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Sample records for oleamide suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced

  1. Oleamide suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 through inhibition of NF-kappaB activation in BV2 murine microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Jung Yeon; Lee, Jinhwa; Lee, Ju Hie; Kim, Ja-Eun; Ha, Joohun; Kang, Insug

    2010-05-03

    Oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) is an endogenous sleep-inducing fatty acid amide that accumulates in the cerebrospinal fluid of the sleep-deprived animals. Microglia are the major immune cells involved in neuroinflammation causing brain damage during infection, ischemia, and neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we examined the effects of oleamide on LPS-induced production of proinflammatory mediators and the mechanisms involved in BV2 microglia. Oleamide inhibited LPS-induced production of NO and prostaglandin E2 as well as expression of iNOS and COX-2. We showed that oleamide blocked LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation and phosphorylation of inhibitor kappaB kinase (IKK). We also showed that oleamide inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt, p38 MAPK, and ERK, activation of PI 3-kinase, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Finally, we showed that a specific antagonist of the CB2 receptor, AM630, blocked the inhibitory effects of oleamide on LPS-induced production of proinflammatory mediators and activation of NF-kappaB. Taken together, our results suggest that oleamide shows an anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of NF-kappaB activation in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oleamide derivatives suppress the spontaneous metastasis by inhibiting connexin 26.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Yusuke; Kanao, Yukiko; Morita, Nobuyoshi; Fujii, Eri; Hohrai, Mai; Takatsuji, Mayuko; Hirose, Hideki; Miura, Daisaku; Watari, Akihiro; Yutsudo, Masuo; Zhao, Hanjun; Yabuta, Norikazu; Ito, Akihiko; Kita, Yasuyuki; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    We previously reported that overexpressing connexin 26 (Cx26) enhances the spontaneous metastasis of mouse BL6 melanoma cells. In contrast, daily intraperitoneal injections of an oleamide derivative named MI-18 potently inhibits the spontaneous metastasis of BL6 cells. In the present study, we chemically synthesized a novel oleamide derivative named MI-22 and found that it also efficiently suppressed the spontaneous metastasis of BL6 cells. Both MI-18 and MI-22 inhibited the gap junction-mediated intercellular communications (GJIC) that are formed between HeLa cells by the ectopic expression of the hCx26 and hCx32 human connexin subtypes; however, they had no effect on GJIC mediated by hCx40, hCx43 or hCx45. Fluorescently labeled MI-18 primarily localized not only at plasma membrane but also at Golgi/endosome. This suggests that this oleamide derivative may also act on the Cx26 molecules that accumulate in the Golgi/endosome because of their overexpression. Notably, neither derivative had a cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells when they were added into the tissue culture medium. Taken together, we propose that the MI-18 and MI-22 oleamide derivatives may serve as prototypes for novel and clinically important anticancer drugs.

  3. The Alternaria alternata Mycotoxin Alternariol Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Shivani; Lawrence, Christopher B.

    2017-01-01

    The Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) have been shown to possess genotoxic and cytotoxic properties. In this study, the ability of AOH and AME to modulate innate immunity in the human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) were investigated. During these studies, it was discovered that AOH and to a lesser extent AME potently suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced innate immune responses in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with AOH resulted in morphological changes including a detached pattern of growth as well as elongated arms. AOH/AME-related immune suppression and morphological changes were linked to the ability of these mycotoxins to cause cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. This model was also used to investigate the AOH/AME mechanism of immune suppression in relation to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). AhR was not found to be important for the immunosuppressive properties of AOH/AME, but appeared important for the low levels of cell death observed in BEAS-2B cells. PMID:28726766

  4. Calcium hydroxide suppresses Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide-induced bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Guo, J; Yang, D; Okamura, H; Teramachi, J; Ochiai, K; Qiu, L; Haneji, T

    2014-05-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis and its main virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are associated with the development of periapical diseases and alveolar bone loss. Calcium hydroxide is commonly used for endodontic therapy. However, the effects of calcium hydroxide on the virulence of P. endodontalis LPS and the mechanism of P. endodontalis LPS-induced bone destruction are not clear. Calcium hydroxide rescued the P. endodontalis LPS-suppressed viability of MC3T3-E1 cells and activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in these cells, resulting in the reduced expression of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. In addition, calcium hydroxide inhibited P. endodontalis LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis by decreasing the activities of NF-κB, p38, and ERK1/2 and the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 in RAW264.7 cells. Calcium hydroxide also rescued the P. endodontalis LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction in mouse calvaria. Taken together, our present results indicate that calcium hydroxide suppressed bone destruction by attenuating the virulence of P. endodontalis LPS on bone cells.

  5. Benzoxazole derivatives suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Ah; Park, Minhwa; Kim, Yu-Hee; Choo, Hea-Young Park; Lee, Kyung Ho

    2018-05-01

    Mast cells are central regulators of allergic inflammation that function by releasing various proallergic inflammatory mediators, including histamine, eicosanoids and proinflammatory cytokines. Occasionally, bacterial infections may initiate or worsen allergic inflammation. A number of studies have indicated that activation of lipoxygenase in mast cells positive regulates allergic inflammatory responses by generating leukotrienes and proinflammatory cytokines. In the present study, the effects of benzoxazole derivatives on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines, production of histamine and surface expression of co‑stimulatory molecules on bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were studied. The benzoxazole derivatives significantly reduced the expression of interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6, IL‑13, tumor necrosis factor‑α, perilipin (PLIN) 2, and PLIN3 in BMMCs treated with LPS. Furthermore, histamine production was suppressed in BMMCs treated with LPS, or treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate/ionomycin. Benzoxazole derivatives marginally affected the surface expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)80 and CD86 on BMMCs in the presence of LPS, although LPS alone did not increase the expression of those proteins. Therefore, benzoxazole derivatives inhibited the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in mast cells and may be potential candidate anti‑allergic agents to suppress mast cell activation.

  6. Peripheral and central mediators of lipopolysaccharide induced suppression of defensive rage behavior in the cat.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, S; Bhatt, R S; Zalcman, S S; Siegel, A

    2009-11-10

    Based upon recent findings in our laboratory that cytokines microinjected into the medial hypothalamus or periaqueductal gray (PAG) powerfully modulate defensive rage behavior in cat, the present study determined the effects of peripherally released cytokines following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge upon defensive rage. The study involved initial identification of the effects of peripheral administration of LPS upon defensive rage by electrical stimulation from PAG and subsequent determination of the peripheral and central mechanisms governing this process. The results revealed significant elevation in response latencies for defensive rage from 60 to 300 min, post LPS injection, with no detectable signs of sickness behavior present at 60 min. In contrast, head turning behavior elicited by stimulation of adjoining midbrain sites was not affected by LPS administration, suggesting a specificity of the effects of LPS upon defensive rage. Direct administration of LPS into the medial hypothalamus had no effect on defensive rage, suggesting that the effects of LPS were mediated by peripheral cytokines rather than by any direct actions upon hypothalamic neurons. Complete blockade of the suppressive effects of LPS by peripheral pretreatment with an Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) antibody but not with an anti- interleukin-1 (IL-1) antibody demonstrated that the effects of LPS were mediated through TNF-alpha rather than through an IL-1 mechanism. A determination of the central mechanisms governing LPS suppression revealed that pretreatment of the medial hypothalamus with PGE(2) or 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists each completely blocked the suppressive effects of LPS, while microinjections of a TNF-alpha antibody into the medial hypothalamus were ineffective. Microinjections of -Iodo-N-[2-[4-(methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl) benzamide monohydrochloride (p-MPPI) into lateral hypothalamus (to test for anatomical specificity) had no effect upon

  7. Amphiregulin suppresses epithelial cell apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata-Suetsugu, Saiko; Yanagihara, Toyoshi; Hamada, Naoki

    Background and objective: As a member of the epidermal growth factor family, amphiregulin contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation. Amphiregulin was reported to be upregulated in damaged lung tissues in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma and in lung epithelial cells in a ventilator-associated lung injury model. In this study, we investigated the effect of amphiregulin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice. Methods: Acute lung injury was induced by intranasal instillation of LPS in female C57BL/6 mice, and the mice were given intraperitoneal injections of recombinant amphiregulin or phosphate-buffered saline 6 and 0.5 h before andmore » 3 h after LPS instillation. The effect of amphiregulin on apoptosis and apoptotic pathways in a murine lung alveolar type II epithelial cell line (LA-4 cells) were examined using flow cytometry and western blotting, respectively. Results: Recombinant amphiregulin suppressed epithelial cell apoptosis in LPS-induced lung injury in mice. Western blotting revealed that amphiregulin suppressed epithelial cell apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-8 activity. Conclusion: Amphiregulin signaling may be a therapeutic target for LPS-induced lung injury treatment through its prevention of epithelial cell apoptosis. - Highlights: • Amphiregulin suppresses epithelial cell apoptosis in LPS-induced lung injury in mice. • The mechanism relies on inhibiting caspase-8 activity. • Amphiregulin signaling may be a therapeutic target for LPS-induced lung injury.« less

  8. HSP90 Inhibition Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Inflammation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lilja, Andrew; Weeden, Clare E.; McArthur, Kate; Nguyen, Thao; Donald, Alastair; Wong, Zi Xin; Dousha, Lovisa; Bozinovski, Steve; Vlahos, Ross; Burns, Christopher J.; Asselin-Labat, Marie-Liesse; Anderson, Gary P.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is an important component of cancer diathesis and treatment-refractory inflammation is a feature of many chronic degenerative lung diseases. HSP90 is a 90kDa protein which functions as an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that regulates the signalling conformation and expression of multiple protein client proteins especially oncogenic mediators. HSP90 inhibitors are in clinical development as cancer therapies but the myeleosuppressive and neutropenic effect of first generation geldanamycin-class inhibitors has confounded studies on the effects on HSP90 inhibitors on inflammation. To address this we assessed the ability of Ganetespib, a non-geldanamycin HSP90 blocker, to suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cellular infiltrates, proteases and inflammatory mediator and transcriptional profiles. Ganetespib (10–100mg/kg, i.v.) did not directly cause myelosuppression, as assessed by video micrography and basal blood cell count, but it strongly and dose-dependently suppressed LPS-induced neutrophil mobilization into blood and neutrophil- and mononuclear cell-rich steroid-refractory lung inflammation. Ganetespib also suppressed B cell and NK cell accumulation, inflammatory cytokine and chemokine induction and MMP9 levels. These data identify non-myelosuppresssive HSP90 inhibitors as potential therapies for inflammatory diseases refractory to conventional therapy, in particular those of the lung. PMID:25615645

  9. Baicalein reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation via suppressing JAK/STATs activation and ROS production.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhilin; Yin, Fei; Lu, Lina; Shen, Lei; Qi, Shimei; Lan, Lei; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the precise molecular mechanisms by which baicalein exerts beneficial biochemical activities in RAW264.7 macrophages treated with LPS. RAW264.7 cells were cultured in the absence or presence of baicalein together with or without LPS. iNOS and COX-2 expression were measured by western blot and RT-PCR analyses. TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were determined by using double-antibody sandwich ELISA. Phosphorylations of JAK1 and JAK2, and of STAT1 and STAT3 were detected by western blotting. Nuclear translocation of STAT1 and STAT3 was visualized by confocal microscopy. ROS production was detected by ROS assay. Baicalein significantly reduced the phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 and the phosphorylation of JAK1 and JAK2, but without affecting MAPKs phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Baicalein suppressed the nuclear translocation of STAT1 and STAT3 and inhibited production of iNOS upon LPS-stimulation, resulting in the inhibition of releases of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we found that baicalein reduced the LPS-induced accumulation of ROS, confirming that baicalein serves as an antioxidant. Our results suggested that suppressing JAK/STATs activation and interfering with ROS production might contribute to the anti-inflammatory action of baicalein in macrophages.

  10. Deer Bone Oil Extract Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Im, Suji; Park, Yooheon; Hong, Ki-Bae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of deer bone oil extract (DBOE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells. DBOE was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction to obtain two fractions: methanol fraction (DBO-M) and hexane fraction (DBO-H). TLC showed that DBO-M had relatively more hydrophilic lipid complexes, including unsaturated fatty acids, than DBOE and DBO-H. The relative compositions of tetradecenoyl carnitine, α-linoleic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased in the DBO-M fraction by 61, 38, and 32%, respectively, compared with DBOE. The concentration of sugar moieties was 3-fold higher in the DBO-M fraction than DBOE and DBO-H. DBO-M significantly decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This DBO-M-mediated decrease in NO production was due to downregulation of mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12β, was suppressed by DBO-M. Our data showed that DBO-M, which has relatively higher sugar content than DBOE and DBO-H, could play an important role in suppressing inflammatory responses by controlling pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators.

  11. Cepharanthine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mice mastitis by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ershun, Zhou; Yunhe, Fu; Zhengkai, Wei; Yongguo, Cao; Naisheng, Zhang; Zhengtao, Yang

    2014-04-01

    Cepharanthine (CEP), a biscoclaurine alkaloid isolated from Stephania cepharantha Hayata, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of CEP on a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CEP on LPS-induced mouse mastitis. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by inoculation of LPS through the canals of the mammary gland. CEP was administered intraperitoneally at 1 h before and 12 h after induction of LPS. The results show that CEP significantly attenuates the infiltration of neutrophils, suppresses myeloperoxidase activity, and reduces the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Furthermore, CEP inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor IκBα. All the results suggest that CEP exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Accordingly, CEP might be a potential therapeutic agent for mastitis.

  12. DHA suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jin, Ji-Young; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2014-04-14

    Several reports have indicated that dietary intake of DHA is associated with lower prevalence of periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DHA on the production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in inflammatory periodontal disease, and its mechanisms of action. LPS was isolated from lyophilised P. intermedia ATCC 25,611 cells using the standard hot-phenol-water protocol. Culture supernatants were collected and assayed for NO, IL-1β and IL-6. Real-time PCR analysis was carried out to detect the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA. Immunoblot analysis was carried out to quantify the expression of iNOS and HO-1 protein and concentrations of signalling proteins. DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits were determined using an ELISA-based assay kit. DHA significantly attenuated the production of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 at both gene transcription and translation levels in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. DHA induced the expression of HO-1 in cells treated with P. intermedia LPS. Selective inhibition of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin IX significantly mitigated the inhibitory effects of DHA on LPS-induced NO production. DHA significantly attenuated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase induced by LPS. In addition, DHA suppressed the transcriptional activity of NF-κB by regulating the nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB p50 subunit and inhibited the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. Further in vivo studies are needed to better evaluate the potential of DHA in humans as a therapeutic agent to treat periodontal disease.

  13. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory bone resorption, and protects against alveolar bone loss in mice.

    PubMed

    Tominari, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Chiho; Watanabe, Kenta; Hirata, Michiko; Grundler, Florian M W; Miyaura, Chisato; Inada, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol in green tea, possesses antioxidant properties and regulates various cell functions. Here, we examined the function of EGCG in inflammatory bone resorption. In calvarial organ cultures, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone resorption was clearly suppressed by EGCG. In osteoblasts, EGCG suppressed the LPS-induced expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 mRNAs, as well as prostaglandin E2 production, and also suppressed RANKL expression, which is essential for osteoclast differentiation. LPS-induced bone resorption of mandibular alveolar bones was attenuated by EGCG in vitro, and the loss of mouse alveolar bone mass was inhibited by the catechin in vivo.

  14. Josamycin suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and interleukin-1β in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Park, Hae Ryoun; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2018-06-05

    Josamycin has immunomodulatory properties independent of its antibacterial actions. This study was designed to explore the influences and associated mechanisms of josamycin upon the generation of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogenic bacterium associated with periodontal disease. LPS was purified by employing phenol-water extraction protocol. Culture supernatants were analyzed for nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-1β. Real-time PCR and immunoblotting were conducted to quantify mRNA and protein expression, respectively. The expression levels of IL-1β were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. NF-κB-dependent SEAP levels were estimated by reporter assay. Josamycin significantly attenuated NO production elicited by P. intermedia LPS as well as induction of iNOS protein and mRNA in RAW264.7 cells. While the release of IL-1β from cells stimulated by LPS was suppressed in the presence of josamycin, josamycin failed to reduce the degree of IL-1β mRNA expression. Josamycin did not reduce the stability of IL-1β mRNA induced by P. intermedia LPS, at the same time josamycin also failed to suppress the LPS-induced intracellular IL-1β expression. Josamycin augmented HO-1 induction in cells exposed to P. intermedia LPS, and SnPP, an inhibitor of HO-1 activity, reversed the suppressive impact of josamycin upon NO generation induced by LPS. Josamycin diminished NF-κB transcriptional activity induced by P. intermedia LPS. Further, josamycin enhanced SOCS1 mRNA level in cells activated with LPS. Josamycin suppressed P. intermedia LPS-induced generation of NO and IL-1β in RAW264.7 macrophages via the inhibition of NF-κB activation as well as HO-1 and SOCS1 induction. Josamycin may have benefits as a host modulatory agent in treating periodontal disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Haloperidol Suppresses NF-kappaB to Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Response in RAW 264 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Ohta, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Atsuhiro; Horiguchi, Yu; Koide, Moe; Fujino, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Background Haloperidol, a tranquilizing agent, is administered both to treat symptoms of psychotic disorders and to sedate agitated and delirious patients. Notably, haloperidol has been suggested to inhibit the immune response through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that the sedative modulates the immune response via NF-κB. Material/Methods Using flow cytometry, we analyzed the effects of haloperidol on expression CD80 and CD86 in RAW 264 cells and in primary macrophages derived from bone marrow. Secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, NF-κB activation was evaluated using a reporter assay based on secretory embryonic alkaline phosphatase. Finally, synthetic antagonists were used to identify the dopamine receptor that mediates the effects of haloperidol. Results Haloperidol inhibited NF-κB activation, and thereby suppressed expression of CD80, as well as secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 p40. CD80 and IL-6 levels were similarly attenuated by a D2-like receptor antagonist, but not by a D1-like receptor antagonist. Conclusions The data strongly suggest that haloperidol inhibits the immune response by suppressing NF-κB signaling via the dopamine D2 receptor. PMID:26842661

  16. Haloperidol Suppresses NF-kappaB to Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Response in RAW 264 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Ohta, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Atsuhiro; Horiguchi, Yu; Koide, Moe; Fujino, Yuji

    2016-02-04

    BACKGROUND Haloperidol, a tranquilizing agent, is administered both to treat symptoms of psychotic disorders and to sedate agitated and delirious patients. Notably, haloperidol has been suggested to inhibit the immune response through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that the sedative modulates the immune response via NF-κB. MATERIAL AND METHODS Using flow cytometry, we analyzed the effects of haloperidol on expression CD80 and CD86 in RAW 264 cells and in primary macrophages derived from bone marrow. Secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, NF-κB activation was evaluated using a reporter assay based on secretory embryonic alkaline phosphatase. Finally, synthetic antagonists were used to identify the dopamine receptor that mediates the effects of haloperidol. RESULTS Haloperidol inhibited NF-κB activation, and thereby suppressed expression of CD80, as well as secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 p40. CD80 and IL-6 levels were similarly attenuated by a D2-like receptor antagonist, but not by a D1-like receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS The data strongly suggest that haloperidol inhibits the immune response by suppressing NF-kB signaling via the dopamine D2 receptor.

  17. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in rats via suppressing MAPK mediated inflammatory responses and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinglou; Xu, Jun; Li, Jingjing; Du, Lifen; Chen, Tao; Liu, Ping; Peng, Sisi; Wang, Mingwei; Song, Hongping

    2015-05-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is an extremely popular beverage worldwide. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is one of the major catechins isolated from green tea and contributes to its beneficial therapeutic functions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. However, the effect of EGCG on mastitis is not yet known. This study was to investigate the protective potential of EGCG against mastitis in rats. The rat mastitis model was induced by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the duct of mammary gland. The mammary gland was collected after the experimental period. The levels of mammary oxidative stress and inflammatory responses were assessed by measuring the local activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of inflammatory cytokines. The mammary expressions of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor κB-p65 (NFκB-p65) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were evaluated by western blot analysis. It was found that EGCG obviously normalized LPS-induced low activities of antioxidant enzymes as well as decreased the high levels of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, EGCG inhibited the mammary over-expression of MAPKs, NFκB-p65 and HIF-1α. These results indicated that EGCG was able to attenuate LPS-induced mastitis in rats by suppressing MAPK related oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Cyanidins in Black Raspberry as Candidates for Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jo, Young-Hee; Park, Hyun-Chang; Choi, Seulgi; Kim, Sugyeong; Bao, Cheng; Kim, Hyung Woo; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Lee, Hong Jin; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

    2015-06-10

    The extracts produced by multisolvent extraction and subfractionation with preparative liquid chromatography of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) cultivated in Gochang, South Korea, were tested for their anti-inflammatory effects. The metabolomic profiling and analysis by orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OLPS-DA) suggested that cyanidin, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R) were key components for the anti-inflammatory responses in the most active fraction BF3-1, where they were present at 0.44, 1.26, and 0.56 μg/mg of BF3-1, respectively. Both BF3-1 and mixture of these cyanidins at the same ratio reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced protein level of iNOS expression and suppressed mRNA and protein expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β through inhibiting the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and STAT3 in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Overall, the results suggested that co-administration of cyanidin, C3G, and C3R is more effective than that of cyanidin alone and that the coexistence of these anthocyanin components in black raspberry plays a vital role in regulating LPS-induced inflammation even at submicromolar concentrations, making it possible to explain the health beneficial activity of its extracts.

  19. Carbon monoxide alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress injury through suppressing the expression of Fis1 in NR8383 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Jia; Yu, Jian-bo, E-mail: yujianbo11@126.com; Liu, Wei

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most devastating complications of sepsis lacking of effective therapy. Mitochondrial dynamics undergoing continuous fusion and fission play a crucial role in mitochondrial structure and function. Fis1, as a small protein located on the outer membrane of mitochondria, has been thought to be an important protein mediated mitochondrial fission. During ARDS, alveolar macrophages suffer from increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and also accompanied by disrupted mitochondrial dynamics. In addition, as one of the products of heme degradation catalyzed by heme oxygenase, carbon monoxide (CO) possesses powerful protective properties in vivo or inmore » vitro models, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptosis function. However, there is little evidence that CO alleviates oxidative stress damage through altering mitochondrial fission in alveolar macrophages. In the present study, our results showed that CO increased cell vitality, improved mitochondrial SOD activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibited cell apoptosis in NR8383 exposed to LPS. Meanwhile, CO decreased the expression of Fis1, increased mitochondrial membrane potential and sustained elongation of mitochondria in LPS-incubated NR8383. Overall, our study underscored a critical role of CO in suppressing the expression of Fis1 and alleviating LPS- induced oxidative stress damage in alveolar macrophages. - Highlights: • LPS exposure triggered cell injury in NR8383. • CO alleviated LPS-induced oxidative stress damage in alveolar macrophages. • CO inhibited Fis1 levels and improved mitochondrial function in LPS-induced NR8383.« less

  20. Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Attenuates Neuron Damage by Suppressing the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced TLR4 Pathway in Activated Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yanni; Qian, Yisong; Ou-Yang, Aijun; Fu, Longsheng

    2016-11-01

    Microglia activation initiates a neurological deficit cascade that contributes to substantial neuronal damage and impairment following ischemia stroke. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been demonstrated to play a critical role in this cascade. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), an active ingredient extracted from Flos Carthami tinctorii, alleviated inflammatory damage, and mediated neurotrophic effects in neurons by inducing the TLR4 pathway in microglia. A non-contact Transwell co-culture system comprised microglia and neurons was treated with HSYA followed by a 1 mg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. The microglia were activated prior to neuronal apoptosis, which were induced by increasing TLR4 expression in the activated microglia. However, HSYA suppressed TLR4 expression in the activated microglia, resulting in less neuronal damage at the early stage of LPS stimulation. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence indicated that dose-dependently HSYA down-regulated TLR4-induced downstream effectors myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), nuclear factor kappa b (NF-κB), and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)-regulated proteins c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK), protein kinase (ERK) 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK (p38), as well as the LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine release. However, HSYA up-regulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Our data suggest that HSYA could exert neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory functions in response to LPS stimulation by inhibiting TLR4 pathway-mediated signaling.

  1. Genipin protects d-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic injury through suppression of the necroptosis-mediated inflammasome signaling.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min-Jong; Hong, Jeong-Min; Kim, Seok-Joo; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2017-10-05

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening syndrome resulting from massive inflammation and hepatocyte death. Necroptosis, a programmed cell death controlled by receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIP) 1 and RIP3, has been shown to play an important role in regulating inflammation via crosstalk between other intracellular signaling. The inflammasome is a major intracellular multiprotein that induces inflammatory responses by mediating immune cell infiltration, thus potentiating injury. Genipin, a major active compound of the gardenia fruit, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties. This study investigated the hepatoprotective mechanisms of genipin on d-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALF, particularly focusing on interaction between necroptosis and inflammasome. Mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of genipin (25, 50, and 100mg/kg) or necrostatin-1 (Nec-1, a necroptosis inhibitor; 1.8mg/kg) 1h prior to GalN (800mg/kg)/LPS (40μg/kg) injection and were killed 3h after GalN/LPS injection. Genipin improved the survival rate and attenuated increases in serum aminotransferase activities and inflammatory cytokines after GalN/LPS injection. Genipin reduced GalN/LPS-induced increases in RIP3, phosphorylated RIP1 and RIP3 protein expression, and RIP1/RIP3 necrosome complex, similar to the effects of Nec-1. GalN/LPS significantly increased serum levels of high-mobility group box 1 and interleukin (IL)-33, which were attenuated by genipin and Nec-1. Moreover, similar to Nec-1, genipin attenuated GalN/LPS-induced increases in the protein expression levels of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1, inflammasome components, and levels of liver and serum IL-1β. Taken together, our findings suggest that genipin ameliorates GalN/LPS-induced hepatocellular damage by suppressing necroptosis-mediated inflammasome signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biosynthesis of oleamide.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Gregory P; Driscoll, William J

    2009-01-01

    Oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) is the prototype long chain primary fatty acid amide lipid messenger. The natural occurrence of oleamide was first reported in human serum in 1989. Subsequently oleamide was shown to accumulate in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats and to induce sleep when administered to experimental animals. Accordingly, oleamide first became known for its potential role in the mechanisms that mediate the drive to sleep. Oleamide also has profound effects on thermoregulation and acts as an analgesic in several models of experimental pain. Although these important pharmacologic effects are well establish, the biochemical mechanism for the synthesis of oleamide has not yet been defined. This chapter reviews the biosynthetic pathways that have been proposed and highlights two mechanisms which are most supported by experimental evidence: the generation of oleamide from oleoylglycine by the neuropeptide processing enzyme, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), and alternatively, the direct amidation of oleic acid via oleoyl coenzyme A by cytochrome c using ammonia as the nitrogen source. The latter mechanism is discussed in the context of apoptosis where oleamide may play a role in regulating gap junction communication. Lastly, several considerations and caveats pertinent to the future study oleamide biosynthesis are discussed.

  3. Enhanced radiosensitization of p53 mutant cells by oleamide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Chung, Da Yeon; Lee, Su-Jae; Ja Jhon, Gil; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2006-04-01

    Effect of oleamide, an endogenous fatty-acid primary amide, on tumor cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) has never before been explored. NCI H460, human lung cancer cells, and human astrocytoma cell lines, U87 and U251, were used. The cytotoxicity of oleamide alone or in combination with IR was determined by clonogenic survival assay, and induction of apoptosis was estimated by FACS analysis. Protein expressions were confirmed by Western blotting, and immunofluorescence analysis of Bax by use of confocal microscopy was also performed. The combined effect of IR and oleamide to suppress tumor growth was studied by use of xenografts in the thighs of nude mice. Oleamide in combination with IR had a synergistic effect that decreased clonogenic survival of lung-carcinoma cell lines and also sensitized xenografts in nude mice. Enhanced induction of apoptosis of the cells by the combined treatment was mediated by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which resulted in the activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 accompanied by cytochrome c release and Bid cleavage. The synergistic effects of the combined treatment were more enhanced in p53 mutant cells than in p53 wild-type cells. In p53 wild-type cells, both oleamide and radiation induced Bax translocation to mitochondria. On the other hand, in p53 mutant cells, radiation alone slightly induced Bax translocation to mitochondria, whereas oleamide induced a larger translocation. Oleamide may exhibit synergistic radiosensitization in p53 mutant cells through p53-independent Bax translocation to mitochondria.

  4. Sulforaphane suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression through the modulation of multiple targets in COX-2 gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kyung Jin; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2007-12-15

    Sulforaphane is a natural, biologically active compound extracted from cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage. It possesses potent anti-inflammation and anti-cancer properties. The mechanism by which sulforaphane suppresses COX-2 expression remains poorly understood. In the present report, we investigated the effect of sulforaphane on the expression of COX-2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated Raw 264.7 cells. Sulforaphane significantly suppressed the LPS-induced COX-2 protein and mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. The ability of sulforaphane to suppress the expression of the COX-2 was investigated using luciferase reporters controlled by various cis-elements in COX-2 promoter region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) verified that NF-kappaB, C/EBP, CREB and AP-1 were identified as responsible for the sulforaphane-mediated COX-2 down-regulation. In addition, we demonstrated the signal transduction pathway of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) in LPS-induced COX-2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that sulforaphane effectively suppressed the LPS-induced COX-2 protein via modulation of multiple core promoter elements (NF-kappaB, C/EBP, CREB and AP-1) in the COX-2 transcriptional regulation. These results will provide new insights into the anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties of sulforaphane.

  5. Zinc L-carnosine suppresses inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages cell line via activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Theng Choon; Chan, Kok Meng; Sharif, Razinah

    2017-10-01

    Zinc L-carnosine (ZnC) is a chelate of Zn and L-carnosine and is used clinically in the treatment of peptic ulcer. In this study, we aim to investigate the involvement of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the anti-inflammatory effects of ZnC in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. We used immunoblotting analysis to evaluate the involvement of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory effects of ZnC and the signaling pathway involved was measured using Dual luciferase reporter assay. Results from immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that pretreatment of cells with ZnC enhanced the expression of HO-1 in RAW 264.7 cells. Pretreatment of cells with HO-1 inhibitor (tin protoporphyrin IX dichloride) significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of ZnC on nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NF-κB activation in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting that HO-1 play an important role in the suppression of inflammatory responses induced by ZnC. Furthermore, results from co-immunoprecipitation of Nrf2 and Keap1 and dual luciferase reporter assay showed that pretreatment of ZnC was able to activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Treatment of cells with p38 inhibitor (SB203580), c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor (SP600125), and MEK 1/2 inhibitor (U0126) did not significantly suppress the induction of HO-1 by ZnC. Moreover, our present findings suggest that the effects of ZnC on NO production, HO-1 expression, and Nrf2 activation were attributed to its Zn subcomponent, but not l-carnosine. Pretreatment with ZnC was able to activate Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, thus suppressing the expression of inflammatory mediators, such as NO and iNOS in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells.

  6. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and interleukin-1β in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2015-10-05

    This study was performed to analyze the effect of carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3) in alleviating the production of proinflammatory mediators in macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen associated with periodontal disease, and its possible mechanisms of action. LPS was isolated using the hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were assayed for nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR, and protein expression by immunoblotting. DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits were determined using an ELISA-based kit. CORM-3 suppressed the production of inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO and IL-1β at both gene transcription and translation levels in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. CORM-3 enhanced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cells stimulated with P. intermedia LPS, and inhibition of HO-1 activity by SnPP notably reversed the suppressive effect of CORM-3 on LPS-induced production of NO. LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 and JNK was not affected by CORM-3. CORM-3 did not influence P. intermedia LPS-induced degradation of IκB-α. Instead, nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits was blocked by CORM-3 in LPS-treated cells. In addition, CORM-3 reduced LPS-induced p65 and p50 binding to DNA. Besides, CORM-3 significantly suppressed P. intermedia LPS-induced phosphorylation of STAT1. Overall, this study indicates that CORM-3 suppresses the production of NO and IL-1β in P. intermedia LPS-activated murine macrophages via HO-1 induction and inhibition of NF-κB and STAT1 pathways. The modulation of host inflammatory response by CORM-3 would be an attractive therapeutic approach to attenuate the progression of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mangiferin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced production of interleukin-6 in human oral epithelial cells by suppressing toll-like receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Wang, Qi; Chen, Xinmin; Ding, Yi; Li, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Oral epithelial cells have currently been found to play an important role in inflammatory modulation in periodontitis. Mangiferin is a natural glucosylxanthone with anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory effect of mangiferin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in oral epithelial cells and the underlying mechanisms. The levels of LPS-induced IL-6 production in OKF6/TERT-2 oral keratinocytes were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 was determined using western blot analysis. And the phosphorylation of TLR downstream nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was examined using cell-based protein phosphorylation ELISA kits. We found that mangiferin reduced LPS-upregulated IL-6 production in OKF6/TERT-2 cells. Additionally, mangiferin inhibited LPS-induced TLR2 and TLR4 overexpression, and suppressed the phosphorylation of NF-κB, p38 MAPK and JNK. Moreover, mangiferin repressed IL-6 production and TLR signaling activation in a dose-dependent manner after 24h treatment. Mangiferin decreases LPS-induced production of IL-6 in human oral epithelial cells by suppressing TLR signaling, and this glucosylxanthone may have potential for the treatment of periodontitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Arctigenin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression in RAW264.7 cells through suppressing JAK-STAT signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Kou, Xianjuan; Qi, Shimei; Dai, Wuxing; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2011-08-01

    Arctigenin has been demonstrated to have an anti-inflammatory function, but the precise mechanisms of its action remain to be fully defined. In the present study, we determined the effects of arctigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of proinflammatory mediators and the underlying mechanisms involved in RAW264.7 cells. Our results indicated that arctigenin exerted its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting ROS-dependent STAT signaling through its antioxidant activity. Arctigenin also significantly reduced the phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT 3 as well as JAK2 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The inhibitions of STAT1 and STAT 3 by arctigenin prevented their translocation to the nucleus and consequently inhibited expression of iNOS, thereby suppressing the expression of inflammation-associated genes, such as IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1, whose promoters contain STAT-binding elements. However, COX-2 expression was slightly inhibited at higher drug concentrations (50 μM). Our data demonstrate that arctigenin inhibits iNOS expression via suppressing JAK-STAT signaling pathway in macrophages. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. S632A3, a new glutarimide antibiotic, suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory responses via inhibiting the activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hongbin; Zhang, Na; Wang, Yan; Chen, Jinjing; Shen, Jiajia; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Rong; Zhang, Jingpu; Song, Danqing; Li, Diandong

    2012-12-10

    Inflammatory mediators including inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) contribute to the course of a variety of inflammatory diseases. S632A3 is a new member of the glutarimide antibiotics isolated from a cultured broth of Streptomyces hygroscopicus S632 with a potent NF-κB inhibitory activity. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying molecular mechanism of S632A3 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. S632A3 concentration-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NO and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production through the suppression of iNOS and COX-2 at gene transcription levels. In addition, S632A3 suppressed NF-κB-dependent inflammatory responses by inhibiting the activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), while the activation of IκB kinase (IKK) complex was unaffected. S632A3 suppressed NF-κB activity by differentially affecting the CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) and NF-κB p65 interacting with the coactivator CBP (CREB binding protein). S632A3 also inhibited GSK-3β-elicited iNOS and COX-2 expression. Moreover, S632A3 was shown to inhibit the activation of ASK1 (Apoptosis-signal regulating kinase 1) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, therefore attenuated the LPS-induced NF-κB activity in macrophages. Furthermore, S632A3 significantly reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 production while increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Our study thus provides a molecular mechanism by which S632A3 inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response in macrophages through interfering with the activation of GSK-3β and ASK1-p38 signaling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pinocembrin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in Labeo rohita macrophages via the suppression of the NF-κB signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-09-01

    Pinocembrin is a flavonoid that has been reported to exhibit various pharmacological and biological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. To explore the anti-inflammatory activity of pinocembrin in a fish cell line, we investigated its ability to regulate the inflammatory mediators elevated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Labeo rohita head-kidney (HK) macrophages. HK macrophages of L. rohita were treated with LPS (1 μg mL(-1)) in the presence or absence of pinocembrin. We examined the inhibitory effect of pinocembrin on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The inhibitory effect of pinocembrin on nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was investigated by RT-PCR and western blot. The effect of pinocembrin on pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)) and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was investigated by ELISA and RT-PCR. The phosphorylation of three mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) ERK, JNK, and p38 was analysed by western blot. Pinocembrin inhibited LPS-induced productions of NO and PGE2, and also markedly inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, and COX-2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA expression levels decreased significantly, while IL-10 mRNA expression increased (P < 0.05) with pinocembrin pre-treatment. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that pinocembrin decreased both the mRNA and protein expression levels of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 in HK macrophages. Pinocembrin suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPK in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. Further, pinocembrin significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity via the attenuation of IκBα degradation. Taken together, pinocembrin reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β, by inhibiting NF-κB activation via the suppression of ERK and p38

  11. Salidroside attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing nuclear factor-κB and mitogen activated protein kinases activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Depeng; Fu, Yunhe; Zhang, Wen; Su, Gaoli; Liu, Bo; Guo, Mengyao; Li, Fengyang; Liang, Dejie; Liu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Xichen; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng; Yang, Zhengtao

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis is defined as inflammation of the mammary gland in domestic dairy animals and humans. Salidroside, a major component isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., has potent anti-inflammatory properties, but whether it can be used in mastitis treatment has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of salidroside against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mice and the mechanism of action. We used a mouse mastitis model in which mammary gland inflammation was induced by LPS challenge. Salidroside administered 1 h before LPS infusion significantly attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced the activity of myeloperoxidase in mammary tissue, and decreased the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies revealed that salidroside down-regulated phosphorylation of LPS-induced nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 and inhibitor of NF-κB α (IκBα) in the NF-κB signal pathway, and suppressed phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) in MAPKs signal pathways. This study demonstrates that salidroside is an effective suppressor of inflammation and may be a candidate for the prophylaxis of mastitis.

  12. Amomum tsao-ko suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 macrophages via Nrf2-dependent heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Choi, Hee-Jin; Lee, Dong-Sung; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Youn-Chul; Moon, Jin-Young; Park, Won-Hwan; Park, Sun-Dong; Kim, Jai-Eun

    2014-01-01

    Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire, used as a spice in Asia, is an important source of Chinese cuisine and traditional Chinese medicines. A. tsao-ko is reported to exert a variety of biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-proliferative, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. In this study, NNMBS227, consisting of the ethanol extract of A. tsao-ko, exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activities in RAW264.7 macrophages. We investigated the effect of NNMBS227 in the suppression of pro-inflammatory mediators, including pro-inflammatory enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) in LPS stimulated macrophages. NNMBS227 also inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α, as well as the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 caused by stimulation with LPS. In addition, NNMBS227 induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression through the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in macrophages. Using tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), an HO activity inhibitor, we confirmed an association between the anti-inflammatory effects of NNMBS227 and the up-regulation of HO-1. These findings suggest that Nrf2-dependent increases in the expression of HO-1 induced by NNMBS227 conferred anti-inflammatory activities in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

  13. Plumbagin, a vitamin K3 analogue, abrogates lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and endotoxic shock via NF-κB suppression.

    PubMed

    Checker, Rahul; Patwardhan, Raghavendra S; Sharma, Deepak; Menon, Jisha; Thoh, Maikho; Sandur, Santosh K; Sainis, Krishna B; Poduval, T B

    2014-04-01

    Plumbagin has been reported to modulate cellular redox status and suppress NF-κB. In the present study, we investigated the effect of plumbagin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic shock, oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in vitro and in vivo. Plumbagin inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide, TNF-α, IL-6 and prostaglandin-E2 production in a concentration-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells without inducing any cell death. Plumbagin modulated cellular redox status in RAW cells. Plumbagin treatment significantly reduced MAPkinase and NF-κB activation in macrophages. Plumbagin prevented mice from endotoxic shock-associated mortality and decreased serum levels of pro-inflammatory markers. Plumbagin administration ameliorated LPS-induced oxidative stress in peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes. Plumbagin also attenuated endotoxic shock-associated changes in liver and lung histopathology and decreased the activation of ERK and NF-κB in liver. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of plumbagin in preventing LPS-induced endotoxemia and also provide mechanistic insights into the anti-inflammatory effects of plumbagin.

  14. Febuxostat, an Inhibitor of Xanthine Oxidase, Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced MCP-1 Production via MAPK Phosphatase-1-Mediated Inactivation of JNK

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Johji; Busso, Nathalie; Ives, Annette; Tsujimoto, Syunsuke; Tamura, Mizuho; So, Alexander; Yamanaka, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation can trigger various pathological conditions such as inflammation, in which xanthine oxidase (XO) is one major enzymatic source of ROS. Although XO has been reported to play essential roles in inflammatory conditions, the molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of XO in inflammatory pathways remain unclear. Febuxostat, a selective and potent inhibitor of XO, effectively inhibits not only the generation of uric acid but also the formation of ROS. In this study, therefore, we examined the effects of febuxostat on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory responses. Here we show that febuxostat suppresses LPS-induced MCP-1 production and mRNA expression via activating MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) which, in turn, leads to dephosphorylation and inactivation of JNK in macrophages. Moreover, these effects of febuxostat are mediated by inhibiting XO-mediated intracellular ROS production. Taken together, our data suggest that XO mediates LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK through ROS production and MKP-1 inactivation, leading to MCP-1 production in macrophages. These studies may bring new insights into the novel role of XO in regulating inflammatory process through MAPK phosphatase, and demonstrate the potential use of XO inhibitor in modulating the inflammatory processes. PMID:24086554

  15. Mannan-binding lectin directly interacts with Toll-like receptor 4 and suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion from THP-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingyong; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Yani; Zhang, Liyun; Lu, Xiao; Chen, Zhengliang

    2011-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) plays a key role in the lectin pathway of complement activation and can influence cytokine expression. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is expressed extensively and has been demonstrated to be involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced signaling. We first sought to determine whether MBL exposure could modulate LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity by using the monocytoid cell line THP-1. We then investigated the possible mechanisms underlying any observed regulatory effect. Using ELISA and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, we found that at both the protein and mRNA levels, treatment with MBL suppresses LPS-induced tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-12 production in THP-1 cells. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and western blot analysis revealed that MBL treatment can inhibit LPS-induced NF-κB DNA binding and translocation in THP-1 cells. While the binding of MBL to THP-1 cells was evident at physiological calcium concentrations, this binding occurred optimally in response to supraphysiological calcium concentrations. This binding can be partly inhibited by treatment with either a soluble form of recombinant TLR4 extracellular domain or anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibody (HTA125). Activation of THP-1 cells by LPS treatment resulted in increased MBL binding. We also observed that MBL could directly bind to the extracellular domain of TLR4 in a dose-dependent manner, and this interaction could attenuate the binding of LPS to cell surfaces. Taken together, these data suggest that MBL may affect cytokine expression through modulation of LPS-/TLR-signaling pathways. These findings suggest that MBL may play an important role in both immune regulation and the signaling pathways involved in cytokine networks. PMID:21383675

  16. The α-cyclodextrin complex of the Moringa isothiocyanate suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells through Akt and p38 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; Iori, Renato; Rollin, Patrick; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2017-06-01

    In the last decades, a growing need to discover new compounds for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases has led researchers to consider drugs derived from natural products as a valid option in the treatment of inflammation-associated disorders. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of a new formulation of Moringa oleifera-derived 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate as a complex with alpha-cyclodextrin (moringin + α-CD) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, a common model used for inflammation studies. In buffered/aqueous solution, the moringin + α-CD complex has enhanced the water solubility and stability of this isothiocyanate by forming a stable inclusion system. Our results showed that moringin + α-CD inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated macrophages by down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), by preventing IκB-α phosphorylation, translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and also via the suppression of Akt and p38 phosphorylation. In addition, as a consequence of upstream inhibition of the inflammatory pathway following treatment with moringin + α-CD, the modulation of the oxidative stress (results focused on the expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine) and apoptotic pathway (Bax and Bcl-2) was demonstrated. Therefore, moringin + α-CD appears to be a new relevant helpful tool to use in clinical practice for inflammation-associated disorders.

  17. Gamma-tocotrienol inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced interlukin-6 and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor by suppressing C/EBP-β and NF-κB in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Jiang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytokines generated from macrophages contributes to pathogenesis of inflammation-associated diseases. Here we show that gamma-tocotrienol (γ-TE), a natural vitamin E form, inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) production without affecting TNFα, IL-10 or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) up-regulation in murine RAW267.4 macrophages. Mechanistic studies indicate that nuclear factor (NF)-κB, but not JNK, p38 or ERK MAP kinases, is important to IL-6 production and γ-TE treatment blocks NF-κB activation. In contrast, COX-2 appears to be regulated by p38 MAPK in RAW cells, but γ-TE has no effect on LPS-stimulated p38 phosphorylation. Despite necessary for IL-6, NF-κB activation by TNFα or other cytokines is not sufficient for IL-6 induction with exception of LPS. CCAAT-enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) appears to be involved in IL-6 formation, because LPS induces C/EBPβ up-regulation, which parallels IL-6 production, and knockdown of C/EBPβ with siRNA results in diminished IL-6. LPS but not individual cytokines is capable of stimulating C/EBPβ and IL-6 in macrophages. Consistent with its dampening effect on IL-6, γ-TE blunts LPS-induced up-regulation of C/EBPβ without affecting C/EBPδ. γ-TE also decreases LPS-stimulated granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a C/EBPβ target gene. Compared with RAW267.4 cells, γ-TE shows similar or stronger inhibitory effects on LPS-triggered activation of NF-κB, C/EPBβ and C/EBPδ, and more potently suppresses IL-6 and G-CSF in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Our study demonstrates that γ-TE has anti-inflammatory activities by inhibition of NF-κB and C/EBPs activation in macrophages. PMID:23246159

  18. Oryza sativa (Rice) Hull Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response in RAW264.7 Macrophages by Suppressing Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase, and Nuclear Factor-κB Activation.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sang Keun; Sung, Jeehye; Choi, Inwook; Kim, Yoonsook

    2016-01-01

    Rice ( Oryza sativa ) is a major cereal crop in many Asian countries and an important staple food source. Rice hulls have been reported to possess antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the antiinflammatory effects of rice hull extract and associated signal transduction mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively. The release of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α was also reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, rice hull extract attenuated the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), as well as the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. This suggests that rice hull extract decreases the production of inflammatory mediators by downregulating ERK and JNK and the NF-κB signal pathway in RAW 264.7 cells. Rice hull extract inhibits the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages.Rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide and prostaglandin E 2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively.Rice hull extract exerted anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways.Rice hull extract may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Abbreviations used: COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2, ERK: extracellular signal-regulated kinase, IκB: inhibitory kappa B, IL-1β: interleukin-1β, iNOS: inducible NO synthase, JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase, LPS: lipopolysaccharide, MAPKs: mitogen-activated protein kinases, NF-κB: nuclear factor-κB, NO: nitric oxide, PGE2: prostaglandin E2, RHE: rice hull extract, ROS: reactive oxygen species

  19. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Knockout of SIRT2 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression. • Lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production is decreased in SIRT2 KO macrophage. • SIRT2 deficiency suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced ROS production in macrophage. • M1-macrophage related factors are decreased in SIRT2 deficient cells. • SIRT2 deficiency decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NFκB. - Abstract: Introduction: SIRT2 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases and associated with numerous processes such as infection, carcinogenesis, DNA damage and cell cycle regulation. However, the role of SIRT2 in inflammatory process in macrophage remains unclear. Materials and methods: In the present study, we have evaluated the regulatory effects of SIRT2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophagesmore » isolated from SIRT2 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice or Raw264.7 macrophage cells. As inflammatory parameters, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the productions of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and M1-macrophage-related factors were evaluated. We also examined the effects of SIRT2 on activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) signaling. Results: SIRT2 deficiency inhibits LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression in bone marrow derived macrophages. SIRT2-siRNA transfection also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS expression in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from SIRT2 KO mice produced lower nitric oxide and expressed lower levels of M1-macrophage related markers including iNOS and CD86 in response to LPS than WT mice. Decrease of SIRT2 reduced the LPS-induced reactive oxygen species production. Deficiency of SIRT2 resulted in inhibition of NFκB activation through reducing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. The phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 was significantly decreased in SIRT2-deficient macrophages after LPS stimulation. Discussion: Our data suggested

  20. Inhibitory action of linoleamide and oleamide toward sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Sachiko; Takehara, Munenori; Ushimaru, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    SERCA maintains intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis by sequestering cytosolic Ca 2+ into SR/ER stores. Two primary fatty acid amides (PFAAs), oleamide (18:1 9-cis ) and linoleamide (18:2 9,12-cis ), induce an increase in intracellular Ca 2+ levels, which might be caused by their inhibition of SERCA. Three major SERCA isoforms, rSERCA1a, hSERCA2b, and hSERCA3a, were individually overexpressed in COS-1 cells, and the inhibitory action of PFAAs on Ca 2+ -ATPase activity of SERCA was examined. The Ca 2+ -ATPase activity of each SERCA was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner strongly by linoleamide (IC 50 15-53μM) and partially by oleamide (IC 50 8.3-34μM). Inhibition by other PFAAs, such as stearamide (18:0) and elaidamide (18:1 9-trans ), was hardly or slightly observed. With increasing dose, linoleamide decreased the apparent affinity for Ca 2+ and the apparent maximum velocity of Ca 2+ -ATPase activity of all SERCAs tested. Oleamide also lowered these values for hSERCA3a. Meanwhile, oleamide uniquely reduced the apparent Ca 2+ affinity of rSERCA1a and hSERCA2b: the reduction was considerably attenuated above certain concentrations of oleamide. The dissociation constants for SERCA interaction varied from 6 to 45μM in linoleamide and from 1.6 to 55μM in oleamide depending on the isoform. Linoleamide and oleamide inhibit SERCA activity in the micromolar concentration range, and in a different manner. Both amides mainly suppress SERCA activity by lowering the Ca 2+ affinity of the enzyme. Our findings imply a novel role of these PFAAs as modulators of intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis via regulation of SERCA activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Oleamide: a member of the endocannabinoid family?

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    The fatty acid amide class of compounds, which include the endocannabinoid anandamide and the sleep-inducing compound oleamide, have been shown in vitro to have a multiplicity of actions upon different neurochemical systems. In the present issue of this journal, Leggett et al present data indicating that oleamide functionally activates CB1 cannabinoid receptors in vitro. The significance of their finding is discussed in this commentary. PMID:14691053

  2. Isobutyrylshikonin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in BV2 microglial cells by suppressing the PI3K/Akt-mediated nuclear transcription factor-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Lee, Kyoung-Tae; Kang, Chang-Hee; Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Lee, Hak-Ju; Choi, Yung Hyun; Choi, Il-Whan; Kim, Gi-Young

    2014-12-01

    Microglia are important macrophages to defend against pathogens in the central nervous system (CNS); however, persistent or acute inflammation of microglia lead to CNS disorders via neuronal cell death. Therefore, we theorized that a good strategy for the treatment of CNS disorders would be to target inflammatory mediators from microglia in disease. Consequently, we investigated whether isobutyrylshikonin (IBS) attenuates the production of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Treatment with IBS inhibited the secretion of NO and prostaglandin E2 (as well as the expression of their key regulatory genes), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Isobutyrylshikonin also suppressed LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB), by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of p50 and p65 in addition to blocking the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Pretreatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, a specific NF-κB inhibitor, showed the down-regulation of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 messenger RNA by suppressing NF-κB activity. This indirectly suggests that IBS-mediated NF-κB inhibition is the main signaling pathway involved in the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. In addition, IBS attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt, which are upstream molecules of NF-κB, in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. The functional aspects of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway were analyzed with LY294002, which is a specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor that attenuated LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression by suppressing NF-κB activity. These data suggest that an IBS-mediated anti-inflammatory effect may be involved in suppressing the PI3K/Akt-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lycorine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and COX-2 up-regulation in RAW264.7 cells through suppressing P38 and STATs activation and increases the survival rate of mice after LPS challenge.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jingjing; Zhang, Yushun; Cao, Xiang; Fan, Jie; Li, Guilan; Wang, Qi; Diao, Ying; Zhao, Zhihui; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2012-01-01

    As a natural alkaloid extracted from Amaryllidaceae, lycorine shows various biological effects on tumor cells. Here we show that lycorine dose-dependently inhibited the LPS-induced up-regulation of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein level in RAW264.7 cells. Besides, it also inhibited NO, PGE(2), TNF-α and IL-6 release from LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. RT-PCR experiments showed that lycorine suppressed LPS-induced iNOS but not COX-2 gene expression. Moreover, lycorine decreased LPS-induced mortality in mice. Mechanistically, LPS-induced activation of P38 and STATs pathways was suppressed significantly by lycorine. In addition, lycorine did not interfere with the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and NF-κB pathways. In conclusion, lycorine inhibits LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators and increases the survival rate of mice after LPS challenge, suggesting that lycorine could play an anti-inflammatory role in response to LPS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ebselen Is a Potential Anti-Osteoporosis Agent by Suppressing Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation In vitro and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Bone Destruction In vivo

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Oh, Jaemin; Lee, Myeung Su

    2016-01-01

    Ebselen is a non-toxic seleno-organic drug with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that is currently being examined in clinical trials to prevent and treat various diseases, including atherosclerosis, stroke, and cancer. However, no reports are available for verifying the pharmacological effects of ebselen on major metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. In this study, we observed that ebselen suppressed the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells in an osteoblast/osteoclast co-culture by regulating the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin secreted by osteoblasts. In addition, ebselen treatment in the early stage of osteoclast differentiation inhibited RANKL-dependent osteoclastogenesis by decreasing the phosphorylation of IκB, PI3K, and Akt in early signaling pathways and by subsequently inducing c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1. Further, ebselen induced apoptosis of osteoclasts in the late stage of osteoclast differentiation. In addition, ebselen treatment suppressed filamentous actin ring formation and bone resorption activity of mature osteoclasts. Reflecting these in vitro effects, administration of ebselen recovered bone loss and its µ-CT parameters in lipopolysaccharide-mediated mouse model. Histological analysis confirmed that ebselen prevented trabecular bone matrix degradation and osteoclast formation in the bone tissues. Finally, it was proved that the anti-osteoclastogenic action of ebselen is achieved through targeting N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. These results indicate that ebselen is a potentially safe drug for treating metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:27019631

  5. Ebselen Is a Potential Anti-Osteoporosis Agent by Suppressing Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation In vitro and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Bone Destruction In vivo.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jong Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Oh, Jaemin; Lee, Myeung Su

    2016-01-01

    Ebselen is a non-toxic seleno-organic drug with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that is currently being examined in clinical trials to prevent and treat various diseases, including atherosclerosis, stroke, and cancer. However, no reports are available for verifying the pharmacological effects of ebselen on major metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. In this study, we observed that ebselen suppressed the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells in an osteoblast/osteoclast co-culture by regulating the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin secreted by osteoblasts. In addition, ebselen treatment in the early stage of osteoclast differentiation inhibited RANKL-dependent osteoclastogenesis by decreasing the phosphorylation of IκB, PI3K, and Akt in early signaling pathways and by subsequently inducing c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1. Further, ebselen induced apoptosis of osteoclasts in the late stage of osteoclast differentiation. In addition, ebselen treatment suppressed filamentous actin ring formation and bone resorption activity of mature osteoclasts. Reflecting these in vitro effects, administration of ebselen recovered bone loss and its µ-CT parameters in lipopolysaccharide-mediated mouse model. Histological analysis confirmed that ebselen prevented trabecular bone matrix degradation and osteoclast formation in the bone tissues. Finally, it was proved that the anti-osteoclastogenic action of ebselen is achieved through targeting N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. These results indicate that ebselen is a potentially safe drug for treating metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis.

  6. Suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activity by theaflavin-3,3'-digallate from black tea and other polyphenols through down-regulation of IkappaB kinase activity in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pan, M H; Lin-Shiau, S Y; Ho, C T; Lin, J H; Lin, J K

    2000-02-15

    We investigated the inhibition of IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cell line) by various polyphenols including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, theaflavin, a mixture of theaflavin-3 gallate and theaflavin-3'-gallate, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF-3), pyrocyanidin B-3, casuarinin, geraniin, and penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (5GG). TF-3 inhibited IKK activity in activated macrophages more strongly than did the other polyphenols. TF-3 strongly inhibited both IKK1 and IKK2 activity and prevented the degradation of IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta in activated macrophage cells. The results suggested that the inhibition of IKK activity by TF-3 could occur by a direct effect on IKKs or on upstream events in the signal transduction pathway. Furthermore, geraniin, 5GG, and TF-3 all blocked phosphorylation of IKB from the cytosolic fraction, inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB) activity, and inhibited increases in inducible nitric oxide synthase levels in activated macrophages. These results suggest that TF-3 may exert its anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive actions by suppressing the activation of NFkappaB through inhibition of IKK activity.

  7. Suppressive effects of Lithospermum erythrorhizon extracts on lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of AP-1 and NF-kappaB via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in mouse macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu Yeon; Kwon, Taek Hwan; Lee, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sung-Joon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Jiyoung

    2008-04-30

    A variety of anti-inflammatory agents have been shown to exert chemopreventive activity via targeting of transcription factors such as NF-kappaB and AP-1. Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LE) has long been used in traditional oriental medicine. In this study, we demonstrated the inhibitory effects of LE extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated production of inflammatory cytokines. As an underlying mechanism of inhibition, LE extracts reduced LPS-induced transactivation of AP-1 as well as NF-kappaB in mouse macrophage cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that LE extracts inhibited the DNA binding activities of AP-1 and NF-kappaB. In addition, phosphorylation of IkappaB-alpha protein was suppressed by LE extracts. Moreover, LE extracts inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated signaling pathways. Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of LE extracts may be mediated by the inhibition of signal transduction pathways that normally lead to the activation of AP-1and NF-kappaB. These inhibitory effects may be useful for chemoprevention of cancer or other chronic inflammatory diseases.

  8. 5,7-Dihydroxyflavone Analogues May Regulate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses by Suppressing IκBα-Linked Akt and ERK5 Phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Kazue; Koketsu, Mamoru; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Sato, Daisuke; Suzuki, Takashi; Hayakawa, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    We studied the anti-inflammatory activity of twelve 5,7-dihydroxyflavone analogues in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that chrysin (1) and 4′-methoxytricetin (9) showed relatively significant anti-inflammatory activity and low cytotoxicity. Moreover, 1 and 9 recovered the expression levels of iNOS and COX2, as well as those of the intracellular inflammatory mediators IL-1β and IL-6, which were upregulated by LPS stimulation. In addition, 1 and 9 actively regulated the phosphorylation of IκBα, leading to the activation of NFκB. Phosphorylation of Akt and ERK5 (upstream of NFκB) by LPS stimulation was significantly regulated by 1 and 9, as well as by BIX 02189 and LY 294002, which are phosphorylation inhibitors of ERK5 and Akt, respectively. The results suggest that compounds 1 and 9 may suppress the levels of iNOS and COX2 by regulating phosphorylation of Akt, ERK5, and IκBα and thus NFκB-related signaling pathways, resulting in anti-inflammatory effects in the cells. Because 1 and 9 showed low cytotoxicity and regulated both PGE2 and NO production caused by inflammatory responses, they may hold promise as natural anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:28539967

  9. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activity via 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Bao, Suqing; Cao, Yanli; Zhou, Haicheng; Sun, Xin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2015-03-18

    Obesity-related insulin resistance is associated with chronic systemic low-grade inflammation, and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) regulates inflammation. We investigated the pathways involved in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) modulation of insulin and TLR4 signaling in adipocytes. Inflammation was induced in adipocytes by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). An antibody against the 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR, to which EGCG exclusively binds) was used to examine the effect of EGCG on TLR4 signaling, and a TLR4/MD-2 antibody was used to inhibit TLR4 activity and to determine the insulin sensitivity of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that EGCG dose-dependently inhibited LPS stimulation of adipocyte inflammation by reducing inflammatory mediator and cytokine levels (IKKβ, p-NF-κB, TNF-α, and IL-6). Pretreatment with the 67LR antibody prevented EGCG inhibition of inflammatory cytokines, decreased glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) expression, and inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. TLR4 inhibition attenuated inflammatory cytokine levels and increased glucose uptake by reversing GLUT4 levels. These data suggest that EGCG suppresses TLR4 signaling in LPS-stimulated adipocytes via 67LR and attenuates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake associated with decreased GLUT4 expression.

  10. Curcumin alleviates lipopolysaccharide induced sepsis and liver failure by suppression of oxidative stress-related inflammation via PI3K/AKT and NF-κB related signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenhui; Qian, Kejian; Xiong, Jibin; Ma, Ke; Wang, Aizhong; Zou, Yan

    2016-10-01

    In many liver disorders, oxidative stress-related inflammation and apoptosis are important pathogenic components, finally resulting in acute liver failure. Erythropoietin and its analogues are well known to influence the interaction between apoptosis and inflammation in brain and kidney. The study is to clarify the effect of curcumin, a natural plant phenolic food additive, on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced acute liver injury of mice with endotoxemia and associated molecular mechanism from inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress levels. And curcumin, lowered serum cytokines, including Interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and improved liver apoptosis through suppressing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway and inhibiting Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)/Caspase expression, and decreased oxidative stress-associated protein expression, mainly involving 2E1 isoform of cytochrome P450/nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/reactive oxygen species (CYP2E/Nrf2/ROS) signaling pathway, as well as liver nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-induced mice. Moreover, curcumin regulated serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), accelerated liver antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) levels, and inhibited activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (P38/JNK) cascade in the livers of LPS-induced rats. Thus, curcumin treatment attenuates LPS-induced PI3K/AKT and CYP2E/Nrf2/ROS signaling and liver injury. Strategies to inhibit inflammation and apoptosis signaling may provide alternatives to the current clinical approaches to improve oxidative responses of endotoxemia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Stereoselective modulatory actions of oleamide on GABAA receptors and voltage-gated Na+ channels in vitro: a putative endogenous ligand for depressant drug sites in CNS

    PubMed Central

    Verdon, Bernard; Zheng, Jian; Nicholson, Russell A; Ganelli, C Robin; Lees, George

    2000-01-01

    cis-9,10-octadecenoamide (‘oleamide') accumulates in CSF on sleep deprivation. It induces sleep in animals (the trans form is inactive) but its cellular actions are poorly characterized. We have used electrophysiology in cultures from embryonic rat cortex and biochemical studies in mouse nerve preparations to address these issues. Twenty μM cis-oleamide (but not trans) reversibly enhanced GABAA currents and depressed the frequency of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity in cultured networks. cis-oleamide stereoselectively blocked veratridine-induced (but not K+-induced) depolarisation of mouse synaptoneurosomes (IC50, 13.9 μM). The cis isomer stereoselectively blocked veratridine-induced (but not K+-induced) [3H]-GABA release from mouse synaptosomes (IC50, 4.6 μM). At 20 μM cis-oleamide, but not trans, produced a marked inhibition of Na+ channel-dependent rises in intrasynaptosomal Ca2+. The physiological significance of these observations was examined by isolating Na+ spikes in cultured pyramidal neurones. Sixty-four μM cis-oleamide did not significantly alter the amplitude, rate of rise or duration of unitary action potentials (1 Hz). cis-Oleamide stereoselectively suppressed sustained repetitive firing (SRF) in these cells with an EC50 of 4.1 μM suggesting a frequency- or state-dependent block of voltage-gated Na+ channels. Oleamide is a stereoselective modulator of both postsynaptic GABAA receptors and presynaptic or somatic voltage-gated Na+ channels which are crucial for synaptic inhibition and conduction. The modulatory actions are strikingly similar to those displayed by sedative or anticonvulsant barbiturates and a variety of general anaesthetics. Oleamide may represent an endogenous modulator for drug receptors and an important regulator of arousal. PMID:10694234

  12. Oleamide synthesizing activity from rat kidney: identification as cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, William J; Chaturvedi, Shalini; Mueller, Gregory P

    2007-08-03

    Oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) is the prototype member of an emerging class of lipid signaling molecules collectively known as the primary fatty acid amides. Current evidence suggests that oleamide participates in the biochemical mechanisms underlying the drive to sleep, thermoregulation, and antinociception. Despite the potential importance of oleamide in these physiologic processes, the biochemical pathway for its synthesis in vivo has not been established. We report here the discovery of an oleamide synthetase found in rat tissues using [(14)C]oleoyl-CoA and ammonium ion. Hydrogen peroxide was subsequently found to be a required cofactor. The enzyme displayed temperature and pH optima in the physiologic range, a remarkable resistance to proteolysis, and specificity for long-chain acyl-CoA substrates. The reaction demonstrated Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a K(m) for oleoyl-CoA of 21 microm. Proteomic, biochemical, and immunologic analyses were used to identify the source of the oleamide synthesizing activity as cytochrome c. This identification was based upon peptide mass fingerprinting of isolated synthase protein, a tight correlation between enzymatic activity and immunoreactivity for cytochrome c, and identical functional properties shared by the tissue-derived synthetase and commercially obtained cytochrome c. The ability of cytochrome c to catalyze the formation of oleamide experimentally raises the possibility that cytochrome c may mediate oleamide biosynthesis in vivo.

  13. Neuropharmacological effects of oleamide in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Akanmu, Moses A; Adeosun, Samuel O; Ilesanmi, Olapade R

    2007-08-22

    Oleamide, a fatty acid amide accumulates selectively in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep deprived cats and rats. Oleamide has been reported to have effects on a wide range of receptors and neurotransmitter systems especially the centrally acting ones for example, dopamine acetylcholine, serotonin, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), cannabinoid and vanilloid among others. This suggests a wide range of central nervous system effects of the compound. The effects of intraperitoneal administered oleamide on Novelty-induced behaviours, learning and memory and forced swimming-induced depression were studied. The relative effects of the compound on the male and female mice were also noted. Oleamide dose-dependently reduced (p<0.05) novelty induced rearing, grooming and locomotion. The effects on the all NIBs started within the first 10 min of the test and the peak of the effects was observed during the third 10 min period of the test. Effect of oleamide on short-term working memory was significantly (p<0.05) affected only with the dose of 5mg/kg while the other dose of 10mg/kg had no effect. In the forced swimming test, acute triple intraperitoneal administration of oleamide at 10mg/kg induced a significant reduction in the immobility duration in mice signifying an antidepressant effect. Sex differences in the effects of oleamide (10mg/kg, i.p.) were clearly evident in active behaviours in FST. These results confirm the multiplicity of central nervous system receptors and neurotransmitters that oleamide interacts with hence its numerous and diverse neuropharmacological effects. Most importantly, the present study suggests that oleamide has antidepressant-like property.

  14. Doxycycline Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Microvascular Endothelial Cell Derangements.

    PubMed

    Wiggins-Dohlvik, Katie; Stagg, Hayden W; Han, Min Suk; Alluri, Himakarnika; Oakley, Ryan P; Anasooya Shaji, Chinchusha; Davis, Matthew L; Tharakan, Binu

    2016-06-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to induce vascular derangements. The pathophysiology involved therein is unknown, but matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may be an important mediator. We hypothesized that in vitro LPS provokes vascular permeability, damages endothelial structural proteins, and increases MMP activity; that in vivo LPS increases permeability and fluid requirements; and that the MMP inhibitor doxycycline mitigates such changes. Rat lung microvascular endothelial cells were divided into four groups: control, LPS, LPS plus doxycycline, and doxycycline. Permeability, structural proteins β-catenin and Filamentous-actin, and MMP-9 activity were examined. Sprauge Dawley rats were divided into sham, IV LPS, and IV LPS plus IV doxycycline groups. Mesenteric postcapillary venules were observed. Blood pressure was measured as animals were resuscitated and fluid requirements were compared. Statistical analysis was conducted using Student's t-test and ANOVA. In vitro LPS increased permeability, damaged adherens junctions, induced actin stress fiber formation, and increased MMP-9 enzyme activity. In vivo, IV LPS administration induced vascular permeability. During resuscitation, significantly more fluid was necessary to maintain normotension in the IV LPS group. Doxycycline mitigated all derangements observed. We conclude that LPS increases permeability, damages structural proteins, and increases MMP-9 activity in endothelial cells. Additionally, endotoxemia induces hyperpermeability and increases the amount of IV fluid required to maintain normotension in vivo. Doxycycline mitigates such changes both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings illuminate the possible role of matrix metalloproteinases in the pathophysiology of lipopolysaccharide-induced microvascular hyperpermeability and pave the way for better understanding and treatment of this process.

