Protective effect of ginsenosides Rg1 and Re on lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis by competitive binding to Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Xue, Yin; Wang, Yuemin; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Wangxue; Hu, Songhua

    2015-09-01

    We previously demonstrated that ginsenosides Rg1 and Re enhanced the immune response in C3H/HeB mice but not in C3H/HeJ mice carrying a mutation in the Tlr4 gene. The results of the present study showed that both Rg1 and Re inhibited mRNA expression and production of proinflammatory mediators that included tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Rg1 was found to be distributed both extracellularly and intracellularly but Re was located only extracellularly to compete with LPS for binding to Toll-like receptor 4. Preinjection of Rg1 and Re into rats suppressed LPS-induced increases in body temperature, white blood cell counts, and levels of serum proinflammatory mediators. Preinjection of Rg1 and Re into mice prevented the LPS-induced decreases in total white blood cell counts and neutrophil counts, inhibited excessive expression of multiple proinflammatory mediators, and successfully rescued 100% of the mice from sepsis-associated death. More significantly, when administered after lethal LPS inoculation, Rg1, but not Re, still showed a potent antisepsis effect and protected 90% of the mice from death. The better protection efficacy of Rg1 could result from its intracellular distribution, suggesting that Rg1 may be an ideal antisepsis agent. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of the effects of the ethanolic extract of Muntingia calabura Linn. fruit on lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Chen, Yi-Chen; Shen, Bo-Yan; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2017-02-24

    Four flavonoids (epicatechin, rutin, diosmin and luteolin) and 11 phenolic acids (gallic acid, gentisic acid, p-hydroxybezoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, syringic acid, p-anisic acid and rosmarinic acid) were determined in the ethanolic extract of M. calabura Linn. fruit gathered in Taiwan. The extract suppressed the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 as well as the productions of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6] in RAW264.7 macrophages. The extract modulated the inflammatory processes through inactivation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 1/3 (STAT1/3). Moreover, the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) followed by inducing the production of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is also related to the anti-inflammatory effect of the extract.

  8. Lectin-like domain of thrombomodulin binds to its specific ligand Lewis Y antigen and neutralizes lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chung-Sheng; Hsiao, Shi-Ming; Kao, Yuan-Chung; Kuo, Kuan-Lin; Ma, Chih-Yuan; Kuo, Cheng-Hsiang; Chang, Bi-Ing; Chang, Chuan-Fa; Lin, Chun-Hung; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2008-01-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM), a widely expressing glycoprotein originally identified in vascular endothelium, is an important cofactor in the protein C anticoagulant system. TM appears to exhibit anti-inflammatory ability through both protein C–dependent and –independent pathways. We presently have demonstrated that recombinant N-terminal lectinlike domain of TM (rTMD1) functions as a protective agent against sepsis caused by Gram-negative bacterial infections. rTMD1 caused agglutination of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and enhanced the macrophage phagocytosis of these Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, rTMD1 bound to the Klebsiella pneumoniae and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by specifically interacting with Lewis Y antigen. rTMD1 inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory mediator production via interference with CD14 and LPS binding. Furthermore, rTMD1 modulated LPS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway activations and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in macrophages. Administration of rTMD1 protected the host by suppressing inflammatory responses induced by LPS and Gram-negative bacteria, and enhanced LPS and bacterial clearance in sepsis. Thus, rTMD1 can be used to defend against bacterial infection and inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory responses, suggesting that rTMD1 may be valuable in the treatment of severe inflammation in sepsis, especially in Gram-negative bacterial infections. PMID:18711002

  9. A novel role of kukoamine B: Inhibition of the inflammatory response in the livers of lipopolysaccharide-induced septic mice via its unique property of combining with lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    QIN, WEI-TING; WANG, XU; SHEN, WEI-CHANG; SUN, BING-WEI

    2015-01-01

    Kukoamine B (KB), derived from the traditional Chinese herb cortex Lycii, exerts anti-inflammatory effects due to its potent affinity with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and CpG DNA; however, little is known regarding whether the in vivo administration of KB can effectively inhibit inflammation in septic mice. The present study thus aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of KB on the inflammatory response in the livers of LPS-induced septic mice. KB treatment in the LPS-induced septic mice significantly decreased the plasma level of LPS. In addition, KB protected against liver injury, as confirmed by improved histology and decreased aminotransferase levels in the serum. Further experiments revealed that KB attenuated liver myeloperoxidase activity and reduced the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. These effects were accompanied by decreases in the levels of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β in the liver tissue. In parallel, the activity of nuclear factor-κ-gene binding (NF-κB) in the livers of LPS-induced septic mice was markedly inhibited with KB treatment. In combination, these results demonstrate that KB inhibits inflammation in septic mice by reducing the concentrations of plasma LPS, decreasing leukocyte sequestration and interfering with NF-κB activation, and, therefore, suppressing the pro-adhesive phenotype of endothelial cells. PMID:25667619

  10. The Protective Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury Is Mediated by Heme Oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Chieh; Lai, Yuan-Shu; Chou, Tz-Chong

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), occurring naturally in human food, is known to possess antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been reported to exhibit a therapeutic effect in several inflammatory diseases. The aim of study was to test the hypothesis that the protection of ALA against lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI) is mediated by HO-1. Pre- or posttreatment with ALA significantly inhibited LPS-induced histological alterations of ALI, lung tissue edema, and production of proinflammatory cytokine, cytokine inducible neutrophil chemoattractant-3, and nitrite/nitrate in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, the inflammatory responses including elevation of superoxide formation, myeloperoxidase activity, polymorphonuclear neutrophils infiltration, nitrotyrosine, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in lung tissues of LPS-instilled rats were also markedly reduced by ALA. Interestingly, treatment with ALA significantly increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation and HO-1 expression in lungs of ALI. However, blocking HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), an HO-1 inhibitor, markedly abolished these beneficial effects of ALA in LPS-induced ALI. These results suggest that the protection mechanism of ALA may be through HO-1 induction and in turn suppressing NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses. PMID:23573137

  11. Geniposide plays an anti-inflammatory role via regulating TLR4 and downstream signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaojing; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Tiancheng; Jiang, Haichao; Zhang, Zecai; Fu, Yunhe; Yang, Zhengtao; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Geniposide is a medicine isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, which is a traditional Chinese herb that is widely used in Asia for the treatment of inflammation, brain diseases, and hepatic disorders. Mastitis is a highly prevalent and important infectious disease. In this study, we used a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse mastitis model and LPS-stimulated primary mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs) to explore the anti-inflammatory effect and the mechanism of action of geniposide. Using intraductal injection of LPS as a mouse model of mastitis, we found that geniposide significantly reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and downregulated the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). To further investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism, we used LPS-stimulated mMECs as an in vitro mastitis model. The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that geniposide inhibited the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis demonstrated that geniposide could suppress the phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (IκBα), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Geniposide also inhibited the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the LPS-stimulated mMECs. In conclusion, geniposide exerted its anti-inflammatory effect by regulating TLR4 expression, which affected the downstream NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Thus, geniposide may be a potential drug for mastitis therapy.

  12. C-Mannosylated peptides derived from the thrombospondin type 1 repeat enhance lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling in macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Muroi, Eiji; Manabe, Shino; Ikezaki, Midori; Urata, Yoshishige; Sato, Shinichi; Kondo, Takahito; Ito, Yukishige; Ihara, Yoshito

    2007-09-01

    C-Mannosylation is a unique type of glycosylation occurring at the first Trp (W) in the WXXW motif, which is found in the thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR) of proteins. However, the biological function of C-mannosylation is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of C-mannosylated TSR-derived peptides on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced signaling in macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. The cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of chemically synthesized peptides with or without C-mannose (e.g., (C-Man)-Trp-Ser-Pro-Trp [C-Man-WSPW], C-Man-W, WSPW, etc.), then the effects of the peptides on cellular viability and signaling were examined. We found a cytotoxic effect in the cells treated with LPS and C-Man-WSPW, but not in the cells solely treated with LPS or C-Man-WSPW. We also found that production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was upregulated more in response to LPS plus C-Man-WSPW, than in response to LPS plus WSPW or LPS alone. Among the LPS-induced signaling pathways that induce production of TNF-alpha, the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was greatly enhanced by LPS and C-Man-WSPW, and the production of TNF-alpha was suppressed by an inhibitor for JNK. Together, these results demonstrate a novel function of the C-mannosylated TSR-derived peptide motif, to promote LPS-induced JNK signaling, and this leads to an enhancement of cytotoxicity via the upregulation of TNF-alpha production.

  13. Sevoflurane prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced barrier dysfunction in human lung microvascular endothelial cells: Rho-mediated alterations of VE-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yiran; Tan, Qindong; Chen, Rui; Cao, Biao; Li, Wenhong

    Acute lung injury (ALI) mainly occurs as increased permeability of lung tissue and pleural effusion. Inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane has been demonstrated to alleviate lung permeability by upregulating junction proteins after ischemia-reperfusion. However, the exact mechanisms of its protective effect on reperfusion injury remain elusive. The aim of this study was to assess possible preconditioning with sevoflurane in an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced barrier dysfunction in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-Ls). In this study, HMVEC-Ls were exposed to minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane for 2 h. LPS significantly increased the permeability of HMVEC-L. Moreover, the distribution of junction protein, vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, in cell-cell junction area and the total expression in HMVEC-Ls were significantly decreased by LPS treatment. However, the abnormal distribution and decreased expression of VE-cadherin and hyperpermeability of HMVEC-Ls were significantly reversed by pretreatment with sevoflurane. Furthermore, LPS-induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway was significantly inhibited with sevoflurane. Such activation, abnormal distribution and decreased expression of VE-cadherin and hyperpermeability of HMVEC-Ls were significantly inhibited with sevoflurane pretreatment or knockdown of RhoA or ROCK-2. In conclusion, sevoflurane prevented LPS-induced rupture of HMVEC-L monolayers by suppressing the RhoA/ROCK-mediated VE-cadherin signaling pathway. Our results may explain, at least in part, some beneficial effects of sevoflurane on pulmonary dysfunction such as ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  14. Spherical nucleic acid targeting microRNA-99b enhances intestinal MFG-E8 gene expression and restores enterocyte migration in lipopolysaccharide-induced septic mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Hao, Liangliang; Bu, Heng-Fu; Scott, Alexander W.; Tian, Ke; Liu, Fangyi; De Plaen, Isabelle G.; Liu, Yulan; Mirkin, Chad A.; Tan, Xiao-Di

    2016-01-01

    Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) maintains the intestinal homeostasis by enhancing enterocyte migration and attenuating inflammation. We previously reported that sepsis is associated with down-regulation of intestinal MFG-E8 and impairment of enterocyte migration. Here, we showed that impairment of intestinal epithelial cell migration occurred in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic mice. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells (a murine macrophage-like cell line) with LPS increased expression of miR-99b, a microRNA that is predicted to target mouse MFG-E8 3′UTR. Using a luciferase assay, we showed that miR-99b mimic suppressed the activity of a reporter containing MFG-E8 3′UTR. This suggests the role of miR-99b in inhibition of MFG-E8 gene expression. In addition, we developed an anti-miR99b spherical nucleic acid nanoparticle conjugate (SNA-NCanti-miR99b). Treatment of both naïve and LPS-challenged cells with SNA-NCanti-miR99b enhanced MFG-E8 expression in the cells. Administration of SNA-NCanti-miR99b rescued intestinal MFG-E8 expression in LPS-induced septic mice and attenuated LPS inhibitory effects on intestinal epithelial cell migration along the crypt-villus axis. Collectively, our study suggests that LPS represses MFG-E8 expression and disrupts enterocyte migration via a miR-99b dependent mechanism. Furthermore, this work shows that SNA-NCanti-miR99b is a novel nanoparticle-conjugate capable of rescuing MFG-E8 gene expression and maintaining intestinal epithelial homeostasis in sepsis. PMID:27538453

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in IL-1β transgenic mice subjected to the lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiao; Wang, Haoyue; Zhu, Rongrong; Liu, Qiang; Fei, Jian; Wang, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a significant public healthcare problem, affecting millions of people worldwide each year, killing one in four, and increasing in incidence. Thus, advanced therapeutic strategies are required to treat sepsis patients. Curcumin (Cur) is a promising anti-inflammatory agent for various inflammatory disorders. However, the therapeutic efficacy of Cur is limited due to poor aqueous solubility, rapid degradation, and low bioavailability. The aims of this study were to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Cur-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Cur-SLNs) for sepsis treatment. A firefly luciferase transgenic mouse was used to monitor real time interleukin 1β (IL-1β) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis model to examine the protective effect of Cur-SLNs, and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. Mice (female or male) were intraperitoneally administered with free Cur or Cur-SLNs (30 mg/kg) before the intraperitoneal delivery of LPS (3 mg/kg). Our results indicated that Cur-SLNs can effectively reduced levels of IL-1β expression compared to free Cur, especially at 3 h after LPS injection. Also, Cur-SLNs significantly decreased the expression of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β as compared with free Cur, but augmented anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by ELISA assay. Further, marked alleviation of the sepsis-induced damage to organs, including kidney, liver, and heart was observed with Cur-SLNs treatment as determined by hematoxylin/eosin-staining. Western blot analyses revealed that Cur-SLNs can significantly lower the expression levels of TLR4, TLR2, and TNF-α in lymph node tissues. Meanwhile, it showed suppressions of NF-κB activation and IκBα degradation levels. In conclusion, we suggested that Cur-SLNs may be used as an effective and safe therapeutic agent in treating sepsis in high-risk patient groups.

  16. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by 4-[(2'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate from Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Chang, Leng Chee; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Pezzuto, John M

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarck is commonly consumed for nutritional or medicinal properties. We recently reported the isolation and structure elucidation of novel bioactive phenolic glycosides, including 4-[(2'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate (RBITC), which was found to suppress inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. Inhibitors of proteins such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and iNOS are potential antiinflammatory and cancer chemopreventive agents. The inhibitory activity of RBITC on NO production (IC(50) = 0.96 ± 0.23 μM) was greater than that mediated by other well-known isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (IC(50) = 2.86 ± 0.39 μM) and benzyl isothiocyanate (IC(50) = 2.08 ± 0.28 μM). RBITC inhibited expression of COX-2 and iNOS at both the protein and mRNA levels. Major upstream signaling pathways involved mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). RBITC inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and stress-activated protein kinase, as well as ubiquitin-dependent degradation of inhibitor κBα (IκBα). In accordance with IκBα degradation, nuclear accumulation of NF-κB and subsequent binding to NF-κB cis-acting element was attenuated by treatment with RBITC. These data suggest RBITC should be included in the dietary armamentarium of isothiocyanates potentially capable of mediating antiinflammatory or cancer chemopreventive activity.

  17. S-Propargyl-cysteine (SPRC) attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in H9c2 cells involved in a hydrogen sulfide-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li-Long; Liu, Xin-Hua; Gong, Qi-Hai; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2011-06-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the effects of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC), a sulfur-containing amino acid, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in H9c2 cardiac myocytes. We found that SPRC prevented nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation assessed by NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and IκBα degradation, suppressed LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, incubation of H9c2 cells with SPRC induced phosphorylation of Akt in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, SPRC attenuated LPS-induced mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and mRNA expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The effects of SPRC were abolished by cystathionine γ-lyase [CSE-an enzyme that synthesizes hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S)] inhibitor, DL: -propargylglycine (PAG), SPRC-induced Akt phosphorylation and TNF-α release was also abolished by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. Furthermore, SPRC also increased LPS-induced down-regulation expression of CSE and H(2)S level in H9c2 cells. PAG abolished SPRC-induced up-regulation of H(2)S level. Therefore, we concluded that SPRC produced an anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-stimulated H9c2 cells partly through the CSE/H(2)S pathway by impairing IκBα/NF-κB signaling and by activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  18. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice through ERK-dependent NF-κB Activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui Su; Kang, Purum; Kim, Ka Young; Seol, Geun Hee

    2015-03-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) is used to flavor food, in cosmetics, as an antioxidant, and to treat microbial, diabetic and common inflammation. No study to date, however, has assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of fennel in experimental models of inflammation. The aims of this study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of fennel in model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Mice were randomly assigned to seven groups (n=7~10). In five groups, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1% Tween 80-saline (vehicle), fennel (125, 250, 500µl/kg), or dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), followed 1 h later by intratracheal instillation of LPS (1.5 mg/kg). In two groups, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle or fennel (250µl/kg), followed 1 h later by intratracheal instillation of sterile saline. Mice were sacrificed 4 h later, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were obtained. Fennel significantly and dose-dependently reduced LDH activity and immune cell numbers in LPS treated mice. In addition fennel effectively suppressed the LPS-induced increases in the production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, with 500µl/kg fennel showing maximal reduction. Fennel also significantly and dose-dependently reduced the activity of the proinflammatory mediator matrix metalloproteinase 9 and the immune modulator nitric oxide (NO). Assessments of the involvement of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that fennel significantly decreased the LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK. Fennel effectively blocked the inflammatory processes induced by LPS, by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production, transcription factors, and NO.

  19. Chloroform extract of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by downregulating ERK/NF-κB signaling and cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki-Choon; Hwang, Jung-Min; Bang, Sung-Jun; Kim, Beom-Tae; Kim, Dong-Hern; Chae, Minseon; Lee, Seung-Ah; Choi, Gi Jun; Kim, Da Hye; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2013-05-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is commonly used as a traditional medicine and functional food. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of alfalfa and the mechanisms involved. The chloroform extract of alfalfa aerial parts inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated immune responses more than ether, butanol, or water soluble extracts. Treatment with 1 μg/mL LPS increased nitrite concentrations to 44.3 μM in RAW267.4 macrophages, but it was reduced to 10.6 μM by adding 100 μg/mL chloroform extract. LPS treatment also increased the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β to 41.3, 11.6, and 0.78 ng/mL in culture supernatants of the cells, but these cytokine levels decreased to 12.5, 3.1, and 0.19 ng/mL, respectively, by pretreating with 100 μg/mL of the extract. ICR mice injected with LPS (30 mg/kg body weight) alone showed a 0% survival rate after 48 h of the injection, but 48-h survival of the mice increased to 60% after oral administration of the extract. Subfractions of the chloroform extract markedly suppressed LPS-mediated activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa-B. Cinnamic acid derivatives and fatty acids were found to be active constituents of the extract. This research demonstrated that alfalfa aerial parts exert anti-inflammatory activity and may be useful as a functional food for the prevention of inflammatory disorders.

  20. Picfeltarraenin IA inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production by the nuclear factor-κB pathway in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong; Wang, Qing; Ouyang, Yang; Wang, Qian; Xiong, Xudong

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of picfeltarraenin IA (IA) on respiratory inflammation by analyzing its effect on interleukin (IL)-8 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells in culture was also examined. Human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells and the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line were used in the current study. Cell viability was measured using a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. The production of IL-8 and PGE2 was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of COX2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-p65 was examined using western blot analysis. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg/ml) resulted in the increased production of IL-8 and PGE2, and the increased expression of COX2 in the A549 cells. Furthermore, IA (0.1-10 µmol/l) significantly inhibited PGE2 production and COX2 expression in cells with LPS-induced IL-8, in a concentration-dependent manner. The results suggested that IA downregulates LPS-induced COX2 expression, and inhibits IL-8 and PGE2 production in pulmonary epithelial cells. Additionally, IA was observed to suppress the expression of COX2 in THP-1 cells, and also to regulate the expression of COX2 via the NF-κB pathway in the A549 cells, but not in the THP-1 cells. These results indicate that IA regulates LPS-induced cytokine release in A549 cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  1. Plexin-A1 is required for Toll-like receptor-mediated microglial activation in the development of lipopolysaccharide-induced encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    ITO, TAKUJI; YOSHIDA, KENJI; NEGISHI, TAKAYUKI; MIYAJIMA, MASAYASU; TAKAMATSU, HYOTA; KIKUTANI, HITOSHI; KUMANOGOH, ATSUSHI; YUKAWA, KAZUNORI

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations have suggested that semaphorins, which are known repulsive axon guidance molecules, may play a crucial role in maintaining brain homeostasis by regulating microglial activity. Sema3A, secreted in higher amounts from injured neurons, is considered to suppress excessive inflammatory responses by inducing microglial apoptosis through its binding to Plexin-A1 receptors on activated microglia. To clarify the in vivo role of Plexin-A1-mediated signaling in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injury in mouse brain, we examined the neuroinflammatory changes initiated by LPS administration to the cerebral ventricles of wild-type (WT) and Plexin-A1-deficient (−/−) mice. WT mice administered LPS exhibited a significantly higher expression of COX-2, iNOS, IL-1β and TNF-α in the hippocampus, and a significantly greater ventricular enlargement and intracerebral infiltration of leukocytes, as compared with the saline-treated group. By contrast, Plexin-A1−/− mice administered LPS did not exhibit a significantly increased expression of COX-2, iNOS, IL-1β or TNF-α in the hippocampus as compared with the saline-treated group. Plexin-A1−/− mice administered LPS did not show significant increases in ventricle size or infiltration of leukocytes into the brain, as compared with the saline-treated group. In WT, but not in the Plexin-A1−/− primary microglia treated with LPS, Sema3A induced significantly more nitric oxide production than in the immunoglobulin G control. These results revealed the crucial role of the Sema3A-Plexin-A1 interaction in the Toll-like receptor 4-mediated signaling of the LPS-induced activation of microglia. Thus, results of the present study revealed the essential role of Plexin-A1 in the development of LPS-induced neuroinflammation in mice, suggesting the possible application of microglial control of the semaphorin-plexin signaling system to the treatment of LPS-induced encephalopathy and other psychiatric diseases

  2. Neuroprotection by Imipramine against lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in hippocampus-derived neural stem cells mediated by activation of BDNF and the MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chi-Hsien; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Chen, Shih-Jen; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Ku, Hung-Hai; Cheng, Cheng-Kuo; Yen, Chih-Ju; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Kao, Chun-Lan

    2008-02-01

    Depression is accompanied by the activation of the inflammatory-response system, and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines may play a role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. Imipramine (IM), a tricyclic antidepressant drug, has recently been shown to promote neurogenesis and improve the survival rate of neurons in the hippocampus. However, whether IM elicits a neuroprotective or anti-inflammatory effect, or promotes the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) remains to be elucidated. In this study, we cultured NSCs derived from the hippocampal tissues of adult rats as an in vitro model to evaluate the NSCs drug-modulation effects of IM. Our results showed that 3 microM IM treatment significantly increased the survival rate of NSCs, and up-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Bcl-2 in Day-7 IM-treated NSCs. Similar to BDNF-treated effect, incubation of NSCs with 3 microM IM increased Bcl-2 protein levels and further prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced apoptosis through the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Inhibition of BDNF expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA), or blocking the MAPK pathway with U0126 further significantly decreased Bcl-2 protein levels and abrogated the neuroprotective effects of IM against LPS-induced apoptosis in NSCs. In addition, the percentages of serotonin and MAP-2-positive neuronal cells in the Day 7 culture of IM-treated NSCs were significantly increased. By using microdialysis with high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, the functional release of serotonin in the process of serotoninergic differentiation of IM-treated NSCs was concomitantly increasing and mediated by the activation of the BDNF/MAPK/ERK pathway/Bcl-2 cascades. In sum, the study results indicate that IM can increase the neuroprotective effects, suppress the LPS-induced inflammatory

  3. Effect of Synthetic Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening in Rodents: Differences in Response Based on Strains and Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Gary A.; Estrada, Eduardo Y.; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs) reduce blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and prevent cell death. Animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia and hemorrhage, and bacterial meningitis respond to treatment with MMPIs. We have used the intracerebral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rat, which induces MMP production and results in a delayed opening of the BBB, to screen MMPIs to identify therapeutic agents. We hypothesized that the mouse would respond similarly to LPS and that the mouse/LPS model of BBB damage would be more useful for screening of MMPIs. Therefore, we adapted the rat LPS model to the mouse and compared the response to LPS and treatment with MMPIs. Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and three strains of mice had stereotactic injections of LPS into the caudate. 14C-sucrose was used to measure permeability of the BBB 24 hours after injection. Initially, we tested three broad-spectrum MMPIs in the rat, BB-1101, BB-94, and BB-2293, and a MMP-2 selective inhibitor, IW449; both BB-1101 and BB-94 significantly suppressed LPS-induced BBB damage (p<0.05). In the 3 mouse strains, C57/BL6, C57/BL10, and C57/BL10HIIIR2, LPS significantly opened the BBB in C57/BL6, and it was the only strain that showed a reduction in BBB permeability with BB-94. Treatment with methylprednisolone and several broad spectrum MMPIs, including BB-1101, were ineffective in the C57/BL6. There was a significant reduction in BBB permeability seen with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) alone, which was used to dissolve the selective MMP-2 and -9 inhibitor, SB-3CT. The tetracycline derivative, minocycline, reduced the BBB injury in mouse by blocking the production of MMP-9. Our results show variability in rats and mice to LPS and MMPIs, which most likely is based on genetic make-up. Understanding these differences may provide important clues that could guide selection of MMPIs in treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:17184743

  4. Anti-inflammatory properties of tianeptine on lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in microglial cells involve toll-like receptor-related pathways.

