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Sample records for oleic palmitic stearic

  1. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by Palmitic, Stearic, and Oleic Acid Sophorolipids and Thiamine Dilauryl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuejie; Ashby, Richard; Solaiman, Daniel K. Y.; Uknalis, Joseph; Fan, Xuetong

    2016-01-01

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of various types of sophorolipids (SLs) and thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS) against pathogenic Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Both free and lactonic forms of SLs were synthesized from Candida bombicola using palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids as co-feedstocks. TDS and purified SLs were used to treat cocktails of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Results showed that lactonic SLs had higher antimicrobial activity than the free-acid form, and Gram-positive Listeria spp. were more susceptible to SLs and TDS than Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Listeria populations were reduced from an initial concentration of 7.2 log CFU/mL to a non-detectible level within a 1 min treatment of 0.1% (w/v) lactonic SLs and TDS in the presence of 20% ethanol, which itself did not significantly reduce the populations. There were no significant differences in the antimicrobial efficacy among palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid-based SLs against Salmonella or Listeria spp. Ethanol was utilized to improve the antimicrobial activity of free-acid SLs against Gram-negative bacteria. In general, TDS was more effective than the SLs against Salmonella and Listeria spp. scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SLs and TDS damaged Listeria cell membranes and resulted in cell lysis. Overall, our results demonstrated that SLs and TDS in the presence of ethanol can be used to inactivate foodborne pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:28066390

  2. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by Palmitic, Stearic, and Oleic Acid Sophorolipids and Thiamine Dilauryl Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuejie; Ashby, Richard; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Uknalis, Joseph; Fan, Xuetong

    2016-01-01

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of various types of sophorolipids (SLs) and thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS) against pathogenic Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Both free and lactonic forms of SLs were synthesized from Candida bombicola using palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids as co-feedstocks. TDS and purified SLs were used to treat cocktails of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Results showed that lactonic SLs had higher antimicrobial activity than the free-acid form, and Gram-positive Listeria spp. were more susceptible to SLs and TDS than Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Listeria populations were reduced from an initial concentration of 7.2 log CFU/mL to a non-detectible level within a 1 min treatment of 0.1% (w/v) lactonic SLs and TDS in the presence of 20% ethanol, which itself did not significantly reduce the populations. There were no significant differences in the antimicrobial efficacy among palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid-based SLs against Salmonella or Listeria spp. Ethanol was utilized to improve the antimicrobial activity of free-acid SLs against Gram-negative bacteria. In general, TDS was more effective than the SLs against Salmonella and Listeria spp. scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SLs and TDS damaged Listeria cell membranes and resulted in cell lysis. Overall, our results demonstrated that SLs and TDS in the presence of ethanol can be used to inactivate foodborne pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria.

  3. Stearic acids at sn-1, 3 positions of TAG are more efficient at limiting fat deposition than palmitic and oleic acids in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Gouk, Shiou-Wah; Cheng, Sit-Foon; Ong, Augustine Soon-Hock; Chuah, Cheng-Hock

    2014-04-14

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of long-acyl chain SFA, namely palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0), at sn-1, 3 positions of TAG on obesity. Throughout the 15 weeks of the experimental period, C57BL/6 mice were fed diets fortified with cocoa butter, sal stearin (SAL), palm mid fraction (PMF) and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOS). The sn-1, 3 positions were varied by 16:0, 18:0 and 18:1, whilst the sn-2 position was preserved with 18:1. The HOS-enriched diet was found to lead to the highest fat deposition. This was in accordance with our previous postulation. Upon normalisation of total fat deposited with food intake to obtain the fat:feed ratio, interestingly, mice fed the SAL-enriched diet exhibited significantly lower visceral fat/feed and total fat/feed compared with those fed the PMF-enriched diet, despite their similarity in SFA-unsaturated fatty acid-SFA profile. That long-chain SFA at sn-1, 3 positions concomitantly with an unsaturated FA at the sn-2 position exert an obesity-reducing effect was further validated. The present study is the first of its kind to demonstrate that SFA of different chain lengths at sn-1, 3 positions exert profound effects on fat accretion.

  4. Apolipoprotein E isoforms 3/3 and 3/4 differentially interact with circulating stearic, palmitic, and oleic fatty acids and lipid levels in Alaskan Natives.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Tapia, Lyssia; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Ebbesson, Sven O E; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Tejero, M Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Lifestyle changes in Alaskan Natives have been related to the increase of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in the last decades. Variation of the apolipoprotein E (Apo E) genotype may contribute to the diverse response to diet in lipid metabolism and influence the association between fatty acids in plasma and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the interaction between Apo E isoforms and plasma fatty acids, influencing phenotypes related to metabolic diseases in Alaskan Natives. A sample of 427 adult Siberian Yupik Alaskan Natives was included. Fasting glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo A1, and Apo B plasma concentrations were measured using reference methods. Concentrations of 13 fatty acids in fasting plasma were analyzed by gas chromatography, and Apo E variants were identified. Analyses of covariance were conducted to identify Apo E isoform and fatty acid main effects and multiplicative interactions. The means for body mass index and age were 26 ± 5.2 and 47 ± 1.5, respectively. Significant main effects were observed for variation in Apo E and different fatty acids influencing Apo B levels, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Significant interactions were found between Apo E isoform and selected fatty acids influencing total cholesterol, triglycerides, and Apo B concentrations. In summary, Apo E3/3 and 3/4 isoforms had significant interactions with circulating levels of stearic, palmitic, oleic fatty acids, and phenotypes of lipid metabolism in Alaskan Natives.

  5. AMPKα, C/EBPβ, CPT1β, GPR43, PPARγ, and SCD Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Choi, S H; Park, S K; Johnson, B J; Chung, K Y; Choi, C W; Kim, K H; Kim, W Y; Smith, B

    2015-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC) and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA) were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)/Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC) or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA) with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 μg/mL insulin and 10 μg/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 μM palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001) carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1β) gene expression, but the increase in CPT1β gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases). Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001) stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPKα gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism.

  6. AMPKα, C/EBPβ, CPT1β, GPR43, PPARγ, and SCD Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Choi, S. H.; Park, S. K.; Johnson, B. J.; Chung, K. Y.; Choi, C. W.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, W. Y.; Smith, B.

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC) and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA) were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)/Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC) or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA) with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 μg/mL insulin and 10 μg/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 μM palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001) carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1β) gene expression, but the increase in CPT1β gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases). Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001) stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPKα gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism. PMID:25656188

  7. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The ester stearyl palmitate or...

  8. Invited review: palmitic and stearic acid metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Loften, J R; Linn, J G; Drackley, J K; Jenkins, T C; Soderholm, C G; Kertz, A F

    2014-01-01

    Energy is the most limiting nutritional component in diets for high-producing dairy cows. Palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids have unique and specific functions in lactating dairy cows beyond a ubiquitous energy source. This review delineates their metabolism and usage in lactating dairy cows from diet to milk production. Palmitic acid is the fatty acid (FA) found in the greatest quantity in milk fat. Dietary sources of C16:0 generally increase milk fat yield and are used as an energy source for milk production and replenishing body weight loss during periods of negative energy balance. Stearic acid is the most abundant FA available to the dairy cow and is used to a greater extent for milk production and energy balance than C16:0. However, C18:0 is also intimately involved in milk fat production. Quantifying the transfer of each FA from diet into milk fat is complicated by de novo synthesis of C16:0 and desaturation of C18:0 to oleic acid in the mammary gland. In addition, incorporation of both FA into milk fat appears to be limited by the cow's requirement to maintain fluidity of milk, which requires a balance between saturated and unsaturated FA. Oleic acid is the second most abundant FA in milk fat and likely the main unsaturated FA involved in regulating fluidity of milk. Because the mammary gland can desaturate C18:0 to oleic acid, C18:0 appears to have a more prominent role in milk production than C16:0. To understand metabolism and utilization of these FA in lactating dairy cows, we reviewed production and milk fat synthesis studies. Additional and longer lactation studies on feeding both FA to lactating dairy cows are required to better delineate their roles in optimizing milk production and milk FA composition and yield.

  9. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The...

  13. Selective use of palmitic acid over stearic acid for synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol in lung

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, F.H.

    1986-11-01

    The incorporation of (/sup 3/H)palmitic acid and (/sup 14/C)stearic acid into phospholipids in rabbit lung tissue was studied. Under equal molar concentrations of palmitate and stearate, palmitate was incorporated to the 1- and 2-positions of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) 2-3 times more than stearate. By contrast, palmitate was 30% less than stearate in phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine. These results suggest that preferential utilization of palmitate over stearate, rather than substrate availability, determines the high content of palmitoyl at the 1- and 2-positions of PC and PG in lung.

  14. High-Stearic and High-Oleic Cottonseed Oils Produced by Hairpin RNA-Mediated Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Singh, Surinder P.; Green, Allan G.

    2002-01-01

    We have genetically modified the fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil using the recently developed technique of hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing to down-regulate the seed expression of two key fatty acid desaturase genes, ghSAD-1-encoding stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein Δ9-desaturase and ghFAD2-1-encoding oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine ω6-desaturase. Hairpin RNA-encoding gene constructs (HP) targeted against either ghSAD-1 or ghFAD2-1 were transformed into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv Coker 315). The resulting down-regulation of the ghSAD-1 gene substantially increased stearic acid from the normal levels of 2% to 3% up to as high as 40%, and silencing of the ghFAD2-1 gene resulted in greatly elevated oleic acid content, up to 77% compared with about 15% in seeds of untransformed plants. In addition, palmitic acid was significantly lowered in both high-stearic and high-oleic lines. Similar fatty acid composition phenotypes were also achieved by transformation with conventional antisense constructs targeted against the same genes, but at much lower frequencies than were achieved with the HP constructs. By intercrossing the high-stearic and high-oleic genotypes, it was possible to simultaneously down-regulate both ghSAD-1 and ghFAD2-1 to the same degree as observed in the individually silenced parental lines, demonstrating for the first time, to our knowledge, that duplex RNA-induced posttranslational gene silencing in independent genes can be stacked without any diminution in the degree of silencing. The silencing of ghSAD-1 and/or ghFAD2-1 to various degrees enables the development of cottonseed oils having novel combinations of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic contents that can be used in margarines and deep frying without hydrogenation and also potentially in high-value confectionery applications. PMID:12177486

  15. Enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from olive oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the present research is to restructure olive oil triacylglycerol (TAG) using enzymatic acidolysis reaction to produce structured lipids that is close to cocoa butter in terms of TAG structure and melting characteristics. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of refined olive oil with a mixture of palmitic-stearic acids at different substrate ratios was performed in an agitated batch reactor maintained at constant temperature and agitation speed. The reaction attained steady-state conversion in about 5 h with an overall conversion of 92.6 % for the olive oil major triacylglycerol 1-palmitoy-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO). The five major TAGs of the structured lipids produced with substrate mass ratio of 1:3 (olive oil/palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture) were close to that of the cocoa butter with melting temperature between 32.6 and 37.7 °C. The proposed kinetics model used fits the experimental data very well.

  16. Investigations of in vitro bioaccessibility from interesterified stearic and oleic acid-rich blends.

    PubMed

    Thilakarathna, S H; Rogers, M; Lan, Y; Huynh, S; Marangoni, A G; Robinson, L E; Wright, A J

    2016-04-01

    Interesterification was previously found to impact stearic acid absorption in a randomized cross-over study, when human volunteers consumed a 70 : 30 wt% high-oleic sunflower and canola stearin blend (NIE) compared to the same blend which had undergone either chemical (CIE) or enzymatic (EIE) interesterification. In this research, in vitro lipid digestion, bioaccessibility, and changes in undigested lipid composition and melting behavior of these same test fats were investigated using the dynamic, multi-compartmental TIM-1 digestion model and compared with the previous human study. Overall, TIM-1 bioaccessibility was higher with interesterification (p < 0.05). Oleic acid bioaccessibility was higher than stearic acid bioaccessibility for NIE, and vice versa for the interesterified blends (p < 0.05). Stearic acid was more concentrated in the undigested triacylglycerols (TAG) from NIE, corresponding to a relatively higher melting temperature of the undigested lipids. The results confirm the impact of TAG composition, fatty acid position and/or physical properties on lipid digestion. TIM-1 bioaccessibility was linearly correlated (R(2) = 0.8640) with postprandial serum TAG concentration in the human study. Therefore, the in vitro digestion model offered predictive insights related to the impacts of lipid interesterificaton on absorption.

  17. Incorporation of Palmitic Acid or Stearic Acid into Soybean Oils Using Enzymatic Interesterification.

    PubMed

    Teh, Soek Sin; Voon, Phooi Tee; Hock Ong, Augustine Soon; Choo, Yuen May

    2016-09-01

    Incorporations of nature fatty acids which were palmitic acid and stearic acid into the end positions of soybean oils were done using sn-1,3 specific immobilised lipase from Rhizomucor miehei at different ratios in order to produce symmetrical triglycerides without changing the fatty acids at sn-2 position. The optimum ratio for the process was 25:75 w/w. There were 19.2% increase of SFA for P25 and 16% increase for S25 at the sn-1,3 positions. The research findings indicated that the structured lipids produced from enzymatic interesterification possessed a higher oxidative stability than soybean oil. The newly formed structured lipids (SUS type) could be good sources for various applications in food industry.

  18. Fat high in stearic acid favorably affects blood lipids and factor VII coagulant activity in comparison with fats high in palmitic acid or high in myristic and lauric acids.

    PubMed

    Tholstrup, T; Marckmann, P; Jespersen, J; Sandström, B

    1994-02-01

    The effect of fats high in individual, prevalent saturated dietary fatty acids on lipoproteins and hemostatic variables in young healthy subjects was evaluated in a randomized strictly controlled metabolic feeding study. Three experimental diets: shea butter (S; 42% stearic acid), palm oil (P; 43% palmitic palmitic acid), and palm-kernel oil with high-oleic sunflower oil (ML; 10% myristic acid, 30% lauric acid) were served to 15 men for 3 wk each, separated by washout periods. Diet S compared with diet P resulted in significant reduction in plasma cholesterol (22%) LDL cholesterol (26%), apolipoprotein B (18%), HDL cholesterol (12%), apolipoprotein A-I (13%), and a 13% lower factor VII coagulant activity (P = 0.001). Similar differences were observed between diets S and ML. In conclusion, intake of shea butter high in stearic acid favorably affects blood lipids and factor VII coagulant activity in young men, compared with fats high in saturated fatty acids with 12-16 carbons.

  19. Dynamic molecular behavior of semi-fluorinated oleic, elaidic and stearic acids in the liquid state.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shun; Matsuda, Haruna; Kasahara, Yasutoshi; Iwahashi, Makio; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Baba, Teruhiko; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Ordinary fatty acids such as oleic, elaidic and stearic acids exist as their hydrogen-bonded dimers in their liquids and in non-polar solvents. Infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have revealed that semi-fluorinated (SF) acids containing a perfluorooctyl group (C₈F₁₇) as a terminal segment exist also as hydrogen-bonded dimers, which are the units of inter- and intramolecular movements in their liquids and CCl₄. The dynamic molecular properties, such as self-diffusion coefficients and intramolecular movements of SF-oleic, SF-elaidic, and SF-stearic acids were compared with those of corresponding ordinary fatty acids (H-acids). From the high equilibrium spreading pressures (ESPs) for SF-acids compared with those for their corresponding H-acids, it was expected that the inter-acyl chain interaction is weaker for the SF-acid than for the H-acid: the SF-fatty acids should have higher molecular mobility than the corresponding ordinary H-acids in the liquid state. However, the self-diffusion coefficients obtained for SF-acids were smaller than those for the corresponding H-acids; the apparent activation energies for the self-diffusion process (translational movement) of SF-acids were larger than those for the corresponding H-acids. Namely, the motion of SF-acid molecules in a liquid phase is rather restricted compared with H-acid in spite of lower inter-acyl chain interaction of SF-acid. This unexpected result suggests that the molecular motion of SF-acid in a liquid phase is not directly governed by inter-acyl interaction, but may be interpreted as a reptation movement of an acid molecule, which is related to intramolecular movement. In fact, low intramolecular movements for SF-acid were confirmed by ¹³C-NMR T₁ measurements.

  20. Evaluation of high oleic-high stearic sunflower hard stearins for cocoa butter equivalent formulation.

    PubMed

    Bootello, Miguel A; Hartel, Richard W; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2012-10-01

    Cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) are produced from vegetable fats by blending palm mid fraction (PMF) and tropical butters coming from shea, mango kernel or kokum fat. In this regard, high oleic-high stearic (HOHS) sunflower hard stearins from solvent fractionation can be used in CBE production since their compositions and physical properties are similar to those found in the above-mentioned tropical butters. In this work, three sunflower hard stearins (SHS) ranging from 65% to 95% of disaturated triacylglycerols and a shea stearin (used as reference) were blended with PMF to evaluate their potential use in CBEs formulation. Isosolid phase diagrams of mixtures of PMF/SHS showed eutectic formation for SHS 65 and SHS 80, but monotectic behaviour with softening effect for SHS 95. Three CBEs from SHS and shea stearin were formulated according to phase behaviour diagrams and solid fat content data at 25 °C. Isosolid phase diagrams of mixtures of these CBEs with cocoa butter showed no eutectic behaviour. Therefore, CBEs elaborated from SHS exhibited full compatibility with cocoa butter.

  1. The 73 kilodalton heat shock cognate protein purified from rat brain contains nonesterified palmitic and stearic acids.

    PubMed

    Guidon, P T; Hightower, L E

    1986-08-01

    A protein related to the 71 kilodalton inducible rat heat shock protein was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in milligram amounts from brain tissue of nonheat-stressed rats. The protein has been designated as a stress cognate protein based on previous studies and data presented herein that this protein cross-reacted with a monoclonal antibody originally raised against the Drosophila 70 kilodalton heat shock protein. The purified protein had an apparent molecular mass of 73 kilodaltons when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and an apparent mass of 150 kilodaltons as determined by nondissociative gel chromatography, suggesting that the purified protein is a homodimer. The purified protein had isoelectric points of 5.0 under nondissociative conditions and 5.6 when exposed to protein denaturants, suggesting loss of bound anionic molecules and/or net exposure of basic residues upon denaturation. Chloroform/methanol extraction of the purified protein and subsequent analyses by thin layer and gas-liquid chromatography resulted in the identification of palmitic and stearic acids noncovalently bound to the protein. Approximately four molecules of fatty acids were bound per dimer with palmitic and stearic acids present in a one-to-one ratio. The purified protein did not bind exogenously added radioactive palmitate, indicating that the fatty acid-binding sites of the cognate protein were fully occupied and that the associated fatty acids were too tightly bound to exchange readily. The possible significance of the fatty acids associated with the 73 kilodalton stress cognate protein is discussed.

  2. Development of a Controlled Release of Salicylic Acid Loaded Stearic Acid-Oleic Acid Nanoparticles in Cream for Topical Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J. O.; Misran, M.; Lee, P. F.; Tan, L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are colloidal carrier systems that have extensively been investigated for controlled drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, a cost effective stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles (SONs) with high loading of salicylic acid, was prepared by melt emulsification method combined with ultrasonication technique. The physicochemical properties, thermal analysis and encapsulation efficiency of SONs were studied. TEM micrographs revealed that incorporation of oleic acid induces the formation of elongated spherical particles. This observation is in agreement with particle size analysis which also showed that the mean particle size of SONs varied with the amount of OA in the mixture but with no effect on their zeta potential values. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the SONs prepared in this method have lower crystallinity as compared to pure stearic acid. Different amount of oleic acid incorporated gave different degree of perturbation to the crystalline matrix of SONs and hence resulted in lower degrees of crystallinity, thereby improving their encapsulation efficiencies. The optimized SON was further incorporated in cream and its in vitro release study showed a gradual release for 24 hours, denoting the incorporation of salicylic acid in solid matrix of SON and prolonging the in vitro release. PMID:24578624

  3. Improving the physical and moisture barrier properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum biodegradable film with stearic and palmitic acids.

    PubMed

    Seyedi, Samira; Koocheki, Arash; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Zahedi, Younes

    2015-01-01

    Stearic and palmitic fatty acids (10%, 20% and 30%, W/W gum) were used to improve the barrier properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum (LPSG) film. The impact of the incorporation of fatty acids into the film matrix was studied by investigating the physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of the films. Addition of stearic and palmitic fatty acids to LPSG films reduced their water vapor permeability (WVP), moisture content, water solubility and water adsorption. Increasing fatty acid concentration from 10% to 30%, reduced the elongation at break (EB). Lower values of tensile strength (TS) and elastic modulus (EM) were obtained in the presence of higher fatty acids concentrations. Incorporation of fatty acids led to production of opaque films and the opacity increased as function of fatty acids concentration. Results showed that moisture content, water solubility and WVP decreased as the chain length of fatty acid increased. Therefore, LPSG-fatty acids composite film could be used for packaging in which a low affinity toward water is needed.

  4. Ca(2+)-dependent permeabilization of mitochondria and liposomes by palmitic and oleic acids: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Belosludtsev, Konstantin N; Belosludtseva, Natalia V; Agafonov, Alexey V; Astashev, Maxim E; Kazakov, Alexey S; Saris, Nils-Erik L; Mironova, Galina D

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, we examine and compare the effects of saturated (palmitic) and unsaturated (oleic) fatty acids in relation to their ability to cause the Ca(2+)-dependent membrane permeabilization. The results obtained can be summarized as follows. (1) Oleic acid (OA) permeabilizes liposomal membranes at much higher concentrations of Ca(2+) than palmitic acid (PA): 1mM versus 100μM respectively. (2) The OA/Ca(2+)-induced permeabilization of liposomes is not accompanied by changes in the phase state of lipid bilayer, in contrast to what is observed with PA and Ca(2+). (3) The addition of Ca(2+) to the PA-containing vesicles does not change their size; in the case of OA, it leads to the appearance of larger and smaller vesicles, with larger vesicles dominating. This can be interpreted as a result of fusion and fission of liposomes. (4) Like PA, OA is able to induce a Ca(2+)-dependent high-amplitude swelling of mitochondria, yet it requires higher concentrations of Ca(2+) (30 and 100μM for PA and OA respectively). (5) In contrast to PA, OA is unable to cause the Ca(2+)-dependent high-amplitude swelling of mitoplasts, suggesting that the cause of OA/Ca(2+)-induced permeability transition in mitochondria may be the fusion of the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. (6) The presence of OA enhances PA/Ca(2+)-induced permeabilization of liposomes and mitochondria. The paper discusses possible mechanisms of PA/Ca(2+)- and OA/Ca(2+)-induced membrane permeabilization, the probability of these mechanisms to be realized in the cell, and their possible physiological role.

  5. Anaerobic degradation of oleic acid by suspended and granular sludge: identification of palmitic acid as a key intermediate.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M A; Pires, O C; Mota, M; Alves, M M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the maximum potential methane production in batch assays of sludge samples taken along the operation of two EGSB reactors (RI inoculated with granular sludge and RII inoculated with suspended sludge) fed with increasing oleic acid concentrations between 2 and 8 gCOD/l (HRT = 1 day). After removing the residual substrate, the sludge was incubated in batch vials without any added carbon source. A maximum methane production rate of 152+/-21 mlCH4(STP)/gVS.day was obtained for the suspended sludge taken on day 70, when oleate at a concentration of 2 g COD/l was fed with a co-substrate (50% COD). The maximum plateau achieved in the methane production curve was 1145+/-307 mlCH4(STP)/gVS, obtained for the suspended sludge taken on day 162, when oleate was fed as the sole carbon source at 6 g COD/I. The methanization rate of the adsorbed substrate was enhanced under stirring conditions and was inhibited by adding oleic acid. Extraction and GC analysis confirmed that the main adsorbed substrate was palmitate, and not oleate. Accumulated palmitate adsorbed onto the sludge and further beta-oxidation was inhibited when in the presence of oleic acid. If oleic acid was removed from the medium beta-oxidation proceeded with methane production. Suspended sludge was more efficient than granular sludge.

  6. Role of hepatocyte S6K1 in palmitic acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipotoxicity, insulin resistance and in oleic acid-induced protection.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Virginia; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Muntané, Jordi; Kozma, Sara C; Valverde, Ángela M

    2015-06-01

    The excess of saturated free fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, that induces lipotoxicity in hepatocytes, has been implicated in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease also associated with insulin resistance. By contrast, oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, attenuates the effects of palmitic acid. We evaluated whether palmitic acid is directly associated with both insulin resistance and lipoapoptosis in mouse and human hepatocytes and the impact of oleic acid in the molecular mechanisms that mediate both processes. In human and mouse hepatocytes palmitic acid at a lipotoxic concentration triggered early activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related kinases, induced the apoptotic transcription factor CHOP, activated caspase 3 and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells. These effects concurred with decreased IR/IRS1/Akt insulin pathway. Oleic acid suppressed the toxic effects of palmitic acid on ER stress activation, lipoapoptosis and insulin resistance. Besides, oleic acid suppressed palmitic acid-induced activation of S6K1. This protection was mimicked by pharmacological or genetic inhibition of S6K1 in hepatocytes. In conclusion, this is the first study highlighting the activation of S6K1 by palmitic acid as a common and novel mechanism by which its inhibition by oleic acid prevents ER stress, lipoapoptosis and insulin resistance in hepatocytes.

  7. Impact of stearic acid and oleic acid on hemostatic factors in the context of controlled diets consumed by healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, S K; Tracy, R P; Baer, D J

    2014-09-01

    The effects of stearic acid (STA) on cardiovascular disease risk beyond lipid and lipoprotein risk factors, including hemostasis, are unclear, particularly when compared with unsaturated fatty acids. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of STA with those of oleic acid (OL) on markers of hemostasis. In a randomized crossover study, 50 men consumed six controlled diets for 5 weeks each (39% energy from fat, 15% energy from protein, 46% energy from carbohydrate (CHO)). Fat (8% energy) was replaced across diets by: STA, OL, CHO (control), trans fatty acids (TFAs), TFA/STA and 12:0-16:0 saturated fatty acids. Factor VIIc, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and plasmin alpha-2-antiplasmin complex concentrations were not different between OL and STA (P>0.05). Compared with control, OL increased factor VIIc and PAI-1 (P≤0.05), whereas there were no differences with STA (P>0.05). STA and OL similarly affect markers of hemostasis in healthy men, within the context of a highly controlled diet.

  8. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  9. Anaerobic biodegradation of oleic and palmitic acids: evidence of mass transfer limitations caused by long chain fatty acid accumulation onto the anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M A; Pires, O C; Mota, M; Alves, M M

    2005-10-05

    Palmitic acid was the main long chain fatty acids (LCFA) that accumulated onto the anaerobic sludge when oleic acid was fed to an EGSB reactor. The conversion between oleic and palmitic acid was linked to the biological activity. When palmitic acid was fed to an EGSB reactor it represented also the main LCFA that accumulated onto the sludge. The way of palmitic acid accumulation was different in the oleic and in the palmitic acid fed reactors. When oleic acid was fed, the biomass-associated LCFA (83% as palmitic acid) were mainly adsorbed and entrapped in the sludge that became "encapsulated" by an LCFA layer. However, when palmitic acid was fed, the biomass-associated LCFA (the totality as palmitic acid) was mainly precipitated in white spots like precipitates in between the sludge, which remained "non-encapsulated." The two sludges were compared in terms of the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) in the presence of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and H(2)CO(2), before and after the mineralization of similar amounts of biomass-associated LCFA (4.6 and 5.2 g COD-LCFA/g of volatile suspended solids (VSS), for the oleic and palmitic acid fed sludge, respectively). The "non-encapsulated," sludge exhibited a considerable initial methanogenic activity on all the tested substrates, with the single exception of butyrate. However, with the "encapsulated" sludge only methane production from ethanol and H(2)/CO(2) was detected, after a lag phase of about 50 h. After mineralization of the biomass-associated LCFA, both sludges exhibited activities of similar order of magnitude in the presence of the same individual substrates and significantly higher than before. The results evidenced that LCFA accumulation onto the sludge can create a physical barrier and hinder the transfer of substrates and products, inducing a delay on the initial methane production. Whatever the mechanism, metabolic or physical, that is behind this inhibition, it is reversible, being eliminated after the

  10. The effect of oleic and palmitic acid on induction of steatosis and cytotoxicity on rat hepatocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, A; Červinková, Z; Kučera, O; Mezera, V; Rychtrmoc, D; Lotková, H

    2015-01-01

    In vitro models serve as a tool for studies of steatosis. Palmitic and oleic acids can induce steatosis in cultured hepatocytes. The aim of our study was to verify steatogenic and cytotoxic effects of palmitic acid (PA), oleic acid (OA) and their combinations as well as their impact on functional capacity of rat primary hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were exposed to OA or PA (0.125-2 mmol/l) or their combination at ratios of 3:1, 2:1 or 1:1 at the final concentrations of 0.5-1 mmol/l. Both OA and PA caused a dose-dependent increase in triacylglycerol content in hepatocytes. PA was more steatogenic at 0.25 and 0.5 mmol/l while OA at 0.75 and 1 mmol/l. PA exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect associated with ROS production, present markers of apoptosis and necrosis and a decrease in albumin production. OA induced a damage of the cytoplasmic membrane from 1 mM concentration. Mixture of OA and PA induced lower cytotoxicity with less weakened functional capacity than did PA alone. Extent of steatosis was comparable to that after exposure to OA alone. In conclusion, OA or combination of OA with PA is more suitable for simulation of simple steatosis than PA alone.

  11. Compared with stearic acid, palmitic acid increased the yield of milk fat and improved feed efficiency across production level of cows.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2014-02-01

    The effects of dietary palmitic and stearic acids on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components, and feed efficiency of dairy cows were evaluated in an experiment with a crossover arrangement of treatments with a covariate period. Cows with a wide range of milk production (38 to 65 kg/d) were used to determine if response to fat supplementation varied according to production level. Thirty-two Holstein cows (143 ± 61 d in milk) were assigned randomly to a treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with palmitic acid (PA; 97.9% C16:0) or stearic acid (SA; 97.4% C18:0). Treatment periods were 21 d and cows were fed a nonfat supplemented diet for 14 d immediately before the first treatment period. The final 4d of each period were used for sample and data collection. Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as the covariate. No interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the production response variables measured. Compared with SA, the PA treatment increased milk fat concentration (3.66 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.68 vs. 1.59 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (47.5 vs. 45.6 kg/d). Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, milk protein yield, body weight, or body condition score. Milk protein concentration was lower for PA compared with SA treatment (3.24 vs. 3.29%). The PA treatment increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk yield/dry matter intake) compared with SA (1.48 vs. 1.40). The increase in milk fat yield by PA was entirely accounted for by a 24% increase in 16-carbon fatty acid output into milk. Yields of de novo (3.2%) and preformed fatty acids (2.9%) were only slightly decreased by PA relative to SA. The PA treatment increased plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (96.3 vs. 88.2 μEq/L) and glucose (56.6 vs. 55.7 mg/dL) compared with SA, but insulin and

  12. Impact of stearic acid and oleic acid on hemostatic factors in the context of controlled diets consumed by healthy men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests that stearic acid (STE) differentially affects lipoprotein risk factors compared with other saturated fatty acids (SFA). When compared to cholesterol-raising SFA, STE lowers LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and has a neutral effect on HDL-C, thus lowering the ratio of total cholesterol to H...

  13. Effects of duodenal infusions of palmitic, stearic, or oleic acids on milk composition and physical properties of butter.

    PubMed

    Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Bayourthe, C; Moncoulon, R

    2000-07-01

    Four dairy cows fitted with a duodenal cannula were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of daily duodenal infusion of 500 g of fatty acids (containing mainly C16:0, C18:0, or cis-C18:1) on fecal concentrations of fatty acids, fatty acid profiles of milk fat, and solid fat content of butter. Fecal concentrations of C16:0 and especially of C18:0 were increased by duodenal infusion. Infusion with C16:0 increased the proportion of C16:0 in milk fat and delayed softening of butter when the temperature rose. Infusion with C18:0 resulted only in a slight increase of C18:0 proportion in milk fat and did not significantly affect solid fat in butter between -10 and 30 degrees C. With the infusion of cis-C18:1, the proportion of cis-C18:1 in milk fat was more than twice that of control, to the detriment of C16:0. Butter contained low proportion of solid fat, even at low temperatures. Increasing C16:0 or cis-C18:1 in milk fatty acid via duodenal infusion can be used to study their specific effects on butter characteristics, but, because of a low transfer from infusion to milk, this method is less efficient with C18:0.

  14. Metabolism in humans of cis-12,trans-15-octadecadienoic acid relative to palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Emken, E.A.; Rohwedder, W.K.; Adlof, R.O.; Rakoff, H.; Gulley, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    Mixtures of triglycerides containing deuterium-labeled hexadecanoic acid (16:0), octadecanoic acid (18:0), cis-9-octadecenoic acid (9c-18:1), cis-9,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid (9c, 12c-18:2) and cis-12,trans-15-octadecadienoic acid (12c,15t-18:2) were fed to two young-adult males. Plasma lipid classes were isolated from samples collected periodically over 48 hr. Incorporation and turnover of the deuterium-labeled fats in plasma lipids were followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the methyl ester derivatives. Absorption of the deuterated fats was followed by GC-MS analysis of chylomicron triglycerides isolated by ultracentrifugation. Results were the following: (i) endogenous fat contributed about 40% of the total fat incorporated into chylomicron triglycerides; (ii) elongation, desaturation and chain-shortened products from the deuterated fats were not detected; (iii) the polyunsaturated isomer 12c,15t-18:2 was metabolically more similar to saturated and 9c-18:1 fatty acids than to 9c,12c-18:2; (iv) relative incorporation of 9c,12c-18:2 into phospholipids did not increase proportionally with an increase of 9c,12c-18:2 in the mixture of deuterated fats fed; (v) absorption of 16:0, 18:0, 9c-18:1, 9c,12c-18:2 and 12c,15t-18:2 were similar; and (vi) data for the 1- and 2-acyl positions of phosphatidylcholine and for cholesteryl ester fractions reflected the known high specificity of phosphatidylcholine acyltransferase and lecithin:cholesteryl acyltransferase for 9c,12c-18:2. These results illustrate that incorporation of dietary fatty acids into human plasma lipid classes is selectively controlled and that incorporation of dietary 9c,12c-18:2 is limited.

  15. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by palmitic, stearic and oleic acid sophorolipids and thiamine dilauryl sulfate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of th...

  16. Dietary oleic and palmitic acids modulate the ratio of triacylglycerols to cholesterol in postprandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in men and cell viability and cycling in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    López, Sergio; Bermúdez, Beatriz; Pacheco, Yolanda M; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Moreda, Wenceslao; Villar, José; Abia, Rocío; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2007-09-01

    The postprandial metabolism of dietary fats produces triacylglycerol (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRL) that could interact with circulating cells. We investigated whether the ratios of oleic:palmitic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA):SFA in the diet affect the ratio of TG:cholesterol (CHOL) in postprandial TRL of healthy men. The ability of postprandial TRL at 3 h (early postprandial period) and 5 h (late postprandial period) to affect cell viability and cycle in the THP-1 human monocytic cell line was also determined. In a randomized, crossover experiment, 14 healthy volunteers (Caucasian men) ate meals enriched (50 g/m(2) body surface area) in refined olive oil, high-palmitic sunflower oil, butter, and a mixture of vegetable and fish oils, which had ratios of oleic:palmitic acid (MUFA:SFA) of 6.83 (5.43), 2.36 (2.42), 0.82 (0.48), and 13.81 (7.08), respectively. The ratio of TG:CHOL in postprandial TRL was inversely correlated (r = -0.89 to -0.99) with the ratio of oleic:palmitic acid and with the MUFA:SFA ratio in the dietary fats (P < 0.05). Postprandial TRL at 3 h preferentially increased the proportion of necrotic cells, whereas postprandial TRL at 5 h increased the proportion of apoptotic cells (P < 0.05). Cell cycle analysis showed that postprandial TRL blocked the human monocytes in S-phase. Our findings suggest that the level of TG and CHOL into postprandial TRL is associated with the ratios of oleic:palmitic acid and MUFA:SFA in dietary fats, which determines the ability of postprandial TRL to induce cytotoxicity and disturb the cell cycle in THP-1 cells.

  17. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of palm mid fraction oil with palmitic and stearic Fatty Acid mixture for production of cocoa butter equivalent.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2013-10-01

    Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) was prepared by enzymatic acidolysis reaction of substrate consisting of refined palm mid fraction oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture. The reactions were performed in a batch reactor at a temperature of 60 °C in an orbital shaker operated at 160 RPM. Different mass ratios of substrates were explored, and the composition of the five major triacylglycerols (TAGs) of the structured lipids was identified and quantified using cocoa butter certified reference material IRMM-801. The reaction resulted in production of cocoa butter equivalent with the TAGs' composition (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol 30.7%, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-rac-glycerol 40.1%, 1-palmitoy-2,3- dioleoyl glycerol 9.0%, 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol 14.5 %, and 1-stearoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol 5.7%) and with onset melting temperature of 31.6 °C and peak temperature of 40.4 °C which are close to those of cocoa butter. The proposed kinetics model for the acidolysis reaction presented the experimental data very well. The results of this research showed that palm mid fraction oil TAGs could be restructured to produce value added product such as CBE.

  18. [The positional isomers of triglycerides in oils, fats and apoB-100 lipoproteins: palmitic and oleic modes of metabolism of fatty acids-substrates for energy acquiring].

    PubMed

    Kotkina, T I; Titov V N

    2014-01-01

    Even total resemblance of content of fatty acids in triglycerides has both no standing for their functional unity nor even identity of their physical chemical characteristics. The etherification of fatty acids in various positions of three-atomic glycerin separates triglycerides on palmitic and oleic substrates for energy acquiring by cells. The kinetic parameters of biochemical reactions under palmitic mode of metabolism of fatty acids are always low. The myocytes in biological reaction of exotrophy experience deficiency of exogenous fatty acids which in vivo is to permanently supply through activation of biological reaction of endotrophy--enhancement of lipolysis in adipocytes. The biological role of insulin is to prevent formation in vivo of palmitic mode of metabolism of saturated and monoenic fatty acids. Under this condition, the necessity to activate lipolysis and to increase in blood plasma concentration of unesteritied fatty acids forms syndrome of resistance to insulin. The surplus of palmitic fatty acid in food and deficiency of insulin show in vivo unidirectional a physiologic action. The formation of palmitic mode of metabolism of energy substrates--portion of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty infiltration of liver and partiallly essential arterial hypertension.

  19. Oleic/Palmitate Induces Apoptosis in Human Articular Chondrocytes via Upregulation of NOX4 Expression and ROS Production.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dapeng; Lu, Jianmin; Yang, Sheng

    2016-07-01

    The association between obesity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in osteoarthritis (OA) patients has already been identified. However, the specific mechanism underlying ROS production and OA progression has never been elucidated. Osteoarthritic cartilage was obtained from patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty, and chondrocytes were isolated from these tissues. The cells were treated with varying concentrations (10,100,500 μM, and 5 mM) of oleic/palmitate (O/P) mixture at different times, that is at 6, 24, and 48 h. Cell viability was determined using MTT assay. ROS production was detected using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. The protein levels of NOX4 and cleaved-caspase3 were detected using Western blot assay. O/P significantly decreased cell viability at 10, 100, 500 μM, and 5 mM in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the cell viability was reduced by 500 μM O/P mixture at 6, 24, and 48 h in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with 500 μM O/P significantly enhanced ROS production and cell apoptosis in chondrocytes. Furthermore, treatment with O/P mixture significantly enhanced the expression of NOX4 and caspase3 activation in a dose- and time- dependent manner. More importantly, inhibition of NOX4 could partially eliminate O/P-induced chondrocytes apoptosis by reducing ROS production. To conclude, O/P treatment enhances ROS production and cell apoptosis mainly by upregulating the protein levels of NOX4 and caspase3 activation in chondrocytes, indicating a potential therapeutic target of OA in obesity patients.

  20. Stearic acid-induced cardiac lipotoxicity is independent of cellular lipid and is mitigated by the fatty acids oleic and capric acid but not by the PPAR agonist troglitazone.

    PubMed

    Rabkin, Simon W; Lodhia, Parth; Lodha, Parth

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of stearic acid to induce cardiomyocyte cell death and the hypothesis that the amount of cellular lipid is a determinant of cell death. In cardiomyocytes from embryonic chick heart, stearic acid (SA) produced a significant (P < 0.001) concentration-dependent increase in cell death with an ED(50) of 71 microM. In contrast, capric (C10:0) or oleic acid (OA; C18:1), at < 200 microM, did not alter cell viability. Stearic acid-induced cell death was significantly reduced by OA and to a lesser extent by capric acid. Neither OA nor capric acid altered cell death produced by potassium cyanide and deoxyglucose. Stearic acid (100 microM) induced a significant (P < 0.05) twofold increase in cellular lipid as assessed by Nile blue and Sudan Black staining. A role for cellular lipid in cardiomyocyte death was excluded because OA increased cellular lipid, at concentrations that did not induce cell death; OA did not alter SA-induced cellular fat stores but reduced cell death; and the PPARgamma; agonist troglitazone at concentrations that reduced cellular lipid content did not alter cell death. High concentrations of troglitazone, however, induced cell death. In summary, SA is a potent inducer of cardiac cell death and intracellular lipid accumulation. The amount of intracellular lipid, however, is not a determinant of cardiomyocyte cell death. Troglitazone has potential cardiotoxicity at high doses but, at lower concentrations, does not prevent cardiac lipotoxicity, which can be completely prevented by low concentrations of oleic acid.

  1. Influence of stearic acid on hemostatic risk factors in humans.

    PubMed

    Tholstrup, Tine

    2005-12-01

    Stearic acid has been claimed to be prothrombotic. Elevated plasma factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc) may raise the risk of coronary thrombosis in the event of plaque rupture. Fibrinogen, an acute-phase protein, is necessary for normal blood clotting; however, elevated levels of fibrinogen increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Here I report the results of three controlled, human dietary intervention studies, which used a randomized crossover design to investigate the hemostatic effects of stearic acid-rich test diets in healthy young men. A diet high in stearic acid (shea butter) resulted in a 13% lower fasting plasma FVIIc than a high palmitic acid diet, and was 18% lower than a diet high in myristic and lauric acids (P = 0.001) after 3 wk of intervention. The stearic acid-rich test fat increased plasma fibrinogen concentrations slightly compared with the myristic-lauric acid diet (P < 0.01). When investigating the acute effects of fatty meals, those high in stearic acid (synthesized test fat) resulted in a smaller postprandial increase in FVII than those high in trans and oleic FA, indicating a smaller increase in activated FVII after ingesting stearic acid compared with fats high in monounsaturated FA, probably caused by lower postprandial lipemia. Thus, the present investigations did not find dietary stearic acid to be more thrombogenic, in either fasting effects compared with other long-chain FA, or in acute effects compared with dietary unsaturated FA, including trans monounsaturated FA. The slightly increased effect on fasting plasma fibrinogen may be biologically insignificant, but it should be investigated further.

  2. Oleic acid prevents detrimental effects of saturated fatty acids on bovine oocyte developmental competence.

    PubMed

    Aardema, Hilde; Vos, Peter L A M; Lolicato, Francesca; Roelen, Bernard A J; Knijn, Hiemke M; Vaandrager, Arie B; Helms, J Bernd; Gadella, Bart M

    2011-07-01

    Mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue during metabolic stress will increase the amount of free fatty acids in blood and follicular fluid and, thus, may affect oocyte quality. In this in vitro study, the three predominant fatty acids in follicular fluid (saturated palmitic and stearic acid and unsaturated oleic acid) were presented to maturing oocytes to test whether fatty acids can affect lipid storage of the oocyte and developmental competence postfertilization. Palmitic and stearic acid had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the amount of fat stored in lipid droplets and a concomitant detrimental effect on oocyte developmental competence. Oleic acid, in contrast, had the opposite effect, causing an increase of lipid storage in lipid droplets and an improvement of oocyte developmental competence. Remarkably, the adverse effects of palmitic and stearic acid could be counteracted by oleic acid. These results suggest that the ratio and amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid is relevant for lipid storage in the maturing oocyte and that this relates to the developmental competence of maturing oocytes.

  3. Manganese accumulation in membrane fractions of primary astrocytes is associated with decreased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake, and is exacerbated by oleic acid and palmitate.

    PubMed

    Fordahl, Steve C; Erikson, Keith M

    2014-05-01

    Manganese (Mn) exposure interferes with GABA uptake; however, the effects of Mn on GABA transport proteins (GATs) have not been identified. We sought to characterize how Mn impairs GAT function in primary rat astrocytes. Astrocytes exposed to Mn (500 μM) had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake despite no change in membrane or cytosolic GAT3 protein levels. Co-treatment with 100 μM oleic or palmitic acids (both known to be elevated in Mn neurotoxicity), exacerbated the Mn-induced decline in (3)H-GABA uptake. Mn accumulation in the membrane fraction of astrocytes was enhanced with fatty acid administration, and was negatively correlated with (3)H-GABA uptake. Furthermore, control cells exposed to Mn only during the experimental uptake had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake, and the addition of GABA (50 μM) blunted cytosolic Mn accumulation. These data indicate that reduced GAT function in astrocytes is influenced by Mn and fatty acids accumulating at or interacting with the plasma membrane.

  4. Influence of stearic acid on postprandial lipemia and hemostatic function.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Thomas A B; Berry, Sarah E E

    2005-12-01

    It has been suggested that fats rich in stearic acid may result in exaggerated postprandial lipemia and have adverse effects on hemostatic function. The effects of test meals containing different saturated and monounsaturated FA were compared in healthy subjects in a series of studies to investigate this hypothesis. Stearic acid, when present as cocoa butter, resulted in similar postprandial lipemia and factor VII activation compared with a meal containing high-oleic sunflower oil. Stearic acid when presented as shea butter or as randomized stearate-rich TAG resulted in decreased postprandial lipemia and decreased postprandial activation of factor VII. Stearic acid-rich test meals did not result in impaired fibrinolytic activity compared with either a low-fat meal or a meal high in oleate. The difference in responses between the different stearic acid-rich fats appears to be due to varying solid fat contents of the fats at 37 degrees C.

  5. Genetic enhancement of palmitic acid accumulation in cotton seed oil through RNAi down-regulation of ghKAS2 encoding β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II (KASII).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Wu, Man; Zhang, Baolong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Petrie, James; Green, Allan G; Singh, Surinder P

    2017-01-01

    Palmitic acid (C16:0) already makes up approximately 25% of the total fatty acids in the conventional cotton seed oil. However, further enhancements in palmitic acid content at the expense of the predominant unsaturated fatty acids would provide increased oxidative stability of cotton seed oil and also impart the high melting point required for making margarine, shortening and confectionary products free of trans fatty acids. Seed-specific RNAi-mediated down-regulation of β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II (KASII) catalysing the elongation of palmitoyl-ACP to stearoyl-ACP has succeeded in dramatically increasing the C16 fatty acid content of cotton seed oil to well beyond its natural limits, reaching up to 65% of total fatty acids. The elevated C16 levels were comprised of predominantly palmitic acid (C16:0, 51%) and to a lesser extent palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 11%) and hexadecadienoic acid (C16:2, 3%), and were stably inherited. Despite of the dramatic alteration of fatty acid composition and a slight yet significant reduction in oil content in these high-palmitic (HP) lines, seed germination remained unaffected. Regiochemical analysis of triacylglycerols (TAG) showed that the increased levels of palmitic acid mainly occurred at the outer positions, while C16:1 and C16:2 were predominantly found in the sn-2 position in both TAG and phosphatidylcholine. Crossing the HP line with previously created high-oleic (HO) and high-stearic (HS) genotypes demonstrated that HP and HO traits could be achieved simultaneously; however, elevation of stearic acid was hindered in the presence of high level of palmitic acid.

  6. Effect of Delta 9–Stearoyl-ACP-Desaturase-C mutants in a high oleic background on soybean seed oil composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil typically contains 2-4% stearic acid. Oil with at least 20% stearic acid is desirable because of its baking properties and health profile. This study identifies two new sources of high stearic acid and evaluates the interaction of high stearic and oleic acid al...

  7. Composition of human VLDL triacylglycerols after ingestion of olive oil and high oleic sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V; Morgado, N; Prada, J L; Pérez-Jiménez, F; Muriana, F J

    1998-03-01

    This work was undertaken to determine the effect of diets enriched with olive oil or high oleic sunflower oil on very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol composition of healthy human subjects. Both oils contain a similar proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) but differ in their triacylglycerol composition. All 22 human subjects initially consumed a low fat, high carbohydrate diet as recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-I). They then consumed the two experimental oils (40% dietary energy) in a crossover design. The olive oil and high oleic sunflower oil diets resulted in significant increases in palmitoleic (55%, P < 0.05), oleic (27%, P < 0.01) and eicosenoic (>100%, P < 0.001) acids of VLDL triacylglycerols, whereas there was a significant decrease in linoleic acid (38%, P < 0.001). In addition, the high oleic sunflower oil diet increased the content of stearic acid (60%, P < 0.05) and total saturated fatty acids (14%, P < 0.05). Both MUFA-rich diets significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the content of sn-glycerol-palmitate-linoleate-oleate, sn-glycerol-palmitoleate-dioleate and sn-glycerol-palmitate-dilinoleate in VLDL with regard to the NCEP-I diet, whereas they increased the content of sn-glycerol-trioleate (>100%, P < 0.001 after the olive oil diet; 80%, P < 0.05 after the high oleic sunflower oil diet). Intake of olive oil, in particular, significantly decreased the content of sn-glycerol-tripalmitate (36%, P < 0.01) and increased the content of dioleoyl-containing triacylglycerols. MUFA (P < 0.01) and arachidonic acid (P < 0.001) tended to be rich in the sn-2 position of VLDL triacylglycerols during the periods of consuming the olive oil or high oleic sunflower oil diets. In addition, olive oil, but not high oleic sunflower oil, further contributed to VLDL triacylglycerols that contained alpha-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids acylated in the sn-2 position. These data suggest that differences in the composition

  8. Influence of two different alcohols in the esterification of fatty acids over layered zinc stearate/palmitate.

    PubMed

    de Paiva, Eduardo José Mendes; Corazza, Marcos Lúcio; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Wärnå, Johan; Murzin, Dmitry Yu; Wypych, Fernando; Salmi, Tapio

    2015-10-01

    In this work, esterification of fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and stearic acid) with a commercial zinc carboxylate (a layered compound formed by simultaneous intercalation of stearate and palmitate anions) was performed. Kinetic modeling using a quasi-homogeneous approach successfully fitted experimental data at different molar ratio of fatty acids/alcohols (1-butanol and 1-hexanol) and temperature. An apparent first-order reaction related to all reactants was found and activation energy of 66 kJ/mol was reported. The catalyst showed to be unique, as it can be easily recovered like a heterogeneous catalysts behaving like ionic liquids. In addition, this catalyst demonstrated a peculiar behavior, because higher reactivity was observed with the increase in the alcohols chain length compared to the authors' previous work using ethanol.