  15. In vivo evidence that N-oleoylglycine acts independently of its conversion to oleamide.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Shalini; Driscoll, William J; Elliot, Brenda M; Faraday, Martha M; Grunberg, Neil E; Mueller, Gregory P

    2006-12-01

    Oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) is a member of an emerging class of lipid-signaling molecules, the primary fatty acid amides. A growing body of evidence indicates that oleamide mediates fundamental neurochemical processes including sleep, thermoregulation, and nociception. Nevertheless, the mechanism for oleamide biosynthesis remains unknown. The leading hypothesis holds that oleamide is synthesized from oleoylglycine via the actions of the peptide amidating enzyme, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM). The present study investigated this hypothesis using pharmacologic treatments, physiologic assessments, and measurements of serum oleamide levels using a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Oleamide and oleoylglycine both induced profound hypothermia and decreased locomotion, over equivalent dose ranges and time courses, whereas, closely related compounds, stearamide and oleic acid, were essentially without effect. While the biologic actions of oleamide and oleoylglycine were equivalent, the two compounds differed dramatically with respect to their effects on serum levels of oleamide. Oleamide administration (80mg/kg) elevated blood-borne oleamide by eight-fold, whereas, the same dose of oleoylglycine had no effect on circulating oleamide levels. In addition, pretreatment with the established PAM inhibitor, disulfiram, produced modest reductions in the hypothermic responses to both oleoylglycine and oleamide, suggesting that the effects of disulfiram were not mediated through inhibition of PAM and a resulting decrease in the formation of oleamide from oleoylglycine. Collectively, these findings raise the possibilities that: (1) oleoylglycine possesses biologic activity that is independent of its conversion to oleamide and (2) the increased availability of oleoylglycine as a potential substrate does not drive the biosynthesis of oleamide.

  16. In Vivo Evidence that N-Oleoylglycine Acts Independently of Its Conversion to Oleamide

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Shalini; Driscoll, William J.; Elliot, Brenda M.; Faraday, Martha M.; Grunberg, Neil E.; Mueller, Gregory P.

    2006-01-01

    Oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) is a member of an emerging class of lipid-signaling molecules, the primary fatty acid amides. A growing body of evidence indicates that oleamide mediates fundamental neurochemical processes including sleep, thermoregulation, and nociception. Nevertheless, the mechanism for oleamide biosynthesis remains unknown. The leading hypothesis holds that oleamide is synthesized from oleoylglycine via the actions of the peptide amidating enzyme, peptidylglycine alpha amidating monooxygenase (PAM). The present study investigated this hypothesis using pharmacologic treatments, physiologic assessments, and measurements of serum oleamide levels using a newly development enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Oleamide and oleoylglycine both induced profound hypothermia and decreased locomotion, over equivalent dose ranges and time courses, whereas, closely related compounds, stearamide and oleic acid, were essentially without effect. While the biologic actions of oleamide and oleoylglycine were equivalent, the two compounds differed dramatically with respect to their effects on serum levels of oleamide. Oleamide administration (80 mg/kg) elevated blood-borne oleamide by eight-fold, whereas, the same dose of oleoylglycine had no effect on circulating oleamide levels. In addition, pretreatment with the established PAM inhibitor, disulfiram, produced modest reductions in the hypothermic responses to both oleoylglycine and oleamide, suggesting that the effects of disulfiram were not mediated through inhibition of PAM and a resulting decrease in the formation of oleamide from oleoylglycine. Collectively, these findings raise the possibilities that: (1) oleoylglycine possesses biologic activity that is independent of its conversion to oleamide, and (2) the increased availability of oleoylglycine as a potential substrate does not drive the biosynthesis of oleamide. PMID:17085322

  17. Behavioral evidence for the interaction of oleamide with multiple neurotransmitter systems.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, I; Hashimoto, A; Fecik, R A; Hedrick, M P; Hanus, L O; Boger, D L; Rice, K C; Basile, A S

    2001-10-01

    While the endogenous fatty acid amide oleamide has hypnotic properties, neither the breadth of its behavioral actions nor the mechanism(s) by which these behaviors may be mediated has been elucidated. Therefore, the effects of oleamide on the performance of rats in tests of motor function, analgesia, and anxiety were investigated. Oleamide reduced the distance traveled in the open field (ED50 = 14, 10-19 mg/kg, mean, 95% confidence interval), induced analgesia and hypothermia, but did not cause catalepsy. Moreover, a dose of oleamide without effect on motor function was anxiolytic in the social interaction test and elevated plus-maze. These actions of a single dose of oleamide lasted for 30 to 60 min. While rats became tolerant to oleamide following 8 days of repeated administration, oleamide is a poor inducer of physical dependence. Pretreatment with antagonists of the serotonin (5HT)1A, 5HT2C, and vanilloid receptors did not modify oleamide's effects. However, the cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR 141716A inhibited oleamide-induced analgesia in the tail-flick assay, the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor antagonist bicuculline reversed the analgesia and hypothermia, and the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist L 741626 blocked oleamide's locomotor and analgesic actions. Interestingly, oleamide analogs resistant to hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) maintained but did not show increased behavioral potency or duration of action, whereas two FAAH inhibitors produced analogous behavioral effects. Thus, oleamide induces behaviors reminiscent of the actions of endogenous cannabinoids, but the involvement of GABAergic and dopaminergic systems, either directly or indirectly, in the actions of oleamide cannot be ruled out.

  18. Intermittent fasting attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and memory impairment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Systemic bacterial infections often result in enduring cognitive impairment and are a risk factor for dementia. There are currently no effective treatments for infection-induced cognitive impairment. Previous studies have shown that intermittent fasting (IF) can increase the resistance of neurons to injury and disease by stimulating adaptive cellular stress responses. However, the impact of IF on the cognitive sequelae of systemic and brain inflammation is unknown. Methods Rats on IF for 30 days received 1 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline intravenously. Half of the rats were subjected to behavioral tests and the other half were euthanized two hours after LPS administration and the hippocampus was dissected and frozen for analyses. Results Here, we report that IF ameliorates cognitive deficits in a rat model of sepsis by a mechanism involving NF-κB activation, suppression of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and enhancement of neurotrophic support. Treatment of rats with LPS resulted in deficits in cognitive performance in the Barnes maze and inhibitory avoidance tests, without changing locomotor activity, that were ameliorated in rats that had been maintained on the IF diet. IF also resulted in reduced levels of mRNAs encoding the LPS receptor TLR4 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus. Moreover, IF prevented LPS-induced elevation of IL-1α, IL-1β and TNF-α levels, and prevented the LPS-induced reduction of BDNF levels in the hippocampus. IF also significantly attenuated LPS-induced elevations of serum IL-1β, IFN-γ, RANTES, TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that IF induces adaptive responses in the brain and periphery that can suppress inflammation and preserve cognitive function in an animal model of systemic bacterial infection. PMID:24886300

  19. Intermittent fasting attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Andrea R; Yshii, Lidia M; Viel, Tania A; Buck, Hudson S; Mattson, Mark P; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa M

    2014-05-06

    Systemic bacterial infections often result in enduring cognitive impairment and are a risk factor for dementia. There are currently no effective treatments for infection-induced cognitive impairment. Previous studies have shown that intermittent fasting (IF) can increase the resistance of neurons to injury and disease by stimulating adaptive cellular stress responses. However, the impact of IF on the cognitive sequelae of systemic and brain inflammation is unknown. Rats on IF for 30 days received 1 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline intravenously. Half of the rats were subjected to behavioral tests and the other half were euthanized two hours after LPS administration and the hippocampus was dissected and frozen for analyses. Here, we report that IF ameliorates cognitive deficits in a rat model of sepsis by a mechanism involving NF-κB activation, suppression of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and enhancement of neurotrophic support. Treatment of rats with LPS resulted in deficits in cognitive performance in the Barnes maze and inhibitory avoidance tests, without changing locomotor activity, that were ameliorated in rats that had been maintained on the IF diet. IF also resulted in reduced levels of mRNAs encoding the LPS receptor TLR4 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus. Moreover, IF prevented LPS-induced elevation of IL-1α, IL-1β and TNF-α levels, and prevented the LPS-induced reduction of BDNF levels in the hippocampus. IF also significantly attenuated LPS-induced elevations of serum IL-1β, IFN-γ, RANTES, TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Taken together, our results suggest that IF induces adaptive responses in the brain and periphery that can suppress inflammation and preserve cognitive function in an animal model of systemic bacterial infection.

  20. Involvement of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide induced anorexia.

    PubMed

    Riediger, Thomas; Cordani, Caroline; Potes, Catarina Soares; Lutz, Thomas A

    2010-11-01

    Treatment with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a commonly used model to induce disease-related anorexia. Following LPS treatment inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where nitric oxide (NO) inhibits orexigenic neurons. Intracellular STAT signaling is triggered by inflammatory stimuli and has been linked to the transcriptional regulation of iNOS. We evaluated whether pharmacological blockade of iNOS by the specific inhibitor 1400W attenuates LPS-induced anorexia. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the tolerance to the anorectic effect occurring after repeated LPS treatment is paralleled by a blunted STAT3 phosphorylation in the ARC. Rats treated with a subcutaneous injection of 1400W (10 mg/kg) showed an attenuated anorectic LPS response relative to control rats receiving only LPS (100 µg/kg; i.p.). Similarly, iNOS blockade attenuated LPS-induced adipsia, hyperthermia, inactivity and the concomitant drop in energy expenditure. While single LPS treatment increased STAT3 phosphorylation in the ARC, rats treated repeatedly with LPS showed no anorectic response and also no STAT3 phosphorylation in the ARC after the second and third LPS injections, respectively. Hence, pSTAT3 signaling in the ARC might be part of the intracellular cascades translating pro-inflammatory stimuli into suppression of food intake. The current findings substantiate a role of iNOS dependent NO formation in disease-related anorexia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acetaminophen attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment through antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Xing; Zhang, Jun-Han; Cao, Jiang-Bei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Dong-Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Yong-Yi; Zhang, You-Zhi; Mi, Wei-Dong

    2017-01-21

    Considerable evidence has shown that neuroinflammation and oxidative stress play an important role in the pathophysiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and other progressive neurodegenerative disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that acetaminophen (APAP) has unappreciated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the impact of APAP on the cognitive sequelae of inflammatory and oxidative stress is unknown. The objective of this study is to explore whether APAP could have neuroprotective effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive impairment in mice. A mouse model of LPS-induced cognitive impairment was established to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of APAP against LPS-induced cognitive impairment. Adult C57BL/6 mice were treated with APAP half an hour prior to intracerebroventricular microinjection of LPS and every day thereafter, until the end of the study period. The Morris water maze was used to assess cognitive function from postinjection days 1 to 3. Animal behavioural tests as well as pathological and biochemical assays were performed to evaluate LPS-induced hippocampal damage and the neuroprotective effect of APAP. Mice treated with LPS exhibited impaired performance in the Morris water maze without changing spontaneous locomotor activity, which was ameliorated by treatment with APAP. APAP suppressed the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and microglial activation induced by LPS in the hippocampus. In addition, APAP increased SOD activity, reduced MDA levels, modulated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity and elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. Moreover, APAP significantly decreased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and neuron apoptosis in the hippocampus of LPS-treated mice. Our results suggest that APAP may possess a neuroprotective effect against LPS-induced cognitive impairment and inflammatory and oxidative stress via mechanisms involving its antioxidant and

  2. Lidocaine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in microglia.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tong; Li, Zhiwen; Li, Xinbai; Yu, Gaoqi; Wang, Na; Yang, Xige

    2014-11-01

    Lidocaine has been used as a local anesthetic with anti-inflammatory properties, but its effects on neuroinflammation have not been well defined. In the present study, we investigated the prophylactic effects of lidocaine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia and explored the underlying mechanisms. Microglial cells were incubated with or without 1 μg/mL LPS in the presence or absence of lidocaine, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) inhibitor (SB203580), a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate), or small interfering RNA. The protein and expression levels of inflammatory mediators, such as monocyte chemotactic protein 1, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, interleukin 1β, and tumor necrosis factor α were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The effect of lidocaine on NF-κB and p38 MAPK activation was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blot analysis, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Lidocaine (≥2 μg/mL) significantly inhibited the release and expression of nitric oxide, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, prostaglandin E2, interleukin 1β, and tumor necrosis factor α in LPS-activated microglia. Treatment with lidocaine also significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p50/p65, increased the protein levels of inhibitor kappa B-α. Furthermore, our study shows that the LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators was suppressed by SB203580, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, and small interfering RNA. Prophylactic treatment with lidocaine inhibits LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators from microglia, and these effects may be mediated by blockade of p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Minocycline protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yue; Xie, Guanbo; Liu, Xia; Li, Guoxun; Jia, Congcong; Xu, Jinghua; Wang, Bing

    2016-03-01

    The role of glial cells, especially microglia and astrocytes, in neuroinflammation and cognition has been studied intensively. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a commonly used inducer of neuroinflammation, can cause cognitive impairment. Minocycline is known to possess potent neuroprotective activity, but its effect on LPS-induced cognitive impairment is unknown. This study aims to investigate the effects of minocycline on LPS-induced cognitive impairment and glial cell activation in mice. Behavioral tests were conducted for cognitive function, immunohistochemistry for microglial and astrocyte response, and quantitative PCR for mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Minocycline significantly reversed the decreased spontaneous alternation induced by intrahippocampal administration of LPS in the Y-maze task. In the Morris water maze place navigation test, minocycline decreased the escape latency and distance traveled compared to LPS-treated mice. In the probe test, minocycline-treated mice spent more time in the target quadrant and crossed the platform area more frequently than animals in the LPS-treated group. Minocycline produced a significant decrease in the number of Iba-1- and GFAP-positive hippocampal cells compared to the LPS-treated group. Minocycline-treated mice had significantly reduced hippocampal TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels compared with LPS-treated animals. Minocycline caused a significant increase in hippocampal BDNF expression compared to the LPS-treated group. Minocycline can attenuate LPS-induced cognitive impairments in mice. This effect may be associated with its action to suppress the activation of microglia and astrocytes and to normalize BDNF expression. Since neuroinflammatory processes and cognitive impairments are implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, minocycline may be a promising candidate for treating such diseases.

  4. Allosteric regulation by oleamide of the binding properties of 5-hydroxytryptamine7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, P B; Carson, M J; Sutcliffe, J G; Thomas, E A

    1999-12-01

    Oleamide belongs to a family of amidated lipids with diverse biological activities, including sleep induction and signaling modulation of several 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes, including 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A/2C, and 5-HT7. The 5-HT7 receptor, predominantly localized in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and frontal cortex, stimulates cyclic AMP formation and is thought to be involved in the regulation of sleep-wake cycles. Recently, it was proposed that oleamide acts at an allosteric site on the 5-HT7 receptor to regulate cyclic AMP formation. We have further investigated the interaction between oleamide and 5-HT7 receptors by performing radioligand binding assays with HeLa cells transfected with the 5-HT7 receptor. Methiothepin, clozapine, and 5-HT all displaced specific [3H]5-HT (100 nM) binding, with pK(D) values of 7.55, 7.85, and 8.39, respectively. Oleamide also displaced [3H]5-HT binding, but the maximum inhibition was only 40% of the binding. Taking allosteric (see below) cooperativity into account, a K(D) of 2.69 nM was calculated for oleamide. In saturation binding experiments, oleamide caused a 3-fold decrease in the affinity of [3H]5-HT for the 5-HT7 receptor, without affecting the number of binding sites. A Schild analysis showed that the induced shift in affinity of [3H]5-HT reached a plateau, unlike that of a competitive inhibitor, illustrating the allosteric nature of the interaction between oleamide and the 5-HT7 receptor. Oleic acid, the product of oleamide hydrolysis, had a similar effect on [3H]5-HT binding, whereas structural analogs of oleamide, trans-9,10-octadecenamide, cis-8,9-octadecenamide, and erucamide, did not alter [3H]5-HT binding significantly. The findings support the hypothesis that oleamide acts via an allosteric site on the 5-HT7 receptor regulating receptor affinity.

  5. Mechanisms involved in oleamide-induced vasorelaxation in rat mesenteric resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Sudhahar, Varadarajan; Shaw, Sean; Imig, John D

    2009-04-01

    Fatty acid amides are a new class of signaling lipids that have been implicated in diverse physiological and pathological conditions. Oleamide is a fatty acid amide that induces vasorelaxation. Here, we investigated the mechanisms behind the vasorelaxation effect of oleamide in rat mesenteric resistance arteries. Oleamide-induced concentration dependent (0.01 microM-10 microM) vasorelaxation in mesenteric resistance arteries. This relaxation was unaffected by the presence of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors. The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, AM251 and the non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, O-1918, attenuated the oleamide vasodilatory response, however the cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist, AM630, did not affect the vascular response. Moreover, inhibition of the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 1 receptor with capsazepine shifted the oleamide-induced vasorelaxation response to the right. In agreement with the vascular functional data, the cannabinoid CB1 and TRPV1 receptor proteins were expressed in mesenteric resistance arteries but cannabinoid CB2 receptors and the FAAH enzyme were not. In endothelium-denuded arteries, the oleamide-mediated vasorelaxation was attenuated and cannabinoid CB1 or non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor blockade did not further reduce the dilatory response whereas TRPV1 antagonism further decreased the response. These findings indicate that cannabinoid receptors on the endothelium and endothelium-independent TRPV1 receptors contribute to the oleamide vasodilatory response. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the oleamide-induced vasorelaxation is mediated, in part, by cannabinoid CB1 receptors, non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptors, and TRPV1 receptors in rat mesenteric resistance arteries. These mechanisms are overlapping in respect to oleamide-induced mesenteric resistance artery dilation.

  6. Mechanisms involved in oleamide-induced vasorelaxation in rat mesenteric resistance arteries

    PubMed Central

    Sudhahar, Varadarajan; Shaw, Sean; Imig, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acid amides are a new class of signaling lipids that have been implicated in diverse physiological and pathological conditions. Oleamide is a fatty acid amide that induces vasorelaxation. Here, we investigated the mechanisms behind the vasorelaxation effect of oleamide in rat mesenteric resistance arteries. Oleamide-induced concentration dependent (0.01 μM–10μM) vasorelaxation in mesenteric resistance arteries. This relaxation was unaffected by the presence of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors. The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, AM251 and the non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, O-1918, attenuated the oleamide vasodilatory response, however the cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist, AM630, did not affect the vascular response. Moreover, inhibition of the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 1 receptor with capsazepine shifted the oleamide-induced vasorelaxation response to the right. In agreement with the vascular functional data, the cannabinoid CB1 and TRPV1 receptor proteins were expressed in mesenteric resistance arteries but cannabinoid CB2 receptors and the FAAH enzyme were not. In endothelium-denuded arteries, the oleamide-mediated vasorelaxation was attenuated and cannabinoid CB1 or non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor blockade did not further reduce the dilatory response whereas TRPV1 antagonism further decreased the response. These findings indicate that cannabinoid receptors on the endothelium and endothelium-independent TRPV1 receptors contribute to the oleamide vasodilatory response. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the oleamide-induced vasorelaxation is mediated, in part, by cannabinoid CB1 receptors, non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptors, and TRPV1 receptors in rat mesenteric resistance arteries. These mechanisms are overlapping in respect to oleamide-induced mesenteric resistance artery dilation. PMID:19326479

  7. Influence of feeding status on neuronal activity in the hypothalamus during lipopolysaccharide-induced anorexia in rats.

    PubMed

    Gautron, L; Mingam, R; Moranis, A; Combe, C; Layé, S

    2005-01-01

    Fasting attenuates disease-associated anorexia, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which a 48 h fast alters hypothalamic neuronal activity in response to the anorectic effects of lipopolysaccharide in rats. Male rats were fed ad libitum or fasted, and were injected with i.p. saline or lipopolysaccharide (250 microg/kg). Immunohistochemistry for Fos protein was used to visualize neuronal activity in response to lipopolysaccharide within selected hypothalamic feeding regulatory nuclei. Additionally, food intake, body weight, plasma interleukin-1 and leptin levels, and the expression of mRNA for appetite-related neuropeptides (neuropeptide Y, proopiomelanocortin and cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript) were measured in a time-related manner. Our data show that the pattern of lipopolysaccharide-induced Fos expression was similar in most hypothalamic nuclei whatever the feeding status. However, we observed that fasting significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus, in association with an attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Moreover, lipopolysaccharide reduced fasting-induced Fos expression in the perifornical area of the lateral hypothalamus. Lipopolysaccharide-induced circulating levels of interleukin-1 were similar across feeding status. Finally, fasting, but not lipopolysaccharide, affected circulating level of leptin and appetite-related neuropeptides expression in the arcuate nucleus. Together, our data show that fasting modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced anorexia and body weight loss in association with neural changes in specific hypothalamic nuclei.

  8. Enhanced vasorelaxant effects of the endocannabinoid-like mediator, oleamide, in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hopps, Jamie J; Dunn, William R; Randall, Michael D

    2012-06-05

    Oleamide is an endocannabinoid-like, fatty acid amide with structural similarities to anandamide. The cardiovascular effects of anandamide are enhanced in hypertension and we have now examined how hypertension affects responses to oleamide. Vasorelaxant responses to oleamide were significantly (P<0.001) enhanced in aortic rings from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), such that the maximal relaxation to oleamide was 40.3 ± 3.5%, compared to 15.7 ± 3.9% in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. The augmented responses to oleamide in SHR arteries were unaffected by either inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (300 μM l-NAME) or fatty acid amide hydrolase (1 μM URB597) and independent of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors or the endothelium. The enhanced responses to oleamide were opposed by pre-treatment with capsaicin (such that R(max) was reduced to 9.8 ± 1.5%) and this occurred independently of TRPV1 receptor and sensory nerve activity, as the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (1-5 μM) and the cation channel inhibitor ruthenium red (10 μM) had no effect on the responses to oleamide. However, inhibition of cyclooxygenase (10 μM indomethacin) enhanced the responses in the WKY aortae, such that the responses were comparable to those in the SHR. The results suggest that the cyclooxygenase pathway has a role in modulating vasorelaxation caused by oleamide in normotensive aortae and that this is lost in hypertension, possibly as an adaptation to the increase in blood pressure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Oleamide: a fatty acid amide signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system?

    PubMed

    Hiley, C Robin; Hoi, Pui Man

    2007-01-01

    Oleamide (cis-9,10-octadecenoamide), a fatty acid primary amide discovered in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats, has a variety of actions that give it potential as a signaling molecule, although these actions have not been extensively investigated in the cardiovascular system. The synthetic pathway probably involves synthesis of oleoylglycine and then conversion to oleamide by peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM); breakdown of oleamide is by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Oleamide interacts with voltage-gated Na(+) channels and allosterically with GABA(A) and 5-HT(7) receptors as well as having cannabinoid-like actions. The latter have been suggested to be due to potentiation of the effects of endocannabinoids such as anandamide by inhibiting FAAH-mediated hydrolysis. This might underlie an "entourage effect" whereby co-released endogenous nonagonist congeners of endocannabinoids protect the active molecule from hydrolysis by FAAH. However, oleamide has direct agonist actions at CB(1) cannabinoid receptors and also activates the TRPV1 vanilloid receptor. Other actions include inhibition of gap-junctional communication, and this might give oleamide a role in myocardial development. Many of these actions are absent from the trans isomer of 9,10-octadecenoamide. One of the most potent actions of oleamide is vasodilation. In rat small mesenteric artery the response does not involve CB(1) cannabinoid receptors but another pertussis toxin-sensitive, G protein-coupled receptor, as yet unidentified. This receptor is sensitive to rimonabant and O-1918, an antagonist at the putative "abnormal-cannabidiol" or endothelial "anandamide" receptors. Vasodilation is mediated by endothelium-derived nitric oxide, endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization, and also through activation of TRPV1 receptors. A physiological role for oleamide in the heart and circulation has yet to be demonstrated, as has production by cells of the cardiovascular system, but

  10. Reactive oxygen species are involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced intrauterine growth restriction and skeletal development retardation in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, De-Xiang; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Hua; Wei, Wei

    2006-12-01

    Maternal infection is a cause of adverse developmental outcomes including embryonic resorption, intrauterine fetal death, and preterm labor. Lipopolysaccharide-induced developmental toxicity at early gestational stages has been well characterized. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal lipopolysaccharide exposure at late gestational stages on intrauterine fetal growth and skeletal development and to assess the potential role of reactive oxygen species in lipopolysaccharide-induced intrauterine fetal growth restriction and skeletal development retardation. The timed pregnant CD-1 mice were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (25 to 75 microg/kg per day) on gestational day 15 to 17. To investigate the role of reactive oxygen species on lipopolysaccharide-induced intrauterine fetal growth restriction and skeletal development retardation, the pregnant mice were injected with alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) at 30 minutes before lipopolysaccharide (75 microg/kg per day, intraperitoneally), followed by an additional dose of alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) at 3 hours after lipopolysaccharide. The number of live fetuses, dead fetuses, and resorption sites was counted on gestational day 18. Live fetuses in each litter were weighed. Crown-rump and tail lengths were examined and skeletal development was evaluated. Maternal lipopolysaccharide exposure significantly increased fetal mortality, reduced fetal weight and crown-rump and tail lengths of live fetuses, and retarded skeletal ossification in caudal vertebrae, anterior and posterior phalanges, and supraoccipital bone in a dose-dependent manner. Alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone, a free radical spin-trapping agent, almost completely blocked lipopolysaccharide-induced fetal death (63.2% in lipopolysaccharide group versus 6.5% in alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone + lipopolysaccharide group, P < .01). In addition, alpha

  11. Anxiolytic-like effects of oleamide in group-housed and socially isolated mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiu Yan; Yang, Jing Yu; Dong, Ying Xu; Wu, Chun Fu

    2007-08-15

    Oleamide (cis-9,10-octadecenoamide) is an endogenous sleep-inducing lipid and prototypic member of a new class of biological signaling molecules identified in recent years. In the present study, the anxiolytic-like effect of oleamide was studied in several experimental models of anxiety in group-housed and socially isolated mice. As the results show, socially isolated mice exhibited an anxiogenic-like profile in the elevated plus-maze test, the light/dark test, and the hole-board test, which could be significantly reversed by oleamide (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, oleamide significantly reduced the anxiety levels in grouped-housed mice. In the isolation-induced aggressive test, oleamide markedly reduced the attacking duration and increased the attacking latency. It is concluded that oleamide has an anxiolytic-like effect in socially isolated or group-housed mice, which suggests that fatty acid amides might be involved in the regulation of anxiety-related behavior in mice.

  12. Protective effect of mangiferin against lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive and anxiety-like behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Jangra, Ashok; Lukhi, Manish M; Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Baruah, Chandana C; Lahkar, Mangala

    2014-10-05

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that inflammation, oxidative stress and altered level of neurotrophins are involved in the pathogenesis of depressive illness. Mangiferin, a C-glucosylxanthone is abundant in the stem and bark of Mangifera indica L. The compound has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of mangiferin pretreatment on lipopolysaccharide-induced increased proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (0.83 mg/kg, i.p.) after 14 days of mangiferin (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) pretreatment. Mangiferin pretreatment significantly ameliorated the anxiety-like behaviour as evident from the results of an elevated plus maze, light-dark box and open field test. Mangiferin pretreatment also improved the anhedonic behaviour as revealed by sucrose preference test and increased social interaction time. It also prevented the lipopolysaccharide-evoked depressive-like effect by reducing the immobility time in forced swim and tail suspension test. Lipopolysaccharide-induced elevated oxidative stress was decreased with mangiferin pretreatment due to its potential to increase reduced glutathione concentration, Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and decrease lipid peroxidation and nitrite level in the hippocampus as well as in the prefrontal cortex. Mangiferin pretreatment also attenuated neuroinflammation by reducing the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) level in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that mangiferin possessed antidepressant and anti-anxiety properties due to its ability to attenuate IL-1β level and oxidative stress evoked by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide. Mangiferin may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of depressive and anxiety illness. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Unique allosteric regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor-mediated signal transduction by oleamide

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Elizabeth A.; Carson, Monica J.; Neal, Michael J.; Sutcliffe, J. Gregor

    1997-01-01

    The effects of oleamide, an amidated lipid isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats, on serotonin receptor-mediated responses were investigated in cultured mammalian cells. In rat P11 cells, which endogenously express the 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5HT2A) receptor, oleamide significantly potentiated 5HT-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. In HeLa cells expressing the 5HT7 receptor subtype, oleamide caused a concentration-dependent increase in cAMP accumulation but with lower efficacy than that observed by 5HT. This effect was not observed in untransfected HeLa cells. Clozapine did not prevent the increase in cAMP elicited by oleamide, and ketanserin caused an ≈65% decrease. In the presence of 5HT, oleamide had the opposite effect on cAMP, causing insurmountable antagonism of the concentration-effect curve to 5HT, but had no effect on cAMP levels elicited by isoproterenol or forskolin. These results indicate that oleamide can modulate 5HT-mediated signal transduction at different subtypes of mammalian 5HT receptors. Additionally, our data indicate that oleamide acts at an apparent allosteric site on the 5HT7 receptor and elicits functional responses via activation of this site. This represents a unique mechanism of activation for 5HT G protein-coupled receptors and suggests that G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors may act like their iontropic counterparts (i.e., γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors) in that there may be several binding sites on the receptor that regulate functional activity with varying efficacies. PMID:9391162

  14. Antiallergic Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Arctium lappa L. Undried Roots and Its Active Compound, Oleamide, in Regulating FcεRI-Mediated and MAPK Signaling in RBL-2H3 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Woong-Suk; Lee, Sung Ryul; Jeong, Yong Joon; Park, Dae Won; Cho, Young Mi; Joo, Hae Mi; Kim, Inhye; Seu, Young-Bae; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Kang, Se Chan

    2016-05-11

    The antiallergic potential of Arctium lappa L. was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats, ICR mice, and RBL-2H3 cells. Ethanol extract (90%) of A. lappa (ALE, 100 μg/mL) inhibited the degranulation rate by 52.9%, determined by the level of β-hexosaminidase. ALE suppressed passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rats and attenuated anaphylaxis and histamine release in mice. To identify the active compound of ALE, we subsequently fractionated and determined the level of β-hexosaminidase in all subfractions. Oleamide was identified as an active compound of ALE, which attenuated the secretion of histamine and the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in cells treated with compound 48/80 or A23187/phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Oleamide suppressed FcεRI-tyrosine kinase Lyn-mediated pathway, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK/SAPK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38-MAPKs). These results showed that ALE and oleamide attenuated allergic reactions and should serve as a platform to search for compounds with antiallergic activity.

  15. [INFLUENCE OF OLEAMIDE OF WATER AND ION TRANSPORT IN THE OSMOREGULATORY ORGANS].

    PubMed

    Shakhmatova, E I; Bogolepova, A E; Dubina, M V; Natochin, Yu V

    2015-01-01

    Application of oleamide (final concentration of 10 μM) at the skin basal surface of the frog, Rana temporaria L., augmented the short-circuit current (SCC) from 59.8 ± 2.5 to 78.2 ± 1.4 μA/cm2. Oleamide added to the serous membrane of the frog urinary bladder at a final dose of 1 μM induced more than 30-fold increase of osmotic permeability. The addition of arginine-vasotocin on the background of oleamide action further increased SCC across the isolated frog skin and osmotic permeability of the frog urinary bladder. Intraperitoneal injection of oleamide at a dose of 0.1 mM/100 g BW to water-loaded non-anesthetized Wistar rats decreased diuresis by 22%, enhanced solute-free water reabsorption and urinary sodium excretion by 31% and 55% respectively, but did not affect the renal potassium excretion. The results obtained provide evidence of similarity of oleamide and neurohypophyseal hormones effects on water and ion transport in epithelial cells of osmoregulatory organs in vertebrates.

  16. Preventive effects of a fermented dairy product against Alzheimer's disease and identification of a novel oleamide with enhanced microglial phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Ozawa, Makiko; Kutsukake, Toshiko; Sugiyama, Shinya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Aruto; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of patients with dementia worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to this condition have not been established. Epidemiological studies suggest that intake of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the active compounds responsible for the effect remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to elucidate the preventive effects of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease and to identify the responsible component. Here, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (5xFAD), intake of a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum had preventive effects on the disease by reducing the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and MIP-1α production), and enhancing hippocampal neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF). A search for preventive substances in the fermented dairy product identified oleamide as a novel dual-active component that enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity towards LPS stimulation in vitro and in vivo. During the fermentation, oleamide was synthesized from oleic acid, which is an abundant component of general dairy products owing to lipase enzymatic amidation. The present study has demonstrated the preventive effect of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease, which was previously reported only epidemiologically. Moreover, oleamide has been identified as an active component of dairy products that is considered to reduce Aβ accumulation via enhanced microglial phagocytosis, and to suppress microglial inflammation after Aβ deposition. Because fermented dairy products such as camembert cheese are easy to ingest safely as a daily meal, their consumption might represent a preventive strategy for dementia.

  17. Preventive Effects of a Fermented Dairy Product against Alzheimer’s Disease and Identification of a Novel Oleamide with Enhanced Microglial Phagocytosis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Ozawa, Makiko; Kutsukake, Toshiko; Sugiyama, Shinya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Aruto; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of patients with dementia worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to this condition have not been established. Epidemiological studies suggest that intake of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the active compounds responsible for the effect remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to elucidate the preventive effects of dairy products on Alzheimer’s disease and to identify the responsible component. Here, in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (5xFAD), intake of a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum had preventive effects on the disease by reducing the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and MIP-1α production), and enhancing hippocampal neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF). A search for preventive substances in the fermented dairy product identified oleamide as a novel dual-active component that enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity towards LPS stimulation in vitro and in vivo. During the fermentation, oleamide was synthesized from oleic acid, which is an abundant component of general dairy products owing to lipase enzymatic amidation. The present study has demonstrated the preventive effect of dairy products on Alzheimer’s disease, which was previously reported only epidemiologically. Moreover, oleamide has been identified as an active component of dairy products that is considered to reduce Aβ accumulation via enhanced microglial phagocytosis, and to suppress microglial inflammation after Aβ deposition. Because fermented dairy products such as camembert cheese are easy to ingest safely as a daily meal, their consumption might represent a preventive strategy for dementia. PMID:25760987

  18. Determination of oleamide and erucamide in polyethylene films by pressurised fluid extraction and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Garrido-López, Alvaro; Esquiu, Vanesa; Tena, María Teresa

    2006-08-18

    A pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) method is proposed to determine the slip agents in polyethylene (PE) films. The study of PFE variables was performed using a fractional factorial design (FFD) for screening and a central composite design (CCD) for optimizing the main variables obtained from the Pareto charts. The variables that were studied include temperature, static time, percentage of cyclohexane and the number of extraction cycles. The final condition selected was pure isopropanol (two times) at 105 degrees C for 16min. The recovery of spiked oleamide and erucamide was around 100%. The repeatability of the method was between 9.6% for oleamide and 8% for erucamide, expressed as relative standard deviation. Finally, the method was applied to determine oleamide and erucamide in several polyethylene films and the results were statistically equal to those obtained by pyrolysis and gas-phase chemiluminescence (CL).

  19. Murine P-glycoprotein deficiency alters intestinal injury repair and blunts lipopolysaccharide-induced radioprotection.

    PubMed

    Staley, Elizabeth M; Yarbrough, Vanisha R; Schoeb, Trenton R; Daft, Joseph G; Tanner, Scott M; Steverson, Dennis; Lorenz, Robin G

    2012-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been reported to increase stem cell proliferation and regulate apoptosis. Absence of P-gp results in decreased repair of intestinal epithelial cells after chemical injury. To further explore the mechanisms involved in the effects of P-gp on intestinal injury and repair, we used the well-characterized radiation injury model. In this model, injury repair is mediated by production of prostaglandins (PGE(2)) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to confer radioprotection. B6.mdr1a(-/-) mice and wild-type controls were subjected to 12 Gy total body X-ray irradiation and surviving crypts in the proximal jejunum and distal colon were evaluated 3.5 days after irradiation. B6.mdr1a(-/-) mice exhibited normal baseline stem cell proliferation and COX dependent crypt regeneration after irradiation. However, radiation induced apoptosis was increased and LPS-induced radioprotection was blunted in the C57BL6.mdr1a(-/-) distal colon, compared to B6 wild-type controls. The LPS treatment induced gene expression of the radioprotective cytokine IL-1α, in B6 wild-type controls but not in B6.mdr1a(-/-) animals. Lipopolysaccharid-induced radioprotection was absent in IL-1R1(-/-) animals, indicating a role for IL-1α in radioprotection, and demonstrating that P-gp deficiency interferes with IL-1α gene expression in response to systemic exposure to LPS.

  20. Paeonol attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weiwei; Wang, Hanqing; Su, Qiang; Chen, Yanyan; Xue, Wenda; Xia, Baomei; Duan, Jinao; Chen, Gang

    2016-04-30

    The present study was designed to detect the anti-depressant effects of paeonol and the possible mechanisms in the lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior. Open-field test(OFT), tail suspension test(TST) and forced swimming test(FST) were used to evaluate the behavioral activity. The contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) in mice hippocampus were determined by HPLC-ECD. Serum interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that LPS significantly decreased the levels of 5-HT and NE in the hippocampus. LPS also reduced open-field activity, as well as increased immobility duration in FST and TST. Paeonol administration could effectively reverse the alterations in the concentrations of 5-HT, NE and reduce the IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Moreover, paeonol effectively downregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in hippocampal. In conclusion, paeonol administration exhibited significant antidepressant-like effects in mice with LPS-induced depression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. A novel podocyte gene, semaphorin 3G, protects glomerular podocyte from lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Ryoichi; Takemoto, Minoru; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; He, Peng; Maezawa, Yoshiro; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Tsurutani, Yuya; Ide, Shintaro; Ide, Kana; Kawamura, Harukiyo; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Tokuyama, Hirotake; Tryggvason, Karl; Betsholtz, Christer; Yokote, Koutaro

    2016-05-16

    Kidney diseases including diabetic nephropathy have become huge medical problems, although its precise mechanisms are still far from understood. In order to increase our knowledge about the patho-physiology of kidney, we have previously identified >300 kidney glomerulus-enriched transcripts through large-scale sequencing and microarray profiling of the mouse glomerular transcriptome. One of the glomerulus-specific transcripts identified was semaphorin 3G (Sema3G) which belongs to the semaphorin family. The aim of this study was to analyze both the in vivo and in vitro functions of Sema3G in the kidney. Sema3G was expressed in glomerular podocytes. Although Sema3G knockout mice did not show obvious glomerular defects, ultrastructural analyses revealed partially aberrant podocyte foot processes structures. When these mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide to induce acute inflammation or streptozotocin to induce diabetes, the lack of Sema3G resulted in increased albuminuria. The lack of Sema3G in podocytes also enhanced the expression of inflammatory cytokines including chemokine ligand 2 and interleukin 6. On the other hand, the presence of Sema3G attenuated their expression through the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll like receptor 4 signaling. Taken together, our results surmise that the Sema3G protein is secreted by podocytes and protects podocytes from inflammatory kidney diseases and diabetic nephropathy.

  2. A novel podocyte gene, semaphorin 3G, protects glomerular podocyte from lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Ryoichi; Takemoto, Minoru; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; He, Peng; Maezawa, Yoshiro; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Tsurutani, Yuya; Ide, Shintaro; Ide, Kana; Kawamura, Harukiyo; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Tokuyama, Hirotake; Tryggvason, Karl; Betsholtz, Christer; Yokote, Koutaro

    2016-01-01

    Kidney diseases including diabetic nephropathy have become huge medical problems, although its precise mechanisms are still far from understood. In order to increase our knowledge about the patho-physiology of kidney, we have previously identified >300 kidney glomerulus-enriched transcripts through large-scale sequencing and microarray profiling of the mouse glomerular transcriptome. One of the glomerulus-specific transcripts identified was semaphorin 3G (Sema3G) which belongs to the semaphorin family. The aim of this study was to analyze both the in vivo and in vitro functions of Sema3G in the kidney. Sema3G was expressed in glomerular podocytes. Although Sema3G knockout mice did not show obvious glomerular defects, ultrastructural analyses revealed partially aberrant podocyte foot processes structures. When these mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide to induce acute inflammation or streptozotocin to induce diabetes, the lack of Sema3G resulted in increased albuminuria. The lack of Sema3G in podocytes also enhanced the expression of inflammatory cytokines including chemokine ligand 2 and interleukin 6. On the other hand, the presence of Sema3G attenuated their expression through the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll like receptor 4 signaling. Taken together, our results surmise that the Sema3G protein is secreted by podocytes and protects podocytes from inflammatory kidney diseases and diabetic nephropathy. PMID:27180624

  3. A derivative of oleamide potently inhibits the spontaneous metastasis of mouse melanoma BL6 cells.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akihiko; Morita, Nobuyoshi; Miura, Daisaku; Koma, Yu-Ichiro; Kataoka, Tatsuki R; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Yukihiko; Kita, Yasuyuki; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2004-10-01

    We reported previously that the abnormally augmented expression of connexin 26 (Cx26) is responsible for the enhanced spontaneous metastasis of mouse BL6 melanoma cells, and that the exogenous expression of a dominant negative form of Cx26 inhibits the spontaneous metastasis of BL6. Here we show that daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of oleamide, a sleep-inducing lipid hormone, weakly inhibited the spontaneous metastasis of BL6 cells. To obtain a more effective reagent, 19 oleamide derivatives were chemically synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit the gap junction-mediated intercellular communications (GJIC) that are formed between HeLa cells by the ectopic expression of Cx26 or Cx43. One of these, denoted metastasis inhibitor-18 (MI-18), inhibited the GJIC formed by Cx26 as well as oleamide but unlike oleamide, which is a non-selective inhibitor of connexin, it did not inhibit the GJIC formed by Cx43. Daily i.p. injections of MI-18 potently blocked the spontaneous metastasis of BL6 cells down to 15% of that in the untreated control mice. MI-18 was safe because even after >7 weeks of daily injections, the survival rate of the mice was 93%. We propose that MI-18 may serve as a novel and clinically important prototype of a potent inhibitor of spontaneous metastasis.

  4. Murine P-glycoprotein Deficiency Alters Intestinal Injury Repair and Blunts Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Radioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Staley, Elizabeth M.; Yarbrough, Vanisha R.; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Daft, Joseph G.; Tanner, Scott M.; Steverson, Dennis; Lorenz, Robin G.

    2012-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been reported to increase stem cell proliferation and regulate apoptosis. Absence of P-gp results in decreased repair of intestinal epithelial cells after chemical injury. To further explore the mechanisms involved in the effects of P-gp on intestinal injury and repair, we used the well-characterized radiation injury model. In this model, injury repair is mediated by production of prostaglandins (PGE2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to confer radioprotection. B6.mdr1a−/− mice and wild-type controls were subjected to 12 Gy total body X-ray irradiation and surviving crypts in the proximal jejunum and distal colon were evaluated 3.5 days after irradiation. B6.mdr1a−/−mice exhibited normal baseline stem cell proliferation and COX dependent crypt regeneration after irradiation. However, radiation induced apoptosis was increased and LPS-induced radioprotection was blunted in the C57BL6.mdr1a−/−distal colon, compared to B6 wild-type controls. The LPS treatment induced gene expression of the radioprotective cytokine IL-1α, in B6 wild-type controls but not in B6.mdr1a−/− animals. Lipopolysaccharid-induced radioprotection was absent in IL-1R1−/− animals, indicating a role for IL-1α in radioprotection, and demonstrating that P-gp deficiency interferes with IL-1α gene expression in response to systemic exposure to LPS. PMID:22780103

  5. Vasorelaxant effects of oleamide in rat small mesenteric artery indicate action at a novel cannabinoid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hoi, Pui Man; Hiley, C Robin

    2006-01-01

    Oleamide (cis-9-octadecenoamide) exhibits some cannabimimetic responses despite its low affinities at the currently known cannabinoid receptors. Here we have investigated whether or not it is a vasorelaxant in rat small mesenteric arteries. Oleamide elicited vasorelaxation (EC50=1.2±0.2 μM, Rmax=99.1±3.9%, n=8) which was reduced by endothelial removal. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduced the response (EC50=5.3±1.6 μM, Rmax=59.2±7.7%, n=7; P<0.01) as did blockade of Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels (KCa) with apamin plus charybdotoxin (both 50 nM) (EC50=2.1±0.2 μM, Rmax=58.4±1.9%, n=5; P<0.05). Desensitisation of vanilloid receptors with capsaicin (10 μM for 30 min) shifted the oleamide concentration–response curve ∼30-fold to the right (n=7; P<0.01). Pertussis toxin (400 ng ml−1 for 2 h) caused a two-fold shift in the response curve (EC50=2.2±0.4 μM, Rmax=66.8±4.5%, n=6; P<0.01). Rimonabant (CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist; SR141716A; 3 μM) significantly inhibited relaxation induced by oleamide (EC50=3.5±0.3 μM, Rmax=75.1±1.9%; n=8; P<0.05). In contrast, neither the more selective CB1 receptor antagonist, AM251 (1 μM), nor the CB2 antagonist, SR144528 (1 μM), had significant effects. O-1918 (10 μM), a putative antagonist at a novel endothelial cannabinoid receptor (abnormal-cannabidiol site), markedly reduced the relaxation to oleamide (n=7; P<0.01). It is concluded that oleamide responses in the rat isolated small mesenteric artery are partly dependent on the presence of the endothelium, activation of Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels (KCa) and involve capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves. Oleamide may share a receptor (sensitive to rimonabant and O-1918, and coupled to KCa and Gi/o) with anandamide in this vessel. This might be distinct from both of the known cannabinoid receptors and the novel abnormal-cannabidiol site. PMID:16415907

  6. Vasorelaxant effects of oleamide in rat small mesenteric artery indicate action at a novel cannabinoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Hoi, Pui Man; Hiley, C Robin

    2006-03-01

    Oleamide (cis-9-octadecenoamide) exhibits some cannabimimetic responses despite its low affinities at the currently known cannabinoid receptors. Here we have investigated whether or not it is a vasorelaxant in rat small mesenteric arteries. Oleamide elicited vasorelaxation (EC50=1.2+/-0.2 microM, Rmax=99.1+/-3.9%, n=8) which was reduced by endothelial removal. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduced the response (EC50=5.3+/-1.6 microM, Rmax=59.2+/-7.7%, n=7; P<0.01) as did blockade of Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels (KCa) with apamin plus charybdotoxin (both 50 nM) (EC50=2.1+/-0.2 microM, Rmax=58.4+/-1.9%, n=5; P<0.05). Desensitisation of vanilloid receptors with capsaicin (10 microM for 30 min) shifted the oleamide concentration-response curve approximately 30-fold to the right (n=7; P<0.01). Pertussis toxin (400 ng ml-1 for 2 h) caused a two-fold shift in the response curve (EC50=2.2+/-0.4 microM, Rmax=66.8+/-4.5%, n=6; P<0.01). Rimonabant (CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist; SR141716A; 3 microM) significantly inhibited relaxation induced by oleamide (EC50=3.5+/-0.3 microM, Rmax=75.1+/-1.9%; n=8; P<0.05). In contrast, neither the more selective CB1 receptor antagonist, AM251 (1 microM), nor the CB2 antagonist, SR144528 (1 microM), had significant effects. O-1918 (10 microM), a putative antagonist at a novel endothelial cannabinoid receptor (abnormal-cannabidiol site), markedly reduced the relaxation to oleamide (n=7; P<0.01). It is concluded that oleamide responses in the rat isolated small mesenteric artery are partly dependent on the presence of the endothelium, activation of Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels (KC)) and involve capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves. Oleamide may share a receptor (sensitive to rimonabant and O-1918, and coupled to KC) and Gi/o) with anandamide in this vessel. This might be distinct from both of the known cannabinoid receptors and the novel abnormal-cannabidiol site.

  7. The palmitoylethanolamide and oleamide enigmas : are these two fatty acid amides cannabimimetic?

    PubMed

    Lambert, D M; Di Marzo, V

    1999-08-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleamide are two fatty acid amides which 1) share some cannabimimetic actions with delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and 2) may interact with proteins involved in the biosynthesis, action and inactivation of endocannabinoids. Due to its pharmacological actions and its accumulation in damaged cells, PEA may have a physio-pathological role as an analgesic, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory mediator. However, its mechanism of action is puzzling. In fact, PEA does not bind to CB1 and CB2 receptors transfected into host cells, but might be a ligand for a putative CBn receptor present in the RBL-2H3 cell line. On the other hand, the analgesic effect of PEA is reversed by SR144528, a CB2 antagonist. PEA may act as an entourage compound for endocannabinoids, i.e. it may enhance their action for example by inhibiting their inactivation. Oleamide is a sleep inducing lipid whose mechanism of action is far from being understood. Although it does not bind with high affinity to CB1 or CB2 receptors, it exhibits some cannabimimetic actions which could be explained at least in part by entourage effects. It is likely that oleamide and anandamide have common as well as distinct pathways of action. The 5-HT2A receptor appears to be a target for oleamide but the possibility of the existence of specific receptors for this compound is open. The biosynthesis and tissue distribution of oleamide remain to be assessed in order to both substantiate its role as a sleep-inducing factor and investigate its participation in other physiopathological situations.

  8. The Sleep-inducing Lipid Oleamide Deconvolutes Gap Junction Communication and Calcium Wave Transmission in Glial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xiaojun; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Ehring, George R.; Hall, James E.; Boger, Dale L.; Lerner, Richard A.; Gilula, Norton B.

    1997-01-01

    Oleamide is a sleep-inducing lipid originally isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats. Oleamide was found to potently and selectively inactivate gap junction–mediated communication between rat glial cells. In contrast, oleamide had no effect on mechanically stimulated calcium wave transmission in this same cell type. Other chemical compounds traditionally used as inhibitors of gap junctional communication, like heptanol and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, blocked not only gap junctional communication but also intercellular calcium signaling. Given the central role for intercellular small molecule and electrical signaling in central nervous system function, oleamide- induced inactivation of glial cell gap junction channels may serve to regulate communication between brain cells, and in doing so, may influence higher order neuronal events like sleep induction. PMID:9412472

  9. One-step formation of straight nanostripes from a mammal lipid-oleamide directly on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renjie; Möhwald, Helmuth; Kurth, Dirk G

    2009-02-17

    Hierarchical nanostructures are obtained directly on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) by spin coating of dilute chloroform solution of 9-Z-octadecenamide (oleamide), a natural lipid with cis-CdC- conformation, existing in the cerebrospinal fluid of mammal animals and being an additive for medical use and food packaging. Straight separated nanostripes with a length of 70-300 nm exist in the topmost layer and compact nanostripes in the bottom layer contacting HOPG. Compact nanostripes have a periodicity spacing of 3.8 nm, indicating H-bonding between two rows of oleamide molecules. The orientation of the hierarchical nanostructures differs by n60 degrees+/-8 degrees (n=1 or 2), reflecting the epitaxial ordering along theHOPGsubstrate. The nanostripes are stable against annealing.Amolecular packing scheme for the nanostructures is proposed, where the -C=C bond angle in oleamide is 120 degrees and the plane of the carbon skeleton lies parallel to the HOPG substrate. Nanostripes in the topmost layer are formed from separated rows of oleamide molecules, due to the short-range surface potential of the substrate. The scheme involves direct influence ofHOPGon the orientation of oleamide molecules to form nanostripes without any purposely added saturated alkanes and H-bonds between amide groups in adjacent two rows of oleamide molecules.

  10. Growth inhibition and possible mechanism of oleamide against the toxin-producing cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jihai; He, Yaxian; Li, Fan; Zhang, Huiling; Chen, Anwei; Luo, Si; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Oleamide, a fatty acid derivative, shows inhibitory effect against the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. The EC50 of oleamide on the growth of M. aeruginosa NIES-843 was 8.60 ± 1.20 mg/L. In order to elucidate the possible mechanism of toxicity of oleamide against M. aeruginosa, chlorophyll fluorescence transient, cellular ultrastructure, fatty acids composition and the transcription of the mcyB gene involved in microcystins synthesis were studied. The results of chlorophyll fluorescence transient showed that oleamide could destruct the electron accepting side of the photosystem II of M. aeruginosa NIES-843. Cellular ultrastructure examination indicated that the destruction of fatty acid constituents, the distortion of thylakoid membrane and the loss of integrity of cell membrane were associated with oleamide treatment and concentration. The damage of cellular membrane increased the release of microcystins from intact cells into the medium. Results presented in this study provide new information on the possible mechanisms involved and potential utilization of oleamide as an algicide in cyanobacterial bloom control.

  11. Effects of OPC-6535 on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver injury in the rat: involvement of superoxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha from hepatic macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tadashi; Sakurai, Kazushi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Saniabadi, Abby R; Nagamoto, Hisashi; Tsukada, Katsuhiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Minoru

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of OPC-6535 on Propionibacterium acnes-primed and lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in the rat. P. acnes was administered intravenously to the rat at 16 mg/kg 7 days before the experiments. In liver perfusion experiments, lipopolysaccharide was mixed in perfusion buffer at 2.5 microg/mL. The chemiluminescence method and histochemical reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium were used for detecting superoxide. Release of cytokines into the perfusate was examined. In in vivo experiments, lipopolysaccharide was administered intravenously to the rat at 200 microg/kg. Concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and cytokines were determined in the plasma, and myeloperoxidase activity was measured in the liver tissue. OPC-6535 was given intravenously at 1 mg/kg 30 minutes before lipopolysaccharide challenge, and was then, in perfusion experiments, added to the buffer at 10 micromol/L. In perfusion experiments, P. acnes and lipopolysaccharide caused dramatic production of superoxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and growth-related oncogene/cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (GRO/CINC-1). Superoxide was mainly from hepatic macrophages. Treatment with OPC-6535 suppressed superoxide and TNF-alpha but did not affect GRO/CINC-1. In in vivo experiments, P. acnes and lipopolysaccharide increased the level of TNF-alpha, GRO/CINC-1, AST and ALT in the plasma, and myeloperoxidase activity in the liver. OPC-6535 reduced TNF-alpha, AST, and ALT, but did not affect GRO/CINC-1 or myeloperoxidase. Attenuation of liver injury by OPC-6535 is believed to be due to its inhibitory effects on superoxide and TNF-alpha production by hepatic macrophages in P. acnes- and lipopolysaccharide-treated rats.

  12. A fraction of stem bark extract of Entada africana suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Ayissi Owona, Brice; Njayou, Nico Frederic; Laufer, Stefan; Moundipa, Paul Fewou; Schluesener, Hermann J

    2013-08-26

    Entada africana is a plant used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of stomachache, fever, liver related diseases, wound healing, cataract and dysentery. This study aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of fractions of the stem bark extract of the plant using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages model. The crude extract was prepared using the mixture CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1, v/v) and fractionated by flash chromatography using solvents of increasing polarity to obtain five different fractions. The effects of the fractions on the cells viability were studied by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and their inhibitory activity against LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production screened by Griess test. The most active fraction was further investigated for its effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production using flux cytometry, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL1β, TNFα, IL6, IL10 and IL13) by RT-PCR, and the activity of the enzyme p38 MAPK kinase by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The fractions presented no significant effect on the viability of macrophages at 100 μg/ml after 24h incubation. The CH2Cl2/MeOH 5% (Ea5) fraction was found to be the most potent in inhibiting NO production with a half inhibition concentration (IC50)=18.36 μg/ml, and showed the highest inhibition percentage (89.068%) in comparison with Baicalin (63.34%), an external standard at 50 μg/ml. Ea5, as well as Baicalin significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the expression of TNFα, IL6 and IL1β mRNA, attenuated mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase in a concentration-dependent manner, stimulated the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10 and IL13), and showed a 30% inhibition of the activity of p38 MAPK kinase. The results of the present study indicate that the fraction Ea5 of Entada africana possesses most potent in vitro anti-inflammatory activity and may contain compounds useful as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory related diseases cause by over-activation of macrophages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Suppression of RAGE and TLR9 by Ketamine Contributes to Attenuation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunyan; Song, Yulong; Wang, Hui

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective role of ketamine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) by the inhibition of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). ALI was induced in rats by intratracheal instillation of LPS (5 mg/kg), and ketamine (5, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1 h after LPS administration. Meanwhile, A549 alveolar epithelial cells were incubated with LPS in the presence or absence of ketamine. After 24 h, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were collected. Ketamine posttreatment at doses of 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg decreased LPS-induced evident lung histopathological changes, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, and lung myeloperoxidase activity. In addition, posttreatment with ketamine-inhibited inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and high-mobility group box 1 in BALF. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ketamine-inhibited LPS-induced RAGE and TLR9 protein up-expressions and the phosphorylation of I-κB-α and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 in vivo and in vitro. The results presented here suggest that the protective mechanism of ketamine may be attributed partly to decreased production of inflammatory mediators through the inhibition of RAGE/TLR9-NF-κB pathway.

  14. Perindopril Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Amyloidogenesis and Memory Impairment by Suppression of Oxidative Stress and RAGE Activation.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ruby; Bhat, Shahnawaz Ali; Hanif, Kashif; Nath, Chandishwar; Shukla, Rakesh

    2016-02-17

    Clinical and preclinical studies account hypertension as a risk factor for dementia. We reported earlier that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition attenuated the increased vulnerability to neurodegeneration in hypertension and prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory impairment in normotensive wistar rats (NWRs) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Recently, a receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been reported to induce amyloid beta (Aβ1-42) deposition and memory impairment in hypertensive animals. However, the involvement of ACE in RAGE activation and amyloidogenesis in the hypertensive state is still unexplored. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of ACE on RAGE activation and amyloidogenesis in memory-impaired NWRs and SHRs. Memory impairment was induced by repeated (on days 1, 4, 7, and 10) intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of LPS in SHRs (25 μg) and NWRs (50 μg). Our data showed that SHRs exhibited increased oxidative stress (increased gp91-phox/NOX-2 expression and ROS generation), RAGE, and β-secretase (BACE) expression without Aβ1-42 deposition. LPS (25 μg, ICV) further amplified oxidative stress, RAGE, and BACE activation, culminating in Aβ1-42 deposition and memory impairment in SHRs. Similar changes were observed at the higher dose of LPS (50 μg, ICV) in NWRs. Further, LPS-induced oxidative stress was associated with endothelial dysfunction and reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), more prominently in SHRs than in NWRs. Finally, we showed that perindopril (0.1 mg/kg, 15 days) prevented memory impairment by reducing oxidative stress, RAGE activation, amyloidogenesis, and improved CBF in both SHRs and NWRs. These findings suggest that perindopril might be used as a therapeutic strategy for the early stage of dementia.

  15. Pyrrole Oligoglycosides from the Starfish Acanthaster planci Suppress Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in RAW264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Vien, Le Thi; Hanh, Tran Thi Hong; Huong, Phan Thi Thanh; Dang, Nguyen Hai; Thanh, Nguyen Van; Lyakhova, Ekaterina; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Kiem, Phan Van; Kicha, Alla; Minh, Chau Van

    2016-11-01

    Two new pyrrole oligoglycosides, plancipyrrosides A and B (1 and 2), were isolated from methanol extract of the Vietnamese starfish Acanthaster planci using various chromatographic procedures. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including one and two dimensional (1D- and 2D)-NMR and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)-MS. The finding of 1 and 2 represents the third case of pyrrole oligoglycosides obtaining reported to date. Moreover, plancipyrroside B (2) exhibits a potent inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells with IC 50 of 5.94±0.34 µM, whereas plancipyrroside A (1) shows this inhibitory activity with IC 50 of 16.61±1.85 µM.

  16. Losartan attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury by suppression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wang; Deng, Yue; Deng, Jia; Wang, Dao-Xin; Zhang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Recent study has shown that renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the development of acute lung injury (ALI) with high level of angiotensin II (AngII) generated form AngI catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme. AngII plays a major effect mainly through AT1 receptor. Therefore, we speculate inhibition of AT1 receptor may possibly attenuate the lung injury. Losartan, an antagonist of AT1 receptor for angiotensin II, attenuated lung injury by alleviation of the inflammation response in ALI, but the mechanism of losartan in ALI still remains unclear. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Control group, ALI group (LPS), and Losartan group (LPS + Losartan). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were obtained for analysis. The expressions of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and caspase-3 were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. In ALI group, TNF-α and protein level in BALF, MPO activity in lung tissue, pulmonary edema and lung injury were significantly increased. Losartan significantly reduced LPS-induced increase in TNF-α and protein level in BALF, MPO activity, pulmonary edema and lung injury in LPS-induced lung injury. The mRNA and protein expression levels of LOX-1 were significantly decreased with the administration of losartan in LPS-induced lung injury. Also, losartan blocked the protein levels of caspase-3 and ICAM-1 mediated by LOX-1 in LPS-induced lung injury. Losartan attenuated lung injury by alleviation of the inflammation and cell apoptosis by inhibition of LOX-1 in LPS-induced lung injury.

  17. Losartan attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury by suppression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wang; Deng, Yue; Deng, Jia; Wang, Dao-Xin; Zhang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Recent study has shown that renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the development of acute lung injury (ALI) with high level of angiotensin II (AngII) generated form AngI catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme. AngII plays a major effect mainly through AT1 receptor. Therefore, we speculate inhibition of AT1 receptor may possibly attenuate the lung injury. Losartan, an antagonist of AT1 receptor for angiotensin II, attenuated lung injury by alleviation of the inflammation response in ALI, but the mechanism of losartan in ALI still remains unclear. Methods: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Control group, ALI group (LPS), and Losartan group (LPS + Losartan). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were obtained for analysis. The expressions of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and caspase-3 were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. Results: In ALI group, TNF-α and protein level in BALF, MPO activity in lung tissue, pulmonary edema and lung injury were significantly increased. Losartan significantly reduced LPS-induced increase in TNF-α and protein level in BALF, MPO activity, pulmonary edema and lung injury in LPS-induced lung injury. The mRNA and protein expression levels of LOX-1 were significantly decreased with the administration of losartan in LPS-induced lung injury. Also, losartan blocked the protein levels of caspase-3 and ICAM-1 mediated by LOX-1 in LPS-induced lung injury. Conclusions: Losartan attenuated lung injury by alleviation of the inflammation and cell apoptosis by inhibition of LOX-1 in LPS-induced lung injury. PMID:26884836

  18. Chlorogenic acid attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mice mastitis by suppressing TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ruifeng, Gao; Yunhe, Fu; Zhengkai, Wei; Ershun, Zhou; Yimeng, Li; Minjun, Yao; Xiaojing, Song; Zhengtao, Yang; Naisheng, Zhang

    2014-04-15

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA), one of the most abundant polyphenols in the diet, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of CGA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice mastitis has not been investigated. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate whether CGA could ameliorate the inflammation response in LPS-induced mice mastitis and to clarify the possible mechanism. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. CGA was administered intraperitoneally with the dose of 12.5, 25, and 50mg/kg respectively 1h before and 12h after induction of LPS. In this study, the effect of CGA on LPS-induced mice mastitis was assessed through histopathological examination, ELISA assay, and western blot analysis. The results showed that CGA significantly reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production compared with LPS group. Besides, western blot analysis showed that CGA could inhibit the expression of TLR4 and the phosphorylation of NF-κB and IκB induced by LPS. These results suggested that anti-inflammatory effects of CGA against LPS-induced mastitis may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway. Therefore, CGA may be a potent therapeutic reagent for the prevention of the immunopathology encountered during Escherichia coli elicited mastitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 6-Shogaol suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced up-expression of iNOS and COX-2 in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Hsieh, Min-Chi; Hsu, Ping-Chi; Ho, Sheng-Yow; Lai, Ching-Shu; Wu, Hou; Sang, Shengmin; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2008-12-01

    Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, is a traditional medicine with carminative effect, antinausea, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of 6-shogaol and a related compound, 6-gingerol, on the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in murine RAW 264.7 cells activated with LPS. Western blotting and reverse transcription-PCR analyses demonstrated that 6-shogaol significantly blocked protein and mRNA expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) and COX-2 in LPS-induced macrophages. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by a topical 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) application to mouse skin. When applied topically onto the shaven backs of mice prior to TPA, 6-shogaol markedly inhibited the expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. Treatment with 6-shogaol resulted in the reduction of LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF kappaB) subunit and the dependent transcriptional activity of NF kappaB by blocking phosphorylation of inhibitor kappaB (I kappaB)alpha and p65 and subsequent degradation of I kappaB alpha. Transient transfection experiments using NF kappaB reporter constructs indicated that 6-shogaol inhibits the transcriptional activity of NF kappaB in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophages. We found that 6-shogaol also inhibited LPS-induced activation of PI3K/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Taken together, these results show that 6-shogaol downregulates inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 gene expression in macrophages by inhibiting the activation of NF kappaB by interfering with the activation PI3K/Akt/I kappaB kinases IKK and MAPK.

  20. Bowman-Birk inhibitor and genistein among soy compounds that synergistically inhibit nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 pathways in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inflammation has an important role in the development of chronic diseases. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of eight soybean bioactive compounds using lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Genistein, daidzein, mix isoflavone glucosides, saponin A group glyco...

  1. Differential proteomic analysis of the anti-depressive effects of oleamide in a rat chronic mild stress model of depression.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lin; Zhu, Ming-Ming; Yang, Jing-Yu; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Jing-Hai; Shen, Jing; Tian, Hui-Fang; Wu, Chun-Fu

    2015-04-01

    Depression is a complex psychiatric disorder, and its etiology and pathophysiology are not completely understood. Depression involves changes in many biogenic amine, neuropeptide, and oxidative systems, as well as alterations in neuroendocrine function and immune-inflammatory pathways. Oleamide is a fatty amide which exhibits pharmacological effects leading to hypnosis, sedation, and anti-anxiety effects. In the present study, the chronic mild stress (CMS) model was used to investigate the antidepressant-like activity of oleamide. Rats were exposed to 10weeks of CMS or control conditions and were then subsequently treated with 2weeks of daily oleamide (5mg/kg, i.p.), fluoxetine (10mg/kg, i.p.), or vehicle. Protein extracts from the hippocampus were then collected, and hippocampal maps were generated by way of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Altered proteins induced by CMS and oleamide were identified through mass spectrometry and database searches. Compared to the control group, the CMS rats exhibited significantly less body weight gain and decreased sucrose consumption. Treatment with oleamide caused a reversal of the CMS-induced deficit in sucrose consumption. In the proteomic analysis, 12 protein spots were selected and identified. CMS increased the levels of adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1 (AK1), nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDKB), histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1), acyl-protein thioesterase 2 (APT-2), and glutathione S-transferase A4 (GSTA4). Compared to the CMS samples, seven spots changed significantly following treatment with oleamide, including GSTA4, glutathione S-transferase A6 (GSTA6), GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran (Ran-GTP), ATP synthase subunit d, transgelin-3, small ubiquitin-related modifier 2 (SUMO2), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 (eIF5A1). Of these seven proteins, the level of eIF5A1 was up-regulated, whereas the remaining proteins were down-regulated. In conclusion, oleamide has antidepressant

  2. Protective effects of a selective neutrophil elastase inhibitor (sivelestat) on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute dysfunction of the pulmonary microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshiaki; Seiyama, Akitoshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ukai, Isao; Akimau, Pavel; Nishino, Masato; Shimazu, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Hisashi

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a neutrophil elastase inhibitor, sivelestat, on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through analysis of hemodynamic changes in the pulmonary microcirculation. Randomized animal study. Medical school laboratory. Twenty-seven Wistar rats (15 rats for microspectroscopic observations, 12 rats for measurements of neutrophil elastase activity and wet-to-dry ratio). Thoracosternotomy was performed on male Wistar rats under continuous anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. Rats were divided into three groups (n = 5 each groups) on the basis of the reagent used: lipopolysaccharide group (100 microg/kg lipopolysaccharide intravenously), sivelestat group (10 mg/kg sivelestat; 100 microg/kg lipopolysaccharide intravenously), and control group (saline only, intravenously). We measured morphologic changes and hemodynamic variables, including tissue blood flow, erythrocyte velocity, erythrocyte count, thickness of interalveolar septa, and leukocyte adhesion in the pulmonary microcirculation, with a video-rate (33 msec/frame) dual-spot microspectroscopy system (DSMSS) and a laser-Doppler flowmeter. Blood-free wet-to-dry ratio and neutrophil elastase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, serum, and supernatant of lung homogenate were measured in another set of experiments (n = 4 for each group). Sixty minutes after lipopolysaccharide administration, severe thickening of the interalveolar septa was observed in the lipopolysaccharide but not the sivelestat group. In the lipopolysaccharide group, DSMSS measurements of erythrocyte velocity and hemoglobin oxygenation in single capillaries were decreased significantly (vs. control p < .05, vs. sivelestat p < .01), whereas tissue blood flow and erythrocyte velocity measurements from laser-Doppler flowmeter were increased significantly (vs. control p < .05, vs. sivelestat p < .01). The number of adherent leukocytes was increased significantly in the lipopolysaccharide

  3. Sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation will increase in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Wen-Qi; Hu, Yu-Juan; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Kong, Wen; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2015-05-29

    .01). Short-term exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation could not directly induce DNA damage in normal spiral ganglion neurons, but it could cause the changes of cellular ultrastructure at special SAR 4.0 W/kg when cells are in fragile or micro-damaged condition. It seems that the sensitivity of SGN to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation will increase in a lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro model.