    PubMed

    Slusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Glombik, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Anna; Budziszewska, Boguslawa; Kubera, Marta; Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Lason, Wladyslaw; Mika, Joanna; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that activation of microglia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of depression. Activated microglia produce a wide range of factors whose prolonged or excessive release may lead to brain disorders. Thus, the inhibition of microglial cells may be beneficial in the treatment of depressive diseases. Tianeptine is an atypical antidepressant drug with proven clinical efficacy, but its mechanism of action remains still not fully understood. In the present study, using microglial cultures we investigated whether tianeptine modifies microglial activation after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and which intracellular pathways are involved in the activity of this antidepressant. Our study shows that tianeptine attenuated the LPS-evoked inflammatory activation of microglia by decreasing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), the release of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Analyses of signaling pathways demonstrate that tianeptine led to the suppression of LPS-induced TLR4 expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, our study reveals the inhibitory impact of tianeptine on caspase-3-induced PKCδ degradation and consequently on the activation of NF-κB factor in microglial cells. Taken together, present results show anti-inflammatory properties of tianeptine in microglial cultures stimulated by LPS. This study provides evidence that the inhibition of microglial activation may underlie the therapeutic activity of tianeptine. Our findings show the anti-inflammatory effect of tianeptine (TIA) in lipopolisaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial cells. The beneficial tianeptine action is mediated through the inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression as well as the TLR4-related pathways: extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), caspase-3-dependent protein kinase δ (PKC

  5. DXXK exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB/COX-2 signalling pathway and the expression of inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ya; Li, Xiang; Qu, Liping; Chen, Yang; Dai, Yanping; Wang, Mei; Zou, Wenjun

    2016-02-03

    -inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, at both the gene and protein levels. Furthermore, DXXK inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation and nuclear translocation by suppressing the phosphorylation of IκB. Consistent with the in vitro results, the in vivo studies demonstrated that DXXK reduced leucocyte counts as well as total protein, NO, PGE2 and TNF-α levels in the exudates of mice with carrageenan-air pouch inflammation. The current study revealed that DXXK has a significant anti-inflammatory effect that may be attributed to its inhibitory effect on the NF-κB/COX-2 pathway and associated inflammatory mediators, including PGE2, NO, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. The current study provides additional evidence of the effects of DXXK in inflammation. Based on the combination of our results and previously reported data, we propose that DXXK has multiple pharmacological effects that could be harnessed to treat systemic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. κ-Carrageenan Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin-8 Secretion by Stimulating the Bcl10-NF-κB Pathway in HT-29 Cells and Aggravates C. freundii-Induced Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Zhanghe; Niu, Tingting; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Gao, Yuli; Yan, Jiangyan; Chen, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Background. The dietary usage of carrageenan as common food additive has increased observably over the last 50 years. But there is substantial controversy about its safety. Methods. We investigated whether the κ-carrageenan could enhance lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-8 expression by studying its actions on the TLR4-NF-κB pathway. The aggravating effect of κ-carrageenan on Citrobacter freundii DBS100-induced intestinal inflammation was also investigated in a mouse model. Results. Our data show that κ-carrageenan pretreatment promoted LPS-induced IL-8 expression in HT-29 cells. Although CD14, MD-2, and TLR4 were upregulated, the binding of LPS was not enhanced. However, the pathway of Bcl10-NF-κB was triggered. Interestingly, κ-carrageenan competitively blocked the binding of FITC-LPS. Furthermore, pretreatment with κ-carrageenan for one week previous to gavage with C. freundii DBS100 markedly aggravated weight loss, mortality, and colonic damage. The secretion of cytokines was unbalanced and the ratio of Tregs was decreased significantly. In addition, κ-carrageenan, together with C. freundii DBS100, enhanced the transcription and secretion of TLR4 and NF-κB. Conclusions. κ-Carrageenan can synergistically activate LPS-induced inflammatory through the Bcl10-NF-κB pathway, as indicated by its aggravation of C. freundii DBS100-induced colitis in mice. General Significance. Our results suggest that κ-carrageenan serves as a potential inflammatory agent that magnifies existing intestinal inflammation. PMID:28163398

  7. Quercetin but not luteolin suppresses the induction of lethal shock upon infection of mice with Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Tsuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Kiichiro; Dobashi, Hideki; Miyake, Ryo; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kumazawa, Yoshio

    2008-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is important for the induction of systemic inflammatory responses that lead to lethal shock. Quercetin and luteolin, which differ by one hydroxyl group, are known to suppress the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of TNF-alpha in vitro. We show differing inhibitory effects of quercetin and luteolin on the induction of lethal shock in Salmonella typhimurium aroA-infected mice. In a time- and dose-dependent manner, quercetin reduced the plasma levels of TNF-alpha, lowered bacterial titers in livers, prevented liver damage and prolonged survival, while luteolin had little or no effect. Compared with luteolin, quercetin increased the infiltration of Gr-1(+)CD69(+) neutrophils into the peritoneal cavity and lowered heat shock protein 70 expression. Obviously, the additional hydroxyl group in quercetin is important for suppressing infection-induced lethal shock in mice.

  8. Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Renu; Gupta, S K; Agarwal, Puneet; Srivastava, Sushma

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous extract of C. longa when administered 4 h after induction of E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats showed significantly suppressed inflammation with a significantly lower mean clinical grade, histopathological grade and aqueous humor (AH) protein level compared to vehicle treated group. Although, prednisolone group showed significantly lower clinical grade, histopathological grades and AH protein levels compared to C. longa group, TNF-alpha levels did not differ significantly. Moreover, when the aqueous extract was administered starting from 3 days before induction of uveitis, the mean clinical and histopathological grade as well as AH protein and TNF-alpha levels were comparable to C. longa group when treatment was administered 4 h after induction of uveitis. It is concluded that topically applied standardized aqueous extract of C. longa suppresses endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by reducing TNF-alpha activity.

  9. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Reisenauer, Chris J; Bhatt, Dhaval P; Mitteness, Dane J; Slanczka, Evan R; Gienger, Heidi M; Watt, John A; Rosenberger, Thad A

    2011-04-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6 g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments, free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 h. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 h. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40-50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model.

  10. Lipopolysaccharide induced conversion of recombinant prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Fozia; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Ladner, Carol L; Perez-Pineiro, Rolando; Ametaj, Burim N; Wishart, David S

    2014-01-01

    The conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) to the β-rich infectious isoform PrPSc is considered a critical and central feature in prion pathology. Although PrPSc is the critical component of the infectious agent, as proposed in the “protein-only” prion hypothesis, cellular components have been identified as important cofactors in triggering and enhancing the conversion of PrPC to proteinase K resistant PrPSc. A number of in vitro systems using various chemical and/or physical agents such as guanidine hydrochloride, urea, SDS, high temperature, and low pH, have been developed that cause PrPC conversion, their amplification, and amyloid fibril formation often under non-physiological conditions. In our ongoing efforts to look for endogenous and exogenous chemical mediators that might initiate, influence, or result in the natural conversion of PrPC to PrPSc, we discovered that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of gram-negative bacterial membranes interacts with recombinant prion proteins and induces conversion to an isoform richer in β sheet at near physiological conditions as long as the LPS concentration remains above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). More significant was the LPS mediated conversion that was observed even at sub-molar ratios of LPS to recombinant ShPrP (90–232). PMID:24819168

  11. Suppression of human monocyte tumour necrosis factor-α release by glucocorticoid therapy: relationship to systemic monocytopaenia and cortisol suppression

    PubMed Central

    Steer, James H; Vuong, Quylinh; Joyce, David A

    1997-01-01

    Aims Glucocorticoids suppress the release of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by macrophages in vitro and cause monocytopaenia in vivo. These actions may contribute to anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects. We therefore examined relationships between prednisolone concentration, suppression of monocyte TNF-α release, monocytopaenia and suppression of total cortisol concentration in healthy volunteers treated with a single dose (1.5 mg kg−1 ) of the glucocorticoid, prednisolone. Methods Monocyte numbers, total cortisol concentration and prednisolone concentration were measured in blood samples collected over 48 h after the dose. Plasma from these samples was also tested for its capacity to suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α release from monocytes in autologous whole blood cultures. Results At 4 h after the dose, monocyte numbers in peripheral blood had fallen to a mean of 18% of the pre-dose level whilst plasma total cortisol had fallen to 9% of the pre-dose concentration. Monocyte numbers recovered in concordance with elimination of prednisolone and there was a significant relative monocytosis at 24 h. The recovery of plasma cortisol was delayed in comparison, with cortisol remaining significantly suppressed at 24 h. Plasma samples taken at 2 h after the dose (corresponding to peak plasma prednisolone concentration) suppressed the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of TNF-α by autologous blood monocytes to 27% of pre-dose control. Plasma collected at intervals over the 48 h from dosing also suppressed monocyte TNF-α release in relation to the prednisolone concentration therein. Suppression was largely reversed by the glucocorticoid antagonist, mifepristone. A similar relationship between prednisolone concentration and TNF-α suppression was observed when prednisolone was added to blood samples collected from the volunteers when they were drug-free. Conclusions Blood concentrations of prednisolone achieved after a dose of 1.5 mg kg

  12. The Attenuation of Scutellariae radix Extract on Oxidative Stress for Colon Injury in Lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 Cell and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid-induced Ulcerative Colitis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yu; Yang, Jun; Lin, Lianjie; Lin, Yan; Zheng, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    ) could significantly increase the activity of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase associated with OS in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cell damage and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced ulcerative colitis ratsThe level of malondialdehyde was markedly reduced by SR both in vitro and in vivo SR could decrease the severity of acute TNBS-induced colitis in ratsSR could significantly downregulate the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 protein in colon tissue. Abbreviations used: OS: Oxidative stress, UC: Ulcerative colitis, SR: Scutellariae radix, TNBS: 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid, DAI: Disease activity index, MPO: Myeloperoxidase, GSH-PX: Glutathione peroxidase, CAT: Catalase, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, MDA: Malondialdehyde, TGF-β1: Transforming growth factor beta 1, OD: Optical density, ROS: Reactive oxygen species. PMID:27076753

  13. Suppression of human monocyte tissue factor induction by red wine phenolics and synthetic derivatives of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurjeet; Roberti, Marinella; Raul, Francis; Pendurthi, Usha R

    2007-01-01

    Prevention of cardiovascular disease through nutritional supplements is growing in popularity throughout the world. Multiple epidemiologic studies found that moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly red wine, lowers mortality rates from coronary heart diseases (CHD). Chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis associated with CHD culminate in aberrant intravascular expression of tissue factor (TF), which triggers blood coagulation leading to thrombosis, a major cause for heart attack. We showed earlier that two red wine phenolics, resveratrol and quercetin, suppressed TF induction in endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated efficacy of seven resveratrol derivatives, which were shown to be effective in regulating cancer cell growth in vitro at much lower concentrations than the parent compound resveratrol, in inhibiting TF induction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also tested possible synergistic effects of resveratrol and quercetin with the other major red wine phenolics in suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TF expression in human PBMCs. We found that several resveratrol derivatives were 2- to 10-fold more efficient than resveratrol in inhibiting TF induction. Our study found no evidence for synergism among red wine polyphenolics. These data suggest that structural alterations of resveratrol can be effective in producing potent antithrombotic agents that will have therapeutic potential in the improvement of cardiovascular health and prevention of CHD. Among major red wine phenolics, quercetin appears to be the predominant suppressor of TF induction.

  14. Suppression of human monocyte tissue factor induction by red wine phenolics and synthetic derivatives of resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurjeet; Roberti, Marinella; Raul, Francis; Pendurthi, Usha R.

    2010-01-01

    Prevention of cardiovascular disease through nutritional supplements is growing in popularity throughout the world. Multiple epidemiologic studies found that moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly red wine, lowers mortality rates from coronary heart diseases (CHD). Chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis associated with CHD culminate in aberrant intravascular expression of tissue factor (TF), which triggers blood coagulation leading to thrombosis, a major cause for heart attack. We showed earlier that two red wine phenolics, resveratrol and quercetin, suppressed TF induction in endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated efficacy of seven resveratrol derivatives, which were shown to be effective in regulating cancer cell growth in vitro at much lower concentrations than the parent compound resveratrol, in inhibiting TF induction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also tested possible synergistic effects of resveratrol and quercetin with the other major red wine phenolics in suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TF expression in human PBMCs. We found that several resveratrol derivatives were 2- to 10-fold more efficient than resveratrol in inhibiting TF induction. Our study found no evidence for synergism among red wine polyphenolics. These data suggest that structural alterations of resveratrol can be effective in producing potent antithrombotic agents that will have therapeutic potential in the improvement of cardiovascular health and prevention of CHD. Among major red wine phenolics, quercetin appears to be the predominant suppressor of TF induction. PMID:16507316

  15. Carvacrol, a component of thyme oil, activates PPARα and γ and suppresses COX-2 expression[S

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, Mariko; Nakata, Rieko; Katsukawa, Michiko; Hori, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Saori; Inoue, Hiroyasu

    2010-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, plays a key role in inflammation and circulatory homeostasis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily and are involved in the control of COX-2 expression, and vice versa. Here, we show that COX-2 promoter activity was suppressed by essential oils derived from thyme, clove, rose, eucalyptus, fennel, and bergamot in cell-based transfection assays using bovine arterial endothelial cells. Moreover, from thyme oil, we identified carvacrol as a major component of the suppressor of COX-2 expression and an activator of PPARα and γ. PPARγ-dependent suppression of COX-2 promoter activity was observed in response to carvacrol treatment. In human macrophage-like U937 cells, carvacrol suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced COX-2 mRNA and protein expression, suggesting that carvacrol regulates COX-2 expression through its agonistic effect on PPARγ. These results may be important in understanding the antiinflammatory and antilifestyle-related disease properties of carvacrol. PMID:19578162

  16. The Protective Effects of the Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract of Chrysanthemum indicum against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Modulating Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chu-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Sai-Xia

    2014-01-01

    The supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné. (CFE) has been demonstrated to be effective in suppressing inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the preventive action and underlying mechanisms of CFE on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS into lung, and dexamethasone was used as a positive control. Results revealed that pretreatment with CFE abated LPS-induced lung histopathologic changes, reduced the wet/dry ratio and proinflammatory cytokines productions (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), inhibited inflammatory cells migrations and protein leakages, suppressed the levels of MPO and MDA, and upregulated the abilities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx). Furthermore, the pretreatment with CFE downregulated the activations of NF-κB and the expressions of TLR4/MyD88. These results suggested that CFE exerted potential protective effects against LPS-induced ALI in mice and was a potential therapeutic drug for ALI. Its mechanisms were at least partially associated with the modulations of TLR4 signaling pathways. PMID:25214712

  17. The protective effects of the supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract of Chrysanthemum indicum against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice via modulating Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Li; Feng, Xue-Xuan; Li, Chu-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Jian-Nan; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Sai-Xia; Li, Yu-Cui; Su, Zi-Ren

    2014-01-01

    The supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné. (CFE) has been demonstrated to be effective in suppressing inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the preventive action and underlying mechanisms of CFE on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS into lung, and dexamethasone was used as a positive control. Results revealed that pretreatment with CFE abated LPS-induced lung histopathologic changes, reduced the wet/dry ratio and proinflammatory cytokines productions (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), inhibited inflammatory cells migrations and protein leakages, suppressed the levels of MPO and MDA, and upregulated the abilities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx). Furthermore, the pretreatment with CFE downregulated the activations of NF-κB and the expressions of TLR4/MyD88. These results suggested that CFE exerted potential protective effects against LPS-induced ALI in mice and was a potential therapeutic drug for ALI. Its mechanisms were at least partially associated with the modulations of TLR4 signaling pathways.

  18. A leaf methanolic extract of Wercklea insignis attenuates the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response by blocking the NF-κB signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Won; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Jang, Ha-young; Jeong, Hyeok; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Han, Sang-Bae; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2012-02-01

    The biological activity of Wercklea insignis (WI) in inflammation and the underlying mechanisms of action of extracts of this plant are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a WI methanolic extract on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammation in the mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. A WI methanolic extract significantly inhibited NO, PGE(2), IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Expression of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α were suppressed by the extract at both the mRNA and protein levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. Additionally, the attenuation of inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 cells by the WI extract was closely associated with suppression of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) molecules, including ERK, JNK1/2, and p38 MAPK and translocation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 subunit into the nucleus. The effect of WI extract was investigated against carrageenan-induced paw edema in female (20-25 g). Our results collectively indicate that the WI extract inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses by blocking the NF-κB signaling pathway in macrophages, supporting use of the extract as a therapeutic anti-inflammatory treatment.

  19. Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide Induced Inflammation in Part via Downregulated NF-κB and p38/JNK Activation in Microglial and Attenuates Microglia Activation in Lipopolysaccharide Treatment Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rui; Zhang, Juliang; Zhu, Qingsheng; Zhu, Jinyu; Hao, Dingjun

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies designed to inhibit the activation of microglia may lead to significant advancement in the treatment of most neurodegenerative diseases. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a naturally occurring redox cofactor that acts as an essential nutrient, antioxidant, and has been reported to exert potent immunosuppressive effects. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of PQQ was investigated in LPS treated primary microglia cells. Our observations showed that pretreatment with PQQ significantly inhibited the production of NO and PGE2 and suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-a, IL-1b, IL-6, MCP-1 and MIP-1a in LPS treated primary microglia cells. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB and the phosphorylation level of p65, p38 and JNK MAP kinase pathways were also inhibited by PQQ in LPS stimulated primary microglia cells. Further a systemic LPS treatment acute inflammation murine brain model was used to study the suppressive effects of PQQ against neuroinflammation in vivo. Mice treated with PQQ demonstrated marked attenuation of neuroinflammation based on Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis of Iba1-against antibody in the brain tissue. Indicated that PQQ protected primary cortical neurons against microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. These results collectively suggested that PQQ might be a promising therapeutic agent for alleviating the progress of neurodegenerative diseases associated with microglia activation. PMID:25314304

  20. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) inhibits lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation in part via downregulated NF-κB and p38/JNK activation in microglial and attenuates microglia activation in lipopolysaccharide treatment mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chongfei; Yu, Lifeng; Kong, Lingbo; Ma, Rui; Zhang, Juliang; Zhu, Qingsheng; Zhu, Jinyu; Hao, Dingjun

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies designed to inhibit the activation of microglia may lead to significant advancement in the treatment of most neurodegenerative diseases. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a naturally occurring redox cofactor that acts as an essential nutrient, antioxidant, and has been reported to exert potent immunosuppressive effects. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of PQQ was investigated in LPS treated primary microglia cells. Our observations showed that pretreatment with PQQ significantly inhibited the production of NO and PGE2 and suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-a, IL-1b, IL-6, MCP-1 and MIP-1a in LPS treated primary microglia cells. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB and the phosphorylation level of p65, p38 and JNK MAP kinase pathways were also inhibited by PQQ in LPS stimulated primary microglia cells. Further a systemic LPS treatment acute inflammation murine brain model was used to study the suppressive effects of PQQ against neuroinflammation in vivo. Mice treated with PQQ demonstrated marked attenuation of neuroinflammation based on Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis of Iba1-against antibody in the brain tissue. Indicated that PQQ protected primary cortical neurons against microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. These results collectively suggested that PQQ might be a promising therapeutic agent for alleviating the progress of neurodegenerative diseases associated with microglia activation.