  9. Biochemistry of high stearic sunflower, a new source of saturated fats.

    PubMed

    Salas, Joaquín J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Harwood, John L; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Aznar-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Ruíz-López, Noemí; Serrano-Vega, María J; Graham, Ian A; Mullen, Robert T; Garcés, Rafael

    2014-07-01

    Fats based on stearic acid could be a healthier alternative to existing oils especially hydrogenated fractions of oils or palm, but only a few non-tropical species produce oils with these characteristics. In this regard, newly developed high stearic oil seed crops could be a future source of fats and hard stocks rich in stearic and oleic fatty acids. These oil crops have been obtained either by breeding and mutagenesis or by suppression of desaturases using RNA interference. The present review depicts the molecular and biochemical bases for the accumulation of stearic acid in sunflower. Moreover, aspects limiting the accumulation of stearate in the seeds of this species are reviewed. This included data obtained from the characterization of genes and enzymes related to fatty acid biosynthesis and triacylglycerol assembly. Future improvements and uses of these oils are also discussed.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1090 - Stearic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stearic acid. 184.1090 Section 184.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1090 Stearic acid. (a) Stearic acid (C18H36O2, CAS Reg. No. 57-11-4) is a white to yellowish...

  11. Intramuscular paliperidone palmitate.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sheridan M; Scott, Lesley J; Keating, Gillian M

    2010-03-01

    Intramuscular paliperidone palmitate is a long-acting, atypical antipsychotic that is indicated in the US for the acute and maintenance therapy of adult patients with schizophrenia. Paliperidone is the major active metabolite of risperidone. The noninferiority of flexible doses of intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-156 mg to flexible doses of intramuscular long-acting risperidone 25-50 mg was not established in an initial 53-week study. However, these data were utilized to optimize the intramuscular paliperidone palmitate dosage regimen. In four randomized, double-blind studies, intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-234 mg was generally effective in the treatment of adult patients with acute schizophrenia, inducing significantly greater improvements from baseline in the mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score than placebo (primary endpoint). In general, intramuscular paliperidone palmitate recipients achieved significantly better outcomes than placebo recipients with regard to the PANSS subscale, PANSS factor, Personal and Social Performance scale and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale scores. As maintenance therapy, intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-156 mg was significantly more effective than placebo in delaying the time to the first relapse of schizophrenia symptoms in adult patients, according to the results of a randomized, double-blind study. The beneficial effects of intramuscular paliperidone palmitate therapy on the PANSS total score were sustained in a 52-week noncomparative extension phase of the maintenance therapy study. Intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-234 mg was generally well tolerated in adult patients with schizophrenia.

  12. Deletion of ELOVL6 blocks the synthesis of oleic acid but does not prevent the development of fatty liver or insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Moon, Young-Ah; Ochoa, Courtney R; Mitsche, Matthew A; Hammer, Robert E; Horton, Jay D

    2014-12-01

    Elongation of very long chain fatty acid-like family member 6 (ELOVL6) is a fatty acyl elongase that performs the initial and rate-limiting condensing reaction required for microsomal elongation of long-chain fatty acids. Our previous in vitro studies suggested that ELOVL6 elongated long-chain saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids with chain lengths of 12 to 16 carbons. Here, we describe the generation and phenotypic characterization of Elovl6(-/-) mice. As predicted from the in vitro studies, livers from Elovl6(-/-) mice accumulated palmitic (C16:0) and palmitoleic (C16:1, n-7) fatty acids and contained significantly less stearic (C18:0) and oleic (C18:1, n-9) acids, confirming that ELOVL6 is the only enzyme capable of elongating palmitate (C16:0). Unexpectedly, Elovl6(-/-) mice produced vaccenic acid (C18:1, n-7), the elongated product of palmitoleate (C16:1, n-7), suggesting that palmitoleate (C16:1, n-7) to vaccenate (C18:1, n-7) elongation was not specific to ELOVL6. The only detected consequence of deleting Elovl6(-/-) in mice was that their livers accumulated significantly more triglycerides than wild-type mice when fed a fat-free/high-carbohydrate diet. When mice were fed a high-fat diet or ELOVL6 was deleted in ob/ob mice, the absence of ELOVL6 did not alter the development of obesity, fatty liver, hyperglycemia, or hyperinsulinemia. Combined, these results suggest that palmitoleic (C16:1, n-7) and vaccenic (C18:1, n-7) acids can largely replace the roles of oleic acid (C18:1, n-9) in vivo and that the deletion of ELOVL6 does not protect mice from the development of hepatic steatosis or insulin resistance.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1090 - Stearic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stearic acid. 184.1090 Section 184.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1090 Stearic acid. (a) Stearic acid (C18H36O2, CAS Reg. No. 57-11-4) is...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1090 - Stearic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stearic acid. 184.1090 Section 184.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1090 Stearic acid. (a) Stearic acid (C18H36O2, CAS Reg. No. 57-11-4) is...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1090 - Stearic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stearic acid. 184.1090 Section 184.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1090 Stearic acid. (a) Stearic acid (C18H36O2, CAS Reg. No. 57-11-4) is...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1090 - Stearic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stearic acid. 184.1090 Section 184.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1090 Stearic acid. (a) Stearic acid (C18H36O2, CAS Reg. No. 57-11-4) is...

  17. Inhibitory Effect of Oleic Acid on Octanoylated Ghrelin Production.

    PubMed

    Oiso, Shigeru; Nobe, Miyuki; Iwasaki, Syuhei; Nii, Wakana; Goto, Natsumi; Seki, Yukari; Nakajima, Kensuke; Nakamura, Kazuo; Kariyazono, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin is a growth hormone-releasing peptide that also displays orexigenic activity. Since serine-3 acylation with octanoylate (octanoylation) is essential for the orexigenic activity of ghrelin, suppression of octanoylation could lead to amelioration or prevention of obesity. To enable the exploration of inhibitors of octanoylated ghrelin production, we developed a cell-based assay system using AGS-GHRL8 cells, in which octanoylated ghrelin concentration increases in the presence of octanoic acid. Using this assay system, we investigated whether fatty acids contained in foods or oils, such as acetic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid, have inhibitory effects on octanoylated ghrelin production. Acetic acid did not suppress the increase in octanoylated ghrelin production in AGS-GHRL8 cells, which was induced by the addition of octanoic acid. However, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid significantly suppressed octanoylated ghrelin production, with the effect of oleic acid being the strongest. Additionally, oleic acid decreased the serum concentration of octanoylated ghrelin in mice. The serum concentration of des-acyl ghrelin (without acyl modification) was also decreased, but the decrease was smaller than that of octanoylated ghrelin. Decreased octanoylated ghrelin production likely resulted from post-translational ghrelin processing, as there were no significant differences in gene expression in the stomach between oleic acid-treated mice and controls. These results suggest that oleic acid is a potential inhibitor of octanoylated ghrelin production and that our assay system is a valuable tool for screening compounds with suppressive effects on octanoylated ghrelin production.

  18. Anaerobic degradation of linoleic oleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Lalman, J.A.; Bagley, D.M.

    1999-07-01

    The anaerobic degradation of linoleic (C18:2) and oleic (C18:1) acids was examined in batch experiments. By-product distribution depended on both the type of long chain fatty acid added and initial substrate concentration. Major by-products were palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and acetic acids. Trace quantities of palmitoleic (C16:1) and lauric (C12) acids were observed together with larger amounts of palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and hexanoic (C6) acids in cultures incubated with 100 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. Bio-hydrogenation of C18 fatty acids was not necessary for the {beta}-oxidation mechanism to proceed. Aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed in cultures inoculated with greater than 50 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. In cultures incubated with greater than 50 mg/L oleic (C18:1) acid, aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed for a short time period.

  19. Transport of Palmitic Acid Across the Tegument of the Entomophilic Nematode Romanomermis culicivorax

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Roger; Burford, Ian R.

    1984-01-01

    Romanomermis culicivorax juveniles, dissected out of Aedes aegypti larvae 7 days after infection, were incubated under controlled conditions in isotonic saline containing ¹⁴C-U-palmitic acid to investigate the nature of the transport mechanism(s) used by the nematode for transcuticular uptake of palmitic acid. Net uptake of the isotope by the nematode was of a logarithmic nature with respect to time. Uptake of palmitic acid was accomplished by a combination of diffusion and a mediated process which was substrate saturable and competitively inhibited by myristic and stearic acids. Both 2,4-dinitrophenol and ouabain inhibited uptake of palmitic acid and thus supported the hypothesis that the carrier system is of the active transport variety and is coupled to a Na⁺K⁺ ATPase pump. PMID:19295867

  20. Inhibitory effect of the ether extract of human feces on activities of mutagens: inhibition by oleic and linoleic acids.

    PubMed

    Hayatsu, H; Arimoto, S; Togawa, K; Makita, M

    1981-05-01

    An ether extract of normal human feces showed inhibitory effects on the activities of several mutagens in the Ames tests. By addition of the ether extract at an amount equivalent to 0.5 g of a sample of feces, the mutagenicity of 1.5 nmole of 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) on Salmonella typhimurium TA98 was completely inhibited. No killing of the bacteria was detected during this treatment. Other mutagens also subject to the inhibition were 2-amino-6-methyl-dipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (Glob-P-2), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-d]quinoline (IQ), benzo[a]pyrene and aflatoxin B1. Apart from these mutagens, which require S9 for their activation, the direct mutagen prepared from Trp-P-1 by treatment with S9 was also inhibited by the fecal extract. The inhibitory principles in the fecal extract were fractionated by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel and were identified as oleic and linoleic acids. Whereas these unsaturated fatty acids showed strong inhibitory activities, saturated fatty acids, i.e, stearic and palmitic acids, did not exhibit any inhibition. Although the physiological significance of these effects of oleate and linoleate is yet to be elucidated, this finding has indicated that care must be taken in screening mutagens by the Ames tests to avoid false negatives resulting from the presence of unsaturated fatty acids in the system.

  1. Near infrared spectroscopy of stearic acid adsorbed on montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Lu, Longfei; Cai, Jingong; Frost, Ray L

    2010-03-01

    The adsorption of stearic acid on both sodium montmorillonites and calcium montmorillonites has been studied by near infrared spectroscopy complimented with infrared spectroscopy. Upon adsorption of stearic acid on Ca-Mt additional near infrared bands are observed at 8236 cm(-1) and is assigned to an interaction of stearic acid with the water of hydration. Upon adsorption of the stearic acid on Na-Mt, the NIR bands are now observed at 5671, 5778, 5848 and 5912 cm(-1) and are assigned to the overtone and combination bands of the CH fundamentals. Additional bands at 4177, 4250, 4324, 4337, 4689 and 4809 cm(-1) are attributed to CH combination bands resulting from the adsorption of the stearic acid. Stearic acid is used as a model molecule for adsorption studies. The application of near infrared spectroscopy to the study of this adsorption proved most useful.

  2. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a...

  3. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a white to yellow powder....

  4. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a...

  5. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a...

  6. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a...

  7. Effect of substitution of high stearic low linolenic acid soybean oil for hydrogenated soybean oil on fatty acid intake.

    PubMed

    DiRienzo, Maureen A; Lemke, Shawna L; Petersen, Barbara J; Smith, Kim M

    2008-05-01

    High stearic, low alpha-linolenic acid soybean oil (HSLL) has been developed via traditional breeding to serve as a substitute for partially hydrogenated soybean oils used in food manufacturing. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact on fatty acid intake in the United States if HSLL were substituted for partially hydrogenated soybean oils used in several food categories, including baked goods, shortenings, fried foods, and margarines. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (1999-2002), baseline intakes of five fatty acids and trans fatty acids (TFA) were determined at the mean and 90th percentile of fat consumption. Then intakes of these fatty acids were determined after HSLL was substituted for 100% of the partially hydrogenated soybean oils used in these four food categories. The results show that baseline intake of stearic acid is 3.0% energy at the mean and 3.3% energy at the 90th percentile. Use of HSLL could increase stearic acid intake to about 4-5% energy. Mean intakes of TFA could decrease from 2.5 to 0.9% energy, and intake of palmitic acid would remain unchanged. Use of HSLL as a substitute for partially hydrogenated soybean oils would result in changes in the fatty acid composition of the US diet consistent with current dietary recommendations.

  8. Dietary oleic acid increases m2 macrophages in the mesenteric adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Camell, Christina; Smith, C Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have implicated fatty-acids as inflammatory regulators, suggesting that there may be a direct role for common dietary fatty-acids in regulating innate immune cells. In humans, a single high-fat meal increases systemic cytokines and leukocytes. In mice, short term high-fat feeding increases adipose tissue (AT) leukocytes and alters the inflammatory profile of AT macrophages. We have seen that short term high fat feeding to C57BL/6J male mice increases palmitic and oleic acid within AT depots, but oleic acid increase is highest in the mesenteric AT (MAT). In vitro, oleic acid increases M2 macrophage markers (CD206, MGL1, and ARG1) in a murine macrophage cell line, while addition of palmitic acid is able to inhibit that increase. Three day supplementation of a chow diet, with oleic acid, induced an increase in M2 macrophage markers in the MAT, but not in the epididymal AT. We tested whether increases in M2 macrophages occur during short term ad lib feeding of a high fat diet, containing oleic acid. Experiments revealed two distinct populations of macrophages were altered by a three day high milk-fat diet. One population, phenotypically intermediate for F4/80, showed diet-induced increases in CD206, an anti-inflammatory marker characteristic of M2 macrophages intrinsic to the AT. Evidence for a second population, phenotypically F4/80(HI)CD11b(HI) macrophages, showed increased association with the MAT following short term feeding that is dependent on the adhesion molecule, ICAM-1. Collectively, we have shown that short term feeding of a high-fat diet changes two population of macrophages, and that dietary oleic acid is responsible for increases in M2 macrophage polarization.

  9. Compact oleic acid in HAMLET.

    PubMed

    Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Nilsson, Hanna; Svanborg, Catharina; Akke, Mikael; Linse, Sara

    2005-11-07

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a complex between alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid that induces apoptosis in tumor cells, but not in healthy cells. Heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of 13C-oleic acid in HAMLET, and to study the 15N-labeled protein. Nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy shows that the two ends of the fatty acid are in close proximity and close to the double bond, indicating that the oleic acid is bound to HAMLET in a compact conformation. The data further show that HAMLET is a partly unfolded/molten globule-like complex under physiological conditions.

  10. Mutations in a delta9-Stearoyl-ACP-Desaturase Gene Are Associated with Enhanced Stearic Acid Levels in Soybean Seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.; Shanklin, J.; Burton, J. W.; Upchurch, R. G.; Whittle, E.; Dewey, R. E.

    2008-11-01

    Stearic acid (18:0) is typically a minor component of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil, accounting for only 2 to 4% of the total fatty acid content. Increasing stearic acid levels of soybean oil would lead to enhanced oxidative stability, potentially reducing the need for hydrogenation, a process leading to the formation of undesirable trans fatty acids. Although mutagenesis strategies have been successful in developing soybean germplasm with elevated 18:0 levels in the seed oil, the specific gene mutations responsible for this phenotype were not known. We report a newly identified soybean gene, designated SACPD-C, that encodes a unique isoform of {Delta}{sup 9}-stearoyl-ACP-desaturase, the enzyme responsible for converting stearic acid to oleic acid (18:1). High levels of SACPD-C transcript were only detected in developing seed tissue, suggesting that the encoded desaturase functions to enhance oleic acid biosynthetic capacity as the immature seed is actively engaged in triacylglycerol production and storage. The participation of SACPD-C in storage triacylglycerol synthesis is further supported by the observation of mutations in this gene in two independent sources of elevated 18:0 soybean germplasm, A6 (30% 18:0) and FAM94-41 (9% 18:0). A molecular marker diagnostic for the FAM94-41 SACPD-C gene mutation strictly associates with the elevated 18:0 phenotype in a segregating population, and could thus serve as a useful tool in the development of cultivars with oils possessing enhanced oxidative stability.

  11. GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS studies on unlabelled and deuterium-labelled oleic acid (C18:1) reactions with peroxynitrite (O=N-O-O⁻) in buffer and hemolysate support the pM/nM-range of nitro-oleic acids in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Trettin, Arne; Böhmer, Anke; Zoerner, Alexander A; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2014-08-01

    Oleic acid (cis-9,10-octadecenoic acid) is the most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid in human blood. Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a short-lived species formed from the reaction of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2(-)). Peroxynitrite is a potent oxidizing and moderate nitrating agent. We investigated reactions of unlabelled and deuterium labelled oleic acid in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and lysed human erythrocytes with commercially available sodium peroxynitrite (Na(+)ONOO(-)). Non-derivatized reaction products were analyzed by spectrophotometry, HPLC with UV absorbance detection, and LC-MS/MS electrospray ionization in the negative-ion mode. Reaction products were also analyzed by GC-MS/MS in the electron capture negative-ion chemical ionization mode after derivatization first with pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) bromide and then with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. Identified oleic acid reaction products in PBS and hemolysate include cis-9,10-epoxystearic acid and trans-9,10-epoxystearic acid (about 0.1% with respect to oleic acid), threo- and erythro-9,10-dihydroxy-stearic acids. Vinyl nitro-oleic acids, 9-nitro-oleic acid (9-NO2OA) and 10-nitro-oleic acid (10-NO2OA), or other nitro-oleic acids were not found to be formed from the reaction of oleic acid with peroxynitrite in PBS or hemolysate. Our in vitro study suggests that peroxynitrite oxidizes but does not nitrate oleic acid in biological samples. Unlike thiols and tyrosine, oleic acid is not susceptible to peroxynitrite. GC-MS/MS analysis of PFB esters is by far more efficient than LC-MS/MS analysis of non-derivatized oleic acid and its derivates. Our in vitro results support our previous in vivo findings that nitro-oleic acid plasma concentrations of healthy and diseased subjects are in the pM/nM-range.

  12. Temperature effect on a high stearic acid sunflower mutant.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Moya, Valle; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael

    2002-01-01

    Vegetable oil with elevated saturated fatty acid content may be useful for producing solid fat without hydrogenation or transesterification. Under the nutritional point of view stearic acid is preferred to other saturated fatty acids because of its neutral effect on serum cholesterol lipoproteins. Selection of a very high stearic acid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) line (CAS-14), with up to a 37.3% of stearic acid in the seed oil, and the relationship between the expression of this character and the growth temperature are presented. The mutant was selected from the M(2) progeny of 3000 mutagenized seeds (4 mM sodium azide mutagenesis treatment) by analysing the fatty acid composition of half-seed by gas liquid chromatography. In order to genetically fix the mutant character, plants were grown at high day/night temperatures during seed formation. We found that temperatures higher than 30/20 degrees C are required for good expression of the phenotype, the maximum stearic acid content being obtained at 39/24 degrees C. This behaviour is totally opposed to that observed in normal and previously isolated high-stearic acid sunflower lines that contain more stearic acid at low temperature. Thus, a new type of temperature regulation on the stearate desaturation must occur. This line is the sunflower mutant with the highest stearic acid content reported so far.

  13. Dietary palmitic acid influences LDL-mediated lymphocyte proliferation differently to other mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Tinahones, F J; Gómez-Zumaquero, J M; Monzón, A; Rojo-Martínez, G; Pareja, A; Morcillo, S; Cardona, F; Olveira, G; Soriguer, F

    2004-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that the biological effects of saturated fatty acids depend on the length of their chain. We compared the effect of diets containing different fatty acids on plasma lipids and lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of lovastatin and with increasing amounts of LDL. Lymphocytes from rats fed with a diet rich in palmitic acid had a greater lymphocyte proliferation capacity than those from rats fed with diets rich in oleic acid, linoleic acid, or fish oil. This effect was maintained when small amounts of polyunsaturatwed fatty acids (PUFA; sunflower oil) were added to the palmitic acid diet. LDL receptor activity, measured by the capacity of lovastatin to revert the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation with increasing amounts of LDL in the medium, was greater in the rats fed with palmitic acid, and was similar to the other groups when small amounts of PUFA were added. All the groups had similar levels of plasma cholesterol, but the LDL levels were significantly lower in the group fed with palmitic acid plus PUFA. The highest HDL-cholesterol (HDLc) levels were found in the palmitic acid group and the lowest LDL-cholesterol (LDLc)/HDLc ratio in the palmitic acid plus PUFA group. These results suggest that diets rich in palmitic acid do not raise total cholesterol, but reduce LDLc or keep it normal, and raise HDLc levels. This effect may be partly due to an increase in LDL receptor activity. The inclusion of small amounts of PUFA in the diet rich in palmitic acid substantially modified the LDL receptor response in the lymphocytes, suggesting that the proportion of different families of dietary fatty acids may be more important than the individual amount of each in absolute terms to explain their effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins.

  14. Palmitic Acid and Health: Introduction.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Moreno, Luis; Shamir, Raanan

    2016-09-09

    Interest in the dietary role and metabolic effect of saturated fatty acids has been recently renewed on the basis of epidemiologic observations and economical approach to health and well-being. Saturated fats may favorably increase blood HDL-Cholesterol levels without significant changes of the total cholesterol/HDL-Cholesterol ratio. Also, the negative effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular diseases risk has recently been challenged. Palmitic acid, among all, may have special structural and functional roles in utero and in infancy, and indeed is it is being delivered in a unique form in human milk. Future research should include objective cost-benefit analyses when disentangling the role of saturated fats in dietary recommendations.

  15. The production of ω-hydroxy palmitic acid using fatty acid metabolism and cofactor optimization in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sung, Changmin; Jung, Eunok; Choi, Kwon-Young; Bae, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Minsuk; Kim, Joonwon; Kim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Pyoung Il; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxylated fatty acids (HFAs) are used as important precursors for bulk and fine chemicals in the chemical industry. Here, to overproduce long-chain (C16-C18) fatty acids and hydroxy fatty acid, their biosynthetic pathways including thioesterase (Lreu_0335) from Lactobacillus reuteri DSM20016, β-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase (fabZ) from Escherichia coli, and a P450 system (i.e., CYP153A from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 and camA/camB from Pseudomonas putida ATCC17453) were overexpressed. Acyl-CoA synthase (fadD) involved in fatty acid degradation by β-oxidation was also deleted in E. coli BW25113. The engineered E. coli FFA4 strain without the P450 system could produce 503.0 mg/l of palmitic (C16) and 508.4 mg/l of stearic (C18) acids, of which the amounts are ca. 1.6- and 2.3-fold higher than those of the wild type. On the other hand, the E. coli HFA4 strain including the P450 system for ω-hydroxylation could produce 211.7 mg/l of ω-hydroxy palmitic acid, which was 42.1 ± 0.1 % of the generated palmitic acid, indicating that the hydroxylation reaction was the rate-determining step for the HFA production. For the maximum production of ω-hydroxy palmitic acid, NADH, i.e., an essential cofactor for P450 reaction, was overproduced by the integration of NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from Candida boidinii into E. coli chromosome and the deletion of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Finally, the NADH-level-optimized E. coli strain produced 610 mg/l of ω-hydroxy palmitic acid (ω-HPA), which was almost a threefold increase in its yield compared to the same strain without NADH overproduction.

  16. Functionality of maize, wheat, teff and cassava starches with stearic acid and xanthan gum.

    PubMed

    Maphalla, Thabelang Gladys; Emmambux, Mohammad Naushad

    2016-01-20

    Consumer concerns to synthetic chemicals have led to strong preference for 'clean' label starches. Lipid and hydrocolloids are food friendly chemicals. This study determines the effects of stearic acid and xanthan gum alone and in combination on the functionality of maize, wheat, teff and cassava starches. An increase in viscosity was observed for all starches with stearic acid and xanthan gum compared to the controls with cassava having the least increase. A further increase in viscosity was observed for the cereal starches with combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum. Stearic acid reduced retrogradation, resulting in soft textured pastes. Combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum reduced the formation of type IIb amylose-lipid complexes, syneresis, and hysteresis in cereal starches compared to stearic acid alone. A combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum produce higher viscosity non-gelling starches and xanthan gum addition increases physical stability to freezing and better structural recovery after shear.

  17. Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

  18. Oleic acid stimulates complete oxidation of fatty acids through protein kinase A-dependent activation of SIRT1-PGC1α complex.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji-Hong; Gerhart-Hines, Zachary; Dominy, John E; Lee, Yoonjin; Kim, Sungjin; Tabata, Mitsuhisa; Xiang, Yang K; Puigserver, Pere

    2013-03-08

    Fatty acids are essential components of the dynamic lipid metabolism in cells. Fatty acids can also signal to intracellular pathways to trigger a broad range of cellular responses. Oleic acid is an abundant monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid that impinges on different biological processes, but the mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Here, we report that oleic acid stimulates the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway and activates the SIRT1-PGC1α transcriptional complex to modulate rates of fatty acid oxidation. In skeletal muscle cells, oleic acid treatment increased intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) that turned on protein kinase A activity. This resulted in SIRT1 phosphorylation at Ser-434 and elevation of its catalytic deacetylase activity. A direct SIRT1 substrate is the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC1α), which became deacetylated and hyperactive after oleic acid treatment. Importantly, oleic acid, but not other long chain fatty acids such as palmitate, increased the expression of genes linked to fatty acid oxidation pathway in a SIRT1-PGC1α-dependent mechanism. As a result, oleic acid potently accelerated rates of complete fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle cells. These results illustrate how a single long chain fatty acid specifically controls lipid oxidation through a signaling/transcriptional pathway. Pharmacological manipulation of this lipid signaling pathway might provide therapeutic possibilities to treat metabolic diseases associated with lipid dysregulation.

  19. Measurements of Oleic Acid among Individual Kernels Harvested from Test Plots of Purified Runner and Spanish High Oleic Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Normal oleic peanuts are often found within commercial lots of high oleic peanuts when sampling among individual kernels. Kernels not meeting high oleic threshold could be true contamination with normal oleic peanuts introduced via poor handling, or they could be immature and not fully expressing th...

  20. Measurements of Oleic Acid among Individual kernels Harvested from Test Plots of Purified Runner and Spanish High Oleic Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Normal oleic peanuts are often found within commercial lots of high oleic peanuts when sampling among individual kernels. Kernels not meeting high oleic threshold could be true contamination with normal oleic peanuts introduced via poor handling, or they could be immature and not fully expressing th...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5936 - Vitamin A palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin A palmitate. 582.5936 Section 582.5936 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5936 Vitamin A palmitate. (a) Product. Vitamin A palmitate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5936 - Vitamin A palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin A palmitate. 582.5936 Section 582.5936 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5936 Vitamin A palmitate. (a) Product. Vitamin A palmitate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.5936 - Vitamin A palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin A palmitate. 582.5936 Section 582.5936 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5936 Vitamin A palmitate. (a) Product. Vitamin A palmitate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.5936 - Vitamin A palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin A palmitate. 582.5936 Section 582.5936 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5936 Vitamin A palmitate. (a) Product. Vitamin A palmitate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.5936 - Vitamin A palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A palmitate. 582.5936 Section 582.5936 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5936 Vitamin A palmitate. (a) Product. Vitamin A palmitate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. Enviromental Effects on Oleic Acid in Soybean Seed Oil of Plant Introductions with Elevated Oleic Concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil with oleic acid content >500 g per kg is desirable for a broader role in food and industrial uses. Seed oil in commercially grown soybean genotypes averages about 230 g per kg oleic acid (18:1). Some maturity group (MG) II to V plant introductions (PIs) have el...

  7. Comparative Study of Stearic Acid/Iron-Oxide Binary and Stearic Acid/Iron-Oxide/Titanium-Oxide Ternary for Use as Energy Storage Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andiarto, Rizky; Khalish Nuryadin, Muhammad; Saleh, Rosari

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a series of stearic acid/Fe3O4, and stearic acid/Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites for thermal energy storage (TES) system were synthesized through a two-step process. Fe3O4 nanoparticles and Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites were first prepared using sol-gel methods and then both samples were mixed into stearic acid by dispersion technique at three different weight % ratio to stearic acid: 5%, 10% and 15% to obtain stearic acid/Fe3O4, and stearic acid/Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites. Morphologies and structural properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), while thermal properties of the sample were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fhermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD patterns demonstrate, that stearic acid/Fe3O4 contained characteristic peaks of Fe3O4 and stearic acid structures, while peaks corresponded to anatase TiO2 structures appear in stearic acid/ Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites. From the DSC measurements, it is found that the maximum latent heat was found at samples with weight ratio of 5%. Moreover, the enhancement up to 20% of latent heat in solidifying as well as melting processes was observed. TGA measurements show high degradation temperature in the range of 246 - 251°C. The TGA results also shows that the residual mass of the sample matches the composition of Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/TiO2 which is added to the stearic acid.

  8. Protective Effect of Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Palmitic Acid-Induced Toxicity in Skeletal Muscle Cells is not Mediated by PPARδ Activation.

    PubMed

    Tumova, Jana; Malisova, Lucia; Andel, Michal; Trnka, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Unsaturated free fatty acids (FFA) are able to prevent deleterious effects of saturated FFA in skeletal muscle cells although the mechanisms involved are still not completely understood. FFA act as endogenous ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether activation of PPARδ, the most common PPAR subtype in skeletal muscle, plays a role in mediating the protective effect of unsaturated FFA on saturated FFA-induced damage in skeletal muscle cells and to examine an impact on mitochondrial respiration. Mouse C2C12 myotubes were treated for 24 h with different concentrations of saturated FFA (palmitic acid), unsaturated FFA (oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acid), and their combinations. PPARδ agonist GW501516 and antagonist GSK0660 were also used. Both mono- and polyunsaturated FFA, but not GW501516, prevented palmitic acid-induced cell death. Mono- and polyunsaturated FFA proved to be effective activators of PPARδ compared to saturated palmitic acid; however, in combination with palmitic acid their effect on PPARδ activation was blocked and stayed at the levels observed for palmitic acid alone. Unsaturated FFA at moderate physiological concentrations as well as GW501516, but not palmitic acid, mildly uncoupled mitochondrial respiration. Our results indicate that although unsaturated FFA are effective activators of PPARδ, their protective effect on palmitic acid-induced toxicity is not mediated by PPARδ activation and subsequent induction of lipid regulatory genes in skeletal muscle cells. Other mechanisms, such as mitochondrial uncoupling, may underlie their effect.

  9. Effects of diets containing high or low amounts of stearic acid on plasma lipoprotein fractions and fecal fatty acid excretion of men.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, R M; Allman, M A; Iacono, J M

    1995-05-01

    Ten middle-aged males participated in a crossover study to determine the cholesterolemic effect of high amounts of stearic acid in a natural diet. They consumed a 20-d stabilization diet followed by two 40-d intervention diets containing either 1.5% of energy as stearic (18:0) acid and 7.3% of energy as palmitic (16:0) acid (low stearate: LS) or 2.4% of energy as 16:0 and 7.3% of energy as 18:0 (high stearate: HS). The experimental diets also contained approximately 10% of energy each as saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and 7.2-8% of energy as polyunsaturated fatty acids. The primary source of 18:0 in the HS diet was sheanut oil (commercially referred to as shea butter) and palm oil and butter in the LS diet. Plasma total, low-density-lipoprotein, and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly lower with the HS than with the LS diet. Total fecal fatty acid excretion was higher throughout the HS period. Apparent digestibility of the major dietary fatty acids showed that all of the selected fatty acids, except 18:0, were > or = 95% absorbed. These data demonstrate that feeding diets containing about two times the usual amount of stearic acid consumed in the United States, contributed to an increase in plasma lipoprotein concentrations at 40 d from an earlier decrease at 20 d. The time required to achieve stable cholesterol concentrations appears to vary depending on the kind of saturated fatty acids present in the diet.

  10. GROWTH OF LEPTOSPIRA CANICOLA IN THE PRESENCE OF FATTY ACIDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the longer fatty acids, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and Tween 80 showed good growth. Growth was so intense in the case of palmitic acid and...longer permitted reproduction. Most favorable were oleic acid in concentrations of .0001 m and . 00001 m, stearic and palmitic acid at .0001. Tween ... 80 gave good growth, but only in the presence of gelatin, in concentrations of 28.2 to 0.00282 mg%. The best results were achieved at higher concentrations of 28.2 and 2.82 mg%. More than 100 organisms were counted in the field.

  11. Preparation of five 3-MCPD fatty acid esters and the effects of their chemical structures on acute oral toxicity in Swiss mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid esters of 3-monochloro-1, 2-propanediol (3-MCPDEs), including 1-stearic, 1-oleic, 1-linoleic, 1-linoleic-2-palmitic and 1-palmitic-2-linoleic acid esters, were synthetized and examined for their acute oral toxicities in Swiss mice. 3-MCPDEs were obtained through the reaction of 3-MCPD and...

  12. Physicochemical and Mechanical Properties of Bambara Groundnut Starch Films Modified with Stearic Acid.

    PubMed

    Oyeyinka, Samson A; Singh, Suren; Amonsou, Eric O

    2017-01-01

    The physicochemical and mechanical properties of biofilm prepared from bambara starch modified with varying concentrations of stearic acid (0%, 2.5%, 3.5%, 5%, 7%, and 10%) were studied. By scanning electron microscopy, bambara starch films modified with stearic acid (≥3.5%) showed a progressively rough surface compared to those with 2.5% stearic acid and the control. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra revealed a peak shift of approximately 31 cm(-1) , suggesting the promotion of hydrogen bond formation between hydroxyl groups of starch and stearic acid. The addition of 2.5% stearic acid to bambara starch film reduced water vapor permeability by approximately 17%. Bambara starch films modified with higher concentration of stearic acid were more opaque and showed significantly high melting temperatures. However, mechanical properties of starch films were generally negatively affected by stearic acid. Bambara starch film may be modified with 2.5% stearic acid for improved water vapor permeability and thermal stability with minimal effect on tensile strength.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1702 - Sheanut oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Unsaponifiable matter not to exceed 1.5 percent, (4) Free fatty acids not more than 0.1 percent as oleic acid, (5... the Shea tree Butyrospermum parkii and is composed principally of triglycerides containing an oleic acid moiety at the 2-position and saturated fatty acids, usually stearic or palmitic acids, at the...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1702 - Sheanut oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Unsaponifiable matter not to exceed 1.5 percent, (4) Free fatty acids not more than 0.1 percent as oleic acid, (5... the Shea tree Butyrospermum parkii and is composed principally of triglycerides containing an oleic acid moiety at the 2-position and saturated fatty acids, usually stearic or palmitic acids, at the...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1702 - Sheanut oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Unsaponifiable matter not to exceed 1.5 percent, (4) Free fatty acids not more than 0.1 percent as oleic acid, (5... the Shea tree Butyrospermum parkii and is composed principally of triglycerides containing an oleic acid moiety at the 2-position and saturated fatty acids, usually stearic or palmitic acids, at the...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1702 - Sheanut oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Unsaponifiable matter not to exceed 1.5 percent, (4) Free fatty acids not more than 0.1 percent as oleic acid, (5... the Shea tree Butyrospermum parkii and is composed principally of triglycerides containing an oleic acid moiety at the 2-position and saturated fatty acids, usually stearic or palmitic acids, at the...

  17. A new low linolenic acid allele of GmFAD3A gene in soybean PE1690

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relative fatty acid content of soybean oil is about 12 % palmitic acid, 4 % stearic acid, 23 % oleic acid, 54 % linoleic acid, and 8 % linolenic acid. To improve oxidative stability and quality of oil, breeding programs have mainly focused on reducing saturated fatty acids, increasing oleic acid, an...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1702 - Sheanut oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... parkii and is composed principally of triglycerides containing an oleic acid moiety at the 2-position and saturated fatty acids, usually stearic or palmitic acids, at the 1- and 3-positions. (b) The ingredient... percent, (4) Free fatty acids not more than 0.1 percent as oleic acid, (5) Peroxide value not more than...

  19. Shear rigidity of spread stearic acid monolayers on water

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, B.M.; Ketterson, J.B.; Miyano, K.; Kueny, A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of Al/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and Mg/sup 2 +/ ions and of pH on the two-dimensional shear modulus of stearic acid spread on a water substrate was determined. A large shear modulus was displayed by the films when the subphase contained Al/sup 3 +/ and Fe/sup 3 +/ ions at the self buffered pH. With Fe/sup 3 +/ dissolved in the subphase, the film displayed a viscous relaxation when strained but no residual stress was observed. No effect was observed with the Ca/sup 2 +/ or Mg/sup 2 +/. Reducing the pH value in the subphase with the trivalent ions caused the shear modulus to disappear. The observations are interpreted in terms of hydrogen bonding.

  20. Development of the Oleic Acid/Linoleic Acid Ratio in High-Oleic Valencia Market Type Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major fatty acids in peanuts are oleic acid (O), a monounsaturated omega-9, and linoleic acid (L), a polyunsaturated omega-6. Peanuts containing these two fatty acids in a ratio (O/L) above 9 are known as high oleic (HO). Normal oleic (NO) peanuts are those with an O/L ratio less than 9. HO pean...

  1. Oleic acid attenuates trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-mediated inflammatory gene expression in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Meaghan; Gobern, Semone; Martinez, Kristina; Shen, Wan; Reid, Tanya; McIntosh, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The weight loss supplement conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of an equal mixture of trans-10,cis-12 (10,12) and cis-9,trans-11 (9,11) isomers. However, high levels of mixed CLA isomers, or the 10,12 isomer, causes chronic inflammation, lipodystrophy, or insulin resistance. We previously demonstrated that 10,12 CLA decreases de novo lipid synthesis along with the abundance and activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1, a δ-9 desaturase essential for the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Thus, we hypothesized that the 10,12 CLA-mediated decrease in SCD-1, with the subsequent decrease in MUFA, was responsible for the observed effects. To test this hypothesis, 10,12 CLA-treated human adipocytes were supplemented with oleic acid for 12 h to 7 days, and inflammatory gene expression, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and lipid content were measured. Oleic acid reduced inflammatory gene expression in a dose-dependent manner, and restored the lipid content of 10,12 CLA-treated adipocytes without improving insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In contrast, supplementation with stearic acid, a substrate for SCD-1, or 9,11 CLA did not prevent inflammatory gene expression by 10,12 CLA. Notably, 10,12 CLA impacted the expression of several G-protein coupled receptors that was attenuated by oleic acid. Collectively, these data show that oleic acid attenuates 10,12 CLA-induced inflammatory gene expression and lipid content, possibly by alleviating cell stress caused by the inhibition of MUFA needed for phospholipid and neutral lipid synthesis.

  2. Identification and expression of a stearoyl-ACP desaturase gene responsible for oleic acid accumulation in Xanthoceras sorbifolia seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Qiuqi; Li, Rufang; Xia, Xinli; Qin, Xiaowei; Guo, Huihong

    2015-02-01

    Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge is an oilseed tree that grows well on barren lands in dry climate. Its seeds contain a large amount of oil rich in oleic acid (18:1(Δ9)) and linoleic acid (18:2(Δ9, 12)). However, the molecular regulation of oil biosynthesis in X. sorbifolia seeds is poorly understood. Stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD, EC 1.14.99.6) is a plastid-localized soluble desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of stearic acid (18:0) to oleic acid, which plays a key role in determining the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, a full-length cDNA of XsSAD was isolated from developing X. sorbifolia embryos. The XsSAD open reading frame had 1194-bp, encoding a polypeptide of 397 amino acids. XsSAD expression in Escherichia coli cells resulted in increased 18:1(Δ9) level, confirming the biological activity of the enzyme encoded by XsSAD. XsSAD expression in Arabidopsis ssi2 mutants partially restored the morphological phenotype and effectively increased the 18:1(Δ9) level. The levels of other unsaturated fatty acids synthesized with 18:1(Δ9) as the substrate also increased to some degree. XsSAD in X. sorbifolia had a much higher expression in embryos than in leaves and petals. XsSAD expression also correlated well with the oleic acid, unsaturated fatty acid, and total fatty acid levels in developing embryos. These data suggested that XsSAD determined the synthesis of oleic acid and contributed to the accumulation of unsaturated fatty acid and total oil in X. sorbifolia seeds. A preliminary tobacco rattle virus-based virus-induced gene silencing system established in X. sorbifolia can also be helpful for further analyzing the functions of XsSAD and other oil synthesis-related genes in woody plants.

  3. Endogenous methyl palmitate modulates nicotinic receptor-mediated transmission in the superior cervical ganglion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung Wen; Liu, Chao-Zong; Cao, Deshou; Chen, Po-Yi; Chen, Mei-Fang; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Mozayan, Mansoor; Chen, Alex F; Premkumar, Louis S; Torry, Donald S; Lee, Tony J-F

    2008-12-09

    Nitric oxide (NO) is identified as the endothelium-derived relaxing factor and a neurotransmitter with a superfusion bioassay cascade technique. By using a similar technique with rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) as donor tissue and rabbit endothelium-denuded aortic ring as detector tissue, we report here that a vasodilator, which is more potent than NO, is released in the SCG upon field electrical stimulation (FES) or addition of nicotine. Release of this vasodilator was enhanced by arginine analogs, including N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine (a NO synthase inhibitor), suggesting that it is not NO. Analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry identified 2 saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid methyl ester (PAME) and stearic acid methyl ester (SAME), being released from the SCG upon FES in the presence of arginine analogs. Exogenous PAME but not SAME induced significant aortic dilation (EC(50) = 0.19 nM), indicating that PAME is the potent vasodilator. Release of PAME and SAME was significantly diminished in chronically decentralized SCG but not denervated SCG, suggesting the preganglionic origin. Furthermore, release of both fatty acids was calcium- and myosin light chain kinase-dependent, suggesting that both were released from axoplasmic vesicular stores. Electrophysiological studies further demonstrated that PAME but not SAME inhibited nicotine-induced inward currents in cultured SCG and the alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-expressing Xenopus oocytes. Endogenous PAME appears to play a role in modulation of the autonomic ganglionic transmission and to complement the vasodilator effect of NO.

  4. Paliperidone Palmitate Intramuscular 3-Monthly Formulation: A Review in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Yvette N; Keating, Gillian M

    2016-10-01

    A 3-monthly formulation of intramuscular paliperidone palmitate (3-monthly paliperidone palmitate) has recently been approved for the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adult patients in the EU (Trevicta(®)), following earlier approval in the USA (Invega Trinza(®)). This narrative review discusses the clinical use of 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adult patients and summarizes its pharmacological properties. The efficacy of the 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate formulation as a maintenance treatment for schizophrenia has been demonstrated in well designed, phase III trials. Three-monthly paliperidone palmitate was more effective than placebo in delaying time to relapse and reducing relapse rates, and was noninferior to 1-monthly paliperidone palmitate in the proportion of patients that remained relapse-free. The 3-monthly formulation was also more effective than placebo in controlling the symptoms of schizophrenia, whilst not differing significantly from the 1-monthly formulation in terms of symptomatic control. Three-monthly paliperidone palmitate was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with a tolerability profile consistent with that of the 1-monthly formulation. In conclusion, 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate is a useful treatment option for adult patients with schizophrenia who are adequately treated with the 1-monthly formulation, particularly for those who would prefer, or may benefit from, longer dosing intervals.

  5. Oleic acid phase behavior from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Janke, J Joel; Bennett, W F Drew; Tieleman, D Peter

    2014-09-09

    Fatty acid aggregation is important for a number of diverse applications: from origins of life research to industrial applications to health and disease. Experiments have characterized the phase behavior of oleic acid mixtures, but the molecular details are complex and hard to probe with many experiments. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics computer simulations and free energy calculations are used to model oleic acid aggregation. From random dispersions, we observe the aggregation of oleic acid monomers into micelles, vesicles, and oil phases, depending on the protonation state of the oleic acid head groups. Worm-like micelles are observed when all the oleic acid molecules are deprotonated and negatively charged. Vesicles form spontaneously if significant amounts of both neutral and negative oleic acid are present. Oil phases form when all the fatty acids are protonated and neutral. This behavior qualitatively matches experimental observations of oleic acid aggregation. To explain the observed phase behavior, we use umbrella sampling free energy calculations to determine the stability of individual monomers in aggregates compared to water. We find that both neutral and negative oleic acid molecules prefer larger aggregates, but neutral monomers prefer negatively charged aggregates and negative monomers prefer neutral aggregates. Both neutral and negative monomers are most stable in a DOPC bilayer, with implications on fatty acid adsorption and cellular membrane evolution. Although the CG model qualitatively reproduces oleic acid phase behavior, we show that an updated polarizable water model is needed to more accurately predict the shift in pKa for oleic acid in model bilayers.

  6. Wollastonite hybridizing stearic acid as thermal energy storage material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dawei; Yang, Huaming

    2014-11-01

    This paper reported on the preparation of a novel stearic acid (SA)/wollastonite (W) composite as a form-stable phase change material (PCM) for thermal energy-storage (TES) by vacuum impregnation, and especially investigated the effect of the size grade of W on the thermal properties of the SA/W composite. Samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser particle-size analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Natural W (Wr) was classified into four size grades by wet screening. The results indicate that no chemical reaction took place between SA and W, and the SA load in the SA/W composite increased with an increase in the length/diameter (L/D) ratio of the W. The SA/W composite with a W L/D ratio of 22.5 exhibited latent heats of melting and freezing of 58.64 J/g and 56.95 J/g, respectively, which was higher than those of the composite incorporating natural W. We believe that the as-prepared form-stable PCM composite could provide a potential means of TES for the concentrated solar power.

  7. Hydroxy-oleic acid, but not oleic acid, inhibits vascular responsiveness in isolated aortic tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oleic acid (OA) and other fatty acids can become abundant in circulation after air pollution exposure as endogenously released lipolysis byproducts or by entering the body as a component of air pollution. Vascular damage has been observed with OA infusion, but it is not yet estab...

  8. Oleic acid content is responsible for the reduction in blood pressure induced by olive oil.

    PubMed

    Terés, S; Barceló-Coblijn, G; Benet, M; Alvarez, R; Bressani, R; Halver, J E; Escribá, P V

    2008-09-16

    Numerous studies have shown that high olive oil intake reduces blood pressure (BP). These positive effects of olive oil have frequently been ascribed to its minor components, such as alpha-tocopherol, polyphenols, and other phenolic compounds that are not present in other oils. However, in this study we demonstrate that the hypotensive effect of olive oil is caused by its high oleic acid (OA) content (approximately 70-80%). We propose that olive oil intake increases OA levels in membranes, which regulates membrane lipid structure (H(II) phase propensity) in such a way as to control G protein-mediated signaling, causing a reduction in BP. This effect is in part caused by its regulatory action on G protein-associated cascades that regulate adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. In turn, the OA analogues, elaidic and stearic acids, had no hypotensive activity, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that link membrane lipid structure and BP regulation are very specific. Similarly, soybean oil (with low OA content) did not reduce BP. This study demonstrates that olive oil induces its hypotensive effects through the action of OA.

  9. Transfer of oleic acid between albumin and phospholipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.A.; Cistola, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by TC NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted (1- TC)oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles, the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with greater than or equal to80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was greater than or equal to90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The TC NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data.

  10. Maturity Effects on Contamination of High-Oleic Peanut Lots with Normal-Oleic Seeds of a Large Seeded Virginia Type Peanut Variety.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need to segregate high- and normal-oleic peanut seeds has lead to investigations into potential sources of mixing. Previous work in our lab examined the development of in two lines of virginia type seeds, Bailey (normal-oleic) and Spain (high-oleic) for changes in the oleic to linoleic ratios (...

  11. Palmitic Acid in Early Human Development.

    PubMed

    Innis, Sheila M

    2016-09-09

    Palmitic acid (16:0) is a saturated fatty acid present in the diet and synthesized endogenously. Although often considered to have adverse effects on chronic disease in adults, 16:0 is an essential component of membrane, secretory, and transport lipids, with crucial roles in protein palmitoylation and signal molecules. At birth, the term infant is 13-15% body fat, with 45-50% 16:0, much of which is derived from endogenous synthesis in the fetus. After birth, the infant accumulates adipose tissue at high rates, reaching 25% body weight as fat by 4-5 months age. Over this time, human milk provides 10% dietary energy as 16:0, but in unusual triglycerides with 16:0 on the glycerol center carbon. This paper reviews the synthesis and oxidation of 16:0 and possible reasons why the infant is endowed with large amounts of fat and 16:0. The marked deviations in tissues with displacement of 16:0 that can occur in infants fed vegetable oil formulas is introduced. Assuming fetal fatty acid synthesis and the unusual delivery of 16:0 in human milk evolved to afford survival advantage to the neonate, it is timely to question if 16:0 is an essential component of tissue lipids whereby both deficiency and excess are detrimental.

  12. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C.; Ford, Jeffery J.; Lee, John C.; Adamo, Martin L.

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects.