  4. Protective effect of magnolol on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yun Feng; Jiang, Tao; Cheng, Qing Shu; Gu, Zhong Ping; Zhu, Yi Fang; Zhang, Zhi Pei; Wang, Jian; Yan, Xiao Long; Wang, Wu Ping; Ke, Chang Kang; Han, Yong; Li, Xiao Fei

    2012-12-01

    Magnolol, a tradition Chinese herb, displays an array of activities including antifungal, antibacterial, and antioxidant effects. To investigate the protective effect of magnolol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. ALI was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS (1 mg/kg). The mice received intratracheal instillation of magnolol (5 μg/kg) 30 min before LPS administration. Pulmonary histological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin stain and lung wet/dry weight ratios were observed. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in lung tissues was determined by Western blot analysis. Magnolol pretreatment significantly attenuated the severity of lung injury and inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-1β in mice with ALI. After LPS administration, the lung wet/dry weight ratios, as an index of lung edema, and MPO activity were also markedly reduced by magnolol pretreatment. The expression of COX-2 was significantly suppressed by magnolol pretreatment. Magnolol potently protected against LPS-induced ALI and the protective effects of magnolol may attribute partly to the suppression of COX-2 expression.

  5. Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced chorioamnionitis in fetal sheep by maternal betamethasone.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Katherine B; Snyder, Candice C; Gisslen, Tate; Kemp, Matthew W; Newnham, John P; Kramer, Boris W; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas

    2013-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the order of exposure to maternal betamethasone and intra-amniotic (IA) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) will differentially modulate inflammation in the chorioamnion. Time-mated Merino ewes with singleton fetuses received saline alone, IA LPS alone, maternal betamethasone before LPS, or betamethasone after LPS. We assessed inflammatory markers in the chorioamnion and the amniotic fluid. Inflammatory cell infiltration, expression of myeloperoxidase, serum amyloid A3 (acute phase reactant) in the chorioamnion, and levels of interleukin (IL)-8 in the amniotic fluid increased 7 days after LPS exposure. Betamethasone prior to LPS decreased infiltration of the inflammatory cells, CD3+ T cells, and decreased the levels of IL-1β and IL-8 in the amniotic fluid. Betamethasone 7 days prior to LPS exposure suppressed LPS-induced inflammation. The markers of inflammation largely had returned to the baseline 14 days after LPS exposure.

  6. Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in mouse mastitis model

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yunhe; Wei, Zhengkai; Zhou, Ershun; Zhang, Naisheng; Yang, Zhengtao

    2014-01-01

    Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (C3G) (CAS number 7084-24-4), a typical anthocyanin pigment that exists in the human diet, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of C3G on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis and the molecular mechanisms have not been investigated. In this study, we detected the protective effects of C3G on a LPS-induced mouse mastitis model and investigated the molecular mechanisms in LPS-stimulated mouse mammary epithelial cells (MMECs). Our results showed that C3G could attenuate mammary histopathologic changes and myeloperoxidase activity, and inhibit TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 production caused by LPS. Meanwhile, C3G dose-dependently inhibited TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated MMECs. C3G suppressed LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation. Furthermore, C3G disrupted the formation of lipid rafts by depleting cholesterol. Moreover, C3G activated liver X receptor (LXR)-ABCG1-dependent cholesterol efflux. Knockdown of LXRα abrogated the anti-inflammatory effects of C3G. In conclusion, C3G has a protective effect on LPS-induced mastitis. The promising anti-inflammatory mechanisms of C3G are associated with upregulation of the LXRα-ABCG1 pathway which result in disrupting lipid rafts by depleting cholesterol, thereby suppressing toll-like receptor 4-mediated NF-κB and IRF3 signaling pathways induced by LPS. PMID:24752550

  7. Pharmacologic studies on ET-26 hydrochloride in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Jiang, Junli; Yang, Jun; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Zhaoqiong; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wensheng

    2017-11-15

    ET-26 hydrochloride (ET-26 HCl) is a promising sedation-hypnotic compound with stable hemodynamic features that elicits virtually no adrenocortical suppression. However, whether it preserves better pharmacologic characteristics in a rat model of sepsis is not known. This study compared the survival rate, levels of corticosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and histologic injury in the lungs and kidneys of rats suffering from sepsis treated with ET-26 HCl, etomidate, or normal saline (NS). Rats were given lipopolysaccharide (1mg/kg body weight, i.v.) to establish a sepsis model. Thirty minutes after lipopolysaccharide administration, ET-26 HCl, etomidate or NS were given as a bolus injection at equivalent doses. Plasma levels of corticosterone, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24h after administration. Histologic injury was observed at the time of death or 24h after drug administration. The survival rate for rats in the etomidate, ET-26 HCl and NS groups was 40%, 90% and 90%, respectively. Corticosterone concentrations in the etomidate group were lower than those in the other groups 1h after administration of hypnotic compounds. Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the ET-26 HCl group and NS group were not significantly different, but were significantly lower than those in the etomidate group. The injury scores of kidneys and lungs in the etomidate group were higher than those in ET-26 HCl and NS groups. ET-26 HCl showed virtually no suppression of corticosterone synthesis, lower concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, higher survival rate, and less organ injury in rats suffering from sepsis compared with the etomidate group. It may be safer to induce anesthesia using ET-26 HCl, rather than etomidate, in patients suffering from sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of tylosin, tilmicosin and tulathromycin on inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Er, Ayse; Yazar, Enver

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides through kinetic parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. Rats were divided into four groups: lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + tylosin, LPS + tilmicosin and LPS + tulathromycin. BALF samples were collected at sampling times. TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2α (PGM) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analysed. Area under the curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values of inflammatory mediators were determined by a pharmacokinetic computer programme. When inflammatory mediator concentrations were compared between the LPS group and other groups for each sampling time, the three macrolides had no pronounced depressor effect on cytokine levels, but they depressed PGM and CRP levels. In addition, tylosin and tilmicosin decreased the AUC0-24 level of TNF, while tilmicosin decreased the AUC0-24 level of IL-10. Tylosin and tulathromycin decreased the AUC0-24 of PGM, and all three macrolides decreased the AUC0-24 of CRP. Especially tylosin and tulathromycin may have more expressed anti-inflammatory effects than tilmicosin, via depressing the production of inflammatory mediators in the lung. The AUC may be used for determining the effects of drugs on inflammation. In this study, the antiinflammatory effects of these antibiotics were evaluated with kinetic parameters as a new and different approach.

  9. Ilex kaushue and Its Bioactive Component 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid Protected Mice from Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Li; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Yu, Huang-Ping; Fang, Jia-You; Chong, Kowit Yu; Chang, Yao-Wen; Chen, Chun-Yu; Yang, Hsuan-Wu; Chang, Wen-Yi; Hsieh, Pei-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe respiratory disease with high mortality rates worldwide. Recent reports suggest that human neutrophil elastase (HNE) plays a key role in the inflammatory response that is characteristic of ALI, which indicates that the development of HNE inhibitors could be an efficient treatment strategy. In the current study, an enzyme-based screening assay was used to identify effective HNE inhibitors from a number of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). Among them, a water extract of Ilex kaushue (IKWE) effectively inhibited HNE activity (IC50, 11.37 ± 1.59 μg/mL). Using bioactivity-guided fractionation, one new compound and 23 known compounds were identified. Compound 6 (identified as 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid; 3,5-DCQA) exerted the most potent and selective inhibitory effect on HNE activity (IC50, 1.86 ± 0.06 μM). In a cell-based assay, 3,5-DCQA not only directly reduced superoxide generation and elastase activity but also attenuated the Src family kinase (SRKs)/Vav signaling pathway in N-formyl-L-Met-L-Leu-L-Phe (fMLF)-stimulated human neutrophils. In an animal disease model, both 3,5-DCQA and standardized IKWE protected against lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI in mice, which provides support for their potential as candidates in the development of new therapeutic agents for neutrophilic inflammatory diseases. PMID:27681838

  10. Impact of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute inflammation on baroreflex-controlled sympathetic arterial pressure regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tohyama, Takeshi; Kawada, Toru; Kishi, Takuya; Yoshida, Keimei; Nishikawa, Takuya; Mannoji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Sunagawa, Kenji; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    Background Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces acute inflammation, activates sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and alters hemodynamics. Since the arterial baroreflex is a negative feedback system to stabilize arterial pressure (AP), examining the arterial baroreflex function is a prerequisite to understanding complex hemodynamics under LPS challenge. We investigated the impact of LPS-induced acute inflammation on SNA and AP regulation by performing baroreflex open-loop analysis. Methods Ten anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Acute inflammation was induced by an intravenous injection of LPS (60 μg/kg). We isolated the carotid sinuses from the systemic circulation and controlled carotid sinus pressure (CSP) by a servo-controlled piston pump. We matched CSP to AP to establish the baroreflex closed-loop condition, whereas we decoupled CSP from AP to establish the baroreflex open-loop condition and changed CSP stepwise to evaluate the baroreflex open-loop function. We recorded splanchnic SNA and hemodynamic parameters under baroreflex open- and closed-loop conditions at baseline and at 60 and 120 min after LPS injection. Results In the baroreflex closed-loop condition, SNA continued to increase after LPS injection, reaching three-fold the baseline value at 120 min (baseline: 94.7 ± 3.6 vs. 120 min: 283.9 ± 31.9 a.u.). In contrast, AP increased initially (until 75 min), then declined to the baseline level. In the baroreflex open-loop condition, LPS reset the neural arc (CSP-SNA relationship) upward to higher SNA, while shifted the peripheral arc (SNA-AP relationship) downward at 120 min after the injection. As a result, the operating point determined by the intersection between function curves of neural arc and peripheral arc showed marked sympatho-excitation without substantial changes in AP. Conclusions LPS-induced acute inflammation markedly increased SNA via resetting of the baroreflex neural arc, and suppressed the peripheral arc. The balance between the

  11. Impact of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute inflammation on baroreflex-controlled sympathetic arterial pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, Takeshi; Saku, Keita; Kawada, Toru; Kishi, Takuya; Yoshida, Keimei; Nishikawa, Takuya; Mannoji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Sunagawa, Kenji; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces acute inflammation, activates sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and alters hemodynamics. Since the arterial baroreflex is a negative feedback system to stabilize arterial pressure (AP), examining the arterial baroreflex function is a prerequisite to understanding complex hemodynamics under LPS challenge. We investigated the impact of LPS-induced acute inflammation on SNA and AP regulation by performing baroreflex open-loop analysis. Ten anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Acute inflammation was induced by an intravenous injection of LPS (60 μg/kg). We isolated the carotid sinuses from the systemic circulation and controlled carotid sinus pressure (CSP) by a servo-controlled piston pump. We matched CSP to AP to establish the baroreflex closed-loop condition, whereas we decoupled CSP from AP to establish the baroreflex open-loop condition and changed CSP stepwise to evaluate the baroreflex open-loop function. We recorded splanchnic SNA and hemodynamic parameters under baroreflex open- and closed-loop conditions at baseline and at 60 and 120 min after LPS injection. In the baroreflex closed-loop condition, SNA continued to increase after LPS injection, reaching three-fold the baseline value at 120 min (baseline: 94.7 ± 3.6 vs. 120 min: 283.9 ± 31.9 a.u.). In contrast, AP increased initially (until 75 min), then declined to the baseline level. In the baroreflex open-loop condition, LPS reset the neural arc (CSP-SNA relationship) upward to higher SNA, while shifted the peripheral arc (SNA-AP relationship) downward at 120 min after the injection. As a result, the operating point determined by the intersection between function curves of neural arc and peripheral arc showed marked sympatho-excitation without substantial changes in AP. LPS-induced acute inflammation markedly increased SNA via resetting of the baroreflex neural arc, and suppressed the peripheral arc. The balance between the augmented neural arc and suppressed

  12. Effects of Citral on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Zhao, Hongfeng; Liu, Jinyang; Fang, Chao; Miao, Renying

    2016-04-01

    Citral is an active compound of lemongrass oil which has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of citral on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in a rat model of peritonitis and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). LPS was intraperitoneally injected into rats to establish a peritonitis model. The HUVECs were treated with citral for 12 h before exposure to LPS. The levels of TNF-α and IL-8 were measured using ELISA. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, NF-κB, and PPAR-γ. The results showed that citral had a protective effect against LPS-induced peritonitis. Citral decreased the levels of WBCs and inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. Citral also inhibited LPS-induced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the peritoneal tissue. Treatment of HUVECs with citral significantly inhibited TNF-α and IL-8 expression induced by LPS. LPS-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression were also suppressed by citral. Meanwhile, we found that citral inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation in HUVECs. Furthermore, we found that citral activated PPAR-γ and the anti-inflammatory effects of citral can be reversed by PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662. In conclusion, citral inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory response via activating PPAR-γ which attenuates NF-κB activation and inflammatory mediator production.

  13. Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced chorioamnionitis by Ureaplasma parvum in sheep.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Candice C; Wolfe, Katherine B; Gisslen, Tate; Knox, Christine L; Kemp, Matthew W; Kramer, Boris W; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G

    2013-05-01

    Ureaplasma colonization in the setting of polymicrobial flora is common in women with chorioamnionitis, and is a risk factor for preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity. We hypothesized that Ureaplasma colonization of amniotic fluid would modulate chorioamnionitis induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Sheep received intraamniotic (IA) injections of media (control) or live Ureaplasma either 7 or 70 days before delivery. Another group received IA LPS 2 days before delivery. To test for interactions, U parvum-exposed animals were challenged with IA LPS, and delivered 2 days later. All animals were delivered preterm at 125 ± 1 day of gestation. Both IA Ureaplasma and LPS induced leukocyte infiltration of chorioamnion. LPS greatly increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase in leukocytes, while Ureaplasma alone caused modest responses. Interestingly, 7-day but not 70-day Ureaplasma exposure significantly down-regulated LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase expression in the chorioamnion. Acute (7-day) U parvum exposure can suppress LPS-induced chorioamnionitis. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Protective effects of melatonin on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Guoxi; Tian, Yinggang; Wang, Haiyu; Liu, Fangning; Xie, Guanghong

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin, a secretory product of the pineal gland, has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the protective effects of melatonin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of melatonin on LPS-induced mastitis both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, our results showed that melatonin attenuated LPS-induced mammary histopathologic changes and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Melatonin also inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in mammary tissues. In vitro, melatonin was found to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in mouse mammary epithelial cells. Melatonin also suppressed LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, melatonin was found to up-regulate the expression of PPAR-γ. Inhibition of PPAR-γ by GW9662 reduced the anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin. In conclusion, we found that melatonin, for the first time, had protective effects on LPS-induced mastitis in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of melatonin was through activating PPAR-γ which subsequently inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenjiao; Chen, Qianying; Li, Peijin; Lu, Qianfeng; Pei, Xue; Sun, Yilin; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Kun

    2017-02-01

    Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate (MI) is a magnesium salt of 18α-GA stereoisomer which has been reported to exert hepatoprotective activity. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the underlying mechanisms behind the action of Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate on neuroinflammatation and oxidative stress in LPS-stimulated mice. Mice were pretreated with Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate (MI, 25, 50mg/kg) as well as fluoxetine (Flu, positive control, 20mg/kg) once daily for one week before intraperitoneal injection of LPS (0.83mg/kg). Pretreatments with MI and Flu significantly improved immobility time in tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST) as well as locomotor activity in open-field test (OFT). In addition, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in serum and hippocampus were also suppressed effectively by MI and Flu administrations. Western blot analysis showed the up-regulated levels of p-Jak3, p-STAT3, p-NF-κBp65, and p-IκBα in mice exposed to LPS, while different degrees of down-regulation in these expression were observed in MI (25, 50mg/kg) and Flu (20mg/kg) groups respectively. Taken together, our obtained results demonstrated that Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate (MI) exhibited an antidepressant-like effect in LPS-induced mice, which might be mediated by JAK/STAT/NF-κB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Mucoactive effects of naringin in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury mice and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Wu, Hao; Nie, Yi-chu; Li, Pei-bo; Shen, Jian-gang; Su, Wei-wei

    2014-07-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that naringin attenuates EGF-induced MUC5AC hypersecretion in A549 cells by suppressing the cooperative activities of MAPKs/AP-1 and IKKs/IκB/NF-κB signaling pathways. However, the volume of airway mucus is determined by two factors including the number of mucous cells and capacity of mucus secretion. The aim of the present study is to explore the mucoactive effects of naringin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mice and beagle dogs. The results demonstrated that naringin of 12.4 mg/kg treatment significantly decreased LPS-induced enhancement of sputum volume and pulmonary inflammation, remarkably increased the subglottic sputum volume and solids content in sputum of lower trachea, while partially, but not fully, significantly increased the elasticity and viscosity of sputum in lower trachea of beagle dogs. Moreover, the MUC5AC content in BALF and goblet-cells in large airways of LPS-induced ALI mice were significantly attenuated by dexamethasone (5 mg/kg), ambroxol (25 mg/kg), and naringin (15, 60 mg/kg). However, the goblet-cells hyperplasia in small airways induced by LPS was only significantly inhibited by dexamethasone and naringin (60 mg/kg). In conclusion, naringin exhibits mucoactive effects through multiple targets which including reduction of goblet cells hyperplasia and mucus hypersecretion, as well as promotion of sputum excretion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced chorioamnionitis by Ureaplasma parvum in sheep

    PubMed Central

    SNYDER, Candice C.; WOLFE, Katherine B.; GISSLEN, Tate; KNOX, Christine L.; KEMP, Matthew W.; KRAMER, Boris W.; NEWNHAM, John P.; JOBE, Alan H.; KALLAPUR, Suhas G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Ureaplasma colonization in the setting of polymicrobial flora is common in women with chorioamnionitis, and is a risk factor for preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity. We hypothesized that ureaplasma colonization of amniotic fluid will modulate chorioamnionitis induced by E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods Sheep received intra-amniotic (IA) injections of media (control) or live ureaplasma either 7 or 70d before delivery. Another group received IA LPS 2d before delivery. To test for interactions, U. parvum exposed animals were challenged with IA LPS, and delivered 2d later. All animals were delivered preterm at 125±1 day gestation. Results Both IA ureaplasmas and LPS induced leukocyte infiltration of chorioamnion. LPS greatly increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase in leukocytes, while ureaplasmas alone caused modest responses. Interestingly, 7d but not 70d ureaplasma exposure significantly downregulated LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase expression in the chorioamnion. Conclusion Acute U. parvum exposure (7d) can suppress LPS induced chorioamnionitis. PMID:23410690

  18. Chondroitin Sulfate-Rich Extract of Skate Cartilage Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Yeong Ok; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Baek, Jang-Mi; Kang, Keon-Hee; Kim, Sang-Ho; Roh, Seong-Soo; Park, Chan Hum; Jeong, Kap-Seop; Noh, Jeong-Sook

    2017-06-15

    The protective effects of a chondroitin sulfate-rich extract (CSE) from skate cartilage against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic damage were investigated, and its mechanism of action was compared with that of chondroitin sulfate (CS) from shark cartilage. ICR mice were orally administrated 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) of CS or 400 mg/kg BW of CSE for 3 consecutive days, followed by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of LPS (20 mg/kg BW). The experimental groups were vehicle treatment without LPS injection (NC group), vehicle treatment with LPS injection (LPS group), CS pretreatment with LPS injection (CS group), and CSE pretreatment with LPS injection (CSE group). Hepatic antioxidant enzyme expression levels in the CS and CSE groups were increased relative to those in the LPS group. In LPS-insulted hepatic tissue, inflammatory factors were augmented relative to those in the NC group, but were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with CS or CSE. Moreover, CS and CSE alleviated the LPS-induced apoptotic factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In addition, CS and CSE effectively decreased the serum lipid concentrations and downregulated hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins expression. In conclusion, the skate CSE could protect against LPS-induced hepatic dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, probably through the regulation of MAPK signaling.

  19. Chondroitin Sulfate-Rich Extract of Skate Cartilage Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yeong Ok; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Baek, Jang-Mi; Kang, Keon-Hee; Kim, Sang-Ho; Roh, Seong-Soo; Park, Chan Hum; Jeong, Kap-Seop; Noh, Jeong-Sook

    2017-01-01

    The protective effects of a chondroitin sulfate-rich extract (CSE) from skate cartilage against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic damage were investigated, and its mechanism of action was compared with that of chondroitin sulfate (CS) from shark cartilage. ICR mice were orally administrated 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) of CS or 400 mg/kg BW of CSE for 3 consecutive days, followed by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of LPS (20 mg/kg BW). The experimental groups were vehicle treatment without LPS injection (NC group), vehicle treatment with LPS injection (LPS group), CS pretreatment with LPS injection (CS group), and CSE pretreatment with LPS injection (CSE group). Hepatic antioxidant enzyme expression levels in the CS and CSE groups were increased relative to those in the LPS group. In LPS-insulted hepatic tissue, inflammatory factors were augmented relative to those in the NC group, but were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with CS or CSE. Moreover, CS and CSE alleviated the LPS-induced apoptotic factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In addition, CS and CSE effectively decreased the serum lipid concentrations and downregulated hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins expression. In conclusion, the skate CSE could protect against LPS-induced hepatic dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, probably through the regulation of MAPK signaling. PMID:28617322

  20. Protective effects of kaempferol on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Rongfeng; Fu, Kaiqiang; Lv, Xiaopei; Li, Weishi; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Kaempferol isolated from the root of Zingiberaceae plants galangal and other Chinese herbal medicines have been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis are unknown and their underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of kaempferol on LPS-induced mouse mastitis. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. Kaempferol was injected 1 h before and 12 h after induction of LPS intraperitoneally. The present results showed that kaempferol markedly reduced infiltration of neutrophilic granulocyte, activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO), expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner, which were increased in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Furthermore, kaempferol suppressed the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor IκBα. All results suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol against the LPS-induced mastitis possibly through inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Kaempferol may be a potential therapeutic agent for mastitis.

  1. Protection Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Immunosuppression by IgG and IgM.

    PubMed

    Kyvelidou, Christiana; Sotiriou, Dimitris; Zerva, Ioanna; Athanassakis, Irene

    2018-04-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is commonly used in murine sepsis models, which are largely associated with immunosuppression and collapse of the immune system. After adapting the LPS treatment to the needs of locally bred BALB/c mice, the present study explored the potential role of IgG and IgM in reversing LPS endotoxemia. The established protocol consisted of five daily intraperitoneal injections of 0.2 μg/g LPS, which was tolerable by half of the manipulated animals. Such a protocol allowed longer survival, necessary in the prospect of therapeutic treatment application. This treatment significantly decreased CD4+, CD8+, CD3z+, and CD19+ cells, while increasing myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs; CD11b+Gr1+), CD25+ and Foxp3+ cells. These results were accompanied by increased arginase-1 activity in spleen cell lysates and production of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-18, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the serum. The applied LPS protocol did not alter serum procalcitonin levels. MDSCs isolated from the spleen of LPS-treated animals (LPS-MDSCs) decreased proliferation of naive T cells in coculture experiments. The application of IgG and IgM to the naive T cell/LPS-MDSCs cocultures significantly decreased CD25+, Foxp3+, and CD3z+ cells, indicating an anti-suppressive effect of immunoglobulins. The in vivo application of IgG and IgM significantly decreased the percent of CD11b+Gr1+, CD25+, Foxp3+ cells, and arginase-1 activity in the spleen of LPS-treated animals, while decreasing IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP levels in the serum, allowing survival to all animals tested. In conclusion, these results reveal a novel mode of action of IgG/IgM in LPS endotoxemia, strengthening thus the use of immunoglobulin treatment is septic patients.

  2. Glucocorticoid inhibition of leptin- and lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-6 production in obesity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Acevedo, Edmund O; Mari, David C; Randazzo, Christopher; Shibata, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is considered a chronic inflammatory condition that enhances the risk of numerous inflammatory diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids (GCs) and synthetic therapeutic GCs are anti-inflammatory agents, but the exact functions of GCs in obesity-related inflammation are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the inhibitory effect of an exogenous GC (dexamethasone, DEX) on leptin- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) ex vivo in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects. Blood samples were drawn from 14 obese (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) and 14 normal-weight (BMI<25 kg/m(2)) subjects. Plasma cortisol, TNF-α and IL-6 levels, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were quantified. Subjects' PBMCs (1×10(6) cells/mL) were isolated and cultured with leptin (18.75 and 250 ng/mL) or LPS (10ng/mL) in the presence of DEX (0, 10(-8), 10(-7), and 10(-6) M), a synthetic GC, for 24 h; IL-6 levels and GC sensitivity (IC50) were assessed in the cultured supernatants. No differences in the plasma cortisol levels were found between the two groups. We found that obese subjects showed greater leptin- and LPS-induced IL-6 production compared to normal-weight subjects. The suppressive effect of DEX on leptin- and LPS-induced IL-6 production (IC50) was not different between the two groups. However, the IC50 of DEX for LPS-induced was correlated with BMI, waist circumference, and hip circumference. These findings suggest that reduced GC sensitivity may be an important mechanism in the up-regulation of selected obese inflammation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Effect of azithromycin on Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of interleukin-6 in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jin, Ji-Young; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2014-04-15

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key proinflammatory cytokine which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Host modulatory agents targeting at inhibiting IL-6, therefore, appear to be beneficial in slowing the progression of periodontal disease and potentially reducing destructive aspects of the host response. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin on IL-6 generation in murine macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in inflammatory periodontal disease, and its mechanisms of action. Azithromycin significantly suppressed IL-6 production as well as its mRNA expression in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. LPS-induced activation of JNK and p38 was not affected by azithromycin treatment. Azithromycin failed to prevent P. intermedia LPS from degrading IκB-α. Instead, azithromycin significantly diminished nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-κB p50 subunit induced with LPS. Azithromycin inhibited P. intermedia LPS-induced STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, azithromycin up-regulated the mRNA level of SOCS1 in cells treated with LPS. In conclusion, azithromycin significantly attenuated P. intermedia LPS-induced production of IL-6 in murine macrophages via inhibition of NF-κB, STAT1 and STAT3 activation, which is possibly related to the activation of SOCS1 signaling. Further in vivo studies are required to better evaluate the potential of azithromycin in the treatment of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of apigenin on lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruipeng; Zhao, Di; Qu, Rong; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Shiping

    2015-05-06

    Increasing evidence shows that inflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology of depression. Apigenin, one type of natural flavone, has a number of biological actions including anti-inflammatory effects. Although it has potential antidepressant activity in a chronic mild stress model, the mechanisms of antidepressant effect for apigenin remain unclear. Here, we examined the effects of apigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depressive-like behavior in male mice. A single administration of LPS (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) increased the immobility time in the tail suspension test (TST) and reduced sucrose preference without changing spontaneous locomotor activity in open field test (OFT). Pre-treatment with apigenin (25, 50mg/kg, i.p.) or fluoxetine (positive control drug, 20mg/kg, i.p.) once daily for 7 consecutive days prevented the abnormal behavior induced by LPS. Apigenin or fluoxetine also effectively attenuated LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β (interleukin-1β) and TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α). Moreover, apigenin or fluoxetine significantly suppressed the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression at both the mRNA and protein level via the modulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in the prefrontal cortex. Additionally, apigenin (50mg/kg, i.p.) or fluoxetine (20mg/kg, i.p.) effectively reversed the depressive-like behavior induced by TNF-α (0.1fg/site, i.c.v.) without altering the locomotor activity. These results demonstrate that apigenin exhibits antidepressant-like effects in LPS treated mice, partially due to its anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microgravity inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α expression in macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chongzhen; Luo, Haiying; Zhu, Linnan; Yang, Fan; Chu, Zhulang; Tian, Hongling; Feng, Meifu; Zhao, Yong; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Microgravity environments in space can cause major abnormalities in human physiology, including decreased immunity. The underlying mechanisms of microgravity-induced inflammatory defects in macrophages are unclear. RAW264.7 cells and primary mouse macrophages were used in the present study. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine expression in mouse macrophages was detected under either simulated microgravity or 1g control. Freshly isolated primary mouse macrophages and RAW264.7 cells were cultured in a standard simulated microgravity situation using a rotary cell culture system (RCCS-1) and 1g control conditions. The cytokine expression was determined by real-time PCR and ELISA assays. Western blots were used to investigate the related intracellular signals. LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression, but not interleukin-1β expression, in mouse macrophages was significantly suppressed under simulated microgravity. The molecular mechanism studies showed that LPS-induced intracellular signal transduction including phosphorylation of IKK and JNK and nuclear translocation of NF-κB in macrophages was identical under normal gravity and simulated microgravity. Furthermore, TNF-α mRNA stability did not decrease under simulated microgravity. Finally, we found that heat shock factor-1 (HSF1), a known repressor of TNF-α promoter, was markedly activated under simulated microgravity. Short-term treatment with microgravity caused significantly decreased TNF-α production. Microgravity-activated HSF1 may contribute to the decreased TNF-α expression in macrophages directly caused by microgravity, while the LPS-induced NF-κB pathway is resistant to microgravity.

  6. Methyl jasmonate attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Adebesin, Adaeze; Adeoluwa, Olusegun A; Eduviere, Anthony T; Umukoro, Solomon

    2017-11-01

    Depression is a recurrent neuropsychiatric disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide and impact negatively on the patients' social functions and quality of life. Studies have shown that i.p injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces depressive-like behavior in rodents via induction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Methyl jasmonate (MJ), an isolated compound from jasmine plant has gained reputation in aromatherapy for treatment of depression, nervousness and memory deficits. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of MJ on LPS-induced depressive-like behavior in mice. Mice were given MJ (5-20 mg/kg), imipramine (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (10 mL/kg) intraperitoneally for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, treatment was carried out 30 min prior to i.p injection of LPS (830 μg/kg). Twenty four hours after LPS administration, tail suspension, forced swim and sucrose preference tests were carried out. Thereafter, serum corticosterone levels were determined using ELISA. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were determined in brain tissue homogenates. LPS significantly increased immobility time in the tail suspension and forced swim tests when compared with vehicle (p < 0.05), which indicates depressive-like syndromes. However, the increased immobility time was significantly reduced by MJ (5-20 mg/kg) when compared with LPS-treated group. LPS administration also altered the levels of MDA, GSH, corticosterone and TNF alpha in mice, which was significantly reversed by MJ. These findings suggest that attenuation of LPS-induced depressive-like behavior by MJ may be related to suppression of oxidative stress and release of TNF alpha. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Kidney Injury Is Dependent on an IL-18 Receptor Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nozaki, Yuji; Hino, Shoichi; Ri, Jinhai; Sakai, Kenji; Nagare, Yasuaki; Kawanishi, Mai; Niki, Kaoru; Funauchi, Masanori; Matsumura, Itaru

    2017-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-18 is an important mediator of the organ failure induced by endotoxemia. IL-18 (known as an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) inducing factor), and other inflammatory cytokines have important roles in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). We investigated the effect of inflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression, an event that is accompanied by an influx of monocytes, including CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in IL-18Rα knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice after LPS injection. In the acute advanced phase, the IL-18Rα KO mice showed a higher survival rate and a suppressed increase of blood urea nitrogen, increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ and IL-18, the infiltration of CD4+ T cells and the expression of kidney injury molecule-1 as an AKI marker. In that phase, the renal mRNA expression of the M1 macrophage phenotype and C-C chemokine receptor type 7 as the maturation marker of dendritic cells (DCs) was also significantly decreased in the IL-18Rα KO mice, although there were small numbers of F4/80+ cells and DCs in the kidney. Conversely, there were no significant differences in the expressions of mRNA and protein TLR4 after LPS injection between the WT and IL-18Rα KO groups. Our results demonstrated that the IL-18Rα-mediated signaling pathway plays critical roles in CD4+ T cells and APCs and responded more quickly to IFN-γ and IL-18 than TLR4 stimulation in the pathogenesis of LPS-induced AKI. PMID:29261164

  8. Pirfenidone ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis by blocking NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Li, Haitao; Liu, Shuai; Pan, Pinhua; Su, Xiaoli; Tan, Hongyi; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Lemeng; Song, Chao; Dai, Minhui; Li, Qian; Mao, Zhi; Long, Yuan; Hu, Yongbin; Hu, Chengping

    2018-05-18

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS)is a severe clinical disorder characterized by its acute onset, diffuse alveolar damage, intractable hypoxemia, and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Acute lung injury(ALI) can trigger persistent lung inflammation and fibrosis through activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequent secretion of mature IL-1β, suggesting that the NLRP3 inflammasome is a potential therapeutic target for ALI, for which new therapeutic approaches are needed. Our present study aims to assess whether pirfenidone,with anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties, can improve LPS-induced inflammation and fibrosis by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Male C57BL/6 J mice were intratracheally injected with LPS to induce ALI. Mice were administered pirfenidone by oral gavage throughout the entire experimental course. The mouse macrophage cell line (J774 A.1) was incubated with LPS and ATP, with or without PFD pre-treatment. We demonstrated that PFD remarkably ameliorated LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and reduced IL-1β and TGF-β1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF). Pirfenidone substantially reduced NLRP3 and ASC expression and inhibited caspase-1 activation and IL-1β maturation in lung tissues. In vitro, the experiments revealed that PFD significantly suppressed LPS/ATP-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased caspase-1 activation and the level of IL-1β in J774 A.1 cells. Taken together, the administration of PFD reduced LPS-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis by blocking NLRP3 inflammasome activation and subsequent IL-1β secretion. These findings indicated that PFD can down-regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation and that it may offer a promising therapeutic approach for ARDS patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Esculetin Protects Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells from Lipopolysaccharide-induced Inflammation and Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Ozal, S Altan; Turkekul, Kader; Gurlu, Vuslat; Guclu, Hande; Erdogan, Suat

    2018-05-26

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of visual loss. The dry AMD is characterized by retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) death and changes in AMD lead to severe loss of vision. Coumarin-derived esculetin has a number of therapeutic and pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant with various mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of esculetin treatment on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell survival. Human RPE cells (ARPE-19) were incubated for 24-72 h with 5 μg/ml LPS to induce inflammation and oxidative stress. Esculetin (5 μM) was used to protect the cells from LPS-induced damage. The cell viability was evaluated by quantitative 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide test. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-12, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase 1 (CuZnSOD) and SOD2 (MnSOD) mRNA expressions were analyzed by RT-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Apoptosis was monitored by cell-based cytometer. NF-kappa B (NF-κB) p65/RelA levels were determined by ELISA, and NF-κB protein expression and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation were evaluated by Western blot analysis. Esculetin treatment significantly suppressed LPS-induced cell death mediated by apoptosis and necrosis in a concentration-dependent manner. While LPS caused significant inflammation with cytokine increase in cells, esculetin reduced the expression of LPS-induced cytokines, VEGF, TNFR, and TRAIL. Furthermore, exposure to LPS increased the expression of GPx and mitochondrial MnSOD, leading to oxidative stress in the cells. Esculetin treatment attenuated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB expression mediated by LPS

  10. The total alkaloids of Aconitum tanguticum protect against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guotai; Du, Lidong; Zhao, Lei; Shang, Ruofeng; Liu, Dongling; Jing, Qi; Liang, Jianping; Ren, Yuan

    2014-09-29

    Aconitum tanguticum has been widely used as a remedy for infectious diseases in traditional Tibetan medicine in China. The total alkaloids of Aconitum tanguticum (TAA) are the main active components of Aconitum tanguticum and have been demonstrated to be effective in suppressing inflammation. Our aim was to investigate the protective effects of TAA on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. TAA was extracted in 95% ethanol and purified in chloroform. After vacuum drying, the TAA powder was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups. Rats were given dexamethasone (DXM, 4 mg/kg) or TAA (60 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg) before LPS injection. The PaO2and PaO2/FiO2 values, lung wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio and histological changes in lung tissue were measured. The cell counts, protein concentration, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in lung tissue were determined at 6, 12 or 24 h after LPS treatment. In addition, the NF-κ B activation in lung tissue was analyzed by western blot. In ALI rats, TAA significantly reduced the lung W/D ratio and increased the value of PaO2 or PaO2/FiO2 at 6, 12 or 24 h after LPS challenge. TAA also reduced the total protein concentration and the number of total cells, neutrophils or lymphocytes in BALF. In addition, TAA decreased MPO activity in the lung and attenuated histological changes in the lung. Furthermore, TAA inhibited the concentration of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in BALF at 6, 12 or 24 h after LPS treatment. Further study demonstrated that TAA significantly inhibited NF-κ B activation in lung tissue. The current study proved that TAA exhibited a potent protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in rats through its anti-inflammatory activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Protective effects of agmatine on lipopolysaccharide -induced acute hepatic injury in mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan -fei; Fan, Xia; Zheng, Zhi-hua; Yang, Xue; Liu, Zheng; Gong, Jian-ping; Liang, Hua-ping

    2013-12-01

    intranuclear NF-KB p65 level (NF-KBp65/TBP: 0.515 ± 0.060 vs. 0.853 ± 0.080, t=5.849, P=0.004) in liver tissue. Histological examination demonstrated that AGM significantly reduced liver injury caused by LPS, as manifested in amelioration of hepatocytes swelling, necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. Agmatine can reduce LPS-induced acute hepatic injury in mice via suppressing NF-κB translocation and reduction of the synthesis and release of cytokines.

  12. Dietary broccoli mildly improves neuroinflammation in aged mice but does not reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behavior

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Brigitte E.; Chen, Yung-Ju; Jeffery, Elizabeth H.; Johnson, Rodney W.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress and heightened inflammatory response to infection. Dietary interventions to reduce these changes are therefore desirable. Broccoli contains glucoraphanin, which is converted to sulforaphane (SFN) by plant myrosinase during cooking preparation or digestion. SFN increases antioxidant enzymes including NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and heme oxygenase I (HMOX1) and inhibits inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that dietary broccoli would support an antioxidant response in brain and periphery of aged mice and inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and sickness. Young adult and aged mice were fed control or 10% broccoli diet for 28 days prior to an intraperitoneal LPS injection. Social interactions were assessed 2, 4, 8, and 24 h following LPS, and mRNA quantified in liver and brain at 24 h. Dietary broccoli did not ameliorate LPS-induced decrease in social interactions in young or aged mice. Interleukin (IL)-1β expression was unaffected by broccoli consumption but was induced by LPS in brain and liver of adult and aged mice. Additionally, IL-1β was elevated in brain of aged mice without LPS. Broccoli consumption decreased age-elevated cytochrome b-245 β, an oxidative stress marker, and reduced glial activation markers in aged mice. Collectively, these data suggest that 10% broccoli diet provides a modest reduction in age-related oxidative stress and glial reactivity, but is insufficient to inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. Thus, it is likely that SFN would need to be provided in supplement form to control the inflammatory response to LPS. PMID:25439028

  13. Exceptionally potent inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase: The enzyme responsible for degradation of endogenous oleamide and anandamide

    PubMed Central

    Boger, Dale L.; Sato, Haruhiko; Lerner, Aaron E.; Hedrick, Michael P.; Fecik, Robert A.; Miyauchi, Hiroshi; Wilkie, Gordon D.; Austin, Bryce J.; Patricelli, Matthew P.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2000-01-01

    The development of exceptionally potent inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for the degradation of oleamide (an endogenous sleep-inducing lipid), and anandamide (an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors) is detailed. The inhibitors may serve as useful tools to clarify the role of endogenous oleamide and anandamide and may prove to be useful therapeutic agents for the treatment of sleep disorders or pain. The combination of several features—an optimal C12–C8 chain length, π-unsaturation introduction at the corresponding arachidonoyl Δ8,9/Δ11,12 and oleoyl Δ9,10 location, and an α-keto N4 oxazolopyridine with incorporation of a second weakly basic nitrogen provided FAAH inhibitors with Kis that drop below 200 pM and are 102–103 times more potent than the corresponding trifluoromethyl ketones. PMID:10805767

  14. Lipopolysaccharide-induced carotid body inflammation in cats: functional manifestations, histopathology and involvement of tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ricardo; González, Sergio; Rey, Sergio; Cortés, Paula P; Maisey, Kevin R; Reyes, Edison-Pablo; Larraín, Carolina; Zapata, Patricio

    2008-07-01

    In the absence of information on functional manifestations of carotid body (CB) inflammation, we studied an experimental model in which lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to pentobarbitone-anaesthetized cats was performed by topical application upon the CB surface or by intravenous infusion (endotoxaemia). The latter caused: (i) disorganization of CB glomoids, increased connective tissue, and rapid recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells into the vascular bed and parenchyma within 4 h; (ii) increased respiratory frequency and diminished ventilatory chemoreflex responses to brief hypoxia (breathing 100% N(2) for 10 s) and diminished ventilatory chemosensory drive (assessed by 100% O(2) tests) during normoxia and hypoxia; (iii) tachycardia, increased haematocrit and systemic hypotension in response to LPS i.v.; and (iv) increased basal frequency of carotid chemosensory discharges during normoxia, but no change in maximal chemoreceptor responses to brief hypoxic exposures. Lipopolysaccharide-induced tachypnoea was prevented by prior bilateral carotid neurotomy. Apoptosis was not observed in CBs from cats subjected to endotoxaemia. Searching for pro-inflammatory mediators, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was localized by immunohistochemistry in glomus and endothelial cells; reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the CB expresses the mRNAs for both type-1 (TNF-R1) and type-2 TNF-alpha receptors (TNF-R2); Western blot confirmed a band of the size expected for TNF-R1; and histochemistry showed the presence of TNF-R1 in glomus cells and of TNF-R2 in endothelial cells. Experiments in vitro showed that the frequency of carotid nerve discharges recorded from CBs perfused and superfused under normoxic conditions was not significantly modified by TNF-alpha, but that the enhanced frequency of chemosensory discharges recorded along responses to hypoxic stimulation was transiently diminished in a dose-dependent manner by TNF-alpha injections

  15. Oleamide derivatives are prototypical anti-metastasis drugs that act by inhibiting Connexin 26.

    PubMed

    Nojima, Hiroshi; Ohba, Yusuke; Kita, Yasuyuki

    2007-09-01

    Despite considerable research, metastasis remains a major challenge in the clinical management of cancer. Recent reports show that abnormally augmented expression of Cx26 is responsible for the enhanced spontaneous metastasis of mouse BL6 melanoma cells. The function of Cx26 appears to be responsible for this phenotype since exogenous expression of a dominant-negative form of Cx26 and oleamide derivatives called MI-18 and MI-22 that specifically inhibit Cx26-mediated gap junction-mediated intercellular communications (GJIC) prevent the spontaneous metastasis of BL6 cells. As expected from their structural similarity to oleic acid (the major component of olive oil), both MI-18 and MI-22 are safe drugs; nonetheless, they are potent inhibitors of the spontaneous metastasis of BL6 mouse melanoma cells. Thus, they are a novel prototype of an anti-metastasis drug that has minimal side effects. While the primary tumors do not necessarily show strong Cx26-immunostaining signals, pronounced Cx26 expression is detected in the highly invasive tumor regions; it is also more frequently observed in metastasized tumors. Thus, Cx26 expression may be useful as a prognostic tool that can predict the existence of highly metastatic cancer cells in clinical samples.

  16. Oleamide activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dionisi, Mauro; Alexander, Stephen P H; Bennett, Andrew J

    2012-05-14

    Oleamide (ODA) is a fatty acid primary amide first identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats, which exerts effects on vascular and neuronal tissues, with a variety of molecular targets including cannabinoid receptors and gap junctions. It has recently been reported to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Here, we have investigated the nuclear receptor family of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as potential targets for ODA action. Activation of PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ was assessed using recombinant expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells with a luciferase reporter gene assay. Direct binding of ODA to the ligand binding domain of each of the three PPARs was monitored in a cell-free fluorescent ligand competition assay. A well-established assay of PPARγ activity, the differentiation of 3T3-L1 murine fibroblasts into adipocytes, was assessed using an Oil Red O uptake-based assay. ODA, at 10 and 50 μM, was able to transactivate PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ receptors. ODA bound to the ligand binding domain of all three PPARs, although complete displacement of fluorescent ligand was only evident for PPARγ, at which an IC50 value of 38 μM was estimated. In 3T3-L1 cells, ODA, at 10 and 20 μM, induced adipogenesis. We have, therefore, identified a novel site of action of ODA through PPAR nuclear receptors and shown how ODA should be considered as a weak PPARγ ligand in vitro.

  17. The effects of anandamide and oleamide on cognition depend on diurnal variations.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E; Montes-Rodriguez, Corinne J; Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra E; Mendez-Diaz, Monica; Prospero-Garcia, Oscar

    2017-10-01

    Cannabinergic receptor 1 (CB1r) is highly expressed in almost the entire brain; hence, its activation affects diverse functions, including cognitive processes such as learning and memory. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that CB1r expression fluctuates along the light-dark cycle. In this context, the objective of this work was to characterize the cannabinergic influence over cognitive processes and its relationship with the light-dark cycle. To this aim we studied the effects of two endogenous cannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and oleamide (ODA), on the consolidation of memory and event-related potentials (ERPs) depending on the light-dark cycle. Our results indicate that AEA and ODA impair the consolidation of spatial and emotional memories and reduce the amplitude of several components of the ERP complex, depending on the phase of the light-dark cycle. This study further supports the notion that endocannabinoids participate in the regulation of cognitive processes with strong influence of environmental variables such as the light-dark cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute and subchronic administration of anandamide or oleamide increases REM sleep in rats.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Solís, Andrea; Vásquez, Khalil Guzmán; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2010-03-01

    Anandamide and oleamide, induce sleep when administered acutely, via the CB1 receptor. Their subchronic administration must be tested to demonstrate the absence of tolerance to this effect, and that the sudden withdrawal of these endocannabinoids (eCBs) does not affect sleep negatively. The sleep-waking cycle of rats was evaluated for 24h, under the effect of an acute or subchronic administration of eCBs, and during sudden eCBs withdrawal. AM251, a CB1 receptor antagonist (CB1Ra) was utilized to block eCBs effects. Our results indicated that both acute and subchronic administration of eCBs increase REMS. During eCBs withdrawal, rats lack the expression of an abstinence-like syndrome. AM251 was efficacious to prevent REMS increase caused by both acute and subchronic administration of these eCBs, suggesting that this effect is mediated by the CB1 receptor. Our data further support a role of the eCBs in REMS regulation. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mixed microencapsulation of rat primary hepatocytes and Sertoli cells improves the metabolic function in a D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced rat model of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ming-Hua; Lin, Hai-Long; Qiu, Li-Xin; Cui, Yao-Li; Sun, Qing-Feng; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is an alternative to transplantation of the whole liver. Compared with xenogeneic hepatocytes, primary hepatocytes have some advantages, such as a more powerful function and a smaller frequency of rejection caused by the host. Cell microencapsulation prevents direct access of host cells to the graft but cannot impede transfer of transplant-derived peptides, which can cross the physical barrier. Sertoli cells are central to the immune privilege demonstrated in the testis, and their actions have been utilized to protect cell transplants. Co-microencapsulating Sertoli cells with HepG2 cells has proved to be a valuable strategy in hepatocyte transplantation. Thus mixed microcapsules of primary rat hepatocytes and primary Sertoli cells may improve metabolic function in a d-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced rat model of acute liver failure.

  20. Oleamide restores sleep in adult rats that were subjected to maternal separation.

    PubMed

    Reyes Prieto, Nidia M; Romano López, Antonio; Pérez Morales, Marcel; Pech, Olivia; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; Ruiz Contreras, Alejandra E; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2012-12-01

    Maternal separation (MS) induces a series of changes in rats' behavior; among them a reduction in spontaneous sleep. One potentially impaired system is the endocannabinoid system (eCBs), since it contributes to generate sleep. To investigate if there are situations early in life that affect the eCBs, which would contribute to make rats vulnerable to suffering insomnia, we studied the rodent model of MS. Rats were separated from their mothers for 3h-periods daily, from postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 16. Once they gained 250g of body weight (adult rats), they were implanted with electrodes to record the sleep-waking cycle (SWC). MS rats and non-MS (NMS) siblings were assigned to one of the following groups: vehicle, oleamide (OLE, an agonist of the cannabinoid receptor 1, CB1R), OLE+AM251 (an antagonist of the CB1R) and AM251 alone. Expression of the CBR1 receptor was also analyzed in the frontal cortex (FCx) and in the hippocampus (HIP) of both NMS and MS rats. Results indicated that MS induced a reduction in both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep with the consequent increase in waking (W) as compared to NMS siblings. OLE normalized the SWC, and AM251 blocked such an effect. CB1R expression was reduced in the FCx and in the HIP of MS rats. Our results indicate that MS reduces sleep and CB1R expression and OLE improves sleep in adult rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Polymethoxy flavonoids, nobiletin and tangeretin, prevent lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory bone loss in an experimental model for periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Tominari, Tsukasa; Hirata, Michiko; Matsumoto, Chiho; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2012-01-01

    Nobiletin, a polymethoxy flavonoid (PMF), inhibits systemic bone resorption and maintains bone mass in estrogen-deficient ovariectomized mice. This study examined the anti-inflammatory effects of PMFs, nobiletin, and tangeretin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone resorption. Nobiletin and tangeretin suppressed LPS-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption and suppressed the receptor activator of NFκB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 macrophages. Nobiletin clearly restored the alveolar bone mass in a mouse experimental model for periodontitis by inhibiting LPS-induced bone resorption. PMFs may therefore provide a new therapeutic approach for periodontal bone loss.

  2. Effect of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands on lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor activity in thioglycolate-treated mice.

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, T; Ogata, M; Koga, K; Shigematsu, A

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the effect of peripheral and central benzodiazepine receptor ligands on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity in mouse macrophages, three types of ligands, 4'-chlorodiazepam (pure peripheral), midazolam (mixed), and clonazepam (pure central), were compared. Midazolam and 4'-chlorodiazepam significantly suppressed LPS (1-microgram/ml)-induced TNF activity in thioglycolate-elicited mouse macrophages. In every concentration examined (0.001 to 100 microM), 4'-chlorodiazepam was the most effective agent, clonazepam was the least effective agent, and midazolam had an effect intermediate between those of the other two ligands. The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands had a dose-dependent suppressive effect, and the 50% inhibitory concentrations were 0.01 microM for 4'-chlorodiazepam and 5 microM for midazolam. Concomitant use of PK 11195 (10 microM), an antagonist of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, reversed this suppressive effect with 4'-chlorodiazepam (10 microM) or midazolam (10 microM). PK 11195 showed this antagonistic effect in a dose-dependent manner. Intravenous 4'-chlorodiazepam (5 mg/kg of body weight) significantly suppressed LPS (100-micrograms)-induced TNF activity of sera (2 h postchallenge with LPS) from thioglycolate-treated mice. The present findings suggest that the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor plays an important role in modulating LPS-induced TNF activity in mouse macrophages. PMID:8031051

  3. A butyrolactone derivative suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced autophagic injury through inhibiting the autoregulatory loop of p8 and p53 in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ning; Zhao, Jing; Su, Le; Zhao, Baoxiang; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Shangli; Miao, Junying

    2012-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced vascular endothelial cell (VEC) dysfunction is an important contributing factor in vascular diseases. Recently, we found that LPS impaired VEC by inducing autophagy. Our previous researches showed that a butyrolactone derivative, 3-benzyl-5-((2-nitrophenoxy) methyl)-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (3BDO) selectively protected VEC function. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether and how 3BDO inhibits LPS-induced VEC autophagic injury. Our results showed that LPS induced autophagy and led to increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in Human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Furthermore, LPS significantly increased p8 and p53 protein levels and the nuclear translocation of p53. All of these effects of LPS on HUVECs were strongly inhibited by 3BDO. Importantly, the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could inhibited LPS-induced autophagy and knockdown of p8 by RNA interference inhibited the autophagy, p53 protein level increase, the translocation of p53 into nuclei and the ROS level increase induced by LPS in HUVECs. The data suggested that 3BDO inhibited LPS-induced autophagy in HUVECs through inhibiting the ROS overproduction, the increase of p8 and p53 expression and the nuclear translocation of p53. Our findings provide a potential tool for understanding the mechanism underlying LPS-induced autophagy in HUVECs and open the door to a novel therapeutic drug for LPS-induced vascular diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genistein suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in macrophages and attenuates alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Bae, Seung Han; Ha, Min Hee; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2016-02-01

    Genistein is a major isoflavone subclass of flavonoids found in soybean and a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The present study aimed to assess the effect of genistein on the production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen associated with different forms of periodontal disease, and to evaluate its possible influence on alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis as well. LPS was isolated from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 by using the standard hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were analyzed for nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein expression was evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Real-time PCR was carried out to measure iNOS and IL-6 mRNA expression. In addition, effect of genistein on alveolar bone loss was evaluated in a rat model of experimental periodontitis using micro-CT analysis. Genistein significantly attenuated P. intermedia LPS-induced production of iNOS-derived NO and IL-6 with attendant decrease in their mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, when genistein was administered to rats, decreases in alveolar bone height and bone volume fraction induced by ligature placement were significantly inhibited. Genistein administration also prevented ligature-induced alterations in the microstructural parameters of trabecular bone, including trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, bone mineral density and structure model index. While additional studies are required, we suggest that genistein could be utilized for the therapy of human periodontitis in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Astragalin suppresses inflammatory responses via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengyang; Liang, Dejie; Yang, Zhengtao; Wang, Tiancheng; Wang, Wei; Song, Xiaojing; Guo, Mengyao; Zhou, Ershun; Li, Depeng; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2013-10-01

    Mastitis is a prevalent and economic disease around the world and defined as infection and inflammation of the mammary gland. Astragalin, a bioactive component isolated from persimmon or Rosa agrestis, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. To investigate the potential therapeutic effect of astragalin in mastitis, a murine model of mastitis was induced by administration of LPS in mammary gland. Astragalin was applied 1h before and 12h after LPS treatment. The results showed that astragalin attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Western blotting results showed that astragalin efficiently blunt decreased nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation by inhibiting the degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα and the nuclear translocation of p65. These results suggested that astragalin exerts anti-inflammatory properties in LPS-mediated mastitis, possibly through inhibiting inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway, which mediates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Astragalin may be a potential therapeutic agent against mastitis. © 2013.

  6. Curcumin attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yunhe; Gao, Ruifeng; Cao, Yongguo; Guo, Mengyao; Wei, Zhengkai; Zhou, Ershun; Li, Yimeng; Yao, Minjun; Yang, Zhengtao; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-05-01

    Curcumin, the main constituent of the spice turmeric, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of curcumin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice mastitis has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether curcumin could ameliorate the inflammation response in LPS-induced mice mastitis and to clarify the possible mechanism. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of the mammary gland. Curcumin was applied 1h before and 12h after LPS treatment. The results showed that curcumin attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Western blotting results showed that curcumin inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB p65 and the expression of TLR4. These results indicated that curcumin has protective effect on mice mastitis and the anti-inflammatory mechanism of curcumin on LPS-induced mastitis in mice may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways. Curcumin may be a potential therapeutic agent against mastitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Anthocyanins Downregulate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in BV2 Microglial Cells by Suppressing the NF-κB and Akt/MAPKs Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jin-Woo; Lee, Won Sup; Shin, Sung Chul; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Byung Tae; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are naturally occurring polyphenols that impart bright color to fruits, vegetables and plants and have a variety of protective properties, which have generally been attributed to their antioxidant capacity. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins related to neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we determined whether anthocyanins isolated from black soybean seed coats would inhibit pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV2 microglial cells. Our results showed that anthocyanins significantly inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, without significant cytotoxicity. Anthocyanins also downregulated excessive expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Moreover, anthocyanins inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) by reducing inhibitor of NF-κB alpha degradation as well as phosphorylating extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt. These findings suggest that anthocyanins may offer substantial therapeutic potential for treating inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by microglial activation. PMID:23344054

  8. Ulinastatin suppresses lipopolysaccharide induced neuro-inflammation through the downregulation of nuclear factor-κB in SD rat hippocampal astrocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuting; Zhao, Lei; Fu, Huiqun

    Astrocyte activation plays a pivotal role in neuroinflammation, which contributes to neuronal damage, so the inhibition of astrocyte activation may alleviate the progression of neurodegeneration. Recent studies have proved that urinary trypsin inhibitor ulinastatin could inhibit NF-kB activation. In our study, the inhibitory effects of ulinastatin on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-reduced primary astrocyte. Our results showed that ulinastatin significantly inhibited LPS-induced astrogliosis, which is measured by MTT and BrdU. Ulinastatin decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, it significantly decreased both the mRNA and the protein levels of these pro-inflammatorymore » cytokines and also increased the protein levels of IκB-α binded to NF-κB, which blocked NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and prevented its activity. Our results suggest that ulinastatin is able to inhibit neuroinflammation by interfering with NF-κB signaling. The study provides direct evidence of potential therapy methods of ulinastatin for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • The anti-inflammatory effect of UTI on hippocampal astrocyte. • UTI showed protective effect on neuroinflammation by the downregulation of NF-κB. • UTI led to expression of cytokines decreased in concentration and time dependence.« less

  9. Suppression of the lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of MARCKS-related protein (MRP) affects transmigration in activated RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kwang-Rok; Bae, Eun Mi; Kim, Jae-Kwan; Suk, Kyoungho; Lee, Won-Ha

    2009-01-01

    The molecular action mechanism of MRP, one of the protein kinase C (PKC) substrates, has been under intense investigation, but reports on its role in macrophage function remain controversial. The treatment of macrophage cell lines with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a high level of MRP expression suggesting that MRP plays a role in the function of activated macrophages. In order to investigate the role of MRP in activated RAW264.7 cells, we stably transfected MRP-specific shRNA expression constructs and tested for alterations in macrophage-related functions. The down-regulation of MRP expression resulted in a marked reduction in chemotaxis toward MCP-1 or extracellular matrix proteins. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibitors of PKC significantly inhibited the chemotaxis in RAW264.7 cells. These data reveals the pivotal role of MRP in the transmigration of activated RAW264.7 cells.

  10. Arctigenin Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pulmonary Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in a Mouse Model via Suppression of MAPK, HO-1, and iNOS Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-zhou; Jiang, Zheng-kui; He, Bao-xia; Liu, Xian-ben

    2015-08-01

    Arctigenin, a bioactive component of Arctium lappa (Nubang), has anti-inflammatory activity. Here, we investigated the effects of arctigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Mice were divided into four groups: control, LPS, LPS + DMSO, and LPS + Arctigenin. Mice in the LPS + Arctigenin group were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of arctigenin 1 h before an intratracheal administration of LPS (5 mg/kg). Lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) were collected. Histological changes of the lung were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Arctigenin decreased LPS-induced acute lung inflammation, infiltration of inflammatory cells into BALF, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, arctigenin pretreatment reduced the malondialdehyde level and increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and glutathione peroxidase/glutathione disulfide ratio in the lung. Mechanically, arctigenin significantly reduced the production of nitric oxygen and inducible nitric oxygen synthase (iNOS) expression, enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, and decreased the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Arctigenin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects on LPS-induced acute lung injury, which are associated with modulation of MAPK, HO-1, and iNOS signaling.

  11. 5-Methoxyl Aesculetin Abrogates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Suppressing MAPK and AP-1 Pathways in RAW 264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; Li, Xueqin; Wu, Haifeng; Long, Wei; Jiang, Xiaojian; Shen, Ting; Qiang, Qian; Si, Chuanling; Wang, Xinfeng; Jiang, Yunyao; Hu, Weicheng

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, a pale amorphous coumarin derivative, 5-methoxyl aesculetin (MOA), was isolated from the dried bark of Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance (Oleaceae). MOA modulates cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, but the precise mechanisms are still not fully understood. We determined the effects of MOA on the production of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the LPS-induced inflammatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages. MOA significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. It also effectively attenuated inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and TNF-α mRNA expression and significantly decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. It inhibited phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), thus blocking nuclear translocation of activation protein (AP)-1. In a molecular docking study, MOA was shown to target the binding site of ERK via the formation of three hydrogen bonds with two residues of the kinase, which is sufficient for the inhibition of ERK. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of MOA in RAW 264.7 macrophages derive from its ability to block both the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and one of their downstream transcription factors, activator protein-1 (AP-1). Our observations support the need for further research into MOA as a promising therapeutic agent in inflammatory diseases. PMID:26938526

  12. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by xanthanolides isolated from Xanthium strumarium.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Hwa Jin; Kim, Hee-Doo; Jeon, Raok; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2008-03-15

    Three sesquiterpenoids, xanthatin (1), xanthinosin (2), and 4-oxo-bedfordia acid (3) were isolated from Xanthium strumarium as inhibitors of nitric oxide synthesis in activated microglia (IC(50) values: 0.47, 11.2, 136.5 microM, respectively). Compounds 1 and 2 suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 and the activity of NF-kappaB through the inhibition of LPS-induced I-kappaB-alpha degradation in microglia.

  13. Klotho preservation by Rhein promotes toll-like receptor 4 proteolysis and attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Bi, Fangfang; Chen, Fang; Li, Yanning; Wei, Ai; Cao, Wangsen

    2018-05-05

    Renal anti-aging protein Klotho exhibits impressive properties of anti-inflammation and renal protection, however is suppressed early after renal injury, making Klotho restoration an attractive strategy of treating renal inflammatory disorders. Here, we reported that Klotho is enriched in macrophages and Klotho preservation by Rhein, an anthraquinone derived from medicinal plant rhubarb, attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute inflammation essentially via promoting toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) degradation. LPS-induced pro-inflammatory NF-κB signaling and cytokine expressions coincided with Klotho repression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) elevation in macrophages, renal epithelial cells, and acutely- inflamed kidney. Intriguingly, Rhein treatment effectively corrected the inverted alterations of Klotho and TLR4 and mitigated the TLR4 downstream inflammatory response in a Klotho restoration and TLR4 repression-dependent manner. Klotho inducibly associated with TLR4 after LPS stimulation and suppressed TLR4 protein abundance mainly via a proteolytic process sensitive to the inhibition of Klotho's putative β-glucuronidase activity. Consistently, Klotho knockdown by RNA interferences largely diminished the anti-inflammatory and renal protective effects of Rhein in a mouse model of acute kidney injury incurred by LPS. Thus, Klotho suppression of TLR4 via deglycosylation negatively controls TLR-associated inflammatory signaling and the endogenous Klotho preservation by Rhein or possibly other natural or synthetic compounds possesses promising potentials in the clinical treatment of renal inflammatory disorders. • Klotho is highly expressed in macrophages and repressed by LPS in vitro and in vivo. • Klotho inhibits LPS-induced TLR4 accumulation and the downstream signaling. • Klotho decreases TLR4 via a deglycosylation-associated proteolytic process. • Rhein effectively prevents acute inflammation-incurred Klotho suppression. • Rhein reversal of

  14. Withania somnifera as a Potential Anxiolytic and Anti-inflammatory Candidate Against Systemic Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Muskan; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2018-05-30

    Reactive gliosis, microgliosis, and subsequent secretion of various inflammatory mediators like cytokines, proteases, reactive oxygen, and nitrogen species are the suggested key players associated with systemic inflammation-driven neuroinflammation and cognitive impairments in various neurological disorders. Conventionally, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed to suppress inflammation but due to their adverse effects, their usage is not well accepted. Natural products are emerging better therapeutic agents due to their affordability and inherent pleiotropic biological activities. In Ayurveda, Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is well known for its immunomodulatory properties. The current study is an extension of our previous report on in vitro model system and was aimed to investigate anti-neuroinflammatory potential of water extract from the Ashwagandha leaves (ASH-WEX) against systemic LPS-induced neuroinflammation and associated behavioral impairments using in vivo rat model system. Oral feeding of ASH-WEX for 8 weeks significantly ameliorated the anxiety-like behavior as evident from Elevated plus maze test. Suppression of reactive gliosis, inflammatory cytokines production like TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and expression of nitro-oxidative stress enzymes like iNOS, COX2, NOX2 etc were observed in ASH-WEX-treated animals. NFκB, P38, and JNK MAPKs pathways analysis showed their involvement in inflammation suppression which was further confirmed by inhibitor studies. The current study provides first ever preclinical evidence and scientific validation that ASH-WEX exhibits the anti-neuroinflammatory potential against systemic LPS-induced neuroinflammation and ameliorates associated behavioral abnormalities. Aqueous extract from Ashwagandha leaves and its active phytochemicals may prove to be promising candidates to prevent neuroinflammation associated with various neuropathologies.

  15. Identification of oleamide in Guatteria recurvisepala by LC/MS-based Plasmodium falciparum thioredoxin reductase ligand binding method.

    PubMed

    Munigunti, Ranjith; Nelson, Nicholas; Mulabagal, Vanisree; Gupta, Mahabir P; Brun, Reto; Calderón, Angela I

    2011-10-01

    Our current research on applications of mass spectrometry to natural product drug discovery against malaria aims to screen plant extracts for new ligands to Plasmodium falciparum thioredoxin reductase (PfTrxR) followed by their identification and structure elucidation. PfTrxR is involved in the antioxidant defense and redox regulation of the parasite and is validated as a promising target for therapeutic intervention against malaria. In the present study, detannified methanol extracts from Guatteria recurvisepala, Licania kallunkiae, and Topobea watsonii were screened for ligands to PfTrxR using ultrafiltration and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based binding experiments. The PfTrxR ligand identified in the extract of Guatteria recurvisepala displayed a relative binding affinity of 3.5-fold when incubated with 1 μM PfTrxR. The ligand corresponding to the protonated molecule m/z 282.2792 [M+ H]+ was eluted at a retention time of 17.95 min in a 20-min gradient of 95% B consisting of (A) 0.1%formic acid in 95% H₂O-5% ACN, and (B) 0.1% formic acid in 95% ACN-5% H₂O in an LC-QTOF-MS.Tandem MS of the protonated molecule m/z 282.2792 [M + H]+, C₁₈H₃₆NO (DBE: 2; error: 1.13 ppm) resulted in two daughter ions m/z 265.2516[M + H-NH₃]+ (DBE: 3; error: 0.35 ppm) and m/z 247.2405 [M + H-NH₃-H₂O] +, (DBE: 4; error:2.26 ppm). The PfTrxR ligand was identified as oleamide and confirmed by comparison of the retention time, molecular formula, accurate mass,and double bond equivalence with the standard oleamide. This is the first report on the identification of oleamide as a PfTrxR ligand from Guatteria recurvisepala R. E. Fr. and the corresponding in vitro activity against P. falciparum strain K1 (IC₅₀ 4.29 μg/mL). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Indirubin Treatment of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mastitis in a Mouse Model and Activity in Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jin-Lun; Liu, Yu-Hui; Peng, Yong-Chong; Ge, Pan; He, Chen-Fei; Liu, Chang; Chen, Ying-Yu; Guo, Ai-Zhen; Hu, Chang-Min

    2017-01-01

    Indirubin is a Chinese medicine extracted from indigo and known to be effective for treating chronic myelogenous leukemia, neoplasia, and inflammatory disease. This study evaluated the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of indirubin in a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced mouse mastitis model. The indirubin mechanism and targets were evaluated in vitro in mouse mammary epithelial cells. In the mouse model, indirubin significantly attenuated the severity of inflammatory lesions, edema, inflammatory hyperemia, milk stasis and local tissue necrosis, and neutrophil infiltration. Indirubin significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity and downregulated the production of tumor necrosis factor- α , interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β ), and IL-6 caused by LPS. In vitro, indirubin inhibited LPS-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. It also downregulated LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and inhibited phosphorylation of LPS-induced nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF- κ B) P65 protein and inhibitor of kappa B. In addition to its effect on the NF- κ B signaling pathway, indirubin suppressed the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by inhibiting phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), P38, and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Indirubin improved LPS-induced mouse mastitis by suppressing TLR4 and downstream NF- κ B and MAPK pathway inflammatory signals and might be a potential treatment of mastitis and other inflammatory diseases.