  1. Ascofuranone inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response via NF-kappaB and AP-1, p-ERK, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Young; Chung, Tae-Wook; Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Kwak, Choong-Hwan; Ha, Sun-Hyung; Kwon, Kyung-Min; Abekura, Fukushi; Cho, Seung-Hak; Lee, Young-Choon; Ha, Ki-Tae; Magae, Junji; Chang, Young-Chae; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The natural fungal compound ascofuranone (5-chloro-3-[(2E,6E)-7-[(2S)-5,5-dimethyl-4-oxo-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]-3-methyl-octa-2,6-dienyl]-2,4-dihydroxy-6-methyl-benzaldehyde, MW 420.93) (AF) isolated from Ascochyta viciae has been known to promote cell cycle arrest and inhibit invasion of tumor cells. We have previously studied a structurally similar compound ascochlorin (ASC; MW 404.93) with regard to its anti-inflammatory activity in LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In order to examine the relationship between the anti-inflammatory activities and the molecular differences between AF and ASC, the activity of AF is herein studied, because ASC has a unique trimethyl oxocyclohexyl structure, while AF has a unique dimethyl-oxo-tetrahydrofuran structure. AF dose-dependently inhibited the production of NO and iNOS and the COX-2 mRNA and protein levels in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, AF suppressed mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, as assessed by RT-PCR. AF (30-50 μg/ml) treatment clearly inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, AP-1 (p-c-Jun) from the cytosolic space. Phosphorylation of IκB, which functions to maintain the activity of NF-κB, was decreased by AF treatment. Moreover, AF suppressed the binding of NF-κB (p65). Inhibition of IkBa phosphorylation and degradation inhibits nuclear translocation of p65. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy analysis also revealed that translocation of NF-κB and AP-1 (p-c-Jun) was decreased upon AF treatment. AF specifically decreased the expression level of p-ERK, but not the expression level of p-p38 or p-JNK. Given these results, we suggest that AF suppresses the inflammatory response by targeting p-ERK. This indicates that AF is a negative regulator of LPS-stimulated nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1 (p-c-Jun) in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and specifically it targets p-ERK. Therefore, AF and ASC exert their effects in different ways, most probably because

  2. Delphinidin, a specific inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase, suppresses inflammatory signaling via prevention of NF-{kappa}B acetylation in fibroblast-like synoviocyte MH7A cells

    SciTech Connect

    Seong, Ah-Reum; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, KyungChul; Lee, Mee-Hee; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmin; Jun, Woojin; Kim, Sunoh; Yoon, Ho-Geun

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Delphinidin is a novel inhibitor of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase. {yields} Delphinidin prevents the hyperacetylation of p65 by inhibiting the HAT activity of p300/CBP. {yields} Delphinidin efficiently suppresses the expression of inflammatory cytokines in MH7A cells via hypoacetylation of NF-{kappa}B. {yields} Delphinidin inhibits cytokine release in the Jurkat T lymphocyte cell line. -- Abstract: Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors (HATi) isolated from dietary compounds have been shown to suppress inflammatory signaling, which contributes to rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we identified a novel HATi in Punica granatum L. known as delphinidin (DP). DP did not affect the activity of other epigenetic enzymes (histone deacetylase, histone methyltransferase, or sirtuin1). DP specifically inhibited the HAT activities of p300/CBP. It also inhibited p65 acetylation in MH7A cells, a human rheumatoid arthritis synovial cell line. DP-induced hypoacetylation was accompanied by cytosolic accumulation of p65 and nuclear localization of IKB{alpha}. Accordingly, DP treatment inhibited TNF{alpha}-stimulated increases in NF-{kappa}B function and expression of NF-{kappa}B target genes in these cells. Importantly, DP suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in Jurkat T lymphocytes, demonstrating that HATi efficiently suppresses cytokine-mediated immune responses. Together, these results show that the HATi activity of DP counters anti-inflammatory signaling by blocking p65 acetylation and that this compound may be useful in preventing inflammatory arthritis.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of methanol extract of Canarium lyi C.D. Dai & Yakovlev in RAW 264.7 macrophages and a murine model of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ju-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Shin, In-Sik; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Shin, Na-Rae; Lee, Joongku; Park, Sang-Hong; Bach, Tran The; Hai, Do Van; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Han, Sang-Bae; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2015-05-01

    Canarium lyi C.D. Dai & Yakovlev (CL) is a member of the Anacardiaceae family. To the best of our knowledge, no studies on its anti-inflammatory effects have yet been reported. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of CL on inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mice. CL attenuated the production of LPS-stimulated inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, CL suppressed phosphorylation of the inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α), p38, c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), as well as the translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 subunit into the nucleus. For the in vivo efficacy, the effect of CL on a mouse model of LPS-induced acute lung injury was assessed. CL treatment of the mice significantly inhibited the inflammatory cell recruitment and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). CL-treated mice also showed a marked inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and phosphorylation of IκB and p65. In addition, CL attenuated lung histopathological changes in LPS-induced ALI mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that CL is a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including pneumonia.

  4. 2,8-Decadiene-1,10-Diol Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses Through Inactivation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Sun; Ahn, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Seong Su; Oh, Joa Sub

    2016-04-01

    Amomum tsao-ko (A. tsao-ko) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious and digestive disorders. In the present study, we report the anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanism of 2,8-decadiene-1,10-diol (DDO) isolated from the extract of A. tsao-ko in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. DDO treatment inhibited the production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 by downregulating inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression, respectively. Moreover, DDO suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. These inhibitory effects of DDO on the expression of inflammatory proteins were found to be mediated through the inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and p38(MAPK), and inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways including degradation of inhibitor of κB-α and nuclear localization of NF-κB. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the pharmacological roles and molecular mechanisms of DDO in regulating inflammatory responses, and suggest further evaluation and development of DDO as a potent therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory disorders.

  5. Inhibitory Effects of Chemical Compounds Isolated from the Rhizome of Smilax glabra on Nitric Oxide and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Cell

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chuan-li; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Dong-mei; Chen, Wen-long; Hu, Meng-mei; Wang, Min; Xu, Xiao-jie

    2015-01-01

    The rhizome of Smilax glabra has been used for a long time as both food and folk medicine in many countries. The present study focused on the active constituents from the rhizome of S. glabra, which possess potential anti-inflammatory activities. As a result, nine known compounds were isolated from the rhizome of S. glabra with the bioassay-guiding, and were identified as syringaresinol (1), lasiodiplodin (2), de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (3), syringic acid (4), 1,4-bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,3-bis(hydroxymethyl)-1,4-butanediol (5), lyoniresinol (6), trans-resveratrol (7), trans-caffeic acid methyl ester (8), and dihydrokaempferol (9). Among these compounds, 2 and 3 were isolated for the first time from S. glabra. In addition, the potential anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW264.7 cells. Results indicated that 4 and 7 showed significant inhibitory effects on NO production of RAW264.7 cells, and 1, 2, 3, and 5 showed moderate suppression effects on induced NO production. 1, 7, and 5 exhibited high inhibitory effects on TNF-α production, with the IC50 values less than 2.3, 4.4, and 16.6 μM, respectively. These findings strongly suggest that compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 were the potential anti-inflammatory active compositions of S. glabra. PMID:25821492

  6. Optimization of astilbin extraction from the rhizome of Smilax glabra, and evaluation of its anti-inflammatory effect and probable underlying mechanism in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chuan-Li; Zhu, Yan-Fang; Hu, Meng-Mei; Wang, Dong-Mei; Xu, Xiao-Jie; Lu, Chuan-Jian; Zhu, Wei

    2015-01-06

    Astilbin, a dihydroflavonol derivative found in many food and medicine plants, exhibited multiple pharmacological functions. In the present study, the ethanol extraction of astilbin from the rhizome of smilax glabra Roxb was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using Box-Behnken design. Results indicated that the obtained experimental data was well fitted to a second-order polynomial equation by using multiple regression analysis, and the optimal extraction conditions were identified as an extraction time of 40 min, ethanol concentration of 60%, temperature of 73.63 °C, and liquid-solid ratio of 29.89 mL/g for the highest predicted yield of astilbin (15.05 mg/g), which was confirmed through validation experiments. In addition, the anti-inflammatory efficiency of astilbin was evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results showed that astilbin, at non-cytotoxicity concentrations, significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-α in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, but did not affect interleukin-6 (IL-6) release or its mRNA expression. These effects may be related to its up-regulation of the phosphorylation of p65, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK).

  7. Identification and characterization of Kava-derived compounds mediating TNF-α suppression

    PubMed Central

    Pollastri, Michael P.; Whitty, Adrian; Merrill, Jamie Cassidy; Ashton, Trent D.; Amar, Salomon

    2009-01-01

    There is a substantial unmet need for new classes of drugs that block TNF-α-mediated inflammation, and particularly for small molecule agents that can be taken orally. We have screened a library of natural products against an assay measuring TNF-α secretion in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 cells, seeking compounds capable of interfering with the TNF-α inducing transcription factor Lipopolysaccharide Induced TNF Alpha Factor (LITAF). Among the active compounds were several produced by the kava plant (Piper mysticum), extracts of which have previously been linked to a range of therapeutic effects. When tested in vivo, a representative of these compounds, kavain, was found to render mice immune to lethal doses of LPS. Kavain displays promising pharmaceutical properties, including good solubility and high cell permeability, but pharmacokinetic experiments in mice showed relatively rapid clearance. A small set of kavain analogs was synthesized, resulting in compounds of similar or greater potency in vitro compared to kavain. Interestingly, a ring-opened analog of kavain inhibited TNF-α secretion in the cell based assay and suppressed LITAF expression in the same cells, whereas the other compounds inhibited TNF-α secretion without affecting LITAF levels, indicating a potential divergence in mechanism of action. PMID:19538508

  8. HE3286, an oral synthetic steroid, treats lung inflammation in mice without immune suppression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background 17α-Ethynyl-5-androsten-3β, 7β, 17β-triol (HE3286) is a synthetic derivative of an endogenous steroid androstenetriol (β-AET), a metabolite of the abundant adrenal steroid deyhdroepiandrosterone (DHEA), with broad anti-inflammatory activities. We tested the ability of this novel synthetic steroid with improved pharmacological properties to limit non-productive lung inflammation in rodents and attempted to gauge its immunological impact. Methods and Results In mice, oral treatment with HE3286 (40 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased neutrophil counts and exudate volumes (~50%) in carrageenan-induced pleurisy, and myeloperoxidase in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. HE3286 (40 mg/kg) was not found to be profoundly immune suppressive in any of the classical animal models of immune function, including those used to evaluate antigen specific immune responses in vivo (ovalbumin immunization). When mice treated for two weeks with HE3286 were challenged with K. pneumoniae, nearly identical survival kinetics were observed in vehicle-treated, HE3286-treated and untreated groups. Conclusions HE3286 represents a novel, first-in-class anti-inflammatory agent that may translate certain benefits of β-AET observed in rodents into treatments for chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease. PMID:21034489

  9. Wogonin prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury and inflammation in mice via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-mediated attenuation of the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jing; Pan, Di; Zhao, Yue; Zhao, Li; Sun, Jie; Wang, Yu; You, Qi-Dong; Xi, Tao; Guo, Qing-Long; Lu, Na

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) from a variety of clinical disorders, characterized by diffuse inflammation, is a cause of acute respiratory failure that develops in patients of all ages. Previous studies reported that wogonin, a flavonoid-like chemical compound which was found in Scutellaria baicalensis, has anti-inflammatory effects in several inflammation models, but not in ALI. Here, the in vivo protective effect of wogonin in the amelioration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced lung injury and inflammation was assessed. In addition, the in vitro effects and mechanisms of wogonin were studied in the mouse macrophage cell lines Ana-1 and RAW264.7. In vivo results indicated that wogonin attenuated LPS-induced histological alterations. Peripheral blood leucocytes decreased in the LPS-induced group, which was ameliorated by wogonin. In addition, wogonin inhibited the production of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissues after LPS challenge, while the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) inhibitor GW9662 reversed these effects. In vitro results indicated that wogonin significantly decreased the secretion of IL-6, IL-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α in Ana-1 and RAW264.7 cells, which was suppressed by transfection of PPARγ small interfering RNA and GW9662 treatment. Moreover, wogonin activated PPARγ, induced PPARγ-mediated attenuation of the nuclear translocation and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, all of these results showed that wogonin may serve as a promising agent for the attenuation of ALI-associated inflammation and pathology by regulating the PPARγ-involved nuclear factor-κB pathway. PMID:24766487

  10. Potential use of fucose-appended dendrimer/α-cyclodextrin conjugates as NF-κB decoy carriers for the treatment of lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Akao, Chiho; Tanaka, Takahiro; Onodera, Risako; Ohyama, Ayumu; Sato, Nana; Motoyama, Keiichi; Higashi, Taishi; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2014-11-10

    The purpose of the present study is to treat lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatitis by NF-κB decoy complex with fucose-appended dendrimer (generation 2; G2) conjugate with α-cyclodextrin (Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2)). Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, average degree of substitution of fucose (DSF2))/NF-κB decoy complex significantly suppressed nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production from LPS-stimulated NR8383 cells, a rat alveolar macrophage cell line, by adequate physicochemical properties and fucose receptor-mediated cellular uptake. Intravenous injection of Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-κB decoy complex extended the survival of LPS-induced fulminant hepatitis model mice. In addition, Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-κB decoy complex administered intravenously highly accumulated in the liver, compared to naked NF-κB decoy alone. Furthermore, the liver accumulation of Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-κB decoy complex was inhibited by the pretreatment with GdCl3, a specific inhibitor of Kupffer cell uptake. Also, the serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and TNF-α levels in LPS-induced fulminant hepatitis model mice were significantly attenuated by the treatment with Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-κB decoy complex, compared with naked NF-κB decoy alone. Taken together, these results suggest that Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2) has the potential for a novel Kupffer cell-selective NF-κB decoy carrier for the treatment of LPS-induced fulminant hepatitis in mice.

  11. Cynandione A attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced production of inflammatory mediators via MAPK inhibition and NF-κB inactivation in RAW264.7 macrophages and protects mice against endotoxin shock

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Ji Hae; Park, Keun Hyung; Jung, Mira; Jung, Hana; Mohamed, Mohamed Antar Aziz; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, In Sik

    2014-01-01

    Cynanchum wilfordii has been traditionally used in eastern Asia for the treatment of various diseases such as gastrointestinal diseases and arteriosclerosis. Cynandione A (CA), an acetophenone, is one of major constituents from roots of C. wilfordii. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory activities of CA were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 macrophages and LPS-administered C57BL/6 N mice. CA significantly decreased LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in a dose-dependent manner, while CA up to 200 μM did not exhibit cytotoxic activity. Our data also showed that CA significantly attenuated expression of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-stimulated macrophages. CA inhibited phosphorylation of IκB-α and MAP kinases such as ERK and p38. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CA inhibited translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus, transcription of the NF-κB minimal promoter and NF-κB DNA binding activity. Administration of CA significantly decreased the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in LPS-injected mice and improved survival of septic mice with lethal endotoxemia. These results demonstrate that CA has effective inhibitory effects on production of inflammatory mediators via suppressing activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, suggesting that CA may be used as a potential anti-inflammatory agent for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25361770

  12. N-Docosahexaenoyl Dopamine, an Endocannabinoid-like Conjugate of Dopamine and the n-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid, Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Activation of Microglia and Macrophages via COX-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Plastina, Pierluigi; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Jansen, Renate; Balvers, Michiel; Ten Klooster, Jean Paul; Gruppen, Harry; Witkamp, Renger; Meijerink, Jocelijn

    2017-03-15

    Several studies indicate that the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contributes to an attenuated inflammatory status in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. To explain these effects, different mechanisms are being proposed, including those involving endocannabinoids and related signaling molecules. Many of these compounds belong to the fatty acid amides, conjugates of fatty acids with biogenic amines. Conjugates of DHA with ethanolamine or serotonin have previously been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and potentially neuroprotective properties. Here, we synthesized another amine conjugate of DHA, N-docosahexaenoyl dopamine (DHDA), and tested its immune-modulatory properties in both RAW 264.7 macrophages and BV-2 microglial cells. N-Docosahexaenoyl dopamine significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO), the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the chemokines macrophage-inflammatory protein-3α (CCL20) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), whereas its parent compounds, dopamine and DHA, were ineffective. Further exploration of potential effects of DHDA on key inflammatory mediators revealed that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA level and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were concentration-dependently inhibited in macrophages. In activated BV-2 cells, PGE2 production was also reduced, without changes in COX-2 mRNA levels. In addition, DHDA did not affect NF-kB activity in a reporter cell line. Finally, the immune-modulatory activities of DHDA were compared with those of N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) and similar potencies were found in both cell types. Taken together, our data suggest that DHDA, a potentially endogenous endocannabinoid, may be an additional member of the group of immune-modulating n-3 fatty acid-derived lipid mediators.

  13. Glycyrrhetinic acid attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure in d-galactosamine-sensitized mice by up-regulating expression of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-M.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xinru; Gong, Xia; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Rong; Kuang, Ge; Wang, Bin; Chen, Xinyu; Wan, Jingyuan

    2017-04-01

    Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), the main active ingredient of licorice, reportedly has anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties, but its molecular mechanisms remain be elusive. In the present study, Balb/c mice were pretreated with GA (10, 30, or 100mg/kg) 1h before lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine (D-GalN) administration. In other in vitro experiment, RAW264.7 macrophages were pretreated with GA before LPS exposure. The mortality, hepatic tissue histology, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were analyzed. Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs), activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF-κB, and production of TNF-α were assessed by flow cytometry, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Our results showed that pretreatment with GA protected mice against LPS/D-GalN-induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), including a dose-dependent alleviation of mortality and ALT/AST elevation, ameliorating hepatic pathological damage, and decreasing TNF-α release. Moreover, GA inhibited LPS-induced activation of MAPKs and NF-κB in response to LPS, but the expression of TLR4 was not affected in vivo and in vitro. Notably, GA pretreatment in vivo suppressed IRAK-1 activity while inducing IRAK-M expression. Silencing of IRAK-M expression with siRNA blocked these beneficial effects of GA on the activation of MAPKs and NF-κB as well as TNF-α production in LPS-primed macrophages. Taken together, we conclude that GA could prevent LPS/D-GalN-induced FHF. The underlying mechanisms may be related to up-regulation of IRAK-M, which in turn caused deactivation of IRAK-1 and subsequent MAPKs and NF-κB, resulting in inhibiting TNF-α production.

  14. Baicalin exerts protective effects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by regulating the crosstalk between the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axis and NF-κB pathway in CX3CL1-knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    DING, XIN-MIN; PAN, LEI; WANG, YONG; XU, QIN-ZHI

    2016-01-01

    further promote NF-κB activation. These findings demonstrate that the crosstalk between the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axis and NF-κB signaling pathway plays a direct role in LPS-induced lung injury. The inhibition of the activation of the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axis may thus suppress the development of ALI. In addition, baicalin inhibited the crosstalk between the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axis and NF-κB pathway in mice with LPS-induced ALI. Thus, treatment with baicalin may be a potential therapeutic strategy for ALI. PMID:26782291

  15. Dexamethasone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medication. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  16. Niclosamide suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevents LPS-induced bone loss

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Ju-Young; Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun; So, Hong-Seob; Oh, Jaemin

    2016-02-05

    Niclosamide (5-chloro-salicyl-(2-chloro-4-nitro) anilide) is an oral anthelmintic drug used for treating intestinal infection of most tapeworms. Recently, niclosamide was shown to have considerable efficacy against some tumor cell lines, including colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers, and acute myelogenous leukemia. Specifically, the drug was identified as a potent inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is associated with osteoclast differentiation and function. In this study, we assessed the effect of niclosamide on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro study showed that receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was inhibited by niclosamide, due to inhibition of serine–threonine protein kinase (Akt) phosphorylation, inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (IκB), and STAT3 serine{sup 727}. Niclosamide decreased the expression of the major transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1, and thereafter abrogated the mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, OSCAR, αv/β3 integrin (integrin αv, integrin β3), and cathepsin K (CtsK). In an in vivo model, niclosamide prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss by diminishing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results show that niclosamide is effective in suppressing osteoclastogenesis and may be considered as a new and safe therapeutic candidate for the clinical treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. - Highlights: • We first investigated the anti-osteoclastogenic effects of niclosamide in vitro and in vivo. • Niclosamide impairs the activation of the Akt-IκB-STAT3 ser{sup 727} signaling axis. • Niclosamide acts a negative regulator of actin ring formation during osteoclast differentiation. • Niclosamide suppresses LPS-induced bone loss in vivo. • Niclosamide deserves new evaluation as a potential treatment target in various bone diseases.

  17. Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Death by Fluoroquinolones

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Anis A.; Slifer, Teri R.; Araujo, Fausto G.; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Remington, Jack S.

    2000-01-01

    Because fluoroquinolones have an immunomodulatory effect on cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated human monocytes, we examined the effect of fluoroquinolones on the survival of mice injected with a lethal dose of LPS. Trovafloxacin (100 mg/kg), ciprofloxacin (250 mg/kg), and tosufloxacin (100 mg/kg) protected 75% (P = 0.0001), 25% (P = 0.002), and 50% (P = 0.002), respectively, of mice against death. The fluoroquinolones significantly reduced serum levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in LPS-treated mice. The protective effects of fluoroquinolones in LPS-induced shock in mice may also occur in humans. PMID:11036044

  18. Patchouli alcohol dampens lipopolysaccharide induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Ping; Yuan, Shi-Fang; Cai, Guo-Hong; Wang, Hui; Wang, Ling; Yu, Lei; Ling, Rui; Yun, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Patchouli alcohol (PA), a tricyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Pogostemonis Herba, has been known to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other important therapeutic activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PA on LPS-induced mastitis in vivo and the possible mechanism. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. Mice were pretreated with dexamethasone or PA 1 h before and 12 h after induction of LPS. The myeloperoxidase activity and inflammatory cytokines production in mammary tissues were determined. The effects of PA on NF-κB signal pathways were analyzed by Western blotting. The results showed that PA inhibited the LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production in a dose manner. It was also observed that PA attenuated mammary histopathologic changes. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that PA could inhibit the phosphorylation of NF-κB and IκB induced by LPS. These results indicate that PA inhibits NF-κB signaling pathways to attenuate inflammatory injury induced by LPS. PA may be a potent therapeutic reagent for the prevention of mastitis.

  19. Lipopolysaccharide induced acute red eye and corneal ulcers.

    PubMed

    Schultz, C L; Morck, D W; McKay, S G; Olson, M E; Buret, A

    1997-01-01

    Using a new animal model, the aims of this study were to assess the role played by purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and neutrophils in the pathogenesis of acute red-eye reactions (ARE) and corneal ulcers. In addition, IL-1 alpha was assessed for its implications in the formation of corneal ulcers. Following corneal abrasion, eyes of rabbits underwent single or double exposures to various doses of LPS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Serratia marcescens. This protocol induced ARE symptoms, and their severity depended on the dosage, number of LPS exposures, and type of LPS used (LPS from S. marcescens showing highest virulence). Corneal ulcers were induced by delivering a high dose of Serratia LPS (100 micrograms) followed by a low dose (10 micrograms). Histopathological examination revealed that both ARE and corneal ulceration were associated with prominent neutrophil infiltration. In addition, many lymphocytes and other monocytic cells infiltrated ulcerated ocular tissue. Tear fluids obtained from ulcerated eyes contained high concentrations of a protein recognized by anti-rabbit IL-1 alpha antibodies as demonstrated by immunoblotting studies. The results indicate that LPS can induce ARE and corneal ulceration in the absence of any live bacteria. Moreover, the findings implicate the accumulation of neutrophils and IL-1 alpha-related proteins in the pathogenesis of ARE and corneal ulcers.

  20. Galangin dampens mice lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yu-Sheng; Tao, Wei; Miao, Qian-Bing; Lu, Shi-Chun; Zhu, Ya-Bing

    2014-10-01

    Galangin, an active ingredient of Alpinia galangal, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Inflammation and oxidative stress are known to play vital effect in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). In this study, we determined whether galangin exerts lung protection in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Male BALB/c mice were randomized to receive galangin or vehicle intraperitoneal injection 3 h after LPS challenge. Samples were harvested 24 h post LPS administration. Galangin administration decreased biochemical parameters of oxidative stress and inflammation, and improved oxygenation and lung edema in a dose-dependent manner. These protective effects of galangin were associated with inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and upregulation of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. Galangin reduces LPS-induced ALI by inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress.