  13. High oleic enhancement of palm olein via enzymatic interesterification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Siew Wai; Huey, Saw Mei

    2009-01-01

    Acidolysis to incorporate oleic acid into refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein (IV 56) using various lipases (enzymes) as catalysts to increase the oleic content of the oil was investigated. Immobilised lipases (lipase PLG, Lipozyme TL IM, Lipozyme RM IM and Novozym 435) and non-immobilised lipase (lipase PL) were used in this study to compare the effectiveness of the selected lipases in catalyzing the reaction to produce a high oleic oil. The results showed that the TAG of OLO/OOL content was increased at least 4 fold and OOO content was increased at least 3 fold when a 5% enzyme load was used. Lipase PL showed the greatest increase in tri-unsaturated triacylglycerols (TAGs) content. A pilot scale experiment conducted using TL IM enzyme, followed by recovery of the oil and fractionation allows the production of oils with varying oleic contents. A high oleic content of 56% was achievable.

  14. Hydrothermal catalytic deoxygenation of palmitic acid over nickel catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Chao; Marin-Flores, Oscar; Davidson, Stephen D.; Li, Tingting; Dong, Tao; Gao, Difeng; Wang, Yong; Garcia-Pérez, Manuel; Chen, Shulin

    2016-02-01

    Fatty acid has recently received considerable interest as a possible precursor for producing renewable hydrocarbon. In this study, we investigated hydrothermal catalytic deoxygenation of palmitic acid to produce paraffin over a Ni/ZrO2 catalyst with no or low-pressure (100 psi) external supply of H2. The results show that the presence of water greatly improved conversion of palmitic acid and paraffin yield. Significant improvement was attributed to the formation of in-situ H2. Without an external H2 supply, a 64.2 C% conversion of palmitic acid was achieved in the presence of water, while only a 17.2 C% conversion was achieved without water. The results also show that the presence of water suppressed the side reactions of palmitic acid, specifically ketonization and esterification. We concluded that, compared with decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation, decarbonylation was the major route for palmitic acid deoxygenation catalyzed by Ni/ZrO2. Varieties of shorter-chain paraffin (C8–C14) were formed through hydrogenolysis, which also produced a considerable amount of CH4. A viable reaction pathway for hydrothermal catalytic deoxygenation of palmitic acid in the presence of Ni/ZrO2 was suggested. The results show that hydrogenolysis and decarbonylation were the major reactions that occurred. This study demonstrates that this hydrothermal catalytic process is a promising approach for producing liquid paraffin (C8–C15) from fatty acids under no or low-pressure H2.

  15. Oviposition response ofLobesia botrana females to long-chain free fatty acids and esters from its eggs.

    PubMed

    Gabel, B; Thiéry, D

    1996-01-01

    Avoidance of occupied ovisposition sites supposes that females perceive information related to their own progency. Fatty acids identified from egg extracts have been reevaluated using a different extraction method, and we have investigated the dose-dependent oviposition response of European grape vine moths (Lobesia botrana) to myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, methyl palmitate, methyl oleate, and ethyl palmitate; all except ethyl palmitate have been identified from eggs ofL. botrana. A methylene dichloride extract of eggs fromL. botrana revealed the presence of saturated free fatty acids (myristic, palmitic, and stearic) and unsaturated acids (palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic) in amounts ranging from 3.9 ng/egg equivalent for myristic acid to 30 ng/egg equivalent for palmitic and oleic acids. The extract also contained traces of methyl palmitate and methyl stearate. The greatest avoidance indexes were observed in response to palmitic, palmitoleic, and oleic acids. All the other compounds tested caused weaker responses. A reduction in the number of eggs laid was observed when moths were exposed to each of the esters applied at 0.3 µg per application spot. Reduction in eggs laid was also observed at a 10-fold higher dose of oleic acid. The present results confirm that general and simple molecules can be involved in the regulation of oviposition site selection and that they may participate in chemical marking of the eggs.

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Noha M.; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M.; Algandaby, Mardi M.; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Noha M; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M; Algandaby, Mardi M; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models.

  18. Identification of the molecular genetic basis of the low palmitic acid seed oil trait in soybean mutant line RG3 and association analysis of molecular markers with elevated seed stearic acid and reduced seed palmitic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid composition of vegetable oil is becoming increasingly critical for the ultimate functionality and utilization in foods and industrial products. Partial chemical hydrogenation of soybean oil increases oxidative stability and shelf life but also results in the introduction of trans fats...

  19. The ratio of oleic-to-stearic acid in the prostate predicts biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study examined lifestyle-related factors that may influence the prognosis of clinically localized prostate cancer, we evaluated the relative impact of obesity and prostatic fatty acid concentrations at diagnosis on risk of biochemical failure following radical prostatectomy. Height and weight w...

  20. Mononuclear phagocyte accumulates a stearic acid derivative during differentiation into macrophages. Effects of stearic acid on macrophage differentiation and Mycobacterium tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Restrepo, Sergio Fabián; Caro, Ana Cecilia; Peláez-Jaramillo, Carlos Alberto; Rojas, Mauricio

    2016-05-01

    The fatty acid composition of monocytes changes substantially during differentiation into macrophages, increasing the proportion of saturated fatty acids. These changes prompted us to investigate whether fatty acid accumulation in the extracellular milieu could affect the differentiation of bystander mononuclear phagocytes. An esterified fatty acid derivative, stearate, was the only fatty acid that significantly increased in macrophage supernatants, and there were higher levels when cells differentiated in the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv or purified protein derivative (PPD). Exogenous stearic acid enhanced the expression of HLA-DR and CD64; there was also accumulation of IL-12, TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-1 α and β and a reduction in MCP-1 and the bacterial load. These results suggested that during differentiation, a derivative of stearic acid, which promotes the process as well as the effector mechanisms of phagocytes against the mycobacterium, accumulates in the cell supernatants.

  1. Dietary stearic acid and risk of cardiovascular disease: intake, sources, digestion, and absorption.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Griel, Amy E; Psota, Tricia L; Gebauer, Sarah K; Zhang, Jun; Etherton, Terry D

    2005-12-01

    Individual FA have diverse biological effects, some of which affect the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the context of food-based dietary guidance designed to reduce CVD risk, fat and FA recommendations focus on reducing saturated FA (SFA) and trans FA (TFA), and ensuring an adequate intake of unsaturated FA. Because stearic acid shares many physical properties with the other long-chain SFA but has different physiological effects, it is being evaluated as a substitute for TFA in food manufacturing. For stearic acid to become the primary replacement for TFA, it is essential that its physical properties and biological effects be well understood.

  2. Polymorphism, crystallinity and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of stearic acid and stearic acid-capric/caprylic triglyceride matrices for production of stable nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Severino, Patrícia; Pinho, Samantha C; Souto, Eliana B; Santana, Maria H A

    2011-08-01

    There is an increasing interest in lipid nanoparticles because of their suitability for several administration routes. Thus, it becomes even more relevant the physicochemical characterization of lipid materials with respect to their polymorphism, lipid miscibility and stability, as well as the assessment of the effect of surfactant on the type and structure of these nanoparticles. This work focuses on the physicochemical characterization of lipid matrices composed of pure stearic acid or of mixtures of stearic acid-capric/caprylic triglycerides, for drug delivery. The lipids were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) in combination with selected surfactants to determine the best solid-to-liquid ratio. Based on the results obtained by DSC and WAXD, the selected qualitative and quantitative composition contributed for the production of stable nanoparticles, since the melting and the tempering processes provided important information on the thermodynamic stability of solid lipid matrices. The best HLB value obtained for stearic acid-capric/caprylic triglycerides was 13.8, achieved after combining these lipids with accepted surfactants (trioleate sorbitan and polysorbate 80 in the ratio of 10:90). The proposed combinations were shown useful to obtain a stable emulsion to be used as intermediate form for the production of lipid nanoparticles.

  3. Olestra ingestion and retinyl palmitate absorption in humans.

    PubMed

    Daher, G C; Cooper, D A; Zorich, N L; King, D; Riccardi, K A; Peters, J C

    1997-08-01

    This study examined the effect of olestra, a zero-calorie fat replacement, on the absorption of retinyl palmitate in humans. After a 30-d adaptation period during which they consumed 10 g olestra/d in potato chips under free-living conditions, 68 healthy male subjects were housed in a metabolic ward and given a single dose of retinyl palmitate (0.33 RDA) containing a trace amount of 3H-retinyl palmitate with a breakfast that contained 0, 8, 20 or 32 g of olestra and about 38 g of triglyceride. Blood was collected at defined intervals for 48 h and plasma analyzed for 3H-retinyl esters by HPLC and liquid scintillation spectrometry. There was no significant effect on retinyl palmitate absorption as determined from the area under the plasma 3H-retinyl esters concentration-time curve. However, an area under the plasma concentration-time curve in the 32-g olestra group that was 81% (mean value) or 70% (median value) of the area under the curve for the placebo group suggested that olestra may have affected retinyl palmitate absorption. Inclusion or exclusion of 13 high responders did not change the results.

  4. Switching away from pipotiazine palmitate: a naturalistic study

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Feras Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: In March 2015, pipotiazine palmitate depot antipsychotic was globally withdrawn due to the shortage of its active ingredient. Thus, all patients receiving this medication had to be switched to an alternative antipsychotic drug. In this study we set to evaluate the process of switching away from pipotiazine palmitate within our clinical service, and its impact on hospitalization. Methods: Demographic and clinical data on patients who were receiving pipotiazine palmitate in Northamptonshire at the time of its withdrawal were anonymously extracted from their electronic records and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 17 patients were switched away from pipotiazine palmitate at the time of its withdrawal, all of whom had a prior history of nonadherence with oral treatment. A total of 14 patients were switched to another depot antipsychotic drug, while three patients chose an oral alternative which they subsequently discontinued resulting in relapse and hospitalization. There was a five-fold increase in mean hospitalization among patients who completed a year after the switch. Conclusion: Switching away from pipotiazine palmitate was associated with significant clinical deterioration in patients who switched to an oral antipsychotic, whereas most patients who switched to another depot treatment maintained stability. Clinicians should exercise caution when switching patients with schizophrenia away from depot antipsychotic drugs, especially in cases of patients with a history of treatment nonadherence who prefer to switch to oral antipsychotics. PMID:28101321

  5. Improvement of efficiency in the enzymatic synthesis of lactulose palmitate.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Claudia; Illanes, Andres; Wilson, Lorena

    2015-04-15

    Sugar esters are considered as surfactants due to its amphiphilic balance that can lower the surface tension in oil/water mixtures. Enzymatic syntheses of these compounds are interesting both from economic and environmental considerations. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of four solvents, temperature, substrate molar ratio, biocatalyst source, and immobilization methodology on the yield and specific productivity of lactulose palmitate monoester synthesis. Lipases from Pseudomonas stutzeri (PsL) and Alcaligenes sp. (AsL), immobilized in porous silica functionalized with octyl groups (adsorption immobilization, OS) and with glyoxyl-octyl groups (both adsorption and covalent immobilization, OGS), were used. The highest lactulose palmitate yields were obtained at 47 °C in acetone, for all biocatalysts, while the best lactulose:palmitic acid molar ratio differed according to the immobilization methodology, being 1:1 for AsL-OGS biocatalyst (20.7 ± 3%) and 1:3 for the others (30-50%).

  6. Oleic acid-derived oleoylethanolamide: A nutritional science perspective.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kate J; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Shearer, Gregory C; West, Sheila G; Reddivari, Lavanya; Jones, Peter J H

    2017-04-04

    The fatty acid ethanolamide oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endogenous lipid mediator derived from the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid. OEA is synthesized from membrane glycerophospholipids and is a high-affinity agonist of the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α). Dietary intake of oleic acid elevates circulating levels of OEA in humans by increasing substrate availability for OEA biosynthesis. Numerous clinical studies demonstrate a beneficial relationship between high-oleic acid diets and body composition, with emerging evidence to suggest OEA may mediate this response through modulation of lipid metabolism and energy intake. OEA exposure has been shown to stimulate fatty acid uptake, lipolysis, and β-oxidation, and also promote food intake control. Future research on high-oleic acid diets and body composition is warranted to confirm these outcomes and elucidate the underlying mechanisms by which oleic acid exerts its biological effects. These findings have significant practical implications, as the oleic acid-derived OEA molecule may be a promising therapeutic agent for weight management and obesity treatment.

  7. Effect of microfluidized and stearic acid modified soy protein in natural rubber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microfluidized and stearic acid modified soy protein aggregates were used to reinforced natural rubber. The size of soy protein particles was reduced with a microfluidizing and ball milling process. Filler size reduction with longer ball milling time tends to increase tensile strength of the rubber ...

  8. Analytical method for studying terahertz vibrations in a stearic acid single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanno, Takenori; Arnold, Stevanus; Asari, Junya; Yodokawa, Shinichi; Kurabayashi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    The anisotropy of terahertz absorption was investigated for a B-form single crystal of stearic acid. A polarized terahertz spectrometer was used to obtain absorption spectra over the range of 1-5 THz. Seven vibrational modes were observed; four exhibited significant angular dependence. Additionally, we demonstrated a simple approach for estimating the angle of the dipole moment for each vibrational mode.

  9. Determination of long chain fatty acids in anaerobic digesters using a rapid non-derivatisation GC-FID method.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles J

    2012-01-01

    A rapid non-derivatisation gas chromatographic (GC) method for quantification of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids was achieved using a flame ionisation detector and a highly polar capillary column at elevated temperature. These long chain fatty acids (LCFA) can accumulate in anaerobic digesters and a simple extraction method was also developed to permit a more rapid sample turn-around time, facilitating more frequent monitoring. The GC method was satisfactory in terms of peak separation, signal response, reproducibility and linearity range. The extraction method achieved recoveries of 103.8, 127.2 and 84.2% for palmitic, stearic and oleic acid respectively. The method was tested on digestate from mesophilic laboratory-scale digesters fed with source-segregated domestic food waste, and showed good repeatability between replicate samples. It was observed that the concentrations of stearic and palmitic acid in digesters routinely supplemented with trace elements were lower in proportion to the applied lipid loading than those without supplementation.

  10. Defective (U-14 C) palmitic acid oxidation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.E.; Norris, B.J.; Brooke, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Compared with normal skeletal muscle, muscle from patients with Duchenne dystrophy had decreased (U-14 C) palmitic acid oxidation. (1-14 C) palmitic acid oxidation was normal. These results may indicate a defect in intramitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

  11. Cysteine aggravates palmitate-induced cell death in hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Xiaobing; Wang, Zhigang; Yao, Tong; Song, Zhenyuan

    2011-01-01

    Aims Lipotoxicity, defined as cell death induced by excessive fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acids, is critically involved in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recent studies report that plasma cysteine concentrations is elevated in the subjects with either alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) or NASH than normal subjects. The present study was conducted to determine if elevation of cysteine could be a deleterious factor in palmitate-induced hepatocyte cell death. Main methods HepG2 and Hep3B cells were treated with palmitate with/without the inclusion of cysteine in the media for 24 hours. The effects of cysteine inclusion on palmitate induced cell death were determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and MTT assay. Oxidative stress was evaluated by intracellular glutathione (GSH) level, malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and DCFH-DA assay. Western blotting was performed to detect the changes of endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress markers: C/EBP homologous transcription factor (CHOP), GRP-78, and phosphorylated c-jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK). Key findings Elevated intracellular cysteine aggravates hepatocytes to palmitate-induced cell death. Enhancement of ER stress, specifically increased activation of JNK pathway, contributed to this cell death process. Significance Increase of plasma cysteine levels, as observed in both ASH and NASH patients, may play a pathological role in the development of the liver diseases. Manipulation of dietary amino acids supplementation could be a therapeutic choice. PMID:22008477

  12. 21 CFR 520.390c - Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. 520.390c Section 520.390c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN.... Not for use in animals that are raised for food production. Must not be used in meat-, egg-, or...

  13. 21 CFR 520.390c - Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. 520.390c Section 520.390c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  14. Effect of amylopectin on the rheological properties of aqueous dispersions of starch-sodium palmitate complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous dispersions of normal and high-amylose corn starch were steam jet cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of sodium palmitate to form amylose inclusion complexes. Partial conversion of complexed sodium palmitate to palmitic acid by addition of acetic acid led to the formation of gels. Bl...

  15. Preparation of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles from amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate complexes by first converting sodium palmitate to silver palmitate by reaction with silver nitrate and then reducing the silver ion to metallic silver. This process produced water solutions that could be dried and the...

  16. Manipulating catalytic pathways: deoxygenation of palmitic acid on multifunctional catalysts.

    PubMed

    Peng, Baoxiang; Zhao, Chen; Kasakov, Stanislav; Foraita, Sebastian; Lercher, Johannes A

    2013-04-08

    The mechanism of the catalytic reduction of palmitic acid to n-pentadecane at 260 °C in the presence of hydrogen over catalysts combining multiple functions has been explored. The reaction involves rate-determining reduction of the carboxylic group of palmitic acid to give hexadecanal, which is catalyzed either solely by Ni or synergistically by Ni and the ZrO2 support. The latter route involves adsorption of the carboxylic acid group at an oxygen vacancy of ZrO2 and abstraction of the α-H with elimination of O to produce the ketene, which is in turn hydrogenated to the aldehyde over Ni sites. The aldehyde is subsequently decarbonylated to n-pentadecane on Ni. The rate of deoxygenation of palmitic acid is higher on Ni/ZrO2 than that on Ni/SiO2 or Ni/Al2O3, but is slower than that on H-zeolite-supported Ni. As the partial pressure of H2 is decreased, the overall deoxygenation rate decreases. In the absence of H2, ketonization catalyzed by ZrO2 is the dominant reaction. Pd/C favors direct decarboxylation (-CO2), while Pt/C and Raney Ni catalyze the direct decarbonylation pathway (-CO). The rate of deoxygenation of palmitic acid (in units of mmol moltotal metal(-1) h(-1)) decreases in the sequence r(Pt black) ≈r(Pd black) >r(Raney Ni) in the absence of H2 . In situ IR spectroscopy unequivocally shows the presence of adsorbed ketene (C=C=O) on the surface of ZrO2 during the reaction with palmitic acid at 260 °C in the presence or absence of H2.

  17. Solid-state interaction of stearic acid with povidone and its effect on dissolution stability of capsules.

    PubMed

    Desai, D; Kothari, S; Huang, M

    2008-04-16

    Capsule formulations of two drugs under development showed slower dissolution upon storage; Drug A, after 2.5 weeks at 40 degrees C/23% RH and 4 weeks at 30 degrees C/60% RH, and Drug B, after 6 weeks at 50 degrees C and 40 degrees C/75% RH. The formulations of both drugs contained povidone as a binder and stearic acid as a lubricant. Replacement of stearic acid by magnesium stearate from the formulation of Drug B, which was selected for further studies, provided rapid dissolution profiles under similar storage conditions with no change occurring on storage. In order to investigate the role of stearic acid further, binary mixtures of stearic acid with the drugs and other excipients used in their respective formulations were prepared and stored at 40 degrees C/75% RH and 50 degrees C. After 1 week of storage, it was observed that povidone and stearic acid mixture formed a transparent, hard, glass-like insoluble substance. It is hypothesized that the substance formed by the interaction can reduce the porosity of the granules and thereby reduces the ingress of the dissolution medium leading to slower dissolution. The infrared (IR) spectra of the glass-like substance showed a slight broadening of the povidone carbonyl band at 1662 cm(-1). The powder X-ray diffraction of the stored mixture showed that the crystallinity of stearic acid was lost. Furthermore, repeated heating and cooling cycles of povidone and stearic acid mixtures in various proportions using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that recrystallization of stearic acid from its melt was strongly affected by the presence of increasing amounts of povidone. Based on the observed solid-state interaction, a combination of stearic and povidone should be avoided for immediate release formulations.

  18. Glyphosate and boron application effects on seed composition and seed boron in glyphosate-resistant soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean seed is a major source of protein and oil in the world. Seed quality is determined by the content of protein and oil. Soybean seed contains five major fatty acids, saturated fatty acids (stearic and palmitic), and unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and linolenic). Both linoleic and li...

  19. 21 CFR 573.637 - Methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12-octadecadienoic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... produce fatty acid methyl esters, which then undergo conjugation to yield methyl esters of octadecadienoic... contain not less than 35 percent of other fatty acid esters composed of oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic... the feed of growing and finishing swine as a source of fatty acids at levels not to exceed 0.6% in...

  20. 21 CFR 573.637 - Methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12-octadecadienoic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... produce fatty acid methyl esters, which then undergo conjugation to yield methyl esters of octadecadienoic... contain not less than 35 percent of other fatty acid esters composed of oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic... the feed of growing and finishing swine as a source of fatty acids at levels not to exceed 0.6% in...

  1. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling protein, oil, and five major fatty acids’ contents in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved seed composition in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) for protein and oil quality is one of the major goals of soybean breeders. A group of genes that act as quantitative traits with their effects can alter protein, oil, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids percentage in soy...

  2. Identification of quantitative trait loci(QTL) controlling important fatty acids in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids play important role in controlling oil quality of peanut. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80%, there are several minor fatty acids accounting for about 20% in peanut oil, such as palmitic acid (PA, C16:0), stearic (S...

  3. Process strategies to maximize lipid accumulations of novel yeast in acid and base treated hydrolyzates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleaginous yeasts can accumulate up to 70% of cell biomass as lipids, predominantly as triacylglycerols. Yeast lipid fatty acid profiles have been reported to be similar to that of vegetable oils and consist primarily of oleic, palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids. This capability provides the oppo...

  4. Process strategies for high titers of lipid production by oleaginous yeasts in undetoxified hydrolyzates of lignocellulosic biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleaginous yeasts can accumulate up to 70% of cell biomass as lipid, predominantly as triacylglycerols. Yeast lipid fatty acid profiles have been reported to be similar to that of vegetable oils and consist primarily of oleic, palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids. This capability provides the oppor...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in the presence of an alkaline...

  6. 21 CFR 573.637 - Methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12-octadecadienoic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contain not less than 35 percent of other fatty acid esters composed of oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12-octadecadienoic acids). 573.637 Section 573.637 Food and Drugs FOOD...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  11. Self-Assembly of Helical Ribbons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    by nonchiral ones (Table 1): NaTC was substituted by a mixture of block copolymer Pluronic F-68 and nonionic sur- factant Tween 80 (in CDLC and LC...ergosterol, lanosterol. ‡A mixture of Tween 80 and Pluronic F-68. §Mixture of the following fatty acids: myristic, palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic, oleic

  12. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Koichi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Rikimaru; Obata, Toru

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  13. Oleic acid-embedded nanoliposome as a selective tumoricidal agent.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sujin; Lee, Sangah; Lee, Hyejin; Yoon, Jaejin; Lee, E K

    2016-10-01

    HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cell), a molecular complex of human α-lactalbumin and oleic acid, is known to have selective cytotoxic activity against certain types of tumors. This cytotoxicity is known to stem from water-insoluble oleic acid. In this study, we manufactured an alternative complex using liposome as an oleic acid delivery vesicle. We named this nanolipoplex LIMLET (LIposome Made LEthal to Tumor cell). The LIMLET vesicle contained approximately 90,200 oleic acid molecules inserted into its lipophilic phospholipid bilayer and had a nominal mean diameter of 127nm. Using a WST-1 assay, its cytotoxicity against two cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer) and A549 (human lung cancer), were tested. The results were compared with that of a normal cell line, Vero (from monkey kidney). We found that (1) LIMLET showed distinctive cytotoxicity against A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas bare liposomes (containing no oleic acid) had no toxicity, even at high concentrations, and (2) LIMLET demonstrated selective, concentration-dependent toxicity against the cancer cells: the LD50 values of MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells were 1.3 and 2.2nM LIMLET, respectively, whereas the LD50 of Vero was 5.7nM. The strength of the tumoricidal effect appeared to stem from the number of oleic acid molecules present. Our result suggests that LIMLET, like HAMLET, is an interesting nanolipoplex that can potentially be developed into tumor treatments.

  14. Physical Inactivity Differentially Alters Dietary Oleate and Palmitate Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Trudel, Guy; Simon, Chantal; Chopard, Angèle; Schoeller, Dale A.; Momken, Iman; Votruba, Susanne B.; Desage, Michel; Burdge, Graham C.; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Normand, Sylvie; Blanc, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE— Obesity and diabetes are characterized by the incapacity to use fat as fuel. We hypothesized that this reduced fat oxidation is secondary to a sedentary lifestyle. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— We investigated the effect of a 2-month bed rest on the dietary oleate and palmitate trafficking in lean women (control group, n = 8) and the effect of concomitant resistance/aerobic exercise training as a countermeasure (exercise group, n = 8). Trafficking of stable isotope–labeled dietary fats was combined with muscle gene expression and magnetic resonance imaging–derived muscle fat content analyses. RESULTS— In the control group, bed rest increased the cumulative [1-13C]oleate and [d31]palmitate appearance in triglycerides (37%, P = 0.009, and 34%, P = 0.016, respectively) and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (37%, P = 0.038, and 38%, P = 0.002) and decreased muscle lipoprotein lipase (P = 0.043) and fatty acid translocase CD36 (P = 0.043) mRNA expressions. Plasma NEFA-to-triglyceride ratios for [1-13C]oleate and [d31]palmitate remained unchanged, suggesting that the same proportion of tracers enters the peripheral tissues after bed rest. Bed rest did not affect [1-13C]oleate oxidation but decreased [d31]palmitate oxidation by −8.2 ± 4.9% (P < 0.0001). Despite a decreased spontaneous energy intake and a reduction of 1.9 ± 0.3 kg (P = 0.001) in fat mass, exercise training did not mitigate these alterations but partially maintained fat-free mass, insulin sensitivity, and total lipid oxidation in fasting and fed states. In both groups, muscle fat content increased by 2.7% after bed rest and negatively correlated with the reduction in [d31]palmitate oxidation (r2 = 0.48, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS— While saturated and monounsaturated fats have similar plasma trafficking and clearance, physical inactivity affects the partitioning of saturated fats toward storage, likely leading to an accumulation of palmitate in muscle fat. PMID:19017764

  15. CO2-Controllable Foaming and Emulsification Properties of the Stearic Acid Soap Systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenlong; Gu, Hongyao; Zhu, Xionglu; Zhong, Yingping; Jiang, Liwen; Xu, Mengxin; Song, Aixin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-06-02

    Fatty acids, as a typical example of stearic acid, are a kind of cheap surfactant and have important applications. The challenging problem of industrial applications is their solubility. Herein, three organic amines-ethanolamine (EA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA)-were used as counterions to increase the solubility of stearic acid, and the phase behaviors were investigated systematically. The phase diagrams were delineated at 25 and 50 °C, respectively. The phase-transition temperature was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements, and the microstructures were vesicles and planar sheets observed by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) observations. The apparent viscosity of the samples was determined by rheological characterizations. The values, rcmc, for the three systems were less than 30 mN·m(-1). Typical samples of bilayers used as foaming agents and emulsifiers were investigated for the foaming and emulsification assays. CO2 was introduced to change the solubility of stearic acid, inducing the transition of their surface activity and further achieving the goal of defoaming and demulsification.

  16. Improvement of β-TCP/PLLA biodegradable material by surface modification with stearic acid.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fengcang; Chen, Sai; Liu, Ping; Geng, Fang; Li, Wei; Liu, Xinkuan; He, Daihua; Pan, Deng

    2016-05-01

    Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) is a biodegradable polymer and used widely. Incorporation of beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) into PLLA can enhance its osteoinductive properties. But the interfacial layer between β-TCP particles with PLLA matrix is easy to be destroyed due to inferior interfacial compatibility of the organic/inorganic material. In this work, a method of β-TCP surface modification with stearic acid was investigated to improve the β-TCP/PLLA biomaterial. The effects of surface modification on the β-TCP were investigated by FTIR, XPS, TGA and CA. It was found that the stearic acid reacted with β-TCP and oxhydryl was formed during the surface modification. Hydrophilicity of untreated or modified β-TCP/PLLA composite was increased by the addition of 10 wt.% β-TCP, but it decreased as the addition amount increased from 10 wt.% to 20 wt.%. Two models were suggested to describe the effect of β-TCP concentration on CA of the composites. Mechanical properties of β-TCP/PLLA composites were tested by bending and tensile tests. Fractures of the composites after mechanical test were observed by SEM. It was found that surface modification with stearic acid improved bending and tensile strengths of the β-TCP/PLLA composites obviously. The SEM results indicated that surface modification decreased the probability of interface debonding between fillers and matrix under load.

  17. Urea biosensors based on PVC membrane containing palmitic acid.

    PubMed

    Karakuş, Emine; Pekyardimci, Sule; Esma, Kiliç

    2005-01-01

    A new urea biosensor was prepared by immobilizing urease with four different procedures on poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) ammonium membrane electrode containing palmitic acid by using nonactine as an ammonium-ionophore. The analytical characteristics were investigated and were compared those of the biosensor prepared by using carboxylated PVC. The effect of pH, buffer concentration, temperature, urease concentration, stirring rate and enzyme immobilization procedures on the response to urea of the enzyme electrode were investigated. The linear working range and sensitivity of the biosensor were also determined. The urea biosensor prepared by using the PVC membranes containing palmitic acid showed more effective performance than those of the carboxylated PVC based biosensors. Additionally, urea assay in serum was successfully carried out by using the standard addition method.

  18. β cells keep bad epigenetic memories of palmitate.

    PubMed

    Fradin, Delphine; Bougnères, Pierre

    2014-06-23

    Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid, a 16-carbon saturated fatty acid (FA), accounts for approximately 38% of the total circulating FA in lean or obese humans. In an article published in BMC Medicine, Hall et al. report that cultured islets from healthy donors, when exposed to palmitate, undergo changes in CpG methylation that are associated with modifications of expression in 290 genes. Their results provide a first look at the mechanisms used by the endocrine pancreas of humans to keep a durable genomic imprint from their exposure to FA that can influence gene expression and possibly cell phenotype in the long term. It is likely that such studies will help understand the epigenetic response of β cells to a disturbed metabolic environment, especially one created by obesity.

  19. Type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases of Brassica napus preferentially incorporate oleic acid into triacylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose; Denolf, Peter; Van Audenhove, Katrien; De Bodt, Stefanie; Engelen, Steven; Fahy, Deirdre; Wallis, James G.; Browse, John

    2015-01-01

    DGAT1 enzymes (acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyse the formation of triacylglycerols (TAGs), the most abundant lipids in vegetable oils. Thorough understanding of the enzymology of oil accumulation is critical to the goal of modifying oilseeds for improved vegetable oil production. Four isoforms of BnDGAT1, the final and rate-limiting step in triacylglycerol synthesis, were characterized from Brassica napus, one of the world’s most important oilseed crops. Transcriptional profiling of developing B. napus seeds indicated two genes, BnDGAT1-1 and BnDGAT1-2, with high expression and two, BnDGAT1-3 and BnDGAT1-4, with low expression. The activities of each BnDGAT1 isozyme were characterized following expression in a strain of yeast deficient in TAG synthesis. TAG from B. napus seeds contain only 10% palmitic acid (16:0) at the sn-3 position, so it was surprising that all four BnDGAT1 isozymes exhibited strong (4- to 7-fold) specificity for 16:0 over oleic acid (18:1) as the acyl-CoA substrate. However, the ratio of 18:1-CoA to 16:0-CoA in B. napus seeds during the peak period of TAG synthesis is 3:1. When substrate selectivity assays were conducted with 18:1-CoA and 16:0-CoA in a 3:1 ratio, the four isozymes incorporated 18:1 in amounts 2- to 5-fold higher than 16:0. This strong sensitivity of the BnDGAT1 isozymes to the relative concentrations of acyl-CoA substrates substantially explains the observed fatty acid composition of B. napus seed oil. Understanding these enzymes that are critical for triacylglycerol synthesis will facilitate genetic and biotechnological manipulations to improve this oilseed crop. PMID:26195728

  20. Type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases of Brassica napus preferentially incorporate oleic acid into triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose; Denolf, Peter; Van Audenhove, Katrien; De Bodt, Stefanie; Engelen, Steven; Fahy, Deirdre; Wallis, James G; Browse, John

    2015-10-01

    DGAT1 enzymes (acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyse the formation of triacylglycerols (TAGs), the most abundant lipids in vegetable oils. Thorough understanding of the enzymology of oil accumulation is critical to the goal of modifying oilseeds for improved vegetable oil production. Four isoforms of BnDGAT1, the final and rate-limiting step in triacylglycerol synthesis, were characterized from Brassica napus, one of the world's most important oilseed crops. Transcriptional profiling of developing B. napus seeds indicated two genes, BnDGAT1-1 and BnDGAT1-2, with high expression and two, BnDGAT1-3 and BnDGAT1-4, with low expression. The activities of each BnDGAT1 isozyme were characterized following expression in a strain of yeast deficient in TAG synthesis. TAG from B. napus seeds contain only 10% palmitic acid (16:0) at the sn-3 position, so it was surprising that all four BnDGAT1 isozymes exhibited strong (4- to 7-fold) specificity for 16:0 over oleic acid (18:1) as the acyl-CoA substrate. However, the ratio of 18:1-CoA to 16:0-CoA in B. napus seeds during the peak period of TAG synthesis is 3:1. When substrate selectivity assays were conducted with 18:1-CoA and 16:0-CoA in a 3:1 ratio, the four isozymes incorporated 18:1 in amounts 2- to 5-fold higher than 16:0. This strong sensitivity of the BnDGAT1 isozymes to the relative concentrations of acyl-CoA substrates substantially explains the observed fatty acid composition of B. napus seed oil. Understanding these enzymes that are critical for triacylglycerol synthesis will facilitate genetic and biotechnological manipulations to improve this oilseed crop.

  1. Removal of Grease from Secondary Effluent by Granular Medium Filtration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-24

    verified using TLC analysis (5, 12). Fatty acids of this composition are oleic, stearic, linoleic, arachridic, lauric , and palmitic, and are the...secondary effluent and oleic acid , wnich was DD I FON 1473 EmnTON OF I NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Whm Dote Entered) SECURITY...sterols, fatty acids , and compound lipids such as phospholids (12). Grease and oil are also referred to as freon extractables because of their

  2. Retinol and Retinyl Palmitate in Foetal Lung Mice: Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Olga; Gonçalves, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the lung retinoids content to study the possible difference between male and female mice during prenatal development and to comprehend if the vitamin A metabolism is similar in both genders. The study occurred between developmental days E15 and E19, and the retinol and retinyl palmitate lung contents were determined by HPLC analysis. We established two main groups: the control, consisting of foetuses obtained from pregnant females without any manipulation, and vitamin A, composed of foetuses from pregnant females submitted to vitamin A administration on developmental day E14. Each of these groups was subdivided by gender, establishing the four final groups. In the lung of control group, retinol was undetected in both genders and retinyl palmitate levels exhibited a sexual dimorphism. In the vitamin A group, we detected retinol and retinyl palmitate in both genders, and we observed a more evident sexual dimorphism for both retinoids. Our study also indicates that, from developmental day E15 to E19, there is an increase in the retinoids content in foetal lung and a gender difference in the retinoids metabolism. In conclusion, there is a sexual dimorphism in the lung retinoids content and in its metabolism during mice development. PMID:23365730

  3. α-Lactalbumin:Oleic Acid Complex Spontaneously Delivers Oleic Acid to Artificial and Erythrocyte Membranes.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hanzhen; Strømland, Øyvind; Halskau, Øyvind

    2015-09-25

    Human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) is a tumoricidal complex consisting of human α-lactalbumin and multiple oleic acids (OAs). OA has been shown to play a key role in the activity of HAMLET and its related complexes, generally known as protein-fatty acid (PFA) complexes. In contrast to what is known about the fate of the protein component of such complexes, information about what happens to OA during their action is still lacking. We monitored the membrane, OA and protein components of bovine α-lactalbumin complexed with OA (BLAOA; a HAMLET-like substance) and how they associate with each other. Using ultracentrifugation, we found that the OA and lipid components follow each other closely. We then firmly identify a transfer of OA from BLAOA to both artificial and erythrocyte membranes, indicating that natural cells respond similarly to BLAOA treatment as artificial membranes. Uncomplexed OA is unable to similarly affect membranes at the conditions tested, even at elevated concentrations. Thus, BLAOA can spontaneously transfer OA to a lipid membrane. After the interaction with the membrane, the protein is likely to have lost most or all of its OA. We suggest a mechanism for passive import of mainly uncomplexed protein into cells, using existing models for OA's effect on membranes. Our results are consistent with a membrane destabilization mediated predominantly by OA insertion being a significant contribution to PFA cytotoxicity.

  4. Oleic Acid: Natural variation and potential enhancement in oilseed crops.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega 9 fatty acid (MUFA, C18:1) which can be found in various plant lipids and animal fats. Unlike omega 3 (a-linolenic acid, C18:3) and omega 6 (linoleic acid, C18:2) fatty acids which are essential because they cannot be synthesized by humans and must be obtained f...

  5. Palmitic acid-rich diet suppresses glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pancreatic islets in mice.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Takumi; Kawai, Toshihide; Hirose, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kumiko; Kurosawa, Hideaki; Fujii, Chikako; Fujita, Haruhisa; Seto, Yoshiko; Matsumoto, Hideo; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to clarify whether dietary palmitic acid supplementation affects glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in pancreatic islets in mice. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three treatment diet groups: control diet, palmitic acid-supplemented diet (PAL) and oleic acid-supplemented diet (OLE). After 2 weeks of treatment, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test were performed. GSIS was assessed by pancreatic perfusion in situ with basal (100 mg/dL) glucose followed by a high (300 mg/dL) glucose concentration. We measured mRNA levels of ER stress markers such as C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (BIP) and X-box binding protein (XBP)-1 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses in isolated islets. Immunohistochemical staining was also performed. Mice fed PAL showed significantly decreased glucose tolerance (p < 0.05). In the perfusion study, GSIS was significantly suppressed in the PAL group (p < 0.05). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that islet CHOP, BIP, and XBP-1 mRNA expression were significantly increased in the PAL group (p < 0.05). TUNEL-positive β-cells were not detected in all groups. Dietary palmitic acid-supplementation for 2 weeks might suppress GSIS and induce ER stress in pancreatic islets in mice, in the early stage of lipotoxicity.

  6. Comparative Proteomic Study of Fatty Acid-treated Myoblasts Reveals Role of Cox-2 in Palmitate-induced Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiulan; Xu, Shimeng; Wei, Shasha; Deng, Yaqin; Li, Yiran; Yang, Fuquan; Liu, Pingsheng

    2016-02-22

    Accumulated studies demonstrate that saturated fatty acids (FAs) such as palmitic acid (PA) inhibit insulin signaling in skeletal muscle cells and monounsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid (OA) reverse the effect of PA on insulin signaling. The detailed molecular mechanism of these opposite effects remains elusive. Here we provide a comparative proteomic study of skeletal myoblast cell line C2C12 that were untreated or treated with PA, and PA plus OA. A total of 3437 proteins were quantified using SILAC in this study and 29 proteins fall into the pattern that OA reverses PA effect. Expression of some these proteins were verified using qRT-PCR and Western blot. The most significant change was cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). In addition to whole cell comparative proteomic study, we also compared lipid droplet (LD)-associated proteins and identified that Cox-2 was one of three major altered proteins under the FA treatment. This finding was then confirmed using immunofluorescence. Finally, Cox-2 selective inhibitor, celecoxib protected cells from PA-reduced insulin signaling Akt phosphorylation. Together, these results not only provide a dataset of protein expression change in FA treatment but also suggest that Cox-2 and lipid droplets (LDs) are potential players in PA- and OA-mediated cellular processes.

  7. Production of Structured Triacylglycerols Containing Palmitic Acids at sn-2 Position and Docosahexaenoic Acids at sn-1, 3 Positions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Guo, Yongli; Sun, Zhaomin; Jie, Xu; Li, Zhaojie; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Xue, Changhu

    2015-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation has been shown well-established health benefits that justify their use as functional ingredients in healthy foods and nutraceutical products. Structured triacylglycerols rich in 1,3-docosahexenoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol were produced from algal oil (Schizochytrium sp) which was prepared by a two-step process. Novozym 435 lipase was used to produce tripalmitin. Tripalmitin was then used to produce the final structured triacylglycerol (STAG) through interesterification reactions using Lipozyme RM IM. The optimum conditions for the enzymatic reaction were a mole ratio of tripalmitin/fatty acid ethyl esters 1:9, 60°C, 10% enzyme load (wt % of substrates), 10 h; the enzymatic product contained 51.6% palmitic acid (PA), 30.13% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3) and 5.33% docosapentanoic acid (DPA, C22:5 n-3), 12.15% oleic acid (OLA). This STAG can be used as a functional ingredient in dietary supplementation to provide the benefits of DHA.

  8. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  9. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  10. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  11. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  12. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as a component in the manufacture of...

  13. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  14. Simultaneous analysis of glycolipids and phospholids molecular species in avocado (Persea americana Mill) fruit.

    PubMed

    Pacetti, Deborah; Boselli, Emanuele; Lucci, Paolo; Frega, Natale G

    2007-05-25

    The molecular species of phospholipids (PLs) and glycolipids (GLs) were simultaneously characterized in the pulp and almond of the avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill) of four varieties by means of high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry. In the pulp, the predominant species of monoglycosyldiglycerides (MGD) were m/z 796.6 (oleic/linolenic and linoleic/linoleic acids) and m/z 800.4 (stearic/linoleic and oleic/oleic acids). One of the main diglycosyldiglycerides (DGD) both in the pulp and almond was m/z 958.5 (oleic/linolenic); however, the pulp was also rich of m/z 962.4 (oleic/oleic), whereas in the almond, m/z 934.5 (palmitic/linoleic and palmitoleic/oleic) and m/z 960.5 (oleic/linoleic and stearic/linolenic) were more abundant. In the almond, the main PL classes (phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI)) contained always palmitic/linoleic acids. Alpha-linolenic acid was contained as MGD (linolenic/linolenic) and DGD (linolenic/linolenic), more present in the pulp than in the almond. The major molecular species of glycocerebrosides (GCer) in the pulp and almond carried hydroxy-palmitic acid (C(16h:0))/4,8-sphyngadienine (d(18:2)).

  15. Antitumor activity of palmitic acid found as a selective cytotoxic substance in a marine red alga.

    PubMed

    Harada, Hideki; Yamashita, Uki; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Fukushi, Eri; Kawabata, Jun; Kamei, Yuto

    2002-01-01

    In a previous report, we discussed an extract from a marine red alga, Amphiroa zonata, which shows selective cytotoxic activity to human leukemic cells, but no cytotoxicity to normal human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells in vitro. In this study, we identified palmitic acid, a selective cytotoxic substance from the marine algal extract, and investigated its biological activities. At concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 50 micrograms/ml, palmitic acid shows selective cytotoxicity to human leukemic cells, but no cytotoxicity to normal HDF cells. Furthermore, palmitic acid induces apoptosis in the human leukemic cell line MOLT-4 at 50 micrograms/ml. Palmitic acid also shows in vivo antitumor activity in mice. One molecular target of palmitic acid in tumor cells is DNA topoisomerase I, however, interestingly, it does not affect DNA topoisomerase II, suggesting that palmitic acid may be a lead compound of anticancer drugs.

  16. Variation of unsaturated fatty acids in soybean sprout of high oleic acid accessions.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Krishna Hari; Jung, Ki-Hwal; Chae, Jong-Hyun; Shannon, J Grover; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Oleic acid and oleic acid rich foods may have beneficial health effects in humans. Soybeans with high oleic acid (around 80% in seed oil) have been developed. Soybean sprouts are an important vegetable in Korea, Japan and China. The objective of this study was to investigate the variation of unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids, in sprouts from soybeans with normal and high oleic acid concentration. Twelve soybean accessions with six high oleic acid lines, three parents of high oleic acid lines, and three checks with normal and high oleic acid concentration were used in this study. The unsaturated fatty acid concentration in sprouts from each genotype was similar to the concentration in the ungerminated seed. The oleic acid concentration in the sprouts of high oleic acid lines (up to 80%) was still high (>70%) compared to the ungerminated seed. Thus, high oleic soybean varieties developed for sprout production could add valuable health benefits to sprouts and the individuals who consume this vegetable.

  17. Palmitate Inhibits SIRT1-Dependent BMAL1/CLOCK Interaction and Disrupts Circadian Gene Oscillations in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xin; Zhang, Deqiang; Arthurs, Blake; Li, Pei; Durudogan, Leigh; Gupta, Neil; Yin, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of serum saturated fatty acid palmitate have been shown to promote insulin resistance, increase cellular ROS production, and trigger cell apoptosis in hepatocytes during the development of obesity. However, it remains unclear whether palmitate directly impacts the circadian clock in hepatocytes, which coordinates nutritional inputs and hormonal signaling with downstream metabolic outputs. Here we presented evidence that the molecular clock is a novel target of palmitate in hepatocytes. Palmitate exposure at low dose inhibits the molecular clock activity and suppresses the cyclic expression of circadian targets including Dbp, Nr1d1 and Per2 in hepatocytes. Palmitate treatment does not seem to alter localization or reduce protein expression of BMAL1 and CLOCK, the two core components of the molecular clock in hepatocytes. Instead, palmitate destabilizes the protein-protein interaction between BMAL1-CLOCK in a dose and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we showed that SIRT1 activators could reverse the inhibitory action of palmitate on BMAL1-CLOCK interaction and the clock gene expression, whereas inhibitors of NAD synthesis mimic the palmitate effects on the clock function. In summary, our findings demonstrated that palmitate inhibits the clock function by suppressing SIRT1 function in hepatocytes. PMID:26075729

  18. [Fatty acids profile characterization of white maize hybrids grown in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Alezones, Jesús; Avila, Manuel; Chassaigne, Alberto; Barrientos, Venancio

    2010-12-01

    In Venezuela, white corn is the most important crop regarding production, harvest area and consumption. One of its main by-products is corn oil, whose positive effect on health caused by the high content of unsaturated fatty acids has been widely recognized. In order to characterize the fatty acids profile of twelve white grained maize hybrids extensively grown in Venezuela, and the effect that divergent localities has on this profile, three semi commercial scale trials where established in Portuguesa, Yaracuy and Guárico states. Proportions of the main fatty acids in the raw oil of the different grain samples were determined using gas chromatography. Significant differences (p < 0,01) between hybrids were found for arachidic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, gadoleic and linoleic acids; non significant differences were found for linolenic acid. Significant differences between localities were found for all the fatty acids evaluated. High and significant correlations between fatty acids content were found; the most important relations were: linoleic-oleic (Rho = -0,98**), arachidic-palmitic (Rho = -0,61**), linoleic-stearic (Rho = -0,61**) and oleic-stearic (Rho = 0,58**). Corn produced in Venezuela presents lower levels of linoleic and higher levels of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids than the levels found in temperate corn. These differences involve significant changes in the nutritional properties of Venezuelan corn oil that should be considered in the development of new cultivars and industrial processes for oil production.

  19. Oleic acid-induced mucosal injury in developing piglet intestine.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, O R; Henninger, K; Fowler, M; Tso, P; Crissinger, K D

    1993-03-01

    A role for luminal nutrients, in particular products of lipid digestion, in the pathogenesis of mucosal injury to developing intestine has been postulated. We evaluated changes in mucosal permeability and light and electron microscopic histology induced by luminal perfusion with the long-chain fatty acid oleate in developing piglet intestine as a function of age and concentration of the fatty acid. 51Cr-labeled EDTA plasma-to-lumen clearance was measured in jejunum and ileum of 1-day-, 3-day-, 2-wk-, and 1-mo-old piglets during sequential perfusion with saline control (20 min); 0, 1, 5, and 10 mM oleic acid/10 mM taurocholate in saline (20 min); and normal saline (60 min). The jejunum of piglets < or = 2 wk showed significantly greater increases in mucosal permeability compared with 1-mo-old animals after perfusion with oleic acid. This effect was dependent on the luminal concentration of the fatty acid and was associated with mucosal injury evident under light and electron microscopy. In contrast, the overall response in ileum was more attenuated compared with jejunum. Thus oleic acid, a common dietary fatty acid, induces dose- and age-dependent injury in developing piglet intestine. Investigation of the mechanisms of this injury may provide the basis for dietary modifications directed at decreasing the risk of mucosal injury during enteral feeding in neonatal intestine.

  20. Oleic acid-based gemini surfactants with carboxylic acid headgroups.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Umemoto, Naoki; Matsuda, Wataru; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Anionic gemini surfactants with carboxylic acid headgroups have been synthesized from oleic acid. The hydrocarbon chain is covalently bound to the terminal carbonyl group of oleic acid via an ester bond, and the carboxylic acid headgroups are introduced to the cis double bond of oleic acid via disuccinyl units. The surfactants exhibit pH-dependent protonation-deprotonation behavior in aqueous solutions. In alkaline solutions (pH 9 in the presence of 10 mmol dm(-3) NaCl as the background electrolyte), the surfactants can lower the surface tension as well as form molecular assemblies, even in the region of low surfactant concentrations. Under acidic (pH 3) or neutral (pH 6-7) conditions, the surfactants are intrinsically insoluble in aqueous media and form a monolayer at the air/water interface. In this study, we have investigated physicochemical properties such as the function of the hydrocarbon chain length by means of static surface tension, pyrene fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, surface pressure-area isotherms, and infrared external reflection measurements.