  17. PKC412 (CGP41251) modulates the proliferation and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Miyatake, Katsutoshi; Institute for Genome Research, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2007-08-17

    PKC412 (CGP41251) is a multitarget protein kinase inhibitor with anti-tumor activities. Here, we investigated the effects of PKC412 on macrophages. PKC412 inhibited the proliferation of murine RAW 264.7 macrophages through induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. At non-toxic drug concentrations, PKC412 significantly suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of TNF-{alpha} and nitric oxide, while instead enhancing IL-6 secretion. PKC412 attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylations of MKK4 and JNK, as well as AP-1 DNA binding activities. Furthermore, PKC412 suppressed LPS-induced Akt and GSK-3{beta} phosphorylations. These results suggest that the anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory effects of PKC412 are, at least in part, mediated throughmore » its interference with the MKK4/JNK/AP-1 and/or Akt/GSK-3{beta} pathways. Since macrophages contribute significantly to the development of both acute and chronic inflammation, PKC412 may have therapeutic potential and applications in treating inflammatory and/or autoimmune diseases.« less

  18. Chlorogenic Acid Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Kidney Injury by Inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB Signal Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ye, Han-Yang; Jin, Jian; Jin, Ling-Wei; Chen, Yan; Zhou, Zhi-Hong; Li, Zhan-Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a polyphenolic compound, exists widely in medicinal herbs, which has been shown a strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. This study investigated the protective effects and mechanism of CGA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Treatment of CGA successfully ameliorates LPS-induced renal function and pathological damage. Moreover, CGA dose-dependently suppressed LPS-induced blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine levels, and inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in serum and tissue. The relative proteins' expression of TLR4/NF-κB signal pathway was assessed by western blot analysis. Our results showed that CGA dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced kidney histopathologic changes, serum BUN, and creatinine levels. CGA also suppressed LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production both in serum and kidney tissues. Furthermore, our results showed that CGA significantly inhibited the LPS-induced expression of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 and IκB as well as the expression of TLR4 signal. In conclusion, our results provide a mechanistic explanation for the anti-inflammatory effects of CGA in LPS-induced AKI mice through inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

  19. Intervention effect and dose-dependent response of tanreqing injection on airway inflammation in lipopolysaccharide-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shoujin; Zhong, Yunqing; Yang, Kun; Xiong, Xiaoling; Mao, Bing

    2013-08-01

    To assess the effect of Tanreqing injection on airway inflammation in rats. A rat model of airway inflammation was generated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Tanreqing injection was given by intratracheal instillation, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from the right lung was collected. BALF total cell and neutrophil counts were then determined. In addition, BALF levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-13, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoat-tractant-1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The middle lobe of the right lung was stained with hematoxylin-eosin and histological changes examined. LPS increased airway inflammation, decreased BALF inflammatory cell count, inflammatory cytokine levels, and suppressed leukocyte influx of the lung. The LPS-induced airway inflammation peaked at 24 h, decreased beginning at 48 h, and had decreased markedly by 96 h. Tanreqing injection contains anti-inflammatory properties, and inhibits airway inflammation in a dose-dependent manner.

  20. Tanreqing Injection Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Airway Inflammation through MAPK/NF-κB Signaling Pathways in Rats Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Hong-li; Cai, Lin-li; Yan, Min; Dong, Shou-jin; Mao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tanreqing injection (TRQ) is a commonly used herbal patent medicine for treating inflammatory airway diseases in view of its outstanding anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we explored the signaling pathways involved in contributions of TRQ to LPS-induced airway inflammation in rats. Methods/Design. Adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats randomly divided into different groups received intratracheal instillation of LPS and/or intraperitoneal injection of TRQ. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) and lung samples were collected at 24 h, 48 h, and 96 h after TRQ administration. Protein and mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, Interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and IL-8 in BALF and lung homogenate were observed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. Lung sections were stained for p38 MAPK and NF-κB detection by immunohistochemistry. Phospho-p38 MAPK, phosphor-extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2, phospho-SAPK/JNK, phospho-NF-κB p65, phospho-IKKα/β, and phospho-IκB-α were measured by western blot analysis. Results. The results showed that TRQ significantly counteracted LPS-stimulated release of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, attenuated cells influx in BALF, mitigated mucus hypersecretion, suppressed phosphorylation of NF-κB p65, IκB-α, ΙKKα/β, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK, and inhibited p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 expression in rat lungs. Conclusions. Results of the current research indicate that TRQ possesses potent exhibitory effects in LPS-induced airway inflammation by, at least partially, suppressing the MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways, in a general dose-dependent manner. PMID:27366191

  1. Vitamin K3 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, S; Nishiumi, S; Nishida, M; Mizushina, Y; Kobayashi, K; Masuda, A; Fujita, T; Morita, Y; Mizuno, S; Kutsumi, H; Azuma, T; Yoshida, M

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin K is a family of fat-soluble compounds including phylloquinone (vitamin K1), menaquinone (vitamin K2) and menadione (vitamin K3). Recently, it was reported that vitamin K, especially vitamins K1 and K2, exerts a variety of biological effects, and these compounds are expected to be candidates for therapeutic agents against various diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin K3 in in vitro cultured cell experiments and in vivo animal experiments. In human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells, vitamin K3 inhibited the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α-evoked translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB into the nucleus, although vitamins K1 and K2 did not. Vitamin K3 also suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and production of TNF-α in mouse macrophage RAW264·7 cells. Moreover, the addition of vitamin K3 before and after LPS administration attenuated the severity of lung injury in an animal model of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which occurs in the setting of acute severe illness complicated by systemic inflammation. In the ARDS model, vitamin K3 also suppressed the LPS-induced increase in the serum TNF-α level and inhibited the LPS-evoked nuclear translocation of NF-κB in lung tissue. Despite marked efforts, little therapeutic progress has been made, and the mortality rate of ARDS remains high. Vitamin K3 may be an effective therapeutic strategy against acute lung injury including ARDS. PMID:20030669

  2. Vitamin K3 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, S; Nishiumi, S; Nishida, M; Mizushina, Y; Kobayashi, K; Masuda, A; Fujita, T; Morita, Y; Mizuno, S; Kutsumi, H; Azuma, T; Yoshida, M

    2010-05-01

    Vitamin K is a family of fat-soluble compounds including phylloquinone (vitamin K1), menaquinone (vitamin K2) and menadione (vitamin K3). Recently, it was reported that vitamin K, especially vitamins K1 and K2, exerts a variety of biological effects, and these compounds are expected to be candidates for therapeutic agents against various diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin K3 in in vitro cultured cell experiments and in vivo animal experiments. In human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells, vitamin K3 inhibited the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-evoked translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB into the nucleus, although vitamins K1 and K2 did not. Vitamin K3 also suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and production of TNF-alpha in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, the addition of vitamin K3 before and after LPS administration attenuated the severity of lung injury in an animal model of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which occurs in the setting of acute severe illness complicated by systemic inflammation. In the ARDS model, vitamin K3 also suppressed the LPS-induced increase in the serum TNF-alpha level and inhibited the LPS-evoked nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in lung tissue. Despite marked efforts, little therapeutic progress has been made, and the mortality rate of ARDS remains high. Vitamin K3 may be an effective therapeutic strategy against acute lung injury including ARDS.

  3. Inhibition by rebamipide of cytokine-induced or lipopolysaccharide-induced chemokine synthesis in human corneal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ken; Ishida, Waka; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Harada, Yosuke; Fukushima, Atsuki

    2014-12-01

    The dry-eye drug rebamipide has mucin secretagogue activity in and anti-inflammatory effects on corneal epithelial cells. Corneal stromal fibroblasts (transdifferentiated keratocytes) function as immune modulators in the pathogenesis of chronic ocular allergic inflammation and in innate immune responses at the ocular surface. The possible anti-inflammatory effects of rebamipide on human corneal stromal fibroblasts were examined. Serum-deprived cells were incubated for 1 h with rebamipide and then for various times in the additional absence or presence of cytokines or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The release of chemokines into culture supernatants was determined with ELISAs. The intracellular abundance of chemokine mRNAs was quantitated by reverse transcription and real-time PCR analysis. Degradation of the nuclear factor κB (NFκB) inhibitor IκBα was detected by immunoblot analysis. Rebamipide suppressed the release of interleukin (IL)-8 and the upregulation of IL-8 mRNA induced by tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) or LPS in corneal fibroblasts. It also inhibited eotaxin-1 (CCL-11) expression at the protein and mRNA levels induced by the combination of TNF-α and IL-4. In addition, rebamipide attenuated the degradation of IκBα induced by TNF-α or LPS. Rebamipide inhibited the synthesis of chemokines by corneal fibroblasts in association with suppression of NFκB signalling. Rebamipide may therefore prove effective for the treatment of corneal stromal inflammation associated with allergy or bacterial infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Supplementation of lycopene attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced amyloidogenesis and cognitive impairments via mediating neuroinflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Li, Lixia; Wang, Zhuo; Cui, Yifan; Tan, Xintong; Yuan, Tian; Liu, Qian; Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Xuebo

    2018-06-01

    Neuroinflammation is documented to be the major culprit of Alzheimer's disease. Lycopene (LYC), a fat soluble carotenoid, exhibits neuroprotective function in several neurodegenerative disorders. However, the effects of LYC to countering systemic inflammation-induced amyloidogenesis and memory deficiency remain to be elucidated. In current study, 3-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were treated with 0.03% LYC (w/w, mixed into normal chow) for 5 weeks. The mice were then treated by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (0.25mg/kg) for 9 days. It was found that LYC inhibited LPS-induced memory loss by behavior tests including Y-maze test and Morris water test. Meanwhile, LYC prevented LPS-induced accumulation of Aβ, levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP), and suppressed neuronal β-secretase BACE1 and elevated the expressions of α-secretase ADAM10. Furthermore, LYC down-regulated the expression of IBA-1 (a marker of microglia activation), reduced the levels of inflammatory mediators and inhibited oxidative stress in LPS-treated mice. Moreover, LYC suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPKs, NFκB, and activated Nrf2 signaling pathways in LPS-treated BV2 microglial cells. Therefore, our study indicated that LYC could ameliorate LPS-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, amyloidogenesis and cognitive impairments possibly through mediating MAPKs, NFκB and Nrf2 signaling pathways, indicating that LYC might be a nutritional preventive strategy in neuroinflammation-related diseases such as AD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethyl acetate extracts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) sprouts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yong-Han; Chao, Wen-Wan; Chen, Miaw-Ling; Lin, Bi-Fong

    2009-07-14

    This study aimed to investigate if food components that exert anti-inflammatory effects may be used for inflammatory disorders by examining alfalfa sprout ethyl acetate extract (ASEA). The cytokine profile and life span of BALB/c mice with acute inflammation after intra-peritoneal (ip) injection of 15 mg/kg BW lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were determined. The results showed that the life span of LPS-induced inflammatory mice were negatively correlated with serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta at 9 hr after LPS-injection, which indicated that suppressing these cytokines in the late phase of inflammation may be beneficial for survival. The in vitro experiment then showed that ASEA significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-1beta production and the NF-kappaB trans-activation activity of mitogen-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. To further evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of ASEA in vivo, BALB/c mice were tube-fed with 25 mg ASEA/kg BW/day in 50 microl sunflower oil, while the control and PDTC (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an anti-inflammatory agent) groups were tube-fed with 50 microl sunflower oil/day only. After one week of tube-feeding, the PDTC group was injected with 50 mg/kg BW PDTC and one hour later, all of the mice were injected with 15 mg/kg BW LPS. The results showed that the ASEA and PDTC groups had significantly lower serum TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta levels at 9 hr after LPS challenge, and significantly higher survival rates than the control group. This study suggests that ASEA supplementation can suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alleviate acute inflammatory hazards.

  6. Ethyl acetate extracts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) sprouts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yong-Han; Chao, Wen-Wan; Chen, Miaw-Ling; Lin, Bi-Fong

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate if food components that exert anti-inflammatory effects may be used for inflammatory disorders by examining alfalfa sprout ethyl acetate extract (ASEA). The cytokine profile and life span of BALB/c mice with acute inflammation after intra-peritoneal (ip) injection of 15 mg/kg BW lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were determined. The results showed that the life span of LPS-induced inflammatory mice were negatively correlated with serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β at 9 hr after LPS-injection, which indicated that suppressing these cytokines in the late phase of inflammation may be beneficial for survival. The in vitro experiment then showed that ASEA significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-1β production and the NF-κB trans-activation activity of mitogen-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. To further evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of ASEA in vivo, BALB/c mice were tube-fed with 25 mg ASEA/kg BW/day in 50 μl sunflower oil, while the control and PDTC (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an anti-inflammatory agent) groups were tube-fed with 50 μl sunflower oil/day only. After one week of tube-feeding, the PDTC group was injected with 50 mg/kg BW PDTC and one hour later, all of the mice were injected with 15 mg/kg BW LPS. The results showed that the ASEA and PDTC groups had significantly lower serum TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β levels at 9 hr after LPS challenge, and significantly higher survival rates than the control group. This study suggests that ASEA supplementation can suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alleviate acute inflammatory hazards. PMID:19594948

  7. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediate the lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory response in human gingival fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xue; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Zheng, Ming, E-mail: zhengm@bjmu.edu.cn

    Although periodontal diseases are initiated by bacteria that colonize the tooth surface and gingival sulcus, the host response is believed to play an essential role in the breakdown of connective tissue and bone. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) have been proposed to regulate the activation of the inflammatory response by the innate immune system. However, the role of mtROS in modulating the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) to immune stimulation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we showed that LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis stimulated HGFs to increase mtROS production, which could be inhibited by treatmentmore » with a mitochondrial-targeted exogenous antioxidant (mito-TEMPO) or transfection with manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). A time-course study revealed that an increase in the concentration of mtROS preceded the expression of inflammatory cytokines in HGFs. Mito-TEMPO treatment or MnSOD transfection also significantly prevented the LPS-induced increase of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, suppressing LPS-induced mtROS generation inhibited the activation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB kinase, as well as the nuclear localization of nuclear factor-κB. These results demonstrate that mtROS generation is a key signaling event in the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response of HGFs. - Highlights: • Inflammation is thought to promote pathogenic changes in periodontitis. • We investigated mtROS as a regulator of inflammation in gingival fibroblasts. • Targeted antioxidants were used to inhibit mtROS production after LPS challenge. • Inhibiting mtROS generation suppressed the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • JNK, p38, IKK, and NF-κB were shown to act as transducers of mtROS signaling.« less

  8. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced muscle catabolism via coordinate activation of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Alexander; Zhang, Guohua; Abdel Fattah, Elmoataz A.; Eissa, N. Tony; Li, Yi-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Cachectic muscle wasting is a frequent complication of many inflammatory conditions, due primarily to excessive muscle catabolism. However, the pathogenesis and intervention strategies against it remain to be established. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a master regulator of inflammatory muscle catabolism. We demonstrate that TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces C2C12 myotube atrophy via up-regulating autophagosome formation and the expression of ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF1. TLR4-mediated activation of p38 MAPK is necessary and sufficient for the up-regulation of atrogin1/MAFbx and autophagosomes, resulting in myotube atrophy. Similarly, LPS up-regulates muscle autophagosome formation and ubiquitin ligase expression in mice. Importantly, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine completely abolishes LPS-induced muscle proteolysis, while proteasome inhibitor lactacystin partially blocks it. Furthermore, TLR4 knockout or p38 MAPK inhibition abolishes LPS-induced muscle proteolysis. Thus, TLR4 mediates LPS-induced muscle catabolism via coordinate activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagy-lysosomal pathways.—Doyle, A., Zhang, G., Abdel Fattah, E. A., Eissa, N. T., Li, Y.-P. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced muscle catabolism via coordinate activation of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways. PMID:20826541

  9. Human thioredoxin-1 attenuates the rate of lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm delivery in mice in association with its anti-inflammatory effect.

    PubMed

    Namba, Fumihiko; Kobayashi-Miura, Mikiko; Goda, Taro; Nakura, Yukiko; Nishiumi, Fumiko; Son, Aoi; Kubota, Akio; Yodoi, Junji; Yanagihara, Itaru

    2016-09-01

    Maternal intrauterine infection/inflammation represents the major etiology of preterm delivery and the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of thioredoxin-1 in vivo and its potential ability to attenuate the rate of inflammation-induced preterm delivery. Two intraperitoneal injections of lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli were administered in pregnant mice on gestational day 15, with a 3-h interval between the injections. From either 1 h before or 1 h after the first lipopolysaccharide injection, mice received three intravenous injections of either recombinant human thioredoxin-1, ovalbumin, or vehicle, with a 3-h interval between injections. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide induced a rise of tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and interleukin-6 in maternal serum levels and provoked preterm delivery. Recombinant human thoredoxin-1 prevented the rise in these proinflammatory cytokine levels. After the inflammatory challenge, placentas exhibited severe maternal vascular dilatation and congestion and a marked decidual neutrophil activation. These placental pathological findings were ameliorated by recombinant human thioredoxin-1, and the rate of inflammation-induced preterm delivery was attenuated. Thioredoxin-1 may thus represent a novel effective treatment to delay inflammation-induced preterm delivery.

  10. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the inner ear and middle ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Hisashi; Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Zhao, Pengfei; Maeda, Yukihide; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Significant expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its receptor (CD74) was observed in both the middle ear and inner ear in experimental otitis media in mice. Modulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its signaling pathway might be useful in the management of inner ear inflammation due to otitis media. Inner ear dysfunction secondary to otitis media has been reported. However, the specific mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the middle ear and inner ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media. BALB/c mice received a transtympanic injection of either lipopolysaccharide or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The mice were sacrificed 24 h after injection, and temporal bones were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, histologic examination, and immunohistochemistry. PCR examination revealed that the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice showed a significant up-regulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in both the middle ear and inner ear as compared with the PBS-injected control mice. The immunohistochemical study showed positive reactions for macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in infiltrating inflammatory cells, middle ear mucosa, and inner ear in the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice.

  11. Forsythia suspensa extract attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory liver injury in rats via promoting antioxidant defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Panfeng; Piao, Xiangshu; Pan, Long; Zeng, Zhikai; Li, Qingyun; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Hongliang

    2017-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to have a role in inflammation. We investigated whether Forsythia suspensa extract (FSE) could exert its antioxidant potential against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory liver injury in rats. Rats were orally fed FSE once daily for 7 consecutive days prior to LPS (Escherichia coli, serotype O55:B5) injection. LPS treatment caused liver dysfunction as evidenced by massive histopathological changes and increased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities which were ameliorated by FSE pretreatment. FSE attenuated LPS-induced depletion of cytosolic nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and suppression of Nrf2 nuclear translocation in liver, and the generation of ROS and malondialdehyde in serum and liver. FSE increased the Nrf2-mediated induction of heme oxygenase-1 in liver, as well as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in serum and liver. Importantly, FSE attenuated LPS-induced nuclear factor-кB (NF-кB) nuclear translocation in liver, and subsequently decreased tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in serum and liver, which were associated with FSE-induced activation of Nrf2 in liver. These results indicate that the protective mechanisms of FSE may be involved in the attenuation of oxidative stress and the inhibition of the NF-кB-mediated inflammatory response by modulating the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response against LPS-induced inflammatory liver injury. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Fisetin Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury via TLR4-Mediated NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guang; Jiang, Ze-Yu; Sun, Bo; Fu, Jie; Li, Tian-Zuo

    2016-02-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI), a common component of systemic inflammatory disease, is a life-threatening condition without many effective treatments. Fisetin, a natural flavonoid from fruits and vegetables, was reported to have wide pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. The aim of this study was to detect the effects of fisetin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury and investigate the potential mechanism. Fisetin was injected (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.v.) 30 min before LPS administration (5 mg/kg, i.v.). Our results showed that fisetin effectively reduced the inflammatory cytokine release and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF), decreased the lung wet/dry ratios, and obviously improved the pulmonary histology in LPS-induced ALI. Furthermore, fisetin inhibited LPS-induced increases of neutrophils and macrophage infiltration and attenuated MPO activity in lung tissues. Additionally, fisetin could significantly inhibit the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and the activation of NF-κB in lung tissues. Our data indicates that fisetin has a protective effect against LPS-induced ALI via suppression of TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways, and fisetin may be a promising candidate for LPS-induced ALI treatment.

  13. Protective effects of agmatine against D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure in mice.

    PubMed

    El-Agamy, Dina S; Makled, Mirhan N; Gamil, Nareman M

    2014-06-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a life-threatening syndrome characterized by massive hepatic necrosis and high mortality. There is no effective therapy for the disease other than liver transplantation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of agmatine, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, on D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS)-induced FHF in mice and explore its possible mechanism(s). Male Swiss albino mice were injected with a single dose agmatine (14 mg/kg, IP) 8 h prior to challenge with a single intraperitoneal injection of both GalN (800 mg/kg) and LPS (50 μg/kg). Agmatine significantly attenuated all GalN/LPS-induced biochemical and pathological changes in liver. It prevented the increase of serum transaminases and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In addition, agmatine markedly attenuated GalN/LPS-induced necrosis and inflammation. Agmatine significantly reduced oxidative stress and enhanced antioxidant enzymes. Importantly, agmatine decreased total nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). These findings reveal that agmatine has hepatoprotective effects against GalN/LPS-induced FHF in mice that may be related to its ability to suppress oxidative stress, NO synthesis and TNF-α production. Therefore, agmatine may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for hepatic inflammatory diseases.

  14. Evaluation of an Aqueous Extract from Horseradish Root (Armoracia rusticana Radix) against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cellular Inflammation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Herz, Corinna; Tran, Hoai Thi Thu; Márton, Melinda-Rita; Maul, Ronald; Baldermann, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Lamy, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Horseradish ( Armoracia rusticana ) is a perennial crop and its root is used in condiments. Traditionally, horseradish root is used to treat bacterial infections of the respiratory tract and urinary bladder. The antiphlogistic activity, determined in activated primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), was evaluated for an aqueous extract and its subfractions, separated by HPLC. Compound analysis was done by UHPLC-QToF/MS and GC-MS. The aqueous extract concentration-dependently inhibited the anti-inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in terms of TNF- α release at ≥37  μ g/mL. Further, the cyclooxygenase as well as lipoxygenase pathway was blocked by the extract as demonstrated by inhibition of COX-2 protein expression and PGE 2 synthesis at ≥4  μ g/mL and leukotriene LTB4 release. Mechanistic studies revealed that inhibition of ERK1/2 and c-Jun activation preceded COX-2 suppression upon plant extract treatment in the presence of LPS. Chemical analysis identified target compounds with a medium polarity as relevant for the observed bioactivity. Importantly, allyl isothiocyanate, which is quite well known for its anti-inflammatory capacity and as the principal pungent constituent in horseradish roots, was not relevant for the observations. The results suggest that horseradish root exerts an antiphlogistic activity in human immune cells by regulation of the COX and LOX pathway via MAPK signalling.

  15. Evaluation of an Aqueous Extract from Horseradish Root (Armoracia rusticana Radix) against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cellular Inflammation Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Herz, Corinna; Tran, Hoai Thi Thu; Márton, Melinda-Rita; Maul, Ronald; Schreiner, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial crop and its root is used in condiments. Traditionally, horseradish root is used to treat bacterial infections of the respiratory tract and urinary bladder. The antiphlogistic activity, determined in activated primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), was evaluated for an aqueous extract and its subfractions, separated by HPLC. Compound analysis was done by UHPLC-QToF/MS and GC-MS. The aqueous extract concentration-dependently inhibited the anti-inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in terms of TNF-α release at ≥37 μg/mL. Further, the cyclooxygenase as well as lipoxygenase pathway was blocked by the extract as demonstrated by inhibition of COX-2 protein expression and PGE2 synthesis at ≥4 μg/mL and leukotriene LTB4 release. Mechanistic studies revealed that inhibition of ERK1/2 and c-Jun activation preceded COX-2 suppression upon plant extract treatment in the presence of LPS. Chemical analysis identified target compounds with a medium polarity as relevant for the observed bioactivity. Importantly, allyl isothiocyanate, which is quite well known for its anti-inflammatory capacity and as the principal pungent constituent in horseradish roots, was not relevant for the observations. The results suggest that horseradish root exerts an antiphlogistic activity in human immune cells by regulation of the COX and LOX pathway via MAPK signalling. PMID:28182113

  16. Sarcandra glabra combined with lycopene protect rats from lipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injury via reducing inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian-Yin; Chen, Shi-Biao

    2016-12-01

    Sarcandra glabra (Chinese name, Zhongjiefeng) is an important herb widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Lycopene has been shown to be a powerful antioxidant. This study aims to test the hypothesis that Sarcandra glabra combined with lycopene protect rats from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury (ALI). Metabolomics approach combined with pathological inspection, serum biochemistry examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting were used to explore the protective effects of Sarcandra glabra and lycopene on LPS-induced ALI, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that Sarcandra glabra and lycopene could significantly ameliorate LPS-induced histopathological injuries, improve the anti-oxidative activities of rats, decrease the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, suppress the activations of MAPK and transcription factor NF-κB and reverse the disturbed metabolism towards the normal status. Taken together, this integrated study revealed that Sarcandra glabra combined with lycopene had great potential in protecting rats from LPS-induced ALI, which would be helpful to guide the clinical medication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Saline Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Alveolar Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Yun-Qian; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Mao, Yan-Fei; Sun, Xue-Jun; Liu, Yu-Jian; Jiang, Lai

    2017-05-19

    BACKGROUND Fibrotic change is one of the important reasons for the poor prognosis of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The present study investigated the effects of hydrogen-rich saline, a selective hydroxyl radical scavenger, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Male ICR mice were divided randomly into 5 groups: Control, LPS-treated plus vehicle treatment, and LPS-treated plus hydrogen-rich saline (2.5, 5, or 10 ml/kg) treatment. Twenty-eight days later, fibrosis was assessed by determination of collagen deposition, hydroxyproline, and type I collagen levels. Development of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was identified by examining protein expressions of E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 content, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were determined. RESULTS Mice exhibited increases in collagen deposition, hydroxyproline, type I collagen contents, and TGF-β1 production in lung tissues after LPS treatment. LPS-induced lung fibrosis was associated with increased expression of α-SMA, as well as decreased expression of E-cadherin. In addition, LPS treatment increased MDA levels but decreased T-AOC, CAT, and SOD activities in lung tissues, indicating that LPS induced pulmonary oxidative stress. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment at doses of 2.5, 5, or 10 ml/kg significantly attenuated LPS-induced pulmonary fibrosis. LPS-induced loss of E-cadherin in lung tissues was largely reversed, whereas the acquisition of α-SMA was dramatically decreased by hydrogen-rich saline treatment. In addition, hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly attenuated LPS-induced oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS Hydrogen-rich saline may protect against LPS-induced EMT and pulmonary fibrosis through suppressing oxidative stress.

  18. Inhibitory effects of dynorphin 3-14 on the lipopolysaccharide-induced toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Rahiman, Siti Sarah Fazalul; Morgan, Michael; Gray, Paul; Shaw, Paul Nicholas; Cabot, Peter John

    2017-04-01

    Dynorphin 1-17 (DYN 1-17) is biotransformed rapidly to a range of fragments in rodent inflamed tissue with dynorphin 3-14 (DYN 3-14) being the most stable and prevalent. DYN 1-17 has been shown previously to be involved in the regulation of inflammatory response following tissue injury, in which the biotransformation fragments of DYN 1-17 may possess similar features. This study investigated the effects of DYN 3-14 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear factor-kappaB/p65 (NF-κB/p65) nuclear translocation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in differentiated THP-1 cells. Treatment with DYN 3-14 (10nM) resulted in 35% inhibition of the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65. Furthermore, DYN 3-14 modulated both IL-1β and TNF-α release; inhibiting IL-1β and paradoxically augmenting TNF-α release in a concentration-independent manner. A number of opioids have been implicated in the modulation of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), highlighting the complexity of their immunomodulatory effects. To determine whether DYN 3-14 modulates TLR4, HEK-Blue™ - hTLR4 cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence of DYN 3-14. DYN 3-14 (10μM) inhibited TLR4 activation in a concentration-dependent fashion by suppressing the LPS signals around 300-fold lower than LPS-RS, a potent TLR4 antagonist. These findings indicate that DYN 3-14 is a potential TLR4 antagonist that alters cellular signaling in response to LPS and cytokine release, implicating a role for biotransformed endogenous opioid peptides in immunomodulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Interleukin-1 Receptor Activation by Systemic Lipopolysaccharide Induces Behavioral Despair Linked to MAPK Regulation of CNS Serotonin Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chong-Bin; Lindler, Kathryn M; Owens, Anthony W; Daws, Lynette C; Blakely, Randy D; Hewlett, William A

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has long been implicated in regulation of mood. Medications that block the neuronal 5-HT transporter (SERT) are used as major pharmacological treatment for mood disorders. Conversely, stimuli that enhance SERT activity might be predicted to diminish synaptic 5-HT availability and increase the risk for 5-HT-related CNS disorders. We have shown that the inflammatory cytokines enhance brain SERT activity in cultured serotonergic cells and nerve terminal preparations in vitro. In this study, we establish that intraperitoneal injection of the cytokine-inducer lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates brain SERT activity, acting at doses below those required to induce overt motor suppression. SERT stimulation by LPS is paralleled by increased immobility in both the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swim test (FST); antidepressant-sensitive alterations are thought to model aspects of behavioral despair. Both the stimulation of SERT activity and induced immobility are absent when LPS is administered to interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-deficient mice and in the presence of SB203580, an inhibitor of IL-1R-stimulated p38 MAPK. Moreover, the ability of LPS to enhance immobility in TST is lost in SERT knockout mice. These findings reveal an ability of peripheral inflammatory stimuli to enhance brain SERT activity through IL-1R and p38 MAPK pathways in vivo and identify a requirement for SERT expression in immune-system-modulated despair behaviors. Our studies identify IL-1R- and p38 MAPK-dependent regulation of SERT as one of the mechanisms by which environmentally driven immune system activation can trigger despair-like behavior in an animal model, encouraging future analysis of the pathway for risk factors in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:20827273

  20. Effects of betaine on lipopolysaccharide-induced memory impairment in mice and the involvement of GABA transporter 2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Betaine (glycine betaine or trimethylglycine) plays important roles as an osmolyte and a methyl donor in animals. While betaine is reported to suppress expression of proinflammatory molecules and reduce oxidative stress in aged rat kidney, the effects of betaine on the central nervous system are not well known. In this study, we investigated the effects of betaine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory impairment and on mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory molecules, glial markers, and GABA transporter 2 (GAT2), a betaine/GABA transporter. Methods Mice were continuously treated with betaine for 13 days starting 1 day before they were injected with LPS, or received subacute or acute administration of betaine shortly before or after LPS injection. Then, their memory function was evaluated using Y-maze and novel object recognition tests 7 and 10-12 days after LPS injection (30 μg/mouse, i.c.v.), respectively. In addition, mRNA expression levels in hippocampus were measured by real-time RT-PCR at different time points. Results Repeated administration of betaine (0.163 mmol/kg, s.c.) prevented LPS-induced memory impairment. GAT2 mRNA levels were significantly increased in hippocampus 24 hr after LPS injection, and administration of betaine blocked this increase. However, betaine did not affect LPS-induced increases in levels of mRNA related to inflammatory responses. Both subacute administration (1 hr before, and 1 and 24 hr after LPS injection) and acute administration (1 hr after LPS injection) of betaine also prevented LPS-induced memory impairment in the Y-maze test. Conclusions These data suggest that betaine has protective effects against LPS-induced memory impairment and that prevention of LPS-induced changes in GAT2 mRNA expression is crucial to this ameliorating effect. PMID:22053950

  1. Hydroalcoholic extract of Stevia rebaudiana bert. leaves and stevioside ameliorates lipopolysaccharide induced acute liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    S, Latha; Chaudhary, Sheetal; R S, Ray

    2017-11-01

    Oxidative stress and hepatic inflammatory response is primarily implicated in the pathogenesis of LPS induced acute liver injury. Stevioside, a diterpenoidal glycoside isolated from the Stevia rebaudiana leaves, exerts potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Stevia rebaudiana leaves (STE EXT) and its major phytochemical constituent, stevioside (STE) in LPS induced acute liver injury. The hepatoprotective activity of STE EXT (500mg/kg p.o) and STE (250mg/kg p.o) was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS 5mg/kg i.p.) induced acute liver injury in male wistar rats. Our results revealed that both STE EXT and STE treatment ameliorated LPS induced hepatic oxidative stress, evident from altered levels of reduced SOD, Catalase, GSH, MDA, NO. Histopathological observations revealed that both STE EXT and STE attenuated LPS induced structural changes and hepatocellular apoptosis providing additional evidence for its hepatoprotective effect. Further, STE EXT and STE significantly restored the elevated serum and tissue levels of AST and ALT in LPS treated rats. Furthermore, both STE EXT and STE rescued hepatocellular dysfunctions to normal by altering the level of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 exhibiting its anti-inflammatory potential. In conclusion, both STE EXT and STE demonstrated excellent hepatoprotective effects against endotoxemia induced acute liver injury possibly through suppression of hepatic inflammatory response and oxidative stress, attributing to its medicinal importance in treating various liver ailments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Calcitonin protects chondrocytes from lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis and inflammatory response through MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lai-Bo; Man, Zhen-Tao; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xian-Quan; Sun, Shui

    2017-07-01

    Calcitonin (CT) is an anti-absorbent, which has long been used for treatment of osteoporosis. However, little information is available about the effects of CT on osteoarthritis (OA). This study was mainly aimed to explore the effects of CT on the treatment of OA, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Chondrocytes were isolated from immature mice and then were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CT, small interfering (si) RNA against bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and/or the inhibitors of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathway. Thereafter, cell viability, apoptosis, nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory factors productions, and expression levels of cartilage synthesis protein key factors, cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein (CDMP) 1, SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 9 protein (SOX9), and MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways key factors were determined. CT significantly reversed LPS-induced cell viability decrease, apoptosis increase, the inflammatory factors and NO secretion, the abnormally expression of cartilage synthesis proteins and the activation of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways (P<0.05). In addition, we observed that administration of the inhibitors of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways statistically further increased the levels of CDMP1 and SOX9 (P<0.05). Suppression of BMP-2 decreased the levels of CDMP1 and SOX9 and activated MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways, and could partially abolish CT-modulated the expression changes in CDMP1 and SOX9, and MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways key factors (P<0.05). The results showed that CT protects chondrocytes from LPS-induced apoptosis and inflammatory response by regulating BMP-2 and thus blocking MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Zachary J; Kim, Agnes; Huang, Liquan; Brand, Joseph; Wang, Hong

    2010-06-10

    The mammalian taste bud, a complex collection of taste sensory cells, supporting cells, and immature basal cells, is the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Even though the cells of the taste bud undergo constant turnover, the structural homeostasis of the bud is maintained by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Compared with nongustatory lingual epithelial cells, taste cells express higher levels of several inflammatory receptors and signalling proteins. Whether inflammation, an underlying condition in some diseases associated with taste disorders, interferes with taste cell renewal and turnover is unknown. Here we report the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation on taste progenitor cell proliferation and taste bud cell turnover in mouse taste tissues. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and interleukin (IL)-6, in mouse circumvallate and foliate papillae. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma immunoreactivities were preferentially localized to subsets of cells in taste buds. LPS-induced inflammation significantly reduced the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled newborn taste bud cells 1-3 days after LPS injection, suggesting an inhibition of taste bud cell renewal. BrdU pulse-chase experiments showed that BrdU-labeled taste cells had a shorter average life span in LPS-treated mice than in controls. To investigate whether LPS inhibits taste cell renewal by suppressing taste progenitor cell proliferation, we studied the expression of Ki67, a cell proliferation marker. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that LPS markedly reduced Ki67 mRNA levels in circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-Ki67 antibodies showed that LPS decreased the number of Ki67-positive cells in the basal regions surrounding circumvallate taste buds, the niche for taste progenitor

  4. Effects of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xue-Hai; Ohgami, Kazuhiro; Shiratori, Kenji; Suzuki, Yukari; Koyama, Yoshikazu; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Ilieva, Iliyana; Tanaka, Tsuneo; Onoe, Kazunori; Ohno, Shigeaki

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of blue honeysuckle extract (BHE), which contains high level of phenolic compounds, on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). Male Lewis rats were randomly divided into 5 groups with 14 rats in each (eight rats for collection of aqueous humor, six rats for histologic examination). EIU was induced by a footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). 1, 10, or 100 mg of BHE was injected intravenously immediately after LPS injection. The aqueous humor was collected at 24 h after LPS injection, the number of infiltrating cells, protein concentration, nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and prostaglandin (PG)-E2 levels in the aqueous humor were determined. Some eyes were enucleated for histologic examination and immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemical staining with a monoclonal antibody against activated nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB was performed to evaluate the effect of BHE on NF-kappaB activation. To further clarify the anti-inflammatory effect, RAW264.7 cells (a mouse macrophage cell line) were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of BHE and its major phenolics, cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G), cyanidin 3-rutinoside (C3R), chlorogenic acid (CA). Expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were analyzed by Western blot method. BHE treatment significantly reduced the inflammatory cell infiltration, the protein concentration, the levels of NO, TNF-alpha and PGE2 in the aqueous humor and improved histologic status of the ocular tissue. The number of activated NF-kappaB-positive cells was lower in the iris-ciliary body treated with BHE at 3 h after LPS injection. BHE significantly suppressed the production of NO, PGE2 and TNF-alpha in the culture medium as well as the expression of iNOS and COX-2 by LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent fashion. C3G, C3R and CA showed no or weak inhibitory effects on the level of inflammatory mediators and the

  5. Puerarin exerts antipyretic effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced fever in rats involving inhibition of pyrogen production from macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiu-Juan; Yin, Ji-Ai; Xia, Yu-Feng; Wei, Zhi-Feng; Luo, Yu-Bin; Liu, Mei; Feleder, Carlos; Dai, Yue

    2012-05-07

    Puerarin is the most abundant isoflavonoid in Radix Puerariae (Gegen), which has been prescribed as a medicinal herb for treating fever in China for a long history. The present study aimed at evaluating the antipyretic effect of puerarin and revealing the related mechanisms. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever in rats was used to assess the antipyretic effect of puerarin. After an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (100μg/kg), body temperature was tested every 30min up to 8h. Different doses of puerarin (25, 50, 100mg/kg) were intraperitoneally administered 30min before LPS injection. In vitro, LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were treated with various concentrations of puerarin (25-200μM). The pyrogenic mediators, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and nitric oxide (NO), were examined on both transcription and expression levels. Furthermore, the influences of the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by puerarin were assayed by western blot. The intraperitoneal administration of puerarin at test doses clearly demonstrated apparent antipyretic effect through the declines in body temperature elevated by LPS in rats. The in vitro data showed that puerarin inhibited the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, PGE(2) and NO; moreover, the RT-PCR analysis and the western blot analysis indicated that puerarin regulated the transcriptional level via suppression of NF-κB activation and blockade of MAPK signal pathway. In summary, the antipyretic property of puerarin might result, at least in part, from an inhibition of endogenous pyrogen production and expression. Taken in this sense, our findings provide an explanation for puerarin acting as an important constituent in Gegen, thus, provide scientific basis for the wide use of Radix Puerariae in China as a traditional antipyretic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland

  6. Retraction Statement: Anti-inflammatory properties of tianeptine on lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in microglial cells involve toll-like receptor-related pathways.

    PubMed

    2017-09-01

    'Anti-inflammatory properties of tianeptine on lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in microglial cells involve toll-like receptor-related pathways' by Slusarczyk, J., Trojan, E., Glombik, K., Piotrowska, A., Budziszewska, B., Kubera, M., Popiolek-Barczyk, K., Lason, W., Mika, J. and Basta-Kaim, A. The above article from the Journal of Neurochemistry published on 14 February 2016 on Wiley Online Library ( www.onlinelibrary.com), and in Volume 136, pp. 958-970, is being retracted by agreement between the corresponding author Agnieszka Basta-Kaim, the Journal's Editor-in-Chief Jörg Schulz, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The Editorial Office was alerted by a science journalist that the same Western Blot lane had been used to represent two different proteins. The Western Blot signal of iNOS in Fig. 4a was supposedly identical to the Western Blot signal of phospho-JNK in Fig. 6b. The corresponding author stated that "on the final step of figure 6 preparation the first author made, by mistake, an incorrect attachment of representative p-JNK blots." A corrected Fig. 6b is enclosed below. The second concern reaching the Editorial Office was that the same Western Blot signal appeared to have been used to represent two different experimental conditions: the iNOS control signal (-/- LPS/TIA Fig. 4a) appears as a horizontal and vertical mirror image of the last signal in this line (+/10 LPS/TIA Fig. 4a). The raw membrane which was used to produce Fig. 4a is enclosed on the next page and highlights the steps that were undertaken during figure preparation. Although the initial concern was not proven, concerns remained regarding the question how an inadvertent flipping of the first Western blot lane could happen. A corrected Fig. 4a prepared by the corresponding author from the raw image of iNOS western blot depicted above, without flipped first lane, is presented below: Although the corresponding author provided a large amount of evidence to explain disparities in the

  7. Molecular evidence for the existence of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) and Rel/NF-kB pathways in disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jae-Seong; Jung, Sung-Ju; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2010-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) and Rel family nuclear factor kappaB (Rel/NF-kB) are two important transcription factors which play major roles in the regulating inflammatory cytokine, apoptosis and immune related genes. Here, we report the discovery of disk abalone LITAF (AbLITAF) and Rel/NF-kB (AbRel/NF-kB) homologues and their immune responses. Full-length cDNA of AbLITAF consists of 441 bp open reading frame (ORF) that translates into putative peptide of 147 aa. Analysis of AbLITAF sequence showed it has characteristic LITAF (Zn(+2)) binding domain with two CXXC motifs. Phylogenetic analysis results further revealed that AbLITAF is a member of LITAF family. AbRel/NF-kB is 584 aa protein that contains several characteristic motifs including Rel homology domain (RHD), Rel protein signature, DNA binding motif, nuclear localization signal (NLS) and transcription factor immunoglobulin - like fold (TIG) similar to their invertebrate and vertebrate counterparts. Tissue specific analysis results showed that both AbLITAF and AbRel/NF-kB mRNA was expressed ubiquitously in all selected tissues in constitutive manner. However, constitutive expression of AbLITAF was higher than AbRel/NF-kB in all tissues except mantle. Upon immune challenge by bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Lysteria monocytogenes) and viral hemoragic septicemia virus (VHSV), AbLITAF showed the significant up-regulation in gills while AbRel/NF-kB transcription was not change significantly. Based on transcriptional response against immune challenge, we could suggest that regulation of TNF-alpha expression may have occurred mainly by LITAF activation rather than NF-kB in disk abalone. The cumulative data from other molluscs and our data with reference to TNF-alpha, LITAF and Rel/NF-kB from disk abalone provide strong evidence that LITAF and NF-kB are independent pathways likely to occur throughout the Phylum mollusca. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of basal and lipopolysaccharide-induced microRNA expression in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Buechner-Maxwell, Virginia A.; Witonsky, Sharon G.; Pleasant, R. Scott; Werre, Stephen R.; Ahmed, S. Ansar

    2017-01-01

    The innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide contributes substantially to the morbidity and mortality of gram-negative sepsis. Horses and humans share an exquisite sensitivity to lipopolysaccharide and thus the horse may provide valuable comparative insights into this aspect of the inflammatory response. MicroRNAs, small non-coding RNA molecules acting as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, have key roles in toll-like receptor signaling regulation but have not been studied in this context in horses. The central hypothesis of this study was that lipopolysaccharide induces differential microRNA expression in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a manner comparable to humans. Illumina Next Generation Sequencing was used to characterize the basal microRNA transcriptome in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy adult horses, and to evaluate LPS-induced changes in microRNA expression in cells cultured for up to four hours. Selected expression changes were validated using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR. Only miR-155 was significantly upregulated by LPS, changing in parallel with supernatant tumor necrosis factor-α concentration. Eight additional microRNAs, including miR-146a and miR-146b, showed significant expression change with time in culture without a clear LPS effect. Target predictions indicated a number of potential immunity-associated targets for miR-155 in the horse, including SOCS1, TAB2 and elements of the PI3K signaling pathway, suggesting that it is likely to influence the acute inflammatory response to LPS. Gene alignment showed extensive conservation of the miR-155 precursor gene and associated promoter regions between horses and humans. The basal and LPS-stimulated microRNA expression pattern characterized here were similar to those described in human leukocytes. As well as providing a resource for further research into the roles of microRNAs in immune responses in horses, this will facilitate inter

  9. Oleamide administered into the nucleus accumbens shell regulates feeding behaviour via CB1 and 5-HT2C receptors.

    PubMed

    Soria-Gómez, Edgar; Márquez-Diosdado, Marianela I; Montes-Rodríguez, Corinne J; Estrada-González, Vicente; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2010-10-01

    The central nervous system control of food intake has been extensively studied, hence, several neurotransmitter systems regulating this function are now clearly identified, for example, the endocannabinoid and serotoninergic systems. The former stimulates feeding while the latter inhibits it. Oleamide (Ole) is a cannabimimetic molecule affecting both systems. In this work, we tested the orexigenic and anorectic potential of Ole when administered into the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS), a brain region that has been related to the orexigenic effects of cannabinoids. Additionally, we tested if Ole administered into this nucleus affects the activity of the hypothalamic nuclei involved in feeding behaviour, just as other cannabinoids do. We found a hyperphagic effect of Ole that is mediated through CB1 activation. The combination of Ole and the CB1 antagonist, AM251, produced a hypophagia that was fully blocked by SB212084, a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist. We also show that blockade of 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors in the NAcS stimulates food intake. Finally, the combination of Ole and AM251 activates hypothalamic nuclei, an effect also blocked by SB242084. In conclusion, we show, for the first time, that Ole administered into the NAcS has a dual effect on feeding behaviour, acting through cannabinoid and serotonin receptors. These effects probably result from a downstream interaction with the hypothalamus.

  10. Suppressive effects of ketamine on macrophage functions

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Yi; Department of Anesthesiology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Chen, T.-L.

    2005-04-01

    Ketamine is an intravenous anesthetic agent. Clinically, induction of anesthesia with ketamine can cause immunosuppression. Macrophages play important roles in host defense. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of ketamine on macrophage functions and its possible mechanism using mouse macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells as the experimental model. Exposure of macrophages to 10 and 100 {mu}M ketamine, which correspond to 0.1 and 1 times the clinically relevant concentration, for 1, 6, and 24 h had no effect on cell viability or lactate dehydrogenase release. When the administered concentration reached 1000 {mu}M, ketamine caused a release of lactate dehydrogenasemore » and cell death. Ketamine, at 10 and 100 {mu}M, did not affect the chemotactic activity of macrophages. Administration of 1000 {mu}M ketamine in macrophages resulted in a decrease in cell migration. Treatment of macrophages with ketamine reduced phagocytic activities. The oxidative ability of macrophages was suppressed by ketamine. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide induced TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, and IL-6 mRNA in macrophages. Administration of ketamine alone did not influence TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, or IL-6 mRNA production. Meanwhile, cotreatment with ketamine and lipopolysaccharide significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, and IL-6 mRNA levels. Exposure to ketamine led to a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. However, the activity of mitochondrial complex I NADH dehydrogenase was not affected by ketamine. This study shows that a clinically relevant concentration of ketamine (100 {mu}M) can suppress macrophage function of phagocytosis, its oxidative ability, and inflammatory cytokine production possibly via reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential instead of direct cellular toxicity.« less

  11. Western diet induces colonic nitrergic myenteric neuropathy and dysmotility in mice via saturated fatty acid- and lipopolysaccharide-induced TLR4 signalling.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, François; Chassaing, Benoit; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Li, Ge; Tabatabavakili, Sahar; Mwangi, Simon; Uppal, Karan; Liang, Bill; Vijay-Kumar, Matam; Jones, Dean; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Srinivasan, Shanthi

    2017-03-01

    A high-fat diet (60% kcal from fat) is associated with motility disorders inducing constipation and loss of nitrergic myenteric neurons in the proximal colon. Gut microbiota dysbiosis, which occurs in response to HFD, contributes to endotoxaemia. High levels of lipopolysaccharide lead to apoptosis in cultured myenteric neurons that express Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Consumption of a Western diet (WD) (35% kcal from fat) for 6 weeks leads to gut microbiota dysbiosis associated with altered bacterial metabolites and increased levels of plasma free fatty acids. These disorders precede the nitrergic myenteric cell loss observed in the proximal colon. Mice lacking TLR4 did not exhibit WD-induced myenteric cell loss and dysmotility. Lipopolysaccharide-induced in vitro enteric neurodegeneration requires the presence of palmitate and may be a result of enhanced NO production. The present study highlights the critical role of plasma saturated free fatty acids that are abundant in the WD with respect to driving enteric neuropathy and colonic dysmotility. The consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with myenteric neurodegeneration, which in turn is associated with delayed colonic transit and constipation. We examined the hypothesis that an inherent increase in plasma free fatty acids (FFA) in the HFD together with an HFD-induced alteration in gut microbiota contributes to the pathophysiology of these disorders. C57BL/6 mice were fed a Western diet (WD) (35% kcal from fat enriched in palmitate) or a purified regular diet (16.9% kcal from fat) for 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks. Gut microbiota dysbiosis was investigated by fecal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) measurement and metabolomics (linear trap quadrupole-Fourier transform mass spectrometer) analysis. Plasma FFA and LPS levels were assessed, in addition to colonic and ileal nitrergic myenteric neuron quantifications and motility. Compared to regular diet-fed control mice, WD-fed mice gained significantly more weight

  12. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation alters perfusion of white matter-rich regions without altering flow in brain-irrigating arteries: Relationship to blood-brain barrier breakdown?

    PubMed

    Dhaya, Ibtihel; Griton, Marion; Raffard, Gérard; Amri, Mohamed; Hiba, Bassem; Konsman, Jan Pieter

    2018-01-15

    To better understand brain dysfunction during sepsis, cerebral arterial blood flow was assessed with Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging, perfusion with Arterial Spin Labeling and structure with diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in rats after intraperitoneal administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Although cerebral arterial flow was not altered, perfusion of the corpus callosum region and diffusion parallel to its fibers were higher after lipopolysaccharide administration as compared to saline injection. In parallel, lipopolysaccharide induced perivascular immunoglobulin-immunoreactivity in white matter. These findings indicate that systemic inflammation can result in increased perfusion, blood-brain barrier breakdown and altered water diffusion in white matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ocular Penetration and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Ketorolac 0.45% and Bromfenac 0.09% Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, Danielle; Villanueva, Linda; Nguyen, Cathy; Patel, Milan; Borbridge, Lisa; Attar, Mayssa; Schiffman, Rhett M.; Hollander, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Anti-inflammatory activity of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is mediated by suppression of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes. This study compared ocular penetration and inflammation suppression of topical ketorolac 0.45% and bromfenac 0.09% ophthalmic solutions in a rabbit model. Methods At hour 0, 36 rabbits received ketorolac 0.45%, bromfenac 0.09%, or an artificial tear 3 times once every 20 min. Half of the rabbits in each group then received intravenous injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)–dextran at hour 1, and the other half at hour 10. Aqueous and iris-ciliary body (ICB) samples were collected in the former group at hour 2 (peak) and in the latter group at hour 11 (trough) An additional group of 6 animals received only FITC-dextran, and samples were collected 1 h later. Peak and trough nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug concentrations were compared with previously determined half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for COX isoenzymes. Results Peak and trough aqueous and ICB concentrations of ketorolac were at least 7-fold or greater than those of bromfenac. At peak levels, both ketorolac 0.45% and bromfenac 0.09% significantly inhibited LPS-induced aqueous prostaglandin E2 and FITC-dextran elevation (P < 0.01). At trough, both study drugs significantly inhibited LPS-induced aqueous prostaglandin E2 elevation (P < 0.05), but only ketorolac 0.45% significantly reduced LPS-induced aqueous FITC-dextran elevation (P < 0.01). Aqueous and ICB ketorolac concentrations exceeded its IC50 for COX-1 and COX-2 at peak and trough. Aqueous and ICB bromfenac levels exceeded its IC50 for COX-2 at peak and trough, but not for COX-1 at trough aqueous levels and peak and trough ICB levels. Conclusions Both ketorolac 0.45% and bromfenac 0.09% effectively suppressed inflammation at peak. At trough, only ketorolac 0.45% effectively suppressed inflammation as measured by FITC

  14. Flavonoid fraction of guava leaf extract attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response via blocking of NF-κB signalling pathway in Labeo rohita macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sen, Shib Sankar; Sukumaran, V; Giri, Sib Sankar; Park, Se Chang

    2015-11-01

    Psidium guajava L. is a well-known traditional medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine. To explore the anti-inflammatory activity of the flavonoid fraction of guava leaf extract (FGLE), we investigated its ability to suppress the levels of inflammatory mediators elevated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Labeo rohita head-kidney (HK) macrophages. HK macrophages of L. rohita were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of the FGLE. We examined the inhibitory effect of FGLE on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The inhibitory effect of FGLE on nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were investigated by RT-PCR and western blot. The effect of FGLE on proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was also investigated by ELISA and RT-PCR. The phosphorylation of three mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) molecules ERK, JNK and p38 was analysed by western blot analysis. FGLE inhibited LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production. It also effectively inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, iNOS, and COX-2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, FGLE suppressed the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that FGLE decreased both the mRNA and protein expression levels of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 in HK macrophages. FGLE suppresses the phosphorylation of MAPK molecules in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. FGLE also significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity. The molecular mechanism by which FGLE suppresses the expression of inflammatory mediators appears to involve the inhibition of NF-κB activation, through the suppression of LPS-induced IκB-α degradation. Together these results suggest that FGLE contains potential therapeutic agent(s), which regulate NF-κB activation, for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in L. rohita macrophages. Copyright © 2015

  15. Corn Silk Extract and Its Bioactive Peptide Ameliorated Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Mice via the Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tin-Yun; Li, Chia-Cheng; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Feng-Yuan; Hsiang, Chien-Yun

    2017-02-01

    Bioactive peptides derived from foods have shown beneficial anti-inflammatory potential. Inhibitory κB kinase-β (IKKβ) plays a crucial role in the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a transcription factor involved in inflammation. Here we applied proteomic and bioinformatics approaches to identify anti-inflammatory peptides that target IKKβ from corn silk. Corn silk extract significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-κB activities [(1.7 ± 0.2)-fold vs (3.0 ± 0.6)-fold, p < 0.05] in cells. Trypsin hydrolysate of corn silk also suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activities [(1.1 ± 0.3)-fold vs 3.3 ± 0.5 fold, p < 0.01]. In addition, both corn silk extract and trypsin hydrolysate significantly inhibited LPS-induced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production by 58.3 ± 4.5 and 55.1 ± 7.4%, respectively. A novel peptide, FK2, docked into the ATP-binding pocket of IKKβ, was further identified from trypsin hydrolysis of corn silk. FK2 inhibited IKKβ activities, IκB phosphorylation, and subsequent NF-κB activation [(2.3 ± 0.4)-fold vs (5.5 ± 0.4)-fold, p < 0.001]. Moreover, FK2 significantly reduced NF-κB-driven luminescent signals in organs by 5-11-fold and suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activities and IL-β production in tissues. In conclusion, our findings indicated that corn silk displayed anti-inflammatory abilities. In addition, we first identified an anti-inflammatory peptide FK2 from corn silk. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect of FK2 might be through IKKβ-NF-κB signaling pathways.

  16. Ginger and Zingerone Ameliorate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Systemic Inflammation in Mice, Assessed by Nuclear Factor-κB Bioluminescent Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Cheng, Hui-Man; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Chou, Pei-Chi; Lee, Yu-Chen; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2015-07-08

    Ginger is a commonly used spice in cooking. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of ginger and its component zingerone in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute systemic inflammation in mice via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) bioluminescent imaging. Ginger and zingerone significantly suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activities in cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the maximal inhibition (84.5% ± 3.5% and 96.2% ± 0.6%) was observed at 100 μg/mL ginger and zingerone, respectively. Moreover, dietary ginger and zingerone significantly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in sera by 62.9% ± 18.2% and 81.3% ± 6.2%, respectively, and NF-κB bioluminescent signals in whole body by 26.9% ± 14.3% and 38.5% ± 6.2%, respectively. In addition, ginger and zingerone suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB-driven luminescent intensities in most organs, and the maximal inhibition by ginger and zingerone was observed in small intestine. Immunohistochemical staining further showed that ginger and zingerone decreased interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-, CD11b-, and p65-positive areas in jejunum. In conclusion, our findings suggested that ginger and zingerone were likely to be broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory agents in most organs that suppressed the activation of NF-κB, the production of IL-1β, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells in mice.

  17. Role of leptin in modulation of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-induced up-regulation of endothelin-1 in salivary gland acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Slomiany, Bronislaw L; Slomiany, Amalia

    2005-08-01

    Leptin, a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates food intake and metabolic and endocrine responses, has emerged recently as an important regulator of mucosal inflammatory responses to bacterial infection. In this study, we report that in sublingual salivary gland acinar cells leptin plays a role in the suppression of up-regulation in endothelin-1 (ET-1), induced by the LPS of a periodontopathic bacterium P. gingivalis. We show that P. gingivalisLPS detrimental effect on salivary mucin synthesis, associated with up-regulation (3.9-fold) in ET-1 generation and the enhancement (3.2-fold) in endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) activity, was subject to a dose-dependent suppression by leptin. The impedance by leptin of the LPS inhibitory effect on mucin synthesis was blocked by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3K, as well as by ERK inhibitor, PD98059. However, while the blockade of ERK led also to amplification in the impedance by leptin of the LPS-induced expression of ECE-1 and ET-1, the effect was not observed in the presence of wortmannin. The findings are the first to demonstrate that leptin counters the pathological consequences of P. gingivalisinfection on the synthesis of salivary mucin through the involvement in signaling events of PI3K and ERK pathways. We also show that the ERK cascade represents a critical signaling target for leptin in the LPS-induced up-regulation in ET-1.

  18. Protective effects of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells and Houttuynia cordata in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Da-Sheng; Zhou, Heng; Liu, Wei-Wei; Pei, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is a serious health problem, and an effective treatment is needed for use in the clinical setting. In this study, we first constructed ALI models in Adult Sprague-Dawley rats. We then used an herbal medicine, Houttuynia cordata (HC), to enhance the effect of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on ALI. (1) HC improved the therapeutic effects of EPCs on lipopolysachharide-induced ALI in the rat model; (2) HC down-regulated the anti-inflammatory response by suppressing inflammatory cytokines; (3) the combination of EPC and HC reduced expression of iNOS and ET-1 and subsequently prevented lung injury. Combined EPC and HC therapy was more effective than either therapy alone. EPC and HC could be used in the clinical treatment of ALI. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Role of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells in promoting osteogenic differentiation by influencing p38 MAPK signaling in lipopolysaccharide -induced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuli; Wu, Hongxia; Shen, Ming

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease induced by bacterial pathogens, which not only affect connective tissue attachments but also cause alveolar bone loss. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs) under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory conditions. Proliferation levels were measured by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU). Osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization were investigated using chromogenic alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) activity substrate assays, Alizarin red S staining, and RT-PCR analysis of HBMSCs osteogenic marker expression. Oxidative stress induced by LPS was investigated by assayingmore » reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Here, we demonstrated that HAMSCs increased the proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, and SOD activity of LPS-induced HBMSCs, and down-regulated the ROS level. Moreover, our results suggested that the activation of p38 MAPK signal transduction pathway is essential for reversing the LPS-induced bone-destructive processes. SB203580, a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK signaling, significantly suppressed the anti-inflammatory effects in HAMSCs. In conclusion, HAMSCs show a strong potential in treating inflammation-induced bone loss by influencing p38 MAPK signaling. - Highlights: • LPS inhibites osteogenic differentiation in HBMSCs via suppression of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. • HAMSCs promote LPS-induced HBMSCs osteogenic differentiation through p38 MAPK signaling pathway. • HAMSCs reverse LPS-induced oxidative stress in LPS-induced HBMSCs through p38 MAPK signaling pathway.« less

  20. Polygonum viviparum L. inhibits the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages through haem oxygenase-1 induction and activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hui-Wen; Lee, Kock-Chee; Cheah, Khoot-Peng; Chang, Ming-Long; Lin, Che-Wei; Li, Joe-Sharg; Yu, Wen-Yu; Liu, E-Tung; Hu, Chien-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Polygonum viviparum L. (PV) is a member of the family Polygonaceae and is widely distributed in high-elevation areas. It is used as a folk remedy to treat inflammation-related diseases. This study was focused on the anti-inflammatory response of PV against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Treatment with PV did not cause cytotoxicity at 0-50 µg mL(-1) in RAW264.7 macrophages, and the IC(50) value was 270 µg mL(-1). PV inhibited LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG)E(2) , interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α release and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein expression. In addition, PV suppressed the LPS-induced p65 expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, which is associated with the inhibition of IκB-α degradation. These results suggest that, among mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory response, PV inhibits the production of NO and these cytokines by down-regulating iNOS and COX-2 gene expression. Furthermore, PV can induce haem oxygenase (HO)-1 protein expression through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. A specific inhibitor of HO-1, zinc(II) protoporphyrin IX, inhibited the suppression of iNOS and COX-2 expression by PV. These results suggest that PV possesses anti-inflammatory actions in macrophages and works through a novel mechanism involving Nrf2 actions and HO-1. Thus PV could be considered for application as a potential therapeutic approach for inflammation-associated disorders. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. NCX 4040, a nitric oxide-donating aspirin derivative, inhibits Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Park, Hae Ryoun; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2015-12-05

    In this study, the effects and underlying mechanisms of NCX 4040, a nitric oxide (NO)-donating aspirin derivative, on the production of proinflammatory mediators were examined using murine macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in the etiology of periodontal disease. NCX 4040 significantly reduced P. intermedia LPS-induced production of inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as their mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. Notably, NCX 4040 was much more effective than the parental compound aspirin in reducing LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators. NCX 4040 induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cells treated with P. intermedia LPS, and the suppressive effect of NCX 4040 on LPS-induced NO production was significantly reversed by SnPP, a competitive HO-1 inhibitor. NCX 4040 did not influence LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38. IκB-α degradation as well as nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activities of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits induced by P. intermedia LPS were significantly reduced by NCX 4040. Besides, LPS-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 was significantly down-regulated by NCX 4040. Further, NCX 4040 elevated the SOCS1 mRNA in cells stimulated with LPS. This study indicates that NCX 4040 inhibits P. intermedia LPS-induced production of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 in murine macrophages through anti-inflammatory HO-1 induction and suppression of NF-κB, STAT1 and STAT3 activation, which is associated with the activation of SOCS1 signaling. NCX 4040 could potentially be a promising tool in the treatment of periodontal disease, although further studies are required to verify this. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tempol and perindopril protect against lipopolysaccharide-induced cognition impairment and amyloidogenesis by modulating brain-derived neurotropic factor, neuroinflammation and oxido-nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammed Ragab Abdel-Aziz; Abo-Youssef, Amira Morad Hussein; Messiha, Basim Anwar Shehata; Khattab, Mahmoud Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    We aim to evaluate the protective role of the central angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor perindopril, compared with the standard reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger tempol, against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognition impairment and amyloidogenesis in a simulation to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mice were allocated into a control group, an LPS control group (0.8 mg/kg, i.p., once), a tempol (100 mg/kg/day, p.o., 7 days) treatment group, and two perindopril (0.5 and 1 mg/kg/day, p.o., 7 days) treatment groups. A behavioral study was conducted to evaluate spatial and nonspatial memory in mice, followed by a biochemical study involving assessment of brain levels of Aβ and BDNF as Alzheimer and neuroplasticity markers; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide end-products (NOx), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as inflammatory markers; and superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione reduced (GSH), and nitrotyrosine (NT) as oxido-nitrosative stress markers. Finally, histopathological examination of cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum sections was performed using both routine and special staining. Tempol and perindopril improved spatial and nonspatial memory in mice without affecting locomotor activity; decreased brain Aβ deposition and BDNF depletion; decreased brain TNF-α, NOx, nNOS, iNOS, MDA, and NT levels; and increased brain SOD and GSH contents, parallel to confirmatory histopathological findings. Tempol and perindopril may be promising agents against AD progression via suppression of Aβ deposition and BDNF decline, suppression of TNF-α production, support of brain antioxidant status, and amelioration of oxido-nitrosative stress and NT production.

  3. Transcriptional profiles of Rel/NF-κB, inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB), and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and two Vibrio sp.-exposed intertidal copepod, Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-02-01

    The immune system and the role of immunity-related genes have rarely been studied in copepods, even though copepods have a primitive immune response system and also have a potential in pathogen transport higher trophic levels. In this study, we firstly cloned and characterized three core immune genes such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB), and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) genes in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Several in silico analyses based on conserved domains, motifs, and phylogenetic relationships were supporting their annotations. To investigate the immune-related role of three genes, we exposed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and two Vibrio sp. to T. japonicus. After exposure of different concentrations of LPS and two Vibrio sp., transcripts of TJ-IκB and TJ-LITAF genes were significantly elevated during the time course in a dose-dependent manner, while TJ-NF-κB transcripts were not significantly changed during exposure. These findings demonstrated that the copepod T. japonicus has a conserved immunity against infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Magnolol inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response by interfering with TLR4 mediated NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yunhe; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Naisheng; Liu, Zhicheng; Liang, Dejie; Li, Fengyang; Cao, Yongguo; Feng, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Xichen; Yang, Zhengtao

    2013-01-09

    Magnolia officinalis as a traditional Chinese herb has long been used for the treatment of anxiety, cough, headache and allergic diseases, and also have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of mental disorders including depression. Magnolol, a hydroxylated biphenyl compound isolated from Magnolia officinalis, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of magnolol in modifying lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced signal pathways in RAW264.7 cells. The purity of magnolol was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. RAW264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of magnolol. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines were determined by ELISA and reverse transcription-PCR. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), inhibitory kappa B (IκBα) protein, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were determined by Western blot. Further analyses were performed on mTLR4 and mMD2 co-transfected HEK293 cells. The result showed that the purity of magnolol used in this study was 100%. Magnolol inhibited the expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis showed that magnolol suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation, IκBα degradation, phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and P38. Magnolol could significantly down-regulated the expression of TLR4 stimulating by LPS. Furthermore, magnolol suppressed LPS-induced IL-8 production in HEK293-mTLR4/MD-2 cells. Our results suggest that magnolol exerts an anti-inflammatory property by down-regulated the expression of TLR4 up-regulated by LPS, thereby attenuating TLR4 mediated the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These findings suggest that magnolol may be a

  5. Protective Role of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Activation in Galactosamine/Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Liver Failure through Regulation of Macrophage Polarization and MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Sunil; E. Zumbrun, Elizabeth; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a potentially life-threatening disorder without any effective treatment strategies. d-Galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced ALF is a widely used animal model to identify novel hepato-protective agents. In the present study, we investigated the potential of a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist, JWH-133 [(6aR,10aR)-3-(1,1-dimethylbutyl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran], in the amelioration of GalN/LPS-induced ALF. JWH-133 treatment protected the mice from ALF-associated mortality, mitigated alanine transaminase and proinflammatory cytokines, suppressed histopathological and apoptotic liver damage, and reduced liver infiltration of mononuclear cells (MNCs). Furthermore, JWH-133 pretreatment of M1/M2-polarized macrophages significantly increased the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in M1 macrophages and potentiated the expression of M2 markers in M2-polarized macrophages. In vivo, JWH-133 treatment also suppressed ALF-triggered expression of M1 markers in liver MNCs, while increasing the expression of M2 markers such as Arg1 and IL-10. microRNA (miR) microarray analysis revealed that JWH-133 treatment altered the expression of only a few miRs in the liver MNCs. Gene ontology analysis of the targets of miRs suggested that Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling was among the most significantly targeted cellular pathways. Among the altered miRs, miR-145 was found to be the most significantly decreased. This finding correlated with concurrent upregulated expression of its predicted target gene, interleukin-1 receptor–associated kinase 3, a negative regulator of TLR4 signaling. Together, these data are the first to demonstrate that CB2 activation attenuates GalN/LPS-induced ALF by inducing an M1 to M2 shift in macrophages and by regulating the expression of unique miRs that target key molecules involved in the TLR4 pathway. PMID:25749929

  6. Rosmanol potently inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression through downregulating MAPK, NF-kappaB, STAT3 and C/EBP signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Shu; Lee, Jong Hun; Ho, Chi-Tang; Liu, Cheng Bin; Wang, Ju-Ming; Wang, Ying-Jan; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2009-11-25

    Rosmanol is a natural polyphenol from the herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) with high antioxidant activity. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of rosmanol on the induction of NO synthase (NOS) and COX-2 in RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rosmanol markedly inhibited LPS-stimulated iNOS and COX-2 protein and gene expression, as well as the downstream products, NO and PGE2. Treatment with rosmanol also reduced translocation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) subunits by prevention of the degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB). Western blot analysis showed that rosmanol significantly inhibited translocation and phosphorylation of NF-kappaB, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), and the protein expression of C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta. We also found that rosmanol suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. Our results demonstrate that rosmanol downregulates inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 gene expression by inhibiting the activation of NF-kappaB and STAT3 through interfering with the activation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling. Taken together, rosmanol might contribute to the potent anti-inflammatory effect of rosemary and may have potential to be developed into an effective anti-inflammatory agent.