  1. Prevention of lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse lethality by resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Sebai, Hichem; Sani, Mamane; Ghanem-Boughanmi, Néziha; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2010-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether subacute treatment with resveratrol (RVT) protects mice against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress and mortality as well as the mechanism involved in such protection. Mice were divided into three groups: control, LPS and LPS+RVT. Animals were pre-treated with RVT during 7 days. The survival rate was monitored over 48 h after LPS administration. Survival animals were sacrificed, their kidney, liver and brain homogenized for malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) activity, free iron and nitric oxide (NO) determination. Plasma was also processed for transaminases, creatinine, urea, NO and iron measurement. Pre-treatment with resveratrol greatly improved the survival rate of LPS-treated mice. Resveratrol counteracted LPS-induced tissue lipoperoxidation and catalase activity depletion. The polyphenol abrogated LPS-induced liver and kidney dysfunction as increased creatinine and urea as well as transaminases activities. In addition, pre-treatment with resveratrol abrogated LPS-induced tissues and plasma NO elevation and iron sequestration from plasma to tissue compartment. These data suggest that resveratrol prevents LPS-induced lethality and that its mode of action may involve differential iron deposition via iron shuttling proteins. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Brain CB₁ receptor expression following lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hu, H; Ho, W; Mackie, K; Pittman, Q J; Sharkey, K A

    2012-12-27

    Cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB(1)) are highly expressed on presynaptic terminals in the brain where they are importantly involved in the control of neurotransmitter release. Alteration of CB(1) expression is associated with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. There is now compelling evidence that peripheral inflammatory disorders are associated with depression and cognitive impairments. These can be modeled in rodents with peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but central effects of this treatment remain to be fully elucidated. As a reduction in endocannabinoid tone is thought to contribute to depression, we asked whether the expression of CB(1) in the CNS is altered following LPS treatment. CD1 mice received LPS (0.1-1mg/kg, ip) and 6h later activated microglial cells were observed only in circumventricular organs and only at the higher dose. At 24h, activated microglial cells were identified in other brain regions, including the hippocampus, a structure implicated in some mood disorders. Immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were utilized to evaluate the change of CB(1) expression 24h after inflammation. LPS induced an increase of CB(1) mRNA in the hippocampus and brainstem. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis revealed reduced CB(1) in the hippocampus, especially in CA3 pyramidal layer. Analysis of co-localization with markers of excitatory and inhibitory terminals indicated that the decrease in CB(1) expression was restricted to glutamatergic terminals. Despite widespread microglial activation, these results suggest that peripheral LPS treatment leads to limited changes in CB(1) expression in the brain.

  3. Riboflavin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, Naif O; Imam, Faisal; Nadeem, Ahmed; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Korashy, Hesham M; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohammed M; Hafez, Mohamed M; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Nagi, Mahmoud N; Bahashwan, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in humans and animals. It is the central component of the cofactors flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and is therefore required by all flavoproteins. Riboflavin also works as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of riboflavin against acute lungs injury induced by the administration of a single intranasal dose (20 μg/rat) of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in experimental rats. Administration of LPS resulted in marked increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level (p < 0.01) and MPO activity (p < 0.001), whereas marked decrease in glutathione (GSH) content (p < 0.001), glutathione reductase (GR) (p < 0.001) and glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.01) activity. These changes were significantly (p < 0.001) improved by treatment with riboflavin in a dose-dependent manner (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). Riboflavin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) showed similar protective effects as dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, p.o.). Administration of LPS showed marked cellular changes including interstitial edema, hemorrhage, infiltration of PMNs, etc., which were reversed by riboflavin administration. Histopathological examinations showed normal morphological structures of lungs tissue in the control group. These biochemical and histopathological examination were appended with iNOS and CAT gene expression. The iNOS mRNA expression was increased significantly (p < 0.001) and levels of CAT mRNA expression was decreased significantly (p < 0.001) in the animals exposed to LPS, while treatment with riboflavin significantly (p < 0.01) improved expression of both gene. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrated that riboflavin caused a protective effect against LPS-induced ALI. These results suggest that riboflavin may be used to protect against toxic effect of LPS in lungs.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide induces autotaxin expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Song; Zhang Junjie

    2009-01-09

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme with lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity, which converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid involved in numerous biological activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. In the present study, we found that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a well-known initiator of the inflammatory response, induced ATX expression in monocytic THP-1 cells. The activation of PKR, JNK, and p38 MAPK was required for the ATX induction. The LPS-induced ATX in THP-1 cells was characterized as the {beta} isoform. In the presence of LPC, ATX could promote the migrations of THP-1 and Jurkat cells, which was inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Gi-mediated LPA receptor signaling. In summary, LPS induces ATX expression in THP-1 cells via a PKR, JNK and p38 MAPK-mediated mechanism, and the ATX induction is likely to enhance immune cell migration in proinflammatory response by regulating LPA levels in the microenvironment.

  5. Dexmedetomidine Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide Induced MCP-1 Expression in Primary Astrocyte.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Davis, Jacques R J; Wu, Zhi-Lin; Faez Abdelgawad, Amro

    2017-01-01

    Background. Neuroinflammation which presents as a possible mechanism of delirium is associated with MCP-1, an important proinflammatory factor which is expressed on astrocytes. It is known that dexmedetomidine (DEX) possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to investigate the potential effects of DEX on the production of MCP-1 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated astrocytes. Materials and Methods. Astrocytes were treated with LPS (10 ng/ml, 50 ng/ml, 100 ng/ml, and 1000 ng/ml), DEX (500 ng/mL), LPS (100 ng/ml), and DEX (10, 100, and 500 ng/mL) for a duration of three hours; expression levels of MCP-1 were measured by real-time PCR. The double immunofluorescence staining protocol was utilized to determine the expression of α2-adrenoceptors (α2AR) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) on astrocytes. Results. Expressions of MCP-1 mRNA in astrocytes were induced dose-dependently by LPS. Administration of DEX significantly inhibited the expression of MCP-1 mRNA (P < 0.001). Double immunofluorescence assay showed that α2AR colocalize with GFAP, which indicates the expression of α2-adrenoceptors in astrocytes. Conclusions. DEX is a potent suppressor of MCP-1 in astrocytes induced with lipopolysaccharide through α2A-adrenergic receptors, which potentially explains its beneficial effects in the treatment of delirium by attenuating neuroinflammation.

  6. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Toxic Shock Syndrome in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Stach, Christopher S; Schlievert, Patrick M

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of susceptibility to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; endotoxin) is a defining characteristic of Staphylococcus aureus superantigens. At the time of this publication, there are 24 identified staphylococcal superantigens (SAgs), some of which have yet to be fully characterized. Testing the capacity of superantigens to potentiate LPS sensitivity is essential to characterize the role of these proteins in disease development. Here we describe how to perform studies of the enhancement of LPS-induced toxic shock syndrome in rabbits. This protocol also provides information on a second important activity of superantigens: the production of fever.

  7. Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress by capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Abdel-Rahman, Rehab Fawzy; Sleem, Amany A; Farrag, Abdel Razik

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of capsaicin (the active principle of hot red pepper and a sensory excitotoxin) on oxidative stress after systemic administration of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (100 μg/kg, i.p.) in rats. Capsaicin (15, 150 or 1,500 μg/kg; 10, 100 or 400 μg/mL) was given via intragastric (i.g.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes at time of endotoxin administration. Rats were killed 4 h later. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in brain, liver, and lungs. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), nitric oxide, and glucose were measured in serum. In addition, histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed. In LPS-treated rats, hepatic GSH increased significantly by 40.8% after i.p. capsaicin at 1,500 μg/kg. Liver MDA increased significantly by 32.9% after the administration of i.g. capsaicin at 1,500 μg/kg and by 27.8 and 37.6% after the administration of i.p. capsaicin at 150 and 1,500 μg/kg, respectively. In lung tissue, both MDA and GSH were decreased by capsaicin administration. MDA decreased by 19-20.8% after i.g. capsaicin and by 17.5-23.2% after i.p. capsaicin (150-1,500 μg/kg), respectively. GSH decreased by 39.3-64.3% and by 35.7-41.1% after i.g. or i.p. capsaicin (150-1,500 μg/kg), respectively. Brain GSH increased significantly after the highest dose of i.g. or i.p. capsaicin (by 20.6 and 15.9%, respectively). The increase in serum ALT and ALP after endotoxin administration was decreased by oral or i.p. capsaicin. Serum nitric oxide showed marked increase after LPS injection, but was markedly decreased after capsaicin (1,500 μg/kg, i.p.). Serum glucose increased markedly after the administration of LPS, and was normalized by capsaicin treatment. It is suggested that in the presence of mild systemic inflammation, acute capsaicin administration might alter oxidative status in some tissues and exert an anti-inflammatory effect. Capsaicin exerted protective effects in the liver and lung against the LPS-induced tissue damage.

  8. Roscovitine protects murine Leydig cells from lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tiancheng; Hu, Guanghui; Dong, Binbin; Yan, Yangye; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Zheng, Junhua; Xu, Yunfei

    2017-05-01

    Roscovitine is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which has been previously investigated for its anticancer effects. It has also been confirmed that roscovitine can downregulate the expression of myeloid cell leukemia-1 protein to inhibit inflammation. In the present study, roscovitine was used to treat inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced model mice. At the cellular level, Leydig cells isolated from mouse testis were assessed for inflammatory factors. It was revealed that roscovitine successfully reduced inflammation-associated injury induced by LPS pretreatment. At the molecular level, roscovitine was found to exert this effect through promotion of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to suggest that roscovitine has a protective role in Leydig cells through its anti-inflammatory action.

  9. Nilotinib ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats

    SciTech Connect

    El-Agamy, Dina S.

    2011-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the new tyrosine kinase inhibitor, nilotinib on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats and explore its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given nilotinib (10 mg/kg) by oral gavage twice daily for 1 week prior to exposure to aerosolized LPS. At 24 h after LPS exposure, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples and lung tissue were collected. The lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, protein level and the number of inflammatory cells in the BALF were determined. Optical microscopy was performed to examine the pathological changes in lungs. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) activities as well as nitrite/nitrate (NO{sub 2}{sup -}/NO{sub 3}{sup -}) levels were measured in lung tissues. The expression of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), transforming growth factor-{beta}{sub 1} (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were determined in lung tissues. Treatment with nilotinib prior to LPS exposure significantly attenuated the LPS-induced pulmonary edema, as it significantly decreased lung W/D ratio, protein concentration and the accumulation of the inflammatory cells in the BALF. This was supported by the histopathological examination which revealed marked attenuation of LPS-induced ALI in nilotinib treated rats. In addition, nilotinib significantly increased SOD and GSH activities with significant decrease in MDA content in the lung. Nilotinib also reduced LPS mediated overproduction of pulmonary NO{sub 2}{sup -}/NO{sub 3}{sup -} levels. Importantly, nilotinib caused down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-{alpha}, TGF-{beta}{sub 1} and iNOS levels in the lung. Taken together, these results demonstrate the protective effects of nilotinib against the LPS-induced ALI. This effect can be attributed to nilotinib ability to counteract the inflammatory cells infiltration and hence ROS generation and regulate cytokine effects. - Research highlights: > The protective effects of nilotinib against LPS-induced ALI in rats were studied. > Nilotinib showed potent anti-inflammatory activity as it attenuated PMN infiltration and hence ROS generation. > In addition, nilotinib caused down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production.

  10. Lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic injury is enhanced by polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A P; Schultze, A E; Holdan, W L; Buchweitz, J P; Roth, R A; Ganey, P E

    1996-01-01

    After intravenous administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to rats, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) rapidly accumulate in the liver, and midzonal hepatic necrosis is prominent by 6 hr. PMNs are required for the development of hepatic injury in rats. Certain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can activate PMNs, resulting in production of superoxide anion (O2-.) and release of cytolytic factors from granules. This raises the possibility that PCB exposure might enhance PMN-mediated tissue injury, such as LPS-induced hepatotoxicity. We treated female Sprague-Dawley rats with a minimally toxic dose of LPS in saline (2 mg/kg, intravenous) and 90 min later exposed them to Aroclor 1248 (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), a mixture of PCBs. The animals were killed 6 hr after LPS administration, and hepatic injury was assessed. Neither LPS nor Aroclor 1248 alone produced liver injury. Co-treatment with LPS and Aroclor 1248 resulted in pronounced liver injury as demonstrated from increased activities of alanine aminotransferase and isocitrate dehydrogenase in plasma. Histological evaluation indicated increased severity of hepatic necrosis in rats receiving both LPS and Aroclor 1248. Hepatic accumulation of PMNs, normally observed after LPS, was not altered by co-exposure to PCBs. Aroclor 1248 stimulated rat PMNs in vitro to produce O2-. and to degranulate. In addition, PMN-mediated cytotoxicity to isolated rat hepatocytes in culture was increased upon addition of Aroclor 1248. PCBs activate PMNs in vitro and increase PMN-dependent hepatocellular damage in vitro and after LPS treatment in vivo. PCBs may act in vivo as an additional inflammatory stimulus to activate PMNs to become cytotoxic, resulting in increased tissue injury. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 3. Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8793352

  11. Theophylline improves lipopolysaccharide-induced alveolarization arrest through inflammatory regulation.

    PubMed

    He, Hua; Chen, Fei; Ni, Wensi; Li, Jianhui; Zhang, Yongjun

    2014-07-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by alveolar simplification with decreased numbers of alveoli and increased airspace. BPD, frequently suffered by very low birth weight infants, has been closely associated with intrauterine infection. However, the underlying mechanisms of BPD remain unclear. In the present study, it was identified that administration of intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to pregnant rats on embryonal day 16.5 (E16.5) induced significant alveolarization arrest similar to that of BPD in neonatal pups, and theophylline injected subcutaneously into the newborns improved the pathological changes. To further investigate the underlying mechanism of the morphogenesis amelioration of theophylline, cytokine antibody arrays were performed with the lung lysates of neonatal rats. The results indicated that LPS upregulated a series of pro-inflammatory cytokines and theophylline significantly attenuated the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor‑α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-2, and markedly elevated the production of tumor growth factor (TGF)-β family members TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3, which are anti‑inflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that theophylline may protect against BPD and improve chorioamnionitis‑induced alveolar arrest by regulating the balance between pro‑and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression.

  12. Theophylline potentiates lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Mizue; Takano, Katsura; Kawabe, Kenji; Moriyama, Mitsuaki; Ihara, Hideshi; Nakamura, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Elucidation of the functions of astrocytes is important for understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of various neurodegenerative diseases. Theophylline is a common drug for bronchial asthma and occasionally develops side-effects, such as acute encephalopathy; although the pathogenic mechanism of the side-effects is unknown. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitricoxide (NO) production is generally used for an index of the activation of astrocyte in vitro. In this study, in order to elucidate the effect of theophylline on the astrocytic functions, we examined the LPS-induced NO production and the expression of iNOS in cultured rat cortex astrocytes.Theophylline alone could not induce the NO production; however, NO production induced by LPS was enhanced by theophylline in a dose-dependent manner; and by isobutylmethylxanthine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. The theophylline enhancement of LPS-induced NO production was further increased by dibutyryl cyclic AMP, a membrane-permeable cAMP analog; and by forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator. When the cells were preincubated with Rp-8-Br-cAMP, an inhibitor of protein kinase A, the theophylline enhancement of LPS-induced NO production was decreased. The extent of iNOS protein expression induced by LPS was also enhanced by theophylline.It is likely that phosphodiesterase inhibition is a major action mechanism for the theophylline enhancement of LPS-induced NO production in astrocytes. Theophylline-induced acute encephalopathy might be due to the hyper-activation of astrocytes via cAMP signaling to produce excess amount of NO.

  13. Lipopolysaccharide induces a fibrotic-like phenotype in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, César; Montorfano, Ignacio; Sarmiento, Daniela; Becerra, Alvaro; Nuñez-Villena, Felipe; Figueroa, Xavier F; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Elorza, Alvaro A; Riedel, Claudia; Simon, Felipe

    2013-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is crucial in endotoxaemia-derived sepsis syndrome pathogenesis. It is well accepted that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces endothelial dysfunction through immune system activation. However, LPS can also directly generate actions in endothelial cells (ECs) in the absence of participation by immune cells. Although interactions between LPS and ECs evoke endothelial death, a significant portion of ECs are resistant to LPS challenge. However, the mechanism that confers endothelial resistance to LPS is not known. LPS-resistant ECs exhibit a fibroblast-like morphology, suggesting that these ECs enter a fibrotic programme in response to LPS. Thus, our aim was to investigate whether LPS is able to induce endothelial fibrosis in the absence of immune cells and explore the underlying mechanism. Using primary cultures of ECs and culturing intact blood vessels, we demonstrated that LPS is a crucial factor to induce endothelial fibrosis. We demonstrated that LPS was able and sufficient to promote endothelial fibrosis, in the absence of immune cells through an activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) activity-dependent mechanism. LPS-challenged ECs showed an up-regulation of both fibroblast-specific protein expression and extracellular matrix proteins secretion, as well as a down-regulation of endothelial markers. These results demonstrate that LPS is a crucial factor in inducing endothelial fibrosis in the absence of immune cells through an ALK5-dependent mechanism. It is noteworthy that LPS-induced endothelial fibrosis perpetuates endothelial dysfunction as a maladaptive process rather than a survival mechanism for protection against LPS. These findings are useful in improving current treatment against endotoxaemia-derived sepsis syndrome and other inflammatory diseases.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide-induced hemolysis: Evidence for direct membrane interactions

    PubMed Central

    Brauckmann, Stephan; Effenberger-Neidnicht, Katharina; de Groot, Herbert; Nagel, Michael; Mayer, Christian; Peters, Jürgen; Hartmann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    While hemolysis in patients with sepsis is associated with increased mortality its mechanisms are unknown and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 mediated effects, complement-mediated hemolysis, or direct cell membrane effects are all conceivable mechanisms. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that toxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as well as non-toxic RS-LPS evokes hemolysis (1) by direct membrane effects, and (2) independent of the complement system and TLR-4 activation. We found, that incubation with LPS resulted in a marked time and concentration dependent increase of free hemoglobin concentration and LDH activity in whole blood and washed red cells. Red cell integrity was diminished as shown by decreased osmotic resistance, formation of schistocytes and rolls, and a decrease in red cell membrane stiffness. Non-toxic RS-LPS inhibited the LPS-evoked increase in TNF-α concentration demonstrating its TLR-4 antagonism, but augmented LPS-induced increase in supernatant hemoglobin concentration and membrane disturbances. Removal of plasma components in washed red cell assays failed to attenuate hemolysis. In summary, this study demonstrates direct physicochemical interactions of LPS with red cell membranes resulting in hemolysis under in vitro conditions. It might thus be hypothesized, that not all effects of LPS are mediated by TLR and may explain LPS toxicity in cells missing TLR. PMID:27759044

  15. Citrate modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Ashbrook, M J; McDonough, K L; Pituch, J J; Christopherson, P L; Cornell, T T; Selewski, D T; Shanley, T P; Blatt, N B

    2015-01-01

    Citrate, a central component of cellular metabolism, is a widely used anti-coagulant due to its ability to chelate calcium. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-citrate lyase, which metabolizes citrate, has been shown to be essential for inflammation, but the ability of exogenous citrate to impact inflammatory signalling cascades remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that citrate would modulate inflammatory responses as both a cellular metabolite and calcium chelator, and tested this hypothesis by determining how clinically relevant levels of citrate modulate monocyte proinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a human acute monocytic leukaemia cell line (THP-1). In normal medium (0·4 mM calcium), citrate inhibited LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8 transcripts, whereas in medium supplemented with calcium (1·4 mM), TNF-α and IL-8 levels increased and appeared independent of calcium chelation. Using an IL-8–luciferase plasmid construct, the same increased response was observed in the activation of the IL-8 promoter region, suggesting transcriptional regulation. Tricarballylic acid, an inhibitor of ATP-citrate lyase, blocked the ability of citrate to augment TNF-α, linking citrate's augmentation effect with its metabolism by ATP-citrate lyase. In the presence of citrate, increased histone acetylation was observed in the TNF-α and IL-8 promoter regions of THP-1 cells. We observed that citrate can both augment and inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production via modulation of inflammatory gene transactivation. These findings suggest that citrate anti-coagulation may alter immune function through complex interactions with the inflammatory response. PMID:25619261

  16. Dexmedetomidine Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide Induced MCP-1 Expression in Primary Astrocyte

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan; Faez Abdelgawad, Amro

    2017-01-01

    Background. Neuroinflammation which presents as a possible mechanism of delirium is associated with MCP-1, an important proinflammatory factor which is expressed on astrocytes. It is known that dexmedetomidine (DEX) possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to investigate the potential effects of DEX on the production of MCP-1 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated astrocytes. Materials and Methods. Astrocytes were treated with LPS (10 ng/ml, 50 ng/ml, 100 ng/ml, and 1000 ng/ml), DEX (500 ng/mL), LPS (100 ng/ml), and DEX (10, 100, and 500 ng/mL) for a duration of three hours; expression levels of MCP-1 were measured by real-time PCR. The double immunofluorescence staining protocol was utilized to determine the expression of α2-adrenoceptors (α2AR) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) on astrocytes. Results. Expressions of MCP-1 mRNA in astrocytes were induced dose-dependently by LPS. Administration of DEX significantly inhibited the expression of MCP-1 mRNA (P < 0.001). Double immunofluorescence assay showed that α2AR colocalize with GFAP, which indicates the expression of α2-adrenoceptors in astrocytes. Conclusions. DEX is a potent suppressor of MCP-1 in astrocytes induced with lipopolysaccharide through α2A-adrenergic receptors, which potentially explains its beneficial effects in the treatment of delirium by attenuating neuroinflammation. PMID:28286770

  17. Lipopolysaccharide-induced lethality and cytokine production in aged mice.

    PubMed Central

    Tateda, K; Matsumoto, T; Miyazaki, S; Yamaguchi, K

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to define the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) sensitivity of aged mice in terms of lethality and cytokine production and to determine down-regulating responses of corticosterone and interleukin 10 (IL-10). The 50% lethal doses of LPS in young (6- to 7-week-old) and aged (98- to 102-week-old) mice were 601 and 93 microg per mouse (25.6 and 1.6 mg per kg of body weight), respectively. Aged mice were approximately 6.5-fold more sensitive to the lethal toxicity of LPS in micrograms per mouse (16-fold more sensitive in milligrams per kilogram) than young mice. Levels in sera of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) IL-1alpha, and IL-6 after intraperitoneal injection of 100 microg of LPS peaked at 1.5, 3, and 3 h, respectively, and declined thereafter in both groups of mice. However, the peak values of these cytokines were significantly higher in aged than in young mice (P < 0.05). Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) was detectable at 3 h, and sustained high levels were still detected after 12 h in both age groups. Although there were no significant differences in levels of IFN-gamma in sera from both groups, aged mice showed higher IFN-gamma levels throughout the 3- to 12-h study period. Administration of increasing doses of LPS revealed that aged mice had a lower threshold to IL-1alpha production than young mice. In addition, aged mice were approximately 4-fold more sensitive to the lethal toxicity of exogenous TNF in units per mouse (10-fold more sensitive in units per kilogram) than young mice. With regard to down-regulating factors, corticosterone amounts were similar at basal levels and no differences in kinetics after the LPS challenge were observed, whereas IL-10 levels in sera were significantly higher in aged mice at 1.5 and 3 h than in young mice (P < 0.01). These results indicate that aged mice are more sensitive to the lethal toxicities of LPS and TNF than young mice. We conclude that a relatively activated, or primed, state for LPS-induced cytokine production, in spite of full down-regulating responses by corticosterone and IL- 10, may explain at least in part LPS sensitivity in aged mice. PMID:8641780

  18. Interleukin-1 in Lipopolysaccharide Induced Chorioamnionitis in the Fetal Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Clare A.; Nitsos, Ilias; Hillman, Noah H.; Pillow, J. Jane; Polglase, Graeme R.; Kramer, Boris W.; Kemp, Matthew W.; Newnham, John P.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that interleukin 1 (IL-1) mediates intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chorioamnionitis in preterm fetal sheep. Time-mated Merino ewes with singleton fetuses received IL-1α, LPS, or saline (control) by intra-amniotic injection 1 to 2 days before operative delivery at 124 ± 1 days gestational age (N = 5-9/group; term = 150 days). Recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1ra) was given into the amniotic fluid 3 hours before intra-amniotic LPS or saline to block IL-1 signaling. Inflammation in the chorioamnion was determined by histology, cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA), protein expression, and by quantitation of activated inflammatory cells. Intra-amniotic IL-1 and LPS both induced chorioamnionitis. However, IL-1 blockade with IL-1ra did not decrease intra-amniotic LPS-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs, numbers of inflammatory cells, myeloperoxidase, or monocyte chemotactic protein-1-expressing cells in the chorioamnion. We conclude that IL-1 and LPS both can cause chorioamnionitis, but IL-1 is not an important mediator of LPS-induced chorioamnionitis in fetal sheep. PMID:21493953

  19. Fire Suppression and Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    This report is concerned with the following topics regarding fire suppression:What is the relative effectiveness of candidate suppressants to extinguish a representative fire in reduced gravity, including high-O2 mole fraction, low -pressure environments? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of physically acting and chemically-acting agents in spacecraft fire suppression? What are the O2 mole fraction and absolute pressure below which a fire cannot exist? What effect does gas-phase radiation play in the overall fire and post-fire environments? Are the candidate suppressants effective to extinguish fires on practical solid fuels? What is required to suppress non-flaming fires (smoldering and deep seated fires) in reduced gravity? How can idealized space experiment results be applied to a practical fire scenario? What is the optimal agent deployment strategy for space fire suppression?