  1. Growth and Dissolution of Calcite in the Presence of Adsorbed Stearic Acid.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Maria; Segura, Juan José; Erickson, Blake W; Fantner, Georg; Stellacci, Francesco; Voïtchovsky, Kislon

    2015-07-14

    The interaction of organic molecules with the surface of calcite plays a central role in many geochemical, petrochemical, and industrial processes and in biomineralization. Adsorbed organics, typically fatty acids, can interfere with the evolution of calcite when immersed in aqueous solutions. Here we use atomic force microscopy in liquid to explore in real-time the evolution of the (1014) surface of calcite covered with various densities of stearic acid and exposed to different saline solutions. Our results show that the stearic acid molecules tend to act as "pinning points" on the calcite's surface and slow down the crystal's restructuring kinetics. Depending on the amount of material adsorbed, the organic molecules can form monolayers or bilayer islands that become embedded into the growing crystal. The growth process can also displaces the organic molecules and actively concentrate them into stacked multilayers. Our results provide molecular-level insights into the interplay between the adsorbed fatty acid molecules and the evolving calcite crystal, highlighting mechanisms that could have important implications for several biochemical and geochemical processes and for the oil industry.

  2. [THE EXCESS OF PALMITIC FATTY ACID IN FOOD AS MAIN CAUSE OF LIPOIDOSIS OF INSULIN-DEPENDENT CELLS: SKELETAL MYOCYTES, CARDIO-MYOCYTES, PERIPORTAL HEPATOCYTES, KUPFFER MACROPHAGES AND B-CELLS OF PANCREAS].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N

    2016-02-01

    In phylogenesis, becoming of biologicalfunctions and biological reactions proceeds with the purpose ofpermanent increasing of "kinetic perfection ". The main role belongs to factors ofphysical, chemical and biological kinetics, their evaluation using systemic approach technique under permanent effect of natural selection. The late-in-phylogenesis insulin, proceeded with, in development of biological function of locomotion, specialization of insulin-dependent cells: skeletal myocytes, syncytium of cardiomyocytes, subcutaneous adipocytes, periportal hepatocytes, Kupffer's macrophages and β-cells of islets of pancreas. The insulin initiated formation of new, late in phylogenesis, large pool of fatty cells-subcutaneous adipocytes that increased kinetic parameters of biological function of locomotion. In realization of biological function of locomotion only adipocytes absorb exogenous mono unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the form of triglycerides in composition of oleic and palmitic lipoproteins of very low density using apoE/B-100 endocytosis. The rest of insulin-dependent cells absorb fatty acids in the form of unesterified fatty acids from associates with albumin and under effect of CD36 of translocase offatty acids. The insulin in all insulin-depended cells inhibits biological reaction of lipolysis enhancing contributing into development of lipoidosis. The insulin expresses transfer offatty acids in the form of unsaturated fatty acids from adipocytes into matrix of mitochondria. The insulin supplies insulin-dependent cells with substrates for acquiring energy subject to that in pool of unsaturated fatty acids in adipocytes prevails hydrophobic palmitic unsaturated fatiy acid that slowly passes into matrix through external membrane ofmitochondria; oxidases of mitochondria so slowly implement its β-oxidation that content of exogenous palmitic unsaturatedfatty acid can't be higher than phylogenetic, physiological level - 15% of all amount offatty acids

  3. Retinyl palmitate flexible polymeric nanocapsules: characterization and permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Zaine; Zanchetta, Beatriz; Melo, Bruna A G; Oliveira, Luciana L; Santana, Maria H A; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Justo, Giselle Z; Nader, Helena B; Guterres, Sílvia S; Durán, Nelson

    2010-11-01

    Polymeric nanocapsules with elastic characteristics were prepared by the pre-formed polymer interfacial deposition method. The system consists of an oily core of retinyl palmitate with Span 60 and a polymeric wall of poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA). A narrow size distribution (215 nm, P.D.I. 0.10) was showed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) analyses. Particle deformability was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and permeation of the particles through two superposed membranes of smaller pore diameters. Permeation studies were achieved using plastic surgery abdominal human skin by Franz diffusion cell. Retinyl palmitate permeates into deep skin layers. Besides, a PLA fluorescent derivative conjugated with Nile blue dye by an amide covalent bound was additionally obtained. Permeation profile of the nanocapsules with the fluorescent polymer was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The CLSM showed that nanocapsules were distributed uniformly, suggesting that the permeation mechanism through skin is intercellular. Thus, the use of these nanocapsules may be a feasible strategy to enhance the permeation of actives into the skin when delivery to deep layers is aimed.

  4. A simple sonochemical method for fabricating poly(methyl methacrylate)/stearic acid phase change energy storage nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guxia; Xu, Weibing; Hou, Qian; Guo, Shengwei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, stearic acid suitable for thermal energy storage applications was nanoencapsulated in a poly(methyl methacrylate) shell. The nanocapsules were prepared using a simple ultrasonically initiated in situ polymerization method. The morphology and particle size of the poly(methyl methacrylate)/stearic acid phase change energy storage nanocapsules (PMS-PCESNs) were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The latent heat storage capacities of stearic acid and the PMS-PCESNs were determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The chemical composition of the nanocapsules was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. All of the results show that the PMS-PCESNs were synthesized successfully and that the latent heat storage capacity and encapsulation efficiency were 155.6 J/g and 83.0%, respectively, and the diameter of each nanocapsule was 80-90 nm.

  5. An investigation of the likely role of (O-acyl) ω-hydroxy fatty acids in meibomian lipid films using (O-oleyl) ω-hydroxy palmitic acid as a model.

    PubMed

    Schuett, Burkhardt S; Millar, Thomas J

    2013-10-01

    (O-acyl) ω-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFAs) are a recently found group of polar lipids in meibum. Since these lipids can potentially serve as a surfactant in the tear film lipid layer, the surface properties of a molecule of this lipid class was investigated and compared with a structurally related wax ester and a fatty acid. (O-oleyl) ω-hydroxy palmitic acid was synthesized and used as the model OAHFA. It was spread either alone or mixed with human meibum on an artificial tear buffer in a Langmuir trough, and pressure-area isocycle profiles were recorded at different temperatures and compared with those of palmityl oleate and oleic acid. These measurements were accompanied by fluorescence microscopy of meibum mixed films during pressure-area isocycles. The pressure area curves indicated that pure films of the model OAHFA are as surface active as oleic acid films, cover a much larger surface area than either palmityl oleate or oleic acid and show a distinct biphasic pressure-area isocycle profile. The OAHFAs appeared to remain on the aqueous surface and show only a minor re-arrangement into multi-layered structures during repetitive pressure area isocycles. All these properties can be explained by OAHFAs binding weakly to the aqueous surface via an ester group and strongly via a carboxyl group. By contrast, the pressure area profiles of palmityl oleate films indicate that they form multi-layers and oleic acid presumably forms micelles and desorbs into the subphase. When mixed with meibum, similar features as for pure films were observed. In addition, meibum-OAHFA films appeared very homogeneous; a feature not seen with other mixtures. In conclusion these data support the notion that the tested OAHFA is a very potent surfactant which is important in spreading and stabilising meibomian lipid films.

  6. New alleles of FATB-1A to reduce palmitic acid levels in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wild-type soybeans, palmitic acid typically constitutes 10% of the total seed oil. Palmitic acid is a saturated fat linked to increased cholesterol levels, and reducing levels of saturated fats in soybean oil has been a breeding target. To identify novel and useful variation that could help in re...

  7. Studies on the fate of labelled palmitic acid in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Miras, F; Hernandez, J; de la Higuera Torres, J; Nuñez, J; Martin, A; de la Higuera Rojas, J

    1983-01-01

    1. Pulmonary palmitic acid metabolism was studied in rats in basal conditions and after experimental talcosis. 2. Palmitic acid was rapidly incorporated into phospholipids and stored in the form of esterified cholesterol. 3. During the experiment a de novo synthesis of triglycerides was not detected.

  8. 78 FR 73200 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Paliperidone Palmitate Extended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... Recommendations for Paliperidone Palmitate Extended-Release Injectable Suspension; Availability AGENCY: Food and... extended-release injectable suspension. DATES: Although you can comment on any guidance at any time (see 21... paliperidone palmitate extended-release injectable suspension. New drug application 022264 for INVEGA...

  9. Beta-palmitate - a natural component of human milk in supplemental milk formulas.

    PubMed

    Havlicekova, Zuzana; Jesenak, Milos; Banovcin, Peter; Kuchta, Milan

    2016-03-17

    The composition and function of human milk is unique and gives a basis for the development of modern artificial milk formulas that can provide an appropriate substitute for non-breastfed infants. Although human milk is not fully substitutable, modern milk formulas are attempting to mimic human milk and partially substitute its complex biological positive effects on infants. Besides the immunomodulatory factors from human milk, research has been focused on the composition and structure of human milk fat with a high content of β-palmitic acid (sn-2 palmitic acid, β-palmitate). According to the available studies, increasing the content of β-palmitate added to milk formulas promotes several beneficial physiological functions. β-palmitate positively influences fatty acid metabolism, increases calcium absorption, improves bone matrix quality and the stool consistency, and has a positive effect on the development of the intestinal microbiome.

  10. Enhanced phagocytosis of group A streptococci M type 6 by oleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Speert, D.P.; Quie, P.G.; Wannamaker, L.W.

    1981-04-01

    M protein, located on the surface fimbriae of group A streptococci, is antiphagocytic by unknown means. It is known that oleic acid kills group A streptococci and distorts the fimbriae. The effect of oleic acid on phagocytosis of group A streptococci was examined. Phagocytosis of a strain possessing M protein (M+) and its M- variant was assessed by uptake of radiolabeled bacteria and by chemiluminescence. The M- but not the M+ streptococci were well phagocytized and induced chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed and heat-killed streptococci (both M+ and M-) were readily phagocytized and induced sustained chemiluminescence. M+ streptococci killed by ultraviolet irradiation were inefficiently phagocytized and did not induce chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed M+ streptococci absorbed type-specific antibody. An extract of M protein reduced the bactericidal capacity of oleic acid. It is proposed that oleic acid may bind to and alter the M protein of group A streptococci and thereby enhance phagocytosis.

  11. SN2-Palmitate Reduces Fatty Acid Excretion in Chinese Formula-fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Lifshitz, Yael; Cohen, Tzafra; Malard, Patrice; Xu, Chungdi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Palmitic acid (PA) comprises 17% to 25% of human milk fatty acids, of which 70% to 75% are esterified to the SN2 position of the triglyceride (SN2-palmitate). In vegetable oils, which are commonly used in infant formulas, palmitate is primarily esterified to other positions, resulting in reduced calcium and fat absorption and hard stools. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of SN2-palmitate on nutrient excretion. Methods: In total, 171 Chinese infants were included (within 14 days of birth) in this multicenter study. Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive either SN2-palmitate formula (INFAT, n = 57) or control formula (n = 57). The formulas (Biostime, China) differed only in their SN2 PA proportions. Stool was collected at 6 postnatal weeks. Results: The stool dry weight and fat content of the SN2-palmitate group were lower compared with the control group (dry weight 4.25 g vs 7.28 g, P < 0.05; fat 0.8 g vs 1.2 g, P < 0.05). The lipid component was also significantly lower for the SN2-palmitate group (0.79 g vs 1.19 g, P < 0.05). PA, representing ∼50% of the saponified fatty acids, was significantly lower in the SN2-palmitate group compared with the control group (0.3 g vs 0.7 g, P < 0.01). Breast-fed infants had a significantly lower stool dry weight, fat content, and saponified fat excretion compared with formula-fed infants (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Similar to breast milk, the SN2-palmitate infant formula primarily reduced calcium-saponified fat excretion. The results of this study further emphasize the nutritional importance of SN2-palmitate structured fat for infants. PMID:26334255

  12. Effect of processing methods on the mechanical properties of natural rubber filled with stearic acid modified soy protein particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural rubber was reinforced with stearic acid modified soy protein particles prepared with a microfluidizing and ball milling process. Longer ball milling time tends to increase tensile strength of the rubber composites. Elastic modulus of the composites increased with the increasing filler concen...

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Canola Oil-Stearic Acid-Based Trans-Free Structured Lipids for Possible Margarine Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation of stearic acid into canola oil to produce trans-free structured lipid (SL) as a healthy alternative to partially hydrogenated fats for margarine formulation was investigated. Response surface methodology was used to study the effects of lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei and Candi...

  14. Oleic acid increases intestinal absorption of the BCRP/ABCG2 substrate, mitoxantrone, in mice.

    PubMed

    Aspenström-Fagerlund, Bitte; Tallkvist, Jonas; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar; Glynn, Anders W

    2015-09-02

    The efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) decrease intestinal absorption of many food toxicants. Oleic acid increases absorption of the specific BCRP substrate mitoxantrone (MXR), and also BCRP gene expression in human intestinal Caco-2 cells, suggesting that oleic acid affect the BCRP function. Here, we investigated the effect of oleic acid on intestinal absorption of MXR in mice. Mice were orally dosed with 2.4g oleic acid/kg b.w. and 1mg MXR/kg b.w., and sacrificed 30, 60, 90 or 120min after exposure, or were exposed to 0.6, 2.4 or 4.8g oleic acid/kg b.w. and 1mg MXR/kg b.w., and sacrificed 90min after exposure. Mice were also treated with Ko143 together with MXR and sacrificed after 60min, as a positive control of BCRP-mediated effects on MXR absorption. Absorption of MXR increased after exposure to oleic acid at all doses, and also after exposure to Ko143. Intestinal BCRP gene expression tended to increase 120min after oleic acid exposure. Our results in mice demonstrate that oleic acid decreases BCRP-mediated efflux, causing increased intestinal MXR absorption in mice. These findings may have implications in humans, concomitantly exposed to oleic acid and food contaminants that, similarly as MXR, are substrates of BCRP.

  15. Palmitic Acid Reduces Circulating Bone Formation Markers in Obese Animals and Impairs Osteoblast Activity via C16-Ceramide Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Alsahli, Ahmad; Kiefhaber, Kathryn; Gold, Tziporah; Muluke, Munira; Jiang, Hongfeng; Cremers, Serge; Schulze-Späte, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    Obesity and impaired lipid metabolism increase circulating and local fatty acid (FA) levels. Our previous studies showed that a high high-saturated -fat diet induced greater bone loss in mice than a high high-unsaturated-fat diet due to increased osteoclast numbers and activity. The impact of elevated FA levels on osteoblasts is not yet clear. We induced obesity in 4 week old male mice using a palmitic acid (PA)- or oleic acid (OA)-enriched high fat high-fat diet (HFD) (20 % of calories from FA), and compared them to mice on a normal (R) caloric diet (10 % of calories from FA). We collected serum to determine FA and bone metabolism marker levels. Primary osteoblasts were isolated; cultured in PA, OA, or control (C) medium; and assessed for mineralization activity, gene expression, and ceramide levels. Obese animals in the PA and OA groups had significantly lower serum levels of bone formation markers P1NP and OC compared to normal weight animals (*p < 0.001), with the lowest marker levels in animals on an PA-enriched HFD (*p < 0.001). Accordingly, elevated levels of PA significantly reduced osteoblast mineralization activity in vitro (*p < 0.05). Elevated PA intake significantly increased C16 ceramide accumulation. This accumulation was preventable through inhibition of SPT2 (serine palmitoyl transferase 2) using myriocin. Elevated levels of PA reduce osteoblast function in vitro and bone formation markers in vivo. Our findings suggest that saturated PA can compromise bone health by affecting osteoblasts, and identify a potential mechanism through which obesity promotes bone loss.

  16. Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of dietary triacylglycerols does not affect insulin secretion or glucose homeostasis in healthy men and women

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, A; Teng, K-T; Berry, S E; Sanders, T A B

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: Dietary triacylglycerols containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose. Subjects/Methods: We used a cross-over designed feeding trial in 53 healthy Asian men and women (20–50 years) to test this hypothesis by exchanging 20% energy of palm olein (PO; control) with randomly interesterified PO (IPO) or high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS). After a 2-week run-in period on PO, participants were fed PO, IPO and HOS for 6 week consecutively in randomly allocated sequences. Fasting (midpoint and endpoint) and postprandial blood at the endpoint following a test meal (3.54 MJ, 14 g protein, 85 g carbohydrate and 50 g fat as PO) were collected for the measurement of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, lipids and apolipoproteins; pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were postprandial changes in C-peptide and plasma glucose. Results: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.3 mmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) 0.1, 0.5; P<0.001) lower on HOS than on PO or IPO as predicted, indicating good compliance to the dietary intervention. There were no significant differences (P=0.58) between diets among the 10 male and 31 female completers in the incremental area under the curve (0–2 h) for C-peptide in nmol.120 min/l: GM (95% CI) were PO 220 (196, 245), IPO 212 (190, 235) and HOS 224 (204, 244). Plasma glucose was 8% lower at 2 h on IPO vs PO and HOS (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position does not adversely impair insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25052227

  17. Oleic acid coated magnetic nano-particles: Synthesis and characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Biswajit Goyal, P. S.

    2015-06-24

    Magnetic nano particles of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} coated with oleic acid were synthesized using wet chemical route, which involved co-precipitation of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions. The nano particles were characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, TGA and VSM. X-ray diffraction studies showed that nano particles consist of single phase Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} having inverse spinel structure. The particle size obtained from width of Bragg peak is about 12.6 nm. TEM analysis showed that sizes of nano particles are in range of 6 to 17 nm with a dominant population at 12 - 14 nm. FTIR and TGA analysis showed that -COOH group of oleic acid is bound to the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles and one has to heat the sample to 278° C to remove the attached molecule from the surface. Further it was seen that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles exhibit super paramagnetism with a magnetization of about 53 emu/ gm.

  18. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  19. The saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, induces anxiety-like behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Morgan L.; Joesting, Jennifer J.; Lawson, Marcus A.; Chiu, Gabriel S.; Blevins, Neil A.; Kwakwa, Kristin A.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Excess fat in the diet can impact neuropsychiatric functions by negatively affecting cognition, mood and anxiety. We sought to show that the free fatty acid (FFA), palmitic acid, can cause adverse biobehaviors in mice that lasts beyond an acute elevation in plasma FFAs. Methods Mice were administered palmitic acid or vehicle as a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Biobehaviors were profiled 2 and 24 hrs after palmitic acid treatment. Quantification of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT) and their major metabolites was performed in cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. FFA concentration was determined in plasma. Relative fold change in mRNA expression of unfolded protein response (UPR)-associated genes was determined in brain regions. Results In a dose-dependent fashion, palmitic acid rapidly reduced mouse locomotor activity by a mechanism that did not rely on TLR4, MyD88, IL-1, IL-6 or TNFα but was dependent on fatty acid chain length. Twenty-four hrs after palmitic acid administration mice exhibited anxiety-like behavior without impairment in locomotion, food intake, depressive-like behavior or spatial memory. Additionally, the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA was increased by 33% in the amygdala 24 hrs after palmitic acid treatment. Conclusions Palmitic acid induces anxiety-like behavior in mice while increasing amygdala-based serotonin metabolism. These effects occur at a time point when plasma FFA levels are no longer elevated. PMID:25016520

  20. Investigation of the Interaction of Naringin Palmitate with Bovine Serum Albumin: Spectroscopic Analysis and Molecular Docking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Li, Lin; Xu, Zhenbo; Liang, Zhili; Su, Jianyu; Huang, Jianrong; Li, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine serum albumin (BSA) contains high affinity binding sites for several endogenous and exogenous compounds and has been used to replace human serum albumin (HSA), as these two compounds share a similar structure. Naringin palmitate is a modified product of naringin that is produced by an acylation reaction with palmitic acid, which is considered to be an effective substance for enhancing naringin lipophilicity. In this study, the interaction of naringin palmitate with BSA was characterised by spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings The goal of this study was to investigate the interactions between naringin palmitate and BSA under physiological conditions, and differences in naringin and naringin palmitate affinities for BSA were further compared and analysed. The formation of naringin palmitate-BSA was revealed by fluorescence quenching, and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) was found to decrease with increasing temperature, suggesting that a static quenching mechanism was involved. The changes in enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) for the interaction were detected at −4.11±0.18 kJ·mol−1 and −76.59±0.32 J·mol−1·K−1, respectively, which indicated that the naringin palmitate-BSA interaction occurred mainly through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond formation. The negative free energy change (ΔG) values of naringin palmitate at different temperatures suggested a spontaneous interaction. Circular dichroism studies revealed that the α-helical content of BSA decreased after interacting with naringin palmitate. Displacement studies suggested that naringin palmitate was partially bound to site I (subdomain IIA) of the BSA, which was also substantiated by the molecular docking studies. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, naringin palmitate was transported by BSA and was easily removed afterwards. As a consequence, an extension of naringin applications for use in food, cosmetic and medicinal

  1. Anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of methyl palmitate

    SciTech Connect

    El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2011-08-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) has been shown earlier to inhibit Kupffer cells and rat peritoneal macrophages. To evaluate the potential of MP to inhibit the activation of other macrophages, RAW cells (macrophages of alveolar origin) were treated with varying concentrations of MP (0.25, 0.5, 1 mM). Assessment of cytotoxicity using MTT assay revealed that 0.25 and 0.5 mM are not toxic to RAW cells. MP was able to inhibit the phagocytic function of RAW cells. Treatment of cells with MP 24 hours prior to LPS stimulation significantly decreased nitric oxide release and altered the pattern of cytokines release; there was a significant decrease in TNF-{alpha} and a significant increase in IL-10 compared to the controls. However, there is a non-significant change in IL-6 level. Furthermore, phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) protein was significantly decreased in RAW cells treated with 0.5 mM MP after LPS stimulation. Based upon the in-vitro results, it was examined whether MP treatment will be effective in preventing bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in-vivo. Bleomycin given by itself caused destruction of the lung architecture characterized by pulmonary fibrosis with collapse of air alveoli and emphysematous. Bleomycin induced a significant increase in hydroxyproline level and activated NF-{kappa}B, p65 expression in the lung. MP co-treatment significantly ameliorated bleomycin effects. These results suggest that MP has a potential of inhibiting macrophages in general. The present study demonstrated for the first time that MP has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect that could be through NF-kB inhibition. Thus MP like molecule could be a promising anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drug. - Research Highlights: >Methyl palmitate is a universal macrophage inhibitor. >It could be a promising nucleus of anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drugs. >The underlying mechanism of these effects could be through NF-kB inhibition.

  2. Determining the oleic/linoleic acid content of a single seed: A comparison of available methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut varieties with high oleic/linoleic acid ratios have become preferred by the peanut industry due to their increased shelf life and improved health benefits. Many peanut breeding programs are trying to incorporate the high oleic trait into new and improved varieties and are in need of diagnost...

  3. Effect of oleic acid on the allergenic properties of peanut and cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid is the major fatty acid in peanuts and cashews. There is limited information about its effect on peanut and cashew allergens during heating. The objective was to determine if heat treatment with oleic acid changes the allergenic properties of these nut proteins. Peanut and cashew protein...

  4. Synthesis and physical properties of new coco-oleic estolide branched esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oils derived from vegetable oils tend to not meet the standards for industrial lubricants because of unacceptable low temperature properties, pour point (PP), and/or cloud point (CP). However, a catalytic amount of perchloric acid with oleic and coconut (coco) fatty acids produced a coco-oleic estol...

  5. Synthesis and low temperature characterization of iso-oleic ester derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new iso-oleic ester derivatives (i.e., isopropyl esters (IOA-iPrE), n-butyl esters (IOA-n-BuE), and 2-ethylhexyl esters (IOA-2-EHE)) were synthesized from iso-oleic acid (IOA) using a standard esterification method. These esterified alcohols were chosen because of their bulky and branched-cha...

  6. Real-Time PCR Genotyping using Taqman Probes to Detect High Oleic Acid Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid, a monounsaturated, omega-9 fatty acid is an important agronomic trait in peanut cultivars because it provides increased shelf life, improved flavor, enhanced fatty acid composition, and a beneficial effect on human health. Currently, most high oleic peanuts confer limited resistance to ...

  7. Novel FAD2-1A alleles confer an elevated oleic acid phenotype in soybean seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To identify novel sources of genetic variation for the high oleic acid seed trait, soybean lines containing a higher fraction than normal of oleic acid were identified through a forward-genetic screen of a chemically mutagenized population. Mutant lines contained 30%- 40% of the oil fraction as olei...

  8. Evidence that oleic acid exists in a separate phase within stratum corneum lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Ongpipattanakul, B.; Burnette, R.R.; Potts, R.O.; Francoeur, M.L. )

    1991-03-01

    Oleic acid is known to be a penetration enhancer for polar to moderately polar molecules. A mechanism related to lipid phase separation has been previously proposed by this laboratory to explain the increases in skin transport. In the studies presented here, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was utilized to investigate whether or not oleic acid exists in a separate phase within stratum corneum (SC) lipids. Per-deuterated oleic acid was employed allowing the conformational phase behavior of the exogenously added fatty acid and the endogenous SC lipids to be monitored independently of each other. The results indicated that oleic acid exerts a significant effect on the SC lipids, lowering the lipid transition temperature (Tm) in addition to increasing the conformational freedom or flexibility of the endogenous lipid alkyl chains above their Tm. At temperatures lower than Tm, however, oleic acid did not significantly change the chain disorder of the SC lipids. Similar results were obtained with lipids isolated from the SC by chloroform:methanol extraction. Oleic acid, itself, was almost fully disordered at temperatures both above and below the endogenous lipid Tm in the intact SC and extracted lipid samples. This finding suggested that oleic acid does exist as a liquid within the SC lipids. The coexistence of fluid oleic acid and ordered SC lipids, at physiological temperatures, is consistent with the previously proposed phase-separation transport mechanism for enhanced diffusion.

  9. The complex tale of the high oleic acid trait in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition of oil extracted from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed is an important quality trait. In particular, a high ratio of oleic (C18:1) relative to linoleic (C18:2) fatty acid (O/L = 10) results in a longer shelf life. Previous reports suggest that the high oleic (~80%) trait wa...

  10. Interaction forces and membrane charge tunability: Oleic acid containing membranes in different pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, James; Suga, Keishi; Kuhl, Tonya L

    2017-02-01

    Oleic acid is known to interact with saturated lipid molecules and increase the fluidity of gel phase lipid membranes. In this work, the thermodynamic properties of mixed monolayers of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and oleic acid at the air-water interface were determined using Langmuir isotherms. The isotherm study revealed an attractive interaction between oleic acid and DPPC. The incorporation of oleic acid also monotonically decreased the elastic modulus of the monolayer indicative of higher fluidity with increasing oleic acid content. Using the surface force apparatus, intermembrane force-distance profiles were obtained for substrate supported DPPC membranes containing 30mol% oleic acid at pH5.8 and 7.4. Three different preparation conditions resulted in distinct force profiles. Membranes prepared in pH5.8 subphase had a low number of nanoscopic defects ≤1% and an adhesion magnitude of ~0.6mN/m. A slightly higher defect density of 1-4% was found for membranes prepared in a physiological pH7.4 subphase. The presence of the exposed hydrophobic moieties resulted in a higher adhesion magnitude of 2.9mN/m. Importantly, at pH7.4, some oleic acid deprotonates resulting in a long-range electrostatic repulsion. Even though oleic acid increased the DPPC bilayer fluidity and the number of defects, no membrane restructuring was observed indicating that the system maintained a stable configuration.

  11. A novel cationic microbubble coated with stearic acid-modified polyethylenimine to enhance DNA loading and gene delivery by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiaofeng; Wang, Zhiyong; Yan, Fei; Deng, Zhiting; Ni, Fei; Wu, Junru; Shandas, Robin; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

    2013-01-01

    A novel cationic microbubble (MB) for improvement of the DNA loading capacity and the ultrasound-mediated gene delivery efficiency has been developed; it has been prepared with commercial lipids and a stearic acid modified polyethylenimine 600 (Stearic-PEI600) polymer synthesized via acylation reaction of branched PEI600 and stearic acid mediated by N, N'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI). The MBs' concentration, size distribution, stability and zeta potential (ζ-potential) were measured and the DNA loading capacity was examined as a function of the amount of Stearic-PEI600. The gene transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity were also examined using breast cancer MCF-7 cells via the reporter plasmid pCMV-Luc, encoding the firefly luciferase gene. The results showed that the Stearic-PEI600 polymer caused a significant increase in magnitude of ζ-potential of MBs. The addition of DNA into cationic MBs can shift ζ-potentials from positive to negative values. The DNA loading capacity of the MBs grew linearly from (5±0.2) ×10⁻³ pg/µm² to (20±1.8) ×10⁻³ pg/µm² when Stearic-PEI600 was increased from 5 mol% to 30 mol%. Transfection of MCF-7 cells using 5% PEI600 MBs plus ultrasound exposure yielded 5.76±2.58×10³ p/s/cm²/sr average radiance intensity, was 8.97- and 7.53-fold higher than those treated with plain MBs plus ultrasound (6.41±5.82) ×10² p/s/cm²/sr, (P<0.01) and PEI600 MBs without ultrasound (7.65±6.18) ×10² p/s/cm²/sr, (P<0.01), respectively. However, the PEI600 MBs showed slightly higher cytotoxicity than plain MBs. The cells treated with PEI600-MBs and plain MBs plus ultrasound showed 59.5±6.1% and 71.4±7.1% cell viability, respectively. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the novel cationic MBs were able to increase DNA loading capacity and gene transfection efficiency and could be potentially applied in targeted gene delivery and therapy.

  12. Determination of protein-bound palmitate turnover rates using a three-compartment model that formally incorporates [3H]palmitate recycling.

    PubMed

    Qanbar, Riad; Bouvier, Michel

    2004-09-28

    The observation that the palmitoylation state of certain proteins can be biologically modulated led to the proposal that it could, much like phosphorylation, be an important dynamic regulator of protein function. However, based on single-phase exponential decay analysis of data from [(3)H]palmitate pulse/chase experiments, the measured protein-bound palmitate turnover rates were often found to be too slow to account for rapid physiological responses. This paper reports that exponential decay does not adequately describe the results of such experiments because it fails to account for the recycling of [(3)H]palmitate from cellular lipids to palmitoyl CoA. Taking this recycling into account, a three-compartment model was used to deduce the time-dependent changes of cellular [(3)H]palmitoyl CoA and to infer the time course for the incorporation of [(3)H]palmitate into proteins. The validity of the inferences made by the model was checked against data obtained by metabolic labeling of endogenous HEK293 cell proteins. In addition, the model could account for reported anomalies, discrepancies, and apparently paradoxical observations obtained by traditional analysis of data from pulse/chase experiments. Including the recycling of cellular palmitate in the formal description of the system offers a new tool for quantitative assessment of protein-bound palmitate turnover rates. Through the re-evaluation of these rates, the model provides a means for the reassessment of the potential physiological implications of dynamic palmitoylation. The model may also be generally applicable to other areas of research where recycling of tracer is a concern.

  13. Influence of salt purity on Na+ and palmitic acid interactions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zishuai; Hua, Wei; Verreault, Dominique; Allen, Heather C

    2013-12-19

    The influence of salt purity on the interactions between Na(+) ions and the carboxylate (COO(-)) head group of palmitic acid (PA) monolayers is studied in the COO(-) and OH stretching regions using broad-band vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Ultrapure (UP) and ACS grade NaCl salts are used for aqueous solution preparation after proper pretreatment. The time evolution of VSFG spectra of PA monolayers on solutions made from these two grades of salts is different, which reveals that the salt purity has a significant impact on the interactions between Na(+) ions and the COO(-) group of PA. The trace metal impurities in ACS grade salt, which are more abundant than those in UP grade salt, are responsible for this difference due to their stronger affinity for the carboxylate group relative to Na(+) and further affects the interfacial water structure. These results suggest that the alkali salt grade even after pretreatment is critical in the studies of alkali cation-carboxylate interactions and comparison of relative binding affinities of different cations.

  14. Paliperidone Palmitate Treatment in Outpatient Care Setting: A Naturalistic Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Rosaria; Cameli, Michela; Bolondi, Marisa; Landi, Giulia; Moretti, Valentina; Piemonte, Chiara; Pollutri, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate paliperidone palmitate (PP) effectiveness, safety and adherence to treatment. Methods We collected data of all patients (n = 50) affected by Schizophrenia Disorders, treated with PP for a 3 month minimum period in the outpatient setting of Mental Health Department in Modena, from 01/01/2014 to 31/01/2015. We evaluated reasons and modality for PP implementation, improvement in symptom and functioning scales, adverse effects, discontinuations and relapses. We statistically correlated socio-demographic and clinical variables of our sample with PP therapeutic variables. Results We registered an improvement in all scales, with a superior percentage in PANSS positive subscale. The mean PP dose in some patients was lower than official indications, although our sample was clinically severe. Illness relapses affected 60% and dropout 18% of patients. PP was well tolerated and in just a few cases adverse events required treatment interruption. The risk factors for discontinuation were represented by “lack of therapeutic compliance” (HR = 4.11, p < 0.0001) and “inefficacy” (HR = 1.67, p < 0.0001). Conclusions With limitations of observational design, this research highlights that PP was well tolerated and effective in improving both psychotic symptoms and functioning, but moderately effective in preventing relapse, probably due to clinical severity of our patients associated with extremely cautious and flexible PP prescriptions. PMID:27738372

  15. Biological and Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil and Palmitic Acid: Effects on Health.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Annamaria; Imperlini, Esther; Nigro, Ersilia; Montagnese, Concetta; Daniele, Aurora; Orrù, Stefania; Buono, Pasqualina

    2015-09-18

    A growing body of evidence highlights the close association between nutrition and human health. Fat is an essential macronutrient, and vegetable oils, such as palm oil, are widely used in the food industry and highly represented in the human diet. Palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid, is the principal constituent of refined palm oil. In the last few decades, controversial studies have reported potential unhealthy effects of palm oil due to the high palmitic acid content. In this review we provide a concise and comprehensive update on the functional role of palm oil and palmitic acid in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The atherogenic potential of palmitic acid and its stereospecific position in triacylglycerols are also discussed.

  16. Comparison of plasma lipids and vitamin E in young and middle-aged subjects on potato crisps fried in palmolein and highly oleic sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, N; Truswell, A S; McNeil, Y

    1997-01-01

    We previously found no difference in healthy young adults' plasma cholesterols between palmolein and olive oil as the major dietary lipid, although the former is high in palmitic acid (16:0) but the latter in oleic acid (18:1 cis). In the experiment reported here we compared the effects of palmolein against another monounsaturated oil, highly oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), on plasma cholesterol in both young and middle-aged healthy adults. The test oils were provided as frying oil of potato crisps (150 g/day in men; 100 g/day in women) against low-fat background diets in free-living motivated volunteers. The design was a randomised double-blind 4-week/3-week crossover trial. Compliance was monitored with continuous dietary diaries and by measuring (fasting) plasma lipid fatty-acid pattern. Plasma lipids and vitamin-E compounds were measured at the start and twice at the end of each test period. In combined young plus older subjects (n = 42) mean plasma total and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) values were both 7% (significantly) lower on HOSO than on palmolein, but because high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was also 5% lower, the LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was only 3% lower on HOSO than on palmolein. The difference between the present results with HOSO and previous results with olive oil both compared against palmolein suggest that olive oil is associated with higher plasma cholesterols than other monounsaturated oils. In both the young and older subgroup, LDL-c was lower on HOSO but because HDL-c moved down too in the young subgroup, the LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was lower on HOSO only in the older subjects. Palmolein has an unusual pattern of E vitamins, with a high content of tocotrienols, notably the gamma-isomer. Unlike alpha-tocopherol however, there was no sign of these tocotrienols in subjects' plasmas.

  17. Free Fatty Acid Palmitate Impairs the Vitality and Function of Cultured Human Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oberbach, Andreas; Schlichting, Nadine; Heinrich, Marco; Till, Holger; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Background Incidence of urinary tract infections is elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus. Those patients show increased levels of the saturated free fatty acid palmitate. As recently shown metabolic alterations induced by palmitate include production and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukine-6 (IL-6) in cultured human bladder smooth muscle cells (hBSMC). Here we studied the influence of palmitate on vital cell properties, for example, regulation of cell proliferation, mitochondrial enzyme activity and antioxidant capacity in hBSMC, and analyzed the involvement of major cytokine signaling pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings HBSMC cultures were set up from bladder tissue of patients undergoing cystectomy and stimulated with palmitate. We analyzed cell proliferation, mitochondrial enzyme activity, and antioxidant capacity by ELISA and confocal immunofluorescence. In signal transduction inhibition experiments we evaluated the involvement of NF-κB, JAK/STAT, MEK1, PI3K, and JNK in major cytokine signaling pathway regulation. We found: (i) palmitate decreased cell proliferation, increased mitochondrial enzyme activity and antioxidant capacity; (ii) direct inhibition of cytokine receptor by AG490 even more strongly suppressed cell proliferation in palmitate-stimulated cells, while counteracting palmitate-induced increase of antioxidant capacity; (iii) in contrast knockdown of the STAT3 inhibitor SOCS3 increased cell proliferation and antioxidant capacity; (iv) further downstream JAK/STAT3 signaling cascade the inhibition of PI3K or JNK enhanced palmitate induced suppression of cell proliferation; (v) increase of mitochondrial enzyme activity by palmitate was enhanced by inhibition of PI3K but counteracted by inhibition of MEK1. Conclusions/Significance Saturated free fatty acids (e.g., palmitate) cause massive alterations in vital cell functions of cultured hBSMC involving distinct major cytokine signaling pathways. Thereby, certain

  18. Optimization of a metformin effervescent floating tablet containing hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and stearic acid.

    PubMed

    Rajab, M; Jouma, M; Neubert, R H; Dittgen, M

    2010-02-01

    This study optimizes the composition of an effervescent floating tablet (EFT) containing metformin hydrochloride (M) regarding tablet hardness (H), time to dissolve 60% of the embedded drug (t60%), and buoyancy, the floating lag time (FLT). A simplex lattice experimental design has been used comprising different levels of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), stearic acid (SA), sodium bicarbonate (SB) as tablet matrix components, and hardness (H), t60%, FLT as response variables. Two models have been applied to decide which composition will result in Fickian diffusion or in overlapping of two dissolution mechanisms, diffusion and matrix erosion. Three of EFT showed the two dissolution mechanisms but most of EFT showed Fickian diffusion only. Checking the experimental response by a linear, quadratic, special cubic and cubic model using multivariate regression analysis resulted in best fit for the cubic model. Overlaying the results for the cubic model under constraints defined shows the domain of accepted values of response variables. The optimized EFT shall have been included HPMC between 15.6% and 24.2%, SA between 12.8 and 15.6% and SB between 16.1% and 17.5%. The result of this study has been critically evaluated considering analogous EFT described in literature.

  19. Silymarin-Loaded Nanoparticles Based on Stearic Acid-Modified Bletilla striata Polysaccharide for Hepatic Targeting.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanni; He, Shaolong; Ma, Xueqin; Hong, Tongtong; Li, Zhifang; Park, Kinam; Wang, Wenping

    2016-02-29

    Silymarin has been widely used as a hepatoprotective drug in the treatment of various liver diseases, yet its effectiveness is affected by its poor water solubility and low bioavailability after oral administration, and there is a need for the development of intravenous products, especially for liver-targeting purposes. In this study, silymarin was encapsulated in self-assembled nanoparticles of Bletilla striata polysaccharide (BSP) conjugates modified with stearic acid and the physicochemical properties of the obtained nanoparticles were characterized. The silymarin-loaded micelles appeared as spherical particles with a mean diameter of 200 nm under TEM. The encapsulation of drug molecules was confirmed by DSC thermograms and XRD diffractograms, respectively. The nanoparticles exhibited a sustained-release profile for nearly 1 week with no obvious initial burst. Compared to drug solutions, the drug-loaded nanoparticles showed a lower viability and higher uptake intensity on HepG2 cell lines. After intravenous administration of nanoparticle formulation for 30 min to mice, the liver became the most significant organ enriched with the fluorescent probe. These results suggest that BSP derivative nanoparticles possess hepatic targeting capability and are promising nanocarriers for delivering silymarin to the liver.

  20. Thermal Characterization of Lauric-Stearic Acid/Expanded Graphite Eutectic Mixture as Phase Change Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hua; Zhang, Peng; Meng, Zhaonan; Li, Ming

    2015-04-01

    The eutectic mixture of lauric acid (LA) and stearic acid (SA) is a desirable phase change material (PCM) due to the constant melting temperature and large latent heat. However, its poor thermal conductivity has hampered its broad utilization. In the present study, pure LA, SA and the mixtures with various mass fractions of LA-SA were used as the basic PCMs, and 10 wt% expanded graphite (EG) was added to enhance the thermal conductivities. The phase change behaviors, microstructural analysis, thermal conductivities and thermal stabilities of the mixtures of PCMs were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), transient plane source (TPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The results show that the LA-SA binary mixture of mixture ratio of 76.3 wt%: 23.7 wt% forms an eutectic mixture, which melts at 38.99 °C and has a latent heat of 159.94 J/g. The melted fatty acids are well absorbed by the porous network of EG and they have a good thermal stability. Furthermore, poor thermal conductivities can be well enhanced by the addition of EG.

  1. Preparation and tribological properties of stearic acid-modified hierarchical anatase TiO 2 microcrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jianhua; Yin, Xiangyu; Wang, Ning; Liu, Lin; Xing, Jinjuan

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical TiO2 microcrystals were synthesized through a facile solvothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements were used to characterize the structure of the as-prepared samples. The results indicated that the synthesized hierarchical titania (TiO2) microspheres were composed of numerous anatase phase TiO2 particles. The as-prepared samples were chemically modified with stearic acid to improve their dispersion in oil. Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) were carried out to evaluate the characteristics of the modified TiO2 microcrystals. The tribological properties of the modified TiO2 microcrystals as additives of liquid paraffin were studied by a four-ball tester, and the results showed that they could significantly improve anti-wear performance, friction-reduction property and load-carrying capacity of liquid paraffin. These advantages make the modified TiO2 microcrystals promising for green lubricating oil additives.

  2. Liquid to Semisolid Rheological Transition of Normal and High-Oleic Peanut Oils Upon Cooling to Refrigeration Temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rheological transitions of peanut oils cooled from 20 to 3ºC at 0.5ºC/min were monitored via small strain oscillatory measurements at 0.1 Hz and 1 Pa. Oils were from 9 different cultivars of peanut, and 3 oils were classified as high-oleic (approximately 80% oleic acid). High-oleic oils maintained...

  3. Molecular mechanism of flip-flop in triple-layer oleic-acid membrane: correlation between oleic acid and water.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Van A; Kalia, Rajiv K; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2012-11-15

    We perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study a pure oleic acid (OA) membrane in water that results in a triple-layer structure. We compute the pressure profiles to examine the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions, and to estimate the surface tension (≈34.5 mN/m), which is similar to those of lipid membranes. We observe that the membrane of OAs having a large diffusion coefficient (0.4 × 10(-7) cm(2)/s) along the normal to the membrane is an ideal model to study oleic acid flip-flop. In the model, the membrane contains a middle layer serving as an intermediate for water and OAs to easily migrate (flip-flop) from one to other leaflets. Water molecules surrounding OA head-groups help to reduce the barriers at the hydrophobic interface to trigger flip-flop events. Within 500 ns, we observe 175 flip-flop events of OAs and 305 events of water traversing the membrane. The ratio of water passing rate (k(H(2)O) = 0.673 ns(-1)) to OA flip-flop rate (k(OA) = 0.446 ns(-1)) is 3/2. The ratio of the totally correlated water-OA events to the totally uncorrelated water-OA events, n(cor)/n(uncor), is also 3/2. The probability of the totally and partially correlated events is 69%. The results indicate that the trans-membrane movement of water and OAs is cooperative and correlated, and agrees with experimentally measured absorption rates. They support the idea that OA flip-flop is more favorable than transport by means of functional proteins. This study might provide further insight into how primitive cell membranes work, and how the interplay and correlation between water and fatty acids may occur.

  4. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of paliperidone palmitate for treating schizophrenia in Greece

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients having chronic schizophrenia with frequent relapses and hospitalizations represent a great challenge, both clinically and financially. Risperidone long-acting injection (RIS-LAI) has been the main LAI atypical antipsychotic treatment in Greece. Paliperidone palmitate (PP-LAI) has recently been approved. It is dosed monthly, as opposed to biweekly for RIS-LAI, but such advantages have not yet been analysed in terms of economic evaluation. Purpose To compare costs and outcomes of PP-LAI versus RIS-LAI in Greece. Methods A cost-utility analysis was performed using a previously validated decision tree to model clinical pathways and costs over 1 year for stable patients started on either medication. Rates were taken from the literature. A local expert panel provided feedback on treatment patterns. All direct costs incurred by the national healthcare system were obtained from the literature and standard price lists; all were inflated to 2011 costs. Patient outcomes analyzed included average days with stable disease, numbers of hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Results The total annual healthcare cost with PP-LAI was €3529; patients experienced 325 days in remission and 0.840 QALY; 28% were hospitalized and 15% received emergency room treatment. With RIS-LAI, the cost was €3695, patients experienced 318.6 days in remission and 0.815 QALY; 33% were hospitalized and 17% received emergency room treatment. Thus, PP-LAI dominated RIS-LAI. Results were generally robust in sensitivity analyses with PP-LAI dominating in 74.6% of simulations. Results were sensitive to the price of PP-LAI. Conclusions PP-LAI appears to be a cost-effective option for treating chronic schizophrenia in Greece compared with RIS-LAI since it results in savings to the health care system along with better patient outcomes. PMID:22747533

  5. Isosteviol Has Beneficial Effects on Palmitate-Induced α-Cell Dysfunction and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoping; Hermansen, Kjeld; Xiao, Jianzhong; Bystrup, Sara Kjaergaard; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2012-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to high levels of fatty acids impairs insulin secretion and exaggerates glucagon secretion. The aim of this study was to explore if the antihyperglycemic agent, Isosteviol (ISV), is able to counteract palmitate-induced α-cell dysfunction and to influence α-cell gene expression. Methodology/Principal Findings Long-term incubation studies with clonal α-TC1–6 cells were performed in the presence of 0.5 mM palmitate with or without ISV. We investigated effects on glucagon secretion, glucagon content, cellular triglyceride (TG) content, cell proliferation, and expression of genes involved in controlling glucagon synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and insulin signal transduction. Furthermore, we studied effects of ISV on palmitate-induced glucagon secretion from isolated mouse islets. Culturing α-cells for 72-h with 0.5 mM palmitate in the presence of 18 mM glucose resulted in a 56% (p<0.01) increase in glucagon secretion. Concomitantly, the TG content of α-cells increased by 78% (p<0.01) and cell proliferation decreased by 19% (p<0.05). At 18 mM glucose, ISV (10−8 and 10−6 M) reduced palmitate-stimulated glucagon release by 27% (p<0.05) and 27% (p<0.05), respectively. ISV (10−6 M) also counteracted the palmitate-induced hypersecretion of glucagon in mouse islets. ISV (10−6 M) reduced α-TC1–6 cell proliferation rate by 25% (p<0.05), but ISV (10−8 and 10−6 M) had no effect on TG content in the presence of palmitate. Palmitate (0.5 mM) increased Pcsk2 (p<0.001), Irs2 (p<0.001), Fasn (p<0.001), Srebf2 (p<0.001), Acaca (p<0.01), Pax6 (p<0.05) and Gcg mRNA expression (p<0.05). ISV significantly (p<0.05) up-regulated Insr, Irs1, Irs2, Pik3r1 and Akt1 gene expression in the presence of palmitate. Conclusions/Significance ISV counteracts α-cell hypersecretion and apparently contributes to changes in expression of key genes resulting from long-term exposure to palmitate. ISV apparently acts as a glucagonostatic drug with

  6. Bilayer Structure and Lipid Dynamics in a Model Stratum Corneum with Oleic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopes, Matthew I.; Noro, Massimo G.; Longo, Marjorie L.; Faller, Roland

    2011-03-31

    The stratum corneum is the uppermost layer of the skin and acts as a barrier to keep out contaminants and retain moisture. Understanding the molecular structure and behavior of this layer will provide guidance for optimizing its biological function. In this study we use a model mixture comprised of equimolar portions of ceramide NS (24:0), lignoceric acid, and cholesterol to model the effect of the addition of small amounts of oleic acid to the bilayer at 300 and 340 K. Five systems at each temperature have been simulated with concentrations between 0 and 0.1 mol % oleic acid. Our major finding is that subdiffusive behavior over the 200 ns time scale is evident in systems at 340 K, with cholesterol diffusion being enhanced with increased oleic acid. Importantly, cholesterol and other species diffuse faster when radial densities indicate nearest neighbors include more cholesterol. We also find that, with the addition of oleic acid, the bilayer midplane and interfacial densities are reduced and there is a 3% decrease in total thickness occurring mostly near the hydrophilic interface at 300 K with reduced overall density at 340 K. Increased interdigitation occurs independent of oleic acid with a temperature increase. Slight ordering of the long non-hydroxy fatty acid of the ceramide occurs near the hydrophilic interface as a function of the oleic acid concentration, but no significant impact on hydrogen bonding is seen in the chosen oleic acid concentrations.