  7. Role of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells in promoting osteogenic differentiation by influencing p38 MAPK signaling in lipopolysaccharide -induced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuli; Wu, Hongxia; Shen, Ming; Ding, Siyang; Miao, Jing; Chen, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease induced by bacterial pathogens, which not only affect connective tissue attachments but also cause alveolar bone loss. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs) under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory conditions. Proliferation levels were measured by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). Osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization were investigated using chromogenic alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) activity substrate assays, Alizarin red S staining, and RT-PCR analysis of HBMSCs osteogenic marker expression. Oxidative stress induced by LPS was investigated by assaying reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Here, we demonstrated that HAMSCs increased the proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, and SOD activity of LPS-induced HBMSCs, and down-regulated the ROS level. Moreover, our results suggested that the activation of p38 MAPK signal transduction pathway is essential for reversing the LPS-induced bone-destructive processes. SB203580, a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK signaling, significantly suppressed the anti-inflammatory effects in HAMSCs. In conclusion, HAMSCs show a strong potential in treating inflammation-induced bone loss by influencing p38 MAPK signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnolol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats through PPAR-γ-dependent inhibition of NF-kB activation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Hsien; Chen, Meng-Chuan; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Chang, Heng-Yuan; Chou, Tz-Chong

    2015-09-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) has a high morbidity and mortality rate due to the serious inflammation and edema occurred in lung. Magnolol extracted from Magnolia officinalis, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are known to exert a cytoprotective effect against cellular inflammatory stress and oxidative injury. The aim of this study was to explore the involvement of PPAR-γ in the beneficial effect of magnolol in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. We found that treatment with magnolol greatly improved the pathological features of ALI evidenced by reduction of lung edema, polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration, ROS production, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the expression of iNOS and COX-2, and NF-κB activation in lungs exposed to LPS. Importantly, magnolol is capable of increasing the PPAR-γ expression and activity in lungs of ALI. However, blocking PPAR-γ activity with GW9662 markedly abolished the protective and anti-inflammatory effects of magnolol. Taken together, the present study provides a novel mechanism accounting for the protective effect of magnolol in LPS-induced ALI is at least partly attributed to induction of PPAR-γ in lungs, and in turn suppressing NF-κB-related inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lipopolysaccharide-induced dopaminergic cell death in rat midbrain slice cultures: role of inducible nitric oxide synthase and protection by indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Haruki; Katsuki, Hiroshi; Nishiwaki, Mayumi; Kume, Toshiaki; Kaneko, Shuji; Akaike, Akinori

    2003-09-01

    Glial cell activation associated with inflammatory reaction may contribute to pathogenic processes of neurodegenerative disorders, through production of several cytotoxic molecules. We investigated the consequences of glial activation by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rat midbrain slice cultures. Application of IFN-gamma followed by LPS caused dopaminergic cell death and accompanying increases in nitrite production and lactate dehydrogenase release. Aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), or SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, prevented dopaminergic cell loss as well as nitrite production. SB203580 also suppressed expression of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) induced by IFN-gamma/LPS. A COX inhibitor indomethacin protected dopaminergic neurons from IFN-gamma/LPS-induced injury, whereas selective COX-2 inhibitors such as NS-398 and nimesulide did not. Notably, indomethacin was able to attenuate neurotoxicity of a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Neutralizing antibodies against tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta did not inhibit dopaminergic cell death caused by IFN-gamma/LPS, although combined application of these antibodies blocked lactate dehydrogenase release and decrease in the number of non-dopaminergic neurons. These results indicate that iNOS-derived NO plays a crucial role in IFN-gamma/LPS-induced dopaminergic cell death, and that indomethacin exerts protective effect by mechanisms probably related to NO neurotoxicity rather than through COX inhibition.

  10. Carbachol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal epithelial tight junction damage by down-regulating NF-κβ and myosin light-chain kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Jianguo

    2012-11-16

    Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist that protects the intestines after trauma or burn injury. The present study determines the beneficial effects of carbachol and the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10 mg/kg LPS. Results showed that the gut barrier permeability was reduced, the ultrastructural disruption of tight junctions (TJs) was prevented, the redistribution of zonula occludens-1 and claudin-2 proteins was partially reversed, and the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κβ) and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) activation in the intestinal epithelium were suppressed after carbachol administration in LPS-exposed rats. Pretreatment with the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR) antagonist α-bungarotoxin blocked the protective action of carbachol. These results suggested that carbachol treatment can protect LPS-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Carbachol exerts its beneficial effect on the amelioration of the TJ damage by inhibiting the NF-κβ and MLCK pathways in an α7nAchR-dependent manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bone marrow derived M2 macrophages protected against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation by modulating neutrophils and T lymphocytes responses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Fu, Xiazhen; Wu, Xinwan; Zhang, Jianhai; Zhu, Jiali; Zou, Yun; Li, Jinbao

    2018-06-05

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by aggravated inflammatory responses and the subsequent alveolar-capillary injury for which there are no specific therapies available currently. The present study was designed to investigate the protective roles of bone marrow derived M 2 macrophages (M 2 BMDMs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced ALI. M 2 BMDMs were obtained from bone marrow cells stimulated with M-CSF and IL-4. Mice received M 2 BMDMs intratracheally 3 h after LPS administration. Histology and wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio, activated immune cells and total protein were detected. Cytokines production were measured in vivo and vitro study. The effects of PD-L1 blockade on M 2 BMDMs were calculated. The results showed that M 2 BMDMs administration reduced the infiltration of neutrophils, inhibited the oxidative stress, while increased the counts of CD3 + T lymphocytes as well as CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T lymphocytes. Further, M 2 BMDMs suppressed the TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 production, while increased the IL-10 production. Blockade of PD-L1/PD-1 pathway reversed cytokines production of M 2 BMDMs in the BALF. These findings indicated that M 2 BMDMs might be a promising therapeutic strategy for LPS-induced ALI through inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation by modulating neutrophils and T lymphocytes responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Mechanisms of Eupafolin in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Chaun; Lin, Ming-Wei; Liang, Chan-Jung; Wang, Shu-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Eupafolin is a flavone isolated from Artemisia princeps Pampanini (family Asteraceae). The aim of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of eupafolin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 macrophages and LPS-induced mouse skin and lung inflammation models and to identify the mechanism underlying these effects. Eupafolin decreased the LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators (iNOS, COX-2 and NO) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) from the RAW264.7 macrophages. Eupafolin inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, JNK, AKT and p65 and the nuclear translocation of p65 and c-fos. These effects were mainly mediated by the inhibition of JNK. In the mouse paw and lung models, eupafolin effectively suppressed the LPS-induced edema formation and down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expression. These results demonstrated that eupafolin exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and suggested that eupafolin can be developed as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  13. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Mechanisms of Eupafolin in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chin-Chaun; Lin, Ming-Wei; Liang, Chan-Jung; Wang, Shu-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Eupafolin is a flavone isolated from Artemisia princeps Pampanini (family Asteraceae). The aim of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of eupafolin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 macrophages and LPS-induced mouse skin and lung inflammation models and to identify the mechanism underlying these effects. Eupafolin decreased the LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators (iNOS, COX-2 and NO) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) from the RAW264.7 macrophages. Eupafolin inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, JNK, AKT and p65 and the nuclear translocation of p65 and c-fos. These effects were mainly mediated by the inhibition of JNK. In the mouse paw and lung models, eupafolin effectively suppressed the LPS-induced edema formation and down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expression. These results demonstrated that eupafolin exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and suggested that eupafolin can be developed as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:27414646

  14. Protective Effect of Ginsenosides Rg1 and Re on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sepsis by Competitive Binding to Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Xue, Yin; Wang, Yuemin; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Wangxue

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that ginsenosides Rg1 and Re enhanced the immune response in C3H/HeB mice but not in C3H/HeJ mice carrying a mutation in the Tlr4 gene. The results of the present study showed that both Rg1 and Re inhibited mRNA expression and production of proinflammatory mediators that included tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Rg1 was found to be distributed both extracellularly and intracellularly but Re was located only extracellularly to compete with LPS for binding to Toll-like receptor 4. Preinjection of Rg1 and Re into rats suppressed LPS-induced increases in body temperature, white blood cell counts, and levels of serum proinflammatory mediators. Preinjection of Rg1 and Re into mice prevented the LPS-induced decreases in total white blood cell counts and neutrophil counts, inhibited excessive expression of multiple proinflammatory mediators, and successfully rescued 100% of the mice from sepsis-associated death. More significantly, when administered after lethal LPS inoculation, Rg1, but not Re, still showed a potent antisepsis effect and protected 90% of the mice from death. The better protection efficacy of Rg1 could result from its intracellular distribution, suggesting that Rg1 may be an ideal antisepsis agent. PMID:26149990

  15. n-Propyl gallate suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase activation through protein kinase Cδ-mediated up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Wookwang; Park, Seong Ji; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2017-04-15

    n-Propyl gallate is a synthetic phenolic antioxidant with potential anti-inflammatory effects. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that n-propyl gallate increases the expression and activity of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress-inducible protein with potent anti-inflammatory activity, in RAW264.7 macrophages. The inhibition of the HO-1 activity by treatment with zinc (II) protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) or by knockdown of the HO-1 expression with small interference RNA significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of n-Propyl gallate on activations of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). An additional mechanism study using inhibitors of signaling kinases revealed the involvement of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) in the expression of HO-1 induced by n-Propyl gallate. Consistent with these results, n-Propyl gallate increased the intracellular levels of phosphorylated PKCδ in concentration- and time-dependent manners. The inhibitory effects of n-Propyl gallate on LPS-induced iNOS expression and nitric oxide production were also significantly attenuated by pretreatment with the PKCδ inhibitor, rottlerin, or by transfection with PKCδ (K376R), a kinase-inactive form of PKCδ. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence that n-Propyl gallate exerts its anti-inflammatory effect through PKCδ-mediated up-regulation of HO-1 in macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Agomelatine, a MT1/MT2 melatonergic receptor agonist with serotonin 5-HT2C receptor antagonistic properties, suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, Eun-Young; Choe, So-Hui; Park, Hae Ryoun; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2017-10-01

    This study was performed in an attempt to examine the influence of agomelatine in mitigating the generation of proinflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 murine macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) obtained from Prevotella intermedia, a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that is related with various types of periodontal diseases, and the molecular mechanisms behind its effects. LPS from P. intermedia strain ATCC 25611 was prepared employing the conventional phenol-water procedure. Conditioned culture media were analyzed for the levels of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6. Real-time PCR analysis was carried out to determine the mRNA levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and SOCS1. Protein expression levels were evaluated by immunoblot test. NF-κB-dependent SEAP reporter assay was performed using a reporter cell line. DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits were analyzed utilizing the ELISA-based kits. Agomelatine was found to down-regulate significantly the generation of iNOS-derived NO, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as the expression of their mRNAs in cells activated with P. intermedia LPS. Agomelatine decreased NF-κB-dependent SEAP release caused by P. intermedia LPS. Agomelatine did not inhibit NF-κB transcription induced by LPS at the level of IκB-α degradation. Instead, LPS-induced nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB p50 subunit was blocked by agomelatine. P. intermedia LPS-elicited activation of STAT1 and STAT3 was reduced notably by co-treatment with agomelatine. Agomelatine showed a tendency to enhance mRNA level of SOCS1 in LPS-activated cells as well. Agomelatine merits further evaluation to reveal its usefulness on the host modulation of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of water extract of Taraxacum mongolicum hand.-Mazz on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in acute lung injury by suppressing PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhua; Zhu, Lingpeng; Wang, Jing; He, He; Chang, Xiayun; Gao, Jin; Shumin, Wang; Yan, Tianhua

    2015-06-20

    Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz is a famous medicinal plant in China, has been listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China and used to treat infection, fever, upper respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, and other infectious diseases. This study aims to evaluate the possible mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammation effects of water extract of T. mongolicum Hand.-Mazz (WETMHM) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory in acute lung injury. Female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into five groups with 10 mice in each group: (1) control group (saline), (2) LPS group, (3) LPS+dexamethasone (LPS+Dex, 2mg/kg, administered by gavage), (4) LPS+WETMHM (5 g/kg, administered by gavage), (5) LPS+WETMHM (10 g/kg, administered by gavage). The cell counting in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured. The animal lung edema degree was evaluated by wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. The superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activity and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed by SOD and MPO kits, respectively. The levels of inflammation mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 were assayed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The levels of P-PI3K, PI3K, P-Akt, Akt, P-mTOR and mTOR were measured by Western blotting. The data showed that treatment with the WETMHM inhibited LPS-induced inflammation: (1) WETMHM attenuated inflammation cell numbers in the BALF, (2) decreased protein levels of lung PI3K/Akt/mTOR, and (3) improved SOD activity and (4) inhibited MPO activity; (5) histological studies demonstrated that WETMHM substantially inhibited LPS-induced neutrophils in lung tissue. The results indicated that the WETMHM had a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Inhibition of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 on lipopolysaccharide-induced mucin5AC hypersecretion and the mechanism in human bronchial epithelial cells].

    PubMed

    Liu, C Y; Li, Q; Zhou, X D

    2016-03-29

    wild-type SOCS1 group led to a reduced phosphorylation of JAK1/STAT1, as well as Filgotinib did, thereby suppressing excessive MUC5AC production in wild-type SOCS1 group and Filgotinib group [(4.04±0.65), (7.02±0.83) vs (10.37±1.00) μg/mg] (all P<0.05). Conversely, compared to the expression of MUC5AC in non-targeted siRNA group, down-regulation of SOCS1 in SOCS1-siRNA group promoted the phosphorylation of JAK1/STAT1, and then further increased MUC5AC production [(13.69±1.32) vs (11.01±1.41) μg/mg] (all P<0.05). These results show that SOCS1 suppresses LPS-promoted MUC5AC hypersecretion through the inhibition of JAK1/STAT1 signaling pathway.

  19. Eupatolide inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression in RAW264.7 cells by inducing proteasomal degradation of TRAF6.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongkyu; Tae, Nara; Lee, Jung Joon; Kim, Taeho; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2010-06-25

    Inula britannica is a traditional medicinal plant used to treat bronchitis, digestive disorders, and inflammation in Eastern Asia. Here, we identified eupatolide, a sesquiterpene lactone from I. britannica, as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Eupatolide inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) as well as iNOS and COX-2 protein expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Eupatolide dose-dependently decreased the mRNA levels and the promoter activities of COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, eupatolide significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) reporter genes. Pretreatment of eupatolide inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation and degradation of I kappaB alpha, and phosphorylation of RelA/p65 on Ser-536 as well as the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Eupatolide induced proteasomal degradation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6), and subsequently inhibited LPS-induced TRAF6 polyubiquitination. These results suggest that eupatolide blocks LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression at the transcriptional level through inhibiting the signaling pathways such as NF-kappaB and MAPKs via proteasomal degradation of TRAF6. Taken together, eupatolide may be a novel anti-inflammatory agent that induces proteasomal degradation of TRAF6, and a valuable compound for modulating inflammatory conditions. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The nuclear IkappaB protein IkappaBNS selectively inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6 production in macrophages of the colonic lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Tomonori; Lee, Pui Y; Kuwata, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Makoto; Kawase, Ichiro; Akira, Shizuo; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2005-03-15

    Macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic colitis. However, it remains unknown how macrophages residing in the colonic lamina propria are regulated. We characterized colonic lamina proprial CD11b-positive cells (CLPMphi). CLPMphi of wild-type mice, but not IL-10-deficient mice, displayed hyporesponsiveness to TLR stimulation in terms of cytokine production and costimulatory molecule expression. We compared CLPMphi gene expression profiles of wild-type mice with IL-10-deficient mice, and identified genes that are selectively expressed in wild-type CLPMphi. These genes included nuclear IkappaB proteins such as Bcl-3 and IkappaBNS. Because Bcl-3 has been shown to specifically inhibit LPS-induced TNF-alpha production, we analyzed the role of IkappaBNS in macrophages. Lentiviral introduction of IkappaBNS resulted in impaired LPS-induced IL-6 production, but not TNF-alpha production in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. IkappaBNS expression led to constitutive and intense DNA binding of NF-kappaB p50/p50 homodimers. IkappaBNS was recruited to the IL-6 promoter, but not to the TNF-alpha promoter, together with p50. Furthermore, small interference RNA-mediated reduction in IkappaBNS expression in RAW264.7 cells resulted in increased LPS-induced production of IL-6, but not TNF-alpha. Thus, IkappaBNS selectively suppresses LPS-induced IL-6 production in macrophages. This study established that nuclear IkappaB proteins differentially regulate LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages.

  1. Sinomenine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory injury by regulation of miR-101/MKP-1/JNK pathway in keratinocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shumei; Man, Yigang; Zhao, Li

    2018-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that Sinomenine (SIN) exerted anti-inflammatory effect in various immune-related diseases. However, the effect of SIN on glucocorticoids dermatitis has not been investigated. In our study, we aimed to explore the effect of SIN on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory injury in HaCaT cells. We constructed an inflammatory injury model of LPS-induced HaCaT cells, then SIN was added to LPS-treated cells, cell viability, apoptosis, apoptosis-associated factors and inflammatory cytokines were detected by CCK-8, flow cytometry, western blot, qRT-PCR and ELISA. Subsequently, miR-101 mimic and mimic control were transfected into HaCaT cells to investigate the effect of SIN and miR-101 on LPS-induced cells injury. Furthermore, MKP-1 and JNK signal pathways were measured by qRT-PCR and western blot. Finally, the animal experiment was performed to further clarify the effect of SIN on inflammatoty injury. LPS suppressed cell viability, promoted apoptosis and increased IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α expressions and secretions in HaCaT cells. SIN significantly alleviated LPS-induced HaCaT cells injury. Additionally, SIN down-regulated miR-101 expression, and the protective effect of SIN on LPS-induced inflammatory injury was abolished by miR-101 overexpression. Besides, SIN promoted MKP-1 expression by down-regulation of miR-101, and SIN inhibited JNK signal pathway by up-regulation of MKP-1 expression in LPS-treated HaCaT cells. Animal experiments revealed that SIN exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. The data indicated that SIN attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory injury by regulation of miR-101, MKP-1 and JNK pathway. These findings might provide a novel method for treatment of glucocorticoids dermatitis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against a Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Phil; Park, Sun Ok; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-11-20

    Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent disease that results mainly from bacterial infection. The present study investigates the inhibitory effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from the edible Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial mushroom culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine endotoxemia induced by the Salmonella lipopolysaccharide and d-galactosamine (LPS/GalN). BPP was obtained after dialysis against water using a cellulose tube with a molecular weight cutoff of 10000. BPP eluted as a single peak on an HPLC chromatogram. Acid hydrolysis of BPP showed the presence of the following sugars: fucose, galactose, galactosamine, glucose, glucosamine, mannose, rhamnose, and xylose. Treatment of BPP with β-glucanase reduced its immunostimulating activity, suggesting that the polysaccharide has a β-glucan structure. Pretreatment of mice with BPP via oral or intraperitoneal (ip) administration for 2 weeks resulted in the suppression of LPS/GalN-induced catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and transaminase (GOT/GPT) liver enzymes, amelioration of necrotic liver lesions, and reduction of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and nitrite serum levels as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, an index of necrotic injury. Immunostimulating macrophage activity was up to 5.4-fold greater than that observed with the culture without the rice bran. BPP also extended the lifespan of the toxemic mice. These positive results with inflammation biomarkers and lifespan studies suggest that the BPP can protect mice against LPS/GalN-induced liver, lung, and kidney injuries and inflammation by blocking oxidative stress and TNF-α production, thus increasing the survival of the toxic shock-induced mice. The polysaccharide has the potential to serve as a new functional food.

  3. Picfeltarraenin IA inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production by the nuclear factor-κB pathway in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong; Wang, Qing; Ouyang, Yang; Wang, Qian; Xiong, Xudong

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of picfeltarraenin IA (IA) on respiratory inflammation by analyzing its effect on interleukin (IL)-8 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells in culture was also examined. Human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells and the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line were used in the current study. Cell viability was measured using a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. The production of IL-8 and PGE2 was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of COX2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-p65 was examined using western blot analysis. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg/ml) resulted in the increased production of IL-8 and PGE2, and the increased expression of COX2 in the A549 cells. Furthermore, IA (0.1-10 µmol/l) significantly inhibited PGE2 production and COX2 expression in cells with LPS-induced IL-8, in a concentration-dependent manner. The results suggested that IA downregulates LPS-induced COX2 expression, and inhibits IL-8 and PGE2 production in pulmonary epithelial cells. Additionally, IA was observed to suppress the expression of COX2 in THP-1 cells, and also to regulate the expression of COX2 via the NF-κB pathway in the A549 cells, but not in the THP-1 cells. These results indicate that IA regulates LPS-induced cytokine release in A549 cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  4. Geniposide plays an anti-inflammatory role via regulating TLR4 and downstream signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaojing; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Tiancheng; Jiang, Haichao; Zhang, Zecai; Fu, Yunhe; Yang, Zhengtao; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Geniposide is a medicine isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, which is a traditional Chinese herb that is widely used in Asia for the treatment of inflammation, brain diseases, and hepatic disorders. Mastitis is a highly prevalent and important infectious disease. In this study, we used a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse mastitis model and LPS-stimulated primary mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs) to explore the anti-inflammatory effect and the mechanism of action of geniposide. Using intraductal injection of LPS as a mouse model of mastitis, we found that geniposide significantly reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and downregulated the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). To further investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism, we used LPS-stimulated mMECs as an in vitro mastitis model. The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that geniposide inhibited the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis demonstrated that geniposide could suppress the phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (IκBα), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Geniposide also inhibited the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the LPS-stimulated mMECs. In conclusion, geniposide exerted its anti-inflammatory effect by regulating TLR4 expression, which affected the downstream NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Thus, geniposide may be a potential drug for mastitis therapy.

  5. Increased serum miR-300 level serves as a potential biomarker of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury by targeting IκBα.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Dai, Hong; Yang, Shengqing; Liu, Zhijun; Yi Chen, Qian

    2017-01-10

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are reported to play key roles in various disease models. In this study, the functional role of miR-300 in the regulation of lung injury was explored to assess the feasibility of serum miR-300 as a potential biomarker for lung injury. Firstly, the expression of miR-300 was studied in the serum of 50 lung injury patients and 50 healthy controls. And the expression of miR-300 was also explored in the serum and lung tissues of mouse models. To further explore the possible mechanism in which miR-300 may contribute to lung injury, the target genes of miR-300 were predicted by TargetScan and validated using dual luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, the expression of inflammation factors was studied after transfection of miR-300 mimics and inhibitors into A549 cells. Here, we first identified that the level of miR-300 was significantly upregulated in the blood samples of acute lung injury patients compared with healthy control. Meanwhile, miR-300 was also found to be enhanced in the blood samples and lung tissues of LPS-induced mouse models. Further study showed that miR-300 significantly suppressed the expression of IκBα and luciferase reporter assay showed that IκBα was a target gene of miR-300. More importantly, the levels of inflammatory factors, such as TNFα, COX-2, iNOS, IL-6 and IL8, were significantly upregulated accompanied by overexpression of miR-300 in A549 cells. In summary, enhanced miR-300 expression in the peripheral blood contributed to the lung injury mainly by inhibiting the expression of IκBα.

  6. Polymeric proanthocyanidins from Sicilian pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut extract inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Gentile, C; Allegra, M; Angileri, F; Pintaudi, A M; Livrea, M A; Tesoriere, L

    2012-04-01

    Positive effects of pistachio nut consumption on plasma inflammatory biomarkers have been described; however, little is known about molecular events associated with these effects. We studied the anti-inflammatory activity of a hydrophilic extract from Sicilian Pistacia L. (HPE) in a macrophage model and investigated bioactive components relevant to the observed effects. HPE oligomer/polymer proanthocyanidin fractions were isolated by adsorbance chromatography, and components quantified as anthocyanidins after acidic hydrolysis. Isoflavones were measured by gradient elution HPLC analysis. RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were pre-incubated with either HPE (1- to 20-mg fresh nut equivalents) or its isolated components for 1 h, then washed before stimulating with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h. Cell viability and parameters associated with Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) activation were assayed according to established methods including ELISA, Western blot, or cytofluorimetric analysis. HPE suppressed nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production and inducible NO-synthase levels dose dependently, whereas inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release and decreased cyclo-oxygenase-2 content, the lower the HPE amount the higher the effect. Cytotoxic effects were not observed. HPE also caused a dose-dependent decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species and interfered with the NF-κB activation. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, but not isoflavones, at a concentration comparable with their content in HPE, inhibited NO, PGE2, and TNF-α formation, as well as activation of IκB-α. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins showed only minor effects. Our results provide molecular evidence of anti-inflammatory activity of pistachio nut and indicate polymeric proanthocyanidins as the bioactive components. The mechanism may involve the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB. Potential effects associated with pistachio nut consumption are discussed in terms of the

  7. Tilapia Hepcidin 2-3 Peptide Modulates Lipopolysaccharide-induced Cytokines and Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor-α through Cyclooxygenase-2 and Phosphodiesterase 4D*

    PubMed Central

    Rajanbabu, Venugopal; Pan, Chieh-Yu; Lee, Shang-Chun; Lin, Wei-Ju; Lin, Ching-Chun; Li, Chung-Leung; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2010-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide, tilapia hepcidin (TH) 2-3, belongs to the hepcidin family, and its antibacterial function has been reported. Here, we examined the TH2-3-mediated regulation of proinflammatory cytokines in bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophages. The presence of TH2-3 in LPS-stimulated cells reduced the amount of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion. From a microarray, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and cytokine array studies, we showed down-regulation of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and the prostaglandin synthesis gene, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, by TH2-3. Studies with the COX-2-specific inhibitor, melaxicam, and with COX-2-overexpressing cells demonstrated the positive regulation of TNF-α and negative regulation of cAMP degradation-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4D by COX-2. In LPS-stimulated cells, TH2-3 acts like melaxicam and down-regulates COX-2 and up-regulates PDE4D. The reduction in intracellular cAMP by TH2-3 or melaxicam in LPS-stimulated cells supports the negative regulation of PDE4D by COX-2 and TH2-3. This demonstrates that the inhibition of COX-2 is among the mechanisms through which TH2-3 controls TNF-α release. At 1 h after treatment, the presence of TH2-3 in LPS-stimulated cells had suppressed the induction of pERK1/2 and prevented the LPS-stimulated nuclear accumulation of NF-κB family proteins of p65, NF-κB2, and c-Rel. In conclusion, TH2-3 inhibits TNF-α and other proinflammatory cytokines through COX-2-, PDE4D-, and pERK1/2-dependent mechanisms. PMID:20675368

  8. Trigonelline mitigates lipopolysaccharide-induced learning and memory impairment in the rat due to its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Mohsen; Alavi, Mitra; Esmaeil-Jamaat, Elham; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Roghani, Mehrdad

    2018-06-20

    Brain inflammation is associated with cognitive dysfunction, especially in elderly. Trigonelline is a plant alkaloid and a major component of coffee and fenugreek with anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. In this study, the beneficial effect of trigonelline against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive decline was assessed in the rat. LPS was injected i.p. at a dose of 500 μg/kg to induce neuroinflammation and trigonelline was administered p.o. at doses of 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg/day 1 h after LPS that continued for one week. Trigonelline-treated LPS-challenged rats showed improved spatial recognition memory in Y maze, discrimination ratio in novel object discrimination test, and retention and recall in passive avoidance paradigm. Additionally, trigonelline lowered hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and improved superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione (GSH). Furthermore, trigonelline depressed hippocampal nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) in LPS-challenged rats. All of the effects of trigonelline followed a dose-dependent pattern and in some aspects, it acted even better than the routinely-used anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone. Collectively, trigonelline is capable to diminish LPS-induced cognitive decline via suppression of hippocampal oxidative stress and inflammation and appropriate modulation of NF-κB/TLR4 and AChE activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Leptin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis of thymocytes partially via down-regulation of cPLA2 and p38 MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chen; Liao, Jie; Deng, Zihui; Song, Cuihong; Zhang, Jinying; Zabeau, Lennart; Tavernier, Jan; Zhang, Kai; Xue, Hui; Yan, Guangtao

    2013-03-01

    Leptin, a 16-kDa protein that is mainly secreted by adipocytes, plays a protective role in many cell types. It has been shown that leptin acts in the central and peripheral immune system to protect thymocytes. Cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) is an enzyme that can specifically initiate the release of arachidonic acid (AA) to produce eicosanoids, which regulate inflammation and immune responses. Our previous work has shown that leptin is important to prevent apoptosis of thymocytes. However, the role of cPLA(2) is still unclear, and the precise mechanism also remains to be elucidated. In this work, we demonstrated that leptin inhibited the LPS-induced toxicity and apoptosis of thymocytes. Western blot and RT-PCR showed that leptin led to a reduction of cPLA(2) activity and mRNA level, as well as caspase-3 cleavage. Moreover, we found that leptin could decrease the activation of p38 MAPK. Accordingly, we pre-treated apoptotic thymocytes with the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580 and observed an effect similar to the leptin alone treated group. SB203580 also suppressed expression of cPLA(2) and cleavage of caspase-3. Based on these results, we suggest that leptin could attenuate LPS-induced apoptotic injury in mouse thymocyte cells, mainly through the p38/cPLA(2) signalling pathway. The study of the regulatory role of leptin in LPS-induced thymocyte apoptosis can help to explain the role of leptin in the immune system and may provide a novel treatment option in cases of severe trauma, infection, shock, organ failure and autoimmune disease caused by thymic atrophy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Effect of Synthetic Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening in Rodents: Differences in Response Based on Strains and Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Gary A.; Estrada, Eduardo Y.; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs) reduce blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and prevent cell death. Animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia and hemorrhage, and bacterial meningitis respond to treatment with MMPIs. We have used the intracerebral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rat, which induces MMP production and results in a delayed opening of the BBB, to screen MMPIs to identify therapeutic agents. We hypothesized that the mouse would respond similarly to LPS and that the mouse/LPS model of BBB damage would be more useful for screening of MMPIs. Therefore, we adapted the rat LPS model to the mouse and compared the response to LPS and treatment with MMPIs. Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and three strains of mice had stereotactic injections of LPS into the caudate. 14C-sucrose was used to measure permeability of the BBB 24 hours after injection. Initially, we tested three broad-spectrum MMPIs in the rat, BB-1101, BB-94, and BB-2293, and a MMP-2 selective inhibitor, IW449; both BB-1101 and BB-94 significantly suppressed LPS-induced BBB damage (p<0.05). In the 3 mouse strains, C57/BL6, C57/BL10, and C57/BL10HIIIR2, LPS significantly opened the BBB in C57/BL6, and it was the only strain that showed a reduction in BBB permeability with BB-94. Treatment with methylprednisolone and several broad spectrum MMPIs, including BB-1101, were ineffective in the C57/BL6. There was a significant reduction in BBB permeability seen with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) alone, which was used to dissolve the selective MMP-2 and -9 inhibitor, SB-3CT. The tetracycline derivative, minocycline, reduced the BBB injury in mouse by blocking the production of MMP-9. Our results show variability in rats and mice to LPS and MMPIs, which most likely is based on genetic make-up. Understanding these differences may provide important clues that could guide selection of MMPIs in treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:17184743

  11. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase abrogates lipopolysaccharides-induced up-regulation of L-arginine uptake in rat alveolar macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Hammermann, Rainer; Stichnote, Christina; Closs, Ellen Ildicho; Nawrath, Hermann; Racké, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    It was tested whether the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway might be involved in lipopolysaccharides-(LPS)-induced up-regulation of L-arginine transport in rat alveolar macrophages (AMΦ). AMΦ were cultured in absence or presence of LPS. Nitrite accumulation was determined in culture media and cells were used to study [3H]-L-arginine uptake or to isolate RNA for RT – PCR. Culture in presence of LPS (1 μg ml−1, 20 h) caused 11 fold increase of nitrite accumulation and 2.5 fold increase of [3H]-L-arginine uptake. The inducible NO synthase (iNOS) inhibitor 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-thiazine (AMT) present alone during culture had only marginal effects on [3H]-L-arginine uptake. However, AMT present during culture additionally to LPS, suppressed LPS-induced nitrite accumulation and LPS-stimulated [3H]-L-arginine uptake in the same concentration-dependent manner. AMT present only for the last 30 min of the culture period had similar effects on [3H]-L-arginine uptake. AMT present only during the uptake period also inhibited LPS-stimulated [3H]-L-arginine uptake, but with lower potency. The inhibitory effect of AMT could not be opposed by the NO releasing compound DETA NONOate. LPS caused an up-regulation of the mRNA for the cationic amino acid transporter CAT-2B, and this effect was not affected by AMT. AMT (100 μM) did not affect L-arginine transport studied by electrophysiological techniques in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing either the human cationic amino acid transporter hCAT-1 or hCAT-2B. In conclusion, iNOS inhibition in rat AMΦ abolished LPS-activated L-arginine uptake. This effect appears to be caused by reduced flow of L-arginine through the iNOS pathway. PMID:11375254

  12. Formononetin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced release of high mobility group box 1 by upregulating SIRT1 in a PPARδ-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jung Seok; Kang, Eun Sil; Han, Sung Gu; Lim, Dae-Seog; Paek, Kyung Shin; Lee, Chi-Ho; Seo, Han Geuk

    2018-01-01

    The release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) induced by inflammatory signals acts as a cellular alarmin to trigger a chain of inflammatory responses. Although the inflammatory actions of HMGB1 are well studied, less is known about the therapeutic agents that can impede its release. This study investigated whether the isoflavonoid formononetin can modulate HMGB1 release in cellular inflammatory responses. RAW264.7 murine macrophages were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of formononetin. The levels of HMGB1 release, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression, and HMGB1 acetylation were analyzed by immunoblotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The effects of resveratrol and sirtinol, an activator and inhibitor of SIRT1, respectively, on LPS-induced HMGB1 release were also evaluated. Formononetin modulated cellular inflammatory responses by suppressing the release of HMGB1 by macrophages exposed to LPS. In RAW264.7 cells, formononetin significantly attenuated LPS-induced release of HMGB1 into the extracellular environment, which was accompanied by a reduction in its translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. In addition, formononetin significantly induced mRNA and protein expression of SIRT1 in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ)-dependent manner. These effects of formononetin were dramatically attenuated in cells treated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) against PPARδ or with GSK0660, a specific inhibitor of PPARδ, indicating that PPARδ is involved in formononetin-mediated SIRT1 expression. In line with these effects, formononetin-mediated inhibition of HMGB1 release in LPS-treated cells was reversed by treatment with SIRT1-targeting siRNA or sirtinol, a SIRT1 inhibitor. By contrast, resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator, further potentiated the inhibitory effect of formononetin on LPS-induced HMGB1 release, revealing a possible mechanism by which formononetin regulates HMGB1 release through SIRT1. Furthermore

  13. Formononetin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced release of high mobility group box 1 by upregulating SIRT1 in a PPARδ-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jung Seok; Kang, Eun Sil; Han, Sung Gu; Lim, Dae-Seog; Paek, Kyung Shin; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Background The release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) induced by inflammatory signals acts as a cellular alarmin to trigger a chain of inflammatory responses. Although the inflammatory actions of HMGB1 are well studied, less is known about the therapeutic agents that can impede its release. This study investigated whether the isoflavonoid formononetin can modulate HMGB1 release in cellular inflammatory responses. Methods RAW264.7 murine macrophages were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of formononetin. The levels of HMGB1 release, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression, and HMGB1 acetylation were analyzed by immunoblotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The effects of resveratrol and sirtinol, an activator and inhibitor of SIRT1, respectively, on LPS-induced HMGB1 release were also evaluated. Results Formononetin modulated cellular inflammatory responses by suppressing the release of HMGB1 by macrophages exposed to LPS. In RAW264.7 cells, formononetin significantly attenuated LPS-induced release of HMGB1 into the extracellular environment, which was accompanied by a reduction in its translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. In addition, formononetin significantly induced mRNA and protein expression of SIRT1 in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ)-dependent manner. These effects of formononetin were dramatically attenuated in cells treated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) against PPARδ or with GSK0660, a specific inhibitor of PPARδ, indicating that PPARδ is involved in formononetin-mediated SIRT1 expression. In line with these effects, formononetin-mediated inhibition of HMGB1 release in LPS-treated cells was reversed by treatment with SIRT1-targeting siRNA or sirtinol, a SIRT1 inhibitor. By contrast, resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator, further potentiated the inhibitory effect of formononetin on LPS-induced HMGB1 release, revealing a possible mechanism by which formononetin regulates HMGB1 release

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitors restore IL-10 expression in lipopolysaccharide-induced cell inflammation and reduce IL-1β and IL-6 production in breast silicone implant in C57BL/6J wild-type murine model.

    PubMed

    Di Liddo, Rosa; Valente, Sergio; Taurone, Samanta; Zwergel, Clemens; Marrocco, Biagina; Turchetta, Rosaria; Conconi, Maria Teresa; Scarpa, Carlotta; Bertalot, Thomas; Schrenk, Sandra; Mai, Antonello; Artico, Marco

    2016-01-20

    Among epigenetic enzymes, histone deacetylases (HDACs) are responsible for regulating the expression of an extensive array of genes by reversible deacetylation of nuclear histones as well as a large number of non-histone proteins. Initially proposed for cancer therapy, recently the interest for HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) as orally active, safe, and anti-inflammatory agents is rising due to their ability in reducing the severity of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In particular, selective HDAC3, HDAC6, and HDAC8 inhibitors have been described to downregulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-1β, and IL-6). Herein, using KB31, C2C12, and 3T3-J2 cell lines, we demonstrated that, under lipopolysaccharide-induced in vitro inflammation, HDAC3/6/8 inhibitor MC2625 and HDAC6-selective inhibitor MC2780 were effective at a concentration of 30 ng/mL to downregulate mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6) and to promote the transcription of IL-10 gene, without affecting the cell viability. Afterwards, we investigated by immunohistochemistry the activity of MC2625 and MC2780 at a concentration of 60 ng/kg animal weight to regulate silicone-triggered immune response in C57BL/6J female mice. Our findings evidenced the ability of such inhibitors to reduce host inflammation in silicone implants promoting a thickness reduction of peri-implant fibrous capsule, upregulating IL-10 expression, and reducing the production of both IL-1β and IL-6. These results underline the potential application of MC2625 and MC2780 in inflammation-related diseases.

  15. Identification and characterization of a putative lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) gene from Amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri): an insight into the innate immunity of Amphioxus and the evolution of LITAF.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ping; Hu, Jing; Qian, Jinjun; Chen, Liming; Xu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Fei

    2012-06-01

    Innate immunity defenses against infectious agent in all multicultural organisms. TNF-α is an important cytokine that can be stimulated by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to regulate the innate immunity. The lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) functions as a transcription factor for regulating the expression of TNF-α as well as various inflammatory cytokines in response to LPS stimulation. The physiological significance of LITAF gene in the innate immunity of various animals has recently been reported. However, no LITAF gene has yet been identified in amphioxus, which is the best available stand-in for the proximate invertebrate ancestor of the vertebrates. In this study, we identified and characterized an amphioxus LITAF gene (designated as AmphiLITAF). First, we identified the AmphiLITAF from the amphioxus and found that AmphiLITAF gene with ~1.6 kb in length has a 827bp cDNA transcription product which encodes a putative protein with 127 amino acids containing conserved LITAF-domain, and the deduced amino acid of AmphiLITAF shared 37-60% similarity with the LITAFs from other species; second, we uncovered the spatial distribution of the LITAF in different tissues, the expression level of AmphiLITAF mRNA was the highest in hepatic cecum and intestine, moderate in muscles, gills and gonad, and the lowest in notochord. Our findings provide an insight into the innate immune response in the amphioxus and the evolution of the LITAF family. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The structure of oleamide films at the aluminum/oil interface and aluminum/air interface studied by Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy (RAIRS).

    PubMed

    Casford, Michael T L; Davies, Paul B

    2009-08-01

    The structure of oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) films on aluminum has been investigated by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Three different film deposition strategies were investigated: (i) films formed by equilibrium adsorption from oleamide solutions in oil, (ii) Langmuir-Blodgett films cast at 1 and 25 mN m(-1), (iii) thick spin-cast films. Both L-B and spin-cast films were examined in air and under oil. The adsorbate formed in the 1 mN m(-1) film in air showed little orientational order. For this film, the spectroscopic results and the ellipsometric thickness point to a relatively conformationally disordered monolayer that is oriented principally in the plane of the interface. Direct adsorption to the metal interface from oil results in SFG spectra of oleamide that are comparable to those observed for the 1 mN m(-1) L-B film in air. In contrast, SFG and RAIRS results for the 25 mN m(-1) film in air and SFG spectra of the spin-cast film in air both show strong conformational ordering and orientational alignment normal to the interface. The 25 mN m(-1) film has an ellipsometric thickness almost twice that of the 1 mN m(-1) L-B film. Taken in combination with the spectroscopic results, this is indicative of a well packed monolayer in air in which the hydrocarbon chain is in an essentially defect-free extended conformation with the methyl terminus oriented away from the surface. A similar structure is also deduced for the surface of the spin-cast film in air. Upon immersion of the 25 mN m(-1) L-B film in oil the SFG spectra show that this film rapidly adopts a relatively disordered structure similar to that seen for the 1 mN m(-1) L-B film in air. Immersion of the spin-cast film in oil results in the gradual disordering of the amide film over a period of several days until the observed spectra become essentially identical to those observed for direct adsorption of oleamide from oil.

  17. Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Renu; Gupta, S K; Agarwal, Puneet; Srivastava, Sushma

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous extract of C. longa when administered 4 h after induction of E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats showed significantly suppressed inflammation with a significantly lower mean clinical grade, histopathological grade and aqueous humor (AH) protein level compared to vehicle treated group. Although, prednisolone group showed significantly lower clinical grade, histopathological grades and AH protein levels compared to C. longa group, TNF-alpha levels did not differ significantly. Moreover, when the aqueous extract was administered starting from 3 days before induction of uveitis, the mean clinical and histopathological grade as well as AH protein and TNF-alpha levels were comparable to C. longa group when treatment was administered 4 h after induction of uveitis. It is concluded that topically applied standardized aqueous extract of C. longa suppresses endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by reducing TNF-alpha activity.

  18. A new dermocosmetic containing retinaldehyde, delta-tocopherol glucoside and glycylglycine oleamide for managing naturally aged skin: results from in vitro to clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Rouvrais, Céline; Bacqueville, Daniel; Bogdanowicz, Patrick; Haure, Marie-José; Duprat, Laure; Coutanceau, Christine; Castex-Rizzi, Nathalie; Duplan, Hélène; Mengeaud, Valérie; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Natural aging of skin tissues, the addition of the cumulative action of the time and radiation exposure result in skin atrophy, wrinkles and degeneration of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The aim of the study was to investigate the beneficial effect of a combination containing retinaldehyde (RAL), delta-tocopherol glucoside (delta-TC) and glycylglycine ole-amide (GGO) and of a dermocosmetic containing the combination. Materials and methods The protective effect of the combination was assessed through in vitro gene expression of ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated fibroblasts. A skin aging assay using UV light on ex vivo skin samples and a clinical study conducted in 36 women aged from 35 to 55 years with a minimum of level 4 to a maximum of level 6 on the crow’s feet photoscale assessed the antiaging effect of the dermocosmetic. Results When added to UV-irradiated fibroblasts, the combination substantially improved the ECM in activating the elastin fiber production (fibrillin 2, fibulin 1 and 5 and lysyl oxidase-like 2) as well as that of proteins involved in the cellular ECM interactions (integrin b1, paxillin and actin a2). An ex vivo photodamaged human skin model showed that the dermocosmetic formulation containing the combination of the active ingredients protected the elastic network against UV-induced alterations including both elastin and fibrillin-rich fibers in the dermis. A daily application of the dermocosmetic for 2 months on naturally aged skin resulted in a statistically significant improvement (p<0.05) of visible signs of aging comprising crow’s feet, wrinkles and periocular fine lines. Finally, the formulation was well tolerated. Conclusion The dermocosmetic containing RAL, delta-TC and GGO provides a substantial benefit in the daily care of naturally aged skin in women aged 35–55 years. PMID:28203099

  19. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (-/-) mice exhibit an increased sensitivity to the disruptive effects of anandamide or oleamide in a working memory water maze task.

    PubMed

    Varvel, Stephen A; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Engram, April E; Lichtman, Aron H

    2006-04-01

    Although recent evidence suggests that fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) may represent a potential therapeutic target, few published studies have investigated FAAH or its fatty acid amide substrates (FAAs) in animal models of learning and memory. Therefore, our primary goal was to determine whether FAAH (-/-) mice, which possess elevated levels of anandamide and other FAAs, would display altered performance in four Morris water maze tasks: acquisition of a hidden fixed platform, reversal learning, working memory, and probe trials. FAAH (-/-) mice failed to exhibit deficits in any task; in fact, they initially acquired the working memory task more rapidly than FAAH (+/+) mice. The second goal of this study was to investigate whether the FAAH inhibitor OL-135 (1-oxo-1[5-(2-pyridyl)-2-yl]-7-phenylheptane), anandamide, other FAAs, and methanandamide would affect working memory in both genotypes. FAAH (-/-), but not (+/+), mice displayed working memory impairments following exogenous administration of anandamide (ED(50) = 6 mg/kg) or oleamide (50 mg/kg). However, the central cannabinoid receptor (CB(1)) receptor antagonist SR141716 [N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide HCl] only blocked the disruptive effects of anandamide. Methanandamide, which is not metabolized by FAAH, disrupted working memory performance in both genotypes (ED(50) = 10 mg/kg), suggesting that CB(1) receptor signaling is unaltered by FAAH deletion. In contrast, OL-135 and other FAAs failed to affect working memory in either genotype. These results suggest that FAAH deletion does not impair spatial learning but may enhance acquisition under certain conditions. More generally, FAAH may represent a novel therapeutic target that circumvents the undesirable cognitive side effects commonly associated with direct-acting cannabinoid agonists.

  20. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Reisenauer, Chris J; Bhatt, Dhaval P; Mitteness, Dane J; Slanczka, Evan R; Gienger, Heidi M; Watt, John A; Rosenberger, Thad A

    2011-04-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6 g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments, free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 h. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 h. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40-50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

    2011-01-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive GFAP-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40–50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of ChAT-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. PMID:21272004

  2. Promotion of interferon-gamma production by natural killer cells via suppression of murine peritoneal macrophage prostaglandin E₂ production using intravenous anesthetic propofol.

    PubMed

    Inada, Takefumi; Kubo, Kozue; Shingu, Koh

    2010-10-01

    Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic, widely used for general anesthesia during surgery, which inevitably involves tissue trauma with inflammation. At sites of inflammation, prostanoids, especially prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), are abundant. This study addresses the effect of propofol on macrophage PGE₂ production. Using thioglycollate-elicited murine peritoneal macrophages, propofol (7.5-30 μM) suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced PGE₂ production. The suppression was via the direct inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme activity and due neither to the downregulation of COX expression nor the inhibition of arachidonic acid release from plasma membranes. In macrophage:natural killer (NK) cell co-culture, propofol dramatically increased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production, and the actions of propofol were mimicked by a selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, as well as the selective EP4 receptor antagonist L-161,982, suggesting a role of PGE₂ suppression in the upregulation of IFN-γ production. Furthermore, in purified NK cell culture, PGE₂ directly suppressed the production of IFN-γ by activated NK cells, which was reversed by selective inhibition of EP4 activity. Taken together, our results show that, in macrophage:NK cell co-culture, propofol, through the suppression of macrophage PGE₂ production, upregulates NK cell IFN-γ production by alleviating EP4 receptor-mediated suppression of IFN-γ production. Propofol may potentially exert considerable influence on inflammation and immunity by suppressing PGE₂ synthesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Interocular suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuna, Ana Rita; Almeida Neves Carrega, Filipa; Nunes, Amélia Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify the suppressive imbalance, based on the manipulation of ocular luminance, between a group of subjects with normal binocular vision and a group of subjects with amblyopia. The result reveals that there are statistically significant differences in interocular dominance between two groups, evidencing a greater suppressive imbalance in amblyopic subjects. The technique used, proved to be a simple, easy to apply and economic method, for quantified ocular dominance. It is presented as a technique with the potential to accompany subjects with a marked dominance in one of the eyes that makes fusion difficult.

  4. Suppression of human monocyte tissue factor induction by red wine phenolics and synthetic derivatives of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurjeet; Roberti, Marinella; Raul, Francis; Pendurthi, Usha R

    2007-01-01

    Prevention of cardiovascular disease through nutritional supplements is growing in popularity throughout the world. Multiple epidemiologic studies found that moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly red wine, lowers mortality rates from coronary heart diseases (CHD). Chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis associated with CHD culminate in aberrant intravascular expression of tissue factor (TF), which triggers blood coagulation leading to thrombosis, a major cause for heart attack. We showed earlier that two red wine phenolics, resveratrol and quercetin, suppressed TF induction in endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated efficacy of seven resveratrol derivatives, which were shown to be effective in regulating cancer cell growth in vitro at much lower concentrations than the parent compound resveratrol, in inhibiting TF induction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also tested possible synergistic effects of resveratrol and quercetin with the other major red wine phenolics in suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TF expression in human PBMCs. We found that several resveratrol derivatives were 2- to 10-fold more efficient than resveratrol in inhibiting TF induction. Our study found no evidence for synergism among red wine polyphenolics. These data suggest that structural alterations of resveratrol can be effective in producing potent antithrombotic agents that will have therapeutic potential in the improvement of cardiovascular health and prevention of CHD. Among major red wine phenolics, quercetin appears to be the predominant suppressor of TF induction.

  5. Chronic exposure to dim light at night suppresses immune responses in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Fonken, Laura K; Walton, James C; Nelson, Randy J

    2011-06-23

    Species have been adapted to specific niches optimizing survival and reproduction; however, urbanization by humans has dramatically altered natural habitats. Artificial light at night (LAN), termed 'light pollution', is an often overlooked, yet increasing disruptor of habitats, which perturbs physiological processes that rely on precise light information. For example, LAN alters the timing of reproduction and activity in some species, which decreases the odds of successful breeding and increases the threat of predation for these individuals, leading to reduced fitness. LAN also suppresses immune function, an important proxy for survival. To investigate the impact of LAN in a species naive to light pollution in its native habitat, immune function was examined in Siberian hamsters derived from wild-caught stock. After four weeks exposure to dim LAN, immune responses to three different challenges were assessed: (i) delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), (ii) lipopolysaccharide-induced fever, and (iii) bactericide activity of blood. LAN suppressed DTH response and reduced bactericide activity of blood after lipopolysaccharide treatment, in addition to altering daily patterns of locomotor activity, suggesting that human encroachment on habitats via night-time lighting may inadvertently compromise immune function and ultimately fitness.

  6. 6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate modulates endothelial cell function and suppresses leukocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takayuki; Akita, Nobuyuki; Nagai, Masashi; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Koji

    2014-01-01

    6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is an active compound in wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum.), which is one of the most popular spices in Japan. 6-MSITC suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage activation, arachidonic- or adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet activation, and tumor cell proliferation. These data indicate that 6-MSITC has several biological activities involving anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, and anti-apoptosis properties. Endothelial cells (ECs) maintain vascular homeostasis and play crucial roles in crosstalk between blood coagulation and vascular inflammation. In this study, we determined the anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory effects of 6-MSITC on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). 6-MSITC slightly reduced tissue factor expression, but did not alter von Willebrand factor release in activated HUVECs. 6-MSITC modulated the generation of activated protein C, which is essential for negative regulation of blood coagulation, on normal ECs. In addition, 6-MSITC reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression. 6-MSITC markedly attenuated TNF-α-induced adhesion of human monoblast U937 cells to HUVECs and reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin mRNA expression in activated ECs. These results showed that 6-MSITC modulates EC function and suppresses cell adhesion. This study provides new insight into the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of 6-MSITC, suggesting that 6-MSITC has therapeutic potential as a treatment for vasculitis and vascular inflammation.

  7. Psoralidin suppresses osteoclastogenesis in BMMs and attenuates LPS-mediated osteolysis by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingbo; Ma, Rui; Yang, Xiaobin; Zhu, Ziqi; Guo, Hua; He, Baorong; Wang, Biao; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-10-01

    Psoralidin is a metabolic product from the seed of psoraleacorylifolia, possessed anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. We speculated that psoralidin might impact osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. By using both in vitro and in vivo studies, we observed psoralidin strongly inhibited RANKL induced osteoclast formation during preosteoclast cultures, suggesting that it acts on osteoclast precursors to inhibit RANKL/RANK signaling. At the molecular level, by using MAPKs specific inhibitors (U-0126, SB-203580 and SP-600125) we demonstrated that psoralidin markedly abrogated the phosphorylation of p38, ERK, JNK. Moreover, the RANKL induced NF-κB/p65 phosphorylation and I-κB degradation were significantly inhibited by psoralidin. Further, psoralidin significantly suppressed osteoclastogenesis marker genes of TRAP, Cathepsin K and OSCAR. These were accompanied by the decreased expression of c-Fos and NFATc1 transcription factors. Consistent with in vitro results, our in vivo and serologic studies showed psoralidin inhibited lipopolysaccharide induced bone resorption by suppressing the inflammatory cytokines: TNF-α and IL-6 expression, as well as the ratio of RNAKL : OPG. These results collectively suggested that psoralidin could represent a novel therapeutic strategy for osteoclast-related disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Delphinidin, a specific inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase, suppresses inflammatory signaling via prevention of NF-{kappa}B acetylation in fibroblast-like synoviocyte MH7A cells

    SciTech Connect

    Seong, Ah-Reum; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, KyungChul

    Highlights: {yields} Delphinidin is a novel inhibitor of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase. {yields} Delphinidin prevents the hyperacetylation of p65 by inhibiting the HAT activity of p300/CBP. {yields} Delphinidin efficiently suppresses the expression of inflammatory cytokines in MH7A cells via hypoacetylation of NF-{kappa}B. {yields} Delphinidin inhibits cytokine release in the Jurkat T lymphocyte cell line. -- Abstract: Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors (HATi) isolated from dietary compounds have been shown to suppress inflammatory signaling, which contributes to rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we identified a novel HATi in Punica granatum L. known as delphinidin (DP). DP did not affect the activity of other epigenetic enzymesmore » (histone deacetylase, histone methyltransferase, or sirtuin1). DP specifically inhibited the HAT activities of p300/CBP. It also inhibited p65 acetylation in MH7A cells, a human rheumatoid arthritis synovial cell line. DP-induced hypoacetylation was accompanied by cytosolic accumulation of p65 and nuclear localization of IKB{alpha}. Accordingly, DP treatment inhibited TNF{alpha}-stimulated increases in NF-{kappa}B function and expression of NF-{kappa}B target genes in these cells. Importantly, DP suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in Jurkat T lymphocytes, demonstrating that HATi efficiently suppresses cytokine-mediated immune responses. Together, these results show that the HATi activity of DP counters anti-inflammatory signaling by blocking p65 acetylation and that this compound may be useful in preventing inflammatory arthritis.« less

  9. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and inducible nitric oxide synthase by 4-[(2′-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate from Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Jung; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Chang, Leng Chee; Kondratyuk, Tamara P.; Pezzuto, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarack is commonly consumed for nutritional or medicinal properties. We recently reported the isolation and structure elucidation of novel bioactive phenolic glycosides, including 4-[(2′-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate (RBITC), which was found to suppress inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. Inhibitors of proteins such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and iNOS are potential anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive agents. The inhibitory activity of RBITC on NO production (IC50 = 0.96 ± 0.23 µM) was greater than that mediated by other well-known isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (IC50 = 2.86 ± 0.39 µM) and benzyl isothiocyanate (IC50 = 2.08 ± 0.28 µM). RBITC inhibited expression of COX-2 and iNOS at both the protein and mRNA levels. Major upstream signaling pathways involved mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). RBITC inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase and stress-activated protein kinase, as well as ubiquitin-dependent degradation of inhibitor κBα (IκBα). In accordance with IκBα degradation, nuclear accumulation of NF-κB, and subsequent binding to NF-κB cis-acting element, was attenuated by treatment with RBITC. These data suggest RBITC should be included in the dietary armamentarium of isothiocyanates potentially capable of mediating anti-inflammatory or cancer chemopreventive activity. PMID:21774591

  10. The protective effect of lidocaine on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats through NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathway and excessive inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, L-J; Ding, Y-B; Ma, P-L; Jiang, S-H; Li, K-Z; Li, A-Z; Li, M-C; Shi, C-X; Du, J; Zhou, H-D

    2018-04-01

    Acute lung injury is a severe disease with a high rate of mortality, leading to more important illness. We aimed at exploring the protective role and potential mechanisms of lidocaine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to control group receiving 0.9% saline solution, LPS group treated with 4 mg/kg LPS i.p., LPS + lidocaine(treated with 4 mg/kg LPS i.p. followed by giving 1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg of lidocaine i.v.). Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected for histopathological examination and biochemical analyze 12 h after LPS induction. The cytokines expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 was measured by ELISA. In addition, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in lung tissues were also detected using ELISA. The protein expressions of p38, p-p38, p65, p-p65 and IκB were analyzed by Western blot. The results indicated that after lidocaine treatment was able to decrease significantly wet-to-dry (W/D) ratio and ameliorate the histopathologic damage. Additionally, total protein content and the number of leukocytes in BALF significantly decreased. ELISA result indicated that the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 in BALF were markedly suppressed. Meanwhile, the activities of T-AOC and SOD in lung tissues significantly increased, while the content of MDA significantly decreased after treatment with lidocaine. Moreover, Western blot suggested that lidocaine inhibited phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK. Therefore, lidocaine could ameliorate the LPS-induced lung injury via NF-κB/p38 MAPK signaling and excessive inflammatory responses, providing a potential for becoming the anti-inflammatory agent against lung injury.

  11. Glycyrrhetinic acid attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure in d-galactosamine-sensitized mice by up-regulating expression of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-M.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xinru; Gong, Xia; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Rong; Kuang, Ge; Wang, Bin; Chen, Xinyu; Wan, Jingyuan

    2017-04-01

    Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), the main active ingredient of licorice, reportedly has anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties, but its molecular mechanisms remain be elusive. In the present study, Balb/c mice were pretreated with GA (10, 30, or 100mg/kg) 1h before lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine (D-GalN) administration. In other in vitro experiment, RAW264.7 macrophages were pretreated with GA before LPS exposure. The mortality, hepatic tissue histology, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were analyzed. Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs), activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF-κB, and production of TNF-α were assessed by flow cytometry, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Our results showed that pretreatment with GA protected mice against LPS/D-GalN-induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), including a dose-dependent alleviation of mortality and ALT/AST elevation, ameliorating hepatic pathological damage, and decreasing TNF-α release. Moreover, GA inhibited LPS-induced activation of MAPKs and NF-κB in response to LPS, but the expression of TLR4 was not affected in vivo and in vitro. Notably, GA pretreatment in vivo suppressed IRAK-1 activity while inducing IRAK-M expression. Silencing of IRAK-M expression with siRNA blocked these beneficial effects of GA on the activation of MAPKs and NF-κB as well as TNF-α production in LPS-primed macrophages. Taken together, we conclude that GA could prevent LPS/D-GalN-induced FHF. The underlying mechanisms may be related to up-regulation of IRAK-M, which in turn caused deactivation of IRAK-1 and subsequent MAPKs and NF-κB, resulting in inhibiting TNF-α production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. N-Docosahexaenoyl Dopamine, an Endocannabinoid-like Conjugate of Dopamine and the n-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid, Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Activation of Microglia and Macrophages via COX-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Plastina, Pierluigi; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Jansen, Renate; Balvers, Michiel; Ten Klooster, Jean Paul; Gruppen, Harry; Witkamp, Renger; Meijerink, Jocelijn

    2017-03-15

    Several studies indicate that the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contributes to an attenuated inflammatory status in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. To explain these effects, different mechanisms are being proposed, including those involving endocannabinoids and related signaling molecules. Many of these compounds belong to the fatty acid amides, conjugates of fatty acids with biogenic amines. Conjugates of DHA with ethanolamine or serotonin have previously been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and potentially neuroprotective properties. Here, we synthesized another amine conjugate of DHA, N-docosahexaenoyl dopamine (DHDA), and tested its immune-modulatory properties in both RAW 264.7 macrophages and BV-2 microglial cells. N-Docosahexaenoyl dopamine significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO), the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the chemokines macrophage-inflammatory protein-3α (CCL20) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), whereas its parent compounds, dopamine and DHA, were ineffective. Further exploration of potential effects of DHDA on key inflammatory mediators revealed that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA level and production of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) were concentration-dependently inhibited in macrophages. In activated BV-2 cells, PGE 2 production was also reduced, without changes in COX-2 mRNA levels. In addition, DHDA did not affect NF-kB activity in a reporter cell line. Finally, the immune-modulatory activities of DHDA were compared with those of N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) and similar potencies were found in both cell types. Taken together, our data suggest that DHDA, a potentially endogenous endocannabinoid, may be an additional member of the group of immune-modulating n-3 fatty acid-derived lipid mediators.

  13. Isorhamnetin inhibits Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of interleukin-6 in murine macrophages via anti-inflammatory heme oxygenase-1 induction and inhibition of nuclear factor-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 activation.

    PubMed

    Jin, J Y; Choi, E Y; Park, H R; Choi, J I; Choi, I S; Kim, S J

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key proinflammatory cytokine that has been considered to be important in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Therefore, host-modulatory agents directed at inhibiting IL-6 appear to be beneficial in terms of attenuating periodontal disease progression and potentially improving disease susceptibility. In the current study, we investigated the effect of the flavonoid isorhamnetin on the production of IL-6 in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in inflammatory periodontal disease, and its mechanisms of action. Lipopolysaccharide from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 was isolated using the standard hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were collected and assayed for IL-6. We used real-time PCR to quantify IL-6 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA expression. The expression of HO-1 protein and the levels of signaling proteins were monitored using immunoblot analyses. The DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was analyzed using ELISA-based assay kits. Isorhamnetin significantly down-regulated P. intermedia LPS-induced production of IL-6 as well as its mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. Isorhamnetin up-regulated the expression of HO-1 at both gene transcription and translation levels in cells stimulated with P. intermedia LPS. In addition, inhibition of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin IX blocked the inhibitory effect of isorhamnetin on IL-6 production. Isorhamnetin failed to prevent LPS from activating either c-Jun N-terminal kinase or p38 pathways. Isorhamnetin did not inhibit NF-κB transcriptional activity at the level of inhibitory κB-α degradation. Isorhamnetin suppressed NF-κB signaling through inhibition of nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-κB p50 subunit and attenuated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 signaling. Although further research is required to clarify the detailed mechanism of action, we propose

  14. Glycyrrhetinic acid attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure in D-galactosamine-sensitized mice by up-regulating expression of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-M

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Xinru

    Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), the main active ingredient of licorice, reportedly has anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties, but its molecular mechanisms remain be elusive. In the present study, Balb/c mice were pretreated with GA (10, 30, or 100 mg/kg) 1 h before lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GalN) administration. In other in vitro experiment, RAW264.7 macrophages were pretreated with GA before LPS exposure. The mortality, hepatic tissue histology, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were analyzed. Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs), activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF-κB, and production of TNF-α were assessed by flow cytometry, westernmore » blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Our results showed that pretreatment with GA protected mice against LPS/D-GalN-induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), including a dose-dependent alleviation of mortality and ALT/AST elevation, ameliorating hepatic pathological damage, and decreasing TNF-α release. Moreover, GA inhibited LPS-induced activation of MAPKs and NF-κB in response to LPS, but the expression of TLR4 was not affected in vivo and in vitro. Notably, GA pretreatment in vivo suppressed IRAK-1 activity while inducing IRAK-M expression. Silencing of IRAK-M expression with siRNA blocked these beneficial effects of GA on the activation of MAPKs and NF-κB as well as TNF-α production in LPS-primed macrophages. Taken together, we conclude that GA could prevent LPS/D-GalN-induced FHF. The underlying mechanisms may be related to up-regulation of IRAK-M, which in turn caused deactivation of IRAK-1 and subsequent MAPKs and NF-κB, resulting in inhibiting TNF-α production. - Highlights: • Glycyrrhetinic acid protected from LPS/D-GalN-induced liver injury in mice. • Glycyrrhetinic acid inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α production in vivo and in vitro.

  15. Suppression of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cytokine/chemokine production in skin cells by sandalwood oils and purified α-santalol and β-santalol.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Levenson, C; Bell, R H; Anderson, S A; Hudson, J B; Collins, C C; Cox, M E

    2014-06-01

    Medicinally, sandalwood oil (SO) has been attributed with antiinflammatory properties; however, mechanism(s) for this activity have not been elucidated. To examine how SOs affect inflammation, cytokine antibody arrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to assess changes in production of cytokines and chemokines by co-cultured human dermal fibroblasts and neo-epidermal keratinocytes exposed to lipopolysaccharides and SOs from Western Australian and East Indian sandalwood trees or to the primary SO components, α-santalol and β-santalol. Lipopolysaccharides stimulated the release of 26 cytokines and chemokines, 20 of which were substantially suppressed by simultaneous exposure to either of the two sandalwood essential oils and to ibuprofen. The increased activity of East Indian SO correlated with increased santalol concentrations. Purified α-santalol and β-santalol equivalently suppressed production of five indicator cytokines/chemokines at concentrations proportional to the santalol concentrations of the oils. Purified α-santalol and β-santalol also suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced production of the arachidonic acid metabolites, prostaglandin E2, and thromboxane B2, by the skin cell co-cultures. The ability of SOs to mimic ibuprofen non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs that act by inhibiting cyclooxygenases suggests a possible mechanism for the observed antiinflammatory properties of topically applied SOs and provides a rationale for use in products requiring antiinflammatory effects. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Dexamethasone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicine. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  17. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Toxic Shock Syndrome in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Stach, Christopher S; Schlievert, Patrick M

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of susceptibility to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; endotoxin) is a defining characteristic of Staphylococcus aureus superantigens. At the time of this publication, there are 24 identified staphylococcal superantigens (SAgs), some of which have yet to be fully characterized. Testing the capacity of superantigens to potentiate LPS sensitivity is essential to characterize the role of these proteins in disease development. Here we describe how to perform studies of the enhancement of LPS-induced toxic shock syndrome in rabbits. This protocol also provides information on a second important activity of superantigens: the production of fever.