  20. Suppression of interleukin 1α and interleukin 1β in human limbal epithelial cells cultured on the amniotic membrane stromal matrix

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, A.; Rosenblatt, M.; Monroy, D.; Ji, Z.; Pflugfelder, S.; Tseng, S.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—Amniotic membrane (AM) transplantation reduces inflammation in a variety of ocular surface disorders. The aim of this study was to determine if AM stroma suppresses the expression of the IL-1 gene family in cultured human corneal limbal epithelial cells.
METHODS—Human corneal limbal epithelial cells were cultured from limbocorneal explants of donor eyes on plastic or on the AM stroma. Transcript expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA), and GAPDH was compared with or without addition of lipopolysaccharide to their serum-free media for 24 hours using RNAse protection assay (RPA). Their protein production in the supernatant was analysed by ELISA.
RESULTS—Expression of IL-1α and IL-1β transcripts and proteins was significantly reduced by cells cultured on the AM stromal matrix compared with plastic cultures whether lipopolysaccharide was added or not. Moreover, expression of IL-1 RA by cells cultured in the lipopolysaccharide-free medium was upregulated by AM stromal matrix. The ratio between IL-1 RA and IL-1α protein levels in AM cultures was higher than in plastic cultures.
CONCLUSIONS—AM stromal matrix markedly suppresses lipopolysaccharide induced upregulation of both IL-1α and IL-1β. These data may explain in part the effect of AM transplantation in reducing ocular surface inflammation, underscoring the unique feature of the AM as a substrate for tissue engineering.

 PMID:11264135

  1. Fire Suppression, District 5

    Treesearch

    Roy Headley

    1916-01-01

    The increasing effectiveness of suppression practice is shown by the fact that in 1915 fire suppression cost one-third as much as in 1914, and damage to Government property was kept down to one-fourth the 1914 figure. The seasons were approximately equal in danger. Is further progress to be expected?

  2. High glucose-boosted inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide are suppressed by statin.

    PubMed

    Nareika, A; Maldonado, A; He, L; Game, B A; Slate, E H; Sanders, J J; London, S D; Lopes-Virella, M F; Huang, Y

    2007-02-01

    It has been established that periodontal diseases are more prevalent and of greater severity in diabetic patients than in nondiabetic patients. Recent studies have underscored the role of monocytes and macrophages in periodontal tissue inflammation and destruction in diabetic patients. Although it has been shown that monocytes isolated from diabetic patients produce more inflammatory cytokines and that gingival crevicular fluid collected from diabetic patients contains higher levels of inflammatory cytokines than that obtained from nondiabetic patients, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. U937 histiocytes cultured in medium containing either normal (5 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose were treated with 100 ng/ml of lipopolysaccharide for 24h. After the treatment, cytokines in the medium and cytokine mRNA in the cells were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbet assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. In this study, we demonstrated that the pre-exposure of U937 histiocytes to high glucose concentrations markedly increased the lipopolysaccharide-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the cellular inducible nitric oxide level compared with pre-exposure to normal glucose. Our data also showed that the increased secretion of cytokines was a result of increased mRNA expression. Furthermore, the effects of statin and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor agonists on high glucose-enhanced secretion of cytokines were determined. The results showed that simvastatin, but not fenofibrate or pioglitazone, inhibited high glucose-enhanced cytokine release. This study has shown that high glucose concentrations and lipopolysaccharide act synergistically to stimulate the secretion of inflammatory mediators, and that statin is capable of suppressing the high glucose-boosted proinflammatory response. This study therefore delineates a novel mechanism by which hyperglycemia enhances the inflammatory responses of

  3. Suppression of gastric mucosal inflammatory responses to Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide by sulglycotide.

    PubMed

    Slomiany, B L; Piotrowski, J; Slomiany, A

    1999-02-01

    The effect of the antiulcer agent sulglycotide on gastric epithelial cell apoptosis and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) during Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide-induced acute gastritis was investigated. Rats, pretreated twice daily for 3 consecutive days with sulglycotide at 200 mg/kg or vehicle, were subjected to surface epithelial application of H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (50 microg/animal), and, after 4 additional days on the drug or vehicle regimen, their mucosal tissue was used for histologic assessment, quantitation of TNF-alpha and IL-4, and the assay of epithelial cell apoptosis. In the absence of sulglycotide, H. pylori lipopolysaccharide caused acute mucosal responses manifested by the inflammatory infiltration of the lamina propria with lymphocytes and plasma cells, edema, hyperemia, and epithelial hemorrhage. These responses were accompanied by an 11-fold increase in epithelial cell apoptosis and a 9-fold enhancement of the mucosal expression of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. However, the mucosal expression of regulatory cytokine IL-4 decreased by 15%. Treatment with sulglycotide produced significant (56.6%) reduction in the extent of acute mucosal inflammatory changes caused by H. pylori lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, the effect of sulglycotide was manifested in an 88.3% reduction in the epithelial cell apoptosis and a 69.1% decrease in the mucosal expression of TNF-alpha, whereas the expression of IL-4 showed only marginal (6%) enhancement. The results suggest that the cytoprotective agent sulglycotide suppresses the inflammatory and apoptotic events elicited in gastric mucosa by H. pylori lipopolysaccharide through stimulation of TNF-alpha expression.

  4. Growth hormone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    GH suppression test; Glucose loading test; Acromegaly - blood test; Gigantism - blood test ... drink anything. You then drink a solution containing glucose (sugar). You may be told to drink slowly ...

  5. Jet noise suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.; Lee, R.

    1991-08-01

    The objectives of this chapter are to review and summarize the jet noise suppression technology, to provide a physical and theoretical model to explain the measured jet noise suppression characteristics of different concepts, and to provide a set of guidelines for evolving jet noise suppression designs. The underlying principle for all jet noise suppression devices is to enhance rapid mixing (i.e., diffusion) of the jet plume by geometric and aerothermodynamic means. In the case of supersonic jets, the shock-cell broadband noise reduction is effectively accomplished by the elimination or mitigation of the shock-cell structure. So far, the diffusion concepts have predominantly concentrated on jet momentum and energy (kinetic and thermal) diffusion, in that order, and have yielded better noise reduction than the simple conical nozzles. A critical technology issue that needs resolution is the effect of flight on the noise suppression potential of mechanical suppressor nozzles. A more thorough investigation of this mechanism is necessary for the successful development and design of an acceptable noise suppression device for future high-speed civil transports.

  6. Jet Noise Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.; Lee, R.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this chapter are to review and summarize the jet noise suppression technology, to provide a physical and theoretical model to explain the measured jet noise suppression characteristics of different concepts, and to provide a set of guidelines for evolving jet noise suppression designs. The underlying principle for all jet noise suppression devices is to enhance rapid mixing (i.e., diffusion) of the jet plume by geometric and aerothermodynamic means. In the case of supersonic jets, the shock-cell broadband noise reduction is effectively accomplished by the elimination or mitigation of the shock-cell structure. So far, the diffusion concepts have predominantly concentrated on jet momentum and energy (kinetic and thermal) diffusion, in that order, and have yielded better noise reduction than the simple conical nozzles. A critical technology issue that needs resolution is the effect of flight on the noise suppression potential of mechanical suppressor nozzles. A more thorough investigation of this mechanism is necessary for the successful development and design of an acceptable noise suppression device for future high-speed civil transports.

  7. Anagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, suppresses proliferation of vascular smooth muscles and monocyte inflammatory reaction and attenuates atherosclerosis in male apo E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ervinna, Nasib; Mita, Tomoya; Yasunari, Eisuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Tanaka, Rica; Fujimura, Satoshi; Sukmawati, Dewi; Nomiyama, Takashi; Kanazawa, Akio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2013-03-01

    Dipeptyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors modulate the progression of atherosclerosis. To gain insights into their mechanism of action, 9-wk-old male apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice were fed a DPP-4 inhibitor, anagliptin-containing diet. The effects of anagliptin were investigated in, a monocyte cell line, human THP-1 cells, and rat smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Treatment with anagliptin for 16 wk significantly reduced accumulation of monocytes and macrophages in the vascular wall, SMC content in plaque areas, and oil red O-stained area around the aortic valve without affecting glucose tolerance or body weight. Serum DPP-4 concentrations were significantly higher in apoE-deficient mice than control mice, and the levels increased with aging, suggesting the involvement of DPP-4 in the progression of atherosclerosis. Indeed, soluble DPP-4 augmented cultured SMC proliferation, and anagliptin suppressed the proliferation by inhibiting ERK phosphorylation. In THP-1 cells, anagliptin reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α production with inhibiting ERK phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB. Quantitative analysis also showed that anagliptin reduced the area of atherosclerotic lesion in apoE-deficient mice. These results indicated that the anti-atherosclerotic effect of anagliptin is mediated, at least in part, through its direct inhibition of SMC proliferation and inflammatory reaction of monocytes.

  8. Apocynin inhibits Toll-like receptor-4-mediated activation of NF-κB by suppressing the Akt and mTOR pathways.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Arum; Sohn, Dong Suep; Lee, Chung Soo

    2016-12-01

    Microbial product lipopolysaccharide has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases. Apocynin has demonstrated to have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effect of apocynin on the Toll-like receptor-4-dependent activation of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway, which is involved in productions of inflammatory mediators in keratinocytes, has not been studied. Using human keratinocytes, we investigated the effect of apocynin on the inflammatory mediator production in relation to the Toll-like receptor-4-mediated-Akt/mTOR and NF-κB pathways, which regulates the transcription genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. Apocynin, Akt inhibitor SH-5, Bay 11-7085 and N-acetylcysteine each attenuated the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of cytokines, PGE2, and chemokines, changes in the levels of Toll-like receptor-4, p-Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB, and production of reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes. The results show that apocynin appears to attenuate the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators in keratinocytes by suppressing the Toll-like receptor-4-mediated activation of the Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB pathways. The effect of apocynin appears to be attributed to its inhibitory effect on the production of reactive oxygen species. Apocynin appears to attenuate the microbial product-mediated inflammatory skin diseases.

  9. Recombinant human erythropoietin suppresses endothelial cell apoptosis and reduces the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 proteins in the aortas of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jeffrey S.; Zhao, Ying; Yung, Raymond; Desai, Anjali

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical trials have raised concern that therapy with recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) may increase cardiovascular disease risk, event rate, and mortality. Endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis has been implicated in both atherogenesis as well as in the destabilization and rupture of atheromatous plaques. In the current study we observed that EPO and the EPO-mimetic peptide EMP-1 markedly suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in EC monolayers. Therapeutic concentrations of EPO upregulated Bcl-2 expression while concurrently diminishing expression of Bax, resulting in a net decrease in the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 protein concentrations. In vivo studies demonstrated that erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) is abundantly expressed in murine aorta and that EPO treatment for 10 weeks markedly decreased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 protein in the aortas of apolipoprotein E-deficient (APO E-KO) mice fed a high-fat diet. To our knowledge these data are the first to reveal a modulation of regulators of the apoptotic pathway in murine aorta by chronic EPO treatment. These observations imply that long-term administration of EPO may have the potential to affect plaque stability. PMID:21242808

  10. Explosion suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J.; Cortese, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  11. Interleukin-10-induced gene expression and suppressive function are selectively modulated by the PI3K-Akt-GSK3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Antoniv, Taras T; Ivashkiv, Lionel B

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an immunosuppressive cytokine that inhibits inflammatory gene expression. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) -mediated signalling regulates inflammatory responses and can induce IL-10 production, but a role for PI3K signalling in cellular responses to IL-10 is not known. In this study we investigated the involvement of the PI3K-Akt-GSK3 signalling pathway in IL-10-induced gene expression and IL-10-mediated suppression of Toll-like receptor-induced gene expression in primary human macrophages. A combination of loss and gain of function approaches using kinase inhibitors, expression of constitutively active Akt, and RNA interference in primary human macrophages showed that expression of a subset of IL-10-inducible genes was dependent on PI3K-Akt signalling. The effects of PI3K-Akt signalling on IL-10 responses were mediated at least in part by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). In accordance with a functional role for PI3K pathways in contributing to the suppressive actions of IL-10, PI3K signalling augmented IL-10-mediated inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-1, IL-8 and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression. The PI3K signalling selectively modulated IL-10 responses, as it was not required for inhibition of tumour necrosis factor expression or for induction of certain IL-10-inducible genes such as SOCS3. These findings identify a new mechanism by which PI3K-mediated signalling can suppress inflammation by regulating IL-10-mediated gene induction and anti-inflammatory function. PMID:21255011

  12. Sensory suppression during feeding

    PubMed Central

    Foo, H.; Mason, Peggy

    2005-01-01

    Feeding is essential for survival, whereas withdrawal and escape reactions are fundamentally protective. These critical behaviors can compete for an animal's resources when an acutely painful stimulus affects the animal during feeding. One solution to the feeding-withdrawal conflict is to optimize feeding by suppressing pain. We examined whether rats continue to feed when challenged with a painful stimulus. During feeding, motor withdrawal responses to noxious paw heat either did not occur or were greatly delayed. To investigate the neural basis of sensory suppression accompanying feeding, we recorded from brainstem pain-modulatory neurons involved in the descending control of pain transmission. During feeding, pain-facilitatory ON cells were inhibited and pain-inhibitory OFF cells were excited. When a nonpainful somatosensory stimulus preactivated ON cells and preinhibited OFF cells, rats interrupted eating to react to painful stimuli. Inactivation of the brainstem region containing ON and OFF cells also blocked pain suppression during eating, demonstrating that brainstem pain-modulatory neurons suppress motor reactions to external stimulation during homeostatic behaviors. PMID:16275919

  13. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

  14. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Townsend, Harold E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

  15. Drug Insight: appetite suppressants.

    PubMed

    Bray, George A

    2005-02-01

    The term 'appetite suppressant' is used to denote drugs that act primarily on the neurochemical transmitters of the central nervous system to reduce food intake. In addition to drugs that release or mimic the effect of norepinephrine (noradrenaline), this could include drugs that inhibit: reuptake of norepinephrine or 5-hydroxytryptamine (also known as serotonin); bind to the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors or the cannabinoid receptors; and some peptides that reduce food intake. The sympathomimetic drugs phentermine, diethylpropion, benzphetamine, and phendimetrazine--so named because they mimic many effects of norepinephrine--are only approved in a few countries, and then only for short-term use. Sibutramine, a norepinephrine-5-hydroxytryptamine reuptake inhibitor, is approved for long-term use. Several new mechanisms for drug action are under investigation. Appetite suppressants should be viewed as useful adjuncts to diet and physical activity and might help selected patients to achieve and maintain weight loss.

  16. Learning motion discrimination with suppressed and un-suppressed MT.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Benjamin; Liu, Zili

    2006-06-01

    Perceptual learning of motion direction discrimination is generally thought to rely on the middle temporal area of the brain (MT/V5). A recent study investigating learning of motion discrimination when MT was psychophysically suppressed found that learning was possible with suppressed MT, but only when the task was sufficiently easy [Lu, H., Qian, N., Liu, Z. (2004). Learning motion discrimination with suppressed MT. Vision Research 44, 1817-1825]. We investigated whether this effect was indeed due to MT suppression or whether it could be explained by task difficulty alone. By comparing learning of motion discrimination when MT was suppressed vs. un-suppressed, at different task difficulties, we found that task difficulty alone could not explain the effects. At the highest difficulty, learning was not possible with suppressed MT, confirming [Lu, H., Qian, N., Liu, Z. (2004). Learning motion discrimination with suppressed MT. Vision Research 44, 1817-1825]. In comparison, learning was possible with un-suppressed MT at the same difficulty level. At the intermediate task difficulty, there was a clear learning disadvantage when MT was suppressed. Only for the easiest level of difficulty, did learning become equally possible for both suppressed and un-suppressed conditions. These findings suggest that MT plays an important role in learning to discriminate relatively fine differences in motion direction.

  17. Suppression Workshop Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-07

    the sodium is just about as effective as potassium in accelerating the OH decay rates . These results can be used to validate the kinetic suppression... rate of reaction of the combustibles. It represents the proportion of combustibles in the breech. It was found that a very strong effect on the blast...accelerating the CH decay rate decreased with continued potassium addition. They also found that, for a Fg c amount of potassium added to the flames, the

  18. Tremor suppression in ECG

    PubMed Central

    Dotsinsky, Ivan A; Mihov, Georgy S

    2008-01-01

    Background Electrocardiogram recordings are very often contaminated by high-frequency noise usually power-line interference and EMG disturbances (tremor). Specific method for interference cancellation without affecting the proper ECG components, called subtraction procedure, was developed some two decades ago. Filtering out the tremor remains a priori partially successful since it has a relatively wide spectrum, which overlaps the useful ECG frequency band. Method The proposed method for tremor suppression implements the following three procedures. Contaminated ECG signals are subjected to moving averaging (comb filter with linear phase characteristic) with first zero set at 50 Hz to suppress tremor and PL interference simultaneously. The reduced peaks of QRS complexes and other relatively high and steep ECG waves are then restored by an introduced by us procedure called linearly-angular, so that the useful high frequency components are preserved in the range specified by the embedded in the ECG instrument filter, usually up to 125 Hz. Finally, a Savitzky-Golay smoothing filter is applied for supplementary tremor suppression outside the QRS complexes. Results The results obtained show a low level of the residual EMG disturbances together with negligible distortion of the wave shapes regardless of rhythm and morphology changes. PMID:19019218

  19. Next generation fire suppressants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jerry A.

    1995-01-01

    Spectrex, Inc., located in Cedar Grove, NJ is a manufacturer of fire detection and suppression equipment. Spectrex is one of the original pioneers in high speed fire detection and suppression systems for combat vehicles. Spectrex has installed fire suppressions systems in thousands of combat vehicles and ships throughout the world. Additionally, they manufacture flame explosion detectors, ship damage control systems, and optical gas and vapor detectors. The culmination of several years of research and development has recently produced an innovative electro-optical continuous monitoring systems called SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) and SAFEYE that provide fast and reliable gas, vapor, aerosol, flame, and explosion detection. SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) is a self-contained triple spectrum flame detector which scans for oscillating IR radiation (1 to 10 Hz) in the spectral bands ranging from 4.0 to 5.0 microns and uses programmed algorithms to check the ratio and correlation of data received by the three sensors to make the system highly immune to false alarms. It is extremely sensitive as it can detect a 1 x 1 square foot gasoline pan fire at 200 feet in less than 3 seconds. The sensitivity is user programmable, offering 4 ranges of detection. SAFEYE is comprised of a selected number of multispectral ban microprocessors controlled detectors which are in communication with one or more radiation sources that is projected along a 600 feet optical path. The signals from the selected narrow bands are processed and analyzed by highly sophisticated algorithms. It is ideal for high risk, remote, large areas such as petroleum and chemical manufacturing sites, waste dumps, aircraft cargo bays, and ship compartments. The SAFEYE will perform direct readings of the presence or rate of rise of concentrations of gases, vapors, or aerosols at the range of parts per million and provide alarms at various set points at different levels of concentrations.

  20. Enhancing thought suppression with hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A; Wimalaweera, Subodha

    2006-10-01

    Much research indicates that attempts to suppress thoughts lead to increased accessibility of those thoughts, especially when additional cognitive load is present. On the premise that hypnosis may permit more effective management of cognitive load, it was hypothesized that hypnosis may enhance more effective thought suppression. The present research examined whether the obstacle of cognitive load could be bypassed using hypnosis to facilitate successful thought suppression. Thirty-nine high and 40 low hypnotizable participants were hypnotized and received either a suppression instruction or no instruction for a memory of an embarrassing experience and subsequently completed a sentence-unscrambling task that indexed accessibility of embarrassing thoughts. Whereas lows instructed to suppress displayed a delayed increase in suppressed thoughts, highs did not. These findings support the proposition that hypnosis facilitates thought suppression.

  1. Suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    Comparing two RNA populations that differ from the effects of a single independent variable, such as a drug treatment or a specific genetic defect, can establish differences in the abundance of specific transcripts that vary in a population dependent manner. There are different methods for identifying differentially expressed genes. These methods include microarray, Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), and quantitative Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Herein, the protocol describes an easy and cost-effective alternative that does not require prior knowledge of the transcriptomes under examination. It is specifically relevant when low levels of RNA starting material are available. This protocol describes the use of Switching Mechanism At RNA Termini Polymerase Chain Reaction (SMART-PCR) to amplify cDNA from small amounts of RNA. The amplified cDNA populations under comparison are then subjected to Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-PCR). SSH-PCR is a technique that couples subtractive hybridization with suppression PCR to selectively amplify fragments of differentially expressed genes. The resulting products are cDNA populations enriched for significantly overrepresented transcripts in either of the two input RNAs. These cDNA populations can then be cloned to generate subtracted cDNA library. Microarrays made with clones from the subtracted forward and reverse cDNA libraries are then screened for differentially expressed genes using targets generated from tester and driver total RNAs.

  2. Planck-suppressed operators

    SciTech Connect

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel; McAllister, Liam E-mail: dbaumann@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: mcallister@cornell.edu

    2014-01-01

    We show that the recent Planck limits on primordial non-Gaussianity impose strong constraints on light hidden sector fields coupled to the inflaton via operators suppressed by a high mass scale Λ. We study a simple effective field theory in which a hidden sector field is coupled to a shift-symmetric inflaton via arbitrary operators up to dimension five. Self-interactions in the hidden sector lead to non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbations. To be consistent with the Planck limit on local non-Gaussianity, the coupling to any hidden sector with light fields and natural cubic couplings must be suppressed by a very high scale Λ > 10{sup 5}H. Even if the hidden sector has Gaussian correlations, nonlinearities in the mixing with the inflaton still lead to non-Gaussian curvature perturbations. In this case, the non-Gaussianity is of the equilateral or orthogonal type, and the Planck data requires Λ > 10{sup 2}H.