  7. Determination of the fatty acid composition of saponified vegetable oils using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ayorinde, F O; Garvin, K; Saeed, K

    2000-01-01

    A method using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) for the determination of the fatty acid composition of vegetable oils is described and illustrated with the analysis of palm kernel oil, palm oil, olive oil, canola oil, soybean oil, vernonia oil, and castor oil. Solutions of the saponified oils, mixed with the matrix, meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin, provided reproducible MALDI-TOF spectra in which the ions were dominated by sodiated sodium carboxylates [RCOONa + Na]+. Thus, palm kernel oil was found to contain capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and stearic acid. Palm oil had a fatty acid profile including palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic. The relative percentages of the fatty acids in olive oil were palmitoleic (1.2 +/- 0.5), palmitic (10.9 +/- 0.8), linoleic (0.6 +/- 0.1), linoleic (16.5 +/- 0.8), and oleic (70.5 +/- 1.2). For soybean oil, the relative percentages were: palmitoleic (0.4 +/- 0.4), palmitic (6.0 +/- 1.3), linolenic (14.5 +/- 1.8), linoleic (50.1 +/- 4.0), oleic (26.1 +/- 1.2), and stearic (2.2 +/- 0.7). This method was also applied to the analysis of two commercial soap formulations. The first soap gave a fatty acid profile that included: lauric (19.4% +/- 0.8), myristic (9.6% +/- 0.5), palmitoleic (1.9% +/- 0.3), palmitic (16.3% +/- 0.9), linoleic (5.6% +/- 0.4), oleic (37.1% +/- 0.8), and stearic (10.1% +/- 0.7) and that of the second soap was: lauric (9.3% +/- 0.3), myristic (3.8% +/- 0.5), palmitoleic (3.1% +/- 0.8), palmitic (19.4% +/- 0.8), linoleic (4.9% +/- 0.7), oleic (49.5% +/- 1.1), and stearic (10.0% +/- 0.9). The MALDI-TOFMS method described in this communication is simpler and less time-consuming than the established transesterification method that is coupled with analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The new method could be used routinely to determine the qualitative fatty acid composition of vegetable oils

  8. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Role of Oleic Acid-Triggered Lung Injury and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano Felippe; Silva, Adriana Ribeiro; Burth, Patrícia; Castro-Faria, Mauro Velho; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire

    2015-01-01

    Lung injury especially acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be triggered by diverse stimuli, including fatty acids and microbes. ARDS affects thousands of people worldwide each year, presenting high mortality rate and having an economic impact. One of the hallmarks of lung injury is edema formation with alveoli flooding. Animal models are used to study lung injury. Oleic acid-induced lung injury is a widely used model resembling the human disease. The oleic acid has been linked to metabolic and inflammatory diseases; here we focus on lung injury. Firstly, we briefly discuss ARDS and secondly we address the mechanisms by which oleic acid triggers lung injury and inflammation. PMID:26640323

  9. Amplified spontaneous emission from the exciplex state of a conjugated polymer "PFO" in oleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idriss, Hajo; Taha, Kamal K.; Aldaghri, O.; Alhathlool, R.; AlSalhi, M. S.; Ibnaouf, K. H.

    2016-09-01

    The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) characteristics of a conjugated polymer poly (9, 9-dioctylfluorenyl-2, 7-diyl) (PFO) in oleic acid have been studied under different concentrations and temperatures. Here, the ASE spectra of PFO in oleic acid have been obtained using a transverse cavity configuration where the conjugated PFO was pumped by laser pulses from the third harmonic of Nd: YAG laser (355 nm). The PFO in oleic acid produces ASE from an exciplex state - a new molecular species. The obtained results were compared with the PFO in benzene. Such ASE spectra from the exciplex state have not been observed for the PFO in benzene.

  10. Muscle palmitate uptake and binding are saturable and inhibited by antibodies to FABP(PM).

    PubMed

    Turcotte, L P; Swenberger, J R; Tucker, M Z; Yee, A J; Trump, G; Luiken, J J; Bonen, A

    2000-07-01

    Studies show that uptake of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) across the plasma membranes (PM) may occur partly via a carrier-mediated process and that the plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein (FABP(PM)) may be a component of this system. To test the hypothesis that FABP(PM) is involved in transsarcolemmal transport of LCFA in muscle, we measured palmitate uptake in giant sarcolemmal vesicles and palmitate binding to PM proteins in rat muscles, (1) in the presence of increasing amounts of unbound palmitate and (2) in the absence or presence of antibody to FABP(PM). Both palmitate uptake and binding were found to be saturable functions of the unbound palmitate concentration with calculated Vmax values of 10.5 +/- 1.2 pmol/mg protein/15 sec and 45.6 +/- 2.9 nmol/mg protein/15 min and Km values of 12.8 +/- 3.8 and 18.4 +/- 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. The Vmax values for both palmitate uptake and binding were significantly decreased by 75-79% in the presence of a polyclonal antibody to the rat hepatic FABP(PM). Antibody inhibition was found to be dose-dependent and specific to LCFA. Glucose uptake was not affected by the presence of the antibody to FABP(PM). Palmitate uptake and binding were also inhibited in the presence of trypsin and phloretin. These results support the hypothesis that transsarcolemmal LCFA transport occurs in part by a carrier-mediated process and that FABP(PM) is a component of this process in muscle.

  11. Trimetazidine prevents palmitate-induced mitochondrial fission and dysfunction in cultured cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kuzmicic, Jovan; Parra, Valentina; Verdejo, Hugo E; López-Crisosto, Camila; Chiong, Mario; García, Lorena; Jensen, Michael D; Bernlohr, David A; Castro, Pablo F; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    Metabolic and cardiovascular disease patients have increased plasma levels of lipids and, specifically, of palmitate, which can be toxic for several tissues. Trimetazidine (TMZ), a partial inhibitor of lipid oxidation, has been proposed as a metabolic modulator for several cardiovascular pathologies. However, its mechanism of action is controversial. Given the fact that TMZ is able to alter mitochondrial metabolism, we evaluated the protective role of TMZ on mitochondrial morphology and function in an in vitro model of lipotoxicity induced by palmitate. We treated cultured rat cardiomyocytes with BSA-conjugated palmitate (25 nM free), TMZ (0.1-100 μM), or a combination of both. We evaluated mitochondrial morphology and lipid accumulation by confocal fluorescence microscopy, parameters of mitochondrial metabolism (mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption rate [OCR], and ATP levels), and ceramide production by mass spectrometry and indirect immunofluorescence. Palmitate promoted mitochondrial fission evidenced by a decrease in mitochondrial volume (50%) and an increase in the number of mitochondria per cell (80%), whereas TMZ increased mitochondrial volume (39%), and decreased mitochondrial number (56%), suggesting mitochondrial fusion. Palmitate also decreased mitochondrial metabolism (ATP levels and OCR), while TMZ potentiated all the metabolic parameters assessed. Moreover, pretreatment with TMZ protected the cardiomyocytes from palmitate-induced mitochondrial fission and dysfunction. TMZ also increased lipid accumulation in cardiomyocytes, and prevented palmitate-induced ceramide production. Our data show that TMZ protects cardiomyocytes by changing intracellular lipid management. Thus, the beneficial effects of TMZ on patients with different cardiovascular pathologies can be related to modulation of the mitochondrial morphology and function.

  12. Effect of stearic acid on enalapril stability and dissolution from multiparticulate solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Talita A; Serpa, Raphael C; de Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Nasser, Letícia N; de Freitas, Luis Alexandre P; Taveira, Stephania F; Diniz, Danielle G A; Lima, Eliana M; Marreto, Ricardo N

    2013-09-01

    Enalapril maleate (EM) is a widely used anti-hypertensive drug which is unstable when mixed with excipients. Enalaprilate and diketopiperazine (DPK) are the main degradation products of enalapril. The in situ preparation of enalapril sodium salt (NaE) has been used to improve drug stability in dosage forms; however, gas release and product rejection ensue when the chemical reaction for obtaining the sodium salt is not completely finished before packaging. This study evaluated the effect of stearic acid (SA) on enalapril stability in microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) pellets containing EM or NaE. MCC pellets containing SA were prepared by the extrusion-spheronization technique and characterized. Enalapril stability and dissolution were then evaluated. DPK and enalaprilate formation were reduced by the addition of SA in pellets containing EM. The overall enalapril degradation in these formulations was lower when compared with pellets containing EM or even NaE prepared without SA. The immediate-release characteristic was maintained by the addition of 5% crospovidone to all the formulations tested. The incorporation of SA into NaE pellets resulted in unexpected enalapril degradation, caused by the interaction of these compounds, as suggested by a thermal analysis of the SA-NaE binary mixture. The findings presented here showed that formulations containing SA could substitute the formation of NaE, since they provide better enalapril stability in solid dosage forms. In addition, it is suggested that the stabilization effects would be observed for other N-carboxyalkyl dipeptide analogs with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, since these new entities share the same degradation pathway of enalapril.

  13. Chemical surface modification of calcium carbonate particles with stearic acid using different treating methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhi; Daly, Michael; Clémence, Lopez; Geever, Luke M.; Major, Ian; Higginbotham, Clement L.; Devine, Declan M.

    2016-08-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is often treated with stearic acid (SA) to decrease its polarity. However, the method of application of the SA treatments has a strong influence on CaCO3 thermoplastic composite's interfacial structure and distribution. Several of papers describe the promising effects of SA surface treatment, but few compare the treatment process and its effect on the properties of the final thermoplastic composite. In the current study, we assessed a new SA treatment method, namely, complex treatment for polymer composite fabrication with HDPE. Subsequently, a comparative study was performed between the "complex" process and the other existing methods. The composites were assessed using different experiments included scanning electron microscopy (SEM), void content, density, wettability, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile tests. It was observed that the "complex" surface treatment yielded composites with a significantly lower voids content and higher density compared to other surface treatments. This indicates that after the "complex" treatment process, the CaCO3 particles and HDPE matrix are more tightly packed than other methods. DSC and wettability results suggest that the "wet" and "complex" treated CaCO3 composites had a significantly higher heat of fusion and moisture resistance compared to the "dry" treated CaCO3 composites. Furthermore, "wet" and "complex" treated CaCO3 composites have a significantly higher tensile strength than the composites containing untreated and "dry" treated CaCO3. This is mainly because the "wet" and "complex" treatment processes have increased adsorption density of stearate, which enhances the interfacial interaction between matrix and filler. These results confirm that the chemical adsorption of the surfactant ions at the solid-liquid interface is higher than at other interface. From this study, it was concluded that the utilization of the "complex" method minimised the negative effects of void

  14. An innate bactericidal oleic acid effective against skin infection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a therapy concordant with evolutionary medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Hsuan; Wang, Yanhan; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Liu, Yu-Tuseng; Zouboulis, Christos; Gallo, Richard; Zhang, Liangfang; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2011-04-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) are known to have bacteriocidal activity and are important components of the innate immune system. Many FFAs are naturally present in human and animal skin, breast milk, and in the bloodstream. Here, the therapeutic potential of FFAs against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is demonstrated in cultures and in mice. Among a series of FFAs, only oleic acid (OA) (C18:1, cis-9) can effectively eliminate Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) through cell wall disruption. Lauric acid (LA, C12:0) and palmitic acid (PA, C16:0) do not have this ability. OA can inhibit growth of a number of Gram-positive bacteria, including hospital and community-associated MRSA at a dose that did not show any toxicity to human sebocytes. The bacteriocidal activities of FFAs were also demonstrated in vivo through injection of OA into mouse skin lesions previously infected with a strain of MRSA. In conclusion, our results suggest a promising therapeutic approach against MRSA through boosting the bacteriocidal activities of native FFAs, which may have been co-evolved during the interactions between microbes and their hosts.

  15. Inhibitory Effect of Long-Chain Fatty Acids on Biogas Production and the Protective Effect of Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Dasa, Kris Triwulan; Westman, Supansa Y.; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Niklasson, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of lipid-containing wastes for biogas production is often hampered by the inhibitory effect of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). In this study, the inhibitory effects of LCFAs (palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid) on biogas production as well as the protective effect of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) against LCFAs were examined in thermophilic batch digesters. The results showed that palmitic and oleic acid with concentrations of 3.0 and 4.5 g/L resulted in >50% inhibition on the biogas production, while stearic acid had an even stronger inhibitory effect. The encased cells in the MBR system were able to perform better in the presence of LCFAs. This system exhibited a significantly lower percentage of inhibition than the free cell system, not reaching over 50% at any LCFA concentration tested. PMID:27699172

  16. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yi Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ► Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ► The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ► Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated

  17. Palmitate acutely raises glycogen synthesis in rat soleus muscle by a mechanism that requires its metabolization (Randle cycle).

    PubMed

    Massao Hirabara, Sandro; de Oliveira Carvalho, Carla Roberta; Mendonça, José Roberto; Piltcher Haber, Esther; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio; Curi, Rui

    2003-04-24

    The acute effect of palmitate on glucose metabolism in rat skeletal muscle was examined. Soleus muscles from Wistar male rats were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer, for 1 h, in the absence or presence of 10 mU/ml insulin and 0, 50 or 100 microM palmitate. Palmitate increased the insulin-stimulated [(14)C]glycogen synthesis, decreased lactate production, and did not alter D-[U-(14)C]glucose decarboxylation and 2-deoxy-D-[2,6-(3)H]glucose uptake. This fatty acid decreased the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and [1-(14)C]pyruvate decarboxylation and increased (14)CO(2) produced from [2-(14)C]pyruvate. Palmitate reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1/2, Akt, and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Bromopalmitate, a non-metabolizable analogue of palmitate, reduced [(14)C]glycogen synthesis. A strong correlation was found between [U-(14)C]palmitate decarboxylation and [(14)C]glycogen synthesis (r=0.99). Also, palmitate increased intracellular content of glucose 6-phosphate in the presence of insulin. These results led us to postulate that palmitate acutely potentiates insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis by a mechanism that requires its metabolization (Randle cycle). The inhibitory effect of palmitate on insulin-stimulated protein phosphorylation might play an important role for the development of insulin resistance in conditions of chronic exposure to high levels of fatty acids.

  18. The Effects of plasticizers and palmitic acid toward the properties of the carrageenan Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heru Wibowo, Atmanto; Listiyawati, Oktaviana; Purnawan, Candra

    2016-02-01

    Varied plasticizers and palmitic acid additive have been added in the carrageenan film. The film was made by mixing of the carrageenan and plasticizers (glycerol, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol) with composition of 92:3, 90:6, 87:9, 84:12, 81:15(%w/w) and in the presence of palmitic acid as additive with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% of total weight. Casting method was used for the film molding and drying at 60oC with the oven for 12 hours. To investigate the effects of plasticizers and additive, some mechanical tests on film were performed. The test result concludes that plasticizers in the film decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation break of the carrageenan film. The additive of palmitic acid decreased the tensile strength of the carrageenan film and also decreased the-the water absorbance of the film. The highest tensile strength of films made was with the formulation of carrageenan: PEG with composition of 92:3 (% w/w). The highest elongation break of the film was for carrageenan:PVA with the composition of 81: 15 (%w/w) and carrageenan:palmitic acid:PEG with the composition of 92: 3: 1 (%w/w). The lowest water absorption of the film was achieved for carrageenan:PVA:palmitic acid with the composition of 87: 3: 5 (%w/w).

  19. Fuel properties of heptadecene isomers prepared via tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of oleic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heptadecene isomers were prepared via tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of oleic acid using catalytic triruthenium dodecacarbonyl [Ru3(CO)12]. Chromatographic and spectroscopic characterization of the isolated heptadecene mixture indicated that it consisted of 96% internal isomers and 4% aromatic...

  20. Environmentally Friendly Cleaners for Removing Tar from Metal Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    sions have lower viscosities than neat asphalts and can be used in low temperature applications. After applying the emulsion , the water evaporates...Derbyshire SK17 9RZ Tel : 01298 26226 sales@selden.co.uk Tar n’ Glue Remover 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, Alcohol Ethoxylate Anionic Detergent...sales@soysolv.com SOYsolve Industrial Strength Mixed fatty & methyl esters Linoleic, Oleic, Palmitic, Linolenic, Stearic, Palmitoleic Erui

  1. 21 CFR 357.210 - Cholecystokinetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a melting point of 41 to 43.5 °C, an iodine value of 65 to 69, and a fatty acid composition as follows: Fatty acid Percent composition Myristic acid 0.1 Palmitic acid 10.0 Palmitoleic acid 0.1 Stearic acid 13.5 Oleic acid 72.0 Linoleic acid 3.8 Linolenic acid 0.1 Arachidic acid 0.5 Behenic acid 0.2...

  2. 21 CFR 357.210 - Cholecystokinetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a melting point of 41 to 43.5 °C, an iodine value of 65 to 69, and a fatty acid composition as follows: Fatty acid Percent composition Myristic acid 0.1 Palmitic acid 10.0 Palmitoleic acid 0.1 Stearic acid 13.5 Oleic acid 72.0 Linoleic acid 3.8 Linolenic acid 0.1 Arachidic acid 0.5 Behenic acid 0.2...

  3. 21 CFR 357.210 - Cholecystokinetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a melting point of 41 to 43.5 °C, an iodine value of 65 to 69, and a fatty acid composition as follows: Fatty acid Percent composition Myristic acid 0.1 Palmitic acid 10.0 Palmitoleic acid 0.1 Stearic acid 13.5 Oleic acid 72.0 Linoleic acid 3.8 Linolenic acid 0.1 Arachidic acid 0.5 Behenic acid 0.2...

  4. 21 CFR 357.210 - Cholecystokinetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a melting point of 41 to 43.5 °C, an iodine value of 65 to 69, and a fatty acid composition as follows: Fatty acid Percent composition Myristic acid 0.1 Palmitic acid 10.0 Palmitoleic acid 0.1 Stearic acid 13.5 Oleic acid 72.0 Linoleic acid 3.8 Linolenic acid 0.1 Arachidic acid 0.5 Behenic acid 0.2...

  5. 21 CFR 357.210 - Cholecystokinetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a melting point of 41 to 43.5 °C, an iodine value of 65 to 69, and a fatty acid composition as follows: Fatty acid Percent composition Myristic acid 0.1 Palmitic acid 10.0 Palmitoleic acid 0.1 Stearic acid 13.5 Oleic acid 72.0 Linoleic acid 3.8 Linolenic acid 0.1 Arachidic acid 0.5 Behenic acid 0.2...

  6. Model Systems of Precursor Cellular Membranes: Long-Chain Alcohols Stabilize Spontaneously Formed Oleic Acid Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Rendón, Adela; Carton, David Gil; Sot, Jesús; García-Pacios, Marcos; Montes, Ruth; Valle, Mikel; Arrondo, José-Luis R.; Goñi, Felix M.; Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa

    2012-01-01

    Oleic acid vesicles have been used as model systems to study the properties of membranes that could be the evolutionary precursors of more complex, stable, and impermeable phospholipid biomembranes. Pure fatty acid vesicles in general show high sensitivity to ionic strength and pH variation, but there is growing evidence that this lack of stability can be counterbalanced through mixtures with other amphiphilic or surfactant compounds. Here, we present a systematic experimental analysis of the oleic acid system and explore the spontaneous formation of vesicles under different conditions, as well as the effects that alcohols and alkanes may have in the process. Our results support the hypothesis that alcohols (in particular 10- to 14-C-atom alcohols) contribute to the stability of oleic acid vesicles under a wider range of experimental conditions. Moreover, studies of mixed oleic-acid-alkane and oleic-acid-alcohol systems using infrared spectroscopy and Langmuir trough measurements indicate that precisely those alcohols that increased vesicle stability also decreased the mobility of oleic acid polar headgroups, as well as the area/molecule of lipid. PMID:22339864

  7. Partitioning of oleic acid into phosphatidylcholine membranes is amplified by strain.

    PubMed

    Mally, Mojca; Peterlin, Primož; Svetina, Saša

    2013-10-10

    Partitioning of fatty acids into phospholipid membranes is studied on giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) utilizing phase-contrast microscopy. With use of a micropipet, an individual GUV is transferred from a vesicle suspension in a mixed glucose/sucrose solution into an isomolar glycerol solution with a small amount of oleic acid added. Oleic acid molecules intercalate into the phospholipid membrane and thus increase the membrane area, while glycerol permeates into the vesicle interior and thus via osmotic inflation causes an increase of the vesicle volume. The conditions are chosen at which a vesicle swells as a sphere. At sufficiently low oleic acid concentrations, when the critical membrane strain is reached, the membrane bursts and part of vesicle content is ejected, upon which the membrane reseals and the swelling commences again. The radius of the vesicle before and after the burst is determined at different concentrations of oleic acid in suspension. The results of our experiments show that the oleic acid partitioning increases when the membrane strain is increased. The observed behavior is interpreted on the basis of a tension-dependent intercalation of oleic acid into the membrane.

  8. Binding and solubility of oleic acid to laboratory materials: A possible artifact

    SciTech Connect

    Mailman, D.; Rose, C. )

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that significant amounts of fatty acids were dissolved in or bound to the surfaces of common laboratory materials was examined. The uptake or adsorption of radioisotopically labeled oleic acid and cholic acid by plastic tubing of Tygon{trademark}, Teflon{trademark}, and polyethylene, and Pyrex{trademark}, and borosilicate glass, and steel was measured. {sup 3}H-oleic acid and {sup 14}C-cholic acid were used in the presence of different concentration of unlabeled oleic acid, cholic acid, and/or bovine serum albumin. Concentrations, composition, pH, and perfusion rates were varied. Relatively large amounts of oleic acid were lost by dissolving in plastic and adsorption to glass or metal. The degree of losses decreased in the presence of compounds in the perfusion solution which could bind or dissolve oleic acid. In contrast, cholic acid was not lost to plastic, glass or metal. The magnitude of and influence of perfusion rate, composition, pH, and sequence of perfusion solutions on oleic acid losses were sufficiently large that the results of certain studies, such as those of unstirred water layers or albumin-stimulated fatty acid uptake by hepatocytes may need to be reexamined.

  9. Effect of NAD on PARP-mediated insulin sensitivity in oleic acid treated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jing; Cui, Ju; Gong, Huan; Xi, Chao; Zhang, Tie-Mei

    2015-07-01

    High serum free fatty acids levels are associated with the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes; however, the precise mechanisms underlying this lipid toxicity are unclear. To investigate whether PARP1 activation and NAD depletion are involved in the impairment of insulin sensitivity associated with lipotoxicity, HepG2 cells were cultured with 500 μM oleic acid for 48 h. Oleic acid-treated cells exhibited increased ROS generation, lipid accumulation and PARP1 activation. Treatment with the PARP1 inhibitor PJ34 and transfection with PARP1 small interfering RNA both prevented the oleic acid-induced impairment of the insulin signaling pathway. Furthermore, treatment with PJ34 reversed the oleic acid-induced decrease in intracellular NAD concentration, while exogenous NAD protected cells against oleic acid-induced insulin insensitivity. Combined NAD and PJ34 administration did not enhance the effects obtained by treatment with either NAD or PJ34 alone. Interestingly, when cells were treated with the SIRT1 inhibitor EX527, the protective effects of PJ34 and NAD treatment were diminished. Taken together, these data suggest that NAD depletion by PARP1 activation is essential for the modulation of insulin sensitivity in oleic acid-induced lipotoxicity.

  10. Oleic acid promotes the expression of neural markers in differentiated human endometrial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kojour, Maryam Ali Mohammadie; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Kouchesfehani, Homa Mohseni; Jalali, Hanieh; Ebrahim, Mohammah Hosein Karbalaie

    2017-01-01

    Variety of neurodegenerative diseases in humans are caused by loss of cells along with loss of function and disability. Cell replacement therapy is a potential strategy to cure neurodegenerative diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells are pluripotent non-hematopoietic cells that can be isolated from numerous tissues. Human endometrial-derived stem cell (hEnSC) are the abundant and easy available source with no immunological response, for cell replacement therapy. In the nervous system, where fatty acids are found in huge amounts, they participate in its development and maintenance throughout life. Oleic acid is a kind of the saturated fatty acids which plays crucial role in brain development. Oleic acid released by astrocytes is used by neurons for the synthesis of phospholipids and is specifically incorporated into growth cones. Human endometrial-derived stem cells in the third passage were divided into 3 groups including: control, sham (cultured in full differentiation medium without oleic acid) and experimental group (cultured in full differentiation medium with oleic acid) to differentiate over a 18-day period. Data from Real-Time PCR showed that mRNA levels of NF and β-TUBULIN were increased significantly (p<0.05) in oleic acid treated cells in comparison to control and sham groups. Immunocytochemistry analysis of Chat and NF expression also showed the same results. The present study clearly demonstrates that oleic acid promotes neural differentiation of hEnSC through regulation of gene expression.

  11. Structural, electronic, thermodynamical and charge transfer properties of Chloramphenicol Palmitate using vibrational spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rashmi; Srivastava, Anubha; Sharma, Anamika; Tandon, Poonam; Baraldi, Cecilia; Gamberini, Maria Christina

    2013-01-01

    The global problem of advancing bacterial resistance to newer drugs has led to renewed interest in the use of Chloramphenicol Palmitate (C27H42Cl2N2O6) [Palmitic acid alpha ester with D-threo-(-),2-dichloro-N-(beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl)acetamide also known as Detereopal]. The characterization of the three polymorphic forms of Chloramphenicol Palmitate (CPP) was done spectroscopically by employing FT-IR and FT-Raman techniques. The equilibrium geometry, various bonding features, and harmonic wavenumbers have been investigated for most stable form A with the help of DFT calculations and a good correlation was found between experimental data and theoretical values. Electronic properties have been analyzed employing TD-DFT for both gaseous and solvent phase. The theoretical calculation of thermodynamical properties along with NBO analysis has also been performed to have a deep insight into the molecule for further applications.

  12. Engineering cytochrome P450 BM3 of Bacillus megaterium for terminal oxidation of palmitic acid.

    PubMed

    Brühlmann, Fredi; Fourage, Laurent; Ullmann, Christophe; Haefliger, Olivier P; Jeckelmann, Nicolas; Dubois, Cédric; Wahler, Denis

    2014-08-20

    Directed evolution via iterative cycles of random and targeted mutagenesis was applied to the P450 domain of the subterminal fatty acid hydroxylase CYP102A1 of Bacillus megaterium to shift its regioselectivity towards the terminal position of palmitic acid. A powerful and versatile high throughput assay based on LC-MS allowed the simultaneous detection of primary and secondary oxidation products, which was instrumental for identifying variants with a strong preference for the terminal oxidation of palmitic acid. The best variants identified acquired up to 11 amino acid alterations. Substitutions at F87, I263, and A328, relatively close to the bound substrate based on available crystallographic information contributed significantly to the altered regioselectivity. However, non-obvious residues much more distant from the bound substrate showed surprising strong contributions to the increased selectivity for the terminal position of palmitic acid.

  13. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients.

  14. Physical activity is associated with retained muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with palmitate.

    PubMed

    Green, C J; Bunprajun, T; Pedersen, B K; Scheele, C

    2013-09-15

      The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity is associated with preserved muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with saturated fatty acids. Human muscle satellite cells were isolated from sedentary or active individuals and differentiated into myocytes in culture. Metabolic differences were then investigated in the basal state or after chronic palmitate treatment. At basal, myocytes from sedentary individuals exhibited higher CD36 and HSP70 protein expression as well as elevated phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) serine(307) compared to myocytes from active individuals. Despite equal lipid accumulation following palmitate treatment, myocytes from sedentary individuals exhibited delayed acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase phosphorylation compared to the active group. Myocytes from sedentary individuals had significantly higher basal glucose uptake and palmitate promoted insulin resistance in sedentary myocytes. Importantly, myocytes from active individuals were partially protected from palmitate-induced insulin resistance. Palmitate treatment enhanced IRS1 serine307 phosphorylation in myocytes from sedentary individuals and correlated positively to JNK phosphorylation. In conclusion, muscle satellite cells retain metabolic differences associated with physical activity. Physical activity partially protects myocytes from fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and inactivity is associated with dysregulation of metabolism in satellite cells challenged with palmitate. Although the benefits of physical activity on whole body physiology have been well investigated, this paper presents novel findings that both diet and exercise impact satellite cells directly. Given the fact that satellite cells are important for muscle maintenance, a dysregulated function could have profound effects on health. Therefore the effects of lifestyle on satellite cells needs to be delineated.

  15. Effects of lipids and oleic acid on biomass development in anaerobic fixed-bed reactors. Part II: Oleic acid toxicity and biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Alves, M M; Vieira, J A; Pereira, R M; Pereira, M A; Mota, M

    2001-01-01

    Oleic acid toxicity and biodegradability were followed during long-term operation of two similar anaerobic fixed-bed units. When treating an oleate based effluent, the sludge from the bioreactor that was acclimated with lipids during the first operation period, showed a higher tolerance to oleic acid toxicity (IC50 = 137 mg/l) compared with the sludge fed with a non-fat substrate (IC50 = 80 mg/l). This sludge showed also the highest biodegradation capacity of oleic acid, achieving maximum methane production rates between 33 and 46 mlCH4(STP)/gVS.day and maximum percentages of methanization between 85 and 98% for the range of concentrations between 500 and 900 mg oleate/l. When oleate was the sole carbon source fed to both digesters, the biomass became encapsulated with organic matter, possibly oleate or an intermediate of its degradation, e.g. stearate that was degraded at a maximum rate of 99 mlCH4(STP)/gVS.day. This suggests the possibility of using adsorption-degradation cycles for the treatment of LCFA based effluents. Both tolerance to toxicity and biodegradability of oleic acid were improved by acclimatization with lipids or oleate below a threshold concentration.

  16. Palmitic acid but not palmitoleic acid induces insulin resistance in a human endothelial cell line by decreasing SERCA pump expression.

    PubMed

    Gustavo Vazquez-Jimenez, J; Chavez-Reyes, Jesus; Romero-Garcia, Tatiana; Zarain-Herzberg, Angel; Valdes-Flores, Jesus; Manuel Galindo-Rosales, J; Rueda, Angelica; Guerrero-Hernandez, Agustin; Olivares-Reyes, J Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Palmitic acid is a negative regulator of insulin activity. At the molecular level, palmitic acid reduces insulin stimulated Akt Ser473 phosphorylation. Interestingly, we have found that incubation with palmitic acid of human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced a biphasic effect, an initial transient elevation followed by a sustained reduction of SERCA pump protein levels. However, palmitic acid produced a sustained inhibition of SERCA pump ATPase activity. Insulin resistance state appeared before there was a significant reduction of SERCA2 expression. The mechanism by which palmitic acid impairs insulin signaling may involve endoplasmic reticulum stress, because this fatty acid induced activation of both PERK, an ER stress marker, and JNK, a kinase associated with insulin resistance. None of these effects were observed by incubating HUVEC-CS cells with palmitoleic acid. Importantly, SERCA2 overexpression decreased the palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance state. All these results suggest that SERCA pump might be the target of palmitic acid to induce the insulin resistance state in a human vascular endothelial cell line. Importantly, these data suggest that HUVEC-CS cells respond to palmitic acid-exposure with a compensatory overexpression of SERCA pump within the first hour, which eventually fades out and insulin resistance prevails.

  17. A complex of equine lysozyme and oleic acid with bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Emily A; Wilhelm, Kristina R; Schleucher, Jürgen; Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A; Hakansson, Anders P

    2013-01-01

    HAMLET and ELOA are complexes consisting of oleic acid and two homologous, yet functionally different, proteins with cytotoxic activities against mammalian cells, with HAMLET showing higher tumor cells specificity, possibly due to the difference in propensity for oleic acid binding, as HAMLET binds 5-8 oleic acid molecules per protein molecule and ELOA binds 11-48 oleic acids. HAMLET has been shown to possess bactericidal activity against a number of bacterial species, particularly those with a respiratory tropism, with Streptococcus pneumoniae displaying the greatest degree of sensitivity. We show here that ELOA also displays bactericidal activity against pneumococci, which at lower concentrations shows mechanistic similarities to HAMLET's bactericidal activity. ELOA binds to S. pneumoniae and causes perturbations of the plasma membrane, including depolarization and subsequent rupture, and activates an influx of calcium into the cells. Selective inhibition of calcium channels and sodium/calcium exchange activity significantly diminished ELOA's bactericidal activity, similar to what we have observed with HAMLET. Finally, ELOA-induced death was also accompanied by DNA fragmentation into high molecular weight fragments - an apoptosis-like morphological phenotype that is seen during HAMLET-induced death. Thus, in contrast to different mechanisms of eukaryote cell death induced by ELOA and HAMLET, these complexes are characterized by rather similar activities towards bacteria. Although the majority of these events could be mimicked using oleic acid alone, the concentrations of oleic acid required were significantly higher than those present in the ELOA complex, and for some assays, the results were not identical between oleic acid alone and the ELOA complex. This indicates that the lipid, as a common denominator in both complexes, is an important component for the complexes' bactericidal activities, while the proteins are required both to solubilize and/or present the

  18. Investigation into the Coating and Desensitization Effect on HNIW of Paraffin Wax/Stearic Acid Composite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Xu; Chen, Shu-Sen; Jin, Shao-Hua; Shu, Qing-Hai; Jiang, Zhen-Ming; Shang, Feng-Qin; Li, Jin-Xin

    2016-01-01

    2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW) was bonded by fluorine rubber and then desensitized by paraffin wax (PW), stearic acid (SA), and a PW/SA composite system using an aqueous suspension method. The coating and desensitization effects of the composite systems on HNIW and the influence of the addition of SA on the mechanical properties of the coated HNIW samples were studied. In addition, the PW/SA composite solution was simulated using a molecular dynamics method, and the relationship between the desensitization effect on HNIW and the properties of the composite solution was investigated. The results showed that the PW/SA composite system, of which the desensitization effect on HNIW was between those of the two desensitizers, could effectively coat HNIW and that the composite solution had the most stable and well-distributed state when using benzene as solvent with the mass ratio of PW/SA equal to 7/3 or 3/7, thus resulting in the best desensitization effect on HNIW. Moreover, the addition of stearic acid was successful in enhancing the mechanical properties of the coated HNIW samples.

  19. Preparation of Mg-MgH2 flakes by planetary ball milling with stearic acid and their hydrogen storage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seong-Hyeon; Song, Myoung Youp

    2016-05-01

    Many studies preparing magnesium hydride using catalyst addition were performed, resulting in the preparation of additive-containing magnesium hydride. Preparation of a sample with a MgH2 phase without additives requires high pressure and high temperature and is time-demanding. In order to prepare an additive-free sample with a MgH2 phase, 90 wt% Mg+10 wt% MgH2 (named 90Mg+10MgH2) was milled under a hydrogen atmosphere with 6 wt% stearic acid as a process-controlling agent, which led to a formation of Mg-MgH2 flakes. The hydrogen storing and releasing properties of the prepared flakes were investigated and compared with those of purchased MgH2. A sample with a majority fraction of MgH2 phase was prepared by planetary ball milling of 90 Mg+10 MgH2 with 6 wt% stearic acid. The resultant particles of 90 Mg+10 MgH2 obtained after hydridingdehydriding cycling were much smaller and had significantly more cracks and defects than those of MgH2 after hydriding-dehydriding cycling. 90 Mg+10 MgH2 released 0.12 wt% hydrogen for 4 min, 3.70 wt% for 20 min, and 5.30 wt% for 60 min at 648 K at the first cycle.

  20. A Robust Epoxy Resins @ Stearic Acid-Mg(OH)2 Micronanosheet Superhydrophobic Omnipotent Protective Coating for Real-Life Applications.

    PubMed

    Si, Yifan; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2016-06-29

    Superhydrophobic coating has extremely high application value and practicability. However, some difficult problems such as weak mechanical strength, the need for expensive toxic reagents, and a complex preparation process are all hard to avoid, and these problems have impeded the superhydrophobic coating's real-life application for a long time. Here, we demonstrate one kind of omnipotent epoxy resins @ stearic acid-Mg(OH)2 superhydrophobic coating via a simple antideposition route and one-step superhydrophobization process. The whole preparation process is facile, and expensive toxic reagents needed. This omnipotent coating can be applied on any solid substrate with great waterproof ability, excellent mechanical stability, and chemical durability, which can be stored in a realistic environment for more than 1 month. More significantly, this superhydrophobic coating also has four protective abilities, antifouling, anticorrosion, anti-icing, and flame-retardancy, to cope with a variety of possible extreme natural environments. Therefore, this omnipotent epoxy resins @ stearic acid-Mg(OH)2 superhydrophobic coating not only satisfies real-life need but also has great application potential in many respects.

  1. GLP1 protects cardiomyocytes from palmitate-induced apoptosis via Akt/GSK3b/b-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Ying, Ying; Zhu, Huazhang; Liang, Zhen; Ma, Xiaosong; Li, Shiwei

    2015-12-01

    Activation of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes by saturated palmitic acids contributes to cardiac dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Beta-catenin (b-catenin) is a transcriptional regulator of several genes involved in survival/anti-apoptosis. However, its role in palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains unclear. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) has been shown to exhibit potential cardioprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the role of b-catenin signalling in palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effects of GLP1 on palmitate-stressed cardiomyocytes. Exposure of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to palmitate increased the fatty acid transporter CD36-mediated intracellular lipid accumulation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, decreased accumulation and nuclear translocation of active b-catenin, and reduced expression of b-catenin target protein survivin and BCL2. These detrimental effects of palmitate were significantly attenuated by GLP1 co-treatment. However, the anti-apoptotic effects of GLP1 were markedly abolished when b-catenin was silenced with a specific short hairpin RNA. Furthermore, analysis of the upstream molecules and mechanisms responsible for GLP1-associated cardiac protection revealed that GLP1 restored the decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase-3b (GSK3b) in palmitate-stimulated cardiomyocytes. In contrast, inhibition of Akt with an Akt-specific inhibitor MK2206 or blockade of GLP1 receptor (GLP1R) with a competitive antagonist exendin-(9-39) significantly abrogated the GLP1-mediated activation of GSK3b/b-catenin signalling, leading to increased apoptosis in palmitate-stressed cardiomyocytes. Collectively, our results demonstrated for the first time that the attenuated b-catenin signalling may contribute to palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, while GLP1 can protect cardiomyocytes from palmitate-induced apoptosis through

  2. Expected genetic response for oleic acid content in pork.

    PubMed

    Ros-Freixedes, R; Reixach, J; Tor, M; Estany, J

    2012-12-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) and oleic acid (C18:1) content in pork are important issues for the pig industry and consumers. Data from a purebred Duroc line were used to i) estimate the genetic parameters of IMF and C18:1 and their genetic correlations with lean growth components, and ii) evaluate the opportunities for genetically improving C18:1 in IMF. The data set used for estimating genetic parameters consisted of 93,920 pigs, from which 85,194 had at least 1 record for BW or backfat thickness (BT) at 180 d and 943 for IMF and C18:1 at 205 d. Intramuscular fat content and C18:1, expressed as percentage of total fatty acids, were determined in the gluteus medius muscle by gas chromatography. Genetic parameters for C18:1 were estimated under a Bayesian 4-trait multivariate animal mixed model. Heritability of C18:1 was 0.50, with a probability of 95% of being greater than 0.37. Genetic correlations of C18:1 with BW, BT, and IMF were 0.11, 0.22, and 0.47, respectively (with a probability of 95% of being greater than -0.07, 0.04, and 0.27, respectively). Genetic responses were evaluated by deterministic simulation using a half-sib recording scheme for C18:1 and the previously estimated parameters. The C18:1 content is expected to exhibit only minor changes in selection programs directed at growth rate but to decrease in those focusing on lean content. Maximum expected response in C18:1 at no lean growth loss (i.e., at no change in BW and BT) was 0.44%, with a resulting correlated response in IMF of 0.15%. However, because lean growth is emphasized in the breeding goal, the resulting response scenarios are more constrained. We concluded that there is evidence to support the idea that C18:1 in IMF is genetically determined and defined selection strategies can lead to response scenarios in which C18:1, IMF, BT, and BW can be simultaneously improved. However, if adopted, the potential for lean growth would be reduced. The extent to which it is affordable relies on how much

  3. Induction of micronuclei by palmitic acid and its unique radiolytic product 2-dodecylcyclobutanone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Palmitic acid (PA), one of the most abundant fatty acids in the human diet, can cause oxidative stress, DNA strand breakage, cellular necrosis and apoptosis in human and rodent cells in vitro. Radiolysis of PA leads to the formation of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB), a unique radiolytic product for...

  4. Autophagy Protects against Palmitic Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Podocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xu-Shun; Chen, Xue-Mei; Wan, Jiang-Min; Gui, Hai-Bo; Ruan, Xiong-Zhong; Du, Xiao-Gang

    2017-02-22

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation process that is involved in the clearance of proteins and damaged organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis and cell integrity. Type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by dyslipidemia with elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs). Podocytes, as an important component of the filtration barrier, are susceptible to lipid disorders. The loss of podocytes causes proteinuria, which is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid (PA) promoted autophagy in podocytes. We further found that PA increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in podocytes and that NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine), a potent antioxidant, significantly eliminated the excessive ROS and suppressed autophagy, indicating that the increased generation of ROS was associated with the palmitic acid-induced autophagy in podocytes. Moreover, we also found that PA stimulation decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in podocytes and induced podocyte apoptosis, while the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine (CQ) enhanced palmitic acid-induced apoptosis accompanied by increased ROS generation, and the stimulation of autophagy by rapamycin (Rap) remarkably suppressed palmitic acid-induced ROS generation and apoptosis. Taken together, these in vitro findings suggest that PA-induced autophagy in podocytes is mediated by ROS production and that autophagy plays a protective role against PA-induced podocyte apoptosis.

  5. Preparation of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles from amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Fanta, George F; Kenar, James A; Felker, Frederick C; Byars, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-30

    Starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate helical inclusion complexes by first converting sodium palmitate within the amylose helix to silver palmitate by an ion-exchange reaction with silver nitrate, and then reducing the complexed silver palmitate salt with NaBH(4). This process yielded stable aqueous solutions that could be dried and then re-dispersed in water for end-use applications. Reaction products were characterized by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), UV-VIS spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, TEM, SEM and light microscopy. Addition of acid to reduce the pH of aqueous starch-AgNP solutions produced an increase in viscosity, and nearly quantitative precipitation of starch-AgNP was observed at low pH. Smaller AgNP and higher conversions of silver nitrate to water-soluble starch-AgNP were obtained in this process, as compared with a process carried out under similar conditions using a commercial soluble starch as a stabilizer.

  6. Autophagy Protects against Palmitic Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Podocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xu-shun; Chen, Xue-mei; Wan, Jiang-min; Gui, Hai-bo; Ruan, Xiong-zhong; Du, Xiao-gang

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation process that is involved in the clearance of proteins and damaged organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis and cell integrity. Type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by dyslipidemia with elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs). Podocytes, as an important component of the filtration barrier, are susceptible to lipid disorders. The loss of podocytes causes proteinuria, which is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid (PA) promoted autophagy in podocytes. We further found that PA increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in podocytes and that NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine), a potent antioxidant, significantly eliminated the excessive ROS and suppressed autophagy, indicating that the increased generation of ROS was associated with the palmitic acid-induced autophagy in podocytes. Moreover, we also found that PA stimulation decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in podocytes and induced podocyte apoptosis, while the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine (CQ) enhanced palmitic acid-induced apoptosis accompanied by increased ROS generation, and the stimulation of autophagy by rapamycin (Rap) remarkably suppressed palmitic acid-induced ROS generation and apoptosis. Taken together, these in vitro findings suggest that PA-induced autophagy in podocytes is mediated by ROS production and that autophagy plays a protective role against PA-induced podocyte apoptosis. PMID:28225005

  7. Quantitative measurement of ligand exchange on iron oxides via radiolabeled oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kathleen; Qi, Bin; Witmer, Michael; Kitchens, Christopher L; Powell, Brian A; Mefford, O Thompson

    2014-09-16

    Ligand exchange of hydrophilic molecules on the surface of hydrophobic iron oxide nanoparticles produced via thermal decomposition of chelated iron precursors is a common method for producing aqueous suspensions of particles for biomedical applications. Despite the wide use, relatively little is understood about the efficiency of ligand exchange on the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles and how much of the hydrophobic ligand is removed. To address this issue, we utilized a radiotracer technique to track the exchange of a radiolabeled (14)C-oleic acid ligand with hydrophilic ligands on the surface of magnetite nanoparticles. Iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with (14)C-oleic acid were modified with poly(ethylene glycol) with terminal functional groups including, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, a nitrated L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, carboxylic acid, a phosphonate, and an amine. Following ligand exchange, the nanoparticles and byproducts were analyzed using liquid scintillation counting and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The labeled and unlabeled particles were further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering to determine particle size, hydrodynamic diameter, and zeta potential. The unlabeled particles were characterized via thermogravimetric analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry. Radioanalytical determination of the (14)C from (14)C-oleic acid was used to calculate the amount of oleic acid remaining on the surface of the particles after purification and ligand exchange. There was a significant loss of oleic acid on the surface of the particles after ligand exchange with amounts varying for the different functional binding groups on the poly(ethylene glycol). Nonetheless, all samples demonstrated some residual oleic acid associated with the particles. Quantification of the oleic acid remaining after ligand exchange reveals a binding hierarchy in which catechol derived anchor groups displace oleic acid on

  8. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  9. Pulmonary vasoconstriction in oleic acid induced lung injury. A morphometric study.

    PubMed Central

    Grotjohan, H. P.; van der Heijde, R. M.; Wagenvoort, C. A.; Wagenvoort, N.; Versprille, A.

    1993-01-01

    Distribution and severity of active vasoconstriction of muscular pulmonary arteries were morphometrically assessed in anaesthetized, paralysed and mechanically ventilated pigs with respiratory distress, induced by oleic acid. Vasoconstriction was deduced from the medial thickness which was measured and expressed as a percentage of external diameter. Six pigs received oleic acid (0.12 +/- 0.07 ml/kg), dissolved 1:1 in 96% alcohol, in multiple injections of 0.1 ml. Six pigs were used as controls. After the oleic acid injections a stable hypoxaemia (PaO2 = 57 +/- 8 mmHg, at an inspiratory oxygen fraction of 0.6) and pulmonary hypertension (mean Ppa = 36 +/- 2 mmHg) were obtained for several hours. Electron microscopy revealed swelling of endothelial cells with signs of degeneration. Medial thickness was far greater in the oleic acid group than in the control group; overall mean values were 8.1 +/- 3.2 and 3.8 +/- 1.7% respectively (P < 0.001). Arteries with prominent vasoconstriction were lying in clusters. This pattern was the same in dependent and non-dependent regions. We concluded that in oleic acid induced respiratory distress active vasoconstriction of muscular pulmonary arteries is an important factor in the development of pulmonary hypertension. Besides vasoconstriction, endothelial swelling and intravascular clotting may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypertension. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8398807

  10. Differential regulation of ABCA1 and macrophage cholesterol efflux by elaidic and oleic acids.

    PubMed

    Shao, Fei; Ford, David A

    2013-08-01

    Trans fatty acid consumption is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. This increased risk has been attributed to decreased levels of HDL cholesterol and increased levels of LDL cholesterol. However, the mechanism by which trans fatty acid modulates cholesterol transit remains poorly defined. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-mediated macrophage cholesterol efflux is the rate-limiting step initiating apolipoprotein A-I lipidation. In this study, elaidic acid, the most abundant trans fatty acid in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, was shown to stabilize macrophage ABCA1 protein levels in comparison to that of its cis fatty acid isomer, oleic acid. The mechanism responsible for the disparate effects of oleic and elaidic acid on ABCA1 levels was through accelerated ABCA1 protein degradation in cells treated with oleic acid. In contrast, no apparent differences were observed in ABCA1 mRNA levels, and only minor changes were observed in Liver X receptor/Retinoic X receptor promoter activity in cells treated with elaidic and oleic acid. Efflux of both tracers and cholesterol mass revealed that elaidic acid slightly increased ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux, while oleic acid led to decreased ABCA1-mediated efflux. In conclusion, these studies show that cis and trans structural differences in 18 carbon n-9 monoenoic fatty acids variably impact cholesterol efflux through disparate effects on ABCA1 protein degradation.

  11. Effects of chemical and enzymatic modifications on starch-oleic acid complex formation.

    PubMed

    Arijaje, Emily Oluwaseun; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2015-04-29

    The solubility of starch-inclusion complexes affects the digestibility and bioavailability of the included molecules. Acetylation with two degrees of substitution, 0.041 (low) and 0.091 (high), combined without or with a β-amylase treatment was employed to improve the yield and solubility of the inclusion complex between debranched potato starch and oleic acid. Both soluble and insoluble complexes were recovered and analyzed for their degree of acetylation, complexation yields, molecular size distributions, X-ray diffraction patterns, and thermal properties. Acetylation significantly increased the amount of recovered soluble complexes as well as the complexed oleic acid in both soluble and insoluble complexes. High-acetylated debranched-only starch complexed the highest amount of oleic acid (38.0 mg/g) in the soluble complexes; low-acetylated starch with or without the β-amylase treatment resulted in the highest complexed oleic acid in the insoluble complexes (37.6-42.9 mg/g). All acetylated starches displayed the V-type X-ray pattern, and the melting temperature generally decreased with acetylation. The results indicate that starch acetylation with or without the β-amylase treatment can improve the formation and solubility of the starch-oleic acid complex.

  12. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids increase ros production by fibroblasts via NADPH oxidase activation.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47 (phox) phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47 (phox) mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts.