  18. Lipopolysaccharide induces autotaxin expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Song; Zhang Junjie

    2009-01-09

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme with lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity, which converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid involved in numerous biological activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. In the present study, we found that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a well-known initiator of the inflammatory response, induced ATX expression in monocytic THP-1 cells. The activation of PKR, JNK, and p38 MAPK was required for the ATX induction. The LPS-induced ATX in THP-1 cells was characterized as the {beta} isoform. In the presence of LPC, ATX could promote the migrations of THP-1 and Jurkat cells, which wasmore » inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Gi-mediated LPA receptor signaling. In summary, LPS induces ATX expression in THP-1 cells via a PKR, JNK and p38 MAPK-mediated mechanism, and the ATX induction is likely to enhance immune cell migration in proinflammatory response by regulating LPA levels in the microenvironment.« less

  19. Agmatine attenuates stress- and lipopolysaccharide-induced fever in rats

    PubMed Central

    Aricioglu, Feyza; Regunathan, Soundar

    2010-01-01

    Physiological stress evokes a number of responses, including a rise in body temperature, which has been suggested to be the result of an elevation in the thermoregulatory set point. This response seems to share similar mechanisms with infectious fever. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of agmatine on different models of stressors [(restraint and lipopolysaccaride (LPS)] on body temperature. Rats were either restrained for 4 h or injected with LPS, both of these stressors caused an increase in body temperature. While agmatine itself had no effect on body temperature, treatment with agmatine (20, 40, 80 mg/kg intraperitoneally) dose dependently inhibited stress- and LPS-induced hyperthermia. When agmatine (80 mg/kg) was administered 30 min later than LPS (500 μg/kg) it also inhibited LPS-induced hyperthermia although the effect became significant only at later time points and lower maximal response compared to simultaneous administration. To determine if the decrease in body temperature is associated with an anti-inflammatory effect of agmatine, the nitrite/nitrate levels in plasma was measured. Agmatine treatment inhibited LPS-induced production of nitrates dose dependently. As an endogenous molecule, agmatine has the capacity to inhibit stress- and LPS-induced increases in body temperature. PMID:15936786

  20. Lipopolysaccharide induces amyloid formation of antimicrobial peptide HAL-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiarong; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiaoming; Chen, Wei; Sun, Hongbin; Wang, Junfeng

    2014-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the important component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contributes to the integrity of the outer membrane and protects the cell against bactericidal agents, including antimicrobial peptides. However, the mechanisms of interaction between antimicrobial peptides and LPS are not clearly understood. Halictines-2 (HAL-2), one of the novel antimicrobial peptides, was isolated from the venom of the eusocial bee Halictus sexcinctus. HAL-2 has exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and even against cancer cells. Here, we studied the interactions between HAL-2 and LPS to elucidate the antibacterial mechanism of HAL-2 in vitro. Our results show that HAL-2 adopts a significant degree of β-strand structure in the presence of LPS. LPS is capable of inducing HAL-2 amyloid formation, which may play a vital role in its antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Naringin protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiac injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Xianchu, Liu; Lan, Professor Zheng; Qiufang, Li; Yi, Liu; Xiangcheng, Ruan; Wenqi, Hou; Yang, Ding

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce sepsis and lead to myocardial dysfunction. Naringin has various biological activities in LPS-induced sepsis. In this study, our aim was to investigate the effects of Naringin on LPS-induced cardiac injury and clarify its potential mechanism. We found that in vivo treatment with Naringin significantly ameliorated body weight loss, and attenuated cardiac histopathological changes after LPS challenge. Furthermore, Naringin inhibited LPS-induced increase of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 activities to alleviate inflammatory response in heart. Moreover, Naringin supplement dramatically increased SOD levels, and prevented MDA levels to ameliorate oxidative stress compared with the LPS group in heart. Lastly, treatment with Naringin also significantly decreased the ratio of BAX to BCL-2 to resist apoptosis in heart. It is concluded that Naringin may be a promising therapeutic agent on LPS-induced cardiac injury by anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Curcumin Attenuation of Lipopolysaccharide Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Thomas; Reddy, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    To study the ameliorating effects of curcumin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced cardiac hypertrophy, mice were assigned to 4 groups (3 males and 3 females in each group): (A) control, (B) curcumin: 100 μg/kg of body weight by intraperitoneal route (IP), (C) LPS: 60 mg/kg (IP), and (D) LPS + curcumin: both at previously stated concentrations by IP route. All mice were sacrificed as 12 hr and 24 hrs groups accordingly after LPS injection. The hearts were collected, photographed for cardiomegaly, and weighed to compare heart weight/brain weight (HW/BW) in mg/mg. For immunohistochemistry, the tissue sections were exposed to histone H3, H4 and acetylated histone H3, H4 antibody. LPS induced a significant increase in histone acetylation as shown by intense staining. In curcumin + LPS treated mice nuclear staining was similar to the control group indicating that curcumin traversed the histone acetylation activity of the LPS. To further check the mechanism of action of curcumin, p300 protein acetylation levels were analyzed. This study suggests that the probable mechanism of action of curcumin is via the reduction of p300 HAT activity. PMID:24236240

  3. Pleurotus eryngii Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Junya; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Ouchi, Kenji; Inatomi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) is consumed as a fresh cultivated mushroom worldwide and demonstrated to have multiple beneficial effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of P. eryngii in mice with acute lung injury (ALI). Intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10  μ g/site/mouse) induced marked lung inflammation (increase in the number of inflammatory cells, protein leakage, and production of nitric oxide in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) as well as histopathological damage in the lung, 6 h after treatment. Mice administered heat-treated P. eryngii (0.3-1 g/kg, p.o. (HTPE)) 1 h before LPS challenge showed decreased pulmonary inflammation and ameliorated histopathological damage. These results suggest that HTPE has anti-inflammatory effects against ALI. Thus, P. eryngii itself may also have anti-inflammatory effects and could be a beneficial food for the prevention of ALI induced by bacterial infection.

  4. Pleurotus eryngii Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, Tsugunobu; Ouchi, Kenji; Inatomi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) is consumed as a fresh cultivated mushroom worldwide and demonstrated to have multiple beneficial effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of P. eryngii in mice with acute lung injury (ALI). Intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 μg/site/mouse) induced marked lung inflammation (increase in the number of inflammatory cells, protein leakage, and production of nitric oxide in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) as well as histopathological damage in the lung, 6 h after treatment. Mice administered heat-treated P. eryngii (0.3–1 g/kg, p.o. (HTPE)) 1 h before LPS challenge showed decreased pulmonary inflammation and ameliorated histopathological damage. These results suggest that HTPE has anti-inflammatory effects against ALI. Thus, P. eryngii itself may also have anti-inflammatory effects and could be a beneficial food for the prevention of ALI induced by bacterial infection. PMID:24799939

  5. Nilotinib ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats

    SciTech Connect

    El-Agamy, Dina S., E-mail: dinaagamy1@yahoo.com

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the new tyrosine kinase inhibitor, nilotinib on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats and explore its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given nilotinib (10 mg/kg) by oral gavage twice daily for 1 week prior to exposure to aerosolized LPS. At 24 h after LPS exposure, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples and lung tissue were collected. The lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, protein level and the number of inflammatory cells in the BALF were determined. Optical microscopy was performed to examine the pathological changes in lungs. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content,more » superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) activities as well as nitrite/nitrate (NO{sub 2}{sup -}/NO{sub 3}{sup -}) levels were measured in lung tissues. The expression of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), transforming growth factor-{beta}{sub 1} (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were determined in lung tissues. Treatment with nilotinib prior to LPS exposure significantly attenuated the LPS-induced pulmonary edema, as it significantly decreased lung W/D ratio, protein concentration and the accumulation of the inflammatory cells in the BALF. This was supported by the histopathological examination which revealed marked attenuation of LPS-induced ALI in nilotinib treated rats. In addition, nilotinib significantly increased SOD and GSH activities with significant decrease in MDA content in the lung. Nilotinib also reduced LPS mediated overproduction of pulmonary NO{sub 2}{sup -}/NO{sub 3}{sup -} levels. Importantly, nilotinib caused down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-{alpha}, TGF-{beta}{sub 1} and iNOS levels in the lung. Taken together, these results demonstrate the protective effects of nilotinib against the LPS-induced ALI. This effect can be attributed to nilotinib ability to counteract the inflammatory cells infiltration and hence ROS generation and regulate cytokine effects. - Research highlights: > The protective effects of nilotinib against LPS-induced ALI in rats were studied. > Nilotinib showed potent anti-inflammatory activity as it attenuated PMN infiltration and hence ROS generation. > In addition, nilotinib caused down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production.« less

  6. Fire Suppression and Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    This report is concerned with the following topics regarding fire suppression:What is the relative effectiveness of candidate suppressants to extinguish a representative fire in reduced gravity, including high-O2 mole fraction, low -pressure environments? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of physically acting and chemically-acting agents in spacecraft fire suppression? What are the O2 mole fraction and absolute pressure below which a fire cannot exist? What effect does gas-phase radiation play in the overall fire and post-fire environments? Are the candidate suppressants effective to extinguish fires on practical solid fuels? What is required to suppress non-flaming fires (smoldering and deep seated fires) in reduced gravity? How can idealized space experiment results be applied to a practical fire scenario? What is the optimal agent deployment strategy for space fire suppression?

  7. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in contrast detection thresholds) as a function of the visual features of the stimulus being suppressed and the stimulus evoking suppression, namely, the popular “Mondrian” CFS stimulus (N. Tsuchiya & C. Koch, 2005). First, we found that CFS differentially suppresses the spatial components of the suppressed stimulus: Observers' sensitivity for stimuli of relatively low spatial frequency or cardinally oriented features was more strongly impaired in comparison to high spatial frequency or obliquely oriented stimuli. Second, we discovered that this feature-selective bias primarily arises from the spatiotemporal structure of the CFS stimulus, particularly within information residing in the low spatial frequency range and within the smooth rather than abrupt luminance changes over time. These results imply that this CFS stimulus operates by selectively attenuating certain classes of low-level signals while leaving others to be potentially encoded during suppression. These findings underscore the importance of considering the contribution of low-level features in stimulus-driven effects that are reported under CFS. PMID:22408039

  8. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-03-08

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in contrast detection thresholds) as a function of the visual features of the stimulus being suppressed and the stimulus evoking suppression, namely, the popular "Mondrian" CFS stimulus (N. Tsuchiya & C. Koch, 2005). First, we found that CFS differentially suppresses the spatial components of the suppressed stimulus: Observers' sensitivity for stimuli of relatively low spatial frequency or cardinally oriented features was more strongly impaired in comparison to high spatial frequency or obliquely oriented stimuli. Second, we discovered that this feature-selective bias primarily arises from the spatiotemporal structure of the CFS stimulus, particularly within information residing in the low spatial frequency range and within the smooth rather than abrupt luminance changes over time. These results imply that this CFS stimulus operates by selectively attenuating certain classes of low-level signals while leaving others to be potentially encoded during suppression. These findings underscore the importance of considering the contribution of low-level features in stimulus-driven effects that are reported under CFS.

  9. High glucose-boosted inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide are suppressed by statin.

    PubMed

    Nareika, A; Maldonado, A; He, L; Game, B A; Slate, E H; Sanders, J J; London, S D; Lopes-Virella, M F; Huang, Y

    2007-02-01

    It has been established that periodontal diseases are more prevalent and of greater severity in diabetic patients than in nondiabetic patients. Recent studies have underscored the role of monocytes and macrophages in periodontal tissue inflammation and destruction in diabetic patients. Although it has been shown that monocytes isolated from diabetic patients produce more inflammatory cytokines and that gingival crevicular fluid collected from diabetic patients contains higher levels of inflammatory cytokines than that obtained from nondiabetic patients, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. U937 histiocytes cultured in medium containing either normal (5 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose were treated with 100 ng/ml of lipopolysaccharide for 24h. After the treatment, cytokines in the medium and cytokine mRNA in the cells were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbet assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. In this study, we demonstrated that the pre-exposure of U937 histiocytes to high glucose concentrations markedly increased the lipopolysaccharide-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the cellular inducible nitric oxide level compared with pre-exposure to normal glucose. Our data also showed that the increased secretion of cytokines was a result of increased mRNA expression. Furthermore, the effects of statin and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor agonists on high glucose-enhanced secretion of cytokines were determined. The results showed that simvastatin, but not fenofibrate or pioglitazone, inhibited high glucose-enhanced cytokine release. This study has shown that high glucose concentrations and lipopolysaccharide act synergistically to stimulate the secretion of inflammatory mediators, and that statin is capable of suppressing the high glucose-boosted proinflammatory response. This study therefore delineates a novel mechanism by which hyperglycemia enhances the inflammatory responses of

  10. Fire Suppression, District 5

    Treesearch

    Roy Headley

    1916-01-01

    The increasing effectiveness of suppression practice is shown by the fact that in 1915 fire suppression cost one-third as much as in 1914, and damage to Government property was kept down to one-fourth the 1914 figure. The seasons were approximately equal in danger. Is further progress to be expected?

  11. Growth hormone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    GH suppression test; Glucose loading test; Acromegaly - blood test; Gigantism - blood test ... At least 3 blood samples are taken. The test is done in the following way: The first blood sample is collected between 6 ...

  12. Jet noise suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.; Lee, R.

    1991-08-01

    The objectives of this chapter are to review and summarize the jet noise suppression technology, to provide a physical and theoretical model to explain the measured jet noise suppression characteristics of different concepts, and to provide a set of guidelines for evolving jet noise suppression designs. The underlying principle for all jet noise suppression devices is to enhance rapid mixing (i.e., diffusion) of the jet plume by geometric and aerothermodynamic means. In the case of supersonic jets, the shock-cell broadband noise reduction is effectively accomplished by the elimination or mitigation of the shock-cell structure. So far, the diffusion concepts have predominantly concentrated on jet momentum and energy (kinetic and thermal) diffusion, in that order, and have yielded better noise reduction than the simple conical nozzles. A critical technology issue that needs resolution is the effect of flight on the noise suppression potential of mechanical suppressor nozzles. A more thorough investigation of this mechanism is necessary for the successful development and design of an acceptable noise suppression device for future high-speed civil transports.

  13. Interleukin-10-induced gene expression and suppressive function are selectively modulated by the PI3K-Akt-GSK3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Antoniv, Taras T; Ivashkiv, Lionel B

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an immunosuppressive cytokine that inhibits inflammatory gene expression. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) -mediated signalling regulates inflammatory responses and can induce IL-10 production, but a role for PI3K signalling in cellular responses to IL-10 is not known. In this study we investigated the involvement of the PI3K-Akt-GSK3 signalling pathway in IL-10-induced gene expression and IL-10-mediated suppression of Toll-like receptor-induced gene expression in primary human macrophages. A combination of loss and gain of function approaches using kinase inhibitors, expression of constitutively active Akt, and RNA interference in primary human macrophages showed that expression of a subset of IL-10-inducible genes was dependent on PI3K-Akt signalling. The effects of PI3K-Akt signalling on IL-10 responses were mediated at least in part by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). In accordance with a functional role for PI3K pathways in contributing to the suppressive actions of IL-10, PI3K signalling augmented IL-10-mediated inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-1, IL-8 and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression. The PI3K signalling selectively modulated IL-10 responses, as it was not required for inhibition of tumour necrosis factor expression or for induction of certain IL-10-inducible genes such as SOCS3. These findings identify a new mechanism by which PI3K-mediated signalling can suppress inflammation by regulating IL-10-mediated gene induction and anti-inflammatory function. PMID:21255011

  14. Explosion suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J.; Cortese, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  15. Niclosamide suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevents LPS-induced bone loss

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Ju-Young; Baek, Jong Min

    Niclosamide (5-chloro-salicyl-(2-chloro-4-nitro) anilide) is an oral anthelmintic drug used for treating intestinal infection of most tapeworms. Recently, niclosamide was shown to have considerable efficacy against some tumor cell lines, including colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers, and acute myelogenous leukemia. Specifically, the drug was identified as a potent inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is associated with osteoclast differentiation and function. In this study, we assessed the effect of niclosamide on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro study showed that receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was inhibited by niclosamide, due to inhibitionmore » of serine–threonine protein kinase (Akt) phosphorylation, inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (IκB), and STAT3 serine{sup 727}. Niclosamide decreased the expression of the major transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1, and thereafter abrogated the mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, OSCAR, αv/β3 integrin (integrin αv, integrin β3), and cathepsin K (CtsK). In an in vivo model, niclosamide prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss by diminishing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results show that niclosamide is effective in suppressing osteoclastogenesis and may be considered as a new and safe therapeutic candidate for the clinical treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. - Highlights: • We first investigated the anti-osteoclastogenic effects of niclosamide in vitro and in vivo. • Niclosamide impairs the activation of the Akt-IκB-STAT3 ser{sup 727} signaling axis. • Niclosamide acts a negative regulator of actin ring formation during osteoclast differentiation. • Niclosamide suppresses LPS-induced bone loss in vivo. • Niclosamide deserves new evaluation as a potential treatment target in various bone diseases.« less

  16. Pro-inflammatory proteins S100A9 and tumor necrosis factor-α suppress erythropoietin elaboration in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Cluzeau, Thomas; McGraw, Kathy L; Irvine, Brittany; Masala, Erico; Ades, Lionel; Basiorka, Ashley A; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw; Auberger, Patrick; Wei, Sheng; Fenaux, Pierre; Santini, Valeria; List, Alan

    2017-12-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates innate immune activation in the pathobiology of myelodysplastic syndromes. A key myeloid-related inflammatory protein, S100A9, serves as a Toll-like receptor ligand regulating tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β production. The role of myelodysplastic syndrome-related inflammatory proteins in endogenous erythropoietin regulation and response to erythroid-stimulating agents or lenalidomide has not been investigated. The HepG2 hepatoma cell line was used to investigate in vitro erythropoietin elaboration. Serum samples collected from 311 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome were investigated (125 prior to treatment with erythroid-stimulating agents and 186 prior to lenalidomide therapy). Serum concentrations of S100A9, S100A8, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and erythropoietin were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using erythropoietin-producing HepG2 cells, we show that S100A9, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β suppress transcription and cellular elaboration of erythropoietin. Pre-incubation with lenalidomide significantly diminished suppression of erythropoietin production by S100A9 or tumor necrosis factor-α. Moreover, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, lenalidomide significantly reduced steady-state S100A9 generation ( P =0.01) and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α elaboration ( P =0.002). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of serum from 316 patients with non-del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between tumor necrosis factor-α and erythropoietin concentrations ( P =0.006), and between S100A9 and erythropoietin ( P =0.01). Moreover, baseline serum tumor necrosis factor-α concentration was significantly higher in responders to erythroid-stimulating agents ( P =0.03), whereas lenalidomide responders had significantly lower tumor necrosis factor-α and higher S100A9 serum

  17. Administration of PDE4 Inhibitors Suppressed the Pannus-Like Inflammation by Inhibition of Cytokine Production by Macrophages and Synovial Fibroblast Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Katsuya; Suda, Toshio; Manabe, Haruhiko; Miki, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    A marked proliferation of synovial fibroblasts in joints leads to pannus formation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Various kinds of cytokines are produced in the pannus. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors in a new animal model for the evaluation of pannus formation and cytokine production in the pannus. Mice sensitized with methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) were challenged by subcutaneous implantation of a membrane filter soaked in mBSA solution in the back of the mice. Drugs were orally administered for 10 days. The granuloma formed around the filter was collected on day 11. It was chopped into pieces and cultured in vitro for 24 hr. The cytokines were measured in the supernatants. The type of cytokines produced in the granuloma was quite similar to those produced in pannus in RA. Both PDE4 inhibitors, KF66490 and SB207499, suppressed the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-12, and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity, a marker enzyme for neutrophils and hydroxyproline content. Compared to leflunomide, PDE4 inhibitors more strongly suppressed IL-12 production and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity. PDE4 inhibitors also inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α and IL-12 production from thioglycolate-induced murine peritoneal macrophages and the proliferation of rat synovial fibroblasts. These results indicate this model makes it easy to evaluate the effect of drugs on various cytokine productions in a granuloma without any purification step and may be a relevant model for evaluating novel antirheumatic drugs on pannus formation in RA. PDE4 inhibitors could have therapeutic effects on pannus formation in RA by inhibition of cytokine production by macrophages and synovial fibroblast proliferation. PMID:18274640

  18. Administration of PDE4 inhibitors suppressed the pannus-like inflammation by inhibition of cytokine production by macrophages and synovial fibroblast proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Katsuya; Suda, Toshio; Manabe, Haruhiko; Miki, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    A marked proliferation of synovial fibroblasts in joints leads to pannus formation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Various kinds of cytokines are produced in the pannus. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors in a new animal model for the evaluation of pannus formation and cytokine production in the pannus. Mice sensitized with methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) were challenged by subcutaneous implantation of a membrane filter soaked in mBSA solution in the back of the mice. Drugs were orally administered for 10 days. The granuloma formed around the filter was collected on day 11. It was chopped into pieces and cultured in vitro for 24 hr. The cytokines were measured in the supernatants. The type of cytokines produced in the granuloma was quite similar to those produced in pannus in RA. Both PDE4 inhibitors, KF66490 and SB207499, suppressed the production of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-12, and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity, a marker enzyme for neutrophils and hydroxyproline content. Compared to leflunomide, PDE4 inhibitors more strongly suppressed IL-12 production and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity. PDE4 inhibitors also inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha and IL-12 production from thioglycolate-induced murine peritoneal macrophages and the proliferation of rat synovial fibroblasts. These results indicate this model makes it easy to evaluate the effect of drugs on various cytokine productions in a granuloma without any purification step and may be a relevant model for evaluating novel antirheumatic drugs on pannus formation in RA. PDE4 inhibitors could have therapeutic effects on pannus formation in RA by inhibition of cytokine production by macrophages and synovial fibroblast proliferation.

  19. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Townsend, Harold E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

  20. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

  1. Tactile suppression of displacement.

    PubMed

    Ziat, Mounia; Hayward, Vincent; Chapman, C Elaine; Ernst, Marc O; Lenay, Charles

    2010-10-01

    In vision, the discovery of the phenomenon of saccadic suppression of displacement has made important contributions to the understanding of the stable world problem. Here, we report a similar phenomenon in the tactile modality. When scanning a single Braille dot with two fingers of the same hand, participants were asked to decide whether the dot was stationary or whether it was displaced from one location to another. The stimulus was produced by refreshable Braille devices that have dots that can be swiftly raised and recessed. In some conditions, the dot was stationary. In others, a displacement was created by monitoring the participant's finger position and by switching the dot activation when it was not touched by either finger. The dot displacement was of either 2.5 mm or 5 mm. We found that in certain cases, displaced dots were felt to be stationary. If the displacement was orthogonal to the finger movements, tactile suppression occurred effectively when it was of 2.5 mm, but when the displacement was of 5 mm, the participants easily detected it. If the displacement was medial-lateral, the suppression effect occurred as well, but less often when the apparent movement of the dot opposed the movement of the finger. In such cases, the stimulus appeared sooner than when the brain could predict it from finger movement, supporting a predictive rather than a postdictive differential processing hypothesis.

  2. Denervation suppresses gastric tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yosuke; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Westphalen, Christoph B.; Andersen, Gøran T.; Flatberg, Arnar; Johannessen, Helene; Friedman, Richard A.; Renz, Bernhard W.; Sandvik, Arne K.; Beisvag, Vidar; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Quante, Michael; Li, Zhishan; Gershon, Michael D.; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.; Chen, Duan

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial homeostasis and has also been postulated to play a role in tumorigenesis. We provide evidence that proper innervation is critical at all stages of gastric tumorigenesis. In three separate mouse models of gastric cancer, surgical or pharmacological denervation of the stomach (bilateral or unilateral truncal vagotomy, or local injection of botulinum toxin type A) markedly reduced tumor incidence and progression, but only in the denervated portion of the stomach. Vagotomy or botulinum toxin type A treatment also enhanced the therapeutic effects of systemic chemotherapy and prolonged survival. Denervation-induced suppression of tumorigenesis was associated with inhibition of Wnt signaling and suppression of stem cell expansion. In gastric organoid cultures, neurons stimulated growth in a Wnt-mediated fashion through cholinergic signaling. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of the muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor suppressed gastric tumorigenesis. In gastric cancer patients, tumor stage correlated with neural density and activated Wnt signaling, whereas vagotomy reduced the risk of gastric cancer. Together, our findings suggest that vagal innervation contributes to gastric tumorigenesis via M3 receptor–mediated Wnt signaling in the stem cells, and that denervation might represent a feasible strategy for the control of gastric cancer. PMID:25143365

  3. Next generation fire suppressants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jerry A.

    1995-01-01

    Spectrex, Inc., located in Cedar Grove, NJ is a manufacturer of fire detection and suppression equipment. Spectrex is one of the original pioneers in high speed fire detection and suppression systems for combat vehicles. Spectrex has installed fire suppressions systems in thousands of combat vehicles and ships throughout the world. Additionally, they manufacture flame explosion detectors, ship damage control systems, and optical gas and vapor detectors. The culmination of several years of research and development has recently produced an innovative electro-optical continuous monitoring systems called SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) and SAFEYE that provide fast and reliable gas, vapor, aerosol, flame, and explosion detection. SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) is a self-contained triple spectrum flame detector which scans for oscillating IR radiation (1 to 10 Hz) in the spectral bands ranging from 4.0 to 5.0 microns and uses programmed algorithms to check the ratio and correlation of data received by the three sensors to make the system highly immune to false alarms. It is extremely sensitive as it can detect a 1 x 1 square foot gasoline pan fire at 200 feet in less than 3 seconds. The sensitivity is user programmable, offering 4 ranges of detection. SAFEYE is comprised of a selected number of multispectral ban microprocessors controlled detectors which are in communication with one or more radiation sources that is projected along a 600 feet optical path. The signals from the selected narrow bands are processed and analyzed by highly sophisticated algorithms. It is ideal for high risk, remote, large areas such as petroleum and chemical manufacturing sites, waste dumps, aircraft cargo bays, and ship compartments. The SAFEYE will perform direct readings of the presence or rate of rise of concentrations of gases, vapors, or aerosols at the range of parts per million and provide alarms at various set points at different levels of concentrations.

  4. Suppression of flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An active aerodynamic control system to control flutter over a large range of oscillatory frequencies is described. The system is not affected by mass, stiffness, elastic axis, or center of gravity location of the system, mode of vibration, or Mach number. The system consists of one or more pairs of leading edge and trailing edge hinged or deformable control surfaces, each pair operated in concert by a stability augmentation system. Torsion and bending motions are sensed and converted by the stability augmentation system into leading and trailing edge control surface deflections which produce lift forces and pitching moments to suppress flutter.

  5. ZERO SUPPRESSION FOR RECORDERS

    DOEpatents

    Fort, W.G.S.

    1958-12-30

    A zero-suppression circuit for self-balancing recorder instruments is presented. The essential elements of the circuit include a converter-amplifier having two inputs, one for a reference voltage and the other for the signal voltage under analysis, and a servomotor with two control windings, one coupled to the a-c output of the converter-amplifier and the other receiving a reference input. Each input circuit to the converter-amplifier has a variable potentiometer and the sliders of the potentiometer are ganged together for movement by the servoinotor. The particular noveity of the circuit resides in the selection of resistance values for the potentiometer and a resistor in series with the potentiometer of the signal circuit to ensure the full value of signal voltage variation is impressed on a recorder mechanism driven by servomotor.

  6. Pressure suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1994-10-04

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein. 3 figs.

  7. Pressure suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein.

  8. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  9. Inducing amnesia through systemic suppression

    PubMed Central

    Hulbert, Justin C.; Henson, Richard N.; Anderson, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal damage profoundly disrupts the ability to store new memories of life events. Amnesic windows might also occur in healthy people due to disturbed hippocampal function arising during mental processes that systemically reduce hippocampal activity. Intentionally suppressing memory retrieval (retrieval stopping) reduces hippocampal activity via control mechanisms mediated by the lateral prefrontal cortex. Here we show that when people suppress retrieval given a reminder of an unwanted memory, they are considerably more likely to forget unrelated experiences from periods surrounding suppression. This amnesic shadow follows a dose-response function, becomes more pronounced after practice suppressing retrieval, exhibits characteristics indicating disturbed hippocampal function, and is predicted by reduced hippocampal activity. These findings indicate that stopping retrieval engages a suppression mechanism that broadly compromises hippocampal processes and that hippocampal stabilization processes can be interrupted strategically. Cognitively triggered amnesia constitutes an unrecognized forgetting process that may account for otherwise unexplained memory lapses following trauma. PMID:26977589

  10. Sulforaphane Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation, Cytotoxicity, Oxidative Stress, and miR-155 Expression and Switches to Mox Phenotype through Activating Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2-Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2/Antioxidant Response Element Pathway in Murine Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Eren, Erden; Tufekci, Kemal Ugur; Isci, Kamer Burak; Tastan, Bora; Genc, Kursad; Genc, Sermin

    2018-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural product with cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms of its effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cell death, inflammation, oxidative stress, and polarization in murine microglia. We found that SFN protects N9 microglial cells upon LPS-induced cell death and suppresses LPS-induced levels of secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6. SFN is also a potent inducer of redox sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is responsible for the transcription of antioxidant, cytoprotective, and anti-inflammatory genes. SFN induced translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway activation. siRNA-mediated knockdown study showed that the effects of SFN on LPS-induced reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production and cell death are partly Nrf2 dependent. Mox phenotype is a novel microglial phenotype that has roles in oxidative stress responses. Our results suggested that SFN induced the Mox phenotype in murine microglia through Nrf2 pathway. SFN also alleviated LPS-induced expression of inflammatory microRNA, miR-155. Finally, SFN inhibits microglia-mediated neurotoxicity as demonstrated by conditioned medium and co-culture experiments. In conclusion, SFN exerts protective effects on microglia and modulates the microglial activation state.

  11. Sulforaphane Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation, Cytotoxicity, Oxidative Stress, and miR-155 Expression and Switches to Mox Phenotype through Activating Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2–Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2/Antioxidant Response Element Pathway in Murine Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eren, Erden; Tufekci, Kemal Ugur; Isci, Kamer Burak; Tastan, Bora; Genc, Kursad; Genc, Sermin

    2018-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural product with cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms of its effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cell death, inflammation, oxidative stress, and polarization in murine microglia. We found that SFN protects N9 microglial cells upon LPS-induced cell death and suppresses LPS-induced levels of secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6. SFN is also a potent inducer of redox sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is responsible for the transcription of antioxidant, cytoprotective, and anti-inflammatory genes. SFN induced translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway activation. siRNA-mediated knockdown study showed that the effects of SFN on LPS-induced reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production and cell death are partly Nrf2 dependent. Mox phenotype is a novel microglial phenotype that has roles in oxidative stress responses. Our results suggested that SFN induced the Mox phenotype in murine microglia through Nrf2 pathway. SFN also alleviated LPS-induced expression of inflammatory microRNA, miR-155. Finally, SFN inhibits microglia-mediated neurotoxicity as demonstrated by conditioned medium and co-culture experiments. In conclusion, SFN exerts protective effects on microglia and modulates the microglial activation state. PMID:29410668

  12. n-Butanol extract from Folium isatidis inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages and protects mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lili; Lu, Yili; Jin, Jiahui; Dong, Lili; Xu, Fengli; Chen, Shuangshuang; Wang, Zhanyue; Liang, Guang; Shan, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis, which is caused by severe infection, is an important cause of mortality, but effective clinical treatment against sepsis is extremely limited. As the main component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a major role in inflammatory responses. Studies have shown beneficial pharmacological effects for Folium isatidis. The present study further illuminated the effects of n-butanol extract from Folium isatidis in LPS-induced septic shock and identified the main active chemical components. Our study showed that pretreatment with n-butanol extract from Folium isatidis not only significantly inhibited LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 production but also markedly and dose dependently enhanced the recruitment of MyD88, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and the degradation of IκB-α. Additionally, the extract exhibited dramatic protective effects against lung injury and death in mice with septic shock. Eight main active compounds were identified, including organic acids, glycoside, indolinones, and flavonoids. These findings provide a perspective on the respiratory protection offered by n-butanol extract from Folium isatidis in LPS-induced sepsis and outline a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis. PMID:26491261

  13. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Snoek, Hella Leonie

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B 0 → D *- a 0 + decays and the non-resonant B 0 → D *- ηπ + decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → Bmore » $$\\bar{B}$$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B 0 → D *- a{sub 0} + decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10 -6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B 0 → D *- a 0 + decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly enhance the measurement of this angle. However, the low expected branching fraction for the B 0 → D *- a 0 + decay channels could

  14. Resonance suppression from color reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acconcia, R.; Chinellato, D. D.; de Souza, R. Derradi; Takahashi, J.; Torrieri, G.; Markert, C.

    2018-02-01

    We present studies that show how multi-parton interaction and color reconnection affect the hadro-chemistry in proton-proton (pp) collisions with special focus on the production of resonances using the pythia8 event generator. We find that color reconnection suppresses the relative production of meson resonances such as ρ0 and K* , providing an alternative explanation for the K*/K decrease observed in proton-proton collisions as a function of multiplicity by the ALICE collaboration. Detailed studies of the underlying mechanism causing meson resonance suppression indicate that color reconnection leads to shorter, less energetic strings whose fragmentation is less likely to produce more massive hadrons for a given quark content, therefore reducing ratios such as K*/K and ρ0/π in high-multiplicity pp collisions. In addition, we have also studied the effects of allowing string junctions to form and found that these may also contribute to resonance suppression.

  15. Noise suppressing capillary separation system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Xue, Yongjun

    1996-07-30

    A noise-suppressing capillary separation system for detecting the real-time presence or concentration of an analyte in a sample is provided. The system contains a capillary separation means through which the analyte is moved, a coherent light source that generates a beam which is split into a reference beam and a sample beam that irradiate the capillary, and a detector for detecting the reference beam and the sample beam light that transmits through the capillary. The laser beam is of a wavelength effective to be absorbed by a chromophore in the capillary. The system includes a noise suppressing system to improve performance and accuracy without signal averaging or multiple scans.

  16. Hydrogen suppression of 'ductile' processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisson, R. D., Jr.; Wilson, J. H.; Adler, T. A.; Mcnitt, R. P.; Louthan, M. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results are reported for torsional fatigue specimens of high-strength steel 4370 and tensile bars of mild steel A-106 which present evidence of a hydrogen-induced strain-aided hardening effect. These results are consistent with the postulate that hydrogen suppresses ductile processes required for crack initiation at large plastic strains.

  17. Suppressing explosive synchronization by contrarians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiyun; Guan, Shuguang; Zou, Yong; Chen, Xiaosong; Liu, Zonghua

    2016-01-01

    Explosive synchronization (ES) has recently received increasing attention and studies have mainly focused on the conditions of its onset so far. However, its inverse problem, i.e. the suppression of ES, has not been systematically studied so far. As ES is usually considered to be harmful in certain circumstances such as the cascading failure of power grids and epileptic seizure, etc., its suppression is definitely important and deserves to be studied. We here study this inverse problem by presenting an efficient approach to suppress ES from a first-order to second-order transition, without changing the intrinsic network structure. We find that ES can be suppressed by only changing a small fraction of oscillators into contrarians with negative couplings and the critical fraction for the transition from the first order to the second order increases with both the network size and the average degree. A brief theory is presented to explain the underlying mechanism. This finding underlines the importance of our method to improve the understanding of neural interactions underlying cognitive processes.

  18. Conditioned suppression, punishment, and aversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Yarczower, M.

    1974-01-01

    The aversive action of visual stimuli was studied in two groups of pigeons which received response-contingent or noncontingent electric shocks in cages with translucent response keys. Presentation of grain for 3 sec, contingent on key pecking, was the visual stimulus associated with conditioned punishment or suppression. The responses of the pigeons in three different experiments are compared.

  19. Distinguishing among potential mechanisms of singleton suppression.

    PubMed

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Luck, Steven J

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has revealed that people can suppress salient stimuli that might otherwise capture visual attention. The present study tests between 3 possible mechanisms of visual suppression. According to first-order feature suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of simple feature values. According to second-order feature suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of local discontinuities within a given feature dimension. According to global-salience suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of their dimension-independent salience levels. The current study distinguished among these models by varying the predictability of the singleton color value. If items are suppressed by virtue of salience alone, then it should not matter whether the singleton color is predictable. However, evidence from probe processing and eye movements indicated that suppression is possible only when the color values are predictable. Moreover, the ability to suppress salient items developed gradually as participants gained experience with the feature that defined the salient distractor. These results are consistent with first-order feature suppression models, and are inconsistent with the other models of suppression. In other words, people primarily suppress salient distractors on the basis of their simple features and not on the basis of salience per se. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Noise suppressing capillary separation system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Xue, Y.

    1996-07-30

    A noise-suppressing capillary separation system for detecting the real-time presence or concentration of an analyte in a sample is provided. The system contains a capillary separation means through which the analyte is moved, a coherent light source that generates a beam which is split into a reference beam and a sample beam that irradiate the capillary, and a detector for detecting the reference beam and the sample beam light that transmits through the capillary. The laser beam is of a wavelength effective to be absorbed by a chromophore in the capillary. The system includes a noise suppressing system to improve performance and accuracy without signal averaging or multiple scans. 13 figs.

  1. A Helminth Protease Inhibitor Modulates the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Phenotype of Microglia in vitro.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Peter; Arnold, Philipp; Brueck, Max; Rickert, Uta; Lucius, Richard; Hartmann, Susanne; Klotz, Christian; Lucius, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the natural protease inhibitor Av-cystatin (rAv17) of the parasitic nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae exerts anti-inflammatory effects in an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia. Primary microglia were harvested from the brains of 2-day-old Wistar rats and cultured with or without rAv17 (250 nM). After 6 and 24 h the release of nitric oxide (Griess reagent) and TNF-α (ELISA) was measured in the supernatant. Real-time PCR was performed after 2, 6 and 24 h of culture to measure the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, iNOS and IL-10. To address the involved signaling pathways, nuclear NF-x0138;B translocation was visualized by immunocytochemistry. Morphological changes of microglia were analyzed by Coomassie blue staining. Differences between groups were calculated using one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's post hoc test. Morphological analysis indicated that LPS-induced microglial transformation towards an amoeboid morphology is inhibited by rAv17. Av-cystatin caused a time-dependent downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression, respectively. This was paralleled by an upregulated expression of IL-10 in resting as well as in LPS-stimulated microglia. Av-cystatin reduced the release of NO and TNF-α in the culture supernatant. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrated an attenuated translocation of NF-x0138;B by Av-cystatin in response to LPS. In addition, Western blot analysis revealed a rAv17-dependent reduction of the LPS-induced ERK1/2-pathway activation. The parasite-derived secretion product Av-cystatin inhibits proinflammatory mechanisms of LPS-induced microglia with IL-10, a potential key mediator. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Establishment of hydrochloric acid/lipopolysaccharide-induced pelvic inflammatory disease model.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yeonsu; Lee, Jaehun; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Yoon, Byung-Il; Han, Jeong-Hee; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Park, Joung Jun; Koo, Deog-Bon; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Jung, Bae Dong

    2016-09-30

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is one of the most problematic complications experienced by women with sexually transmitted diseases, frequently causes secondary infections after reproductive abnormalities in veterinary animals. Although the uterus is self-protective, it becomes fragile during periods or pregnancy. To investigate PID, bacteria or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from gram negative bacteria has been used to induce the disease in several animal models. However, when LPS is applied to the peritoneum, it often causes systemic sepsis leading to death and the PID was not consistently demonstrated. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) has been used to induce inflammation in the lungs and stomach but not tested for reproductive organs. In this study, we developed a PID model in mice by HCl and LPS sequential intracervical (i.c.) administration. The proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, were detected in the mouse uterus by western blot analysis and cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after HCl (25 mg/kg) administration i.c. followed by four LPS (50 mg/kg) treatments. Moreover, mice exhibited increased infiltration of neutrophils in the endometrium and epithelial layer. These results suggest that ic co-administration of HCl and LPS induces PID in mice. This new model may provide a consistent and reproducible PID model for future research.

  3. Establishment of hydrochloric acid/lipopolysaccharide-induced pelvic inflammatory disease model

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yeonsu; Lee, Jaehun; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Yoon, Byung-Il; Han, Jeong-Hee; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Park, Joung Jun; Koo, Deog-Bon; Rhee, Ki-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is one of the most problematic complications experienced by women with sexually transmitted diseases, frequently causes secondary infections after reproductive abnormalities in veterinary animals. Although the uterus is self-protective, it becomes fragile during periods or pregnancy. To investigate PID, bacteria or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from gram negative bacteria has been used to induce the disease in several animal models. However, when LPS is applied to the peritoneum, it often causes systemic sepsis leading to death and the PID was not consistently demonstrated. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) has been used to induce inflammation in the lungs and stomach but not tested for reproductive organs. In this study, we developed a PID model in mice by HCl and LPS sequential intracervical (i.c.) administration. The proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, were detected in the mouse uterus by western blot analysis and cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after HCl (25 mg/kg) administration i.c. followed by four LPS (50 mg/kg) treatments. Moreover, mice exhibited increased infiltration of neutrophils in the endometrium and epithelial layer. These results suggest that ic co-administration of HCl and LPS induces PID in mice. This new model may provide a consistent and reproducible PID model for future research. PMID:26726020

  4. Dose-dependent lipopolysaccharide-induced fetal brain injury in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Harnett, Erica L; Dickinson, Michelle A; Smith, Graeme N

    2007-08-01

    This study determined whether a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) dose-dependent increase in fetal brain injury occurs to further characterize the relationship between maternal inflammation and fetal brain injury. Pregnant guinea pigs (n = 59) at 70% gestation were injected intraperitoneally with 1, 5, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 300 microg LPS per kilogram of maternal body weight or an equivalent volume of vehicle. Animals were killed 7 days later. Maternal serum and amniotic fluid samples were assayed for proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and interleukin-6 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Fetal brains (n = 72) were stained for evidence of cell death with NeuroTACS stain. Seven days after LPS injections, cytokine concentrations in maternal serum and amniotic fluid were not different (P > .05) from controls. Levels of cell death in all brain regions examined were highest following the maternal administration of 300 mug/kg LPS (P < .05). The dose effect was brain region-dependent (P < .05). A threshold of maternal infection/inflammation exists, beyond which demonstrable fetal brain injury may result.

  5. Enriched dairy fat matrix diet prevents early life lipopolysaccharide-induced spatial memory impairment at adulthood.

    PubMed

    Dinel, A L; Rey, C; Baudry, C; Fressange-Mazda, C; Le Ruyet, P; Nadjar, A; Pallet, P; Joffre, C; Layé, S

    2016-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids, which are critical for brain development and later life cognitive functions. The main brain PUFAs are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for the n-3 family and arachidonic acid (ARA) for the n-6 family, which are provided to the post-natal brain by breast milk or infant formula. Recently, the use of dairy lipids (DL) in replacement of vegetable lipids (VL) was revealed to potently promote the accretion of DHA in the developing brain. Brain DHA, in addition to be a key component of brain development, display potent anti-inflammatory activities, which protect the brain from adverse inflammatory events. In this work, we evaluated the protective effect of partial replacement of VL by DL, supplemented or not with DHA and ARA, on post-natal inflammation and its consequence on memory. Mice were fed with diets poor in vegetal n-3 PUFA (Def VL), balanced in vegetal n-3/n-6 PUFA (Bal VL), balanced in dairy lipids (Bal DL) or enriched in DHA and ARA (Supp VL; Supp DL) from the first day of gestation until adulthood. At post-natal day 14 (PND14), pups received a single administration of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and brain cytokine expression, microglia phenotype and neurogenesis were measured. In a second set of experiments, memory and neurogenesis were measured at adulthood. Overall, our data showed that lipid quality of the diet modulates early life LPS effect on microglia phenotype, brain cytokine expression and neurogenesis at PND14 and memory at adulthood. In particular, Bal DL diet protects from the adverse effect of early life LPS exposure on PND14 neurogenesis and adult spatial memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acyloxyacyl hydrolase promotes the resolution of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zihui; Yang, Qian; Qian, Guojun; Qian, Jing; Zeng, Wenjiao; Gu, Jie; Chu, Tianqing; Zhu, Ning; Zhang, Wenhong; Yan, Dapeng; He, Rui; Chu, Yiwei

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary infection is the most common risk factor for acute lung injury (ALI). Innate immune responses induced by Microbe-Associated Molecular Pattern (MAMP) molecules are essential for lung defense but can lead to tissue injury. Little is known about how MAMP molecules are degraded in the lung or how MAMP degradation/inactivation helps prevent or ameliorate the harmful inflammation that produces ALI. Acyloxyacyl hydrolase (AOAH) is a host lipase that inactivates Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, or LPS). We report here that alveolar macrophages increase AOAH expression upon exposure to LPS and that Aoah+/+ mice recover more rapidly than do Aoah-/- mice from ALI induced by nasally instilled LPS or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Aoah-/- mouse lungs had more prolonged leukocyte infiltration, greater pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression, and longer-lasting alveolar barrier damage. We also describe evidence that the persistently bioactive LPS in Aoah-/- alveoli can stimulate alveolar macrophages directly and epithelial cells indirectly to produce chemoattractants that recruit neutrophils to the lung and may prevent their clearance. Distinct from the prolonged tolerance observed in LPS-exposed Aoah-/- peritoneal macrophages, alveolar macrophages that lacked AOAH maintained or increased their responses to bioactive LPS and sustained inflammation. Inactivation of LPS by AOAH is a previously unappreciated mechanism for promoting resolution of pulmonary inflammation/injury induced by Gram-negative bacterial infection. PMID:28622363

  7. Alkaline Phosphatase Protects Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Early Pregnancy Defects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wei; Ni, Hua; Herington, Jennifer; Reese, Jeff; Paria, Bibhash C.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive cytokine inflammatory response due to chronic or superphysiological level of microbial infection during pregnancy leads to pregnancy complications such as early pregnancy defects/loss and preterm birth. Bacterial toxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), long recognized as a potent proinflammatory mediator, has been identified as a risk factor for pregnancy complications. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) isozymes have been shown to detoxify LPS by dephosphorylation. In this study, we examined the role of alkaline phosphatase (AP) in mitigating LPS-induced early pregnancy complications in mice. We found that 1) the uterus prior to implantation and implantation sites following embryo implantation produce LPS recognition and dephosphorylation molecules TLR4 and tissue non-specific AP (TNAP) isozyme, respectively; 2) uterine TNAP isozyme dephosphorylates LPS at its sites of production; 3) while LPS administration following embryo implantation elicits proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels at the embryo implantation sites (EISs) and causes early pregnancy loss, dephosphorylated LPS neither triggers proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels at the EISs nor induces pregnancy complications; 4) AP isozyme supplementation to accelerate LPS detoxification attenuates LPS-induced pregnancy complications following embryo implantation. These findings suggest that a LPS dephosphorylation strategy using AP isozyme may have a unique therapeutic potential to mitigate LPS- or Gram-negative bacteria-induced pregnancy complications in at-risk women. PMID:25910276

  8. Alkaline phosphatase protects lipopolysaccharide-induced early pregnancy defects in mice.

    PubMed

    Lei, Wei; Ni, Hua; Herington, Jennifer; Reese, Jeff; Paria, Bibhash C

    2015-01-01

    Excessive cytokine inflammatory response due to chronic or superphysiological level of microbial infection during pregnancy leads to pregnancy complications such as early pregnancy defects/loss and preterm birth. Bacterial toxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), long recognized as a potent proinflammatory mediator, has been identified as a risk factor for pregnancy complications. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) isozymes have been shown to detoxify LPS by dephosphorylation. In this study, we examined the role of alkaline phosphatase (AP) in mitigating LPS-induced early pregnancy complications in mice. We found that 1) the uterus prior to implantation and implantation sites following embryo implantation produce LPS recognition and dephosphorylation molecules TLR4 and tissue non-specific AP (TNAP) isozyme, respectively; 2) uterine TNAP isozyme dephosphorylates LPS at its sites of production; 3) while LPS administration following embryo implantation elicits proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels at the embryo implantation sites (EISs) and causes early pregnancy loss, dephosphorylated LPS neither triggers proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels at the EISs nor induces pregnancy complications; 4) AP isozyme supplementation to accelerate LPS detoxification attenuates LPS-induced pregnancy complications following embryo implantation. These findings suggest that a LPS dephosphorylation strategy using AP isozyme may have a unique therapeutic potential to mitigate LPS- or Gram-negative bacteria-induced pregnancy complications in at-risk women.

  9. Obeticholic acid protects mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xi; Ren, Yuqian; Cui, Yun; Li, Rui; Wang, Chunxia; Zhang, Yucai

    2017-12-01

    Cholestasis, as a main manifestation, induces liver injury during sepsis. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays an important role in regulating bile acid homeostasis. Whether FXR activation by its agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) is contributed to improve sepsis-induced liver injury remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of OCA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver injury in mice. 8-week old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control group, LPS group, oral OCA group and LPS plus oral OCA (LPS + OCA) group. The serum and livers were collected for further analysis. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bile acid (TBA) and total bilirubin (TBIL) were measured at indicated time after LPS administration. Liver sections were stained with hematoxylin & eosin (H&E). Orally OCA pretreatment stimulated the expression of FXR and BSEP in livers and protected mice from LPS-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and inflammatory infiltration. Consistently, LPS-induced higher serum levels of ALT, AST, TBA and TBIL were significantly reversed by OCA administration. Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-6 were decreased in livers of mice in LPS + OCA group compared with LPS group. Further investigation indicated that the higher expression of ATF4 and LC3II/I were associated with the protective effect of OCA on LPS-induced liver injury. Orally OCA pretreatment protects mice from LPS-induced liver injury possibly contributed by improved bile acid homeostasis, decreased inflammatory factors and ATF4-mediated autophagy activity in hepatocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. [Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocyte].

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying-Lei; Yan, Jun; Wang, Yan-Sha; Liu, Yi-Chang; Gu, Zhen-Yong

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Cells of the rat hepatocyte line BRL were cultured. The hepatocytes were treated with LPS, ERS inducer thapsigargin (TG), and ERS inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), respectively or in their different combination. The cell viability was measured by MTT assay. The cyto-nuclear morphological changes of apoptosis cells were detected by the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33258. The apoptosis rate was assessed by flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining. Expressions of GRP78 as ERS marker protein, CHOP, caspase-12 and cleaved-caspase-3 as ERS related protein were detected by Western blotting. LPS could cause a decrease in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis rate in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression of GRP78, CHOP, caspase-12 and cleaved-caspase-3 proteins were significantly increased with LPS treatment. TG led to a marked decrease in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis rate, which aggravated the hepatocyte injury induced by LPS; whereas 4-PBA alleviated LPS-induced apoptosis. ERS mediates LPS-induced hepatocyte injuries, indicating that ERS may play a vital role in the pathogenesis of LPS-induced hepatocyte injuries.

  11. Improved Hepatoprotective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Astaxanthin in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Hung; Chang, Chun-Chao; Lin, Shiang-Ting; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Peng, Robert Y.

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute hepatotoxicity is significantly associated with oxidative stress. Astaxanthin (AST), a xanthophyll carotenoid, is well known for its potent antioxidant capacity. However, its drawbacks of poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability have limited its utility. Liposome encapsulation is considered as an effective alternative use for the improvement of bioavailability of the hydrophobic compound. We hypothesized that AST encapsulated within liposomes (LA) apparently shows improved stability and transportability compared to that of free AST. To investigate whether LA administration can efficiently prevent the LPS-induced acute hepatotoxicity, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = six per group) were orally administered liposome-encapsulated AST at 2, 5 or 10 mg/kg-day (LA-2, LA-5, and LA-10) for seven days and then were LPS-challenged (i.p., 5 mg/kg). The LA-10 administered group, but not the other groups, exhibited a significant amelioration of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CRE), hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), IL-6, and hepatic nuclear NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), suggesting that LA at a 10 mg/kg-day dosage renders hepatoprotective effects. Moreover, the protective effects were even superior to that of positive control N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 200 mg/kg-day). Histopathologically, NAC, free AST, LA-2 and LA-5 partially, but LA-10 completely, alleviated the acute inflammatory status. These results indicate that hydrophobic AST after being properly encapsulated by liposomes improves bioavailability and can also function as potential drug delivery system in treating hepatotoxicity. PMID:27428953

  12. A Fermented Whole Grain Prevents Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Dysfunction in Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele, Morena; Del Prato, Stefano; Pucci, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous and exogenous signals derived by the gut microbiota such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) orchestrate inflammatory responses contributing to development of the endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), bone marrow derived stem cells, promote recovery of damaged endothelium playing a pivotal role in cardiovascular repair. Since healthy nutrition improves EPCs functions, we evaluated the effect of a fermented grain, Lisosan G (LG), on early EPCs exposed to LPS. The potential protective effect of LG against LPS-induced alterations was evaluated as cell viability, adhesiveness, ROS production, gene expression, and NF-kB signaling pathway activation. Our results showed that LPS treatment did not affect EPCs viability and adhesiveness but induced endothelial alterations via activation of NF-kB signaling. LG protects EPCs from inflammation as well as from LPS-induced oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress reducing ROS levels, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defense. Moreover, LG pretreatment prevented NF-kB translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus caused by LPS exposure. In human EPCs, LPS increases ROS and upregulates proinflammatory tone, proapoptotic factors, and antioxidants. LG protects EPCs exposed to LPS reducing ROS, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defenses possibly by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation. PMID:28386305

  13. Deletion of Monoglyceride Lipase in Astrocytes Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-induced Neuroinflammation*

    PubMed Central

    Grabner, Gernot F.; Eichmann, Thomas O.; Wagner, Bernhard; Gao, Yuanqing; Farzi, Aitak; Taschler, Ulrike; Radner, Franz P. W.; Schweiger, Martina; Lass, Achim; Holzer, Peter; Zinser, Erwin; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Yi, Chun-Xia; Zimmermann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Monoglyceride lipase (MGL) is required for efficient hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglyerol (2-AG) in the brain generating arachidonic acid (AA) and glycerol. This metabolic function makes MGL an interesting target for the treatment of neuroinflammation, since 2-AG exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and AA is a precursor for pro-inflammatory prostaglandins. Astrocytes are an important source of AA and 2-AG, and highly express MGL. In the present study, we dissected the distinct contribution of MGL in astrocytes on brain 2-AG and AA metabolism by generating a mouse model with genetic deletion of MGL specifically in astrocytes (MKOGFAP). MKOGFAP mice exhibit moderately increased 2-AG and reduced AA levels in brain. Minor accumulation of 2-AG in the brain of MKOGFAP mice does not cause cannabinoid receptor desensitization as previously observed in mice globally lacking MGL. Importantly, MKOGFAP mice exhibit reduced brain prostaglandin E2 and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels upon peripheral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. These observations indicate that MGL-mediated degradation of 2-AG in astrocytes provides AA for prostaglandin synthesis promoting LPS-induced neuroinflammation. The beneficial effect of astrocyte-specific MGL-deficiency is not fully abrogated by the inverse cannabinoid receptor 1 agonist SR141716 (Rimonabant) suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects are rather caused by reduced prostaglandin synthesis than by activation of cannabinoid receptors. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that MGL in astrocytes is an important regulator of 2-AG levels, AA availability, and neuroinflammation. PMID:26565024

  14. Lipopolysaccharide-induced multinuclear cells: Increased internalization of polystyrene beads and possible signals for cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi, E-mail: nakanim@iwate-med.ac.jp; Yano, Shio; Futai, Masamitsu

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •LPS induces multinuclear cells from murine macrophage-derived RAW264.7 cells. •Large beads are internalized by cells actively fusing to become multinuclear. •The multinuclear cell formation is inhibited by anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL10. •Signal transduction for cell fusion is different from that for inflammation. -- Abstract: A murine macrophage-derived line, RAW264.7, becomes multinuclear on stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria. These multinuclear cells internalized more polystyrene beads than mononuclear cells or osteoclasts (Nakanishi-Matsui, M., Yano, S., Matsumoto, N., and Futai, M., 2012). In this study, we analyzed the time courses of cell fusion in the presence ofmore » large beads. They were internalized into cells actively fusing to become multinuclear. However, the multinuclear cells once formed showed only low phagocytosis activity. These results suggest that formation of the multinuclear cells and bead internalization took place simultaneously. The formation of multinuclear cells was blocked by inhibitors for phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phospholipase C, calcineurin, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. In addition, interleukin 6 and 10 also exhibited inhibitory effects. These signaling molecules and cytokines may play a crucial role in the LPS-induced multinuclear cell formation.« less

  15. Citral inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by activating PPAR-γ.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yongbin; Sun, Zhanfeng; Guo, Xiaotong

    2015-01-15

    Citral, a component of lemongrass oil, has been reported to have many pharmacological activities such as anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of citral on acute lung injury (ALI) and the molecular mechanisms have not been reported. The aim of this study was to detect the effects of citral on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury and investigate the molecular mechanisms. LPS-induced acute lung injury model was used to detect the anti-inflammatory effect of citral in vivo. The alveolar macrophages were used to investigate the molecular mechanism of citral in vitro. The results showed that pretreatment with citral remarkably attenuated pulmonary edema, histological severities, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β production in LPS-induced ALI in vivo. In vitro, citral inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β production in alveolar macrophages. LPS-induced NF-κB activation was also inhibited by citral. Furthermore, we found that citral activated PPAR-γ and the anti-inflammatory effects of citral can be reversed by PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662. In conclusion, this is the first to demonstrate that citral protects LPS-induced ALI in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of citral is associated with activating PPAR-γ, thereby inhibiting LPS-induced inflammatory response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rice hull smoke extract protects mice against a salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice hulls accounting for 20% of the rice crop are a byproduct of post-harvest rice processing. Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent often fatal disease that results mainly from infection with Salmonella and other Gram-negative bacteria. The present study investigated the...

  17. Inhibition of Neddylation Represses Lipopolysaccharide-induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in Macrophage Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Fang-Mei; Reyna, Sara M.; Granados, Jose C.; Wei, Sung-Jen; Innis-Whitehouse, Wendy; Maffi, Shivani K.; Rodriguez, Edward; Slaga, Thomas J.; Short, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) are a class of ubiquitin ligases that control the proteasomal degradation of numerous target proteins, including IκB, and the activity of these CRLs are positively regulated by conjugation of a Nedd8 polypeptide onto Cullin proteins in a process called neddylation. CRL-mediated degradation of IκB, which normally interacts with and retains NF-κB in the cytoplasm, permits nuclear translocation and transactivation of the NF-κB transcription factor. Neddylation occurs through a multistep enzymatic process involving Nedd8 activating enzymes, and recent studies have shown that the pharmacological agent, MLN4924, can potently inhibit Nedd8 activating enzymes, thereby preventing neddylation of Cullin proteins and preventing the degradation of CRL target proteins. In macrophages, regulation of NF-κB signaling functions as a primary pathway by which infectious agents such as lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) cause the up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we have analyzed the effects of MLN4924, and compared the effects of MLN4924 with a known anti-inflammatory agent (dexamethasone), on certain proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and the NF-κB signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated macrophages. We also used siRNA to block neddylation to assess the role of this molecular process during LPS-induced cytokine responsiveness. Our results demonstrate that blocking neddylation, either pharmacologically or using siRNA, abrogates the increase in certain proinflammatory cytokines secreted from macrophages in response to LPS. In addition, we have shown that MLN4924 and dexamethasone inhibit LPS-induced cytokine up-regulation at the transcriptional level, albeit through different molecular mechanisms. Thus, neddylation represents a novel molecular process in macrophages that can be targeted to prevent and/or treat the LPS-induced up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and the disease processes associated with their up-regulation. PMID:22927439

  18. Protectin DX increases alveolar fluid clearance in rats with lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Xiao-Jun; Hao, Yu; Cao, Fei; Yan, Song-Fan; Li, Hui; Wang, Qian; Cheng, Bi-Huan; Ying, Bin-Yu; Smith, Fang Gao; Jin, Sheng-Wei

    2018-04-27

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a life-threatening critical syndrome resulting largely from the accumulation of and the inability to clear pulmonary edema. Protectin DX, an endogenously produced lipid mediator, is believed to exert anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution effects. Protectin DX (5 µg/kg) was injected i.v. 8 h after LPS (14 mg/kg) administration, and alveolar fluid clearance was measured in live rats (n = 8). In primary rat ATII epithelial cells, protectin DX (3.605 × 10 -3  mg/l) was added to the culture medium with LPS for 6 h. Protectin DX improved alveolar fluid clearance (9.65 ± 1.60 vs. 15.85 ± 1.49, p < 0.0001) and decreased pulmonary edema and lung injury in LPS-induced lung injury in rats. Protectin DX markedly regulated alveolar fluid clearance by upregulating sodium channel and Na, K-ATPase protein expression levels in vivo and in vitro. Protectin DX also increased the activity of Na, K-ATPase and upregulated P-Akt via inhibiting Nedd4-2 in vivo. In addition, protectin DX enhanced the subcellular distribution of sodium channels and Na, K-ATPase, which were specifically localized to the apical and basal membranes of primary rat ATII cells. Furthermore, BOC-2, Rp-cAMP, and LY294002 blocked the increased alveolar fluid clearance in response to protectin DX. Protectin DX stimulates alveolar fluid clearance through a mechanism partly dependent on alveolar epithelial sodium channel and Na, K-ATPase activation via the ALX/PI3K/Nedd4-2 signaling pathway.

  19. Milk Thistle Extract and Silymarin Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide Induced Lamellar Separation of Hoof Explants in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Nicole; Schaumberger, Simone; Nagl, Veronika; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of laminitis is not completely identified and the role of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) in this process remains unclear. Phytogenic substances, like milk thistle (MT) and silymarin, are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and might therefore have the potential to counteract endotoxin induced effects on the hoof lamellar tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of endotoxins on lamellar tissue integrity and to test if MT and silymarin are capable of inhibiting LPS-induced effects in an in vitro/ex vivo model. In preliminary tests, LPS neutralization efficiency of these phytogenics was determined in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, tissue explants gained from hooves of slaughter horses were tested for lamellar separation after incubation with different concentrations of LPS. By combined incubation of explants with LPS and either Polymyxin B (PMB; positive control), MT or silymarin, the influence of these substances on LPS-induced effects was assessed. In the in vitro neutralization assay, MT and silymarin reduced LPS concentrations by 64% and 75%, respectively, in comparison PMB reduced 98% of the LPS concentration. In hoof explants, LPS led to a concentration dependent separation. Accordantly, separation force was significantly decreased by 10 µg/mL LPS. PMB, MT and silymarin could significantly improve tissue integrity of explants incubated with 10 µg/mL LPS. This study showed that LPS had a negative influence on the structure of hoof explants in vitro. MT and silymarin reduced endotoxin activity and inhibited LPS-induced effects on the lamellar tissue. Hence, MT and silymarin might be used to support the prevention of laminitis and should be further evaluated for this application. PMID:25290524

  20. Choline Supplementation During Pregnancy Protects Against Gestational Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Han, Xinjia; Bao, Juejie; Yang, Jinying; Shi, Shao-Qing; Garfield, Robert E; Liu, Huishu

    2018-01-01

    To estimate the effects and mechanisms of choline, an essential nutrient and a selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist, on the prevention of symptoms and the effects on the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways (CAP) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in a rat model. Inflammation was induced by LPS treatment (1.0 μg LPS/kg body weight) on gestational day (GD) 14. Nonpregnant and pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were placed on a normal choline diet (1.1 g/kg) or supplemented choline diet (5.0 g/kg) from GDs 1 to 20. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), urinary albumin, and pregnancy outcomes were recorded. On GD 20, serum and placentas were assayed for cytokines. Western blots were used to determine the expression of placenta α7nAChR and components of the α7nAChR-CAP, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and protein kinase B (AKT). Immunohistochemistry was used to localize placental sites for the p65 subunit of NF-κB. Lipopolysaccharide significantly increased SBP and urinary albumin and decreased pregnancy outcomes, and these effects were partially reversed by higher choline treatment. Choline supplementation also significantly attenuated the LPS-induced increase in serum and placental inflammatory cytokines, decreased the expression of placental α7nAChR, lowered the activation of NF-κB signaling in placenta mononuclear cells, and inhibited placental AKT phosphorylation. This study confirms that LPS induces inflammatory conditions in pregnant rats and shows that choline supplementation protects against the inflammatory symptoms through its action on α7nAChR and CAP. These observations have important implications for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory responses associated with pregnancy.

  1. Alpha-lipoic acid protects mitochondrial enzymes and attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced hypothermia in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Hypothermia is a key symptom of sepsis and the mechanism(s) leading to hypothermia during sepsis is largely unknown. To investigate a potential mechanism and find an effective treatment for hypothermia in sepsis, we induced hypothermia in mice by lipopolysaccharide (LP...

  2. Leptin Selectively Augments Thymopoiesis in Leptin Deficiency and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Thymic Atrophy1

    PubMed Central

    Hick, Ryan W.; Gruver, Amanda L.; Ventevogel, Melissa S.; Haynes, Barton F.; Sempowski, Gregory D.

    2007-01-01

    The thymus is a lymphoid organ that selects T cells for release to the peripheral immune system. Unfortunately, thymopoiesis is highly susceptible to damage by physiologic stressors and can contribute to immune deficiencies that occur in a variety of clinical settings. No treatment is currently available to protect the thymus from stress-induced involution. Leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice have severe thymic atrophy and this finding suggests that this hormone is required for normal thymopoiesis. In this study, the ability of leptin to promote thymopoiesis in wild-type C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, as well as in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) and endotoxin-stressed (Escherichia coli LPS) mice, was determined. Leptin administration induced weight loss and stimulated thymopoiesis in ob/ob mice, but did not stimulate thymopoiesis in wild-type C57BL/6 nor BALB/c mice. In endotoxin-stressed mice, however, leptin prevented LPS-induced thymus weight loss and stimulated TCRα gene rearrangement. Coadministration of leptin with LPS blunted endotoxin-induced systemic corticosterone response and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Thus, leptin has a selective thymostimulatory role in settings of leptin deficiency and endotoxin administration, and may be useful for protecting the thymus from damage and augmenting T cell reconstitution in these clinical states. PMID:16785512

  3. Cordyceps sinensis prevents apoptosis in mouse liver with D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Jung; Cheng, Shiu-Min; Teng, Yi-Hsien; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) has long been considered to be an herbal medicine and has been used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. The present study examined the cytoprotective properties of C. sinensis on D(+)-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure. Mice were randomly assigned into control, GalN/LPS, CS 20 mg and CS 40 mg groups (C. sinensis, oral gavage, five days/week, four weeks). After receiving saline or C. sinensis, mice were intraperitoneally given GalN (800 mg/kg)/LPS (10 μg/kg). The effects of C. sinensis on TNF-α, IL-10, AST, NO, SOD, and apoptoticrelated proteins after the onset of endotoxin intoxication were determined. Data demonstrated that GalN/LPS increased hepatocyte degeneration, circulating AST, TNF-α, IL-10, and hepatic apoptosis and caspase activity. C. sinensis pre-treatment reduced AST, TNF-α, and NO and increased IL-10 and SOD in GalN/LPS induced fulminant hepatic failure. C. sinensis attenuated the apoptosis of hepatocytes, as evidenced by the TUNEL and capase-3, 6 activity analyses. In summary, C. sinensis alleviates GalN/LPS-induced liver injury by modulating the cytokine response and inhibiting apoptosis.

  4. Hepatoprotective activity of Tridax procumbens against d-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Vilwanathan; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2005-10-03

    The hepatoprotective activity of aerial parts of Tridax procumbens was investigated against d-Galactosamine/Lipopolysaccharide (d-GalN/LPS) induced hepatitis in rats. d-GalN/LPS (300 mg/kg body weight/30 microg/kg body weight)-induced hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in the activities of marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma glutamyl transferase) and bilirubin level in serum and lipids both in serum and liver. Pretreatment of rats with a chloroform insoluble fraction from ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens reversed these altered parameters to normal values. The biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Results of this study revealed that Tridax procumbens could afford a significant protection in the alleviation of d-GalN/LPS-induced hepatocellular injury.