  3. Pharmacology of appetite suppression.

    PubMed

    Halford, J C; Blundell, J E

    2000-01-01

    Despite a rising worldwide epidemic of obesity there is currently only a very small number of anti-obesity drugs available to manage the problem. Large numbers of differing pharmacological agents reliably produce a reduction in food intake when administered acutely to animals, and when administered chronically they result in a significant decrease in body mass. Behavioural analysis of drug-induced anorexia in animals demonstrates that various compounds profoundly effect feeding behaviour in differing ways. This indicates the variety of mechanisms by which pharmacological agents can induce changes in food intake, body weight and eventually body composition. Some of the same drugs produce decreases in food intake and weight loss in humans. Some of these drugs do so by modifying the functioning of the appetite system as measured by subjective changes in feelings of hunger and fullness (indices of satiety). Such drugs can be considered as "appetite suppressants" with clinical potential as anti-obesity agents. Other drugs induce changes in food intake and body weight through various physiological mechanisms inducing feelings of nausea or even by side effect related malaise. Of the drugs considered suitable candidates for appetite suppressants are agents which act via peripherally satiety peptide systems (such as CCK, Bombesin/GRP, Enterostatin and GLP-1), or alter the CNS levels of various hypothalamic neuropeptides (NPY, Galanin, Orexin and Melanocortins) or levels of the key CNS appetite monoamine neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA). Recently, the hormone leptin has been regarded as a hormonal signal linking adipose tissue status with a number of key central nervous system circuits. The peptide itself stimulates leptin receptors and it links with POMC and MC-4 receptors. These receptors may also provide drug targets for the control of appetite. Any changes induced by a potential appetite suppressant should be considered in terms of the (i

  4. Ultrasonic Frost Suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Kazunari; Saiki, Kazushi; Sato, Hiroki; Ito, Takahiro

    2003-02-01

    The authors have observed the accumulation of frost on the surface of a rectangular aluminum alloy (duralumin) plate flexurally vibrating at approximately 37 kHz in an atmosphere of almost 100% relative humidity at 2°C. The plate surface, which had been prepolished with abrasive slurry for maintaining its average surface roughness of about 100 nm, was refrigerated at a temperature of -20°C with cold carbon-dioxide gas as coolant. Experiments have been conducted with and without fine silver oxide powder spread on the plate surface so as to examine the effect of artificial ice crystal nuclei. Ultrasonic vibrations with an amplitude of 3.4 μm (rms) are found to suppress frost accumulation by approximately 60%. The phenomenon cannot be ascribed directly to the heat generation caused by high-amplitude vibration, but may have a complex mechanical and/or acoustical effect on small ice crystals.

  5. Pressure suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1994-10-04

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein. 3 figs.

  6. Pressure suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein.

  7. ZERO SUPPRESSION FOR RECORDERS

    DOEpatents

    Fort, W.G.S.

    1958-12-30

    A zero-suppression circuit for self-balancing recorder instruments is presented. The essential elements of the circuit include a converter-amplifier having two inputs, one for a reference voltage and the other for the signal voltage under analysis, and a servomotor with two control windings, one coupled to the a-c output of the converter-amplifier and the other receiving a reference input. Each input circuit to the converter-amplifier has a variable potentiometer and the sliders of the potentiometer are ganged together for movement by the servoinotor. The particular noveity of the circuit resides in the selection of resistance values for the potentiometer and a resistor in series with the potentiometer of the signal circuit to ensure the full value of signal voltage variation is impressed on a recorder mechanism driven by servomotor.

  8. Factors influencing dust suppressant effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, C.R.; Eisele, T.C.; Chesney, D.J.; Kawatra, S.K.

    2008-11-15

    Water sprays are a common method used to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions. Various factors such as wettability, surface area coverage, fine particle engulfment rates, interparticle adhesion forces, suppressant penetration and suppressant longevity have all been suggested as critical factors in achieving effective PM control. However, it has not been established which of these factors are the most important. Experimental work indicated that suppressant penetration is the most critical of these factors. The length of time after application that suppressants were effective was also improved by using hygroscopic reagents that retained moisture to prevent evaporation. Maximizing suppressant penetration and improving suppressant longevity led to an average 86% reduction in PM10 concentrations in laboratory dust tower tests.

  9. The site of saccadic suppression.

    PubMed

    Thilo, Kai V; Santoro, Loredana; Walsh, Vincent; Blakemore, Colin

    2004-01-01

    During rapid eye movements, or saccades, stable vision is maintained by active reduction of visual sensitivity. The site of this saccadic suppression remains uncertain. Here we show that phosphenes--small illusory visual perceptions--induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the human occipital cortex are immune to saccadic suppression, whereas phosphenes induced by retinal stimulation are not, thus providing direct physiological evidence that saccadic suppression occurs between the retina and the occipital visual cortex.

  10. STRV Cryocooler Tip Motion Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Johnson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV-1b) scheduled to fly at the beginning of June 1994, has a cryocooler vibration suppression experiment aboard doing motion suppression of the tip of the coldfinger. STRV-1b is a bread box sized satellite to be launched on the next flight of the Ariane-4.

  11. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  12. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  13. STRV Cryocooler Tip Motion Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Johnson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV-1b) scheduled to fly at the beginning of June 1994, has a cryocooler vibration suppression experiment aboard doing motion suppression of the tip of the coldfinger. STRV-1b is a bread box sized satellite to be launched on the next flight of the Ariane-4.

  14. Suppressing Display Cockpit Reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Rudolf

    1987-09-01

    Modern aircraft displays with relatively high visual brightness levels present day and night sensor images (generated by electro-optical systems) to crew members for navigation and fire control purposes. A heads out display (HOD) on a cathode ray tube (CRT) screen, while effective for one crew member, may distract or irritate another crew member if the image is reflected off a canopy panel into his eyes, particularly at night. This paper presents one solution applied to canopy reflection suppression encountered in the U.S. Army's APACHE Advanced Attack Helicopter where the co-pilot's HOD reflections interfered with the pilot's vision. When the co-pilot would move his head away from the screen, the reflected image path to the pilot, sitting above and behind the co-pilot, would no longer be blocked and distract him. A variety of polarizers were studied and the problem was solved by placing a linear polarizer over the CRT with its axis crossed relative to the skipping vector of the reflection, letting the canopy panel act as an analyzer. Reflected luminance was reduced by more than 25 times.

  15. Painful consequences of anger suppression.

    PubMed

    Quartana, Phillip J; Burns, John W

    2007-05-01

    The authors experimentally examined the effects of anger suppression on pain perception. On the basis of ironic process theory, they proposed that efforts to suppress experiential or expressive components of anger may paradoxically enhance cognitive accessibility of anger-related thoughts and feelings, thereby contaminating perception of succeeding pain in an anger-congruent manner. Participants were randomly assigned to nonsuppression or experiential or expressive suppression conditions during mental arithmetic with or without harassment. A cold-pressor task followed. Results revealed that participants instructed to suppress experiential or expressive components of emotion during harassment not only reported the greatest pain levels, but also rated the anger-specific dimensions of pain uniquely strong. Results suggest that attempts to suppress anger may amplify pain sensitivity by ironically augmenting perception of the irritating and frustrating qualities of pain.

  16. Inducing amnesia through systemic suppression

    PubMed Central

    Hulbert, Justin C.; Henson, Richard N.; Anderson, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal damage profoundly disrupts the ability to store new memories of life events. Amnesic windows might also occur in healthy people due to disturbed hippocampal function arising during mental processes that systemically reduce hippocampal activity. Intentionally suppressing memory retrieval (retrieval stopping) reduces hippocampal activity via control mechanisms mediated by the lateral prefrontal cortex. Here we show that when people suppress retrieval given a reminder of an unwanted memory, they are considerably more likely to forget unrelated experiences from periods surrounding suppression. This amnesic shadow follows a dose-response function, becomes more pronounced after practice suppressing retrieval, exhibits characteristics indicating disturbed hippocampal function, and is predicted by reduced hippocampal activity. These findings indicate that stopping retrieval engages a suppression mechanism that broadly compromises hippocampal processes and that hippocampal stabilization processes can be interrupted strategically. Cognitively triggered amnesia constitutes an unrecognized forgetting process that may account for otherwise unexplained memory lapses following trauma. PMID:26977589

  17. Fucosterol isolated from Undaria pinnatifida inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines via the inactivation of nuclear factor-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Min-Sang; Shin, Ji-Sun; Choi, Hye-Eun; Cho, Young-Wuk; Bang, Myun-Ho; Baek, Nam-In; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2012-12-01

    It has been reported that fucosterol has anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, and anti-osteoporotic effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying molecular mechanism of fucosterol in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Fucosterol suppressed the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by downregulating their transcriptions, and subsequently inhibited the productions of nitric oxide, TNF-α, and IL-6. In addition, fucosterol attenuated LPS-induced DNA binding and the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). These reductions were accompanied by parallel reductions in the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Furthermore, fucosterol attenuated the phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 3/6 (MKK3/6) and mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), which are both involved in the p38 MAPK pathway. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of fucosterol are associated with the suppression of the NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways.

  18. Extracts of Ficus exasperata leaf inhibit topical and systemic inflammation in rodents and suppress LPS-induced expression of mediators of inflammation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nworu, Chukwuemeka S; Nwuke, Henry C; Akah, Peter A; Okoye, Festus B C; Esimone, Charles O

    2013-01-01

    The leaves of Ficus exasperata are mashed and prepared as poultices that are placed on swellings, wounds, and arthritic joints to relieve swelling and pains by the Igede tribal community of Nigeria. The leaf and stalk are also squeezed and used to mitigate itching or inflammation. These claimed benefits inspired this study in which topical and systemic (acute, chronic) anti-inflammatory activities of a methanol/methylene chloride leaf extract of F. exasperata (MFE) were assessed in rodents. Effects of an aqueous leaf extract (AFE) on lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and inducible nitric oxide (iNO) were also investigated in murine bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) cultures. Treatment of rats with MFE (200 and 400 mg/kg) led to significant inhibition of acute and chronic inflammation induced by, respectively, agar and formaldehyde in the paws. Topically, pre-application of mice with MFE (5 µg/ear) also significantly inhibited (by up to 21%) ear edema induced by xylene. In vitro, pre-treatment of BMDM with 5-100 µg AFE/ml significantly inhibited IL-1β, TNFα, and iNO production in a dose-related manner. BMDM viability was not significantly affected AFE at concentrations up to 200 µg/ml. Initial studies showed that flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids were the predominant phytoconstituents in each extract. In conclusion, the results of the various investigations indicated that F. exasperata leaf extracts possess anti-inflammatory properties that could underlie the benefits associated with the folklore use of the plant. The results also show that the extracts may be acting through a suppression of mediators of inflammation, such as IL-1β, TNFα, and iNO.

  19. In Vivo Treg Suppression Assays

    PubMed Central

    Workman, Creg J.; Collison, Lauren W.; Bettini, Maria; Pillai, Meenu R.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Vignali, Dario A.A.

    2011-01-01

    To fully examine the functionality of a regulatory T cell (Treg) population, one needs to assess their ability to suppress in a variety of in vivo models. We describe five in vivo models that examine the suppressive capacity of Tregs upon different target cell types. The advantages and disadvantages of each model includ ing resources, time, and technical expertise required to execute each model are also described. PMID:21287333

  20. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Snoek, Hella Leonie

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  1. Menstrual suppression in special circumstances.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Yolanda A; Ornstein, Melanie P; Aggarwal, Anjali; McQuillan, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    To provide a Canadian consensus document for health care providers with recommendations for menstrual suppression in patients with physical and/or cognitive challenges or those who are undergoing cancer treatment in whom menstruation may have a deleterious effect on their health. This document reviews the options available for menstrual suppression, its specific indications, contraindications, and side effects, both immediate and long-term, and the investigations and monitoring necessary throughout suppression. Clinicians will be better informed about the options and indications for menstrual suppression in patients with cognitive and/or physical disabilities and patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiation, or other treatments for cancer. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline, EMBASE, OVID, and the Cochrane Library using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (heavy menstrual bleeding, menstrual suppression, chemotherapy/radiation, cognitive disability, physical disability, learning disability). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observation studies, and pilot studies. There were no language or date restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and new material was incorporated into the guideline until September 2013. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). There is a need for specific guidelines on menstrual suppression in at-risk populations for health care providers. Recommendations 1. Menstrual suppression and therapeutic amenorrhea should be considered safe and viable options for women who need or want to have

  2. n-Butanol extract from Folium isatidis inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages and protects mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lili; Lu, Yili; Jin, Jiahui; Dong, Lili; Xu, Fengli; Chen, Shuangshuang; Wang, Zhanyue; Liang, Guang; Shan, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis, which is caused by severe infection, is an important cause of mortality, but effective clinical treatment against sepsis is extremely limited. As the main component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a major role in inflammatory responses. Studies have shown beneficial pharmacological effects for Folium isatidis. The present study further illuminated the effects of n-butanol extract from Folium isatidis in LPS-induced septic shock and identified the main active chemical components. Our study showed that pretreatment with n-butanol extract from Folium isatidis not only significantly inhibited LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 production but also markedly and dose dependently enhanced the recruitment of MyD88, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and the degradation of IκB-α. Additionally, the extract exhibited dramatic protective effects against lung injury and death in mice with septic shock. Eight main active compounds were identified, including organic acids, glycoside, indolinones, and flavonoids. These findings provide a perspective on the respiratory protection offered by n-butanol extract from Folium isatidis in LPS-induced sepsis and outline a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis. PMID:26491261

  3. Visual Surround Suppression in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Tibber, Marc S.; Anderson, Elaine J.; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast – a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies. PMID:23450069

  4. Vibration suppression using smart structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ephrahim; Inman, Daniel J.; Dosch, Jeffrey

    The control of structures for vibration suppression is discussed in the context of using smart materials and structures. Here the use of smart structures refers to using embedded piezoelectric devices as both control actuators and sensors. Using embedded sensors and actuators allows great improvements in performance over traditional structures (both passive and active) for vibration suppression. The application of smart structures to three experimental flexible structures is presented. The first is a flexible beam, the second is a flexible beam undergoing slewing motion, the third is a ribbed antenna. A simple model of a piezoelectric actuator/sensor is presented. The equations of motion for each structure is presented. The control issues considered as those associated with multi-input, multi-output control, PID control and LQR control implementation. A modern control analysis illustrates the usefulness of smart structures for vibration suppression.

  5. Vibration suppression using smart structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ephrahim; Inman, Daniel J.; Dosch, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    The control of structures for vibration suppression is discussed in the context of using smart materials and structures. Here the use of smart structures refers to using embedded piezoelectric devices as both control actuators and sensors. Using embedded sensors and actuators allows great improvements in performance over traditional structures (both passive and active) for vibration suppression. The application of smart structures to three experimental flexible structures is presented. The first is a flexible beam, the second is a flexible beam undergoing slewing motion, the third is a ribbed antenna. A simple model of a piezoelectric actuator/sensor is presented. The equations of motion for each structure is presented. The control issues considered as those associated with multi-input, multi-output control, PID control and LQR control implementation. A modern control analysis illustrates the usefulness of smart structures for vibration suppression.

  6. The amphetamine appetite suppressant saga.

    PubMed

    2004-02-01

    (1) In 1999, all amphetamine derivatives still sold in France as appetite suppressants were withdrawn from the market because of serious cardiovascular adverse effects. Sibutramine, marketed in France since 2001, is closely related to this group of drugs. (2) The adverse effects shared by these drugs are mainly neuropsychiatric (due to a psychostimulant action) and cardiovascular (arterial hypertension and tachycardia). (3) More specific cardiovascular adverse effects, such as pulmonary hypertension and severe cardiac valve damage, emerged after several years of use. The first reports date back to the 1960s. (4) The pulmonary hypertension associated with appetite suppressants can be fatal or necessitate transplantation. (5) Cardiac valve damage due to appetite suppressants is generally irreversible and sometimes requires surgery.

  7. Noise suppressing capillary separation system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Xue, Yongjun

    1996-07-30

    A noise-suppressing capillary separation system for detecting the real-time presence or concentration of an analyte in a sample is provided. The system contains a capillary separation means through which the analyte is moved, a coherent light source that generates a beam which is split into a reference beam and a sample beam that irradiate the capillary, and a detector for detecting the reference beam and the sample beam light that transmits through the capillary. The laser beam is of a wavelength effective to be absorbed by a chromophore in the capillary. The system includes a noise suppressing system to improve performance and accuracy without signal averaging or multiple scans.

  8. MicroRNA-150 suppression of angiopoetin-2 generation and signaling is crucial for resolving vascular injury

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Charu; Tauseef, Mohammad; Farazuddin, Mohammad; Yazbeck, Pascal; Amin, Md-Ruhul; Avin, Vijay BR; Sharma, Tiffany; Mehta, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Increased vascular permeability is a hallmark of sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Angiopoietin (Ang2) induces vascular leak, and excess Ang2 generation is associated with patient mortality from these diseases. However, mechanisms dampening Ang2 generation during injury remain unclear. Interestingly, microRNA-150 levels were decreased in septic patients. MicoRNAs (miR) regulate signaling networks by silencing mRNAs containing complementary sequences. Thus, we hypothesized that miR-150 suppresses Ang2 generation and thereby resolves vascular injury. Approach and Results Wild-type or miR-150−/− mice or endothelial cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide or sepsis and Ang2 levels, adherens junction re-annealing, endothelial barrier function and mortality were determined. While Ang2 transiently increased during lipopolysaccharide-induced injury in wild-type endothelial cells and lungs, miR-150 expression was elevated only during recovery from injury. Deletion of miR-150 caused a persistent increase in Ang2 levels and impaired adherens junctions re-annealing after injury, resulting thereby in an irreversible increase in vascular permeability. Also, miR-150−/− mice died rapidly after sepsis. Rescuing miR-150 expression in endothelial cells prevented Ang2 generation, thereby restoring vascular barrier function in miR-150−/− mice. miR-150 terminated Ang2 generation by targeting the transcription factor, early growth response 2. Thus, early growth response 2 or Ang2 depletion in miR-150−/− endothelial cells restored junctional re-annealing and reinstated barrier function. Importantly, upregulating miR-150 expression by injecting a chemically synthesized miR-150 mimic into WT-mice vasculature decreased EGR2 and Ang2 levels and hence mortality from sepsis. Conclusions miR-150 is a novel suppressor of Ang2 generation with a key role in resolving vascular injury and reducing mortality resulting from sepsis. PMID:26743170

  9. Conditioned suppression, punishment, and aversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Yarczower, M.

    1974-01-01

    The aversive action of visual stimuli was studied in two groups of pigeons which received response-contingent or noncontingent electric shocks in cages with translucent response keys. Presentation of grain for 3 sec, contingent on key pecking, was the visual stimulus associated with conditioned punishment or suppression. The responses of the pigeons in three different experiments are compared.

  10. Suppressing explosive synchronization by contrarians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiyun; Guan, Shuguang; Zou, Yong; Chen, Xiaosong; Liu, Zonghua

    2016-01-01

    Explosive synchronization (ES) has recently received increasing attention and studies have mainly focused on the conditions of its onset so far. However, its inverse problem, i.e. the suppression of ES, has not been systematically studied so far. As ES is usually considered to be harmful in certain circumstances such as the cascading failure of power grids and epileptic seizure, etc., its suppression is definitely important and deserves to be studied. We here study this inverse problem by presenting an efficient approach to suppress ES from a first-order to second-order transition, without changing the intrinsic network structure. We find that ES can be suppressed by only changing a small fraction of oscillators into contrarians with negative couplings and the critical fraction for the transition from the first order to the second order increases with both the network size and the average degree. A brief theory is presented to explain the underlying mechanism. This finding underlines the importance of our method to improve the understanding of neural interactions underlying cognitive processes.

  11. High temperature suppression of dioxins.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ming-Xiu; Chen, Tong; Fu, Jian-Ying; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yan, Jian-Hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2016-03-01

    Combined Sulphur-Nitrogen inhibitors, such as sewage sludge decomposition gases (SDG), thiourea and amidosulphonic acid have been observed to suppress the de novo synthesis of dioxins effectively. In this study, the inhibition of PCDD/Fs formation from model fly ash was investigated at unusually high temperatures (650 °C and 850 °C), well above the usual range of de novo tests (250-400 °C). At 650 °C it was found that SDG evolving from dried sewage sludge could suppress the formation of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs with high efficiency (90%), both in weight units and in I-TEQ units. Additionally, at 850 °C, three kinds of sulphur-amine or sulphur-ammonium compounds were tested to inhibit dioxins formation during laboratory-scale tests, simulating municipal solid waste incineration. The suppression efficiencies of PCDD/Fs formed through homogeneous gas phase reactions were all above 85% when 3 wt. % of thiourea (98.7%), aminosulphonic acid (96.0%) or ammonium thiosulphate (87.3%) was added. Differences in the ratio of PCDFs/PCDDs, in weight average chlorination level and in the congener distribution of the 17 toxic PCDD/Fs indicated that the three inhibitors tested followed distinct suppression pathways, possibly in relation to their different functional groups of nitrogen. Furthermore, thiourea reduced the (weight) average chlorinated level. In addition, the thermal decomposition of TUA was studied by means of thermogravimetry-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) and the presence of SO2, SO3, NH3 and nitriles (N≡C bonds) was shown in the decomposition gases; these gaseous inhibitors might be the primary dioxins suppressants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Noise suppressing capillary separation system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Xue, Y.

    1996-07-30

    A noise-suppressing capillary separation system for detecting the real-time presence or concentration of an analyte in a sample is provided. The system contains a capillary separation means through which the analyte is moved, a coherent light source that generates a beam which is split into a reference beam and a sample beam that irradiate the capillary, and a detector for detecting the reference beam and the sample beam light that transmits through the capillary. The laser beam is of a wavelength effective to be absorbed by a chromophore in the capillary. The system includes a noise suppressing system to improve performance and accuracy without signal averaging or multiple scans. 13 figs.

  13. Suppression of operant vs consummatory behavior.

    PubMed

    DeCosta, M J; Ayres, J J

    1971-07-01

    The magnitude and variability of conditioned suppression of bar pressing and dipper licking were compared. In two steady-state experiments, suppression of bar pressing was more profound and more stable from day to day. The two measures of suppression were uncorrelated as indexed by Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients computed for adjacent trials. Correlations within measures (internal consistency) were somewhat higher for the bar-press system except when a high proportion of rats completely suppressed on one of the correlated trials. In a transient state experiment in which possible adventitious punishment of both response systems was eliminated, suppression of bar pressing was again more profound and considerably slower to extinguish.

  14. Wakefield suppression using beatwave structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, D.; Kim, J.S.

    1991-12-31

    A proposed method of suppressing transverse wakefields in an accelerating structure makes use of the fact that superposition of long-range wakes excited by an electron bunch transversing a series of accelerating cells with different transverse frequencies can produce interference cancellation, thereby significantly reducing the magnitudes of the harmful wake potentials. Analytic calculations as well as time-domain and modal sum simulations are performed to the beatwave effects produced by detuned, disk-loaded cavities as function of their transverse frequency spread and the population density.

  15. Fire suppression and detection equipment

    SciTech Connect

    E.E. Bates

    2006-01-15

    Inspection and testing guidelines go beyond the 'Code of Federal Regulation'. Title 30 of the US Code of Federal Regulations (30 CFR) contains requirements and references to national standards for inspection, testing and maintenance of fire suppression and detection equipment for mine operators. However, federal requirements have not kept pace with national standards and best practices. The article lists National Fire Protection (NFPA) standards that are referenced by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 30 CFR. It then discusses other NFPA Standards excluded from 30 CFR and explains the NFPA standard development process. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 5 photos.