  13. Calcium Uptake via Mitochondrial Uniporter Contributes to Palmitic Acid-induced Apoptosis in Mouse Podocytes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zeting; Cao, Aili; Liu, Hua; Guo, Henjiang; Zang, Yingjun; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yunman; Wang, Hao; Yin, Peihao; Peng, Wen

    2017-02-09

    Podocytes are component cells of the glomerular filtration barrier, and their loss by apoptosis is the main cause of proteinuria that leads to diabetic nephropathy (DN). Therefore, insights into podocyte apoptosis mechanism would allow a better understanding of DN pathogenesis and thus help develop adequate therapeutic strategies. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of palmitic acid-inhibited cell death in mouse podocytes, and found that palmitic acid increased cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Palmitic acid induces apoptosis in podocytes through up-regulation of cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) , mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cytochrome c release and depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) , The intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N, N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), partially prevented this up-regulation whereas 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibitor; dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor (RyR) inhibitor; and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostibene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), an anion exchange inhibitor, had no effect. Interestingly, ruthenium red and Ru360, both inhibitors of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), blocked palmitic acid-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) elevation, cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol, and apoptosis. siRNA to MCU markedly reduced curcumin-induced apoptosis. These data indicate that Ca(2+) uptake via mitochondrial uniporter contributes to palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in mouse podocytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Subcutaneous adipocytes promote melanoma cell growth by activating the Akt signaling pathway: role of palmitic acid.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Hiu Yee; Fu, Xiuqiong; Liu, Bin; Chao, Xiaojuan; Chan, Chi Leung; Cao, Huihui; Su, Tao; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Fong, Wang Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2014-10-31

    Tumorigenesis involves constant communication between tumor cells and neighboring normal cells such as adipocytes. The canonical function of adipocytes is to store triglyceride and release fatty acids for other tissues. This study was aimed to find out if adipocytes promoted melanoma cell growth and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Here we isolated adipocytes from inguinal adipose tissue in mice and co-cultured with melanoma cells. We found that the co-cultured melanoma had higher lipid accumulation compared with mono-cultured melanoma. In addition, fluorescently labeled fatty acid BODIPY® FLC16 signal was detected in melanoma co-cultured with the adipocytes that had been loaded with the fluorescent dye, suggesting that the adipocytes provide fatty acids to melanoma cells. Compared with mono-cultured melanoma, co-cultured melanoma cells had a higher proliferation and phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) expression. Overexpression of Akt mutants in melanoma cells reduced the co-culture-enhanced proliferation. A lipidomic study showed that the co-cultured melanoma had an elevated palmitic acid level. Interestingly, we found that palmitic acid stimulated melanoma cell proliferation, changed the cell cycle distribution, and increased phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) and PI3K but not phospho-PTEN (phosphophosphatase and tensin homolog) expressions. More importantly, the palmitic acid-stimulated proliferation was further enhanced in the Akt-overexpressed melanoma cells and was reduced by LY294002 or knockdown of endogenous Akt or overexpression of Akt mutants. We also found that palmitic acid-pretreated B16F10 cells were grown to a significantly larger tumor in mice compared with control cells. Taken together, we suggest that adipocytes may serve as an exogenous source of palmitic acid that promotes melanoma cell growth by activating Akt.

  15. Reduction of immunosuppression in UV-irradiated mice by dietary retinyl palmitate plus canthaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Gensler, H L

    1989-01-01

    The ability of dietary retinyl palmitate, canthaxanthin or the combination of both, to prevent induction of immunosuppression by UVB irradiation was tested by passive transfer of splenocytes. The basal diet was the American Institute of Nutrition diet 76A, containing 4 IU retinyl palmitate/g diet. Groups of 55 mice were fed this basal diet alone, or supplemented with 120 IU retinyl palmitate/g diet, 1% canthaxanthin or the combination of both. After 18 weeks of these diets, UVB radiation treatments began. The UVB radiation source was a bank of six unfiltered Westinghouse FS40 lamps which delivered an average dose of 4.6 J/m2/s over the wavelength range of 280-340 nm. After 27.5 weeks of UV treatments, and approximately 1.14 X 10(6) J/m2, spleens were removed from mice and used as sources of splenocytes for passive transfer into naive recipients. These recipients were then challenged with an immunogenic, syngeneic UV-induced tumor (UV20). Approximately twice as many tumor challenges grew in recipients of splenocytes from UV-irradiated (19/20), as compared with unirradiated (11/20) donors fed the basal diet. Transfer of splenocytes from UV-irradiated donors fed the basal diet admixed with 1% canthaxanthin, 120 IU retinyl palmitate/g diet or the combination, resulted in 16/20, 13/20 and 10/20 growing tumors, respectively. These values were insignificantly (P = 0.25), marginally (P = 0.054) or significantly (P less than 0.02) different from the positive control value, respectively. Thus, dietary supplementation with retinyl palmitate plus canthaxanthin prevented the transfer of UV-induced immunosuppression with splenocytes from UV-irradiated mice.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of gentamicin palmitate against high concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kittinger, Clemens; Marth, Egon; Windhager, Reinhard; Weinberg, Annelie M; Zarfel, Gernot; Baumert, Rita; Felisch, Susanne; Kuehn, Klaus-Dieter

    2011-06-01

    The reduction of implant related infections plays a pivotal role in orthopaedic surgery as an increasing number of people require implants (up to 200,000 per year in the United States (source: Joint Implant Surgery & Research Foundation 2010)). The aim of the current study is to prevent and thus decrease the number of bacterial infections. Both pre and post operative systemic antibiotic treatment and gentamicin containing bone cements (polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA) are commonly used strategies to overcome infections. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of gentamicin sulfate loaded bone cement was compared with titan discs coated with a new form of gentamicin, gentamicin palmitate. Adherence prevention, killing rates and killing kinetics were compared in an in vitro model, using Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), which together with Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) represents 60% of bacteria found responsible for hip implant infections (An and Friedman, 1996, J Hosp Infect 33(2):93-108). In our experiments gentamicin, which was applied as gentamicin palmitate on the surface of the implants, showed a high efficacy in eliminating bacteria. In contrast to gentamicin sulfate containing bone cements, gentamicin palmitate is released over a shorter period of time thus not inducing antibiotic resistance. Another benefit for clinical application is that it achieves high local levels of active ingredient which fight early infections and minimize toxic side effects. Furthermore, the short term hydrophobic effect of gentamicin palmitate can successfully impede biofilm formation. Thus, the use of self-adhesive antibiotic fatty acid complexes like gentamicin palmitate represents a new option for the anti-infective coating of cementless titan implants.

  17. Docosahexaenoic acid-induced amelioration on impairment of memory learning in amyloid beta-infused rats relates to the decreases of amyloid beta and cholesterol levels in detergent-insoluble membrane fractions.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Michio; Hossain, Shahdat; Agdul, Haqu; Shido, Osamu

    2005-12-30

    We investigated the effects of dietary administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) on the levels of amyloid beta (A beta) peptide (1-40) and cholesterol in the nonionic detergent Triton 100 x-insoluble membrane fractions (DIFs) of the cerebral cortex and, also, on learning-related memory in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats infused with A beta peptide (1-40) into the cerebral ventricle. The infusion increased the levels of A beta peptide and cholesterol in the DIFs concurrently with a significant increase in reference memory errors (measured by eight-arm radial-maze tasks) compared with those of vehicle rats. Conversely, the dietary administration of DHA to AD-model rats decreased the levels of A beta peptide and cholesterol in the DIFs, with the decrease being more prominent in the DHA-administered rats. Regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between A beta peptide and each of cholesterol, palmitic acid and stearic acid, and between the number of reference memory errors and each of cholesterol, palmitic, stearic and oleic acid; moreover, a significant negative correlation was observed between the number of reference memory errors and the molar ratio of DHA to palmitic plus stearic acid. These results suggest that DHA-induced protection of memory deficits in AD-model rats is related to the interactions of cholesterol, palmitic acid or stearic acid with A beta peptides in DIFs where DHA ameliorates these interactions.

  18. Lipidomic evidence that lowering the typical dietary palmitate to oleate ratio in humans decreases the leukocyte production of proinflammatory cytokines and muscle expression of redox-sensitive genes.

    PubMed

    Kien, C Lawrence; Bunn, Janice Y; Fukagawa, Naomi K; Anathy, Vikas; Matthews, Dwight E; Crain, Karen I; Ebenstein, David B; Tarleton, Emily K; Pratley, Richard E; Poynter, Matthew E

    2015-12-01

    We recently reported that lowering the high, habitual palmitic acid (PA) intake in ovulating women improved insulin sensitivity and both inflammatory and oxidative stress. In vitro studies indicate that PA can activate both cell membrane toll-like receptor-4 and the intracellular nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor protein (NLRP3). To gain further insight into the relevance to human metabolic disease of dietary PA, we studied healthy, lean and obese adults enrolled in a randomized, crossover trial comparing 3-week, high-PA (HPA) and low-PA/high-oleic-acid (HOA) diets. After each diet, both hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivities were measured, and we assessed cytokine concentrations in plasma and in supernatants derived from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as well as proinflammatory gene expression in skeletal muscle. Insulin sensitivity was unaffected by diet. Plasma concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α was higher during the HPA diet. Lowering the habitually high PA intake by feeding the HOA diet resulted in lower secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α by PBMCs, as well as lower relative mRNA expression of cJun and NLRP3 in muscle. Principal components analysis of 156 total variables coupled to analysis of covariance indicated that the mechanistic pathway for the differential dietary effects on PBMCs involved changes in the PA/OA ratio of tissue lipids. Our results indicate that lowering the dietary and tissue lipid PA/OA ratio resulted in lower leukocyte production of proinflammatory cytokines and muscle expression of redox-sensitive genes, but the relevance to diabetes risk is uncertain.

  19. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with a bilayer of oleic acid for magnetic hyperthermia and MRI applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Paula I. P.; Laia, César A. T.; Carvalho, Alexandra; Pereira, Laura C. J.; Coutinho, Joana T.; Ferreira, Isabel M. M.; Novo, Carlos M. M.; Borges, João Paulo

    2016-10-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4, IONPs) are promising candidates for several biomedical applications such as magnetic hyperthermia and as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their colloidal stability in physiological conditions hinders their application requiring the use of biocompatible surfactant agents. The present investigation focuses on obtaining highly stable IONPs, stabilized by the presence of an oleic acid bilayer. Critical aspects such as oleic acid concentration and pH were optimized to ensure maximum stability. NPs composed of an iron oxide core with an average diameter of 9 nm measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) form agglomerates with an hydrodynamic diameter of around 170 nm when dispersed in water in the presence of an oleic acid bilayer, remaining stable (zeta potential of -120 mV). Magnetic hyperthermia and the relaxivities measurements show high efficiency at neutral pH which enables their use for both magnetic hyperthermia and MRI.

  20. Preparation and evaluation of SiO2-deposited stearic acid-g-chitosan nanoparticles for doxorubicin delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hong; Bao, Xin; Du, Yong-Zhong; You, Jian; Hu, Fu-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Both polymer micelles and mesoporous silica nanoparticles have been widely researched as vectors for small molecular insoluble drugs. To combine the advantages of copolymers and silica, studies on the preparation of copolymer-silica composites and cellular evaluation were carried out. Methods: First, a stearic acid-g-chitosan (CS-SA) copolymer was synthesized through a coupling reaction, and then silicone oxide (SiO2)-deposited doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded stearic acid-g-chitosan (CS-SA/SiO2/DOX) nanoparticles were prepared through the sol-gel reaction. Physical and chemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential, and morphologies were examined, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis was employed to identify the mesoporous structures of the generated nanoparticles. Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity studies were also conducted. Results: CS-SA/SiO2/DOX nanoparticles with different amounts of SiO2 deposited were obtained, and SAXS studies showed that mesoporous structures existed in the CS-SA/SiO2/DOX nanoparticles. The mesoporous size of middle-ratio and high-ratio deposited CS-SA/SiO2/DOX nanoparticles were 4–5 nm and 8–10 nm, respectively. Based on transmission electron microscopy images of CS-SA/SiO2/DOX nanoparticles, dark rings around the nanoparticles could be observed in contrast with CS-SA/DOX micelles. Furthermore, CS-SA/SiO2/DOX nanoparticles exhibited faster release behavior in vitro than CS-SA/DOX micelles; cellular uptake research in A549 indicated that the CS-SA/SiO2/DOX nanoparticles were taken up by A549 cells more rapidly, and that CS-SA/SiO2/DOX nanoparticles entered the cell more easily when the amount of SiO2 was higher. IC50 values of CS-SA/DOX micelles, CS-SA/SiO2/DOX-4, CS-SA/SiO2/DOX-8, and CS-SA/SiO2/DOX-16 nanoparticles against A549 cells measured using the MTT assay were 1.69, 0.93, 0.32, and 0.12 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: SiO2-deposited stearic acid-g-chitosan organic–inorganic composites show promise

  1. In vitro inhibition of human neutrophil elastase by oleic acid albumin formulations from derivatized cotton wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J Vincent; Howley, Phyllis; Cohen, I Kelman

    2004-10-13

    Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is elevated in chronic wounds. Oleic acid albumin formulations that inhibit HNE may be applicable to treatment modalities for chronic wounds. Oleic acid/albumin formulations with mole ratios of 100:1, 50:1, and 25:1 (oleic acid to albumin) were prepared and found to have dose response inhibition properties against HNE. The IC50 values for inhibition of HNE with oleic acid/albumin formulations were 0.029-0.049 microM. Oleic acid/albumin (BSA) formulations were bound to positively and negatively charged cotton wound dressings and assessed for elastase inhibition using a fiber bound formulation in an assay designed to mimic HNE inhibition in the wound. Cotton derivatized with both carboxylate and amine functional groups were combined with oleic acid/albumin formulations at a maximum loading of 0.030 mg oleic acid + 0.14 mg BSA/mg fiber. The IC50 values for inhibition of HNE with oleic acid/albumin formulations bound to derivatized cotton were 0.26-0.42 microM. Release of the oleic acid/albumin formulation from the fiber was measured by measuring oleic acid levels with quantitative GC analysis. Approximately, 35-50% of the fiber bound formulation was released into solution within the first 15 min of incubation. Albumin was found to enhance the rate of elastase hydrolysis of the substrate within a concentration range of 0.3-50 g/L. The acceleration of HNE substrate hydrolysis by albumin required increased concentration of inhibitor in the formulation to obtain complete inhibition of HNE. Oleic acid formulations prepared with albumin enable transport, solubility and promote dose response inhibition of HNE from derivatized cotton fibers under aqueous conditions mimicking the chronic wound.

  2. Phase transfer of oleic acid stabilized rod-shaped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Rachel J.; Elder, Theresa; Sowinksi, Olivia; Fostvedt, Jade I.; Hoefelmeyer, James D.

    2016-06-01

    Three methods were evaluated for phase transfer of oleic acid stabilized TiO2 nanorods from non-polar phase to an aqueous phase. Three alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (C6, C8, C12) surfactants were tested and compared with an amphiphilic polymer as interdigitation agents. Ligand substitutions with catechol derivatives with polar functional groups para to the -enediol were evaluated as well. The molecular surfactants were ineffective compared to the amphiphilic polymer in the interdigitation phase transfer approach. Ligand substitution with catechols proceeded efficiently with phase transfer. The ligand substitution reactions were accompanied by gas evolution, which was found to result from decarboxylation of oleic acid in alkaline aqueous conditions.

  3. Photodegradation of Stearic Acid Adsorbed on Superhydrophilic TiO2 Surface: In Situ FT-IR and LDI Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Natalia; Fesenko, Tatiana; Zhukovsky, Maxim; Goworek, Jacek; Eremenko, Anna

    2015-12-01

    TiO2 films prepared by template-assisted sol-gel method were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning and atomic force electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Based on the hexane adsorption-desorption analysis, the films have a surface area of 390-540 m2/g with pore size distribution narrowly centered around 10 nm. Optimal component ratio and condition of heat treatment of mesoporous titania films have been found. Photocatalytic activity of the coatings was determined by the destruction of stearic acid layers, monitored using FT-IR spectroscopy and laser desorption-ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry. Under UV illumination, all the used films reach hydrophilicity with water contact angle of 0°. As the result, hydrophobic fat acid molecules undergo self-association and active desorption from the hydrophilic surface during mass-spectrometric experiment.

  4. Non-destructive determination of high oleic acid content in single soybean seeds by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean with increased oleic acid is desirable to improve oxidative stability and functionality of soybean seed oil. Recently, soybean genotypes with high oleic acid (= 70%) were developed by conventional breeding and molecular genetic selection of mutant fatty acid desaturase alleles. Determination...

  5. High-oleic Virginia peanuts in the Southwestern US: A summary of data supporting the release of 'VENUS'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'VENUS' is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. 'VENUS' is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for and proposed for release in t...

  6. The rising star of high-oleic Virginia peanuts: A summary of data supporting the release of 'VENUS'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'VENUS' is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. 'VENUS' is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for and proposed for release in the Southwestern US. 'VENUS' (experimental designati...

  7. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic..., polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and ricinoleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 1357486-09- 9) when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide formulation. Advance Polymer Technology submitted a...

  8. Deletions of the SACPD-C locus elevate seed stearic acid levels but also result in fatty acid and morphological alterations in nitrogen fixing nodules

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Soybean (Glycine max) seeds are the primary source of edible oil in the United States. Despite its widespread utility, soybean oil is oxidatively unstable. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent chemical hydrogenation, a process which also generates trans fats. An alternative to chemical hydrogenation is genetic modification of seed oil through identification and introgression of mutant alleles. One target for improvement is the elevation of a saturated fat with no negative cardiovascular impacts, stearic acid, which typically constitutes a minute portion of seed oil (~3%). Results We examined radiation induced soybean mutants with moderately increased stearic acid (10-15% of seed oil, ~3-5 X the levels in wild-type soybean seeds) via comparative whole genome hybridization and genetic analysis. The deletion of one SACPD isoform encoding gene (SACPD-C) was perfectly correlated with moderate elevation of seed stearic acid content. However, SACPD-C deletion lines were also found to have altered nodule fatty acid composition and grossly altered morphology. Despite these defects, overall nodule accumulation and nitrogen fixation were unaffected, at least under laboratory conditions. Conclusions Although no yield penalty has been reported for moderate elevated seed stearic acid content in soybean seeds, our results demonstrate that genetic alteration of seed traits can have unforeseen pleiotropic consequences. We have identified a role for fatty acid biosynthesis, and SACPD activity in particular, in the establishment and maintenance of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. PMID:24886084

  9. Identify and validate a quantitative trait locus underlying stearic acid on chromosome 14 in a soybean landrace using recombinant inbred lines and resident heterozygous lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stearic acid (ST) is one of the saturated fatty acids (FAs) in soybean oil and great efforts have been made to elevate ST content through plant breeding. Improving ST content will be helpful to reduce the health risk of coronary heart diseases and breast, colon and prostate cancer. In this study, re...

  10. Stearic acid and high molecular weight PEO as matrix for the highly water soluble metoprolol tartrate in continuous twin-screw melt granulation.

    PubMed

    Monteyne, Tinne; Adriaensens, Peter; Brouckaert, Davinia; Remon, Jean-Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-10-15

    Granules with release-sustaining properties were developed by twin screw hot melt granulation (HMG) using a combination of stearic acid (SA) and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide (PEO) as matrix for a highly water soluble model drug, metoprolol tartrate (MPT). Earlier studies demonstrated that mixing molten SA and PEO resulted in hydrogen bond formation between hydroxyl groups of fatty acid molecules and ether groups in PEO chains. These molecular interactions might be beneficial in order to elevate the sustained release effect of drugs from a SA/PEO matrix. This study aims to investigate the continuous twin screw melt granulation technique to study the impact of a SA/PEO matrix on the dissolution rate of a highly water soluble drug (MPT). Decreasing the SA/PEO ratio improved the release-sustaining properties of the matrix. The solid state of the granules was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) in order to understand the dissolution behavior. The results revealed a preferential interaction of the MPT molecules with stearic acid impeding the PEO to form hydrogen bonds with the stearic acid chains. However, this allowed the PEO chains to recrystallize inside the stearic acid matrix after granulation, hence, elevating the release-sustaining characteristics of the formulation.

  11. Synthesis of deuterated [D32 ]oleic acid and its phospholipid derivative [D64 ]dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Tamim A; Luks, Emily; Moraes, Greta; Yepuri, Nageshwar R; Holden, Peter J; James, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Oleic acid and its phospholipid derivatives are fundamental to the structure and function of cellular membranes. As a result, there has been increasing interest in the availability of their deuterated forms for many nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, mass spectroscopy and neutron scattering studies. Here, we present for the first time a straightforward, large-scale (gram quantities) synthesis of highly deuterated [D32 ]oleic acid by using multiple, yet simple and high yielding reactions. The precursors for the synthesis of [D32 ]oleic acid are [D14 ]azelaic acid and [D17 ]nonanoic acid, which were obtained by complete deuteration (>98% D) of their (1) H forms by using metal catalysed hydrothermal H/D exchange reactions. The oleic acid was produced with ca. 94% D isotopic purity and with no contamination by the trans-isomer (elaidic acid). The subsequent synthesis of [D64 ]dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine from [D32 ]oleic acid is also described.

  12. Preparation and characterization of a new lipid nano-emulsion containing two cosurfactants, sodium palmitate for droplet size reduction and sucrose palmitate for stability enhancement.

    PubMed

    Takegami, Shigehiko; Kitamura, Keisuke; Kawada, Hiroto; Matsumoto, Yu; Kitade, Tatsuya; Ishida, Hiroharu; Nagata, Chieyo

    2008-08-01

    A new lipid nano-emulsion (LNE) was prepared from soybean oil and phosphatidylcholine (PC) employing two cosurfactants, sodium palmitate (PA) for reduced droplet size and sucrose palmitate (SP) for stability enhancement. The mean droplet size of LNEs prepared at a PA/PC (w/w) ratio of larger than 1/10 was found to be ca. 50 nm by dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy. However, during the 12-month storage, the PA/PC (1/10)-LNE showed an increase in mean droplet size and broadening of the droplet size distribution due to coalescence of the LNE particles. In a saline solution, the coalescence proceeded very rapidly, i.e., the mean droplet size increased to more than 150 nm within 0.5 h. To suppress the coalescence of LNE particles, four sucrose fatty acid esters of different chain lengths were examined as candidate cosurfactants. The results showed that PA/SP/PC (1/4/10)-LNE could maintain a mean droplet size around 50 nm for 12 months. In a saline solution, the mean droplet size could be maintained within 100 nm even after 24 h. Slight formation of flocculation in the LNEs depending on the storage period was suggested by measurement of the 31P nuclear magnetic resonance line width of the LNEs.

  13. Palm oil and palmitic acid: a review on cardiovascular effects and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Elena; Fanelli, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    We reviewed the scientific literature on the evidence of the relationship between palm oil and adverse effects on human health. Few studies have investigated the effects of palm oil per se, and the main reason why it has been associated with negative health effects is the relatively high content of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), particularly palmitic acid, which in turn have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and some tumours. However, more recent investigations on the topic seem to have reconsidered the negative role of the dietary SFAs as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and show that not only the type of fat, but also that the triglyceride structure plays a role in cholesterolaemia. As regards to a role in cancer, specific studies on dietary palmitic acid or palm oil and the risk of cancer development are scanty, and the evidence is not convincing.

  14. Ice core profiles of saturated fatty acids (C12:0-C30:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) from southern Alaska since 1734 AD: A link to climate change in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Ambarish; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Seki, Osamu; Matoba, Sumio; Shiraiwa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    An ice core drilled at Aurora Peak in southeast Alaska was analyzed for homologous series of straight chain fatty acids (C12:0-C30:0) including unsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) using gas chromatography (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Molecular distributions of fatty acids are characterized by even carbon number predominance with a peak at palmitic acid (C16:0, av. 20.3 ± SD. 29.8 ng/g-ice) followed by oleic acid (C18:1, 19.6 ± 38.6 ng/g-ice) and myristic acid (C14:0, 15.3 ± 21.9 ng/g-ice). The historical trends of short-chain fatty acids, together with correlation analysis with inorganic ions and organic tracers suggest that short-chain fatty acids (except for C12:0 and C15:0) were mainly derived from sea surface micro layers through bubble bursting mechanism and transported over the glacier through the atmosphere. This atmospheric transport process is suggested to be linked with Kamchatka ice core δD record from Northeast Asia and Greenland Temperature Anomaly (GTA). In contrast, long-chain fatty acids (C20:0-C30:0) are originated from terrestrial higher plants, soil organic matter and dusts, which are also linked with GTA. Hence, this study suggests that Alaskan fatty acids are strongly influenced by Pacific Decadal Oscillation/North Pacific Gyre Oscillation and/or extra tropical North Pacific surface climate and Arctic oscillation. We also found that decadal scale variability of C18:1/C18:0 ratios in the Aurora Peak ice core correlate with the Kamchatka ice core δD, which reflects climate oscillations in the North Pacific. This study suggests that photochemical aging of organic aerosols could be controlled by climate periodicity.

  15. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter J. H.; MacKay, Dylan. S.; Senanayake, Vijitha K.; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J. A.; Connelly, Philip W.; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; West, Sheila G.; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Hantgan, Roy R.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets; 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p=0.0005 and p=0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p=0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p=0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p=0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. PMID:25528432

  16. The role of genomics and biotechnology in achieving global food security for high-oleic vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    Health related concerns for dietary 'trans-fat' in the U.S. have mediated a significant decline in the use of hydrogenated vegetable oils in edible applications. Oils having a natural abundance of oleic acid provide many functional properties that are derived from partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated oils. However, the long term agronomic production capacity of existing high-oleic oil crops to replace hydrogenated oil ingredients is not sustainable. Although improvements are expected in processing technology, genetic modification of seed composition offers the most promising tactic to increase the overall supply of high-oleic commodity oils. Genetic enhancement of oleic acid concentration has been demonstrated experimentally in nearly every oilseed. Private companies have launched production of genetically enhanced oleic acid cultivars such as: Nexera™ Omega-9 canola and Omega-9 sunflower oils. The E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company plans commercial production of Plenish™ high-oleic soybeans in 2012. The Monsanto Co. plans commercial production of Vistive-Gold™ low-saturated high-oleic soybeans possibly as early as 2013. These 'new' high-oleic oilseeds must not only exhibit superior oil quality but also sequentially improved yield potential. Genetic maps that help breeders identify, locate and track useful genes will facilitate accomplishment of that goal. However, a reference sequence map in soybean is the only available chromosome scale assembly of an oilseed genome. Knowledge of genome structure enables technological advances that help increase soybean yielding ability, improve crop protection against biotic stresses, and reveal alleles for genes that mediate expression of quality traits. Led by soybean, genetically enhanced high-oleic vegetable oils that now are becoming commercially available may capture greater than 40% of the domestic consumption of vegetable oil in the U.S. by 2020. This innovation in oilseed technology is a positive step toward

  17. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2015-02-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding.

  18. Analysis and properties of the decarboxylation products of oleic acid by catalytic triruthenium dodecacarbonyl

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, ruthenium-catalyzed isomerization-decarboxylation of fatty acids to give alkene mixtures was reported. When the substrate was oleic acid, the reaction yielded a mixture consisting of heptadecene isomers. In this work, we report the compositional analysis of the mixture obtained by triruthe...

  19. Fuel properties of heptadecene isomers prepared via tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of oleic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heptadecene isomers were prepared via tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of oleic acid using catalytic triruthenium dodecacarbonyl [Ru3(CO)12]. Chromatographic and spectroscopic characterization of the isolated heptadecene mixture indicated that it consisted of 96% internal trans isomers and 4% ar...

  20. High-throughput and functional SNP detection assays for oleic and linolenic acids in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a primary source of vegetable oil, accounting for 53% of the total vegetable oil consumption in the USA in 2013. Soybean oil with high oleic acid and low linolenic acid content is desired, because it not only improves the oxidative stability of the oil, but also reduces the amount of unde...

  1. Synthesis and physical properties of new coco-oleic dimer and trimer plus estolide branched esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estolides are a class of esters based on vegetable oils that are formed when the carboxylic acid functionality of one fatty acid reacts at the site of unsaturation of another fatty acid to form an ester linkage. The objective of this preliminary study was to separate coco-oleic estolide into two com...

  2. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellent Activity of Isolated Oleic Acid, Eicosyl Ester from Thalictrum javanicum

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Abinaya; Senguttuvan, Jamuna; Paulsamy, S.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of Thalictrum javanicum and to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by PASS software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (filarial vector). Insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. The chitinase activity of isolated compound was assessed by using purified β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (chitinase). Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assay (radioimmuno assay) was made using the same larval stage of A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus. The results were compared with the crude methanol extract of the whole plant. The isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester was found to be the most effective larvicide against A. aegypti (LC50/24 h -8.51 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50/24 h - 12.5 ppm) than the crude methanol extract (LC50/24 h - 257.03 ppm and LC50/24 h - 281.83 ppm, respectively). The impact of oleic acid, eicosyl ester on reducing the activity of chitinase and ecdysone 20-monooxygenase was most prominent in both the target species, A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus than the control. The results therefore suggest that the compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicum may be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal property. PMID:27168688

  3. Treatment with oleic acid reduces IgE binding to peanut and cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid (OA) is known to bind and change the bioactivities of proteins, such as a-lactalbumin and ß-lactoglobulin in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine if OA binds to allergens from a peanut extract or cashew allergen and changes their allergenic properties. Peanut extract or c...

  4. A Case of Ileus in a Patient with Schizophrenia Under Paliperidone Palmitate Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kabadayı, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is a side effect of antipsychotic drugs that have high affinity for muscarinic cholinergic receptors. In addition, ileus is an important side effect of antipsychotic treatment, with potentially morbid and mortal consequences if early detection fails. In this report, a colonic ileus case is described in a patient with schizophrenia under the treatment of paliperidone palmitate. Consequently, complete physical examination and close screening of side effects are recommended when antipsychotics are prescribed. PMID:27909459

  5. Heterozygous caveolin-3 mice show increased susceptibility to palmitate-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Talukder, M A Hassan; Preda, Marilena; Ryzhova, Larisa; Prudovsky, Igor; Pinz, Ilka M

    2016-03-01

    Insulin resistance and diabetes are comorbidities of obesity and affect one in 10 adults in the United States. Despite the high prevalence, the mechanisms of cardiac insulin resistance in obesity are still unclear. We test the hypothesis that the insulin receptor localizes to caveolae and is regulated through binding to caveolin-3 (CAV3). We further test whether haploinsufficiency forCAV3 increases the susceptibility to high-fat-induced insulin resistance. We used in vivo and in vitro studies to determine the effect of palmitate exposure on global insulin resistance, contractile performance of the heart in vivo, glucose uptake in the heart, and on cellular signaling downstream of theIR We show that haploinsufficiency forCAV3 increases susceptibility to palmitate-induced global insulin resistance and causes cardiomyopathy. On the basis of fluorescence energy transfer (FRET) experiments, we show thatCAV3 andIRdirectly interact in cardiomyocytes. Palmitate impairs insulin signaling by a decrease in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt that corresponds to an 87% decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake inHL-1 cardiomyocytes. Despite loss of Akt phosphorylation and lower glucose uptake, palmitate increased insulin-independent serine phosphorylation ofIRS-1 by 35%. In addition, we found lipid induced downregulation ofCD36, the fatty acid transporter associated with caveolae. This may explain the problem the diabetic heart is facing with the simultaneous impairment of glucose uptake and lipid transport. Thus, these findings suggest that loss ofCAV3 interferes with downstream insulin signaling and lipid uptake, implicatingCAV3 as a regulator of theIRand regulator of lipid uptake in the heart.

  6. Moisturizing potentials of ascorbyl palmitate and calcium ascorbate in various topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Gönüllü, U; Yener, G; Uner, M; Incegül, T

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to use two of Vitamin C derivatives, lipophilic ascorbyl palmitate and hydrophilic calcium ascorbate to determine their skin-hydrating effects for the first time. For this purpose, anhydrous cream, gel and w/o emulsion were prepared and applied to the volunteers' inner forearms. A commercial topical preparation containing a known moisturizer, Vitamin E, was also chosen and used for comparison. Moisture contents of the skin were measured by using corneometer.

  7. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism influences postprandial retinyl palmitate but not triglyceride concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Boerwinkle, E. ); Brown, S.; Patsch, W. ); Sharrett, A.R. ); Heiss, G. )

    1994-02-01

    To quantify the effect of the apolipoprotein (apo) E polymorphism on the magnitude of postprandial lipemia, the authors have defined its role in determining the response to a single high-fat meal in a large sample of (N = 474) individuals taking part in the biethnic Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. The profile of postprandial response in plasma was monitored over 8 h by triglyceride, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL)-triglyceride, apo B-48/apo B-100 ratio, and retinyl palmitate concentrations, and the apo E polymorphism was determined by DNA amplification and digestion. The frequency of the apo E alleles and their effects on fasting lipid levels in this sample with vitamin A was significantly different among apo E genotypes, with delayed clearance in individuals with an [var epsilon]2 allele, compared with [var epsilon]3/3 and [var epsilon]3/4 individuals. In the sample of 397 Caucasians, average retinyl palmitate response was 1,489 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]2/3 individuals, compared with 1,037 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]3/3 individuals and 1,108 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]3/4 individuals. The apo E polymorphism accounted for 7.1% of the interindividual variation in postprandial retinyl palmitate response, a contribution proportionally greater than its well-known effect on fasting LDL-cholesterol. However, despite this effect on postprandial retinyl palmitate, the profile of postprandial triglyceride response was not significantly different among apo E genotypes. The profile of postprandial response was consistent between the sample of Caucasians and a smaller sample of black subjects. While these data indicate that the removal of remnant particles from circulation is delayed in subjects with the [var epsilon]2/3 genotype, there is no reported evidence that the [var epsilon]2 allele predisposes to coronary artery disease (CAD). 82 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Paliperidone Palmitate Long-Acting Injectable Given Intramuscularly in the Deltoid Versus the Gluteal Muscle: Are They Therapeutically Equivalent?

    PubMed

    Yin, John; Collier, Abby C; Barr, Alasdair M; Honer, William G; Procyshyn, Ric M

    2015-08-01

    Paliperidone palmitate long-acting injectable is a second-generation antipsychotic indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia. According to the product monograph, the monthly maintenance dose of paliperidone palmitate can be given in either the deltoid or gluteal muscle. Unfortunately, many clinicians may misinterpret these directions to mean that these intramuscular sites are interchangeable, and thus therapeutically equivalent. Currently, the literature on this topic is sparse, but the published pharmacokinetic studies and Food and Drug Administration submission data on paliperidone palmitate show discrepancies in the elimination half-life, peak plasma concentration, and absorption rate that are dependent on the site of injection. The degree of shifts in pharmacokinetic parameters suggests that paliperidone palmitate injections via the deltoid and gluteal muscle are not bioequivalent and therefore are not therapeutically equivalent. Thus, using the same maintenance dosing regimen at both sites or switching between sites of injection may result in unforeseen consequences in patient outcomes.

  9. Genotyping-by-Sequencing-Based Investigation of the Genetic Architecture Responsible for a ∼Sevenfold Increase in Soybean Seed Stearic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Crystal B.; Gillman, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Soybean oil is highly unsaturated but oxidatively unstable, rendering it nonideal for food applications. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent partial chemical hydrogenation, which produces trans fats as an unavoidable consequence. Dietary intake of trans fats and most saturated fats are conclusively linked to negative impacts on cholesterol levels and cardiovascular health. Two major soybean oil breeding targets are: (1) to reduce or eliminate the need for chemical hydrogenation, and (2) to replace the functional properties of partially hydrogenated soybean oil. One potential solution is the elevation of seed stearic acid, a saturated fat which has no negative impacts on cardiovascular health, from 3 to 4% in typical cultivars to > 20% of the seed oil. We performed QTL analysis of a population developed by crossing two mutant lines, one with a missense mutation affecting a stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein desaturase gene resulting in ∼11% seed stearic acid crossed to another mutant, A6, which has 24–28% seed stearic acid. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)-based QTL mapping identified 21 minor and major effect QTL for six seed oil related traits and plant height. The inheritance of a large genomic deletion affecting chromosome 14 is the basis for largest effect QTL, resulting in ∼18% seed stearic acid. This deletion contains SACPD-C and another gene(s); loss of both genes boosts seed stearic acid levels to ≥ 18%. Unfortunately, this genomic deletion has been shown in previous studies to be inextricably correlated with reduced seed yield. Our results will help inform and guide ongoing breeding efforts to improve soybean oil oxidative stability. PMID:27866151

  10. Genotyping-by-Sequencing-Based Investigation of the Genetic Architecture Responsible for a ∼Sevenfold Increase in Soybean Seed Stearic Acid.

    PubMed

    Heim, Crystal B; Gillman, Jason D

    2017-01-05

    Soybean oil is highly unsaturated but oxidatively unstable, rendering it nonideal for food applications. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent partial chemical hydrogenation, which produces trans fats as an unavoidable consequence. Dietary intake of trans fats and most saturated fats are conclusively linked to negative impacts on cholesterol levels and cardiovascular health. Two major soybean oil breeding targets are: (1) to reduce or eliminate the need for chemical hydrogenation, and (2) to replace the functional properties of partially hydrogenated soybean oil. One potential solution is the elevation of seed stearic acid, a saturated fat which has no negative impacts on cardiovascular health, from 3 to 4% in typical cultivars to > 20% of the seed oil. We performed QTL analysis of a population developed by crossing two mutant lines, one with a missense mutation affecting a stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein desaturase gene resulting in ∼11% seed stearic acid crossed to another mutant, A6, which has 24-28% seed stearic acid. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)-based QTL mapping identified 21 minor and major effect QTL for six seed oil related traits and plant height. The inheritance of a large genomic deletion affecting chromosome 14 is the basis for largest effect QTL, resulting in ∼18% seed stearic acid. This deletion contains SACPD-C and another gene(s); loss of both genes boosts seed stearic acid levels to ≥ 18%. Unfortunately, this genomic deletion has been shown in previous studies to be inextricably correlated with reduced seed yield. Our results will help inform and guide ongoing breeding efforts to improve soybean oil oxidative stability.

  11. Nucleotides released from palmitate-challenged muscle cells through pannexin-3 attract monocytes.

    PubMed

    Pillon, Nicolas J; Li, Yujin E; Fink, Lisbeth N; Brozinick, Joseph T; Nikolayev, Alexander; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Bilan, Philip J; Klip, Amira

    2014-11-01

    Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation in metabolically relevant tissues contributes to insulin resistance. We recently reported monocyte/macrophage infiltration in mouse and human skeletal muscles. However, the molecular triggers of this infiltration are unknown, and the role of muscle cells in this context is poorly understood. Animal studies are not amenable to the specific investigation of this vectorial cellular communication. Using cell cultures, we investigated the crosstalk between myotubes and monocytes exposed to physiological levels of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Media from L6 myotubes treated with palmitate-but not palmitoleate-induced THP1 monocyte migration across transwells. Palmitate activated the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway in myotubes and elevated cytokine expression, but the monocyte chemoattracting agent was not a polypeptide. Instead, nucleotide degradation eliminated the chemoattracting properties of the myotube-conditioned media. Moreover, palmitate-induced expression and activity of pannexin-3 channels in myotubes were mediated by TLR4-NF-κB, and TLR4-NF-κB inhibition or pannexin-3 knockdown prevented monocyte chemoattraction. In mice, the expression of pannexin channels increased in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in response to high-fat feeding. These findings identify pannexins as new targets of saturated fatty acid-induced inflammation in myotubes, and point to nucleotides as possible mediators of immune cell chemoattraction toward muscle in the context of obesity.

  12. Thermal degradation kinetics of sucrose palmitate reinforced poly(lactic acid) biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Valapa, Ravibabu; Pugazhenthi, Gopal; Katiyar, Vimal

    2014-04-01

    The current work is focused on investigating the influence of novel bio-filler, "sucrose palmitate (SP)" on the thermal degradation behavior of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) biocomposites in order to render its suitability for food packaging application. Thermal degradation behavior of the PLA biocomposites was investigated by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) using dynamic heating regime. The differential TG analysis revealed that there is no change in the Tmax value (357 °C) for PLA and its composites up to 5 wt% of bio-filler loading. This reveals that the sucrose palmitate acts as a protective barrier by decelerating the thermal degradation rate of PLA. In the case of 10 wt% of the filler incorporated in the PLA matrix, Tmax rapidly shifted to lower temperature (324 °C). This downturn in Tmax at higher loading of the filler is due to the increase in acidic sites and enhancement in the rate of degradation is observed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed unimodal melting peak indicating the α-crystalline form of PLA. Based on the thermal degradation profile of sucrose palmitate, possible mechanism for degradation of PLA composites is proposed. The activation energies (Ea) of thermal degradation of PLA and PLA composites were evaluated by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Kissinger methods.

  13. Pharmacological properties of beta-amyrin palmitate, a novel centrally acting compound, isolated from Lobelia inflata leaves.

    PubMed

    Subarnas, A; Tadano, T; Oshima, Y; Kisara, K; Ohizumi, Y

    1993-06-01

    Effects of beta-amyrin palmitate isolated from the leaves of Lobelia inflata were studied on the central nervous system of mice and were compared with those of antidepressant drugs, mianserin and imipramine. In the forced swimming test, beta-amyrin palmitate, like mianserin and imipramine, reduced the duration of immobility of mice significantly in a dose-dependent manner (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1). beta-Amyrin palmitate (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) or mianserin (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) elicited a dose-related reduction in locomotor activity of mice and antagonized locomotor stimulation induced by methamphetamine. In contrast, imipramine (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) increased locomotor activity and potentiated methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity. beta-Amyrin palmitate showed no effect on reserpine-induced hypothermia, whilst mianserin (10 mg kg-1) and imipramine (10 and 20 mg kg-1) antagonized the reserpine-induced effect. Unlike imipramine, beta-amyrin palmitate and mianserin did not affect haloperidol-induced catalepsy, tetrabenazine-induced ptosis and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. beta-Amyrin palmitate and imipramine had no effects on the head-twitch response induced by 5-hydroxytryptophan, whereas mianserin (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) decreased it in a dose-dependent manner. A potentiating effect of beta-amyrin palmitate (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) on narcosis induced by sodium pentobarbitone was stronger than that of imipramine (10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1) but weaker than that of mianserin (2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg-1). These results suggest that beta-amyrin palmitate has similar properties in some respects to mianserin and might possess a sedative action.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Size-dependent chemical ageing of oleic acid aerosol under dry and humidified conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kindi, Suad S.; Pope, Francis D.; Beddows, David C.; Bloss, William J.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2016-12-01

    A chemical reaction chamber system has been developed for the processing of oleic acid aerosol particles with ozone under two relative humidity conditions: dry and humidified to 65 %. The apparatus consists of an aerosol flow tube, in which the ozonolysis occurs, coupled to a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) which measure the evolving particle size and composition. Under both relative humidity conditions, ozonolysis results in a significant decrease in particle size and mass which is consistent with the formation of volatile products that partition from the particle to the gas phase. Mass spectra derived from the ATOFMS reveal the presence of the typically observed reaction products: azelaic acid, nonanal, oxononanoic acid and nonanoic acid, as well as a range of higher molecular weight products deriving from the reactions of reaction intermediates with oleic acid and its oxidation products. These include octanoic acid and 9- and 10-oxooctadecanoic acid, as well as products of considerably higher molecular weight. Quantitative evaluation of product yields with the ATOFMS shows a marked dependence upon both particle size association (from 0.3 to 2.1 µm diameter) and relative humidity. Under both relative humidity conditions, the percentage residual of oleic acid increases with increasing particle size and the main lower molecular weight products are nonanal and oxononanoic acid. Under dry conditions, the percentage of higher molecular weight products increases with increasing particle size due to the poorer internal mixing of the larger particles. Under humidified conditions, the percentage of unreacted oleic acid is greater, except in the smallest particle fraction, with little formation of high molecular weight products relative to the dry particles. It is postulated that water reacts with reactive intermediates, competing with the processes which produce high molecular weight products. Whilst the

  15. Molecular characterization of two high-palmitic-acid mutant loci induced by X-ray irradiation in soybean.

    PubMed

    Anai, Toyoaki; Hoshino, Tomoki; Imai, Naoko; Takagi, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Palmitic acid is the most abundant (approx. 11% of total fatty acids) saturated fatty acid in conventional soybean seed oil. Increasing the saturated acid content of soybean oil improves its oxidative stability and plasticity. We have developed three soybean mutants with high palmitic acid content by X-ray irradiation. In this study, we successfully identified the mutated sites of two of these high-palmitic-acid mutants, J10 and M22. PCR-based mutant analysis revealed that J10 has a 206,203-bp-long deletion that includes the GmKASIIA gene and 16 other predicted genes, and M22 has a 26-bp-long deletion in the sixth intron of GmKASIIB. The small deletion in M22 causes mis-splicing of GmKASIIB transcripts, which should result in nonfunctional products. In addition, we designed co-dominant marker sets for these mutant alleles and confirmed the association of genotypes and palmitic acid contents in F(2) seeds of J10 X M22. This information will be useful in breeding programs to develop novel soybean cultivars with improved palmitic acid content. However, in the third mutant, KK7, we found no polymorphism in either GmKASIIA or GmKASIIB, which suggests that several unknown genes in addition to GmKASIIA and GmKASIIB may be involved in elevating the palmitic acid content of soybean seed oil.

  16. The Presence of Cysteine in the Cytoplasmic Domain of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Glycoprotein is Required for Palmitate Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, John K.; Adams, Gregg A.; Gallione, Carol J.

    1984-04-01

    The transmembrane glycoprotein (G protein) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is known to contain 1-2 mol of covalently linked fatty acid (palmitate) per mol of protein. G protein is oriented in cellular membranes such that the carboxyl-terminal 29 amino acids protrude into the cytoplasm. We have obtained expression in eukaryotic cells of mutagenized cDNA clones that encode VSV G proteins lacking portions of this cytoplasmic domain. Labeling of these truncated proteins with [3H]palmitate indicated that the palmitate might be linked to an amino acid residue within the first 14 residues on the carboxyl-terminal side of the transmembrane domain. Using oligonucleotide directed mutagenesis, we changed the single codon specifying cysteine in this domain to a codon specifying serine. Expression of this mutant gene results in synthesis of a G protein lacking palmitate. We suggest that linkage of palmitate to G protein is through the cysteine in the cytoplasmic domain and that such a linkage may occur in many viral and cellular glycoproteins. The G protein lacking palmitate is glycosylated and is transported normally to the cell surface.

  17. Increased incorporation of /sup 14/C-palmitate into tissue lipids by isolated heart myocytes in endotoxic shock

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The incorporation of /sup 14/C-palmitate into various classes of tissue lipids by isolated adult dog heart myocytes was studied in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of myocardial dysfunction during endotoxic shock. The results showed that the incorporation of /sup 14/C-palmitate into phospholipids was increased by 85.3% and 108.8% at 0.5 hours and two hours, respectively, following endotoxin (0.5 mg Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide B per kg body weight) administration. Incorporation of radioactive palmitate into triglycerides was increased by 50.9% and 107.2% at 0.5 and two hours, respectively, postendotoxin. Incorporation of /sup 14/C-palmitate into diglycerides was stimulated by 51.9% and 64.5% at 0.5 and two hours, respectively, after endotoxin injection. The incorporation of /sup 14/C-palmitate into tissue-free fatty acids and unaltered at 0.5 hours but it was increased by 211.7% at two hours postendotoxin. These data demonstrated that myocardial membrane lipid profile was greatly altered by increased incorporation of /sup 14/C-palmitate into phospholipids and neutral lipids after endotoxin administration. An alteration in myocardial lipid profile, as reported in this study, may contribute to the development of myocardial dysfunction during shock.

  18. A modified PCR protocol for consistent amplification of fatty acid desaturase (FAD) alleles in marker-assisted backcross breeding for high oleic trait in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic acid, such as is found in olive oil, is desirable for the healthy cholesterol-lowering benefits. The oxidative stability of the oil with high oleic acid also gives longer “shelve life” for peanut products. These benefits drive the breeding effort toward developing high oleic peanuts worl...

  19. Fatty Acid Chain Elongation in Palmitate-perfused Working Rat Heart

    PubMed Central

    Kerner, Janos; Minkler, Paul E.; Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Rat hearts were perfused with [1,2,3,4-13C4]palmitic acid (M+4), and the isotopic patterns of myocardial acylcarnitines and acyl-CoAs were analyzed using ultra-HPLC-MS/MS. The 91.2% 13C enrichment in palmitoylcarnitine shows that little endogenous (M+0) palmitate contributed to its formation. The presence of M+2 myristoylcarnitine (95.7%) and M+2 acetylcarnitine (19.4%) is evidence for β-oxidation of perfused M+4 palmitic acid. Identical enrichment data were obtained in the respective acyl-CoAs. The relative 13C enrichment in M+4 (84.7%, 69.9%) and M+6 (16.2%, 17.8%) stearoyl- and arachidylcarnitine, respectively, clearly shows that the perfused palmitate is chain-elongated. The observed enrichment of 13C in acetylcarnitine (19%), M+6 stearoylcarnitine (16.2%), and M+6 arachidylcarnitine (17.8%) suggests that the majority of two-carbon units for chain elongation are derived from β-oxidation of [1,2,3,4-13C4]palmitic acid. These data are explained by conversion of the M+2 acetyl-CoA to M+2 malonyl-CoA, which serves as the acceptor for M+4 palmitoyl-CoA in chain elongation. Indeed, the 13C enrichment in mitochondrial acetyl-CoA (18.9%) and malonyl-CoA (19.9%) are identical. No 13C enrichment was found in acylcarnitine species with carbon chain lengths between 4 and 12, arguing against the simple reversal of fatty acid β-oxidation. Furthermore, isolated, intact rat heart mitochondria 1) synthesize malonyl-CoA with simultaneous inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b and 2) catalyze the palmitoyl-CoA-dependent incorporation of 14C from [2-14C]malonyl-CoA into lipid-soluble products. In conclusion, rat heart has the capability to chain-elongate fatty acids using mitochondria-derived two-carbon chain extenders. The data suggest that the chain elongation process is localized on the outer surface of the mitochondrial outer membrane. PMID:24558043

  20. Localization of fatty acids with selective chain length by imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Richter, Katrin; Nygren, Håkan; Malmberg, Per; Hagenhoff, Birgit

    2007-07-01

    Localization of fatty acids in biological tissues was made by using TOF-SIMS (time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry). Two cell-types with a specific fatty acid distribution are shown. In rat cerebellum, different distribution patterns of stearic acid (C18:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), and oleic acid (C18:1) were found. Stearic acid signals were observed accumulated in Purkinje cells with high intensities inside the cell, but not in the nucleus region. The signals colocalized with high intensity signals of the phosphocholine head group, indicating origin from phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin. In mouse intestine, high palmitic acid signals were found in the secretory crypt cells together with high levels of phosphorylinositol colocalized in the crypt region. Palmitic acid was also seen in the intestinal lumen that contains high amounts of mucine, which is known to be produced in the crypt cells. Linoleic acid signals (C18:2) were low in the crypt region and high in the villus region. Oleic acid signals were seen in the villi and stearic acid signals were ubiquitous with no specific localization in the intestine. We conclude that the results obtained by using imaging TOF-SIMS are consistent with known brain and intestine biochemistry and that the localization of fatty acids is specific in differentiated cells.