  5. EphA2 Receptor Signaling Mediates Inflammatory Responses in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Young; Shin, Mi Hwa; Chung, Kyung Soo; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Park, Moo Suk

    2015-07-01

    Eph receptors and ephrin ligands have several functions including angiogenesis, cell migration, axon guidance, fluid homeostasis, oncogenesis, inflammation and injury repair. The EphA2 receptor potentially mediates the regulation of vascular permeability and inflammation in response to lung injury. Mice were divided into 3 experimental groups to study the role of EphA2 signaling in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury model i.e., IgG+phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group (IgG instillation before PBS exposure), IgG+LPS group (IgG instillation before LPS exposure) and EphA2 monoclonal antibody (mAb)+LPS group (EphA2 mAb pretreatment before LPS exposure). EphA2 and ephrinA1 were upregulated in LPS-induced lung injury. The lung injury score of the EphA2 mAb+LPS group was lower than that of the IgG+LPS group (4.30±2.93 vs. 11.45±1.20, respectively; p=0.004). Cell counts (EphA2 mAb+LPS: 11.33×10(4)±8.84×10(4) vs. IgG+LPS: 208.0×10(4)±122.6×10(4); p=0.018) and total protein concentrations (EphA2 mAb+LPS: 0.52±0.41 mg/mL vs. IgG+LPS: 1.38±1.08 mg/mL; p=0.192) were decreased in EphA2 mAb+LPS group, as compared to the IgG+LPS group. In addition, EphA2 antagonism reduced the expression of phospho-p85, phosphoinositide 3-kinase 110γ, phospho-Akt, nuclear factor κB, and proinflammatory cytokines. This results of the study indicated a role for EphA2-ephrinA1 signaling in the pathogenesis of LPS-induced lung injury. Furthermore, EphA2 antagonism inhibits the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt pathway and attenuates inflammation.

  6. Equine colostral carbohydrates reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Vendrig, J C; Coffeng, L E; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2012-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that reactions to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), particularly in the gut, can be partly or completely mitigated by colostrum- and milk-derived oligosaccharides. Confirmation of this hypothesis could lead to the development of new therapeutic concepts. To demonstrate the influence of equine colostral carbohydrates on the inflammatory response in an in vitro model with equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Carbohydrates were extracted from mare colostrum, and then evaluated for their influence on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in PBMCs isolated from the same mares, mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 was measured as well as the protein levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Equine colostral carbohydrates significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein at both times measured and significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression by PBMCs. Moreover, cell viability significantly increased in the presence of high concentrations of colostral carbohydrates. Carbohydrates derived from equine colostrum reduce LPS-induced inflammatory responses of equine PBMCs. Colostrum and milk-derived carbohydrates are promising candidates for new concepts in preventive and regenerative medicine.

  7. Atomic force microscopy observation of lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiomyocyte cytoskeleton reorganization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqun; Chen, Tangting; Zhou, Xiang; Huang, Qiaobing; Jin, Chunhua

    2013-08-01

    We applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intracellular cytoskeleton reorganization in primary cardiomyocytes from neonatal mouse. The nonionic detergent Triton X-100 was used to remove the membrane, soluble proteins, and organelles from the cell. The remaining cytoskeleton can then be directly visualized by AFM. Using three-dimensional technique of AFM, we were able to quantify the changes of cytoskeleton by the "density" and total "volume" of the cytoskeleton fibers. Compared to the control group, the density of cytoskeleton was remarkably decreased and the volume of cytoskeleton was significantly increased after LPS treatment, which suggests that LPS may induce the cytoskeleton reorganization and change the cardiomyocyte morphology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lipopolysaccharide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in boar sperm is mediated by activation of oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Guo, Huiduo; Gong, Yabin; Zhao, Ruqian

    2017-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been reported to exert detrimental effects on boar sperm viability. In the present study, LPS was detected in boar semen samples at an average level of 0.62 ± 0.14 μg/mL. We treated boar sperm with 1 μg/mL LPS for 6 hours and examined alterations in sperm motility and apoptosis, together with mitochondrial functionality and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation. The expression and the location of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were determined to reveal possible mechanisms. LPS-treated sperm showed significant reduction in motility (P < 0.05) and viability (P < 0.05). LPS induced sperm mitochondrial damage via oxidative stress which is indicated by marked ultrastructural changes in the mitochondria including swelling, disorientation and vacuole, a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm; P < 0.05), as well as an increase of malondialdehyde levels (P < 0.01). Moreover, the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) was significantly (P < 0.05) increased, which leads to oxidative stress. The copy number of mitochondrial DNA was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in LPS-treated sperm. Moreover, cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COXIV), an important subunit in mitochondrial electron transport chain and OXPHOS, was significantly (P < 0.05) upregulated after LPS treatment. TFAM, the key transcription factor that activates mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription, was translocated from the head to the midpiece of sperm where mitochondria are distributed in LPS-treated sperm. Taken together, these results indicate that LPS-induced decrease of motility and viability in boar sperm is mediated by abnormal activation of OXPHOS and mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxidation. These findings may provide new insights in understanding the mechanisms underlying the bacterial infection-induced sperm damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of fisetin on lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuefeng; Jiang, Xi; Zhang, Xiangming; Chen, Ziwei; Xu, Lexing; Chen, Lei; Wang, Guokang; Pan, Jianchun

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) involves a series of pathological changes including the inflammation and increased cytokine levels. Fisetin, a natural flavonoid, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, and also has been shown in our previous studies to exert anti-depressant-like properties. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of fisetin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depressive-like behavior and inflammation in mice. The results suggested that the immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were increased at 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after LPS injection (0.83 mg/kg). However, only the group of 24 h treatment did not show any effect on locomotion counts. Pretreatment with fisetin at doses of 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg (p.o.) for 7 days reversed LPS-induced alterations of the immobility time in both of these two tests. Further neurochemical assays suggested that pretreatment with fisetin reversed LPS-induced overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Moreover, higher dose of fisetin effectively antagonized iNOS mRNA expression and nitrite levels via the modulation of NF-κB in the hippocampus and PFC. Taken together, fisetin may be an effective therapeutic agent for LPS-induced depressive-like behaviors, which is due to its anti-inflammatory property.

  10. Lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial barrier breakdown is cyclic adenosine monophosphate dependent in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Nicolas; Baumer, Yvonne; Drenckhahn, Detlev; Waschke, Jens

    2009-05-01

    To determine whether cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is critically involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced breakdown of endothelial barrier functions in vivo and in vitro. Experimental laboratory research. Research laboratory. Wistar rats and cultured human microvascular endothelial cells. Permeability measurements in single postcapillary venules in vivo and permeability measurements and cell biology techniques in vitro. We demonstrate that within 120 minutes LPS increased endothelial permeability in rat mesenteric postcapillary venules in vivo and caused a barrier breakdown in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. This was associated with the formation of large intercellular gaps and fragmentation of vascular endothelial cadherin immunostaining. Furthermore, claudin 5 immunostaining at cell borders was drastically reduced after LPS treatment. Interestingly, activity of the small GTPase Rho A, which has previously been suggested to mediate the LPS-induced endothelial barrier breakdown, was not increased after 2 hours. However, activity of Rac 1, which is known to be important for maintenance of endothelial barrier functions, was significantly reduced to 64 +/- 8% after 2 hours. All LPS-induced changes of endothelial cells were blocked by a forskolin-mediated or rolipram-mediated increase of cAMP. Consistently, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based measurements demonstrated that LPS significantly decreased intracellular cAMP. In summary, our data demonstrate that LPS disrupts endothelial barrier properties by decreasing intracellular cAMP. This mechanism may involve inactivation of Rac 1 rather than activation of Rho A.

  11. Involvement of interleukin-1 type 1 receptors in lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness responses.

    PubMed

    Matsuwaki, Takashi; Shionoya, Kiseko; Ihnatko, Robert; Eskilsson, Anna; Kakuta, Shigeru; Dufour, Sylvie; Schwaninger, Markus; Waisman, Ari; Müller, Werner; Pinteaux, Emmanuel; Engblom, David; Blomqvist, Anders

    2017-11-01

    Sickness responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were examined in mice with deletion of the interleukin (IL)-1 type 1 receptor (IL-1R1). IL-1R1 knockout (KO) mice displayed intact anorexia and HPA-axis activation to intraperitoneally injected LPS (anorexia: 10 or 120µg/kg; HPA-axis: 120µg/kg), but showed attenuated but not extinguished fever (120µg/kg). Brain PGE 2 synthesis was attenuated, but Cox-2 induction remained intact. Neither the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) inhibitor etanercept nor the IL-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab abolished the LPS induced fever in IL-1R1 KO mice. Deletion of IL-1R1 specifically in brain endothelial cells attenuated the LPS induced fever, but only during the late, 3rd phase of fever, whereas deletion of IL-1R1 on neural cells or on peripheral nerves had little or no effect on the febrile response. We conclude that while IL-1 signaling is not critical for LPS induced anorexia or stress hormone release, IL-1R1, expressed on brain endothelial cells, contributes to the febrile response to LPS. However, also in the absence of IL-1R1, LPS evokes a febrile response, although this is attenuated. This remaining fever seems not to be mediated by IL-6 receptors or TNFα, but by some yet unidentified pyrogenic factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. OPTICAL IMAGING OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY FROM HYPEROXIA AND SEPSIS

    PubMed Central

    SEPEHR, REYHANEH; AUDI, SAID H.; MALEKI, SEPIDEH; STANISZEWSKI, KEVIN; EIS, ANNIE L.; KONDURI, GIRIJA G.; RANJI, MAHSA

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic pulmonary disorders such as acute lung injury (ALI) in adults and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. Bacterial infection and oxygen toxicity, which result in pulmonary vascular endothelial injury, contribute to impaired vascular growth and alveolar simplification seen in the lungs of premature infants with BPD. Hyperoxia induces ALI, reduces cell proliferation, causes DNA damage and promotes cell death by causing mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to use an optical imaging technique to evaluate the variations in fluorescence intensities of the auto-fluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes, NADH and FAD in four different groups of rats. The ratio of these fluorescence signals (NADH/FAD), referred to as NADH redox ratio (NADH RR) has been used as an indicator of tissue metabolism in injuries. Here, we investigated whether the changes in metabolic state can be used as a marker of oxidative stress caused by hyperoxia and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in neonatal rat lungs. We examined the tissue redox states of lungs from four groups of rat pups: normoxic (21% O2) pups, hyperoxic (90% O2) pups, pups treated with LPS (normoxic + LPS), and pups treated with LPS and hyperoxia (hyperoxic + LPS). Our results show that hyperoxia oxidized the respiratory chain as reflected by a ~31% decrease in lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic lungs. LPS treatment alone or with hyperoxia had no significant effect on lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic or hyperoxic lungs, respectively. Thus, NADH RR serves as a quantitative marker of oxidative stress level in lung injury caused by two clinically important conditions: hyperoxia and LPS exposure. PMID:24672581

  13. [Chrysin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses of macrophages via JAK-STATs signaling pathway].

    PubMed

    Qi, Shi-Mei; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Qi; Qi, Zhi-Lin; Zhang, Yao

    2018-03-20

    To investigate the mechanism of chrysin in regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 cells. RAW264.7 cells were treated with different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 150, and 200 µg/mL) of chrysin for 24 h, and the cell viability was measured using CCK-8. RAW264.7 cells were pre-treated with 10, 30, or 60 µg/mL chrysin for 2 h before stimulation with LPS for different times. The levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 were detected by ELISA, and Western blotting was used to detect the phosphorylation of JAK- 1, JAK-2, STAT-1 and STAT-3. The level of reactive oxygen species in RAW264.7 cells was detected by CM-H2DCFDA fluorescence probe. The effect of ROS on LPS-induced JAK-STATs signal and the inflammatory response of RAW264.7 cells was detected by ROS scavenger NAC. The transcription factors STAT-1 and STAT-3 nuclear translocation were observed by laser confocal microscopy. Chrysin below 60 µg/mL did not significantly affect the viability of RAW264.7 cells. At 10, 30, and 60 µg/mL, chrysin dose-dependently inhibited the expression of iNOS induced by LPS. Chrysin treatment also inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of JAK-STATs, nuclear translocation of STAT1 and STAT3, release of TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1, and the production of ROS in RAW264.7 cells; ROS acted as an upstream signal to mediate the activation of JAK-STATs signaling pathway. Chrysin blocks the activity of JAK-STATs mediated by ROS to inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 cells.

  14. Flavonoid Apigenin Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response through Multiple Mechanisms in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Guangji; Gurley, Emily C.; Zhou, Huiping

    2014-01-01

    Background Apigenin is a non-toxic natural flavonoid that is abundantly present in common fruits and vegetables. It has been reported that apigenin has various beneficial health effects such as anti-inflammation and chemoprevention. Multiple studies have shown that inflammation is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, diabetes, sepsis, various liver diseases, and other metabolic diseases. Although it has been long realized that apigenin has anti-inflammatory activities, the underlying functional mechanisms are still not fully understood. Methodology and Principal Findings In the present study, we examined the effect of apigenin on LPS-induced inflammatory response and further elucidated the potential underlying mechanisms in human THP-1-induced macrophages and mouse J774A.1 macrophages. By using the PrimePCR array, we were able to identify the major target genes regulated by apigenin in LPS-mediated immune response. The results indicated that apigenin significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α through modulating multiple intracellular signaling pathways in macrophages. Apigenin inhibited LPS-induced IL-1β production by inhibiting caspase-1 activation through the disruption of the NLRP3 inflammasome assembly. Apigenin also prevented LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-1β production by reducing the mRNA stability via inhibiting ERK1/2 activation. In addition, apigenin significantly inhibited TNF-α and IL-1β-induced activation of NF-κB. Conclusion and Significance Apigenin Inhibits LPS-induced Inflammatory Response through multiple mechanisms in macrophages. These results provided important scientific evidences for the potential application of apigenin as a therapeutic agent for inflammatory diseases. PMID:25192391

  15. The Role of Smurf1 in Neuronal Necroptosis after Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lifei; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Shunxing; Liu, Chun; Gao, Yilu; Xu, Xide

    2018-05-01

    The role of inflammation in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease is gradually recognized and leads to an urgent challenge. Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1), one member of the HECT family, is up-regulated by proinflammatory cytokines and associated with apoptosis in acute spinal cord injury. However, the function of Smurf1 through promoting neuronal necroptosis is still limited in the central nervous system (CNS). Hence, we developed a neuroinflammatory model in adult rats following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lateral ventral injection to elaborate whether Smurf1 is involved in necroptosis in CNS injury. The up-regulation of Smurf1 detected in the rat brain cortex was similar to the necroptotic marker RIP1 expression in a time-dependent manner after LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Meanwhile, Smurf1 knockdown with siRNA inhibited neuronal necroptosis following LPS-stimulated rat pheochromocytomal PC12 cells. Thus, it was indicated that LPS-induced necroptosis could be promoted by Smurf1. In short, these studies suggest that Smurf1 might promote neuronal necroptosis after LPS-induced neuroinflammation, which might act as a novel and potential molecular target for the treatment of neuroinflammation associated diseases.

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide induces CF-like alteration of protein secretion by human tracheal gland cells.

    PubMed

    Kammouni, W; Figarella, C; Baeza, N; Marchand, S; Merten, M D

    1997-12-18

    Human tracheal gland (HTG) serous cells are now believed to play a major role in the physiopathology of cystic fibrosis. Because of the persistent inflammation and the specific infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lung, we looked for the action of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of this bacteria on human tracheal gland cells in culture by studying the secretion of the secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) which is a specific serous secretory marker of these cells. Treatment with Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in the basal production of SLPI (+ 250 +/- 25%) whilst the SLPI transcript mRNA levels remained unchanged. This LPS-induced increase in secretion was inhibited by glucocorticoides. Furthermore, LPS treatment of HTG cells induces a loss of responsiveness to carbachol and isoproterenol but not to adenosine triphosphate. These findings indicate that HTG cells treated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS have the same behavior as those previously observed with CF-HTG cells. Exploration by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification showed that LPS downregulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mRNA expression in HTG cells indicative of a link between CFTR function and consequent CF-like alteration in protein secretory process.

  17. Saccharomyces boulardii inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of human dendritic cells and T cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, S; Przesdzing, I; Metzke, D; Schmitz, J; Radbruch, A; Baumgart, D C

    2009-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) is a probiotic yeast preparation that has demonstrated efficacy in inflammatory and infectious disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in controlled clinical trials. Although patients clearly benefit from treatment with Sb, little is known on how Sb unfolds its anti-inflammatory properties in humans. Dendritic cells (DC) balance tolerance and immunity and are involved critically in the control of T cell activation. Thus, they are believed to have a pivotal role in the initiation and perpetuation of chronic inflammatory disorders, not only in the gut. We therefore decided to investigate if Sb modulates DC function. Culture of primary (native, non-monocyte-derived) human myeloid CD1c+CD11c+CD123– DC (mDC) in the presence of Sb culture supernatant (active component molecular weight < 3 kDa, as evaluated by membrane partition chromatography) reduced significantly expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD80 (P < 0·01) and the DC mobilization marker CC-chemokine receptor CCR7 (CD197) (P < 0·001) induced by the prototypical microbial antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, secretion of key proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were notably reduced, while the secretion of anti-inflammatory IL-10 increased. Finally, Sb supernatant inhibited the proliferation of naive T cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction with mDC. In summary, our data suggest that Sb may exhibit part of its anti-inflammatory potential through modulation of DC phenotype, function and migration by inhibition of their immune response to bacterial microbial surrogate antigens such as LPS. PMID:19161443

  18. Copper chelation by tetrathiomolybdate inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hao; Beckman, Joseph S.; Zhang, Wei-Jian

    2011-01-01

    Redox-active transition metal ions, such as iron and copper, may play an important role in vascular inflammation, which is an etiologic factor in atherosclerotic vascular diseases. In this study, we investigated whether tetrathiomolybdate (TTM), a highly specific copper chelator, can act as an anti-inflammatory agent, preventing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in vivo. Female C57BL/6N mice were daily gavaged with TTM (30 mg/kg body wt) or vehicle control. After 3 wk, animals were injected intraperitoneally with 50 μg LPS or saline buffer and killed 3 h later. Treatment with TTM reduced serum ceruloplasmin activity by 43%, a surrogate marker of bioavailable copper, in the absence of detectable hepatotoxicity. The concentrations of both copper and molybdenum increased in various tissues, whereas the copper-to-molybdenum ratio decreased, consistent with reduced copper bioavailability. TTM treatment did not have a significant effect on superoxide dismutase activity in heart and liver. Furthermore, TTM significantly inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory gene transcription in aorta and heart, including vascular and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, respectively), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (ANOVA, P < 0.05); consistently, protein levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and MCP-1 in heart were also significantly lower in TTM-treated animals. Similar inhibitory effects of TTM were observed on activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) in heart and lungs. Finally, TTM significantly inhibited LPS-induced increases of serum levels of soluble ICAM-1, MCP-1, and TNF-α (ANOVA, P < 0.05). These data indicate that copper chelation with TTM inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses in aorta and other tissues of mice, most likely by inhibiting activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factors, NF-κB and AP-1. Therefore, copper appears to play an important role in vascular inflammation, and TTM may have value as an anti-inflammatory or anti-atherogenic agent. PMID:21724870

  19. Comparative and network-based proteomic analysis of low dose ethanol- and lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Abu Hena M; Fessler, Michael B; Chowdhury, Saiful M

    2018-01-01

    Macrophages are specialized phagocytes that play an essential role in inflammation, immunity, and tissue repair. Profiling the global proteomic response of macrophages to microbial molecules such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide is key to understanding fundamental mechanisms of inflammatory disease. Ethanol is a widely abused substance that has complex effects on inflammation. Reports have indicated that ethanol can activate or inhibit the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like Receptor 4, in different settings, with important consequences for liver and neurologic inflammation, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To profile the sequential effect of low dose ethanol and lipopolysaccharide on macrophages, a gel-free proteomic technique was applied to RAW 264.7 macrophages. Five hundred four differentially expressed proteins were identified and quantified with high confidence using ≥ 5 peptide spectral matches. Among these, 319 proteins were shared across all treatment conditions, and 69 proteins were exclusively identified in ethanol-treated or lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells. The interactive impact of ethanol and lipopolysaccharide on the macrophage proteome was evaluated using bioinformatics tools, enabling identification of differentially responsive proteins, protein interaction networks, disease- and function-based networks, canonical pathways, and upstream regulators. Five candidate protein coding genes (PGM2, ISYNA1, PARP1, and PSAP) were further validated by qRT-PCR that mostly related to glucose metabolism and fatty acid synthesis pathways. Taken together, this study describes for the first time at a systems level the interaction between ethanol and lipopolysaccharide in the proteomic programming of macrophages, and offers new mechanistic insights into the biology that may underlie the impact of ethanol on infectious and inflammatory disease in humans.

  20. Comparative and network-based proteomic analysis of low dose ethanol- and lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Abu Hena M.; Fessler, Michael B.

    2018-01-01

    Macrophages are specialized phagocytes that play an essential role in inflammation, immunity, and tissue repair. Profiling the global proteomic response of macrophages to microbial molecules such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide is key to understanding fundamental mechanisms of inflammatory disease. Ethanol is a widely abused substance that has complex effects on inflammation. Reports have indicated that ethanol can activate or inhibit the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like Receptor 4, in different settings, with important consequences for liver and neurologic inflammation, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To profile the sequential effect of low dose ethanol and lipopolysaccharide on macrophages, a gel-free proteomic technique was applied to RAW 264.7 macrophages. Five hundred four differentially expressed proteins were identified and quantified with high confidence using ≥ 5 peptide spectral matches. Among these, 319 proteins were shared across all treatment conditions, and 69 proteins were exclusively identified in ethanol-treated or lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells. The interactive impact of ethanol and lipopolysaccharide on the macrophage proteome was evaluated using bioinformatics tools, enabling identification of differentially responsive proteins, protein interaction networks, disease- and function-based networks, canonical pathways, and upstream regulators. Five candidate protein coding genes (PGM2, ISYNA1, PARP1, and PSAP) were further validated by qRT-PCR that mostly related to glucose metabolism and fatty acid synthesis pathways. Taken together, this study describes for the first time at a systems level the interaction between ethanol and lipopolysaccharide in the proteomic programming of macrophages, and offers new mechanistic insights into the biology that may underlie the impact of ethanol on infectious and inflammatory disease in humans. PMID:29481576

  1. Docosahexaenoic acid ester of phloridzin inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in THP-1 differentiated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2015-03-01

    Phloridzin or phlorizin (PZ) is a predominant phenolic compound found in apple and also used in various natural health products. Phloridzin shows poor absorption and cellular uptake due to its hydrophilic nature. The aim was to investigate and compare the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ester of PZ (PZ-DHA) and its parent compounds (phloridzin and DHA), phloretin (the aglycone of PZ) and cyclooxygenase inhibitory drugs (diclofenac and nimesulide) on production of pro-inflammatory biomarkers in inflammation-induced macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulation. Human THP-1 monocytes were seeded in 24-well plates (5×10(5)/well) and treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 0.1μg/mL) for 48h to induce macrophage differentiation. After 48h, the differentiated macrophages were washed with Hank's buffer and treated with various concentrations of test compounds for 4h, followed by the LPS-stimulation (18h). Pre-exposure of PZ-DHA ester was more effective in reducing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels compared to DHA and nimesulide. However, diclofenac was the most effective in reducing prostaglandin (PGE2) level by depicting a dose-dependent response. However, PZ-DHA ester and DHA were the most effective in inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) among other test compounds. Our results suggest that PZ-DHA ester might possess potential therapeutic activity to treat inflammation related disorders such as type 2 diabetes, asthma, atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Resveratrol Protects Dopamine Neurons Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neurotoxicity through Its Anti-Inflammatory Actions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Shi, Jing-Shan; Zhou, Hui; Wilson, Belinda; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. Accumulating evidence indicates that inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation may become a reliable protective strategy for PD. Resveratrol, a nonflavonoid polyphenol naturally found in red wine and grapes, has been known to possess antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. Although recent studies have shown that resveratrol provided neuroprotective effects against ischemia, seizure, and neurodegenerative disorders, the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects on dopaminergic neurodegeneration are poorly defined. In this study, rat primary midbrain neuron-glia cultures were used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying resveratrol-mediated neuroprotection. The results clearly demonstrated that resveratrol protected DA neurons against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neurotoxicity in concentration- and time-dependent manners through the inhibition of microglial activation and the subsequent reduction of proinflammatory factor release. Mechanistically, resveratrol-mediated neuroprotection was attributed to the inhibition of NADPH oxidase. This conclusion is supported by the following observations. First, resveratrol reduced NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species. Second, LPS-induced translocation of NADPH oxidase cytosolic subunit p47 to the cell membrane was significantly attenuated by resveratrol. Third and most importantly, resveratrol failed to exhibit neuroprotection in cultures from NADPH oxidase-deficient mice. Furthermore, this neuroprotection was also related to an attenuation of the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB signaling pathways in microglia. These findings suggest that resveratrol exerts neuroprotection against LPS-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration, and NADPH oxidase may be a major player in resveratrol-mediated neuroprotection. PMID:20554604

  3. Dietary L-arginine supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation on inflammatory response and innate immunity of broilers. Experiment 1 was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatment; 6 birds/cage) with 3 dietary Arg concentrations (1.05, 1.4...

  4. Dietary L-arginine supplementation modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammatory response in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammatory response through LPS/TLR-4 signaling pathway in broilers. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatm...

  5. The protective effect of CDDO-Me on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Mou, Yi; Tan, Jiani; Wei, Linlin; Qiao, Yixue; Wei, Tingting; Xiang, Pengjun; Peng, Sixun; Zhang, Yihua; Huang, Zhangjian; Ji, Hui

    2015-03-01

    CDDO-Me, initiated in a phase II clinical trial, is a potential useful therapeutic agent for cancer and inflammatory dysfunctions, whereas the therapeutic efficacy of CDDO-Me on LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) has not been reported as yet. The purpose of the present study was to explore the protective effect of CDDO-Me on LPS-induced ALI in mice and to investigate its possible mechanism. BalB/c mice received CDDO-Me (0.5mg/kg, 2mg/kg) or dexamethasone (5mg/kg) intraperitoneally 1h before LPS stimulation and were sacrificed 6h later. W/D ratio, lung MPO activity, number of total cells and neutrophils, pulmonary histopathology, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the BALF were assessed. Furthermore, we estimated iNOS, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α mRNA expression and NO production as well as the activation of the three main MAPKs, AkT, IκB-α and p65. Pretreatment with CDDO-Me significantly ameliorated W/D ratio, lung MPO activity, inflammatory cell infiltration, and inflammatory cytokine production in BALF from the in vivo study. Additionally, CDDO-Me had beneficial effects on the intervention for pathogenesis process at molecular, protein and transcriptional levels in vitro. These analytical results provided evidence that CDDO-Me could be a potential therapeutic candidate for treating LPS-induced ALI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CELECOXIB ATTENUATES SYSTEMIC LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED BRAIN INFLAMMATION AND WHITE MATTER INJURY IN THE NEONATAL RATS

    PubMed Central

    FAN, L.-W.; KAIZAKI, A.; TIEN, L.-T.; PANG, Y.; TANAKA, S.; NUMAZAWA, S.; BHATT, A. J.; CAI, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced white matter injury in the neonatal rat brain is associated with inflammatory processes. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) can be induced by inflammatory stimuli, such as cytokines and pro-inflammatory molecules, suggesting that COX-2 may be considered as the target for anti-inflammation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, can reduce systemic LPS-induced brain inflammation and brain damage. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of LPS (2 mg/kg) was performed in postnatal day 5 (P5) of Sprague-Dawley rat pups and celecoxib (20 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered i.p. 5 min after LPS injection. The body weight and wire hanging maneuver test were performed 24 hr after the LPS exposure, and brain injury was examined after these tests. Systemic LPS exposure resulted in an impairment of behavioral performance and acute brain injury, as indicated by apoptotic death of oligodendrocytes (OLs) and loss of OL immunoreactivity in the neonatal rat brain. Treatments with celecoxib significantly reduced systemic LPS-induced neurobehavioral disturbance and brain damage. Celecoxib administration significantly attenuated systemic LPS-induced increments in the number of activated microglia and astrocytes, concentrations of IL-1β and TNFα, and protein levels of phosphorylated-p38 MAPK in the neonatal rat brain. The protection of celecoxib was also associated with a reduction of systemic LPS-induced COX-2+ cells which were double labeled with GFAP+ (astrocyte) cells. The overall results suggest that celecoxib was capable of attenuating the brain injury and neurobehavioral disturbance induced by systemic LPS exposure, and the protective effects are associated with its anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:23485816

  7. Tocotrienols inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages of female mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammation has been implicated in cardiovascular disease, and the important role of proteasomes in the development of inflammation and other macrophage functions has been demonstrated. Tocotrienols are potent hypocholesterolemic agents that inhibit β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity, which is degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of tocotrienols in reducing inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used as a prototype for inflammation in murine RAW 264.7 cells and BALB/c female mice. Results The present results clearly demonstrate that α-, γ-, or δ-tocotrienol treatments inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of 20 S rabbit muscle proteasomes (> 50%; P < 0.05). Chymotrypsin, trypsin, and post-glutamase activities were decreased > 40% (P < 0.05) with low concentrations (< 80 μM), and then increased gradually with concentrations of (80 - 640 μM) in RAW 264.7 whole cells. Tocotrienols showed 9 - 33% (P < 0.05) inhibitions in TNF-α secretion in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Results of experiments carried out in BALB/c mice demonstrated that serum levels of TNF-α after LPS treatment were also reduced (20 - 48%; P < 0.05) by tocotrienols with doses of 1 and 10 μg/kg, and a corresponding rise in serum levels of corticosterone (19 - 41%; P < 0.05) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (81 - 145%; P < 0.02) was observed at higher concentrations (40 μM). Maximal inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-α was obtained with δ-tocotrienol (10 μg/kg). Low concentrations of δ-Tocotrienols (< 20 μM) blocked LPS-induced gene expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and iNOS (> 40%), while higher concentrations (40 μM) increased gene expression of the latter in peritoneal macrophages (prepared from BALB/c mice) as compared to control group. Conclusions These results represent a novel approach by using natural products, such as tocotrienols as proteasome modulators, which may lead to the development of new dietary supplements of tocotrienols for cardiovascular diseases, as well as others that are based on inflammation. PMID:21162750

  8. Lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behaviour evaluated in different models of anxiety and innate fear in rats.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Gabriel S; Kanashiro, Alexandre; Santin, Francele M; de Souza, Glória E P; Nobre, Manoel J; Coimbra, Norberto C

    2012-04-01

    The fact that there is a complex and bidirectional communication between the immune and nervous systems has been well demonstrated. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of gram-negative bacteria, is widely used to systematically stimulate the immune system and generate profound physiological and behavioural changes, also known as 'sickness behaviour' (e.g. anhedonia, lethargy, loss of appetite, anxiety, sleepiness). Different ethological tools have been used to analyse the behavioural modifications induced by LPS; however, many researchers analysed only individual tests, a single LPS dose or a unique ethological parameter, thus leading to disagreements regarding the data. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different doses of LPS (10, 50, 200 and 500 μg/kg, i.p.) in young male Wistar rats (weighing 180-200 g; 8-9 weeks old) on the ethological and spatiotemporal parameters of the elevated plus maze, light-dark box, elevated T maze, open-field tests and emission of ultrasound vocalizations. There was a dose-dependent increase in anxiety-like behaviours caused by LPS, forming an inverted U curve peaked at LPS 200 μg/kg dose. However, these anxiety-like behaviours were detected only by complementary ethological analysis (stretching, grooming, immobility responses and alarm calls), and these reactions seem to be a very sensitive tool in assessing the first signs of sickness behaviour. In summary, the present work clearly showed that there are resting and alertness reactions induced by opposite neuroimmune mechanisms (neuroimmune bias) that could lead to anxiety behaviours, suggesting that misunderstanding data could occur when only few ethological variables or single doses of LPS are analysed. Finally, it is hypothesized that this bias is an evolutionary tool that increases animals' security while the body recovers from a systemic infection. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  9. Acute starvation alters lipopolysaccharide-induced fever in leptin-dependent and -independent mechanisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Wataru; Luheshi, Giamal N

    2010-12-01

    A decrease in leptin levels with the onset of starvation triggers a myriad of physiological responses including immunosuppression and hypometabolism/hypothermia, both of which can counteract the fever response to pathogens. Here we examined the role of leptin in LPS-induced fever in rats that were fasted for 48 h prior to inflammation with or without leptin replacement (12 μg/day). The preinflammation fasting alone caused a progressive hypothermia that was almost completely reversed by leptin replacement. The LPS (100 μg/kg)-induced elevation in core body temperature (T(core)) was attenuated in the fasted animals at 2-6 h after the injection, an effect that was not reversed by leptin replacement. Increasing the LPS dose to 1,000 μg/kg caused a long-lasting fever that remained unabated for up to 36 h after the injection in the fed rats. This sustained response was strongly attenuated in the fasted rats whose T(core) started to decrease by 18 h after the injection. Leptin replacement almost completely restored the prolonged fever. The attenuation of the prolonged fever in the fasted animals was accompanied by the diminution of proinflammatory PGE(2) in the cerebrospinal fluid and mRNA of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus. Leptin replacement prevented the fasting-induced reduction of POMC but not PGE(2). Moreover, the leptin-dependent fever maintenance correlated closely with hypothalamic POMC levels (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). These results suggest that reduced leptin levels during starvation attenuate the sustained fever response by lowering hypothalamic POMC tone but not PGE(2) synthesis.

  10. Protectin DX Exhibits Protective Effects in Mouse Model of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen; Chen, Lin; Wang, Ya-Xin; Hu, Li-Sha; Xiong, Wei; Shang, You; Yao, Shang-Long

    2018-05-20

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe disease with high mortality and poor prognosis. Protectin DX (PDX), a pro-resolving lipid mediator, exhibits protective effects in ALI. Our experiment aimed to explore the effects and related mechanisms of PDX in mice with ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). BALB/c mice were randomly divided into five groups: sham, LPS, LPS plus 1 ng of PDX (LPS + PDX-1 ng), LPS plus 10 ng of PDX (LPS + PDX-10 ng), and LPS plus 100 ng of PDX (LPS + PDX-100 ng). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) were collected after 24 h, and total cells, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocyte-macrophages, and lymphocytes in BALF were enumerated. The concentration of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and MIP-2 in BALF was determined, and histopathological changes of the lung were observed. The concentration of protein in BALF and lung wet/dry weight ratios were detected to evaluate pulmonary edema. After determining the optimal dose of PDX, neutrophil-platelet interactions in whole blood were evaluated by flow cytometry. The highest dose of PDX (100 ng/mouse) failed to provide pulmonary protective effects, whereas lower doses of PDX (1 ng/mouse and 10 ng/mouse), especially 1 ng PDX, alleviated pulmonary histopathological changes, mitigated LPS-induced ALI and pulmonary edema, inhibited neutrophil infiltration, and reduced pro-inflammatory mediator (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MIP-1α) levels. Meanwhile, 1 ng PDX exhibited pro-resolving functions in ALI including upregulation of monocyte-macrophage numbers and anti-inflammatory mediator IL-10 levels. The flow cytometry results showed that PDX could inhibit neutrophil-platelet interactions in ALI. PDX exerts protective effects in LPS-induced ALI by mitigating pulmonary inflammation and abrogating neutrophil-platelet interactions.

  11. Paeonol attenuates acute lung injury by inhibiting HMGB1 in lipopolysaccharide-induced shock rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Xu, Qin; Mei, Liyan; Lei, Hang; Wen, Quan; Miao, Jifei; Huang, Huina; Chen, Dongfeng; Du, Shaohui; Zhang, Saixia; Zhou, Jianhong; Deng, Rudong; Li, Yiwei; Li, Chun; Li, Hui

    2018-06-05

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved DNA-binding nuclear protein that facilitates gene transcription and the DNA repair response. However, HMGB1 may be released by necrotic cells as well as activated monocytes and macrophages following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Extracellular HMGB1 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) through activating the nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) P65 pathway, thus, it may be a promising therapeutic target in shock-induced ALI. Paeonol (Pae) is the main active component of Paeonia suffruticosa, which has been used to inhibit the inflammatory response in traditional Chinese medicine. We have proven that Pae inhibits the expression, relocation and secretion of HMGB1 in vitro. However, the role of Pae in the HMGB1-NF-κB pathway remains unknown. We herein investigated the role of Pae in LPS-induced ALI rats. In this study, LPS induced a marked decrease in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and survival rate (only 25% after 72 h), and induced severe pathological changes in the lung tissue of rats, which was accompanied by elevated expression of HMGB1 and its downstream protein NF-κB P65. Treatment with Pae significantly improved the survival rate (>60%) and MAP, and attenuated the pathological damage to the lung tissue in ALI rats. Western blotting revealed that Pae also inhibited the total expression of HMGB1, NF-κB P65 and TNF-α in the lung tissue of ALI rats. Moreover, Pae increased the expression of HMGB1 in the nucleus, inhibited the production of HMGB1 in the cytoplasm, and decreased the expression of P65 both in the nucleus and cytoplasm of lung tissue cells in LPS-induced ALI rats. The results were in agreement with those observed in the in vitro experiment. These findings indicate that Pae may be a potential treatment for ALI through its repression of the HMGB1-NF-κB P65 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Interleukin-10 Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuro-Inflammation and Neurotoxicity in Ventral Mesencephalic Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Zhan; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in the brain and can inhibit microglial activation. Herein, we utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory Parkinson’s disease (PD) cell model to determine whether microglia and astrocytes are necessary targets for IL-10 neuroprotection. Primary ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia and astrocytes were prepared. The cells were exposed to IL-10 (15, 50 or 150 ng/mL) 1 h prior to LPS (50 ng/mL) treatment. LPS induced dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neuronal loss in VM cultures, VM neuron-enriched cultures, and neuron-microglia co-cultures, but not in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures. IL-10 reduced LPS-induced neuronal loss particularly in single VM neuron cultures. Pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) were upregulated in both neuron-microglia and neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. In contrast, neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor) were downregulated in neuron-microglia co-cultures, but upregulated in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. IL-10 reduced both the increase in production of the pro-inflammatory mediators and the decrease in production of the neurotrophic factors induced by LPS. These results suggest that astrocytes can balance LPS neurotoxicity by releasing more neurotrophic factors and that IL-10 exerts neuroprotective property by an extensive action including direct on neurons and indirect via inhibiting microglial activation. PMID:26729090

  13. Interleukin-10 Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuro-Inflammation and Neurotoxicity in Ventral Mesencephalic Cultures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Zhan; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2015-12-28

    Interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in the brain and can inhibit microglial activation. Herein, we utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory Parkinson's disease (PD) cell model to determine whether microglia and astrocytes are necessary targets for IL-10 neuroprotection. Primary ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia and astrocytes were prepared. The cells were exposed to IL-10 (15, 50 or 150 ng/mL) 1 h prior to LPS (50 ng/mL) treatment. LPS induced dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neuronal loss in VM cultures, VM neuron-enriched cultures, and neuron-microglia co-cultures, but not in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures. IL-10 reduced LPS-induced neuronal loss particularly in single VM neuron cultures. Pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) were upregulated in both neuron-microglia and neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. In contrast, neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor) were downregulated in neuron-microglia co-cultures, but upregulated in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. IL-10 reduced both the increase in production of the pro-inflammatory mediators and the decrease in production of the neurotrophic factors induced by LPS. These results suggest that astrocytes can balance LPS neurotoxicity by releasing more neurotrophic factors and that IL-10 exerts neuroprotective property by an extensive action including direct on neurons and indirect via inhibiting microglial activation.

  14. Caffeic acid attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behaviour and neuroinflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Basu Mallik, Sanchari; Mudgal, Jayesh; Nampoothiri, Madhavan; Hall, Susan; Dukie, Shailendra Anoopkumar-; Grant, Gary; Rao, C Mallikarjuna; Arora, Devinder

    2016-10-06

    Accumulating data links inflammation, oxidative stress and immune system in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorders. Sickness behaviour is a set of behavioural changes that develop during infection, eventually leading to decrease in mobility and depressed behaviour. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a depression-like state in animals that mimics sickness behaviour. Caffeic acid, a naturally occurring polyphenol, possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was designed to explore the potential of caffeic acid against LPS-induced sickness behaviour in mice. Caffeic acid (30mg/kg) and imipramine (15mg/kg) were administered orally one hour prior to LPS (1.5mg/kg) challenge. Behavioural assessment was carried out between 1 and 2h and blood samples were collected at 3h post-LPS injection. Additionally, cytokines (brain and serum) and brain oxidative stress markers were estimated. LPS increased the systemic and brain cytokine levels, altered the anti-oxidant defence and produced key signs of sickness behaviour in animals. Caffeic acid treatment significantly reduced the LPS-induced changes, including reduced expression of inflammatory markers in serum and whole brain. Caffeic acid also exerted an anti-oxidant effect, which was evident from the decreased levels of oxidative stress markers in whole brain. Our data suggests that caffeic acid can prevent the neuroinflammation-induced acute and probably the long term neurodegenerative changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dried Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) Inhibits Inflammation in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Mi Hye; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Ginger rhizomes have a long history of human use, especially with regards to their anti-inflammatory properties. However, the mechanisms by which ginger acts on lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-)induced inflammation have not yet been identified. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of dried Zingiber officinalis (DZO) on LPS-induced hepatic injury. Methods. ICR mice were given a DZO water extract (100, 1000 mg/kg) orally for three consecutive days. On the third day, they were administered by LPS intraperitoneally. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of DZO, histological, cytokine expression, and protein factor analyses were performed. Results. Oral administration of DZO significantly reduced pathological changes in the liver and proinflammatory cytokines including interferon-(IFN-)γ and interleukin-(IL-)6 in the serum. In addition, DZO inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation by preventing degradation of the IκB-α, as well as the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK, and p38 MAPKs. These were associated with a decrease in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxyenase-2 (COX-2). Conclusions. Our data provide evidence for the hepatoprotective mechanisms of DZO as an anti-inflammatory effect. Furthermore, use of DZO to treat could provide therapeutic benefits in clinical settings. PMID:23935687

  16. Protective effects of magnesium supplementation on metabolic energy derangements in lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A

    2012-11-05

    Metabolic derangements and bioenergetic failure are major contributors to sepsis-induced multiple organ dysfunctions. Due to the well known role of magnesium (Mg) as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions that involve energy creation and utilization, the present investigation was directed to estimate the cardioprotective effect of Mg supplementation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced metabolic energy changes in mice. Oral doses of Mg aspartate (20 or 40 mg/kg) were administered once daily for 7 day. Mice were then subjected to a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (2 mg/kg). Plasma was separated 3 h after LPS injection for determination of creatine kinase-MB activity. Animals were then sacrificed and the hearts were separated for estimation of tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, lactate, pyruvate, adenine nucleotides, creatine phosphate and cardiac Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. Finally, electron microscopic examination was performed to visualize the protective effects of Mg pretreatment on mitochondrial ultrastructure. In general, the higher dose of Mg was more effective than the lower dose in ameliorating creatine kinase-MB elevation and the state of oxidative stress, lactate accumulation, pyruvate reduction as well as preserving creatine phosphate, adenine nucleotides and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. Moreover, the higher dose of Mg provided a significant cardioprotection against the mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Mg therapy can afford a significant protection against metabolic energy derangements and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes induced by LPS cardiotoxicity in mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cardiac-Specific Overexpression of Catalase Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction: Role of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Turdi, Subat; Han, Xuefeng; Huff, Anna F.; Roe, Nathan D.; Hu, Nan; Gao, Feng; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria is a major initiator of sepsis, leading to cardiovascular collapse. Accumulating evidence has indicated a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular complication in sepsis. This study was designed to examine the effect of cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase in LPS-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction and the underlying mechanism(s) with a focus on autophagy. Catalase transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were challenged with LPS (6 mg/kg) and cardiac function was evaluated. Levels of oxidative stress, autophagy, apoptosis and protein damage were examined using fluorescence microscopy, Western blot, TUNEL assay, caspase-3 activity and carbonyl formation. Kaplan-Meier curve was constructed for survival following LPS treatment. Our results revealed a lower mortality in catalase mice compared with FVB mice following LPS challenge. LPS injection led to depressed cardiac contractile capacity as evidenced by echocardiography and cardiomyocyte contractile function, the effect of which was ablated by catalase overexpression. LPS treatment induced elevated TNF-α level, autophagy, apoptosis (TUNEL, caspase-3 activation, cleaved caspase-3), production of ROS and O2−, and protein carbonyl formation, the effects of which were significantly attenuated by catalase overexpression. Electron microscopy revealed focal myocardial damage characterized by mitochondrial injury following LPS treatment, which was less severe in catalase mice. Interestingly, LPS-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction was prevented by antioxidant NAC and the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. Taken together, our data revealed that catalase protects against LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction and mortality, which may be associated with inhibition of oxidative stress and autophagy. PMID:22902401

  18. Up-regulation of microglial cathepsin C expression and activity in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Kai; Wu, Xuefei; Fan, Bin; Li, Ning; Lin, Yongzhong; Yao, Yiwen; Ma, Jianmei

    2012-05-20

    Cathepsin C (Cat C) functions as a central coordinator for activation of many serine proteases in inflammatory cells. It has been recognized that Cat C is responsible for neutrophil recruitment and production of chemokines and cytokines in many inflammatory diseases. However, Cat C expression and its functional role in the brain under normal conditions or in neuroinflammatory processes remain unclear. Our previous study showed that Cat C promoted the progress of brain demyelination in cuprizone-treated mice. The present study further investigated the Cat C expression and activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation in vivo and in vitro. C57BL/6 J mice were intraperitoneally injected with either 0.9% saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to analyze microglial activation, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS mRNAs expressions and cellular localization of Cat C in the brain. Nitrite assay was used to examine microglial activation in vitro; RT-PCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression and release of Cat C. Cat C activity was analyzed by cellular Cat C assay kit. Data were evaluated for statistical significance with paired t test. Cat C was predominantly expressed in hippocampal CA2 neurons in C57BL/6 J mice under normal conditions. Six hours after LPS injection, Cat C expression was detected in cerebral cortical neurons; whereas, twenty-four hours later, Cat C expression was captured in activated microglial cells throughout the entire brain. The duration of induced Cat C expression in neurons and in microglial cells was ten days and three days, respectively. In vitro, LPS, IL-1β and IL-6 treatments increased microglial Cat C expression in a dose-dependent manner and upregulated Cat C secretion and its activity. Taken together, these data indicate that LPS and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 induce the expression, release and upregulate enzymatic activity of Cat C in microglial cells. Further investigation is required to determine the functional role of Cat C in the progression of neuroinflammation, which may have implications for therapeutics for the prevention of neuroinflammation-involved neurological disorders in the future.

  19. Up-regulation of microglial cathepsin C expression and activity in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cathepsin C (Cat C) functions as a central coordinator for activation of many serine proteases in inflammatory cells. It has been recognized that Cat C is responsible for neutrophil recruitment and production of chemokines and cytokines in many inflammatory diseases. However, Cat C expression and its functional role in the brain under normal conditions or in neuroinflammatory processes remain unclear. Our previous study showed that Cat C promoted the progress of brain demyelination in cuprizone-treated mice. The present study further investigated the Cat C expression and activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation in vivo and in vitro. Methods C57BL/6 J mice were intraperitoneally injected with either 0.9% saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to analyze microglial activation, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS mRNAs expressions and cellular localization of Cat C in the brain. Nitrite assay was used to examine microglial activation in vitro; RT-PCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression and release of Cat C. Cat C activity was analyzed by cellular Cat C assay kit. Data were evaluated for statistical significance with paired t test. Results Cat C was predominantly expressed in hippocampal CA2 neurons in C57BL/6 J mice under normal conditions. Six hours after LPS injection, Cat C expression was detected in cerebral cortical neurons; whereas, twenty-four hours later, Cat C expression was captured in activated microglial cells throughout the entire brain. The duration of induced Cat C expression in neurons and in microglial cells was ten days and three days, respectively. In vitro, LPS, IL-1β and IL-6 treatments increased microglial Cat C expression in a dose-dependent manner and upregulated Cat C secretion and its activity. Conclusions Taken together, these data indicate that LPS and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 induce the expression, release and upregulate enzymatic activity of Cat C in microglial cells. Further investigation is required to determine the functional role of Cat C in the progression of neuroinflammation, which may have implications for therapeutics for the prevention of neuroinflammation-involved neurological disorders in the future. PMID:22607609

  20. Febuxostat protects rats against lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation in a dose-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Fahmi, Alaa N A; Shehatou, George S G; Shebl, Abdelhadi M; Salem, Hatem A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate possible protective effects of febuxostat, a highly potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor, against acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups, as follows: (i) vehicle control group; (ii) and (iii) febuxostat 10 and febuxostat 15 groups, drug-treated controls; (iv) LPS group, receiving an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (7.5 mg/kg); (v) and (vi) febuxostat 10-LPS and febuxostat 15-LPS groups, receiving oral treatment of febuxostat (10 and 15 mg/kg/day, respectively) for 7 days before LPS. After 18 h administration of LPS, blood was collected for C-reactive protein (CRP) measurement. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was examined for leukocyte infiltration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, protein content, and total nitrate/nitrite. Lung weight gain was determined, and lung tissue homogenate was prepared and evaluated for oxidative stress. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was assessed in BALF and lung homogenate. Moreover, histological changes of lung tissues were evaluated. LPS elicited lung injury characterized by increased lung water content (by 1.2 fold), leukocyte infiltration (by 13 fold), inflammation and oxidative stress (indicated by increased malondialdehyde (MDA), by 3.4 fold), and reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (by 34 %). Febuxostat dose-dependently decreased LPS-induced lung edema and elevations in BALF protein content, infiltration of leukocytes, and LDH activity. Moreover, the elevated levels of TNF-α in BALF and lung tissue of LPS-treated rats were attenuated by febuxostat pretreatment. Febuxostat also displayed a potent antioxidant activity by decreasing lung tissue levels of MDA and enhancing SOD activity. Histological analysis of lung tissue further demonstrated that febuxostat dose-dependently reversed LPS-induced histopathological changes. These findings demonstrate a significant dose-dependent protection by febuxostat against LPS-induced lung inflammation in rats.

  1. Effects of simvastatin administration on rodents with lipopolysaccharide-induced liver microvascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    La Mura, Vincenzo; Pasarín, Marcos; Meireles, Cintia Z; Miquel, Rosa; Rodríguez-Vilarrupla, Aina; Hide, Diana; Gracia-Sancho, Jorge; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos; Bosch, Jaime; Abraldes, Juan G

    2013-03-01

    Endothelial dysfunction drives vascular derangement and organ failure associated with sepsis. However, the consequences of sepsis on liver sinusoidal endothelial function are largely unknown. Statins might improve microvascular dysfunction in sepsis. The present study explores liver vascular abnormalities and the effects of statins in a rat model of endotoxemia. For this purpose, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline was given to: (1) rats treated with placebo; (2) rats treated with simvastatin (25 mg/kg, orally), given at 3 and 23 hours after LPS/saline challenge; (3) rats treated with simvastatin (25 mg/kg/24 h, orally) from 3 days before LPS/saline injection. Livers were isolated and perfused and sinusoidal endothelial function was explored by testing the vasodilation of the liver circulation to increasing concentrations of acetylcholine. The phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (PeNOS)/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) ratio was measured as a marker of eNOS activation. LPS administration induced an increase in baseline portal perfusion pressure and a decrease in vasodilation to acetylcholine (sinusoidal endothelial dysfunction). This was associated with reduced eNOS phosphorylation and liver inflammation. Simvastatin after LPS challenge did not prevent the increase in baseline portal perfusion pressure, but attenuated the development of sinusoidal endothelial dysfunction. Treatment with simvastatin from 3 days before LPS prevented the increase in baseline perfusion pressure and totally normalized the vasodilating response of the liver vasculature to acetylcholine and reduced liver inflammation. Both protocols of treatment restored a physiologic PeNOS/eNOS ratio. LPS administration induces intrahepatic endothelial dysfunction that might be prevented by simvastatin, suggesting that statins might have potential for liver protection during endotoxemia. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Aspirin reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammation in human models of ARDS.

    PubMed

    Hamid, U; Krasnodembskaya, A; Fitzgerald, M; Shyamsundar, M; Kissenpfennig, A; Scott, C; Lefrancais, E; Looney, M R; Verghis, R; Scott, J; Simpson, A J; McNamee, J; McAuley, D F; O'Kane, C M

    2017-11-01

    Platelets play an active role in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Animal and observational studies have shown aspirin's antiplatelet and immunomodulatory effects may be beneficial in ARDS. To test the hypothesis that aspirin reduces inflammation in clinically relevant human models that recapitulate pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the development of ARDS. Healthy volunteers were randomised to receive placebo or aspirin 75  or 1200 mg (1:1:1) for seven days prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, allocation-concealed study. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 6 hours after inhaling 50 µg of LPS. The primary outcome measure was BAL IL-8. Secondary outcome measures included markers of alveolar inflammation (BAL neutrophils, cytokines, neutrophil proteases), alveolar epithelial cell injury, systemic inflammation (neutrophils and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP)) and platelet activation (thromboxane B2, TXB2). Human lungs, perfused and ventilated ex vivo (EVLP) were randomised to placebo or 24 mg aspirin and injured with LPS. BAL was carried out 4 hours later. Inflammation was assessed by BAL differential cell counts and histological changes. In the healthy volunteer (n=33) model, data for the aspirin groups were combined. Aspirin did not reduce BAL IL-8. However, aspirin reduced pulmonary neutrophilia and tissue damaging neutrophil proteases (Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-8/-9), reduced BAL concentrations of tumour necrosis factor α and reduced systemic and pulmonary TXB2. There was no difference between high-dose and low-dose aspirin. In the EVLP model, aspirin reduced BAL neutrophilia and alveolar injury as measured by histological damage. These are the first prospective human data indicating that aspirin inhibits pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation, at both low and high doses. Further clinical studies are indicated to assess the role of aspirin in the prevention and treatment of ARDS. NCT01659307 Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Milk thistle extract and silymarin inhibit lipopolysaccharide induced lamellar separation of hoof explants in vitro.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Nicole; Schaumberger, Simone; Nagl, Veronika; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2014-10-06

    The pathogenesis of laminitis is not completely identified and the role of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) in this process remains unclear. Phytogenic substances, like milk thistle (MT) and silymarin, are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and might therefore have the potential to counteract endotoxin induced effects on the hoof lamellar tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of endotoxins on lamellar tissue integrity and to test if MT and silymarin are capable of inhibiting LPS-induced effects in an in vitro/ex vivo model. In preliminary tests, LPS neutralization efficiency of these phytogenics was determined in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, tissue explants gained from hooves of slaughter horses were tested for lamellar separation after incubation with different concentrations of LPS. By combined incubation of explants with LPS and either Polymyxin B (PMB; positive control), MT or silymarin, the influence of these substances on LPS-induced effects was assessed. In the in vitro neutralization assay, MT and silymarin reduced LPS concentrations by 64% and 75%, respectively, in comparison PMB reduced 98% of the LPS concentration. In hoof explants, LPS led to a concentration dependent separation. Accordantly, separation force was significantly decreased by 10 µg/mL LPS. PMB, MT and silymarin could significantly improve tissue integrity of explants incubated with 10 µg/mL LPS. This study showed that LPS had a negative influence on the structure of hoof explants in vitro. MT and silymarin reduced endotoxin activity and inhibited LPS-induced effects on the lamellar tissue. Hence, MT and silymarin might be used to support the prevention of laminitis and should be further evaluated for this application.

  4. Chlorogenic acid protects mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Huang, Huang; Yang, Tingting; Ye, Yin; Shan, Jianhua; Yin, Zhimin; Luo, Lan

    2010-07-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in human diet. Our previous in vitro study demonstrates that CGA presents anti-inflammatory activities in RAW 264.7 cells. Here we show that CGA protects mice against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). We treated mice with CGA (5, 20 and 50 mg/kg body weight) 30 min or 3 h after intratracheal administration of LPS. The histological results showed that CGA, at dose of 50 mg/kg, protected mice from LPS-induced ALI which displayed by edema, haemorrhage, blood vessel and alveolar structural damage. CGA inhibited LPS-increased pulmonary MPO activity and migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Furthermore, CGA markedly decreased the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung tissues and thus prevented nitric oxide (NO) release in response to LPS challenge. In conclusion, these results indicated that CGA was greatly effective in inhibiting ALI and might act as a potential therapeutic reagent for treating ALI in the future. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Halothane reduces the early lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation in mechanically ventilated rats.

    PubMed

    Giraud, O; Seince, P F; Rolland, C; Leçon-Malas, V; Desmonts, J M; Aubier, M; Dehoux, M

    2000-12-01

    Several studies suggest that anesthetics modulate the immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of halothane and thiopental on the lung inflammatory response. Rats submitted or not to intratracheal (IT) instillation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were anesthetized with either halothane (0. 5, 1, or 1.5%) or thiopental (60 mg. kg(-1)) and mechanically ventilated for 4 h. Control rats were treated or not by LPS without anesthesia. Lung inflammation was assessed by total and differential cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and by cytokine measurements (tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha], interleukin-6 [IL-6], macrophage inflammatory protein-2 [MIP-2], and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1]) in BALF and lung homogenates. In the absence of LPS treatment, neither halothane nor thiopental modified the moderate inflammatory response induced by tracheotomy or mechanical ventilation. Cell recruitment and cytokine concentrations were increased in all groups receiving IT LPS. However, in halothane-anesthetized rats (halothane > or = 1%), but not in thiopental-anesthetized rats, the LPS-induced lung inflammation was altered in a dose-dependent manner. Indeed, when using 1% halothane, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) recruitment was decreased by 55% (p < 0.001) and TNF-alpha, IL-6, and MIP-2 concentrations in BALF and lung homogenates were decreased by more than 60% (p < 0.001) whereas total protein and MCP-1 concentrations remained unchanged. The decrease of MIP-2 (observed at the protein and messenger RNA [mRNA] level) was strongly correlated to the decrease of PMN recruitment (r = 0.73, p < 0.05). This halothane-reduced lung inflammatory response was transient and was reversed 20 h after the end of the anesthesia. Our study shows that halothane > or = 1%, delivered during 4 h by mechanical ventilation, but not mechanical ventilation per se, alters the early LPS-induced lung inflammation in the rat, suggesting a specific effect of halothane on this response.

  6. Taraxacum officinale protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liben; Xiong, Huanzhang; Ping, Jiaqi; Ju, Yulin; Zhang, Xuemei

    2010-07-20

    Taraxacum officinale has been frequently used as a remedy for inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo protective effect of Taraxacum officinale on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. Taraxacum officinale at 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg was orally administered once per day for 5 days consecutively, followed by 500 microg/kg LPS was instilled intranasally. The lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, protein concentration and the number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined. Superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and histological change in the lungs were examined. The levels of inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the BALF were measured using ELISA. We found that Taraxacum officinale decreased the lung W/D ratio, protein concentration and the number of neutrophils in the BALF at 24 h after LPS challenge. Taraxacum officinale decreased LPS-induced MPO activity and increased SOD activity in the lungs. In addition, histopathological examination indicated that Taraxacum officinale attenuated tissue injury of the lungs in LPS-induced ALI. Furthermore, Taraxacum officinale also inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the BALF at 6h after LPS challenge in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Taraxacum officinale protects against LPS-induced ALI in mice. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Attenuation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Vascular Stiffening by Lipoxin Reduces Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanyong; Mambetsariev, Isa; Tian, Yufeng; Beckham, Yvonne; Meliton, Angelo; Leff, Alan; Gardel, Margaret L.; Allen, Michael J.; Birukov, Konstantin G.

    2015-01-01

    Reversible changes in lung microstructure accompany lung inflammation, although alterations in tissue micromechanics and their impact on inflammation remain unknown. This study investigated changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and tissue stiffness in a model of LPS-induced inflammation and examined the role of lipoxin analog 15-epi-lipoxin A4 (eLXA4) in the reduction of stiffness-dependent exacerbation of the inflammatory process. Atomic force microscopy measurements of live lung slices were used to directly measure local tissue stiffness changes induced by intratracheal injection of LPS. Effects of LPS on ECM properties and inflammatory response were evaluated in an animal model of LPS-induced lung injury, live lung tissue slices, and pulmonary endothelial cell (EC) culture. In vivo, LPS increased perivascular stiffness in lung slices monitored by atomic force microscopy and stimulated expression of ECM proteins fibronectin, collagen I, and ECM crosslinker enzyme, lysyl oxidase. Increased stiffness and ECM remodeling escalated LPS-induced VCAM1 and ICAM1 expression and IL-8 production by lung ECs. Stiffness-dependent exacerbation of inflammatory signaling was confirmed in pulmonary ECs grown on substrates with high and low stiffness. eLXA4 inhibited LPS-increased stiffness in lung cross sections, attenuated stiffness-dependent enhancement of EC inflammatory activation, and restored lung compliance in vivo. This study shows that increased local vascular stiffness exacerbates lung inflammation. Attenuation of local stiffening of lung vasculature represents a novel mechanism of lipoxin antiinflammatory action. PMID:24992633

  8. Resveratrol protects from lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in the uterus and prevents experimental preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Bariani, María Victoria; Correa, Fernando; Leishman, Emma; Domínguez Rubio, Ana Paula; Arias, Andreína; Stern, Aníbal; Bradshaw, Heather B; Franchi, Ana María

    2017-08-01

    Is resveratrol able to prevent the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced preterm labor in 15-day pregnant BALB/c mice? Resveratrol prevented the LPS-induced onset of preterm labor in 64% of the cases and showed anti-inflammatory and tocolytic effects by downregulating COX-2 and iNOS expression and NOS activity, and by changing the uterine prostaglandin and endocannabinoid profiling. Genital tract infections by Gram-negative bacteria are a common complication in human pregnancy and have been shown to increase risk of preterm delivery. Bacterial LPS elicits a strong maternal inflammatory response that results in preterm delivery and fetal death in a murine model endotoxin-induced preterm labor. An in vivo animal study was conducted. On Day 15 of pregnancy, mice received at 8:00 h a dose of vehicle (40% ethanol in saline solution) or resveratrol (3 mg/kg in vehicle) via oral gavage followed by two doses of LPS or vehicle administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), the first one at 10:00 h (0.17 mg/kg in 0.1 ml of sterile saline solution) and the second at 13:00 h (0.5 mg/kg in 0.1 ml of sterile saline solution). The mice were closely observed for any signs of morbidity (piloerection, decreased movement, and diarrhea), vaginal bleeding or preterm delivery. The beginning of preterm delivery was defined by early delivery of the first pup. Normal term labor occurs on Day 19 of gestation. Time of labor, pregnancy outcome and morphological features were evaluated after LPS and/or resveratrol administration. Uterine stripes were collected 5 h after the last LPS injection and prostaglandin and endocannabinoid profiling was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was measured by radioconversion assay. Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-Pgdh) mRNA levels were analyzed by RT-PCR whilst the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), COX-1 and COX-2 were studied by western blot. In vivo treatment of 15-day pregnant BALB/c mice with resveratrol prevented the LPS-induced preterm birth in 64% of the cases, whereas only 15% of mice with LPS alone escaped preterm birth. Treatment with resveratrol resulted in a reduced NOS activity (P < 0.05) in the uterus of LPS-treated mice. Similarly, resveratrol reduced the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory agents such as iNOS (P < 0.05), COX-2 (P < 0.05), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (P < 0.05) and anandamide (AEA) (P < 0.05). Moreover, resveratrol administration resulted in changes in the uterine endocannabinoid profiling altered by LPS. N/A. Since our experimental design involves the use of mice, the extrapolation of the results presented here to humans is limited. Our findings provide evidence for the tocolytic effects of resveratrol. Dr Ana María Franchi was funded by Agencia Nacional para la Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (PICT 2013/0097) and by Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (PIP 2012/0061). Dr Heather B. Bradshaw was funded by NIH (DA006668). The authors have no competing interests. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Noradrenaline inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 6 production in human whole blood.

    PubMed Central

    van der Poll, T; Jansen, J; Endert, E; Sauerwein, H P; van Deventer, S J

    1994-01-01

    Sepsis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) trigger the systemic release of both cytokines and catecholamines. Cytokines are known to be capable of eliciting a stress hormone response in vivo. The present study sought insight into the effect of noradrenaline on LPS-induced release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in human whole blood. Whole blood was incubated with LPS for 4 h at 37 degrees C in the presence and absence of noradrenaline and/or specific alpha and beta antagonists and agonists. Noradrenaline caused a dose-dependent inhibition of LPS-induced TNF and IL-6 production. This effect could be completely prevented by addition of the specific beta 1, antagonist metoprolol, while it was not affected by the alpha antagonist phentolamine. Specific beta-adrenergic stimulation by isoprenaline mimicked the inhibiting effect of noradrenaline on LPS-evoked cytokine production, whereas alpha-adrenergic stimulation by phenylephrine had no effect. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis demonstrated that beta-adrenergic stimulation had no effect on LPS binding to and internalization into mononuclear cells or on the expression of CD14, the major receptor for LPS on mononuclear cells. In acute sepsis, enhanced release of noradrenaline may be part of a negative feedback mechanism meant to inhibit ongoing TNF and IL-6 production. PMID:8168970

  10. Impairment of autophagy in the central nervous system during lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory stress in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current evidence suggests a central role for autophagy in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Furthermore, it is well admitted that inflammation contributes to the progression of these diseases. Interestingly, crosstalks between autophagy and inflammation have been reported in vitro and at the peripheral level such as in Crohn’s disease. However, the impact of systemic inflammation on autophagic components in the brain remains to be documented. Therefore, this study monitored autophagy markers after acute and chronic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory stress in mice. Results We showed that acute inflammation, 24 h post-intraperitoneal 10 mg/kg LPS, substantially increased cytokine production (Interleukin(IL)-1β, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6), decreased the levels of autophagy markers (Beclin-1, p62 and LC3 II) and reduced p70S6K activation in cortex and hippocampus. In hippocampus, IL-1β levels and LC3 II expression were positively and highly correlated and a negative correlation was noted between TNF-α levels and p70S6K activation. Chronic inflammation by injection of 0.5 mg/kg LPS every three days during three months led to a moderate IL-1β production and decreased TNF-α levels. Interestingly, Beclin-1 and LC3 II levels decreased while those of p62 increased. Cortical IL-1β levels positively correlated with Beclin-1 and LC3 II and on the contrary inversely correlated with p62. Conclusion The present study is the first showing links between IL-1β-mediated inflammation and autophagy in the brain. It could open to new therapeutic strategies in brain diseases where regulation impairment of inflammation and autophagy progress with the severity of diseases. PMID:25169902

  11. Dihydroartemisinin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss via the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dou, C; Ding, N; Xing, J; Zhao, C; Kang, F; Hou, T; Quan, H; Chen, Y; Dai, Q; Luo, F; Xu, J; Dong, S

    2016-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is a widely used antimalarial drug isolated from the plant Artemisia annua. Recent studies suggested that DHA has antitumor effects utilizing its reactive oxygen species (ROS) yielding mechanism. Here, we reported that DHA is inhibitory on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteoclast (OC) differentiation, fusion and bone-resorption activity in vitro. Intracellular ROS detection revealed that DHA could remarkably increase ROS accumulation during LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, cell apoptosis was also increased by DHA treatment. We found that DHA-activated caspase-3 increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio during LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis. Meanwhile, the translocation of apoptotic inducing factor (AIF) and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol were observed, indicating that ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction is crucial in DHA-induced apoptosis during LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis. In vivo study showed that DHA treatment decreased OC number, prevents bone loss, rescues bone microarchitecture and restores bone strength in LPS-induced bone-loss mouse model. Together, our findings indicate that DHA is protective against LPS-induced bone loss through apoptosis induction of osteoclasts via ROS accumulation and the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway. Therefore, DHA may be considered as a new therapeutic candidate for treating inflammatory bone loss. PMID:27031959

  12. Activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 ameliorates systemic lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Seong Ho, E-mail: yoosh@snu.ac.kr; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Song, Byoung-Joon, E-mail: bj.song@nih.gov

    Highlights: •Activation of PPARα attenuated LPS-mediated acute lung injury. •Pretreatment with Wy-14643 decreased the levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 in ALI. •Nitrosative stress and lipid peroxidation were downregulated by PPARα activation. •PPARα agonists may be potential therapeutic targets for acute lung injury. -- Abstract: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) by its ligands, which include Wy-14643, has been implicated as a potential anti-inflammatory therapy. To address the beneficial efficacy of Wy-14643 for ALI along with systemic inflammation, the in vivo role of PPARα activation was investigatedmore » in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Using age-matched Ppara-null and wild-type mice, we demonstrate that the activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 attenuated LPS-mediated ALI. This was evidenced histologically by the significant alleviation of inflammatory manifestations and apoptosis observed in the lung tissues of wild-type mice, but not in the corresponding Ppara-null mice. This protective effect probably resulted from the inhibition of LPS-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitroxidative stress levels. These results suggest that the pharmacological activation of PPARα might have a therapeutic effect on LPS-induced ALI.« less

  13. Lithium ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced neurotoxicity in the cortex and hippocampus of the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Sohail; Ali, Tahir; Abid, Muhammad Noman; Jo, Myeung Hoon; Khan, Amjad; Kim, Min Woo; Yoon, Gwang Ho; Cheon, Eun Woo; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2017-09-01

    Lithium an effective mood stabilizer, primary used in the treatment of bipolar disorders, has been reported as a protective agent in various neurological disorders. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective role of lithium chloride (LiCl) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the cortex and hippocampus of the adult rat brain. We determined that LiCl -attenuated LPS-induced activated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling and significantly reduced the nuclear factor- k B (NF- K B) translation factor and various other inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). We also analyzed that LiCl significantly abrogated activated gliosis via attenuation of specific markers for activated microglia, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule (Iba-1) and astrocytes, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in both the cortex and hippocampus of the adult rat brain. Furthermore, we also observed that LiCl treatment significantly ameliorated the increase expression level of apoptotic neurodegeneration protein markers Bax/Bcl2, activated caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in the cortex and hippocampus regions of the LPS-treated adult rat brain. In addition, the morphological results of the fluoro-jade B (FJB) and Nissl staining showed that LiCl attenuated the neuronal degeneration in the cortex and hippocampus regions of the LPS-treated adult rat brain. Taken together, our Western blot and morphological results indicated that LiCl significantly prevents the LPS-induced neurotoxicity via attenuation of neuroinflammation and apoptotic neurodegeneration in the cortex and hippocampus of the adult rat brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ACTIVE SUPPRESSION OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN ALLOTYPE SYNTHESIS

    PubMed Central

    Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Chan, Eva L.; Ravitch, Myrnice M.; Riblet, Roy J.; Herzenberg, Leonard A.