  16. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

    PubMed

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues.

  17. Orientation-tuned suppression in binocular rivalry reveals general and specific components of rivalry suppression.

    PubMed

    Stuit, Sjoerd M; Cass, John; Paffen, Chris L E; Alais, David

    2009-10-16

    During binocular rivalry (BR), conflicting monocular images are alternately suppressed from awareness. During suppression of an image, contrast sensitivity for probes is reduced by approximately 0.3-0.5 log units relative to when the image is in perceptual dominance. Previous studies on rivalry suppression have led to controversies concerning the nature and extent of suppression during BR. We tested for feature-specific suppression using orthogonal rivaling gratings and measuring contrast sensitivity to small grating probes at a range of orientations in a 2AFC orientation discrimination task. Results indicate that suppression is not uniform across orientations: suppression was much greater for orientations close to that of the suppressed grating. The higher suppression was specific to a narrow range around the suppressed rival grating, with a tuning similar to V1 orientation bandwidths. A similar experiment tested for spatial frequency tuning and found that suppression was stronger for frequencies close to that of the suppressed grating. Interestingly, no tuned suppression was observed when a flicker-and-swap paradigm was used, suggesting that tuned suppression occurs only for lower-level, interocular rivalry. Together, the results suggest there are two components to rivalry suppression: a general feature-invariant component and an additional component specifically tuned to the rivaling features.

  18. Glucose Suppression of Glucagon Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Le Marchand, Sylvain J.; Piston, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Glucagon is released from α-cells present in intact pancreatic islets at glucose concentrations below 4 mm, whereas higher glucose levels inhibit its secretion. The mechanisms underlying the suppression of α-cell secretory activity are poorly understood, but two general types of models have been proposed as follows: direct inhibition by glucose or paracrine inhibition from non-α-cells within the islet of Langerhans. To identify α-cells for analysis, we utilized transgenic mice expressing fluorescent proteins targeted specifically to these cells. Measurements of glucagon secretion from pure populations of flow-sorted α-cells show that contrary to its effect on intact islets, glucose does stimulate glucagon secretion from isolated α-cells. This observation argues against a direct inhibition of glucagon secretion by glucose and supports the paracrine inhibition model. Imaging of cellular metabolism by two-photon excitation of NAD(P)H autofluorescence indicates that glucose is metabolized in α-cells and that glucokinase is the likely rate-limiting step in this process. Imaging calcium dynamics of α-cells in intact islets reveals that inhibiting concentrations of glucose increase the intracellular calcium concentration and the frequency of α-cell calcium oscillations. Application of candidate paracrine inhibitors leads to reduced glucagon secretion but did not decrease the α-cell calcium activity. Taken together, the data suggest that suppression occurs downstream from α-cell calcium signaling, presumably at the level of vesicle trafficking or exocytotic machinery. PMID:20231269

  19. Water Mist fire suppression experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Water Mist commercial research program is scheduled to fly an investigation on STS-107 in 2002. This investigation will be flown as an Experimental Mounting Structure (EMS) insert into the updated Combustion Module (CM-2), a sophisticated combustion chamber plus diagnostic equipment. (The investigation hardware is shown here mounted in a non-flight frame similar to the EMS.) Water Mist is a commercial research program by the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS), a NASA Commercial Space Center located at the Colorado School of Mines, in Golden, CO and Industry Partner Environmental Engineering Concepts. The program is focused on developing water mist as a replacement for bromine-based chemical fire suppression agents (halons). By conducting the experiments in microgravity, interference from convection currents is minimized and fundamental knowledge can be gained. This knowledge is incorporated into models, which can be used to simulate a variety of physical environments. The immediate objective of the project is to study the effect of a fine water mist on a laminar propagating flame generated in a propane-air mixture at various equivalence ratios. The effects of droplet size and concentration on the speed of the flame front is used as a measure of the effectiveness of fire suppression in this highly controlled experimental environment.

  20. Methods of suppressing automotive interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taggart, H. E.

    1981-11-01

    Automotive manufacturers utilize several techniques to reduce EMI emanating from the vehicle. The techniques include resistor spark plugs, resistor spark plug cables, use of silicone lubricant in the distributor, use of capacitors as filters, placement of grounding straps at key locations, conductive fan belt discharge, and tire static-charge reduction. If even further reduction is needed to obtain the maximum capability of a specific mobile communication system, additional suppression techniques are discussed which are effective at frequencies from approximately 30 to 1000 MHz. Measurement results show that the EMI from a new production-line automobile, measured in accordance with SAE Standard J551g, can be reduced as much as 10 to 15 dB by employing these suppression techniques. The amount of degradation to a mobile narrow-band FM receiver, such as the type used by law enforcement agencies, can be measured using the measurement technique described. This same technique can then be used as a tool to further reduce EMI from the vehicle components.

  1. Suppressed epidemics in multirelational networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Elvis H. W.; Wang, Wei; Xu, C.; Tang, Ming; Do, Younghae; Hui, P. M.

    2015-08-01

    A two-state epidemic model in networks with links mimicking two kinds of relationships between connected nodes is introduced. Links of weights w1 and w0 occur with probabilities p and 1 -p , respectively. The fraction of infected nodes ρ (p ) shows a nonmonotonic behavior, with ρ drops with p for small p and increases for large p . For small to moderate w1/w0 ratios, ρ (p ) exhibits a minimum that signifies an optimal suppression. For large w1/w0 ratios, the suppression leads to an absorbing phase consisting only of healthy nodes within a range pL≤p ≤pR , and an active phase with mixed infected and healthy nodes for p pR . A mean field theory that ignores spatial correlation is shown to give qualitative agreement and capture all the key features. A physical picture that emphasizes the intricate interplay between infections via w0 links and within clusters formed by nodes carrying the w1 links is presented. The absorbing state at large w1/w0 ratios results when the clusters are big enough to disrupt the spread via w0 links and yet small enough to avoid an epidemic within the clusters. A theory that uses the possible local environments of a node as variables is formulated. The theory gives results in good agreement with simulation results, thereby showing the necessity of including longer spatial correlations.

  2. Water Mist fire suppression experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Water Mist commercial research program is scheduled to fly an investigation on STS-107 in 2002. This investigation will be flown as an Experimental Mounting Structure (EMS) insert into the updated Combustion Module (CM-2), a sophisticated combustion chamber plus diagnostic equipment. (The investigation hardware is shown here mounted in a non-flight frame similar to the EMS.) Water Mist is a commercial research program by the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS), a NASA Commercial Space Center located at the Colorado School of Mines, in Golden, CO and Industry Partner Environmental Engineering Concepts. The program is focused on developing water mist as a replacement for bromine-based chemical fire suppression agents (halons). By conducting the experiments in microgravity, interference from convection currents is minimized and fundamental knowledge can be gained. This knowledge is incorporated into models, which can be used to simulate a variety of physical environments. The immediate objective of the project is to study the effect of a fine water mist on a laminar propagating flame generated in a propane-air mixture at various equivalence ratios. The effects of droplet size and concentration on the speed of the flame front is used as a measure of the effectiveness of fire suppression in this highly controlled experimental environment.

  3. Milk Thistle Extract and Silymarin Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide Induced Lamellar Separation of Hoof Explants in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Nicole; Schaumberger, Simone; Nagl, Veronika; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of laminitis is not completely identified and the role of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) in this process remains unclear. Phytogenic substances, like milk thistle (MT) and silymarin, are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and might therefore have the potential to counteract endotoxin induced effects on the hoof lamellar tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of endotoxins on lamellar tissue integrity and to test if MT and silymarin are capable of inhibiting LPS-induced effects in an in vitro/ex vivo model. In preliminary tests, LPS neutralization efficiency of these phytogenics was determined in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, tissue explants gained from hooves of slaughter horses were tested for lamellar separation after incubation with different concentrations of LPS. By combined incubation of explants with LPS and either Polymyxin B (PMB; positive control), MT or silymarin, the influence of these substances on LPS-induced effects was assessed. In the in vitro neutralization assay, MT and silymarin reduced LPS concentrations by 64% and 75%, respectively, in comparison PMB reduced 98% of the LPS concentration. In hoof explants, LPS led to a concentration dependent separation. Accordantly, separation force was significantly decreased by 10 µg/mL LPS. PMB, MT and silymarin could significantly improve tissue integrity of explants incubated with 10 µg/mL LPS. This study showed that LPS had a negative influence on the structure of hoof explants in vitro. MT and silymarin reduced endotoxin activity and inhibited LPS-induced effects on the lamellar tissue. Hence, MT and silymarin might be used to support the prevention of laminitis and should be further evaluated for this application. PMID:25290524

  4. Gram-negative endotoxin lipopolysaccharide induces cardiac hypertrophy: detrimental role of Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger.

    PubMed

    Magi, Simona; Nasti, Annamaria Assunta; Gratteri, Santo; Castaldo, Pasqualina; Bompadre, Stefano; Amoroso, Salvatore; Lariccia, Vincenzo

    2015-01-05

    Several molecular pathways involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy are triggered by perturbation of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Within the heart, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) is one of the main determinant in controlling Ca(2+) homeostasis. In cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure NCX1 expression and activity have been reported to be altered. It has been shown that chronic bacterial infections (sepsis, endocarditis, and myocarditis) can promote cardiac hypertrophy. Bacterial stressors, such as the Gram-negative endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can directly or indirectly affect intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis in the heart and induce the development of cardiac hypertrophy. The present study aimed at evaluating the potential link between the signal pathways activated in LPS-exposed myocytes and NCX1. In the whole rat heart, LPS perfusion induced an early hypertrophy response during which NCX1 expression significantly increased. Notably, all these changes were completely prevented by the NCX inhibitor SN-6. We further dissect the role of NCX1 in the LPS-induced hypertrophic response in an in vitro cardiac model based on two H9c2 cardiomyoblast clones, namely H9c2-WT (lacking endogenous NCX1 expression) and H9c2-NCX1 (stably transfected with a functional NCX1). H9c2-NCX1 were more susceptible than H9c2-WT to develop a hypertrophic phenotype, and they displayed a significant increase in NCX1 expression and function after LPS treatment. SN-6 completely counteracted both hypertrophic response and exchanger alterations induced by LPS in H9c2-NCX1 cells, but it had no effects on H9c2-WT. Collectively, our results suggest that NCX1 plays a critical role in promoting myocardial hypertrophy triggered by LPS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Subhepatotoxic exposure to arsenic enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Arteel, Gavin E. Guo, Luping; Schlierf, Thomas; Beier, Juliane I.; Kaiser, J. Phillip; Chen, Theresa S.; Liu, Marsha; Conklin, Daniel J.; Miller, Heather L.; Montfort, Claudia von; States, J. Christopher

    2008-01-15

    Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is a serious health concern in the US. Whereas studies have identified arsenic alone as an independent risk factor for liver disease, concentrations of arsenic required to damage this organ are generally higher than found in the US water supply. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that arsenic (at subhepatotoxic doses) may also sensitize the liver to a second hepatotoxin. To test this hypothesis, the effect of chronic exposure to arsenic on liver damage caused by acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was determined in mice. Male C57Bl/6J mice (4-6 weeks) were exposed to arsenic (49 ppm as sodium arsenite in drinking water). After 7 months of exposure, animals were injected with LPS (10 mg/kg i.p.) and sacrificed 24 h later. Arsenic alone caused no overt hepatotoxicity, as determined by plasma enzymes and histology. In contrast, arsenic exposure dramatically enhanced liver damage caused by LPS, increasing the number and size of necroinflammatory foci. This effect of arsenic was coupled with increases in indices of oxidative stress (4-HNE adducts, depletion of GSH and methionine pools). The number of apoptotic (TUNEL) hepatocytes was similar in the LPS and arsenic/LPS groups. In contrast, arsenic pre-exposure blunted the increase in proliferating (PCNA) hepatocytes caused by LPS; this change in the balance between cell death and proliferation was coupled with a robust loss of liver weight in the arsenic/LPS compared to the LPS alone group. The impairment of proliferation after LPS caused by arsenic was also coupled with alterations in the expression of key mediators of cell cycle progression (p27, p21, CDK6 and Cyclin D1). Taken together, these results suggest that arsenic, at doses that are not overtly hepatotoxic per se, significantly enhances LPS-induced liver injury. These results further suggest that arsenic levels in the drinking water may be a risk modifier for the development of chronic liver diseases.

  6. Protective effects of Lactobacillus plantarum NDC 75017 against lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xinyan; Jiang, Yujun

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of Lactobacillus plantarum NDC 75017 (L. plantarum NDC 75017) against acute liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Thirty male mice were randomly divided into the control, LPS, and LPS + L. plantarum NDC 75017 groups. In the LPS + L. plantarum group, the mice were orally pretreated with L. plantarum NDC 75017 for 15 days. At 16 days, the mice in the LPS and LPS + L. plantarum NDC 75017 groups were intraperitoneally injected with LPS at 4 mg/kg body weight, whereas the control mice were treated with an equal amount of saline. After 8 h, the serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and histology changes were examined. The oxidative stress markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver were also examined. Meanwhile, the expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) mRNA and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the liver was determined by qRT-PCR. The LPS group showed an increase in ALT and AST, whereas the LPS + L. plantarum NDC 75017 group showed a significant decrease. In addition, pretreatment with L. plantarum NDC 75017 can attenuate LPS-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Furthermore, the increase of hepatic NF-κB and TLR4 mRNA induced by LPS was significantly downregulated by the pretreatment with L. plantarum NDC 75017. These data show that pretreatment with L. plantarum NDC 75017 protects against LPS-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory injury in the liver of mice, which may be attributed to the inhibition of the TLR4-NF-κB pathway.

  7. Interleukin-10 Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuro-Inflammation and Neurotoxicity in Ventral Mesencephalic Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Zhan; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in the brain and can inhibit microglial activation. Herein, we utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory Parkinson’s disease (PD) cell model to determine whether microglia and astrocytes are necessary targets for IL-10 neuroprotection. Primary ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia and astrocytes were prepared. The cells were exposed to IL-10 (15, 50 or 150 ng/mL) 1 h prior to LPS (50 ng/mL) treatment. LPS induced dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neuronal loss in VM cultures, VM neuron-enriched cultures, and neuron-microglia co-cultures, but not in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures. IL-10 reduced LPS-induced neuronal loss particularly in single VM neuron cultures. Pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) were upregulated in both neuron-microglia and neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. In contrast, neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor) were downregulated in neuron-microglia co-cultures, but upregulated in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. IL-10 reduced both the increase in production of the pro-inflammatory mediators and the decrease in production of the neurotrophic factors induced by LPS. These results suggest that astrocytes can balance LPS neurotoxicity by releasing more neurotrophic factors and that IL-10 exerts neuroprotective property by an extensive action including direct on neurons and indirect via inhibiting microglial activation. PMID:26729090

  8. Systemic inflammation alters the inflammatory response in experimental lipopolysaccharide-induced meningitis

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, T; Østergaard, C; Vaxelaire, J; Zak, O

    2007-01-01

    Experiments to evaluate the effect of the level and duration of endotoxaemia on the meningeal inflammatory response were performed in order to determine if systemic inflammation alters meningitis. Rabbits received either saline or Escherichia coli O111:B4 lipopolysacharide (LPS) intravenously at various doses (1, 3 or 10 µg) and times (−8, −2 or 0 h) before an intracisternal injection of 20 ng LPS. An intracisternal LPS injection together with saline intravenously produced a peak cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tumour necrosis factor (TNF) level (95 ± 26 ng/ml) at 2 h and peak leucocyte level (5413 ± 764 cells/µl) at 4 h post-injection. Blood leucocytes were slightly elevated (12 000 ± 500/µl at 0 h; 16 900 ± 280/µl at 8 h) but plasma TNF was always undetectable (< 0·05 ng/ml). Conversely, intravenous injection of 3 or 10 µg LPS 2 h prior to intracisternal LPS injection impaired pleocytosis (peak < 220 cells/µl) and delayed (∼4 h) and reduced peak CSF TNF levels (3 µg LPS 5·0 ± 1·2 ng/ml; 10 µg LPS 6·9 ± 1·9; P < 0·05). Intravenous administration of 1 µg LPS was less inhibitory to CSF inflammation, but delayed onset (peak 1100 ± 60 leucocytes/µl CSF at 8 h; 6·3 ± 0·3 ng TNF/ml CSF at 4 h; both P < 0·05). Neutropenia nadirs were dependent on LPS dose (1 µg, 4500 ± 1700; 3 µg, 1900 ± 60; 10 µg, 1100 ± 100 all at 4 h post-intravenous dose). Peak plasma TNF levels were not dose-dependent (> 8 ng/ml), but plasma TNF was always detectable (> 0·2 ng/ml at 10 h post-intravenous dose). Intravenous LPS administration at 0 h also blocked pleocytosis, but the inhibitory effect was lost when administration at −8 h. In conclusion, the degree and duration of endotoxaemia affect the meningeal inflammatory response to LPS in experimental meningitis. PMID:17177970

  9. Dietary selenium deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in mouse mastitis models.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhengkai; Yao, Minjun; Li, Yimeng; He, Xuexiu; Yang, Zhengtao

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that plays a critical role in anti-inflammatory processes and antioxidant defense system. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary selenium deficiency on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mouse models. Se content in the liver was assessed by fluorescent atomic absorption spectrometry. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the blood, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis actor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-1β in the supernatant of the mammary tissue were determined according to the corresponding kits. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions were evaluated by Western blotting. The results showed that the Se-deficient mouse model was successfully replicated, and selenium deficiency exacerbated mammary gland histopathology, increased the expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β, and facilitated the activation of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that selenium deficiency resulted in more severe inflammatory response in LPS-induced mouse mastitis.

  10. Transcription factor Fli-1 positively regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-27 production in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Yuan, Ming; Ma, Xianwei; Jiang, Wei; Zhu, Lingxi; Wen, Mingyue; Xu, Jing; Liu, Qiuyan; An, Huazhang

    2016-03-01

    IL-27 is an important regulator of TLR4-activated innate immune. The mechanism by which IL-27 production is regulated in TLR4-activated innate immune remains largely unclear. Here we show that expression of transcription factor Fli-1 at protein level is increased in macrophages following LPS stimulation. Fli-1 overexpression increases LPS-activated IL-27 production in macrophages. Consistently, Fli-1 knockdown inhibits LPS-induced IL-27 production in macrophages. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay reveals that Fli-1 binds the promoter of IL-27 p28 subunit. Further experiments manifest that Fli-1 binds the region between -250 and -150 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site of p28 gene and increases p28 gene promoter-controlled transcription. These results demonstrate that Fli-1 positively regulates IL-27 production in TLR4-activated immune response by promoting transcription of IL-27 p28 gene.

  11. Role of polysaccharide and lipid in lipopolysaccharide induced prion protein conversion

    PubMed Central

    LeVatte, Marcia; Wishart, David S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Conversion of native cellular prion protein (PrPc) from an α-helical structure to a toxic and infectious β-sheet structure (PrPSc) is a critical step in the development of prion disease. There are some indications that the formation of PrPSc is preceded by a β-sheet rich PrP (PrPβ) form which is non-infectious, but is an intermediate in the formation of infectious PrPSc. Furthermore the presence of lipid cofactors is thought to be critical in the formation of both intermediate-PrPβ and lethal, infectious PrPSc. We previously discovered that the endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interacts with recombinant PrPc and induces rapid conformational change to a β-sheet rich structure. This LPS induced PrPβ structure exhibits PrPSc-like features including proteinase K (PK) resistance and the capacity to form large oligomers and rod-like fibrils. LPS is a large, complex molecule with lipid, polysaccharide, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate (Kdo) and glucosamine components. To learn more about which LPS chemical constituents are critical for binding PrPc and inducing β-sheet conversion we systematically investigated which chemical components of LPS either bind or induce PrP conversion to PrPβ. We analyzed this PrP conversion using resolution enhanced native acidic gel electrophoresis (RENAGE), tryptophan fluorescence, circular dichroism, electron microscopy and PK resistance. Our results indicate that a minimal version of LPS (called detoxified and partially de-acylated LPS or dLPS) containing a portion of the polysaccharide and a portion of the lipid component is sufficient for PrP conversion. Lipid components, alone, and saccharide components, alone, are insufficient for conversion. PMID:27906600

  12. Quinic acid derivatives from Pimpinella brachycarpa exert anti-neuroinflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Young; Moon, Eunjung; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

    2013-04-01

    Five new quinic acid derivatives (1-5), together with 10 known quinic acid derivatives (6-15), were isolated from the MeOH extract of Pimpinella brachycarpa (Umbelliferae). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including extensive 2D NMR studies (COSY, HMQC and HMBC). Isolated compounds 1-15 were evaluated for their inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO) production in an activated murine microglial cell line. Compounds 2, 3, 8 and 11 significantly inhibited NO production without high cell toxicity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV-2 cells, a microglia cell line (IC50=4.66, 12.52, 9.04 and 12.11 μM, respectively). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipopolysaccharide-induced epididymitis disrupts epididymal beta-defensin expression and inhibits sperm motility in rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dongmei; Li, Yidong; Yang, Rui; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Yuchuan; Diao, Hua; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Yonglian; Lu, Jian

    2010-12-01

    Although more than 40 beta-defensins have been identified in rat epididymis, little is known about their regulation or their relation to male infertility caused by inflammation. Using a rat model of epididymitis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we examined expression of SPAG11E (also known as Bin1b), a caput epididymis-specific beta-defensin in rat. Unlike the expression of other beta-defensins in various epithelial cells with upregulated expression after LPS stimulation, expression of SPAG11E was significantly decreased by LPS at the mRNA and protein levels. LPS treatment also significantly decreased both sperm binding to SPAG11E and sperm motility, and supplementation of the spermatozoa with recombinant SPAG11E in vitro remarkably increased both SPAG11E binding and motility of sperm. To clarify whether decreased expression is a common pattern of epididymal beta-defensins after LPS stimulation, we examined the expression of another 12 epididymal beta-defensins expressed in the caput epididymis. For nine of these beta-defensins, expression was decreased, but for the other three, expression remained unaffected. These findings demonstrate that LPS-induced epididymitis can decrease the expression of epididymal beta-defensins and that disruption of SPAG11E expression is involved in the impairment of sperm motility.

  14. Effects of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation on expression of growth-associated genes by corticospinal neurons.

    PubMed

    Hossain-Ibrahim, M K; Rezajooi, K; MacNally, J K; Mason, M R J; Lieberman, A R; Anderson, P N

    2006-01-24

    Inflammation around cell bodies of primary sensory neurons and retinal ganglion cells enhances expression of neuronal growth-associated genes and stimulates axonal regeneration. We have asked if inflammation would have similar effects on corticospinal neurons, which normally show little response to spinal cord injury. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was applied onto the pial surface of the motor cortex of adult rats with or without concomitant injury of the corticospinal tract at C4. Inflammation around corticospinal tract cell bodies in the motor cortex was assessed by immunohistochemistry for OX42 (a microglia and macrophage marker). Expression of growth-associated genes c-jun, ATF3, SCG10 and GAP-43 was investigated by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridisation. Application of LPS induced a gradient of inflammation through the full depth of the motor cortex and promoted c-Jun and SCG10 expression for up to 2 weeks, and GAP-43 upregulation for 3 days by many corticospinal neurons, but had very limited effects on neuronal ATF3 expression. However, many glial cells in the subcortical white matter upregulated ATF3. LPS did not promote sprouting of anterogradely labelled corticospinal axons, which did not grow into or beyond a cervical lesion site. Inflammation produced by topical application of LPS promoted increased expression of some growth-associated genes in the cell bodies of corticospinal neurons, but was insufficient to promote regeneration of the corticospinal tract.