  1. Pharmacologic enhancement of rat skin flap survival with topical oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Oscar K; Gabr, Essam; Steward, Earl; Chen, Heidi; Kobayashi, Mark R; Calvert, Jay W; Sundine, Michael J; Kotchounian, Taline; Dhar, Sanjay; Evans, Gregory R D

    2004-06-01

    This study was instituted to investigate in a rat model the effect of topical coadministration of the penetration enhancer oleic acid (10% by volume) and RIMSO-50 (medical grade dimethyl sulfoxide, 50% by volume) on rat skin flap survival. A rectangular abdominal skin flap (2.5 x 3 cm) was surgically elevated over the left abdomen in 40 nude rats. The vein of the flap's neurovascular pedicle was occluded by placement of a microvascular clip, and the flap was resutured with 4-0 Prolene to its adjacent skin. At the end of 8 hours, the distal edge of the flap was reincised to gain access to the clips and the clips were removed. After resuturing of the flap's distal edge to its adjacent skin, the 40 flaps were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 (control) flaps were treated with 5 g of saline, group 2 (dimethyl sulfoxide) flaps were treated with 2.7 g of dimethyl sulfoxide (50% by volume), group 3 flaps (oleic acid) were topically treated with 0.45 g of oleic acid (10% by volume), and group 4 (dimethyl sulfoxide plus oleic acid) flaps were treated with a mixture of 0.45 g of oleic acid (10% by volume) and 2.7 g of dimethyl sulfoxide (50% by volume) diluted in saline. Each flap was topically treated with 5 ml of drug-soaked gauze for 1 hour immediately after clip removal to attenuate reperfusion injury. Thereafter, drug was applied topically once daily for 4 more days. Digital photographs of each flap were then taken on day 6 and the flaps were then harvested. The percentage of skin survival in each flap was determined by computerized morphometry and planimetry. The mean surviving area of group 3 (oleic acid-treated flaps) was 23.60 +/- 4.19 percent and was statistically higher than that in group 1 (control, saline-treated flaps) at 7.20 +/- 2.56 percent. The mean surviving area of group 2 (dimethyl sulfoxide-treated flaps) at 18.00 +/- 5.23 percent and group 4 (oleic acid- and dimethyl sulfoxide-treated flaps) at 9.90 +/- 3.44 percent did not achieve

  2. A systematic review of high-oleic vegetable oil substitutions for other fats and oils on cardiovascular disease risk factors: implications for novel high-oleic soybean oils.

    PubMed

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Larson, Brian T

    2015-11-01

    High-oleic acid soybean oil (H-OSBO) is a trait-enhanced vegetable oil containing >70% oleic acid. Developed as an alternative for trans-FA (TFA)-containing vegetable oils, H-OSBO is predicted to replace large amounts of soybean oil in the US diet. However, there is little evidence concerning the effects of H-OSBO on coronary heart disease (CHD)(6) risk factors and CHD risk. We examined and quantified the effects of substituting high-oleic acid (HO) oils for fats and oils rich in saturated FAs (SFAs), TFAs, or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) on blood lipids in controlled clinical trials. Searches of online databases through June 2014 were used to select studies that defined subject characteristics; described control and intervention diets; substituted HO oils compositionally similar to H-OSBO (i.e., ≥70% oleic acid) for equivalent amounts of oils high in SFAs, TFAs, or n-6 PUFAs for ≥3 wk; and reported changes in blood lipids. Studies that replaced saturated fats or oils with HO oils showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) (P < 0.05; mean percentage of change: -8.0%, -10.9%, -7.9%, respectively), whereas most showed no changes in HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), the ratio of TC to HDL cholesterol (TC:HDL cholesterol), and apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1). Replacing TFA-containing oil sources with HO oils showed significant reductions in TC, LDL cholesterol, apoB, TGs, TC:HDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol and apoA-1 (mean percentage of change: -5.7%, -9.2%, -7.3%, -11.7%, -12.1%, 5.6%, 3.7%, respectively; P < 0.05). In most studies that replaced oils high in n-6 PUFAs with equivalent amounts of HO oils, TC, LDL cholesterol, TGs, HDL cholesterol, apoA-1, and TC:HDL cholesterol did not change. These findings suggest that replacing fats and oils high in SFAs or TFAs with either H-OSBO or oils high in n-6 PUFAs would have favorable and comparable effects on plasma lipid risk factors and

  3. Vitamin A palmitate and α-lipoic acid stability in o/w emulsions for cosmetic application.

    PubMed

    Moyano, M A; Segall, A

    2011-01-01

    Skin becomes thin, dry, pale, and finely wrinkled with age. Retinoids are a large class of compounds that are important in modern therapy for dermatological treatment of wrinkled skin. Of the retinoids, retinol and vitamin A palmitate are thought to induce thickening of the epidermis and to be effective for treatment of skin diseases. Accordingly, α-lipoic acid or the reduced form, dihydrolipoate, are potent scavengers of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, and nitric oxide with anti-inflammatory properties (1). Cosmetic ingredient stability prediction relies on kinetic quantitative chemical analysis of active components at different temperatures. Vitamin A palmitate and α-lipoic acid, are known to be unstable to light or heat (2). The aims of this study were to evaluate the stability of α-lipoic acid and vitamin A palmitate in the presence of vitamin E (acetate) and other antioxidants in lipophilic/hydrophilic medium (O/W emulsions) at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0. The formulations that were investigated contained 0.12% (w/w) vitamin A palmitate, 0.4% (w/w) vitamin E acetate, and 0.5 % α-lipoic acid (formulation A), supplemented with ascorbyl palmitate, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, and vitamin C (formulation B) or with butylhydroxytoluene (BHT, formulation C) or ascorbyl palmitate (formulation D). The chemical analyses of α-lipoic acid and vitamin A palmitate were carried out by HPLC. Formulations C and D at pH 7.0 were selected as the most stable for these components. The purpose of this paper is the selection of the most stable formulations for their application in in vivo studies.

  4. Curcumin Improves Palmitate-Induced Insulin Resistance in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells by Maintaining Proteostasis in Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Mao; Qiu, Hong; Cao, Yingkang; Zhang, Min; Mi, Yan; Yu, Jing; Wang, Changhua

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of proteasome and autophagy will result in disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis, and thus lead to long-term and chronic ER stress and subsequent unfolded protein response (UPR), which is implicated in the occurrence and development of insulin resistance. Curcumin exerts beneficial metabolic effects in in vitro cells and in vivo animal models of diabetes and diabetic complications including cardiovascular diseases, due to its powerful anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its impacts on insulin resistance of endothelial cells and its underlying mechanism(s) remain ill-defined. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that curcumin action in ER protein quality control was related to improvement of insulin resistance in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured with saturated fatty acid palmitate. We found that palmitate treatment induced insulin resistance of HUVECs and activated both the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy. Palmitate-stimulated activation of the UPS and autophagy was attenuated by pharmacological inhibition of ER stress. In addition, curcumin supplementation mitigated palmitate-induced insulin resistance, inhibited the UPS, and activated autophagy. Furthermore, curcumin administration suppressed palmitate-induced protein aggregation and ER stress. Genetic inhibition of autophagy by silencing autophagy protein 5 (Atg5) completely restored total protein ubiquitination and protein aggregation in HUVECs treated with combined curcumin and palmitate. Atg5-knockdown also abolished the beneficial effects of curcumin on palmitate-induced ER stress, JNK/IRS-1 pathway as well as insulin signaling. Our results reveal that curcumin-activated autophagy could maintain proteostasis in ER leading to attenuation of ER stress and subsequent inhibition of JNK/IRS-1 pathway and improvement of insulin resistance. PMID:28377722

  5. Palmitate-induced inflammatory pathways in human adipose microvascular endothelial cells promote monocyte adhesion and impair insulin transcytosis.

    PubMed

    Pillon, Nicolas J; Azizi, Paymon M; Li, Yujin E; Liu, Jun; Wang, Changsen; Chan, Kenny L; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P; Heit, Bryan; Bilan, Philip J; Lee, Warren L; Klip, Amira

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammation and immune cell recruitment to adipose tissue, muscle and intima of atherosclerotic blood vessels. Obesity and hyperlipidemia are also associated with tissue insulin resistance and can compromise insulin delivery to muscle. The muscle/fat microvascular endothelium mediates insulin delivery and facilitates monocyte transmigration, yet its contribution to the consequences of hyperlipidemia is poorly understood. Using primary endothelial cells from human adipose tissue microvasculature (HAMEC), we investigated the effects of physiological levels of fatty acids on endothelial inflammation and function. Expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules was measured by RT-qPCR. Signaling pathways were evaluated by pharmacological manipulation and immunoblotting. Surface expression of adhesion molecules was determined by immunohistochemistry. THP1 monocyte interaction with HAMEC was measured by cell adhesion and migration across transwells. Insulin transcytosis was measured by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Palmitate, but not palmitoleate, elevated the expression of IL-6, IL-8, TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). HAMEC had markedly low fatty acid uptake and oxidation, and CD36 inhibition did not reverse the palmitate-induced expression of adhesion molecules, suggesting that inflammation did not arise from palmitate uptake/metabolism. Instead, inhibition of TLR4 to NF-κB signaling blunted palmitate-induced ICAM-1 expression. Importantly, palmitate-induced surface expression of ICAM-1 promoted monocyte binding and transmigration. Conversely, palmitate reduced insulin transcytosis, an effect reversed by TLR4 inhibition. In summary, palmitate activates inflammatory pathways in primary microvascular endothelial cells, impairing insulin transport and increasing monocyte transmigration. This behavior may contribute in vivo to reduced tissue insulin action and enhanced tissue

  6. Palmitate increases musclin gene expression through activation of PERK signaling pathway in C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ning; Guo, Qian; Mao, Ke; Hu, Hailong; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; He, Hongjuan; Oh, Yuri; Liu, Chuanpeng; Wu, Qiong

    2015-11-20

    Musclin is a type of muscle-secreted cytokine and its increased gene expression induces insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism underlying increased musclin gene expression is currently unclear. Excessive saturated fatty acids (SFA) can activate the secretion of several muscle-secreted cytokines as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway, thereby contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the effect of palmitate, the most abundant SFA in the plasma, on the gene expression of musclin in C2C12 myotubes. Treatment of C2C12 myotubes with palmitate or tunicamycin significantly increased the expression of musclin as well as ER stress-related genes, but treatment with oleate did not. Pre-treatment of C2C12 myotubes with 4-phenyl butyrate suppressed the expression of ER stress-related genes, simultaneously, resulting in decreased expression of the musclin gene induced by palmitate or tunicamycin. These results indicate that ER stress is related to palmitate-induced musclin gene expression. Moreover, palmitate-induced musclin gene expression was significantly inhibited in C2C12 myotubes when PERK pathway signaling was suppressed by knockdown of the PERK gene or treatment with GSK2656157, a PERK autophosphorylation inhibitor. However, there was no difference in the palmitate-induced musclin gene expression when IRE1 and ATF6 signaling pathways were suppressed by knockdown of the IRE1 and ATF6 genes. These findings suggest that palmitate increases musclin gene expression via the activation of the PERK signaling pathway in C2C12 myotubes.

  7. Analysis of sterols and fatty acids in natural and cultured Cordyceps by one-step derivatization followed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, F Q; Feng, K; Zhao, J; Li, S P

    2009-07-12

    Ten free fatty acids namely lauric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, docosanoic acid and lignoceric acid and four free sterols including ergosterol, cholesterol, campesterol and beta-sitosterol in natural (wild) Cordyceps sinensis, Cordyceps liangshanensis and Cordyceps gunnii, as well as cultured C. sinensis and Cordyceps militaris were first determined using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatization and GC-MS analysis. The conditions such as the amount of reagent, temperature and time for TMS derivatization of analytes were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, all calibration curves showed good linearity within the tested ranges. The intra- and inter-day variations for 14 investigated compounds were less than 3.4% and 5.2%, respectively. The results showed that palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid and ergosterol are main components in natural and cultured Cordyceps which could be discriminated by hierarchical clustering analysis based on the contents of 14 investigated compounds or the 4 fatty acids, where the contents of palmitic acid and oleic acid in natural Cordyceps are significantly higher than those in the cultured ones.

  8. Preparation and properties of films cast from mixtures of poly(vinyl alcohol) and submicron particles prepared from amylose-palmitic acid inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Fanta, George F; Selling, Gordon W; Felker, Frederick C; Kenar, James A

    2015-05-05

    The use of starch in polymer composites for film production has been studied for increasing biodegradability, improving film properties and reducing cost. In this study, submicron particles were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate complexes both by rapidly cooling jet-cooked starch-palmitic acid mixtures and by acidifying solutions of starch-sodium palmitate complexes. Films were cast containing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) with up to 50% starch particles. Tensile strength decreased and Young's modulus increased with starch concentration, but percent elongations remained similar to controls regardless of preparation method or starch content. Microscopy showed particulate starch distribution in films made with rapidly cooled starch-palmitic acid particles but smooth, diffuse starch staining with acidified sodium palmitate complexes. The mild effects on tensile properties suggest that submicron starch particles prepared from amylose-palmitic acid complexes provide a useful, commercially viable approach for PVOH film modification.

  9. Investigation of cutaneous penetration properties of stearic acid loaded to dendritic core-multi-shell (CMS) nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Lohan, S B; Icken, N; Teutloff, C; Saeidpour, S; Bittl, R; Lademann, J; Fleige, E; Haag, R; Haag, S F; Meinke, M C

    2016-03-30

    Dendritic core-multi shell (CMS) particles are polymer based systems consisting of a dendritic polar polyglycerol polymer core surrounded by a two-layer shell of nonpolar C18 alkyl chains and hydrophilic polyethylene glycol. Belonging to nanotransport systems (NTS) they allow the transport and storage of molecules with different chemical characters. Their amphipihilic character CMS-NTS permits good solubility in aqueous and organic solutions. We showed by multifrequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy that spin-labeled 5-doxyl stearic acid (5DSA) can be loaded into the CMS-NTS. Furthermore, the release of 5DSA from the carrier into the stratum corneum of porcine skin was monitored ex vivo by EPR spectroscopy. Additionally, the penetration of the CMS-NTS into the skin was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy using indocarbocyanine (ICC) covalently bound to the nanocarrier. Thereby, no transport into the viable skin was observed, whereas the CMS-NTS had penetrated into the hair follicles down to a depth of 340 μm ± 82 μm. Thus, it could be shown that the combined application of fluorescence microscopy and multi-frequency EPR spectroscopy can be an efficient tool for investigating the loading of spin labeled drugs to nanocarrier systems, drug release and penetration into the skin as well as the localization of the NTS in the skin.

  10. Chitosan-Stearic Acid Based Polymeric Micelles for the Effective Delivery of Tamoxifen: Cytotoxic and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Thotakura, Nagarani; Dadarwal, Mukesh; Kumar, Pramod; Sharma, Gajanand; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Bhushan, Shashi; Raza, Kaisar; Katare, Om Prakash

    2017-04-01

    Chitosan is a widely employed polysaccharide with positive zeta-potential and better tissue/cell adhesion. Its hydrophilicity, high viscosity, and insolubility at physiological pH are major hurdles in proper utilization of this macromolecule. Therefore, it was conjugated with biocompatible stearic acid and the conjugate was employed to develop polymeric micelles for delivery of tamoxifen to breast cancer cells. The conjugate was characterized by FT-IR and NMR, and the nanocarrier was characterized for micromeritics, surface charge, drug loading, and morphological attributes. The efficacy was evaluated by in vitro MTT studies, safety by erythrocyte compatibility, and biodistribution by in vivo pharmacokinetic studies. Despite better drug loading and sustained drug release, cytotoxicity on MCF-7 breast cancer cells was substantially enhanced and the pharmacokinetic profile was significantly modified. The AUC was enhanced manifolds along with reduced clearance. The findings are unique and provide an alternative to the conventional lipid-based nanocarriers for better dose delivery, tissue adhesion, and desired pharmacokinetic modulation.

  11. Characterization of rice starch-ι-carrageenan biodegradable edible film. Effect of stearic acid on the film properties.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Rahul; Saberi, Bahareh; Pristijono, Penta; Golding, John; Stathopoulos, Costas; Scarlett, Christopher; Bowyer, Michael; Vuong, Quan

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop rice starch (RS), ι-carrageenan (ι-car) based film. Different formulations of RS (1-4%, w/w), ι-car (0.5-2%, w/w) was blended with stearic acid (SA; 0.3-0.9%, w/w) and glycerol (1%, w/w) as a plasticizer. The effect of film ingredients on the thickness, water vapour permeability (WVP), film solubility (FS), moisture content (MC), colour, film opacity (FO), tensile strength (TS), elongation-at-break (EAB) of film was examined. Interactions and miscibility of partaking components was studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Hydrocolloid suspension solution of mix polysaccharides imparted a significant impact (p<0.05) on the important attributes of resulting edible film. TS and EAB of film were improved significantly (p<0.05) when ι-car was increased in the film matrix. Formulation F1 comprising 2% ι-car, 2% RS, 0.3% SA, Gly 30% w/w and 0.2% surfactant (tween(®)20) provided film with good physical, mechanical and barrier properties. FT-IR and XRD results reveal that molecular interactions between RS-ι-car have a great impact on the film properties confining the compatibility and miscibility of mixed polysaccharide. Results of the study offers new biodegradable formulation for application on fruit and vegetables.

  12. Effect of stearic acid-grafted starch compatibilizer on properties of linear low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch blown film.

    PubMed

    Khanoonkon, Nattaporn; Yoksan, Rangrong; Ogale, Amod A

    2016-02-10

    The present work aims to investigate the effect of stearic acid-grafted starch (ST-SA) on the rheological, thermal, optical, dynamic mechanical thermal, and tensile properties of linear low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch (LLDPE/TPS) blends, as well as on their water vapor and oxygen barrier properties. Blends consisting of LLDPE and TPS in a weight ratio of 60:40 and ST-SA at different concentrations, i.e. 1, 3 and 5%, were prepared using a twin-screw extruder. The obtained resins were subsequently converted into films via blown film extrusion. Incorporation of ST-SA resulted in a decreased degree of shear thinning, reduced ambient temperature elasticity, and improved tensile strength, secant modulus, extensibility, and UV absorption, as well as diminished water vapor and oxygen permeabilities of the LLDPE/TPS blend. These effects are attributed to the enhanced interfacial adhesion between LLDPE and TPS phases through the compatibilizing effect induced by ST-SA, and the good dispersion of the TPS phase in the LLDPE matrix. The results confirmed that ST-SA could potentially be used as a compatibilizer for the LLDPE/TPS blend system.

  13. Characterising the phase behaviour of stearic acid and its triethanolamine soap and acid-soap by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pudney, Paul D A; Mutch, Kevin J; Zhu, Shiping

    2009-07-07

    The behaviour of stearic acid neutralised by triethanolamine to form soap and its acid-soap has been examined by infrared spectroscopy. It was found that not only could the neutralisation behaviour be characterised, but the thermotropic behaviour could also be followed. The neutralisation confirmed the formation of a fixed stoichiometeric ratio, 2 : 1, acid-soap. When following the thermotropic behaviour the break up of the acid-soap could be followed along with various disordering and melting transitions of the alkyl chain tail. This allowed all the thermal transitions that have been observed to be characterised in terms of the type of molecular rearrangement that was occurring and also the transition temperature at which they occurred. This allowed the binary phase diagram to be plotted and understood for this system. This is the first time IR has been used to measure a whole phase diagram of this type. The nature of the acid-soap complex itself was also characterised, with very short hydrogen bonds being present as well as a free, non-hydrogen bonded, hydroxyl group.

  14. Oleic acid-grafted chitosan/graphene oxide composite coating for corrosion protection of carbon steel.

    PubMed

    Fayyad, Eman M; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Al-Maadeed, Mariam Al Ali

    2016-10-20

    An anticorrosion coating film based on the formation of nanocomposite coating is reported in this study. The composite consisted of chitosan (green matrix), oleic acid, and graphene oxide (nano filler). The nanocomposite coating was arranged on the surface of carbon steel, and the corrosion resistance was monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP). Compared to the pure chitosan (CS) coating, the corrosion resistance of oleic acid-modified chitosan/graphene oxide film (CS/GO-OA) is increased by 100 folds. Since the well-dispersed smart grafted nanolayers delayed the penetration rate of corrosive species and thus maintained long term anticorrosive stability which is correlated with hydrophobicity and permeability.

  15. A two-stage enzymatic process for synthesis of extremely pure high oleic glycerol monooleate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qisi; Li, Tie; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Bo; Ma, Yongjun

    2011-02-08

    This paper presents a research interest concentrating on aims to establish a feasible industrial process for enzymatic production of highly pure glycerol monooleate (GMO). The synthesis of high oleic glycerol monooleate by enzymatic glycerolysis of high oleic sunflower oil, using Novozyme 435 as the biocatalyst, in a binary solvent mixture of tert-butanol and tert-pentanol (80/20, v/v), at a lab scale has been studied. A yield of 75.31% monoacylglycerol has been achieved at the first stage. A yield of 93.3% GMO was finally reached after further purification at the second stage. To evaluate the possibility of the process for industrialization, production of GMO was performed at a pilot-plant scale under the correspondingly adjusted conditions. A yield of 68.17% and 93.4% of GMO was obtained, respectively, at the end of the three stages.

  16. Observations of a high-pressure phase creation in oleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kościesza, R.; Kulisiewicz, L.; Delgado, A.

    2010-03-01

    Oleic acid is one of the unsaturated fatty acids which frequently appears in food products such as edible fats and oils. A molecule of oleic acid possesses a double carbon bond, C=C, which is responsible for a transition to a new phase when pressure is applied. This work presents the results of optical observations of such a transition. The observations were made in two cases, the first being static p-T conditions under 60 MPa at 20°C and the other the dynamic application of the pressure up to 350 MPa. The obtained visualization reveals differences in the creation of the phase and in its further appearance. Some crystal forms may be recognized. These results tend to be of interest for food engineers due to increasing interest in high-pressure food preservation among nutritionists and medical scientists concerned with fatty acids.

  17. Facile synthesis and shape evolution of oleic acid decorated Cu2O microcrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Cao, Xiaohai; Zhu, Bingchun; Lou, Baiyang; Ma, Xiaocun; Li, Xiao; Wang, Yuguang

    2015-11-01

    A facile synthetic method of oleic acid decorated Cu2O microcrystals has been developed by thermal decomposition of copper formate-octylamine complexes in paraffin using oleic acid as dispersing agent. This new method showed many advantages, which include free-reducing agent, enhancing antioxidant properties of Cu2O and good dispersity in paraffin, etc. The phase structure and morphology were investigated by means of XRD, SEM and TEM. It is found that the reaction time and temperature play the important roles in the crystallite morphology. With the increase of the reaction time, the Cu2O rhombic dodecahedron is gradually transformed into the spherical particle by intraparticle ripening. The shape evolution of Cu2O microcrystals can be accelerated with the increase of temperature.

  18. Enhanced comedo formation in rabbit ear skin by squalene and oleic acid peroxides.

    PubMed

    Motoyoshi, K

    1983-08-01

    The comedogenicity of UVA-irradiated and non-irradiated substances (squalene, oleic acid, tetradecane, isopropyl myristate, squalane and liquid paraffin) was evaluated by surface microscopy and histological examination after treating the ventral skin of rabbit ears with these substances. The lipid peroxide levels of these substances were also measured. Squalene itself was scarcely comedogenic but squalene peroxides were highly comedogenic. Both oleic acid and its peroxides were able to induce fairly large comedones and there was a good correlation between the lipid peroxide levels and the size of the comedones. The specimens biopsied from these comedones showed marked hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis of the epithelium in the follicular infundibulum and marked proliferation of the sebaceous glands. Although free fatty acids might play a role in the pathogenesis of acne, it is proposed that squalene and free fatty acids in sebum may be less comedogenic than their peroxides.

  19. Tensile properties and water absorption of zein sheets plasticized with oleic and linoleic acids.

    PubMed

    Budi Santosa, F X; Padua, G W

    1999-05-01

    Corn zein has been investigated for fabrication of biodegradable packaging materials. Our objective was to investigate the effect of added plasticizers, oleic and linoleic acids, on tensile properties and water absorption of zein sheets. Moldable resins were precipitated from aqueous ethanol dispersions of zein and fatty acids and rolled into sheets of approximately 0.5 mm in thickness. To increase plasticization effects, zein-oleic acid sheets were replasticized by heating them in fatty acid baths. Plasticization resulted in flexible sheets of high clarity, low modulus, and high elongation and toughness, although low tensile strength. Water absorption of zein sheets was lowered by plasticization, attributed in part to reduced mass fraction of zein. Polymerization of linoleic acid may have sealed off pores on sheet surfaces, thus slowing water absorption.

  20. Oleic acid content of a meal promotes oleoylethanolamide response and reduces subsequent energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Ilario; Savarese, Maria; Ferracane, Rosalia; Sacchi, Raffaele; Vitaglione, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Animal data suggest that dietary fat composition may influence endocannabinoid (EC) response and dietary behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that fatty acid composition of a meal can influence the short-term response of ECs and subsequent energy intake in humans. Fifteen volunteers on three occasions were randomly offered a meal containing 30 g of bread and 30 mL of one of three selected oils: sunflower oil (SO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and virgin olive oil (VOO). Plasma EC concentrations and appetite ratings over 2 h and energy intake over 24 h following the experimental meal were measured. Results showed that after HOSO and VOO consumption the circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) was significantly higher than after SO consumption; a concomitantly significant reduction of energy intake was found. For the first time the oleic acid content of a meal was demonstrated to increase the post-prandial response of circulating OEA and to reduce energy intake at subsequent meals in humans.

  1. Characterization of the oleic acid/iron oxide nanoparticle interface by magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masur, S.; Zingsem, B.; Marzi, T.; Meckenstock, R.; Farle, M.

    2016-10-01

    The synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles involves surfactant molecules, which bind to the particle surface and stabilize nanoparticles against aggregation. In many cases these protecting shells also can be used for further functionalization. In this study, we investigated monodisperse single crystalline iron oxide core/shell nanoparticles (FexOy-NPs) in situ covered with an oleic acid layer which showed two electron spin resonance (ESR) signals. The nanoparticles with the ligands attached were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ferro- and paramagnetic resonance (FMR, EPR). Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the functional groups and revealed that the oleic acid (OA) is chemisorbed as a carboxylate on the iron oxide and is coordinated symmetrically to the oxide atoms. We show that the EPR signal of the OA ligand molecule can be used as a local probe to determine the temperature changes at the surface of the nanoparticle.

  2. Skin phototoxicity of cosmetic formulations containing photounstable and photostable UV-filters and vitamin A palmitate.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Lorena R; Tharmann, Julian; Maia Campos, Patricia M B G; Liebsch, Manfred

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro skin phototoxicity of cosmetic formulations containing photounstable and photostable UV-filters and vitamin A palmitate, assessed by two in vitro techniques: 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Phototoxicity Test and Human 3-D Skin Model In Vitro Phototoxicity Test. For this, four different formulations containing vitamin A palmitate and different UV-filters combinations, two of them considered photostable and two of them considered photounstable, were prepared. Solutions of each UV-filter and vitamin under study and solutions of four different combinations under study were also prepared. The phototoxicity was assessed in vitro by the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test (3T3-NRU-PT) and subsequently in a phototoxicity test on reconstructed human skin model (H3D-PT). Avobenzone presented a pronounced phototoxicity and vitamin A presented a tendency to a weak phototoxic potential. A synergistic effect of vitamin A palmitate on the phototoxicity of combinations containing avobenzone was observed. H3D-PT results did not confirm the positive 3T3-NRU-PT results. However, despite the four formulations studied did not present any acute phototoxicity potential, the combination 2 containing octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC), avobenzone (AVB) and 4-methylbenzilidene camphor (MBC) presented an indication of phototoxicity that should be better investigated in terms of the frequency of photoallergic or chronic phototoxicity in humans, once these tests are scientifically validated only to detect phototoxic potential with the aim of preventing phototoxic reactions in the general population, and positive results cannot predict the exact incidence of phototoxic reactions in humans.

  3. Anti-Angiogenic Properties of Cafestol and Kahweol Palmitate Diterpene Esters.

    PubMed

    Moeenfard, Marzieh; Cortez, Alice; Machado, Vera; Costa, Raquel; Luís, Carla; Coelho, Pedro; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Arminda; Borges, Nuno; Santos, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Epidemiological studies support the association of coffee-specific diterpenes, with various beneficial health effects. Although anti-antiangiogenic properties of free cafestol and kahweol have been recently described, available data regarding their esterified form, in particular palmitate esters as the main diterpene esters present in coffee, are still rare. Given that angiogenesis plays an important role in many pathological conditions, including cancer growth and metastasis, this study aimed to assess and compare the potential anti-angiogenic effects of cafestol palmitate (CP) and kahweol palmitate (KP) in an in vitro angiogenesis model. According to our findings, both compounds inhibited angiogenesis steps on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs), although a more significant effect was observed for KP. Compared to control, HMVECs viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner upon incubation either with CP or KP. Concentrations of 75 and 100 μM of each compound were cytotoxic. Cell proliferation was also dramatically reduced by both diterpene esters at 50 μM, although KP had a stronger inhibitory effect. However, CP and KP did not induce apoptosis on HMVECs. Both compounds reduced cell migration, but this effect was only statistically significant after KP incubation. Inhibition of VEGFR2 expression and its downstream effector Akt, but not Erk, was also observed in CP- and KP-treated HMVECs. These findings were confirmed using ELISA assay for phosphorylated (active) VEGFR-2. Taken together, these data indicate that both CP and KP can be considered potent compounds against angiogenesis-dependent disorders. Our findings further indicate that KP exerts more potent anti-angiogenic effects than CP, in most of assays. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2748-2756, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... amounts of stearic or oleic acid as lubricants. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with bronze... that such impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Stearic or oleic acid, not...

  5. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amounts of stearic or oleic acid as lubricants. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with bronze... that such impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Stearic or oleic acid, not...

  6. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... amounts of stearic or oleic acid as lubricants. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with bronze... that such impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Stearic or oleic acid, not...

  7. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amounts of stearic or oleic acid as lubricants. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with bronze... that such impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Stearic or oleic acid, not...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... amounts of stearic or oleic acid as lubricants. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with bronze... that such impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Stearic or oleic acid, not...

  9. Ozone oxidation of oleic acid surface films decreases aerosol cloud condensation nuclei activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwier, A. N.; Sareen, N.; Lathem, T. L.; Nenes, A.; McNeill, V. F.

    2011-08-01

    Heterogeneous oxidation of aerosols composed of pure oleic acid (C18H34O2, an unsaturated fatty acid commonly found in continental and marine aerosol) by gas-phase O3 is known to increase aerosol hygroscopicity and activity as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Whether this trend is preserved when the oleic acid is internally mixed with other electrolytes is unknown and addressed in this study. We quantify the CCN activity of sodium salt aerosols (NaCl and Na2SO4) internally mixed with sodium oleate (SO) and oleic acid (OA). We find that particles containing roughly one monolayer of SO/OA show similar CCN activity to pure salt particles, whereas a tenfold increase in organic concentration slightly depresses CCN activity. O3 oxidation of these multicomponent aerosols has little effect on the critical diameter for CCN activation for unacidified particles at all conditions studied, and the activation kinetics of the CCN are similar in each case to those of pure salts. SO-containing particles which are acidified to atmospherically relevant pH before analysis in order to form oleic acid, however, show depressed CCN activity upon oxidation. This effect is more pronounced at higher organic concentrations. The behavior after oxidation is consistent with the disappearance of the organic surface film, supported by Köhler Theory Analysis (KTA). The κ-Köhler calculations show a small decrease in hygroscopicity after oxidation. The important implication of this finding is that oxidative aging may not always enhance the hygroscopicity of internally mixed inorganic-organic aerosols.

  10. Ascorbyl palmitate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles: characteristic and polyphenol oxidase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Ji-Soo; Kim, Kwang Yup; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to produce ascorbyl palmitate (AP)-loaded nanoparticles in order to inhibit polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in bananas. AP-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using acetic acid and citric acid (denoted as CS/AA and CS/CA nanoparticles, respectively). As the initial AP concentration increases, the particle size significantly decreases, and the zeta potential, entrapment and loading efficiency significantly increases. The PPO inhibitory activity of AP was effectively improved when AP was nano-encapsulated by chitosan compared to no encapsulation. These results suggest that chitosan nano-encapsulation can be used to enhance the PPO inhibitory activity of AP.

  11. Effect of oleic, lauric and myristic acids on phenylephrine-induced contractions of isolated rat vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Arruzazabala, M L; Pérez, Y; Ravelo, Y; Molina, V; Carbajal, D; Mas, R; Rodríguez, E

    2011-09-01

    D-004, a lipid extract of Roystonea regia fruits that contains oleic, lauric and myristic acids as major components inhibits alpha1-adrenoreceptors-mediated contractile responses in isolated rat vas deferens and prostate trips; no study has demonstrated a similar effect for oleic, lauric or myristic acids individually. Therefore, the effects of D-004 (250 microg/mL), oleic (100 microg/mL), lauric (50 microg/mL) or myristic (25 microg/mL) acids and their combined effects on phenylephrine (PHE: 10(-7)-10(-4) mol/L) induced contractions has been studied. No treatment changed the basal tone of the preparations, but all inhibited PHE-induced contractions. D-004 produced the highest inhibition, followed by lauric acid, which was more effective than myristic and oleic acids against PHE-induced contractions of control group. D-004 and the mixture of the three acids produced similar inhibitions.

  12. Enhancement of the oral bioavailability of cinnarizine in oleic acid in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Tokumura, T; Tsushima, Y; Tatsuishi, K; Kayano, M; Machida, Y; Nagai, T

    1987-04-01

    The present study was an attempt to develop a new dosage form of cinnarizine, which is slightly soluble in water, using lipid as a vehicle. The solubility of cinnarizine in several organic solvents was determined. It was found that cinnarizine dissolved well in oleic and linoleic acids. The bioavailability of cinnarizine from the oral administration of an oleic acid solution in a hard capsule was investigated and compared with that of a cinnarizine tablet, using beagle dogs. When cinnarizine was administered in a capsule, the bioavailability was greatly enhanced [i.e., the maximum concentration (Cmax) and AUC values were 2.9 and 4.0 times larger than those of a cinnarizine tablet, respectively]. Meanwhile, the tmax value (the time to reach Cmax) was unchanged. The absorption of cinnarizine from an oleic acid solution was considered to depend on the action of bile salts. This was supported by the results of a dissolution test using a bile salts solution as the dissolution test medium.

  13. Luminescence properties of LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles encapsulated by oleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaewoo; Lee, Jun-Hyung; An, Hyejin; Lee, Jungkuk; Park, Seong-Hee; Seo, Young-Soo; Miller, William H.

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • In-situ hydrophobization of water dispersible LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles was achieved. • Oleic acid surface modification of the nanoparticles was verified by IR spectra. • Quantum yields of LaF{sub 3}:Ce and OA-LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles were evaluated. • Quantum yields of LaF{sub 3}:Ce are strongly dependent on OA surface modification. - Abstract: Cerium ions doped lanthanum fluoride (LaF{sub 3}:Ce) nanopowder as well as LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanopowder whose surfaces was modified by oleic acid (OA) were synthesized by using an in-situ hydrothermal process under the various doping concentrations. Based on the XRD spectra and TEM images, it was confirmed that the crystalline structured hexagonal LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanopowder was synthesized. Oleic acid was efficient for conversion of the water dispersible LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles to hydrophobic ones. Surface modification was verified by FTIR absorption spectrum as well as TEM images, showing no agglomeration between 5 and 10 nm scaled particles. Photoluminescence based on 5d ⟶ 4f electronic transition of cerium ions excited at λ{sub ex} ∼256 nm for both neat and OA encapsulated LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles decreases as the cerium concentration increases, while the quantum yields of OA encapsulated nanoparticles were much lower than the neat particles due to low photon transmittance of OA at the range longer than ∼350 nm.

  14. Results of fibre and toner flotation depending on oleic acid dosage.

    PubMed

    Trumic, Maja S; Trumic, Milan Z; Vujic, Bogdana; Andric, Ljubisa; Bogdanovic, Grozdanka

    2016-09-01

    The literature was reviewed with respect to deinking flotation methods with toner samples, specifically emphasizing the speciation of copy machine and laser printing, which produce an increasing quantity of paper that is difficult to recycle. Speciation here refers to the physical-chemical characteristics of the toner, which change because of the polymerization (fusion) and oxidation process, due to exposure to heat, light and oxygen (air) during the printing process. To simulate the deinking flotation, after the ideal disintegration process, samples of toner were prepared in order to provide free toner particles. Synthetic toner has iron content and the same physical-chemical features as free disintegrated printed toner particles.We report the toner (I) and fibre (Y) recovery and the brightness (B) of laboratory filter pads formed of deinked product as deinking efficiencies. The application of oleic acid as the collector in the flotation stage gives a better flotation recovery in alkaline than in acidic conditions. The highest brightness (BF = 93.66%) and flotation recoveries (I = 90, Y = 92.82%) were achieved during testing at an oleic acid concentration of 3.38·10(-6) mol l(-1), which is the lowest dose used. This makes the use of oleic acid economical and environmentally friendly.

  15. Humans are more sensitive to the taste of linoleic and α-linolenic than oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Running, Cordelia A; Mattes, Richard D

    2015-03-01

    Health concerns have led to recommendations to replace saturated fats with unsaturated fats. However, addition of unsaturated fatty acids may lead to changes in the way foods are perceived in the oral cavity. This study tested the taste sensitivity to and emulsion characteristics of oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids. The hypothesis tested was that oral sensitivity to nonesterified fatty acids would increase with degree of unsaturation but that in vitro viscosities and particle sizes of these emulsions would not differ. Oral taste thresholds were obtained using the three-alternative, forced-choice, ascending method. Each participant was tested on each fat 7 times, for a total of 21 study visits, to account for learning effects. Viscosities were obtained for the blank solutions and all three emulsions. Results indicate lower oral thresholds to linoleic and α-linolenic than oleic acid. At higher shear rates, 5% oleic and linoleic acid were more viscous than other samples. More-dilute emulsions showed no significant differences in viscosity. Particle sizes of the emulsions increased very slightly with increasing unsaturation. Together, the emulsion characteristics and oral sensitivity data support a taste mechanism for nonesterified fatty acid detection.

  16. Failure of various agents to decrease oleic acid pulmonary albumin leak.

    PubMed

    Sugerman, H J; Blocher, C R; Hirsch, J I; Strash, A M; Tatum, J L

    1983-05-01

    Computerized pulmonary gamma scintigraphy has been shown to be a sensitive technique for the measurement of albumin flux in oleic acid pulmonary microvascular injury. In this technique technetium-99m-tagged human serum albumin is administered intravenously and lung:heart radioactivity ratios are constructed. This ratio remains constant unless there is a net flux of albumin from the vascular space into the lung, when a rising ratio is seen, called the "slope of injury" or SI. Gamma scintigraphy provides a method to rapidly screen the ability of various possible therapeutic agents to reduce the flux of albumin in experimental ARDS. In this study, 0.05 ml/kg oleic acid produced a significant increase in the SI. None of the agents tested (30 mg/kg methylprednisolone, 12.5 mg/kg ibuprofen, 4 mg/kg MK-447, a superoxide radical scavenger, or 140 mg/kg calcium gluconate) were able to alter the scintigraphically measured increased albumin flux produced by 0.05 ml/kg oleic acid.

  17. The effect of cetyl palmitate crystallinity on physical properties of gamma-oryzanol encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Limpakdee, Surachai; Meejoo, Siwaporn; Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Junyaprasert, Varaporn; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2008-03-01

    This present study was aimed at investigating the effect of the crystallinity of cetyl palmitate based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) on the physical properties of γ-oryzanol-loaded SLNs. SLNs consisting of varying ratios of cetyl palmitate and γ-oryzanol were prepared. Their hydrodynamic diameters were in the range 210-280 nm and the zeta potentials were in the range -27 to -35 mV. The size of SLNs increased as the amount of cetyl palmitate decreased whereas no significant change of zeta potentials was found. Atomic force microscopy pictures indicated the presence of disc-like particles. The crystallinity of SLNs, determined by differential scanning calorimetry and powder x-ray diffraction, was directly dependent on the ratio of cetyl palmitate to γ-oryzanol and decreased with decreasing cetyl palmitate content in the lipid matrix. Varying this ratio in the lipid mix resulted in a shift in the melting temperature and enthalpy, although the SLN structure remained unchanged as an orthorhombic lamellar lattice. This has been attributed to a potential inhibition by γ-oryzanol during lipid crystal growth as well as a less ordered structure of the SLNs. The results revealed that the crystallinity of the SLNs was mainly dependent on the solid lipid, and that the crystallinity has an important impact on the physical characteristics of active-loaded SLNs.

  18. Palmitic acid, verified by lipid profiling using secondary ion mass spectrometry, demonstrates anti-multiple myeloma activity.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yasuyuki; Ishizaki, Itsuko; Waki, Michihiko; Ide, Yoshimi; Hossen, Md Amir; Ohnishi, Kazunori; Miyayama, Takuya; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that lipid metabolic changes affect the survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), an imaging mass spectrometry technique, is used to visualize the subcellular distribution of biomolecules including lipids. We therefore applied this method to human clinical specimens to analyze the membrane fatty acid composition and determine candidate molecules for MM therapies. We isolated MM cells and normal plasma cells (PCs) from bone marrow aspirates of MM patients and healthy volunteers, respectively, and these separated cells were analyzed by TOF-SIMS. Multiple ions including fatty acids were detected and their ion counts were estimated. In MM cells, the mean intensity of palmitic acid was significantly lower than the mean intensity in PCs. In a cell death assay, palmitic acid reduced U266 cell viability dose-dependently at doses between 50 and 1000 μM. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased from 24h after palmitic acid administration. In contrast, palmitic acid had no effect on the viability of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The results of this study indicated that palmitic acid is a potential candidate for novel therapeutic agents that specifically attack MM cells.

  19. High serum palmitic acid is associated with low antiviral effects of interferon-based therapy for hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Teruki; Hiasa, Yoichi; Hirooka, Masashi; Tokumoto, Yoshio; Watanabe, Takao; Furukawa, Shinya; Ueda, Teruhisa; Yamamoto, Shin; Kumagi, Teru; Miyaoka, Hiroaki; Abe, Masanori; Matsuura, Bunzo; Onji, Morikazu

    2012-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection alters fatty acid synthesis and metabolism in association with HCV replication. The present study examined the effect of serum fatty acid composition on interferon (IFN)-based therapy. Fifty-five patients with HCV were enrolled and received IFN-based therapy. Patient characteristics, laboratory data (including fatty acids), and viral factors that could be associated with the anti-HCV effects of IFN-based therapy were evaluated. The effects of individual fatty acids on viral replication and IFN-based therapy were also examined in an in-vitro system. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the level of serum palmitic acid before treatment and HCV genotype were significant predictors for rapid virological response (RVR), early virological response (EVR), and sustained virological response (SVR). High levels of palmitic acid inhibited the anti-HCV effects of IFN-based therapy. HCV replication assays confirmed the inhibitory effects of palmitic acid on anti-HCV therapy. The concentration of serum palmitic acid is an independent predictive factor for RVR, EVR, and SVR in IFN-based antiviral therapy. These results suggest that the effect of IFN-based antiviral therapy in patients with HCV infection might be enhanced by treatment that modulates palmitic acid levels.

  20. Daily pattern of some fatty acids in the athletic horse.

    PubMed

    Piccione, G; Assenza, A; Borruso, M; Fazio, F; Caola, G

    2009-02-01

    In the sport field, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are important for the physical performance during the aerobic exercise of short intensity and long duration. In man, rat, goat and in the sedentary horse studies on the chronometabolism showed the presence of a circadian rhythm of the plasmatic concentration of NEFA while data for the athletic horse are lacking. To define a chronogram helpful for a specific planning and the differentiation of the training programmme in the athletic horse, the circadian pattern of some fatty acids (NEFA, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) was studied in five Sella Italiana horses. These horses trained following a daily model of activity consisting of walk, trot, gallop and jump of obstacles of different heights. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein every 4 h, starting at 08:00 hours, for 2 days to assess the concentrations of total NEFA (by spectrophotometry), palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids (by gas chromatography). anova for repeated measures showed a statistical significant effect of the time of the day in NEFA, oleic and linolenic acids. The application of the periodic model showed the periodic pattern of NEFA, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. Acrophases were in the afternoon for all parameters. The results obtained showed a different trend of the circadian pattern of the studied parameters in the athletic horse than in the sedentary one because the physical activity and the post-prandial metabolism acted as zeitgebers.

  1. Effect of Gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid composite films.

    PubMed

    Masamba, Kingsley; Li, Yue; Hategekimana, Joseph; Liu, Fei; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid 0-4 % composite films was investigated. Molecular weight distribution analysis was carried out to confirm gallic acid induced cross linking through change in molecular weight in fraction containing zein proteins. Results revealed that gallic acid treatment increased tensile strength from 17.9 MPa to 26.0 MPa, decreased water vapour permeability from 0.60 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)) to 0.41 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)), increased solubility from 6.3 % to 10.2 % and marginally increased elongation at break from 3.7 % to 4.2 % in zein films only. However, gallic acid treatment in zein-oleic composite films did not significantly influence mechanical and water barrier properties and in most instances irrespective of oleic acid concentration, the properties were negatively affected. Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that both gallic acid treated and untreated zein films and composite films containing 3 % oleic acid had a compact and homogeneous structure while those containing 4 % oleic acid had inhomogeneous structure. The findings have demonstrated that gallic acid treatment can significantly improve mechanical and water barrier properties especially in zein films only as opposed to when used in composite films using zein and oleic acid.

  2. Palmitate stimulates glucose transport in rat adipocytes by a mechanism involving translocation of the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, R. W.; Ladenson, J. H.; Henriksen, E. J.; Holloszy, J. O.; McDonald, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    In rat adipocytes, palmitate: a) increases basal 2-deoxyglucose transport 129 +/- 27% (p less than 0.02), b) decreases the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) in low density microsomes and increases GLUT4 in plasma membranes and c) increases the activity of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. Palmitate-stimulated glucose transport is not additive with the effect of insulin and is not inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine and sphingosine. In rat muscle, palmitate: a) does not affect basal glucose transport in either the soleus or epitrochlearis and b) inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose transport by 28% (p less than 0.005) in soleus but not in epitrochlearis muscle. These studies demonstrate a potentially important differential role for fatty acids in the regulation of glucose transport in different insulin target tissues.

  3. Cumulative reduction of primary skin tumor growth in UV-irradiated mice by the combination of retinyl palmitate and canthaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Gensler, H L; Aickin, M; Peng, Y M

    1990-08-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with retinyl palmitate, canthaxanthin, or the combination of both, on photocarcinogenesis was determined in pigmented C3H/HeN mice. The basal diet was the American Institute of Nutrition Diet 76A, to which was added 120 IU of retinyl palmitate per g diet, 1% canthaxanthin, or the combination of both. Administration of the diets began 18 weeks before the first UVB radiation (280-320 nm) treatment and continued throughout the study. The UV source was a bank of 6 Westinghouse FS40 lamps which delivered to the mice a total dose of 9.9 x 10(5) J/m2, delivered over 24 weeks. These diets significantly reduced the tumor burden per mouse induced by UV irradiation, however they did not influence tumor incidence. The combination of retinyl palmitate plus canthaxanthin was more effective than either agent alone at reducing autochthonous tumor growth, a result which has not been previously reported.

  4. Uncoupling protein 2 regulates palmitic acid-induced hepatoma cell autophagy.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jiaxin; Wang, Yunjiao; Wang, Xuejiang; Jiang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is suggested to have a role in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the mechanism remains unclear. Autophagy is an important mediator of many pathological responses. This study aims to investigate the relationship between UCP2 and hepatoma cells autophagy in palmitic acid- (PA-) induced lipotoxicity. H4IIE cells were treated with palmitic acid (PA), and cell autophagy and apoptosis were examined. UCP2 expression, in association with LC3-II and caspase-3, which are indicators of cell autophagy and apoptosis, respectively,was measured. Results demonstrated that UCP2 was associated with autophagy during PA-induced hepatic carcinoma cells injury. Tests on reactive oxygen species (ROS) showed that UCP2 overexpression strongly decreases PA-induced ROS production and apoptosis. Conversely, UCP2 inhibition by genipin or UCP2 mRNA silencing enhances PA-induced ROS production and apoptosis. Autophagy partially participates in this progress. Moreover, UCP2 was associated with ATP synthesis during PA-induced autophagy. In conclusion, increasing UCP2 expression in hepatoma cells may contribute to cell autophagy and antiapoptotic as result of fatty acid injury. Our results may bring new insights for potential NASH therapies.

  5. Effect of. cap alpha. -ketobutyrate on the metabolism of pyruvate and palmitate in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Brass, E.P.