    1973-01-01

    Thymus-derived cells (T cells) that actively suppress production of IgG2a immunoglobulins carrying the Ig-1b allotype have been found in adult (SJL x BALB/c)F1 mice exposed to anti-Ig-1b early in life. The suppression is specific for Ig-1b. The allelic product, Ig-1a, is unaffected. Spleen, lymph node, bone marrow, or thymus cells from suppressed mice suppress production of Ig-1b by syngeneic spleen cells from normal F1 mice. When a mixture of suppressed and normal cells is transferred into lethally irradiated BALB/c mice, there is a short burst of Ig-1b production after which Ig-1b levels in the recipient fall rapidly below detectability. Pretreatment of the cells from the suppressed mice with antiserum specific for T cells (anti-Thy-1b) plus complement before mixture destroys the suppressing activity. Similar results with suppressor cells were obtained in vitro using Mishell-Dutton cultures. Mixture of spleen cells from suppressed animals with sheep erythrocyte (SRBC)-primed syngeneic normal spleen before culture suppresses Ig-1b plaque-forming cell (PFC) formation while leaving Ig-1a PFC unaffected. Treatment of the suppressed spleen with anti-Thy-1b before transfer removes the suppressing activity. PMID:4541122

  15. Water Mist fire suppression experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Water Mist commercial research program is scheduled to fly an investigation on STS-107 in 2002. This investigation will be flown as an Experimental Mounting Structure (EMS) insert into the updated Combustion Module (CM-2), a sophisticated combustion chamber plus diagnostic equipment. (The investigation hardware is shown here mounted in a non-flight frame similar to the EMS.) Water Mist is a commercial research program by the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS), a NASA Commercial Space Center located at the Colorado School of Mines, in Golden, CO and Industry Partner Environmental Engineering Concepts. The program is focused on developing water mist as a replacement for bromine-based chemical fire suppression agents (halons). By conducting the experiments in microgravity, interference from convection currents is minimized and fundamental knowledge can be gained. This knowledge is incorporated into models, which can be used to simulate a variety of physical environments. The immediate objective of the project is to study the effect of a fine water mist on a laminar propagating flame generated in a propane-air mixture at various equivalence ratios. The effects of droplet size and concentration on the speed of the flame front is used as a measure of the effectiveness of fire suppression in this highly controlled experimental environment.

  16. Suppressed epidemics in multirelational networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Elvis H. W.; Wang, Wei; Xu, C.; Tang, Ming; Do, Younghae; Hui, P. M.

    2015-08-01

    A two-state epidemic model in networks with links mimicking two kinds of relationships between connected nodes is introduced. Links of weights w1 and w0 occur with probabilities p and 1 -p , respectively. The fraction of infected nodes ρ (p ) shows a nonmonotonic behavior, with ρ drops with p for small p and increases for large p . For small to moderate w1/w0 ratios, ρ (p ) exhibits a minimum that signifies an optimal suppression. For large w1/w0 ratios, the suppression leads to an absorbing phase consisting only of healthy nodes within a range pL≤p ≤pR , and an active phase with mixed infected and healthy nodes for p pR . A mean field theory that ignores spatial correlation is shown to give qualitative agreement and capture all the key features. A physical picture that emphasizes the intricate interplay between infections via w0 links and within clusters formed by nodes carrying the w1 links is presented. The absorbing state at large w1/w0 ratios results when the clusters are big enough to disrupt the spread via w0 links and yet small enough to avoid an epidemic within the clusters. A theory that uses the possible local environments of a node as variables is formulated. The theory gives results in good agreement with simulation results, thereby showing the necessity of including longer spatial correlations.

  17. The role of suppression in amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingrong; Thompson, Benjamin; Lam, Carly S Y; Deng, Daming; Chan, Lily Y L; Maehara, Goro; Woo, George C; Yu, Minbin; Hess, Robert F

    2011-06-13

    This study had three main goals: to assess the degree of suppression in patients with strabismic, anisometropic, and mixed amblyopia; to establish the relationship between suppression and the degree of amblyopia; and to compare the degree of suppression across the clinical subgroups within the sample. Using both standard measures of suppression (Bagolini lenses and neutral density [ND] filters, Worth 4-Dot test) and a new approach involving the measurement of dichoptic motion thresholds under conditions of variable interocular contrast, the degree of suppression in 43 amblyopic patients with strabismus, anisometropia, or a combination of both was quantified. There was good agreement between the quantitative measures of suppression made with the new dichoptic motion threshold technique and measurements made with standard clinical techniques (Bagolini lenses and ND filters, Worth 4-Dot test). The degree of suppression was found to correlate directly with the degree of amblyopia within our clinical sample, whereby stronger suppression was associated with a greater difference in interocular acuity and poorer stereoacuity. Suppression was not related to the type or angle of strabismus when this was present or the previous treatment history. These results suggest that suppression may have a primary role in the amblyopia syndrome and therefore have implications for the treatment of amblyopia.

  18. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871; Otsuki, Dai

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcinmore » (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.« less

  19. Acoustic Suppression Systems and Related Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R. (Inventor); Kern, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An acoustic suppression system for absorbing and/or scattering acoustic energy comprising a plurality of acoustic targets in a containment is described, the acoustic targets configured to have resonance frequencies allowing the targets to be excited by incoming acoustic waves, the resonance frequencies being adjustable to suppress acoustic energy in a set frequency range. Methods for fabricating and implementing the acoustic suppression system are also provided.

  20. Poppers: more evidence of suppressed immunity.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1999-08-20

    Evidence from studies in mice shows that exposure to isobutyl nitrite suppresses the immune system. This immune suppression allows for bacterial growth in the lungs and livers of infected mice and can inhibit the ability of mediastinal lymph nodes to respond to antigen-specific stimulation. The mechanism for immune suppression may be a reduction in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations in the mediastinal lymph nodes following pulmonary infection with Listeria monocytogenes.

  1. Wind Noise Suppression for Infrasound Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Wind Noise Suppression for Infrasound Sensors by John M. Noble, W.C. Kirkpatrick Alberts, II, Sandra L. Collier, Richard Raspet, and Mark A...Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL-TR-6873 March 2014 Wind Noise Suppression for Infrasound Sensors John M. Noble, Sandra L. Collier, and...DATES COVERED (From - To) October 2012 to September 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Wind Noise Suppression for Infrasound Sensors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  2. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hsin-Hung; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J.

    2015-01-01

    In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression), the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature) and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression. PMID:26517321

  3. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsin-Hung; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J

    2015-10-01

    In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression), the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature) and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  4. Bone suppression technique for chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhimin; Xu, Fan; Zhang, Jane; Zhao, Hui; Hobbs, Susan K.; Wandtke, John C.; Sykes, Anne-Marie; Paul, Narinder; Foos, David

    2014-03-01

    High-contrast bone structures are a major noise contributor in chest radiographic images. A signal of interest in a chest radiograph could be either partially or completely obscured or "overshadowed" by the highly contrasted bone structures in its surrounding. Thus, removing the bone structures, especially the posterior rib and clavicle structures, is highly desirable to increase the visibility of soft tissue density. We developed an innovative technology that offers a solution to suppress bone structures, including posterior ribs and clavicles, on conventional and portable chest X-ray images. The bone-suppression image processing technology includes five major steps: 1) lung segmentation, 2) rib and clavicle structure detection, 3) rib and clavicle edge detection, 4) rib and clavicle profile estimation, and 5) suppression based on the estimated profiles. The bone-suppression software outputs an image with both the rib and clavicle structures suppressed. The rib suppression performance was evaluated on 491 images. On average, 83.06% (±6.59%) of the rib structures on a standard chest image were suppressed based on the comparison of computer-identified rib areas against hand-drawn rib areas, which is equivalent to about an average of one rib that is still visible on a rib-suppressed image based on a visual assessment. Reader studies were performed to evaluate reader performance in detecting lung nodules and pneumothoraces with and without a bone-suppression companion view. Results from reader studies indicated that the bone-suppression technology significantly improved radiologists' performance in the detection of CT-confirmed possible nodules and pneumothoraces on chest radiographs. The results also showed that radiologists were more confident in making diagnoses regarding the presence or absence of an abnormality after rib-suppressed companion views were presented

  5. Carvedilol suppresses cartilage matrix destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhigang; Department of Orthopaedics, Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Dalian University, Dalian, Liaoning; Liu, Baoyi

    Collagen type Ⅱ (col Ⅱ) and aggrecan, the main components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in human joint cartilage, have been reported to be reduced by chronic production of inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β in arthritic joints. Carvedilol, a licensed medicine, has been used for treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure and coronary disease in clinics. In this study, we investigated the effects of Carvedilol on the expression of col Ⅱ and aggrecan. Our results demonstrate that treatment with Carvedilol didn't change the expression of aggrecan or col Ⅱ at mRNA levels in SW1353 chondrocytes. However, the expression of aggrecan andmore » Col II at protein levels were significantly reduced by IL-1β treatment, which were reversed by Carvedilol in a dose dependent manner, suggesting the inhibitory effects of Carvedilol on the expression of aggrecan and Col II are at post-translational modification levels. In addition, it was shown that IL-1β treatment highly induced MMP-1 and MMP-13 expression in SW1353 chondrocytes at both gene and protein expression levels, which were restored by Carvedilol in a dose dependent manner. Mechanistically, exposure to IL-1β increased phosphorylation of IKK-α/β and degradation of IκB-α in SW1353 chondrocytes, which were suppressed by pretreatment with Carvedilol. Administration of Carvedilol inhibited IL-1β-induced translocation of NF-κB p65 from cytosol to nucleus manner. Notably, a luciferase reporter assay showed that IL-1β severely increased NF-κB luciferase activity, which was markedly suppressed by Carvedilol treatment. Our results suggest that Carvedilol might be a potential therapeutic agent for chondro-protective therapy. - Highlights: • Carvedilol abolishes IL-1β induced degradation of col Ⅱ and aggrecan. • Carvedilol inhibits the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3 induced by IL-1β. • Carvedilol attenuates phosphorylation of IKK-α/β and degradation of IκB-α. • Carvedilol inhibits

  6. 7 CFR 2902.32 - Dust suppressants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in... suppressant must be determined before dilution. (c) Preference compliance date. No later than May 14, 2009... use of biobased dust suppressants. [73 FR 27973, May 14, 2008] ...

  7. Foam as a Fire Suppressant: An Evaluation

    Treesearch

    Paul Schlobohm; Ron Rochna

    1987-01-01

    The ability of fire suppressant foams to improve ground-applied fire control efforts was evaluated. Foaming agents and foam-generating systems were examined. Performance evaluations were made for direct attack, indirect attack, and mop-up. Foam was determined to suppress and repel fire in situations where water did not. Cost comparisons of mop-up work showed straight...

  8. Simulation analysis of a wildfire suppression system

    Treesearch

    Abílio Pereira Pacheco; João Claro; Tiago Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Rekindles and false alarms are unusually high in the Portuguese wildfire management system, representing a high burden on suppression resources in particular, and fire management resources in general. In 20,049 occurrences that the suppression system handled in the summer of 2010, 12.5% were false alarms and 15.0% were rekindles. We present a discreteevent simulation...

  9. Suppressive soils: back on the radar screen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Suppressive soils are those in which a pathogen does not establish or persist, establishes but causes little or no damage, or establishes and causes disease for a while but thereafter the disease is less important, although the pathogen may persist in the soil (Weller, 2002). ‘General suppression,’ ...

  10. Ferromagnetic resonance probe liftoff suppression apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Thomas J.; Tomeraasen, Paul L.

    1985-01-01

    A liftoff suppression apparatus utilizing a liftoff sensing coil to sense the amount a ferromagnetic resonance probe lifts off the test surface during flaw detection and utilizing the liftoff signal to modulate the probe's field modulating coil to suppress the liftoff effects.

  11. The hidden consequences of fire suppression

    Treesearch

    Carol Miller

    2012-01-01

    Wilderness managers need a way to quantify and monitor the effects of suppressing lightning-caused wildfires, which can alter natural fire regimes, vegetation, and habitat. Using computerized models of fire spread, weather, and fuels, it is now possible to quantify many of the hidden consequences of fire suppression. Case study watersheds in Yosemite and Sequoia-Kings...

  12. Impacts of suppressing guide on information spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinghong; Zhang, Lin; Ma, Baojun; Wu, Ye

    2016-02-01

    It is quite common that guides are introduced to suppress the information spreading in modern society for different purposes. In this paper, an agent-based model is established to quantitatively analyze the impacts of suppressing guides on information spreading. We find that the spreading threshold depends on the attractiveness of the information and the topology of the social network with no suppressing guides at all. Usually, one would expect that the existence of suppressing guides in the spreading procedure may result in less diffusion of information within the overall network. However, we find that sometimes the opposite is true: the manipulating nodes of suppressing guides may lead to more extensive information spreading when there are audiences with the reversal mind. These results can provide valuable theoretical references to public opinion guidance on various information, e.g., rumor or news spreading.

  13. Burst suppression probability algorithms: state-space methods for tracking EEG burst suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemali, Jessica; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L.; Solt, Ken; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Burst suppression is an electroencephalogram pattern in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with an isoelectric state. This pattern is commonly seen in states of severely reduced brain activity such as profound general anesthesia, anoxic brain injuries, hypothermia and certain developmental disorders. Devising accurate, reliable ways to quantify burst suppression is an important clinical and research problem. Although thresholding and segmentation algorithms readily identify burst suppression periods, analysis algorithms require long intervals of data to characterize burst suppression at a given time and provide no framework for statistical inference. Approach. We introduce the concept of the burst suppression probability (BSP) to define the brain's instantaneous propensity of being in the suppressed state. To conduct dynamic analyses of burst suppression we propose a state-space model in which the observation process is a binomial model and the state equation is a Gaussian random walk. We estimate the model using an approximate expectation maximization algorithm and illustrate its application in the analysis of rodent burst suppression recordings under general anesthesia and a patient during induction of controlled hypothermia. Main result. The BSP algorithms track burst suppression on a second-to-second time scale, and make possible formal statistical comparisons of burst suppression at different times. Significance. The state-space approach suggests a principled and informative way to analyze burst suppression that can be used to monitor, and eventually to control, the brain states of patients in the operating room and in the intensive care unit.

  14. Hydrogen suppresses UO 2 corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbol, Paul; Fors, Patrik; Gouder, Thomas; Spahiu, Kastriot

    2009-08-01

    Release of long-lived radionuclides such as plutonium and caesium from spent nuclear fuel in deep geological repositories will depend mainly on the dissolution rate of the UO 2 fuel matrix. This dissolution rate will, in turn, depend on the redox conditions at the fuel surface. Under oxidative conditions UO 2 will be oxidised to the 1000 times more soluble UO 2.67. This may occur in a repository as the reducing deep groundwater becomes locally oxidative at the fuel surface under the effect of α-radiolysis, the process by which α-particles emitted from the fuel split water molecules. On the other hand, the groundwater corrodes canister iron generating large amounts of hydrogen. The role of molecular hydrogen as reductant in a deep bedrock repository is questioned. Here we show evidence of a surface-catalysed reaction, taking place in the H 2-UO 2-H 2O system where molecular hydrogen is able to reduce oxidants originating from α-radiolysis. In our experiment the UO 2 surface remained stoichiometric proving that the expected oxidation of UO 2.00 to UO 2.67 due to radiolytic oxidants was absent. As a consequence, the dissolution of UO 2 stopped when equilibrium was reached between the solid phase and U 4+ species in the aqueous phase. The steady-state concentration of uranium in solution was determined to be 9 × 10 -12 M, about 30 times lower than previously reported for reducing conditions. Our findings show that fuel dissolution is suppressed by H 2. Consequently, radiotoxic nuclides in spent nuclear fuel will remain immobilised in the UO 2 matrix. A mechanism for the surface-catalysed reaction between molecular hydrogen and radiolytic oxidants is proposed.

  15. Suppression effects in feature-based attention

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yixue; Miller, James; Liu, Taosheng

    2015-01-01

    Attending to a feature enhances visual processing of that feature, but it is less clear what occurs to unattended features. Single-unit recording studies in middle temporal (MT) have shown that neuronal modulation is a monotonic function of the difference between the attended and neuron's preferred direction. Such a relationship should predict a monotonic suppressive effect in psychophysical performance. However, past research on suppressive effects of feature-based attention has remained inconclusive. We investigated the suppressive effect for motion direction, orientation, and color in three experiments. We asked participants to detect a weak signal among noise and provided a partially valid feature cue to manipulate attention. We measured performance as a function of the offset between the cued and signal feature. We also included neutral trials where no feature cues were presented to provide a baseline measure of performance. Across three experiments, we consistently observed enhancement effects when the target feature and cued feature coincided and suppression effects when the target feature deviated from the cued feature. The exact profile of suppression was different across feature dimensions: Whereas the profile for direction exhibited a “rebound” effect, the profiles for orientation and color were monotonic. These results demonstrate that unattended features are suppressed during feature-based attention, but the exact suppression profile depends on the specific feature. Overall, the results are largely consistent with neurophysiological data and support the feature-similarity gain model of attention. PMID:26067533

  16. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  17. Regional Extent of Peripheral Suppression in Amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Babu, Raiju J; Clavagnier, Simon; Bobier, William R; Thompson, Benjamin; Hess, Robert F

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we have mapped amblyopic eye suppression within the central 20° of the visual field and observed a gradient of suppression that is strongest in central vision and weakens with increasing eccentricity. In this study, using a large dichoptic display, we extend our novel suppression mapping approach further into the periphery (from 20°-60°) to assess whether suppression continues to decline with eccentricity or plateaus. Sixteen participants with amblyopia (10 with strabismus, 6 with anisometropia without strabismus; mean age: 37.9 ± 11 years) and six normal observers (mean age: 28.3 ± 5 years) took part. The visual stimulus (60° diameter), viewed from 57 cm, was composed of four concentric annuli (5° radius) with alternate contrast polarities starting from an eccentricity of 10°. Each annulus was divided into eight sectors subtending 45° of visual angle. Participants adjusted the contrast of a single sector presented to the fellow eye to match the perceived contrast of the remaining stimulus elements that were presented to the amblyopic eye. A matching contrast that was lower in the fellow eye than the amblyopic eye indicated suppression. Patients with strabismus exhibited significantly stronger interocular suppression than controls across all eccentricities (P = 0.01). Patients with anisometropia did not differ from controls (P = 0.58). Suppression varied significantly with eccentricity (P = 0.005) but this effect did not differ between patient groups (P = 0.217). In amblyopia, suppression is present beyond the central 10° in patients with strabismus. Suppression becomes weaker at greater eccentricities and this may enable peripheral fusion that could be used by binocular treatment methods.

  18. Chondromalacia patellae: fat-suppressed MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Rose, P M; Demlow, T A; Szumowski, J; Quinn, S F

    1994-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of fat-suppressed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in diagnosing chondromalacia patellae. Seventy-one patients underwent fat-suppressed MR imaging and arthroscopy of the patellofemoral compartment. Findings were classified as early or advanced chondromalacia or as normal and were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Early and advanced stages of chondromalacia patellae were reliably detected, with positive predictive values of 85% and 92%, respectively. Specificity in early stages was 94% and in late stages was 98%. However, the overall accuracies did not differ substantially from those reported in studies that did not use fat-suppressed imaging. Axial, fat-suppressed MR imaging accurately depicts changes caused by chondromalacia patellae. Early stages can be seen as intrasubstance changes of increased signal intensity. Results of this study suggest a high degree of specificity in excluding both early and advanced changes.

  19. METHOD OF SUPPRESSING GASTROINTESTINAL UREASE ACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Visek, W.J.

    1963-04-23

    This patent shows a method of increasing the growth rate of chicks. Certain diacyl substituted ureas such as alloxan, murexide, and barbituric acid are added to their feed, thereby suppressing gastrointestinal urease activity and thus promoting growth. (AEC)

  20. Suppression of reactions to certain cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A A

    1977-08-01

    Reactions to hair dyes and bleaches may be "suppressed" with corticosteroids and antihistamines. Reactions to nail polish may be prevented by a "drying" or "polymerizing" technique. Sensitization to certain perfume ingredients may be inhibited by a "quenching" phenomenon.

  1. Adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Francis, Prudence A; Regan, Meredith M; Fleming, Gini F; Láng, István; Ciruelos, Eva; Bellet, Meritxell; Bonnefoi, Hervé R; Climent, Miguel A; Da Prada, Gian Antonio; Burstein, Harold J; Martino, Silvana; Davidson, Nancy E; Geyer, Charles E; Walley, Barbara A; Coleman, Robert; Kerbrat, Pierre; Buchholz, Stefan; Ingle, James N; Winer, Eric P; Rabaglio-Poretti, Manuela; Maibach, Rudolf; Ruepp, Barbara; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Price, Karen N; Colleoni, Marco; Viale, Giuseppe; Coates, Alan S; Goldhirsch, Aron; Gelber, Richard D

    2015-01-29

    Suppression of ovarian estrogen production reduces the recurrence of hormone-receptor-positive early breast cancer in premenopausal women, but its value when added to tamoxifen is uncertain. We randomly assigned 3066 premenopausal women, stratified according to prior receipt or nonreceipt of chemotherapy, to receive 5 years of tamoxifen, tamoxifen plus ovarian suppression, or exemestane plus ovarian suppression. The primary analysis tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen plus ovarian suppression would improve disease-free survival, as compared with tamoxifen alone. In the primary analysis, 46.7% of the patients had not received chemotherapy previously, and 53.3% had received chemotherapy and remained premenopausal. After a median follow-up of 67 months, the estimated disease-free survival rate at 5 years was 86.6% in the tamoxifen-ovarian suppression group and 84.7% in the tamoxifen group (hazard ratio for disease recurrence, second invasive cancer, or death, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 1.04; P=0.10). Multivariable allowance for prognostic factors suggested a greater treatment effect with tamoxifen plus ovarian suppression than with tamoxifen alone (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.98). Most recurrences occurred in patients who had received prior chemotherapy, among whom the rate of freedom from breast cancer at 5 years was 82.5% in the tamoxifen-ovarian suppression group and 78.0% in the tamoxifen group (hazard ratio for recurrence, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.02). At 5 years, the rate of freedom from breast cancer was 85.7% in the exemestane-ovarian suppression group (hazard ratio for recurrence vs. tamoxifen, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.87). Adding ovarian suppression to tamoxifen did not provide a significant benefit in the overall study population. However, for women who were at sufficient risk for recurrence to warrant adjuvant chemotherapy and who remained premenopausal, the addition of ovarian suppression improved disease outcomes. Further

  2. On the suppression of vaccination dissent.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Dissenters from the dominant views about vaccination sometimes are subject to adverse actions, including abusive comment, threats, formal complaints,censorship, and de registration, a phenomenon that can be called suppression of dissent. Three types of cases are examined: scientists and physicians; a high-profile researcher; and a citizen campaigner. Comparing the methods used in these different types of cases provides a preliminary framework for understanding the dynamics of suppression in terms of vulnerabilities.

  3. Reversing Breast Cancer-Induced Immune Suppression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    same oxidative radicals that MDSC use to facilitate immune suppression. Nrf2 protects cells against inflammation and is stabilized in response to... inflammation , hypoxia, and other factors that are known inducers of MDSC. Since Nrf2 regulates antioxidant response and apoptosis, I hypothesize that... inflammation -induced and conventional MDSC transport of cystine. SASP has no effect on tumor growth, metastatic disease, MDSC accumulation, or MDSC suppressive

  4. Flame Suppression Agent, System and Uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous droplets encapsulated in a flame retardant polymer are useful in suppressing combustion. Upon exposure to a flame, the encapsulated aqueous droplets rupture and vaporize, removing heat and displacing oxygen to retard the combustion process. The polymer encapsulant, through decomposition, may further add free radicals to the combustion atmosphere, thereby further retarding the combustion process. The encapsulated aqueous droplets may be used as a replacement to halon, water mist and dry powder flame suppression systems.

  5. Noise suppression in surface microseismic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Batzle, Mike; Behura, Jyoti; Willis, Mark; Haines, Seth S.; Davidson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a passive noise suppression technique, based on the τ − p transform. In the τ − p domain, one can separate microseismic events from surface noise based on distinct characteristics that are not visible in the time-offset domain. By applying the inverse τ − p transform to the separated microseismic event, we suppress the surface noise in the data. Our technique significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratios of the microseismic events and is superior to existing techniques for passive noise suppression in the sense that it preserves the waveform. We introduce a passive noise suppression technique, based on the τ − p transform. In the τ − p domain, one can separate microseismic events from surface noise based on distinct characteristics that are not visible in the time-offset domain. By applying the inverse τ − p transform to the separated microseismic event, we suppress the surface noise in the data. Our technique significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratios of the microseismic events and is superior to existing techniques for passive noise suppression in the sense that it preserves the waveform.

  6. Suppression sours sacrifice: emotional and relational costs of suppressing emotions in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Impett, Emily A; Kogan, Aleksandr; English, Tammy; John, Oliver; Oveis, Christopher; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-06-01

    What happens when people suppress their emotions when they sacrifice for a romantic partner? This multimethod study investigates how suppressing emotions during sacrifice shapes affective and relationship outcomes. In Part 1, dating couples came into the laboratory to discuss important romantic relationship sacrifices. Suppressing emotions was associated with emotional costs for the partner discussing his or her sacrifice. In Part 2, couples participated in a 14-day daily experience study. Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in emotional well-being and relationship quality as reported by both members of romantic dyads. In Part 3, suppression predicted decreases in relationship satisfaction and increases in thoughts about breaking up with a romantic partner 3 months later. In the first two parts of the study, authenticity mediated the costly effects of suppression. Implications for research on close relationships and emotion regulation are discussed.

  7. A compact clinical instrument for quantifying suppression.

    PubMed

    Black, Joanne M; Thompson, Benjamin; Maehara, Goro; Hess, Robert F

    2011-02-01

    We describe a compact and convenient clinical apparatus for the measurement of suppression based on a previously reported laboratory-based approach. In addition, we report and validate a novel, rapid psychophysical method for measuring suppression using this apparatus, which makes the technique more applicable to clinical practice. By using a Z800 dual pro head-mounted display driven by a MAC laptop, we provide dichoptic stimulation. Global motion stimuli composed of arrays of moving dots are presented to each eye. One set of dots move in a coherent direction (termed signal) whereas another set of dots move in a random direction (termed noise). To quantify performance, we measure the signal/noise ratio corresponding to a direction-discrimination threshold. Suppression is quantified by assessing the extent to which it matters which eye sees the signal and which eye sees the noise. A space-saving, head-mounted display using current video technology offers an ideal solution for clinical practice. In addition, our optimized psychophysical method provided results that were in agreement with those produced using the original technique. We made measures of suppression on a group of nine adult amblyopic participants using this apparatus with both the original and new psychophysical paradigms. All participants had measurable suppression ranging from mild to severe. The two different psychophysical methods gave a strong correlation for the strength of suppression (rho = -0.83, p = 0.006). Combining the new apparatus and new psychophysical method creates a convenient and rapid technique for parametric measurement of interocular suppression. In addition, this apparatus constitutes the ideal platform for suppressors to combine information between their eyes in a similar way to binocularly normal people. This provides a convenient way for clinicians to implement the newly proposed binocular treatment of amblyopia that is based on antisuppression training.

  8. Electrophysiological indices of surround suppression in humans

    PubMed Central

    Vanegas, M. Isabel; Blangero, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    Surround suppression is a well-known example of contextual interaction in visual cortical neurophysiology, whereby the neural response to a stimulus presented within a neuron's classical receptive field is suppressed by surrounding stimuli. Human psychophysical reports present an obvious analog to the effects seen at the single-neuron level: stimuli are perceived as lower-contrast when embedded in a surround. Here we report on a visual paradigm that provides relatively direct, straightforward indices of surround suppression in human electrophysiology, enabling us to reproduce several well-known neurophysiological and psychophysical effects, and to conduct new analyses of temporal trends and retinal location effects. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) elicited by flickering “foreground” stimuli were measured in the context of various static surround patterns. Early visual cortex geometry and retinotopic organization were exploited to enhance SSVEP amplitude. The foreground response was strongly suppressed as a monotonic function of surround contrast. Furthermore, suppression was stronger for surrounds of matching orientation than orthogonally-oriented ones, and stronger at peripheral than foveal locations. These patterns were reproduced in psychophysical reports of perceived contrast, and peripheral electrophysiological suppression effects correlated with psychophysical effects across subjects. Temporal analysis of SSVEP amplitude revealed short-term contrast adaptation effects that caused the foreground signal to either fall or grow over time, depending on the relative contrast of the surround, consistent with stronger adaptation of the suppressive drive. This electrophysiology paradigm has clinical potential in indexing not just visual deficits but possibly gain control deficits expressed more widely in the disordered brain. PMID:25411464

  9. CONDITIONS FOR CSR MICROBUNCHING GAIN SUPPRESSION

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Cheng Ying; Douglas, David R.; Li, Rui

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport arcs, may result in phase space degradation. On one hand, the CSR can perturb electron transverse motion in dispersive regions along the beamline, causing emittance growth. On the other hand, the CSR effect on the longitudinal beam dynamics could result in microbunching gain enhancement. For transport arcs, several schemes have been proposed* to suppress the CSR-induced emittance growth. Similarly, several scenarios have been introduced** to suppress CSR-induced microbunching gain, which however mostly aim for linac-based machines. In this paper we trymore » to provide sufficient conditions for suppression of CSR-induced microbunching gain along a transport arc, analogous to*. Several example lattices are presented, with the relevant microbunching analyses carried out by our semi-analytical Vlasov solver***. The simulation results show that lattices satisfying the proposed conditions indeed have microbunching gain suppressed. We expect this analysis can shed light on lattice design approach that could suppress the CSR-induced microbunching gain.« less

  10. Interocular suppression in children with deprivation amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Lisa; Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Yuan, Junpeng; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    In patients with anisometropic or strabismic amblyopia, interocular suppression can be minimized by presenting high contrast stimulus elements to the amblyopic eye and lower contrast elements to the fellow eye. This suggests a structurally intact binocular visual system that is functionally suppressed. We investigated whether suppression can also be overcome by contrast balancing in children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts. To quantify interocular contrast balance, contrast interference thresholds were measured using an established dichoptic global motion technique for 21 children with deprivation amblyopia, 14 with anisometropic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia and 10 visually normal children (mean age mean=9.9years, range 5-16years). We found that interocular suppression could be overcome by contrast balancing in most children with deprivation amblyopia, at least intermittently, and all children with anisometropic or mixed anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. However, children with deprivation amblyopia due to early unilateral or bilateral cataracts could tolerate only very low contrast levels to the stronger eye indicating strong suppression. Our results suggest that treatment options reliant on contrast balanced dichoptic presentation could be attempted in a subset of children with deprivation amblyopia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fire behavior, fuel treatments, and fire suppression on the Hayman Fire - Part 5: Fire suppression activities

    Treesearch

    Charles W. McHugh; Paul Gleason

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the suppression actions taken during the Hayman Fire. The long duration of suppression activities (June 8 through July 18), and multiple incident management teams assigned to the fire, makes this a challenging task. Original records and reports produced independently by the various teams assigned to different portions of the...

  12. Suppression on your own terms: internally generated displays of craving suppression predict rebound effects.

    PubMed

    Sayers, W Michael; Sayette, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Research on emotion suppression has shown a rebound effect, in which expression of the targeted emotion increases following a suppression attempt. In prior investigations, participants have been explicitly instructed to suppress their responses, which has drawn the act of suppression into metaconsciousness. Yet emerging research emphasizes the importance of nonconscious approaches to emotion regulation. This study is the first in which a craving rebound effect was evaluated without simultaneously raising awareness about suppression. We aimed to link spontaneously occurring attempts to suppress cigarette craving to increased smoking motivation assessed immediately thereafter. Smokers (n = 66) received a robust cued smoking-craving manipulation while their facial responses were videotaped and coded using the Facial Action Coding System. Following smoking-cue exposure, participants completed a behavioral choice task previously found to index smoking motivation. Participants evincing suppression-related facial expressions during cue exposure subsequently valued smoking more than did those not displaying these expressions, which suggests that internally generated suppression can exert powerful rebound effects.

  13. Wing rock suppression using forebody vortex control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, T. T.; Ong, L. Y.; Suarez, C. J.; Malcolm, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    Static and free-to-roll tests were conducted in a water tunnel with a configuration that consisted of a highly-slender forebody and 78-deg sweep delta wings. Flow visualization was performed and the roll angle histories were obtained. The fluid mechanisms governing the wing rock of this configuration were identified. Different means of suppressing wing rock by controlling the forebody vortices using small blowing jets were also explored. Steady blowing was found to be capable of suppressing wing rock, but significant vortex asymmetries had to be induced at the same time. On the other hand, alternating pulsed blowing on the left and right sides of the forebody was demonstrated to be potentially an effective means of suppressing wing rock and eliminating large asymmetric moments at high angles of attack.

  14. Effects of thought suppression on episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P

    1997-11-01

    Subjects were shown a short film fragment. Following this, one group of subjects (n = 26) was instructed to suppress their thoughts about the film, while the other group (n = 24) received no instructions. After 5 hrs subjects returned to the laboratory and completed a questionnaire testing their memory about the film. Results showed that suppression subjects reported a higher frequency of thoughts about the film than control subjects. No evidence was obtained for Wegner, Quillian, and Houston's (1996; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 680-691) claim that suppression has an undermining effect on memory for chronology. Possible causes for the differences between the results as obtained by Wegner et al., and those found in the present study are discussed. These causes may pertain to the experimental design, but also to differences in emotional impact of the stimulus material that was used in both studies.

  15. Large-Scale Identification and Analysis of Suppressive Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cokol, Murat; Weinstein, Zohar B.; Yilancioglu, Kaan; Tasan, Murat; Doak, Allison; Cansever, Dilay; Mutlu, Beste; Li, Siyang; Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Akhmedov, Murodzhon; Guvenek, Aysegul; Cokol, Melike; Cetiner, Selim; Giaever, Guri; Iossifov, Ivan; Nislow, Corey; Shoichet, Brian; Roth, Frederick P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY One drug may suppress the effects of another. Although knowledge of drug suppression is vital to avoid efficacy-reducing drug interactions or discover countermeasures for chemical toxins, drug-drug suppression relationships have not been systematically mapped. Here, we analyze the growth response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to anti-fungal compound (“drug”) pairs. Among 440 ordered drug pairs, we identified 94 suppressive drug interactions. Using only pairs not selected on the basis of their suppression behavior, we provide an estimate of the prevalence of suppressive interactions between anti-fungal compounds as 17%. Analysis of the drug suppression network suggested that Bromopyruvate is a frequently suppressive drug and Staurosporine is a frequently suppressed drug. We investigated potential explanations for suppressive drug interactions, including chemogenomic analysis, coaggregation, and pH effects, allowing us to explain the interaction tendencies of Bromopyruvate. PMID:24704506

  16. Vibration Isolation, Suppression, Steering, and Pointing (VISSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Ben K.; Rahman, Zahidul; Kedikian, Roland

    1996-01-01

    The design of a six degree of freedom flight vibration isolation suppression and steering (VISS) subsystem for a mid-wave infrared camera on the top of a spacecraft is presented. The development of a long stroke piezoelectric, redundant, compact, low stiffness and power efficient actuator is summarized. A subsystem that could be built and validated for flight within 15 months was investigated. The goals of the VISS are 20 dB vibration isolation above 2 Hz, 15 dB vibration suppression of disturbances at about 60 Hz and 120 Hz, and +/- 0.3 deg steering at 2 Hz and 4 Hz.

  17. Radio Science Measurements with Suppressed Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami; Divsalar, Dariush; Oudrhiri, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Radio Science started when it became apparent with early Solar missions that occultations by planetary atmospheres would affect the quality of radio communications. Since then the atmospheric properties and other aspects of planetary science, solar science, and fundamental physics were studied by scientists. Radio Science data was always extracted from a received pure residual carrier (without data modulation). For some missions, it is very desirable to obtain Radio Science data from a suppressed carrier modulation. In this paper we propose a method to extract Radio Science data when a coded suppressed carrier modulation is used in deep space communications. Type of modulation can be BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, MPSK or even GMSK. However we concentrate mostly on BPSK modulation. The proposed method for suppressed carrier simply tries to wipe out data that acts as an interference for Radio Science measurements. In order to measure the estimation errors in amplitude and phase of the Radio Science data we use Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). The CRB for the suppressed carrier modulation with non-ideal data wiping is then compared with residual carrier modulation under the same noise condition. The method of derivation of CRB for non-ideal data wiping is an innovative method that presented here. Some numerical results are provided for coded system.

  18. Government Doublethink: Protection or Suppression in Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses regulations and actions related to government withholding, suppressing, and altering information since September 11, 2001. Topics include conflicting goals of an informed citizenry versus national security, science and technology progress versus protection of sensitive information, and public health versus ideology; political pressure;…

  19. SUPPRESSION OF ALLERGIC UVEITIS BY 6-MERCAPTOPURINE

    PubMed Central

    Wirostko, E.; Halbert, S. P.

    1962-01-01

    Experimental uveitis in rabbits was induced by single intraocular antigen injection. Treatment with 6-MP for 14 days suppressed the allergic inflammation and antibody response. A good correlation was demonstrated between the degree of uveitis and the antibody titer. PMID:14001284

  20. Active suppression after involuntary capture of attention.

    PubMed

    Sawaki, Risa; Luck, Steven J

    2013-04-01

    After attention has been involuntarily captured by a distractor, how is it reoriented toward a target? One possibility is that attention to the distractor passively fades over time, allowing the target to become attended. Another possibility is that the captured location is actively suppressed so that attention can be directed toward the target location. The present study investigated this issue with event-related potentials (ERPs), focusing on the N2pc component (a neural measure of attentional deployment) and the Pd component (a neural measure of attentional suppression). Observers identified a color-defined target in a search array, which was preceded by a task-irrelevant cue array. When the cue array contained an item that matched the target color, this item captured attention (as measured both behaviorally and with the N2pc component). This capture of attention was followed by active suppression (indexed by the Pd component), and this was then followed by a reorienting of attention toward the target in the search array (indexed by the N2pc component). These findings indicate that the involuntary capture of attention by a distractor is followed by an active suppression process that presumably facilitates the subsequent voluntary orienting of attention to the target.

  1. Efflux inhibitor suppresses Streptococcus mutans virulence properties.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huihui; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that efflux pumps play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and efflux inhibitors (EIs) have been proved to be effective in suppressing bacterial virulence properties. However, little is known regarding the EI of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known caries-inducing bacterium. In this study, we identified the EI of S. mutans through ethidium bromide efflux assay and investigated how EI affected S. mutans virulence regarding the cariogenicity and stress response. Results indicated that reserpine, the identified EI, suppressed acid tolerance, mutacin production and transformation efficiency of S. mutans, and modified biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution. Suppressed glycosyltransferase activity was also noted after reserpine exposure. The data from quantitative real-time-PCR demonstrated that reserpine significantly altered the expression profile of quorum-sensing and virulence-associated genes. These findings suggest that reserpine represents a promising adjunct anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses virulence properties of S. mutans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Visual Blocking: Suppression of Excessive Verbalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zlomke, Lee; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Visual blocking procedures (briefly holding a paper screen in front of a subject's face contingent upon inappropriate behavior) were effective in decreasing inappropriate verbalizations in a moderately retarded 32-year-old male. Followup 4 months later indicated that suppression was maintained in treatment settings but failed to generalize to…

  3. Factors influencing large wildland fire suppression expenditures

    Treesearch

    Jingjing Liang; Dave E. Calkin; Krista M. Gebert; Tyron J. Venn; Robin P. Silverstein

    2008-01-01

    There is an urgent and immediate need to address the excessive cost of large fires. Here, we studied large wildland fire suppression expenditures by the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Among 16 potential nonmanagerial factors, which represented fire size and shape, private properties, public land attributes, forest and fuel conditions, and geographic...

  4. Thought Suppression in Patients With Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Miklowitz, David J.; Alatiq, Yousra; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of negative thoughts has been observed under experimental conditions among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but has never been examined among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD (n = 36), patients with MDD (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20) completed a task that required unscrambling 6-word strings into 5-word sentences, leaving out 1 word. The extra word allowed the sentences to be completed in a negative, neutral, or “hyperpositive” (manic/goal-oriented) way. Participants completed the sentences under conditions of cognitive load (rehearsing a 6-digit number), reward (a bell tone), load and reward, or neither load nor reward. We hypothesized that patients with BD would engage in more active suppression of negative and hyperpositive thoughts than would controls, as revealed by their unscrambling more word strings into negative or hyperpositive sentences. Under conditions of load or reward and in the absence of either load or reward, patients with BD unscrambled more negative sentences than did controls. Under conditions of reward, patients with BD unscrambled more negative sentences than did patients with MDD. Patients with BD also reported more use of negative thought suppression than did controls. These group differences in negative biases were no longer significant when current mood states were controlled. Finally, the groups did not differ in the proportion of hyperpositive sentence completions in any condition. Thought suppression may provide a critical locus for psychological interventions in BD. PMID:20455608

  5. Some new approaches in hail suppression experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, K. A.; Atlas, D.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that progress in hail suppression research requires simultaneous improvements in methods of evaluating seeding effects and in monitoring the physical structure of the hailstorm and the hail growth processes. On this basis a case is made for the extensive use of multiple Doppler radar and chemical tracer techniques.

  6. Release of suppressed oak advance regeneration

    Treesearch

    Dylan Dillaway; Jeffrey W. Stringer

    2006-01-01

    Oaks are not consistently regenerating on intermediate- and high-quality sites due to the lack of well-developed advance regeneration. Studies of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling cohorts have shown that when grown under well-developed canopies and mid-stories, height growth is suppressed, and seedling mortality increases with time resulting in a sparsely...

  7. Suppression Situations in Multiple Linear Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes alternative expressions for the two most prevailing definitions of suppression without resorting to the standardized regression modeling. The formulation provides a simple basis for the examination of their relationship. For the two-predictor regression, the author demonstrates that the previous results in the literature are…

  8. Noise suppression methods for robust speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boll, S. F.; Ravindra, H.; Randall, G.; Armantrout, R.; Power, R.

    1980-05-01

    Robust speech processing in practical operating environments requires effective environmental and processor noise suppression. This report describes the technical findings and accomplishments during this reporting period for the research program funded to develop real time, compressed speech analysis synthesis algorithms whose performance in invariant under signal contamination. Fulfillment of this requirement is necessary to insure reliable secure compressed speech transmission within realistic military command and control environments. Overall contributions resulting from this research program include the understanding of how environmental noise degrades narrow band, coded speech, development of appropriate real time noise suppression algorithms, and development of speech parameter identification methods that consider signal contamination as a fundamental element in the estimation process. This report describes the current research and results in the areas of noise suppression using the dual input adaptive noise cancellation using the short time Fourier transform algorithms, articulation rate change techniques, and a description of an experiment which demonstrated that the spectral subtraction noise suppression algorithm can improve the intelligibility of 2400 bps, LPC 10 coded, helicopter speech by 10.6 point.

  9. Spacecraft Fire Suppression: Testing and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; McKinnon, J. Thomas; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Wu, Ming-Shin

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project is the testing and evaluation of the effectiveness of a variety of fire suppressants and fire-response techniques that will be used in the next generation of spacecraft (Crew Exploration Vehicle, CEV) and planetary habitats. From the many lessons learned in the last 40 years of space travel, there is common agreement in the spacecraft fire safety community that a new fire suppression system will be needed for the various types of fire threats anticipated in new space vehicles and habitats. To date, there is no single fire extinguishing system that can address all possible fire situations in a spacecraft in an effective, reliable, clean, and safe way. The testing conducted under this investigation will not only validate the various numerical models that are currently being developed, but it will provide new design standards on fire suppression that can then be applied to the next generation of spacecraft extinguishment systems. The test program will provide validation of scaling methods by conducting small, medium, and large scale fires. A variety of suppression methods will be tested, such as water mist, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen with single and multiple injection points and direct or distributed agent deployment. These injection methods cover the current ISS fire suppression method of a portable hand-held fire extinguisher spraying through a port in a rack and also next generation spacecraft units that may have a multi-point suppression delivery system built into the design. Consideration will be given to the need of a crew to clean-up the agent and recharge the extinguishers in flight in a long-duration mission. The fire suppression methods mentioned above will be used to extinguish several fire scenarios that have been identified as the most relevant to spaceflight, such as overheated wires, cable bundles, and circuit boards, as well as burning cloth and paper. Further testing will be conducted in which obstructions and

  10. Measuring colour rivalry suppression in amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Hofeldt, T S; Hofeldt, A J

    1999-11-01

    To determine if the colour rivalry suppression is an index of the visual impairment in amblyopia and if the stereopsis and fusion evaluator (SAFE) instrument is a reliable indicator of the difference in visual input from the two eyes. To test the accuracy of the SAFE instrument for measuring the visual input from the two eyes, colour rivalry suppression was measured in six normal subjects. A test neutral density filter (NDF) was placed before one eye to induce a temporary relative afferent defect and the subject selected the NDF before the fellow eye to neutralise the test NDF. In a non-paediatric private practice, 24 consecutive patients diagnosed with unilateral amblyopia were tested with the SAFE. Of the 24 amblyopes, 14 qualified for the study because they were able to fuse images and had no comorbid disease. The relation between depth of colour rivalry suppression, stereoacuity, and interocular difference in logMAR acuity was analysed. In normal subjects, the SAFE instrument reversed temporary defects of 0.3 to 1. 8 log units to within 0.6 log units. In amblyopes, the NDF to reverse colour rivalry suppression was positively related to interocular difference in logMAR acuity (beta=1.21, p<0.0001), and negatively related to stereoacuity (beta=-0.16, p=0.019). The interocular difference in logMAR acuity was negatively related to stereoacuity (beta=-0.13, p=0.009). Colour rivalry suppression as measured with the SAFE was found to agree closely with the degree of visual acuity impairment in non-paediatric patients with amblyopia.

  11. Suppressed visual looming stimuli are not integrated with auditory looming signals: Evidence from continuous flash suppression.

    PubMed

    Moors, Pieter; Huygelier, Hanne; Wagemans, Johan; de-Wit, Lee; van Ee, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies using binocular rivalry have shown that signals in a modality other than the visual can bias dominance durations depending on their congruency with the rivaling stimuli. More recently, studies using continuous flash suppression (CFS) have reported that multisensory integration influences how long visual stimuli remain suppressed. In this study, using CFS, we examined whether the contrast thresholds for detecting visual looming stimuli are influenced by a congruent auditory stimulus. In Experiment 1, we show that a looming visual stimulus can result in lower detection thresholds compared to a static concentric grating, but that auditory tone pips congruent with the looming stimulus did not lower suppression thresholds any further. In Experiments 2, 3, and 4, we again observed no advantage for congruent multisensory stimuli. These results add to our understanding of the conditions under which multisensory integration is possible, and suggest that certain forms of multisensory integration are not evident when the visual stimulus is suppressed from awareness using CFS.

  12. [The advances of suppression in research of amblyopia].

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Liu, H

    2016-04-11

    Suppression that is the result of interocular competition is an important machanism of amblyopia. The imbalance of suppression may lead the consequence to amblyopia. In the early study, researchers had raised the theory of II. Quadratic Summation which had revealed the relationship of interocular interaction and suppression. In some basic researches, other studies had showed the most possible anatomic location of suppression. Recently, researchers found a new method to quantify the interocular suppression named the noise model. Further studies found a novel disinhibition therapy to treat amblyopia. We summarized the research advances in suppression and disinhibition treatment in amblyopia. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 305-308).

  13. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  14. Importance of phase alignment for interocular suppression.

    PubMed

    Maehara, Goro; Huang, Pi-Chun; Hess, Robert F

    2009-07-01

    We measured contrast thresholds for Gabor targets in the presence of maskers which had higher or lower spatial frequencies than the targets. A high-pass fractal masker elevated target contrast thresholds at low and intermediate pedestal contrasts in both monocular and dichoptic modes of presentation, suggesting that the masking occurs after a monocular processing stage. Moreover we found that a high-pass checkerboard masker elevated thresholds at the low and intermediate pedestal contrasts and that most of this threshold elevation disappeared when the phase of the masker's spatial components were scrambled. This masking was effective only in the dichoptic presentation, not in the monocular presentation. These results indicate that phase alignment of the high spatial frequency components plays a crucial role for interocular suppression. We speculate that phase alignments signal the existence of a luminance contour in the monocular image and that this signal suppresses processing of information in the other eye when there is no corresponding signal in that eye.

  15. Task motivation influences alpha suppression following errors.

    PubMed

    Compton, Rebecca J; Bissey, Bryn; Worby-Selim, Sharoda

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the present research is to examine the influence of motivation on a novel error-related neural marker, error-related alpha suppression (ERAS). Participants completed an attentionally demanding flanker task under conditions that emphasized either speed or accuracy or under conditions that manipulated the monetary value of errors. Conditions in which errors had greater motivational value produced greater ERAS, that is, greater alpha suppression following errors compared to correct trials. A second study found that a manipulation of task difficulty did not affect ERAS. Together, the results confirm that ERAS is both a robust phenomenon and one that is sensitive to motivational factors. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  16. Suppression of Poxvirus Replication by Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuai; Realegeno, Susan; Pant, Anil; Satheshkumar, Panayampalli S; Yang, Zhilong

    2017-01-01

    Poxviruses continue to cause serious diseases even after eradication of the historically deadly infectious human disease, smallpox. Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on poxviruses is independent of VACV N1 protein, a potential resveratrol binding target. Further experiments demonstrated that resveratrol had little effect on VACV early gene expression, while it suppressed VACV DNA synthesis, and subsequently post-replicative gene expression.

  17. Speckle suppression by doubly scattering systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Dayan; Kelly, Damien P; Sheridan, John T

    2013-12-10

    Speckle suppression in a two-diffuser system is examined. An analytical expression for the speckle space-time correlation function is derived, so that the speckle suppression mechanism can be investigated statistically. The grain size of the speckle field illuminating the second diffuser has a major impact on the speckle contrast after temporal averaging. It is shown that, when both the diffusers are rotating, the one with the lower rotating speed determines the period of the speckle correlation function. The coherent length of the averaged speckle intensity is shown to equal the mean speckle size of the individual speckle pattern before averaging. Numerical and experimental results are presented to verify our analysis in the context of speckle reduction.

  18. Active flutter suppression using dipole filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinathkumar, S.; Waszak, Martin R.

    1992-01-01

    By using traditional control concepts of gain root locus, the active suppression of a flutter mode of a flexible wing is examined. It is shown that the attraction of the unstable mode towards a critical system zero determines the degree to which the flutter mode can be stabilized. For control situations where the critical zero is adversely placed in the complex plane, a novel compensation scheme called a 'Dipole' filter is proposed. This filter ensures that the flutter mode is stabilized with acceptable control energy. The control strategy is illustrated by designing flutter suppression laws for an active flexible wing (AFW) wind-tunnel model, where minimal control effort solutions are mandated by control rate saturation problems caused by wind-tunnel turbulence.

  19. System for Suppressing Vibration in Turbomachine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor); Provenza, Andrew J. (Inventor); Choi, Benjamin B. (Inventor); Bakhle, Milind A. (Inventor); Min, James B (Inventor); Stefko, George L. (Inventor); Kussmann, John A (Inventor); Fougere, Alan J (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for suppressing vibration and noise mitigation in structures such as blades in turbomachinery. The system includes flexible piezoelectric patches which are secured on or imbedded in turbomachinery blades which, in one embodiment, comprises eight (8) fan blades. The system further includes a capacitor plate coupler and a power transfer apparatus, which may both be arranged into one assembly, that respectively transfer data and power. Each of the capacitive plate coupler and power transfer apparatus is configured so that one part is attached to a fixed member while another part is attached to a rotatable member with an air gap there between. The system still further includes a processor that has 16 channels, eight of which serve as sensor channels, and the remaining eight, serving as actuation channels. The processor collects and analyzes the sensor signals and, in turn, outputs corrective signals for vibration/noise suppression of the turbine blades.

  20. Adaptive Modal Identification for Flutter Suppression Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Drew, Michael; Swei, Sean S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will develop an adaptive modal identification method for identifying the frequencies and damping of a flutter mode based on model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) and least-squares methods. The least-squares parameter estimation will achieve parameter convergence in the presence of persistent excitation whereas the MRAC parameter estimation does not guarantee parameter convergence. Two adaptive flutter suppression control approaches are developed: one based on MRAC and the other based on the least-squares method. The MRAC flutter suppression control is designed as an integral part of the parameter estimation where the feedback signal is used to estimate the modal information. On the other hand, the separation principle of control and estimation is applied to the least-squares method. The least-squares modal identification is used to perform parameter estimation.

  1. Immersion diuresis without expected suppression of vasopressin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, L. C.; Silver, J. E.; Wong, N.; Spaul, W. A.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Kravik, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is a shift of blood from the lower parts of the body to the thoracic circulation during bed rest, water immersion, and presumably during weightlessness. On earth, this central fluid shift is associated with a profound diuresis. However, the mechanism involved is not yet well understood. The present investigation is concerned with measurements regarding the plasma vasopressin, fluid, electrolyte, and plasma renin activity (PRA) responses in subjects with normal preimmersion plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration. In the conducted experiments, PRA was suppressed significantly at 30 min of immersion and had declined by 74 percent by the end of the experiment. On the basis of previously obtained results, it appears that sodium excretion during immersion may be independent of aldosterone action. Experimental results indicate that PVP is not suppressed by water immersion in normally hydrated subjects and that other factors may be responsible for the diuresis.

  2. Suppression of friction by mechanical vibrations.

    PubMed

    Capozza, Rosario; Vanossi, Andrea; Vezzani, Alessandro; Zapperi, Stefano

    2009-08-21

    Mechanical vibrations are known to affect frictional sliding and the associated stick-slip patterns causing sometimes a drastic reduction of the friction force. This issue is relevant for applications in nanotribology and to understand earthquake triggering by small dynamic perturbations. We study the dynamics of repulsive particles confined between a horizontally driven top plate and a vertically oscillating bottom plate. Our numerical results show a suppression of the high dissipative stick-slip regime in a well-defined range of frequencies that depends on the vibrating amplitude, the normal applied load, the system inertia and the damping constant. We propose a theoretical explanation of the numerical results and derive a phase diagram indicating the region of parameter space where friction is suppressed. Our results allow to define better strategies for the mechanical control of friction.

  3. Prevention and suppression of metal packing fires.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Mark; Rogers, William J; Sam Mannan, M; Ostrowski, Scott W

    2003-11-14

    Structured packing has been widely used because of large surface area that makes possible columns with high capacity and efficiency. The large surface area also contributes to fire hazards because of hydrocarbon deposits that can easily combust and promote combustion of the thin metal packing materials. Materials of high surface area that can fuel fires include reactive metals, such as titanium, and materials that are not considered combustible, such as stainless steel. Column design and material selection for packing construction is discussed together with employee training and practices for safe column maintenance and operations. Presented also are methods and agents for suppression of metal fires. Guidance for prevention and suppression of metal fires is related to incidents involving packing fires in columns.

  4. Glucose Suppresses Biological Ferroelectricity in Aortic Elastin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanming; Wang, Yunjie; Chow, Ming-Jay; Chen, Nataly Q.; Ma, Feiyue; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2013-01-01

    Elastin is an intriguing extracellular matrix protein present in all connective tissues of vertebrates, rendering essential elasticity to connective tissues subjected to repeated physiological stresses. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we show that the polarity of aortic elastin is switchable by an electrical field, which may be associated with the recently discovered biological ferroelectricity in the aorta. More interestingly, it is discovered that the switching in aortic elastin is largely suppressed by glucose treatment, which appears to freeze the internal asymmetric polar structures of elastin, making it much harder to switch, or suppressing the switching completely. Such loss of ferroelectricity could have important physiological and pathological implications from aging to arteriosclerosis that are closely related to glycation of elastin. PMID:23679639

  5. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  6. Correcting intermittent central suppression improves binocular marksmanship.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Eric S

    2007-04-01

    Intermittent central suppression (ICS) is a defect in normal binocular (two-eyed) vision that causes confusion in visual detail. ICS is a repetitive intermittent loss of visual sensation in the central area of vision. As the central vision of either eye "turns on and off", aiming errors in sight can occur that must be corrected when both eyes are seeing again. Any aiming errors in sight might be expected to interfere with marksmanship during two-eyed seeing. We compared monocular (one-eyed, patched) and binocular (two-eyed) marksmanship with pistol shooting with an Army ROTC cadet before and after successful therapy for diagnosed ICS. Pretreatment, monocular marksmanship was significantly better than binocular marksmanship, suggesting defective binocularity reduced accuracy. After treatment for ICS, binocular and monocular marksmanship were essentially the same. Results confirmed predictions that with increased visual stability from correcting the suppression, binocular and monocular marksmanship accuracies should merge.

  7. Overcoming fixation with repeated memory suppression.

    PubMed

    Angello, Genna; Storm, Benjamin C; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Fixation (blocks to memories or ideas) can be alleviated not only by encouraging productive work towards a solution, but, as the present experiments show, by reducing counterproductive work. Two experiments examined relief from fixation in a word-fragment completion task. Blockers, orthographically similar negative primes (e.g., ANALOGY), blocked solutions to word fragments (e.g., A_L_ _GY) in both experiments. After priming, but before the fragment completion test, participants repeatedly suppressed half of the blockers using the Think/No-Think paradigm, which results in memory inhibition. Inhibiting blockers did not alleviate fixation in Experiment 1 when conscious recollection of negative primes was not encouraged on the fragment completion test. In Experiment 2, however, when participants were encouraged to remember negative primes at fragment completion, relief from fixation was observed. Repeated suppression may nullify fixation effects, and promote creative thinking, particularly when fixation is caused by conscious recollection of counterproductive information.

  8. Adaptive Suppression of Noise in Voice Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozel, David; DeVault, James A.; Birr, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    A subsystem for the adaptive suppression of noise in a voice communication system effects a high level of reduction of noise that enters the system through microphones. The subsystem includes a digital signal processor (DSP) plus circuitry that implements voice-recognition and spectral- manipulation techniques. The development of the adaptive noise-suppression subsystem was prompted by the following considerations: During processing of the space shuttle at Kennedy Space Center, voice communications among test team members have been significantly impaired in several instances because some test participants have had to communicate from locations with high ambient noise levels. Ear protection for the personnel involved is commercially available and is used in such situations. However, commercially available noise-canceling microphones do not provide sufficient reduction of noise that enters through microphones and thus becomes transmitted on outbound communication links.

  9. Fire suppression in human-crew spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Dietrich, Daniel L.

    1991-01-01

    Fire extinguishment agents range from water and foam in early-design spacecraft (Halon 1301 in the present Shuttle) to carbon dioxide proposed for the Space Station Freedom. The major challenge to spacecraft fire extinguishment design and operations is from the micro-gravity environment, which minimizes natural convection and profoundly influences combustion and extinguishing agent effectiveness, dispersal, and post-fire cleanup. Discussed here are extinguishment in microgravity, fire-suppression problems anticipated in future spacecraft, and research needs and opportunities.

  10. [Cancer immunotherapy. Importance of overcoming immune suppression].

    PubMed

    Malvicini, Mariana; Puchulo, Guillermo; Matar, Pablo; Mazzolini, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the immune system is involved in the control of tumor progression. Effective antitumor immune response depends on the interaction between several components of the immune system, including antigen-presenting cells and different T cell subsets. However, tumor cells develop a number of mechanisms to escape recognition and elimination by the immune system. In this review we discuss these mechanisms and address possible therapeutic approaches to overcome the immune suppression generated by tumors.

  11. Reversing Breast Cancer-Induced Immune Suppression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    MDSC use to facilitate immune suppression. Nrf2 protects cells against inflammation and is stabilized in response to inflammation , hypoxia, and... inflammation -induced and conventional MDSC transport of cystine. SASP has no effect on tumor growth, metastatic disease, MDSC accumulation, or MDSC...anti-tumor immunity. It has been demonstrated that inflammation enhances xC- expression on MDSC, but higher xC- expression does not enhance the

  12. Fire Suppression by Halon 2402, Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    Department of Environmental Medicine , The Medical College of Wisconsin, July 1973. 34. Gaydos, J. C., Colonel, MC, Director, Occupational and...ejected as a liquid ), better fuel- nerting capacity (lower vapor pressure). and improved flame suppression (possibly resulting \\from the presence of...of 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.25 inch; Velocity of 45 ft/s; Ambient Temperature of 70 OF; Liquid Temperature of 50 OF; and Initial Angle of 0 Degrees

  13. Effect of acupuncture on Lipopolysaccharide-induced anxiety-like behavioral changes: involvement of serotonin system in dorsal Raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae Young; Jang, Eun Young; Ryu, Yeonhee; Lee, Gyu Won; Lee, Eun Byeol; Chang, Suchan; Lee, Jong Han; Koo, Jin Suk; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Hee Young

    2017-12-11

    Acupuncture has been used as a common therapeutic tool in many disorders including anxiety and depression. Serotonin transporter (SERT) plays an important role in the pathology of anxiety and other mood disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acupuncture on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety-like behaviors and SERT in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN). Rats were given acupuncture at ST41 (Jiexi), LI11 (Quchi) or SI3 (Houxi) acupoint in LPS-treated rats. Anxiety-like behaviors of elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT) were measured and expressions of SERT and/or c-Fos were also examined in the DRN using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that 1) acupuncture at ST41 acupoint, but neither LI11 nor SI3, significantly attenuated LPS-induced anxiety-like behaviors in EPM and OFT, 2) acupuncture at ST41 decreased SERT expression increased by LPS in the DRN. Our results suggest that acupuncture can ameliorate anxiety-like behaviors, possibly through regulation of SERT in the DRN.

  14. Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharides induce RANKL by mouse osteoblast in a way different from that of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yin; Sun, Feifei; Li, Xiaoting; Zhou, Yuan; Yin, Shihai; Zhou, Xuedong

    2011-12-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to have a high positive rate in infected root canals and symptomatic apical periodontitis. It may play an integral role as a potent stimulator of inflammatory cytokines involved in apical lesions. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) has been proven to be the key regulator of bone remodeling. This study investigated P. endodontalis LPS-induced RANKL production and LPS signaling in mouse osteoblasts. LPS-induced RANKL production in mouse osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells was measured by Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were determined by the blocking test using anti-TLRs antibodies. In addition, specific inhibitors were used to analyze the intracellular signaling pathways. Escherichia coli LPS was used as the control. Both of the anti-TLR2 and anti-TLR4 antibodies significantly (P < .05) inhibited the expression of RANKL from osteoblasts stimulated with P. endodontalis LPS; only anti-TLR2 antibody had a significant (P < .05) inhibitory effect on E. coli LPS signaling. SP600125 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] inhibitor) prevented the up-regulation of RANKL expression in P. endodontalis LPS-infected osteoblasts (P < .05). The inhibitory effect of wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) and PD98059 (mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK]/extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] kinase-1/2 [MEK 1/2] inhibitor) were observed in E. coli LPS-treated mouse osteoblasts (P < .05). Results from this study showed that P. endodontalis LPS has the ability to promote the expression of RANKL in mouse osteoblasts, and this induction was mainly through the TLR2/4-JNK signaling pathway, a situation quite different from that of typical bacterial endotoxin (E. coli LPS). Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Piperine Augments the Protective Effect of Curcumin Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neurobehavioral and Neurochemical Deficits in Mice.

    PubMed

    Jangra, Ashok; Kwatra, Mohit; Singh, Tavleen; Pant, Rajat; Kushwah, Pawan; Sharma, Yogita; Saroha, Babita; Datusalia, Ashok Kumar; Bezbaruah, Babul Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of curcumin alone and in combination with piperine against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits in the mice hippocampus. Mice were treated with curcumin (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days followed by LPS (0.83 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Animals exhibited anxiety and depressive-like phenotype after 3 and 24 h of LPS exposure, respectively. LPS administration increased the oxido-nitrosative stress as evident by elevated levels of malondialdehyde, nitrite, and depletion of glutathione level in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we found raised level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in the hippocampus of LPS-treated mice. Pretreatment with curcumin alleviated LPS-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits. Furthermore, co-administration of curcumin with piperine significantly potentiated the neuroprotective effect of curcumin. These results demonstrate that piperine enhanced the neuroprotective effect of curcumin against LPS-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits.

  16. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Behavioral Alterations Are Alleviated by Sodium Phenylbutyrate via Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammatory Cascade.

    PubMed

    Jangra, Ashok; Sriram, Chandra Shaker; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-08-01

    Oxido-nitrosative stress, neuroinflammation, and reduced level of neurotrophins are implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depressive illness. A few recent studies have revealed the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the pathophysiology of stress and depression. The aim of the present study is to investigate the neuroprotective potential of sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB), an ER stress inhibitor against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety and depressive-like behavior in Swiss albino mice. Anxiety and depressive-like behavior was induced by LPS (0.83 mg/kg; i.p.) administration. Various behavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the anxiety and depressive-like behavior in mice. Real-time PCR was employed for the detection and expression of ER stress markers (78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP)). Pretreatment with SPB significantly ameliorated the LPS-induced anxiety and depressive-like behavior as revealed by behavioral paradigm results. LPS-induced oxidative stress was ameliorated by SPB pretreatment in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) region. Neuroinflammation was significantly reduced by SPB pretreatment in LPS-treated mice as evident from reduction in proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α). Importantly, LPS administration significantly up-regulated the GRP78 mRNA expression level in the HC which suggests the involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) in LPS-evoked behavioral anomalies. These results highlight the neuroprotective potential of SPB in LPS-induced anxiety and depressive illness model which may be partially due to inhibition of oxidative stress-neuroinflammatory cascade.

  17. Induction of heme oxygenas-1 attenuates NLRP3 inflammasome activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Xiaoyu, Hu; Si, Hongbin; Li, Shumin; Wang, Wenqing; Guo, Jian; Li, Yanyi; Cao, Yongguo; Fu, Yunhe; Zhang, Naisheng

    2017-11-01

    Mastitis is one of most prevalent production disease in dairy herds worldwide, and is res