  15. Hypoxic preconditioning attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress in rat kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ching; Ma, Ming-Chieh; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Wu, Ming-Shiou; Sun, Wan-Kuan; Chen, Chau-Fong

    2007-01-01

    Chronic hypoxic (CH) preconditioning reduces superoxide-induced renal dysfunction via the upregulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and contents. Endotoxaemia reduces renal antioxidant status. We hypothesize that CH preconditioning might protect the kidney from subsequent endotoxaemia-induced oxidative injury. Endotoxaemia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 4 mg kg−1) in rats kept at sea level (SL) and rats with CH in an altitude chamber (5500 m for 15 h day−1) for 4 weeks. LPS enhanced xanthine oxidase (XO) and gp91phox (catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase) expression associated with burst amount of superoxide production from the SL kidney surface and renal venous blood detected by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. LPS induced a morphologic-independent renal dysfunction in baseline and acute saline loading stages and increased renal IL-1β protein and urinary protein concentration in the SL rats. After 4 weeks of induction, CH significantly increased Cu/ZnSOD, MnSOD and catalase expression (16 ± 17, 128 ± 35 and 48 ± 21, respectively) in renal cortex, and depressed renal cortex XO (44 ± 16%) and renal cortex (20 ± 9%) and medulla (28 ± 11%) gp91phox when compared with SL rats. The combined effect of enhanced antioxidant proteins and depressed oxidative proteins significantly reduced LPS-enhanced superoxide production, renal XO and gp91phox expression, renal IL-1β production, and urinary protein level. CH also ameliorated LPS-induced renal dysfunction in the baseline and acute saline loading periods. We conclude that CH treatment enhances the intrarenal antioxidant/oxidative protein ratio to overcome endotoxaemia-induced reactive oxygen species formation and inflammatory cytokine release. PMID:17317755

  16. A Fermented Whole Grain Prevents Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Dysfunction in Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele, Morena; Del Prato, Stefano; Pucci, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous and exogenous signals derived by the gut microbiota such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) orchestrate inflammatory responses contributing to development of the endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), bone marrow derived stem cells, promote recovery of damaged endothelium playing a pivotal role in cardiovascular repair. Since healthy nutrition improves EPCs functions, we evaluated the effect of a fermented grain, Lisosan G (LG), on early EPCs exposed to LPS. The potential protective effect of LG against LPS-induced alterations was evaluated as cell viability, adhesiveness, ROS production, gene expression, and NF-kB signaling pathway activation. Our results showed that LPS treatment did not affect EPCs viability and adhesiveness but induced endothelial alterations via activation of NF-kB signaling. LG protects EPCs from inflammation as well as from LPS-induced oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress reducing ROS levels, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defense. Moreover, LG pretreatment prevented NF-kB translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus caused by LPS exposure. In human EPCs, LPS increases ROS and upregulates proinflammatory tone, proapoptotic factors, and antioxidants. LG protects EPCs exposed to LPS reducing ROS, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defenses possibly by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation. PMID:28386305

  17. Rice hull smoke extract protects mice against a salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice hulls accounting for 20% of the rice crop are a byproduct of post-harvest rice processing. Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent often fatal disease that results mainly from infection with Salmonella and other Gram-negative bacteria. The present study investigated the...

  18. A Murine Model of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Peri-Implant Mucositis and Peri-Implantitis

    PubMed Central

    Pirih, Flavia Q.; Hiyari, Sarah; Leung, Ho-Yin; Barroso, Ana D. V.; Jorge, Adrian C. A.; Perussolo, Jeniffer; Atti, Elisa; Lin, Yi-Ling; Tetradis, Sotirios; Camargo, Paulo M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dental implants are a vastly used treatment option for tooth replacement. Dental implants are however susceptible to inflammatory diseases such as peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis, which are highly prevalent and may lead to implant loss. Unfortunately, the understanding of the pathogenesis of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis is fragmented and incomplete. Therefore, the availability of a reproducible animal model to study these inflammatory diseases would facilitate the dissection of their pathogenic mechanisms. The objective of this study is to propose a murine model of experimental peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. Materials and Methods Screw-shaped titanium implants were placed in the upper healed edentulous alveolar ridges of C57BL/6J mice eight weeks after tooth extraction. Following four weeks of osseointegration, Porphyromonas gingivalis-lipolysaccharide (LPS) injections were delivered to the peri-implant soft tissues for six weeks. No-injections and vehicle injections were utilized as controls. Peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis were assessed clinically, radiographically (micro-CT) and histologically following LPS-treatment. Results LPS-injections resulted in a significant increase in soft tissue edema around the head of the implants as compared to the control groups. Micro-CT analysis revealed significantly greater bone loss in the LPS-treated implants. Histological analysis of the specimens demonstrated that the LPS-group had increased soft tissue vascularity, which harbored a dense mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, and the bone exhibited noticeable osteoclast activity. Conclusion The induction of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis in mice via localized delivery of bacterial LPS has been demonstrated. We anticipate that this model will contribute to the development of more effective preventive and therapeutic approaches for these two conditions. PMID:24967609

  19. Previous burn injury predisposes mice to lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Carter, Edward A; Paul, Kasie W; Barrow, Sandra A; Fischman, Alan J; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    In mice, it has been demonstrated that at 7 days after burn injury, injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is more lethal than the same dose at 1 day after injury. In the present study, we examined the effect of LPS injection to mice burned 7 days previously on glucose metabolism ([(18)F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose [(18)FDG] uptake) in vivo. CD-1 male mice (25-28 g, Charles River Breeding Laboratories, Wilmington, MA) were anesthetized, backs shaven, and subjected to dorsal full thickness burn on 25% TBSA. Sham-treated animals were used as controls. Six days after burn injury, all mice were fasted overnight. One half of the burned and sham controls were subsequently injected IP with LPS (10 mg/kg; Escherichia coli). The remaining animals were injected with saline IP. Two hours later, all mice were injected IV with 50 μCi of (18)F FDG. One hour later, the animals were euthanized, and biodistribution was measured. Tissues were weighed, and radioactivity was measured with a well-type γ counter. Results were expressed as %dose/g tissue, mean ± SEM. The combination of burn 7 days previously and LPS significantly increased mortality compared to animals with burn alone, LPS alone, or sham controls. Burn injury 7 days previously caused a significant decrease in (18)FDG uptake by the brain compared to sham controls. The combination of LPS and burn injury 7 days previously produced a significant increase in (18)FDG uptake by brown adipose tissue and heart compared with either treatment separately. LPS produced a significant increase in (18)FDG uptake by lung, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract of the sham animals, changes that were different in mice burned 7 days previously and injected with LPS. The present results suggest that burn injury 7 days previously predisposes mice to alterations in (18)FDG uptake produced by LPS. These changes may relate, in part, to the increased lethality of LPS injection in previously burned mice.

  20. Protective effects of radix Rosa laevigata against Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    He, Rong-Rong; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Yao, Nan; Wang, Min; Dai, Yi; Gao, Hao; Yu, Yang; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the effects of an extract of Radix Rosa laevigata (R. R. laevigata) on Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver injury. The plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was significantly elevated by an intravenous injection of heat-killed P. acnes at a dose of 0.4 mg/mouse and then with LPS at 0.1 microg/mouse after 5 d. However, the elevated ALT activity was significantly reduced by the administered of R. R. laevigata (125 and 500 mg/kg/d) for 7 d before the LPS injection. In addition, the extract treatment reduced the number of liver mononuclear cells (MNCs), and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents, but improved the liver oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, the chemical profile of R. R. laevigata was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the main peaks were identified as a series of polyphenol compounds which had been confirmed as the significantly active components by their anti-oxidative and NO inhibitory effects. These results suggest that the extract of R. R. laevigata offered good efficacy for preventing liver injury.

  1. Concomitant lipopolysaccharide-induced transfer of blood-derived components including immunoglobulins into milk.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, M; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M

    2013-02-01

    During a mammary immune response, the integrity of the blood-milk barrier is negatively affected and becomes leaky. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the blood origin, and to investigate changes in the concentration, of various constituents including immunoglobulins in blood and milk during the early phase of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis. Five lactating dairy cows received continuous β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) clamp infusions to maintain elevated BHBA blood concentrations (1.5 to 2.0 mmol/L) from 48 h before and 8h after LPS administration. One udder quarter was infused with 200 μg of Escherichia coli LPS. A second quarter served as control. Milk and blood samples were taken hourly for 8h postchallenge (PC). The somatic cell count in LPS-challenged quarters was increased from 4h PC to the end of the experiment compared with control quarters. In LPS-challenged quarters, l-lactate, BHBA, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), IgG(1), and IgG(2) were increased at 3h PC and remained elevated until the end of experiment (8h PC) compared with control quarters. In addition, the optical density values in milk in a nonquantitative ELISA for antibodies directed against bluetongue virus (used as a measure of nonspecific antibody transfer; all animals were vaccinated) increased and, thus, indicates an increase in these antibodies in response to LPS treatment. l-Lactate concentration also increased in blood 2h PC and in the milk of control quarters during the experiment from 3h PC. A second experiment was conducted in vitro to investigate a possible contribution from destructed milk cells to l-lactate concentration and activity of LDH in milk. Aliquots of milk samples (n=8) were frozen (-20°C) or disrupted with ultrasound, respectively. Freeze thawing and ultrasound treatment increased LDH in milk samples, but had no effect on l-lactate concentrations. Results suggest that intramammary infusion of LPS induces a systemic response, as evidenced by an elevation of blood l-lactate concentration. The concomitant changes of all investigated components suggest that they were blood derived. However, the increase in blood components in the milk is not necessarily supportive of the mammary immune system, and likely a side effect of reduced blood-milk barrier integrity.

  2. Myeloperoxidase deficiency attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung inflammation and subsequent cytokine and chemokine production.

    PubMed

    Haegens, Astrid; Heeringa, Peter; van Suylen, Robert Jan; Steele, Chad; Aratani, Yasuaki; O'Donoghue, Robert J J; Mutsaers, Steven E; Mossman, Brooke T; Wouters, Emiel F M; Vernooy, Juanita H J

    2009-06-15

    Lung neutrophilia is common to a variety of lung diseases. The production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during neutrophil oxidative burst has been associated with protein and DNA damage. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an enzyme stored in the azurophilic granula of neutrophils. It is important in host defense because it generates the reactive oxidant hypochlorous acid and has been described to play a role in the activation of neutrophils during extravasation. We hypothesized that MPO contributes directly to the development of acute lung neutrophilia via stimulation of neutrophil extravasation and indirectly to the subsequent production of cytokines and chemokines in the lung. To test this hypothesis, wild-type (WT) and Mpo(-/-) mice were given a single LPS instillation, after which the development of neutrophil-dominated lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and cytokine and chemokine levels were examined. Mpo(-/-) mice demonstrated a decreased lung neutrophilia that peaked earlier than neutrophilia in WT mice, which can be explained by decreased neutrophil chemoattractant levels in LPS-exposed Mpo(-/-) compared with WT mice. However, oxidative stress levels were not different in LPS-exposed WT and Mpo(-/-) mice. Furthermore, in vivo findings were confirmed by in vitro studies, using isolated neutrophils. These results indicate that MPO promotes the development of lung neutrophilia and indirectly influences subsequent chemokine and cytokine production by other cell types in the lung.

  3. Differential inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced granulocyte aggregation and prostanoid production by emoxypin.

    PubMed

    Kubatiev, A; Turgiev, A; Smirnov, L; Pomoynetsky, V; Dumaev, K

    1990-01-01

    Emoxypin is known to be an effective membrane-stabilizing 3-oxy-pyridine derivative. We attempted to evaluate its influence on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced granulocyte aggregation and prostanoid production. Granulocytes isolated from rabbit venous blood by dextran sedimentation and Pezcoll gradient centrifugation were stirred in the aggregometer cuvette with emoxypin (5mM), indomethacin (50 microM) or their solvents at 37 degrees C for 2 min. Then S. typhimurium LPS (200 micrograms/ml) was added and the aggregation was traced for 5 min. Thromboxane B2 (TxB2), prostaglandins (PG) E, F2 alpha and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha were determined in supernatants radioimmunochemically. Indomethacin did not affect the pattern of aggregation, whereas emoxypin virtually precluded the response. Granulocytes incubated with LPS produced by the 15th sec and 5th min 1.3 and 2.5 times as much TxB2 respectively as did the intact cells (p less than 0.01). LPS had no effect on PGE production. Fifteen-sec contact of granulocytes with LPS had no significant influence on the formation of PGF2 alpha and its 13,14-dihydro-15-keto metabolite. The amount of PGF2 alpha released into the medium by the end of the 5th min of incubation with LPS was 1.5 times higher than in the control (p less than 0.05); the level of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha was decreased 1.6 times (p less than 0.01). Emoxypin abolished totally LPS-induced TxB2 and PGF2 alpha production. We conclude that aggregation and eicosanoid production are independent manifestations of LPS-induced rabbit granulocyte activation.

  4. Establishment of hydrochloric acid/lipopolysaccharide-induced pelvic inflammatory disease model

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yeonsu; Lee, Jaehun; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Yoon, Byung-Il; Han, Jeong-Hee; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Park, Joung Jun; Koo, Deog-Bon; Rhee, Ki-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is one of the most problematic complications experienced by women with sexually transmitted diseases, frequently causes secondary infections after reproductive abnormalities in veterinary animals. Although the uterus is self-protective, it becomes fragile during periods or pregnancy. To investigate PID, bacteria or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from gram negative bacteria has been used to induce the disease in several animal models. However, when LPS is applied to the peritoneum, it often causes systemic sepsis leading to death and the PID was not consistently demonstrated. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) has been used to induce inflammation in the lungs and stomach but not tested for reproductive organs. In this study, we developed a PID model in mice by HCl and LPS sequential intracervical (i.c.) administration. The proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, were detected in the mouse uterus by western blot analysis and cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after HCl (25 mg/kg) administration i.c. followed by four LPS (50 mg/kg) treatments. Moreover, mice exhibited increased infiltration of neutrophils in the endometrium and epithelial layer. These results suggest that ic co-administration of HCl and LPS induces PID in mice. This new model may provide a consistent and reproducible PID model for future research. PMID:26726020

  5. 6-Hydroxydopamine and lipopolysaccharides induced DNA damage in astrocytes: involvement of nitric oxide and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sonam; Goswami, Poonam; Biswas, Joyshree; Joshi, Neeraj; Sharma, Sharad; Nath, C; Singh, Sarika

    2015-01-15

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of the neurotoxins 6-hydroxydopamine and lipopolysaccharide on astrocytes. Rat astrocyte C6 cells were treated with different concentration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)/lipopolysaccharides (LPS) for 24 h. Both neurotoxins significantly decreased the viability of astrocytes, augmented the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the astrocyte marker--glial fibrillar acidic protein. A significantly decreased mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, augmented reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, caspase-3 mRNA level, chromatin condensation and DNA damage was observed in 6-OHDA/LPS treated astroglial cells. 6-OHDA/LPS treatment also caused the significantly increased expression of iNOS and nitrite level. Findings showed that 6-OHDA/LPS treatment caused mitochondrial dysfunction mediated death of astrocytes, which significantly involve the nitric oxide. Since we have observed significantly increased level of iNOS along with mitochondrial impairment and apoptotic cell death in astrocytes, therefore to validate the role of iNOS, the cells were co-treated with iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG, 100 μM). Co-treatment of AG significantly attenuated the 6-OHDA/LPS induced cell death, mitochondrial activity, augmented ROS level, chromatin condensation and DNA damage. GFAP and caspase-3 expression were also inhibited with co-treatment of AG, although the extent of inhibition was different in both experimental sets. In conclusion, the findings showed that iNOS mediated increased level of nitric oxide acts as a key regulatory molecule in 6-OHDA/LPS induced mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage and apoptotic death of astrocytes.

  6. Static magnetic field attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced multiple organ failure: a histopathologic study in mice.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wei-Yi; Huang, Yu-Chih; Chang, Wei-Jen; Wang, Hsin-Ta; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Lin, Che-Tong; Huang, Haw-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that static magnetic fields (SMF) were effective in down-regulating the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to provide histological evidence of SMF attenuating LPS-induced multiple organ failure (MOF). In this study, BALB/cByJNarl (5 weeks, weighing 20-25 g) mice were chosen as test subjects. The tested animals were challenged with 50 mg/kg LPS after they were exposed to a continuous SMF for 2 h. The survival rate and pathological changes in lungs, kidneys, and livers of the LPS- challenged mice were examined with and without SMF treatment. In addition, the effects of SMF exposure on body temperature control of the LPS-challenged mice were monitored. Our results showed that at 30 h the survival rate of LPS-challenged mice increased 3.6-fold (p < 0.05). In addition, 6 h after LPS injection, the average body temperature of SMF-exposed mice was 1.07°C lower than that of unexposed animals. Tissue biopsies demonstrated that SMF exposure reduced damage to the lungs, livers, and kidneys in the LPS-challenged mice. SMF show potential as a viable prophylactic alternative for controlling LPS-induced MOF.

  7. Interleukin-10 Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuro-Inflammation and Neurotoxicity in Ventral Mesencephalic Cultures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Zhan; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2015-12-28

    Interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in the brain and can inhibit microglial activation. Herein, we utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory Parkinson's disease (PD) cell model to determine whether microglia and astrocytes are necessary targets for IL-10 neuroprotection. Primary ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia and astrocytes were prepared. The cells were exposed to IL-10 (15, 50 or 150 ng/mL) 1 h prior to LPS (50 ng/mL) treatment. LPS induced dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neuronal loss in VM cultures, VM neuron-enriched cultures, and neuron-microglia co-cultures, but not in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures. IL-10 reduced LPS-induced neuronal loss particularly in single VM neuron cultures. Pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) were upregulated in both neuron-microglia and neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. In contrast, neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor) were downregulated in neuron-microglia co-cultures, but upregulated in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. IL-10 reduced both the increase in production of the pro-inflammatory mediators and the decrease in production of the neurotrophic factors induced by LPS. These results suggest that astrocytes can balance LPS neurotoxicity by releasing more neurotrophic factors and that IL-10 exerts neuroprotective property by an extensive action including direct on neurons and indirect via inhibiting microglial activation.

  8. Static Magnetic Field Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Pulp Cells by Affecting Cell Membrane Stability

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Jeng-Ting; Lee, Lin-Wen; Lin, Che-Tong

    2015-01-01

    One of the causes of dental pulpitis is lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced inflammatory response. Following pulp tissue inflammation, odontoblasts, dental pulp cells (DPCs), and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) will activate and repair damaged tissue to maintain homeostasis. However, when LPS infection is too serious, dental repair is impossible and disease may progress to irreversible pulpitis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether static magnetic field (SMF) can attenuate inflammatory response of dental pulp cells challenged with LPS. In methodology, dental pulp cells were isolated from extracted teeth. The population of DPSCs in the cultured DPCs was identified by phenotypes and multilineage differentiation. The effects of 0.4 T SMF on DPCs were observed through MTT assay and fluorescent anisotropy assay. Our results showed that the SMF exposure had no effect on surface markers or multilineage differentiation capability. However, SMF exposure increases cell viability by 15%. In addition, SMF increased cell membrane rigidity which is directly related to higher fluorescent anisotropy. In the LPS-challenged condition, DPCs treated with SMF demonstrated a higher tolerance to LPS-induced inflammatory response when compared to untreated controls. According to these results, we suggest that 0.4 T SMF attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory response to DPCs by changing cell membrane stability. PMID:25884030

  9. Activation of α2 adrenoceptor attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing-Hui; Yu, Gao-Feng; Jin, Shang-Yi; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Lei, Dong-Xu; Zhou, Shao-Li; Song, Xing-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis induces hepatic injury but whether alpha-2 adrenoceptor (α2-AR) modulates the severity of sepsis-induced liver damage remains unclear. The present study used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce hepatic injury and applied α2-AR agonist dexmedetomidine (DEX) and/or antagonist yohimbine to investigate the contribution of α2-AR in LPS-induced liver injury. Our results showed that LPS resulted in histological and functional abnormality of liver tissue (ALT and AST transaminases, lactate), higher mortality, an increase in proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 & TNF-α), as well as a change in oxidative stress (MDA, SOD). Activation of α2-AR by dexmedetomidine (DEX) attenuated LPS-induced deleterious effects on the liver and block of α2-AR by yohimbine aggravated LPS-induced liver damage. Our data suggest that α2-AR plays an important role in sepsis-induced liver damage and activation of α2-AR with DEX could be a novel therapeutic avenue to protect the liver against sepsis-induced injury.

  10. Inhibition of neddylation represses lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Mei; Reyna, Sara M; Granados, Jose C; Wei, Sung-Jen; Innis-Whitehouse, Wendy; Maffi, Shivani K; Rodriguez, Edward; Slaga, Thomas J; Short, John D

    2012-10-12

    Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) are a class of ubiquitin ligases that control the proteasomal degradation of numerous target proteins, including IκB, and the activity of these CRLs are positively regulated by conjugation of a Nedd8 polypeptide onto Cullin proteins in a process called neddylation. CRL-mediated degradation of IκB, which normally interacts with and retains NF-κB in the cytoplasm, permits nuclear translocation and transactivation of the NF-κB transcription factor. Neddylation occurs through a multistep enzymatic process involving Nedd8 activating enzymes, and recent studies have shown that the pharmacological agent, MLN4924, can potently inhibit Nedd8 activating enzymes, thereby preventing neddylation of Cullin proteins and preventing the degradation of CRL target proteins. In macrophages, regulation of NF-κB signaling functions as a primary pathway by which infectious agents such as lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) cause the up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we have analyzed the effects of MLN4924, and compared the effects of MLN4924 with a known anti-inflammatory agent (dexamethasone), on certain proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and the NF-κB signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated macrophages. We also used siRNA to block neddylation to assess the role of this molecular process during LPS-induced cytokine responsiveness. Our results demonstrate that blocking neddylation, either pharmacologically or using siRNA, abrogates the increase in certain proinflammatory cytokines secreted from macrophages in response to LPS. In addition, we have shown that MLN4924 and dexamethasone inhibit LPS-induced cytokine up-regulation at the transcriptional level, albeit through different molecular mechanisms. Thus, neddylation represents a novel molecular process in macrophages that can be targeted to prevent and/or treat the LPS-induced up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and the disease processes associated with their up-regulation.

  11. Early In Vitro Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Serum Protein Aggregation in Tolerant Serum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-21

    Induced activation of human monocytes by human lipoproteins. Infect. immun. 57(7):2237-2245, 1989. Fox, E . S., Broitman , S. A., Thomas, P. Biology of...public release: distribution Is unlimited S92-29804 11 1 " = ; , 1 !:;1ý9 N 1 1111111 l,[ 11 ! I S- e 1A NOTICES The opinions and assertions...CLASSIFICATION OUNCLASSIFIEDA.jNUMITEO 0 SAME AS RPT. QorIC USERS Unclassi fied 22a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE II.O’vIOIUAL 22b. TELEPHCNE Onju< e Area Code) 22c. OFFICE