    1986-05-01

    Alpha-ketobutyrate (..cap alpha..KB), an intermediate in the catabolism of threonine and methionine, is decarboxylated to propionyl-CoA. The authors have reported that propionate (PROP) inhibits oxidative metabolism in rate hepatocytes. Based on these observations, the present study examined the effects of ..cap alpha..KB on pyruvate and palmitate metabolism in hepatocytes isolated from fed rats. Similar to PROP, ..cap alpha..KB (10mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation and this inhibition was diminished when 10mM carnitine (CN) was added (35 +/- 6% inhibition without CN, 22 +/- 8% with CN). ..cap alpha..KB inhibited the conversion of 3-/sup 14/C-pyruvate to glucose and CO/sub 2/. Inhibition of pyruvate metabolism by ..cap alpha..KB was concentration-dependent. At equal concentrations, ..cap alpha..KB inhibited pyruvate metabolism to a greater extent than PROP. Addition of CN partially reversed the effects of PROP on pyruvate metabolism, but not those of ..cap alpha..KB despite the generation of propionylcarnitine when ..cap alpha..KB and CN were included in the incubation. These results demonstrate that accumulation of ..cap alpha..KB can impair normal hepatocyte metabolism. While some of the effects of ..cap alpha..KB can be explained on the basis of propionyl-CoA formation, ..cap alpha..KB has effects on pyruvate metabolism not explainable by this mechanism.

  6. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of docetaxel-loaded stearic acid-modified Bletilla striata polysaccharide copolymer micelles

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Qingxiang; Zhang, Guangyuan; Sun, Dandan; Wang, Yue; Liu, Kun; Wang, Miao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Bingjin; Lv, Jiayin

    2017-01-01

    Bletilla striata polysaccharides (BSPs) have been used in pharmaceutical and biomedical industry, the aim of the present study was to explore a BSPs amphiphilic derivative to overcome its application limit as poorly water-soluble drug carriers due to water-soluble polymers. Stearic acid (SA) was selected as a hydrophobic block to modify B. striata polysaccharides (SA-BSPs). Docetaxel (DTX)-loaded SA-BSPs (DTX-SA-BSPs) copolymer micelles were prepared and characterized. The DTX release percentage in vitro and DTX concentration in vivo was carried out by using high performance liquid chromatography. HepG2 and HeLa cells were subjected to MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazonium bromide) assay to evaluate the cell viability. In vitro evaluation of copolymer micelles showed higher drug encapsulation and loading capacity. The release percentage of DTX from DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles and docetaxel injection was 66.93 ± 1.79% and 97.06 ± 1.56% in 2 days, respectively. The DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles exhibited a sustained release of DTX. A 50% increase in growth inhibition was observed for HepG2 cells treated with DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles as compared to those treated with docetaxel injection for 72 h. DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles presented a similar growth inhibition effect on Hela cells. Furthermore, absolute bioavailability of DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles was shown to be 1.39-fold higher than that of docetaxel injection. Therefore, SA-BSPs copolymer micelles may be used as potential biocompatible polymers for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:28334044

  7. alpha-Linolenic acid protects renal cells against palmitic acid lipotoxicity via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Katsoulieris, Elias; Mabley, Jon G; Samai, Mohamed; Green, Irene C; Chatterjee, Prabal K

    2009-11-25

    Unsaturated fatty acids may counteract the lipotoxicity associated with saturated fatty acids. Palmitic acid induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and caused apoptotic and necrotic cell death in the renal proximal tubular cell line, NRK-52E. We investigated whether alpha-linolenic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, protected against ER stress and cell death induced by palmitic acid or by other non-nutrient ER stress generators. Incubation of NRK-52E cells for 24h with palmitic acid produced a significant increase in apoptosis and necrosis. Palmitic acid also increased levels of three indicators of ER stress - the phosphorylated form of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78). alpha-Linolenic acid dramatically reduced cell death and levels of all three indicators of ER stress brought about by palmitic acid. Tunicamycin, which induces ER stress by glycosylation of proteins, produced similar effects to those obtained using palmitic acid; its effects were partially reversed by alpha-linolenic acid. Salubrinal (a phosphatase inhibitor) causes increased levels of the phosphorylated form of eIF2alpha - this effect was partially reversed by alpha-linolenic acid. Palmitoleate, a monosaturated fatty acid, had similar effects to those of alpha-linolenic acid. These results suggest that part of the mechanism of protection of the kidney by unsaturated fatty acids is through inhibition of ER stress, eIF2alpha phosphorylation and consequential reduction of CHOP protein expression and apoptotic renal cell death.

  8. Palmitate Diet-induced Loss of Cardiac Caveolin-3: A Novel Mechanism for Lipid-induced Contractile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Catherine J.; Cebova, Martina; Pinz, Ilka M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiomyopathy, and mechanisms linking the underlying risk and dietary factors are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that dietary intake of saturated fat increases the levels of sphingolipids, namely ceramide and sphingomyelin in cardiac cell membranes that disrupt caveolae, specialized membrane micro-domains and important for cellular signaling. C57BL/6 mice were fed two high-fat diets: palmitate diet (21% total fat, 47% is palmitate), and MCT diet (21% medium-chain triglycerides, no palmitate). We established that high-palmitate feeding for 12 weeks leads to 40% and 50% increases in ceramide and sphingomyelin, respectively, in cellular membranes. Concomitant with sphingolipid accumulation, we observed a 40% reduction in systolic contractile performance. To explore the relationship of increased sphingolipids with caveolins, we analyzed caveolin protein levels and intracellular localization in isolated cardiomyocytes. In normal cardiomyocytes, caveolin-1 and caveolin-3 co-localize at the plasma membrane and the T-tubule system. However, mice maintained on palmitate lost 80% of caveolin-3, mainly from the T-tubule system. Mice maintained on MCT diet had a 90% reduction in caveolin-1. These data show that caveolin isoforms are sensitive to the lipid environment. These data are further supported by similar findings in human cardiac tissue samples from non-obese, obese, non-obese cardiomyopathic, and obese cardiomyopathic patients. To further elucidate the contractile dysfunction associated with the loss of caveolin-3, we determined the localization of the ryanodine receptor and found lower expression and loss of the striated appearance of this protein. We suggest that palmitate-induced loss of caveolin-3 results in cardiac contractile dysfunction via a defect in calcium-induced calcium release. PMID:23585895

  9. D-isoascorbyl palmitate: lipase-catalyzed synthesis, structural characterization and process optimization using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Isoascorbic acid is a stereoisomer of L-ascorbic acid, and widely used as a food antioxidant. However, its highly hydrophilic behavior prevents its application in cosmetics or fats and oils-based foods. To overcome this problem, D-isoascorbyl palmitate was synthesized in the present study for improving the isoascorbic acid’s oil solubility with an immobilized lipase in organic media. The structural information of synthesized product was clarified using LC-ESI-MS, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR analysis, and process parameters for high yield of D-isoascorbyl palmitate were optimized by using One–factor-at-a-time experiments and response surface methodology (RSM). Results The synthesized product had the purity of 95% and its structural characteristics were confirmed as isoascorbyl palmitate by LC-ESI-MS, FT-IR, 1H, and 13C NMR analysis. Results from “one–factor-at-a-time” experiments indicated that the enzyme load, reaction temperature and D-isoascorbic-to-palmitic acid molar ratio had a significant effect on the D-isoascorbyl palmitate conversion rate. 95.32% of conversion rate was obtained by using response surface methodology (RSM) under the the optimized condition: enzyme load of 20% (w/w), reaction temperature of 53°C and D- isoascorbic-to-palmitic acid molar ratio of 1:4 when the reaction parameters were set as: acetone 20 mL, 40 g/L of molecular sieves content, 200 rpm speed for 24-h reaction time. Conclusion The findings of this study can become a reference for developing industrial processes for the preparation of isoascorbic acid ester, which might be used in food additives, cosmetic formulations and for the synthesis of other isoascorbic acid derivatives. PMID:23835418

  10. Comparison of Absorption and Desorption of Cryomill Process Control Agents and Their Effect on Compressive Behavior of Trimodal Aluminum Metal-Matrix-Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    B4C) powders were cryomilled in liquid nitrogen using different process control agents (PCAs) such as oleic acid , caprylic acid , and stearic acid ...composite agglomerates after 8 h cryomilling with (a) oleic acid , (b) caprylic acid , and (c, d) stearic acid ...8 List of Tables Table 1. Physical and chemical properties of stearic, oleic and caprylic acid

  11. Plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of radioactivity after single-dose administration of (3H)-oleic acid added to D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, L. Yohani; Menéndez, Roberto; Más, Rosa; González, Rosa M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, contains a mixture of fatty acids—mainly oleic, lauric, palmitic, and myristic acids, with oleic acid being among the most abundant—that has been found to reduce the risk for prostatic hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone (T) in rats. The pharmacokinetic profile of D-004 has not been reported. Objective: The objective of this study in rats was to assess plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of total radioactivity (TR) after single-dose administration of oral D-004 radiolabeled with (3H)-oleic acid, as a surrogate for the pharmacokinetics of D-004. Methods: This experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Center of Natural Products, National Center for Scientific Research, Havana, Cuba. Single doses of suspensions of (3H)-oleic acid 0.16 μCi/mg mixed with D-004 400 mg/kg (radioactive dose/animal 7.2 μCi) were given orally to male Wistar rats weighing 150 to 200 g assigned to the treated or control group. Three rats were euthanized at each of the following times: 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 144 hours after study drug administration. After administration, the rats euthanized at the last experimental time point were housed individually in metabolism cages. Urine and feces samples were collected daily. At each time point, blood samples were drawn and plasma samples were obtained using centrifugation. After euthanization, tissue samples (liver, lungs, spleen, brain, kidneys, adipose tissue, muscle, stomach, small and large intestines, adrenal glands, heart, testes, prostate, and seminal vesicles) were quickly removed, washed, blotted, and homogenized. Plasma (100 μL), tissue aliquots (100 mg), feces (10 mg), and urine (100μL) were dissolved and TR was measured. Samples were assayed in duplicate. Results were expressed in μgEq of radio-labeled oleic acid per milliliter of plasma or urine or gram of tissue or feces. Plasma, tissue, feces

  12. Mapping the low palmitate fap1 mutation and validation of its effects on soybean oil and agronomic traits in three soybean populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil with reduced palmitic acid content is desirable to reduce the risks of coronary diseases and; breast, colon, and prostate cancer incidence associated with consumption of this fatty acid. The objectives of this study were: to identify the genomic location of the reduced palmitate fap1 mut...

  13. Genotypic variability and genotype by environment interactions in oil and fatty acids in high, intermediate, and low oleic acid peanut genotypes.

    PubMed

    Singkham, Nattawut; Jogloy, Sanun; Kesmala, Thawan; Swatsitang, Prasan; Jaisil, Prasit; Puppala, Naveen

    2010-05-26

    Variability of genotype and genotype x environment (G x E) interactions for fatty acids are important to develop high-oleic types in peanut varietal improvement programs. The objective of this study was to determine the variation in fatty acid composition among peanut genotypes and G x E interactions of fatty acids in three groups of genotypes with high, intermediate, and low-oleic acid. Twenty-one genotypes were tested in three environments consisting of two rainy seasons and one dry season. The results indicated that G x E interactions were significant for biomass, pod yield, and harvest index and also for oleic, linoleic acids, and O/L ratio. G x E interactions were less important than genotypic main effect. For oleic acid, significant interactions were found in the intermediate and low-oleic groups only. Therefore, selection for high-oleic trait in peanut breeding programs should be effective.

  14. Physicochemical properties of oleic acid-based partially fluorinated gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Umemoto, Naoki; Aburai, Kenichi; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Endo, Takeshi; Kitiyanan, Boonyarach; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    We have developed oleic acid-based partially fluorinated gemini surfactants with carboxylic acid headgroups. The fluorocarbon chain is covalently bound to the terminal carbonyl group of oleic acid via a -CH(2)CH(2)OCO- unit, and the carboxylic acid headgroups are introduced to the cis double bond of oleic acid via -OCOCH(2)CH(2)- units. The aqueous solution properties of these surfactants were studied at pH 9 in the presence of 10 mmol dm–3 NaCl by means of static surface tension, pyrene fluorescence, and dynamic light scattering measurements. The resulting surface tension data demonstrate that the partially fluorinated gemini surfactants exhibit excellent surface activity in their dilute aqueous solutions. In addition, the surfactants are suggested to form micellar aggregates 2–4 nm in diameter. We also studied the aqueous temperature-concentration phase diagrams of the partially fluorinated gemini surfactants (disodium salts) on the basis of visual observations (through a crossed polarizer), polarized optical microscopy, and small angle X-ray scattering measurements. Several phase states including micellar solution phase, hexagonal phase, bicontinuous cubic phase, and lamellar phase were observed along with the coexistence of these phases in certain regions. Assemblies with lesser positive curvature tend to be formed with increasing surfactant concentration, increasing temperature, and increasing fluorocarbon chain length. A comparison of the phase diagrams of the partially fluorinated and hydrogenated surfactant systems suggests that close molecular packing is inhibited within the assemblies of the partially fluorinated surfactants because of the limited miscibility between the fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon units. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic report focusing on the temperature-concentration phase diagrams of (partially) fluorinated gemini surfactants over a wide range of compositions and temperatures.

  15. Recent advances in gemini surfactants: oleic Acid-based gemini surfactants and polymerizable gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Gemini surfactants recently developed by our research group are introduced from the standpoints of their syntheses, aqueous solution properties, and potential applications. Two series of gemini surfactants are introduced in this short review, the first of which is the oleic acid-based gemini surfactants, and the second is the polymerizable gemini surfactants. These gemini surfactants have been developed not only as environmentally friendly materials (the use of gemini surfactants enables the reduction of the total consumption of surfactants in chemical products owing to their excellent adsorption and micellization capabilities at low concentrations) but also as functional organic materials.

  16. Computational multiple steady states for enzymatic esterification of ethanol and oleic acid in an isothermal CSTR.

    PubMed

    Ho, Pang-Yen; Chuang, Guo-Syong; Chao, An-Chong; Li, Hsing-Ya

    2005-05-01

    The capacity of complex biochemical reaction networks (consisting of 11 coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations) to show multiple steady states, was investigated. The system involved esterification of ethanol and oleic acid by lipase in an isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The Deficiency One Algorithm and the Subnetwork Analysis were applied to determine the steady state multiplicity. A set of rate constants and two corresponding steady states are computed. The phenomena of bistability, hysteresis and bifurcation are discussed. Moreover, the capacity of steady state multiplicity is extended to the family of the studied reaction networks.

  17. Physical properties of edible emulsified films based on carboxymethyl cellulose and oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Almasi, Hadi

    2011-01-01

    Glycerol and oleic acid (OA) were incorporated into carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) films by an emulsification method. Films containing different amounts of glycerol and OA were examined for mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), and moisture uptake, optical and thermal properties. Addition of OA to the CMC films significantly improved the barrier property. However, the effect of OA on the mechanical properties was lower than glycerol. By increasing of OA content, the cloudiness of the CMC films was intensified and Hunter value (b) of the films increased (by ca. 35.8%).

  18. An oleic acid-capped CdSe quantum-dot sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jing; Song, J. L.; Deng, W. Q.; Sun, X. W.; Jiang, C. Y.; Lei, W.; Huang, J. H.; Liu, R. S.

    2009-04-13

    In this letter, we report an oleic acid (OA)-capped CdSe quantum-dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) with an improved performance. The TiO{sub 2}/OA-CdSe photoanode in a two-electrode device exhibited a photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 17.5% at 400 nm. At AM1.5G irradiation with 100 mW/cm{sup 2} light intensity, the QDSSCs based on OA-capped CdSe showed a power conversion efficiency of about 1%. The function of OA was to increase QD loading, extend the absorption range and possibly suppress the surface recombination.

  19. Palmitic acid induces interleukin-1β secretion via NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses through ROS production in human placental cells.

    PubMed

    Shirasuna, Koumei; Takano, Hiroki; Seno, Kotomi; Ohtsu, Ayaka; Karasawa, Tadayoshi; Takahashi, Masafumi; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Suzuki, Hirotada; Matsubara, Shigeki; Iwata, Hisataka; Kuwayama, Takehito

    2016-08-01

    Maternal obesity, a major risk factor for adverse pregnancy complications, results in inflammatory cytokine release in the placenta. Levels of free fatty acids are elevated in the plasma of obese human. These fatty acids include obesity-related palmitic acids, which is a major saturated fatty acid, that promotes inflammatory responses. Increasing evidence indicates that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes mediate inflammatory responses induced by endogenous danger signals. We hypothesized that inflammatory responses associated with gestational obesity cause inflammation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of palmitic acid on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses in a human Sw.71 trophoblast cell line. Palmitic acid stimulated caspase-1 activation and markedly increased interleukin (IL)-1β secretion in Sw.71 cells. Treatment with a caspase-1 inhibitor diminished palmitic acid-induced IL-1β release. In addition, NLRP3 and caspase-1 genome editing using a CRISPR/Cas9 system in Sw.71 cells suppressed IL-1β secretion, which was stimulated by palmitic acid. Moreover, palmitic acid stimulated caspase-3 activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion (e.g., IL-6 and IL-8). Palmitic acid-induced cytokine secretion were dependent on caspase-3 activation. In addition, palmitic acid-induced IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was depended on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In conclusion, palmitic acid caused activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses, inducing IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion, which is associated with ROS generation, in human Sw.71 placental cells. We suggest that obesity-related palmitic acid induces placental inflammation, resulting in association with pregnancy complications.

  20. Regulation of intestinal IgA responses by dietary palmitic acid and its metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kunisawa, Jun; Hashimoto, Eri; Inoue, Asuka; Nagasawa, Risa; Suzuki, Yuji; Ishikawa, Izumi; Shikata, Shiori; Arita, Makoto; Aoki, Junken; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2014-08-15

    Enhancement of intestinal IgA responses is a primary strategy in the development of oral vaccine. Dietary fatty acids are known to regulate host immune responses. In this study, we show that dietary palmitic acid (PA) and its metabolites enhance intestinal IgA responses. Intestinal IgA production was increased in mice maintained on a PA-enriched diet. These mice also showed increased intestinal IgA responses against orally immunized Ag, without any effect on serum Ab responses. We found that PA directly stimulates plasma cells to produce Ab. In addition, mice receiving a PA-enriched diet had increased numbers of IgA-producing plasma cells in the large intestine; this effect was abolished when serine palmitoyltransferase was inhibited. These findings suggest that dietary PA regulates intestinal IgA responses and has the potential to be a diet-derived mucosal adjuvant.

  1. Investigation on microstructure and thermal properties of graphene-nanoplatelet/palmitic acid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jifen; Xie, Huaqing; Xin, Zhong

    2012-07-01

    Graphene-nanoplatelets (GNPs) were added into melting palmitic acid (PA) to prepare GNP/PA composites. Experimental results revealed that the temperature has little effect on the thermal conductivity of GNP/PA in either solid state or liquid state. Generally, thermal conductivity of GNP/PA increases with the addition of GNPs. There are two sudden increases in thermal conductivity for GNP/PA. One is at 0.5 wt% where GNPs begin to congregate and the thermal conductivity of GNP/PA increases suddenly. The other is at 5.0 wt% where the GNP aggregates are large enough to contact each other and the thermal conductivity of GNP/PA spurts with more GNP loadings.

  2. Hepatic FTO expression is increased in NASH and its silencing attenuates palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lim, Andrea; Zhou, Jin; Sinha, Rohit A; Singh, Brijesh K; Ghosh, Sujoy; Lim, Kiat-Hon; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe; Woon, Esther C Y; Yen, Paul M

    2016-10-21

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common causes of liver failure worldwide. It is characterized by excess fat accumulation, inflammation, and increased lipotoxicity in hepatocytes. Currently, there are limited treatment options for NASH due to lack of understanding of its molecular etiology. In the present study, we demonstrate that the expression of fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) is significantly increased in the livers of NASH patients and in a rodent model of NASH. Furthermore, using human hepatic cells, we show that genetic silencing of FTO protects against palmitate-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress, and apoptosis in vitro. Taken together, our results show that FTO may have a deleterious role in hepatic cells during lipotoxic conditions, and strongly suggest that up-regulation of FTO may contribute to the increased liver damage in NASH.

  3. Encapsulation of Vitamin A palmitate for animal supplementation: Formulation, manufacturing and stability implications.

    PubMed

    Albertini, Beatrice; Di Sabatino, Marcello; Calogerà, Giacomo; Passerini, Nadia; Rodriguez, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Two manufacturing methods and numerous formulative approaches have been evaluated to obtain a stable oral pharmaceutical form of Vitamin A palmitate (VAP), a substance very sensitive to light, temperature, humidity and metal ions. The best results were obtained by formulating VAP, stabilized with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), in double layer microcapsules constituted by a core of chitosan, Tween 20, CaCl(2) and EDTA surrounded by a first chitosan-alginate membrane and an outer membrane of calcium-alginate. This formulation design enabled the production of beads with high drug loading (42% w/w) and high encapsulation efficiency (94%). The stability of VAP-loaded microcapsules was assessed according to EMEA guidelines. This formulation design showed the best performance in terms of VAP recovery (t(50%) > 360 days) after 1 year of storage at room conditions. This is a very important result considering the poor shelf-life (45 days) of pure VAP stabilized with BHT stored at the same conditions.

  4. Palmitic acid suppresses apolipoprotein M gene expression via the pathway of PPARβ/δ in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guanghua; Shi, Yuanping; Zhang, Jun; Mu, Qinfeng; Qin, Li; Zheng, Lu; Feng, Yuehua; Berggren-Söderlund, Maria; Nilsson-Ehle, Peter; Zhang, Xiaoying; Xu, Ning

    2014-02-28

    It has been demonstrated that apolipoprotein M (APOM) is a vasculoprotective constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which could be related to the anti-atherosclerotic property of HDL. Investigation of regulation of APOM expression is of important for further exploring its pathophysiological function in vivo. Our previous studies indicated that expression of APOM could be regulated by platelet activating factor (PAF), transforming growth factors (TGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), leptin, hyperglycemia and etc., in vivo and/or in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid could significantly inhibit APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. Further study indicated neither PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 nor protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GFX could abolish palmitic acid induced down-regulation of APOM expression. In contrast, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARβ/δ) antagonist GSK3787 could totally reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression, which clearly demonstrates that down-regulation of APOM expression induced by palmitic acid is mediated via the PPARβ/δ pathway.

  5. Comparison of microwave processing and excess steam jet cooking for spherulite production of from starch:palmitic acid inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was previously shown that toroid and spherical/lobed spherulites were formed upon slow cooling of aqueous dispersions of corn starch and palmitic acid after passing through an excess steam jet cooker. Spherulite yield was 86% based on amylose. In order to determine whether excess steam jet cookin...

  6. Colfosceril palmitate. A pharmacoeconomic evaluation of a synthetic surfactant preparation (Exosurf Neonatal) in infants with respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bryson, H M; Whittington, R

    1994-12-01

    Comprehensive clinical data provide strong evidence of the efficacy of the synthetic lung surfactant colfosceril palmitate (Exosurf Neonatal) administered as prophylaxis or rescue therapy in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The use of rescue therapy with colfosceril palmitate is further supported by cost-effectiveness analyses which report a 9 to 48% reduction in the cost per survivor compared with placebo or historical controls, despite divergent study methodology and location. Importantly, the savings were evident in both larger (> or = 1250g) and smaller (700 to 1350g) infants. All studies considered costs or charges accrued during initial hospitalisation through to 1 year; measurement of long term resource use data and all resulting costs are required for a more complete pharmacoeconomic evaluation. The optimal timing of surfactant administration is likely to be an important economic issue given that efficacy data from a large international trial support earlier administration of colfosceril palmitate versus delayed therapy in high risk patients. Further economic benefits may be realised by the sequential use of antenatal corticosteroids and surfactant therapy, although this has yet to be prospectively investigated. In conclusion, clinical and pharmacoeconomic data strongly support the use of rescue therapy with colfosceril palmitate. Additionally, recent clinical data indicating that even better results may be achieved with earlier administration and/or combined use with antenatal corticosteroids should be assessed from an economic standpoint to determine the optimal prescribing strategy for this agent.

  7. Determination of Fatty Acid Metabolism with Dynamic 11C-Palmitate Positron Emission Tomography of Mouse Heart In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinlin; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Xinyue; Zhong, Min; Walker, Natalie N.; He, Jiang; Berr, Stuart S.; Keller, Susanna R.; Kundu, Bijoy K.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to establish a quantitative method for measuring FA metabolism with partial volume (PV) and spill-over (SP) corrections using dynamic 11C-palmitate PET images of mouse heart in vivo. Methods Twenty-minute dynamic 11C-palmitate PET scans of four 18–20 week old male C57BL/6 mice under isoflurane anesthesia were performed using a Focus 120 PET scanner. A model corrected blood input function (MCIF), by which the input function with SP and PV corrections and the metabolic rate constants (k1−k5) are simultaneously estimated from the dynamic 11C-palmitate PET images of mouse hearts in a 4-compartment tracer kinetic model, was used to determine rates of myocardial FA oxidation (MFAO), myocardial FA esterification (MFAE), myocardial FA utilization (MFAU) and myocardial FA uptake (MFAUp). Results The MFAO thus measured in C57BL/6 mice was 375.03±43.83 nmoles/min/g. This compares well with the MFAO measured in perfused working C57BL/6 mouse hearts ex vivo of about 350 nmoles/g/min and 400 nmoles/min/g. Conclusions FA metabolism was measured for the first time in mouse heart in vivo using dynamic 11C-palmitate PET in a 4-compartment tracer kinetic model. MFAO obtained with this model were validated by results previously obtained with mouse hearts ex vivo. PMID:26462138

  8. Influence of pH and temperature on the rheological properties of aqueous dispersions of starch-sodium palmitate complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous dispersions of high-amylose corn starch were steam jet cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of sodium palmitate to form amylose inclusion complexes. The rheology of dispersions of these complexes was examined. Acetic acid was added to reduce the pH, converting complexed sodium palmita...

  9. Evidence for the involvement of GPR40 and NADPH oxidase in palmitic acid-induced superoxide production and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Graciano, Maria Fernanda; Valle, Maíra Mello; Curi, Rui; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael

    2013-01-01

    G protein coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex have been shown to be involved in the fatty acid amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). The effect of palmitic acid on superoxide production and insulin secretion by INS-1E cells and the possible involvement of GPR40 and NADPH oxidase in these processes were examined in this study. Cells were incubated during 1 h with palmitic acid in low and high glucose concentrations, a GPR40 agonist (GW9508) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium, DPI) and PKC (calphostin C). GW9508 induced superoxide production at 2.8 and 5.6 mM glucose concentrations and stimulated insulin secretion at 16.7 mM glucose concentration involving both PKC and NADPH oxidase activation. Palmitic acid induced superoxide production through NADPH oxidase and GPR40-dependent pathways and the stimulation of insulin secretion in the presence of a high glucose concentration was reduced by knockdown of GPR40 using siRNA. Our results suggest that palmitic acid induces superoxide production and potentiates GSIS through NADPH oxidase and GPR40 pathways in pancreatic ? cells.

  10. Gastrointestinal handling of [1-13C]palmitic acid in healthy controls and patients with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, J.; Jones, A.; Stolinski, M.; Wootton, S.

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 2 January 1997
 AIM—To examine the gastrointestinal handling of [1-13C]palmitic acid given as the free acid by measuring the excretion of 13C label in stool in 16 healthy children and 11 patients with cystic fibrosis on their habitual enzyme replacement treatment.
METHODS—After an overnight fast, each child ingested 10 mg/kg body weight [1-13C]palmitic acid with a standardised test meal of low natural 13C abundance. A stool sample was collected before the test and all stools were collected thereafter for a period of up to five days. The total enrichment of 13C in stool and the species bearing the 13C label was measured using isotope ratio mass spectrometry.
RESULTS—The proportion of administered 13C label excreted in stool was 24.0% (range 10.7-64.9%) in healthy children and only 4.4% (range 1.2-11.6%) in cystic fibrosis patients. The enrichment of 13C in stool was primarily restricted to the species consumed by the subjects (that is as palmitic acid).
CONCLUSION—There does not appear to be a specific defect in the absorption of [1-13C]palmitic acid in patients with cystic fibrosis. The reasons why cystic fibrosis patients appear to absorb more of this saturated fatty acid than healthy children is not clear and requires further investigation.

 PMID:9196358

  11. Involvement of glutathione peroxidase 1 in growth and peroxisome formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in oleic acid medium.

    PubMed

    Ohdate, Takumi; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2012-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to use some fatty acids, such as oleic acid, as a sole source of carbon. β-oxidation, which occurs in a single membrane-enveloped organelle or peroxisome, is responsible for the assimilation of fatty acids. In S. cerevisiae, β-oxidation occurs only in peroxisomes, and H(2)O(2) is generated during this fatty acid-metabolizing pathway. S. cerevisiae has three GPX genes (GPX1, GPX2, and GPX3) encoding atypical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins. Here we show that expression of GPX1 was induced in medium containing oleic acid as a carbon source in an Msn2/Msn4-dependent manner. We found that Gpx1 was located in the peroxisomal matrix. The peroxisomal Gpx1 showed peroxidase activity using thioredoxin or glutathione as a reducing power. Peroxisome biogenesis was induced when cells were cultured with oleic acid. Peroxisome biogenesis was impaired in gpx1∆ cells, and subsequently, the growth of gpx1∆ cells was lowered in oleic acid-containing medium. Gpx1 contains six cysteine residues. Of the cysteine-substituted mutants of Gpx1, Gpx1(C36S) was not able to restore growth and peroxisome formation in oleic acid-containing medium, therefore, redox regulation of Gpx1 seems to be involved in the mechanism of peroxisome formation.

  12. Oleic acid induces specific alterations in the morphology, gene expression and steroid hormone production of cultured bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Yenuganti, Vengala Rao; Viergutz, Torsten; Vanselow, Jens

    2016-06-01

    After parturition, one of the major problems related to nutritional management that is faced by the majority of dairy cows is negative energy balance (NEB). During NEB, excessive lipid mobilization takes place and hence the levels of free fatty acids, among them oleic acid, increase in the blood, but also in the follicular fluid. This accumulation can be associated with serious metabolic and reproductive disorders. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of physiological concentrations of oleic acid on cell morphology, apoptosis, necrosis, proliferation and steroid production, and on the abundance of selected transcripts in cultured bovine granulosa cells. Increasing oleic acid concentrations induced intracellular lipid droplet accumulation, thus resulting in a foam cell-like morphology, but had no effects on apoptosis, necrosis or proliferation. Oleic acid also significantly reduced the transcript abundance of the gonadotropin hormone receptors, FSHR and LHCGR, steroidogenic genes STAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B1 and CYP19A1, the cell cycle regulator CCND2, but not of the proliferation marker PCNA. In addition, treatment increased the transcript levels of the fatty acid transporters CD36 and SLC27A1, and decreased the production of 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone. From these data it can be concluded that oleic acid specifically affects morphological and physiological features and gene expression levels thus altering the functionality of granulosa cells. Suggestively, these effects might be partly due to the reduced expression of FSHR and thus the reduced responsiveness to FSH stimulation.

  13. Palmitic acid-labeled lipids selectively incorporated into platelet cytoskeleton during aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Packham, M.A.; Guccione, M.A.; Bryant, N.L.; Livne, A. )

    1990-07-01

    Previous experiments showed that during the early stages (20-30 seconds) of aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 2 microM) or thrombin (0.1 U/mL) of rabbit or human platelets prelabeled with (3H)palmitic acid, labeled lipid became associated with the cytoskeleton isolated after lysis with 1% Triton X-100, 5 mM EGTA (ethylene glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether))-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid. The association appeared to be related to the number of sites of contact and was independent of the release of granule contents. We have now investigated the nature of the labeled lipids by thin-layer and column chromatography and found differences between the distribution of the label in intact platelets (both stimulated and unstimulated) and the isolated cytoskeletons. In both species, and with either ADP or thrombin as aggregating agent, 70-85% of the label in both intact platelets and in the cytoskeletons was in phospholipids. The distribution of label among the phospholipids in the cytoskeletons was similar to that in intact platelets except that the percentage of label in phosphatidylcholine was significantly higher in the cytoskeletons of human platelets than in the intact platelets, and the percentage of label in phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylinositol was significantly lower in the cytoskeletons of rabbit platelets and thrombin-aggregated human platelets than in intact platelets. The cytoskeletons contained a lower percentage of label in triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and cholesterol ester than the intact platelets. Contrary to a report in the literature, we found no evidence for the incorporation of diacylglycerol and palmitic acid into the cytoskeleton.

  14. Localization of viable, ischemic myocardium by positron-emission tomography with /sup 11/C-palmitate

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, R.A.; Ambos, H.D.; Bergmann, S.R.; Welch, M.J.; Ter-Pogossian, M.M.; Sobel, B.E.

    1981-10-01

    A study was performed to determine whether viable, but ischemic, tissue could be detected and localized in vivo based on external detection of impaired fatty acid metabolism. Accordingly, regional clearance of /sup 11/C-palmitate was assessed by sequential PET in 15 anesthetized dogs. Clearance was consistently monoexponential from 5-15 minutes after administration of the tracer. In the absence of coronary stenosis (n = 7), clearance was homogeneous throughout the heart, with an average rate constant (k) of -0.060 +/- 0.005 min/sup -1/ (+/- SEM) and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 11.1 +/- 2.1% in each heart. Homogeneity persisted when the heart rate was increased from 84.4 +/- 6.0 to 202.7 +/- 11.5 beats/min with atropine (CV 13.2 +/- 3.5%). With left circumflex coronary stenosis (less than or equal to70% reduction in vessel diameter), homogeneity of /sup 11/C-clearance under control conditions and with tachycardia did not differ from clearance in hearts without coronary stenosis. However, with stenosis >70% sufficient to induce ischemia without gross infarction, regional clearance of /sup 11/C became markedly heterogeneous under control conditions (CV 28.1 +/- 5.5%, p <0.01 compared with normal hearts) and with tachycardia (CV 34.8 +/- 5.4%, p <0.01). The heterogeneity resulted from reduced clearance of /sup 11/C in regions supplied by the stenotic vessel (k = -0.044 +/- 0.011 min/sup -1/) compared with clearance in well perfused regions (k = -0.064 +/- 0.011 min/sup -1/, p <0.025), a difference accentuated by tachycardia. Thus, sequential PET after i.v. injection of /sup 11/C-palmitate delineates zones of viable, ischemic myocardium that characteristically exhibit impaired oxidation of extracted fatty acid.

  15. Antioxidant effect of mogrosides against oxidative stress induced by palmitic acid in mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q; Chen, S Y; Deng, L D; Feng, L P; Huang, L Z; Yu, R R

    2013-11-18

    Excessive oxidative stress in pancreatic β cells, caused by glucose and fatty acids, is associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Mogrosides have shown antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in animal models of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study evaluated the antioxidant effect of mogrosides on insulinoma cells under oxidative stress caused by palmitic acid, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells were cultured in medium containing 0.75 mM palmitic acid, mimicking oxidative stress. The effects of 1 mM mogrosides were determined with the dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay for intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and FITC-Annexin V/PI assay for cell apoptosis. Expression of glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and pyruvate kinase was determined by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Palmitic acid significantly increased intracellular ROS concentration 2-fold (P<0.05), and decreased expression of GLUT2 (by 60%, P<0.05) and pyruvate kinase (by 80%, P<0.05) mRNAs in NIT-1 cells. Compared with palmitic acid, co-treatment with 1 mM mogrosides for 48 h significantly reduced intracellular ROS concentration and restored mRNA expression levels of GLUT2 and pyruvate kinase. However, mogrosides did not reverse palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in NIT-1 cells. Our results indicate that mogrosides might exert their antioxidant effect by reducing intracellular ROS and regulating expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism. Further research is needed to achieve a better understanding of the signaling pathway involved in the antioxidant effect of mogrosides.

  16. SHIP2 on pI3K/Akt pathway in palmitic acid stimulated islet β cell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingjuan; Wang, Ruiying; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Lihui; Cao, Yanping; Wang, Xianjuan; Hao, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the influence of SHIP2 on palmitic acid stimulated islet β cell and insulin secretion, as well as its role in pI3K/Akt pathway. We defined four groups: control, acid group, acid + NC siRNA group and acid + siRNA transfection group. The control was neither treated by palmitic acid nor transfection. The acid group was subjected to palmitic acid incubation. The acid + NC siRNA group was transiently transfected by NC siRNA, then was stimulated by palmitic acid. The acid + siRNA group was transiently transfected by siRNA, then was stimulated by palmitic acid. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by MTT and flow cytometry. Immunocytochemistry, Western Blot and QPCR were designed to detect the expression of SHIP2, Akt, p-Akt protein and mRNA. Insulin secretion was tested by radioimmunoassay. The apoptosis rate in the acid + siRNA group was non-significantly lower than the acid group and the acid + NC siRNA group (P > 0.05). The expression levels of Akt phosphorylation in the acid + siRNA group was significantly higher than in the acid + NC siRNA group and the acid group (P < 0.05). And under 22.4 mmol/L glucose KRB, insulin secretion in the acid + siRNA group was significantly more than the acid + NC siRNA group and the acid group (P < 0.05). SHIP2 silencing probably stimulates insulin secretion, which may be associated with the enhanced proliferation in the pI3K/Akt pathway.

  17. ClC-3 deficiency protects preadipocytes against apoptosis induced by palmitate in vitro and in type 2 diabetes mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun-Ying; Huang, Xiong-Qin; Zhao, Li-Yan; Sun, Fang-Yun; Chen, Wen-Liang; Du, Jie-Yi; Yuan, Feng; Li, Jie; Huang, Xue-Lian; Liu, Jie; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Guan, Yong-Yuan; Chen, Jian-Wen; Wang, Guan-Lei

    2014-11-01

    Palmitate, a common saturated free fatty acid (FFA), has been demonstrated to induce preadipocyte apoptosis in the absence of adipogenic stimuli, suggesting that preadipocytes may be prone to apoptosis under adipogenic insufficient conditions, like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ClC-3, encoding Cl(-) channel or Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter, is critical for cell fate choices of proliferation versus apoptosis under diseased conditions. However, it is unknown whether ClC-3 is related with preadipocyte apoptosis induced by palmitate or T2DM. Palmitate, but not oleate, induced apoptosis and increase in ClC-3 protein expression and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. ClC-3 specific siRNA attenuated palmitate-induced apoptosis and increased protein levels of Grp78, ATF4, CHOP and phosphorylation of JNK1/2, whereas had no effects on increased phospho-PERK and phospho-eIF2α protein expression. Moreover, the enhanced apoptosis was shown in preadipocytes from high-sucrose/fat, low-dose STZ induced T2DM mouse model with hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia (elevated serum TG and FFA levels) and insulin resistance. ClC-3 knockout significantly attenuated preadipocyte apoptosis and the above metabolic disorders in T2DM mice. These data demonstrated that ClC-3 deficiency prevent preadipocytes against palmitate-induced apoptosis via suppressing ER stress, and also suggested that ClC-3 may play a role in regulating cellular apoptosis and disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism during T2DM.

  18. Segmental pulmonary vascular resistances during oleic acid lung injury in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Maarek, J M; Grimbert, F

    1994-10-01

    We studied in isolated rabbit lungs the effects of oleic acid (OA) injury on the segmental distribution of vascular resistance. Vascular occlusion pressures were measured in control and OA-injured preparations over 90 min. Capillary filtration coefficient KF,C increased from 0.61 (+/- 0.10) to 0.91 (+/- 0.14) g.min-1.mmHg-1.(100 g)-1 in OA-injured lungs whereas it remained constant in control lungs. Total pulmonary vascular resistance changed little in both control and OA-injured lungs. OA injury resulted in a 15% increase of the double occlusion capillary pressure. In addition, the contribution of the microvascular to the total vascular resistance rose from 8% to 22%. The increase in microvascular resistance was significant 15 min after OA on the arteriolar side and became significant 30 min later on the venular side. Oleic acid injury does not change the total pulmonary vascular resistance but alters the distribution of segmental resistances in the isolated rabbit lung, thereby contributing to the accumulation of lung water in this model of low pressure permeability edema.

  19. Oleic acid in olive oil: from a metabolic framework toward a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Beatriz; Lopez, Sergio; Ortega, Almudena; Varela, Lourdes M; Pacheco, Yolanda M; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, nutrients such as fatty acids have been viewed as substrates for the generation of high-energy molecules and as precursors for the biosynthesis of macromolecules. However, accumulating data from multiple lines of evidence suggest that dietary fatty acids are linked not only to health promotion but also to disease pathogenesis. Metabolism in humans is regulated by complex hormonal signals and substrate interactions. For many years, the clinical focus has centered on a wide metabolic picture after an overnight fast. Nonetheless, the postprandial state (i.e., "the period that comprises and follows a meal") is an important one, and silent disturbances in this period are involved in the genesis of numerous pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis. In this review article, we present an overview of the evidence demonstrating the relevance of oleic acid in olive oil on different nutrition-related issues. We also discuss the impact of oleic acid in olive oil and its clinical relevance to major risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the context of the postprandial state and with regard to other dietary fatty acids.

  20. Enhanced esterification of oleic acid and methanol by deep eutectic solvent assisted Amberlyst heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying; Alam, Md Asraful; Wang, Zhongming; Wu, Jingcheng; Zhang, Yi; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-11-01

    In present study, esterification of oleic acid with methanol using deep eutectic solvent (DES) assisted Amberlyst heterogeneous catalyst was investigated to produce biodiesel. Results showed that esterification efficiency was enhanced by the DES. The combined effect of DES on Amberlyst BD20 (BD20) is better than Amberlyst 15 (A-15) due to different structure. The optimal reaction conditions were 12:1M ratio of methanol to oleic acid, 20%(wt/wt) catalyst (BD20-DES (2:8) and A-15-DES (8:2)) at 85°C for 100min with agitating at 200rpm. The mechanism involved in catalysis and their capacity to reuse were studied. We proposed, Choline chloride-glycerol (Chcl-gly) DES could enhance the Amberlyst function due to the hydrogen bond effect on both DES and water. BD20 has fewer pores than A-15, have desirable performance in decreasing the inhibition the water during esterification of high FFA content and provide better performance in reuse.

  1. Water dispersible oleic acid-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shete, P. B.; Patil, R. M.; Tiwale, B. M.; Pawar, S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have proved their tremendous potential to be used for various biomedical applications. Oleic acid (OA) is widely used in ferrite nanoparticle synthesis because it can form a dense protective monolayer, thereby producing highly uniform and monodispersed particles. Capping agents such as oleic acid are often used because they form a protective monolayer, which is strongly bonded to the surface of nanoparticles. This is necessary for making monodisperse and highly uniform MNPs. Coating of Fe3O4 MNPs with OA makes the particles dispersible only in organic solvents and consequently limits their use for biomedical applications. Hence, in this work, the OA coated MNPs were again functionalized with chitosan (CS), in order to impart hydrophilicity on their surface. All the morphological, magnetic, colloidal and cytotoxic characteristics of the resulting core-shells were studied thoroughly. Their heating induction ability was studied to predict their possible use in hyperthermia therapy of cancer. Specific absorption rate was found to be increased than that of bare MNPs.

  2. Synthesis of Non-Toxic Silica Particles Stabilized by Molecular Complex Oleic-Acid/Sodium Oleate

    PubMed Central

    Spataru, Catalin Ilie; Ianchis, Raluca; Petcu, Cristian; Nistor, Cristina Lavinia; Purcar, Violeta; Trica, Bogdan; Nitu, Sabina Georgiana; Somoghi, Raluca; Alexandrescu, Elvira; Oancea, Florin; Donescu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The present work is focused on the preparation of biocompatible silica particles from sodium silicate, stabilized by a vesicular system containing oleic acid (OLA) and its alkaline salt (OLANa). Silica nanoparticles were generated by the partial neutralization of oleic acid (OLA), with the sodium cation present in the aqueous solutions of sodium silicate. At the molar ratio OLA/Na+ = 2:1, the molar ratio (OLA/OLANa = 1:1) required to form vesicles, in which the carboxyl and carboxylate groups have equal concentrations, was achieved. In order to obtain hydrophobically modified silica particles, octadecyltriethoxysilane (ODTES) was added in a sodium silicate sol–gel mixture at different molar ratios. The interactions between the octadecyl groups from the modified silica and the oleyl chains from the OLA/OLANa stabilizing system were investigated via simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (TG-DSC) analyses.A significant decrease in vaporization enthalpy and an increase in amount of ODTES were observed. Additionally, that the hydrophobic interaction between OLA and ODTES has a strong impact on the hybrids’ final morphology and on their textural characteristics was revealed. The highest hydrodynamic average diameter and the most negative ζ potential were recorded for the hybrid in which the ODTES/sodium silicate molar ratio was 1:5. The obtained mesoporous silica particles, stabilized by the OLA/OLANa vesicular system, may find application as carriers for hydrophobic bioactive molecules. PMID:27869768

  3. Optimization of esterification of oleic acid and trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE)

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmud, Hamizah Ammarah; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-03

    Vegetable oil (VO) is the most potential alternative to replace mineral oil for lubricant due to better lubricating properties and great physicochemical properties. Chemical modification has to be done to overcome low temperature performance and low oxidation instability due to the presence of β-hydrogen atoms of glycerol molecule. The optimization of esterification of oleic acid and polyhydric alcohol with sulfuric acid catalyst was carried out to find the optimum conditions with the highest yield. Reeaction variables such as; molar ratio, temperature, duration and catalyst concentration. Two types of polyhydric alcohol have been used; TMP and PE. The optimum results showed oleic acid successfully converted 91.2% ester TMP and 92.7% ester PE at duration: 5 hours (Ester TMP), 6 hours (Ester PE); temperature: 150°C (ester TMP), 180°C (Ester PE); catalyst concentration: 1.5% (w/w); and mol ratio: 3.9:1 (ester TMP), 4.9:1 (ester PE). From the data obtained, mole ratio showed most influenced factors to the increasing yields of ester conversions.. The TMP/PE ester was confirmed using gas chromatography (GC-FID), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

  4. Optimization of esterification of oleic acid and trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Hamizah Ammarah; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-01

    Vegetable oil (VO) is the most potential alternative to replace mineral oil for lubricant due to better lubricating properties and great physicochemical properties. Chemical modification has to be done to overcome low temperature performance and low oxidation instability due to the presence of β-hydrogen atoms of glycerol molecule. The optimization of esterification of oleic acid and polyhydric alcohol with sulfuric acid catalyst was carried out to find the optimum conditions with the highest yield. Reeaction variables such as; molar ratio, temperature, duration and catalyst concentration. Two types of polyhydric alcohol have been used; TMP and PE. The optimum results showed oleic acid successfully converted 91.2% ester TMP and 92.7% ester PE at duration: 5 hours (Ester TMP), 6 hours (Ester PE); temperature: 150°C (ester TMP), 180°C (Ester PE); catalyst concentration: 1.5% (w/w); and mol ratio: 3.9:1 (ester TMP), 4.9:1 (ester PE). From the data obtained, mole ratio showed most influenced factors to the increasing yields of ester conversions.. The TMP/PE ester was confirmed using gas chromatography (GC-FID), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR).

  5. Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad.

    PubMed

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Venkatesan, P; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha

    2008-11-01

    In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in whole plant petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether extract led to the separation and identification of fatty acids; oleic acid and linoleic acid were isolated and identified as mosquito larvicidal compounds. Oleic and Linoleic acids were quite potent against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. (LC50 8.80, 18.20 and LC90 35.39, 96.33 ppm), Anopheles stephensi Liston (LC50 9.79, 11.49 and LC90 37.42, 47.35 ppm), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (LC50 7.66, 27.24 and LC90 30.71, 70.38 ppm). The structure was elucidated from infrared, ultraviolet, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the reported isolated compounds from C. colocynthis.

  6. Improved Estimation of Oil, Linoleic and Oleic Acid and Seed Hull Fractions in Safflower by NIRS.

    PubMed

    Rudolphi, Sabine; Becker, Heiko C; Schierholt, Antje; von Witzke-Ehbrecht, Sabine

    2012-03-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) of intact seeds allows the non-destructive estimation of seed quality parameters which is highly desirable in plant breeding. Together with yield, oil content and quality, a main aim in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) breeding is the selection of genotypes with a low percentage of empty seeds even under cooler climates. We developed NIRS calibrations for seed oil content, oleic and linoleic acid content, the seed hull fraction and the percentage of empty seeds using seed meal and intact seeds. For the different calibrations 108-534 samples from a safflower breeding program with lines adapted to German conditions, were analyzed with reference analyses (Soxhlet, gas chromatography), and scanned by NIRS as intact seeds and seed meal. Calibration equations were developed and tested through cross validation. The coefficient of determination of the calibration (R(2)) for intact seeds ranged from 0.91(oil content), 0.90 (seed hull fraction), 0.84 (empty seeds), 0.73 (linoleic acid) to 0.68 (oleic acid). The coefficient of determination of the cross validation was higher for seed meal than for intact seeds except for the parameter seed hull fraction. The results show that NIRS calibrations are applicable in safflower breeding programs for a fast screening.

  7. An overview of the modulatory effects of oleic acid in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Sales-Campos, Helioswilton; Souza, Patricía Reis de; Peghini, Bethânea Crema; da Silva, João Santana; Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro

    2013-02-01

    Evidences in the last years have showed the effects of oleic acid (OA) in human health and disease. Olive oil, rich in oleic acid, is supposed to present modulatory effects in a wide physiological functions, while some studies also suggest a beneficial effect on cancer, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, besides its ability to facilitate wound healing. Although the OA role in immune responses are still controversial, the administration of olive oil containing diets may improve the immune response associated to a more successful elimination of pathogens such as bacteria and fungi, by interfering in many components of this system such as macrophages, lymphocytes and neutrophils. Then, novel putative therapies for inflammatory and infectious diseases could be developed based on the characteristics presented by unsaturated fatty acids like OA. Finally, the purpose of this work was to review some of the modulatory effects of OA on inflammatory diseases and health, aiming at high lightening its potential role on the future establishment of novel therapeutic approaches for infections, inflammatory, immune, cardiovascular diseases or skin repair based on this fatty acid mainly found in the Mediterranean diet.

  8. Viscosity and sedimentation behaviors of the magnetorheological suspensions with oleic acid/dimer acid as surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianjian; Yan, Hua; Hu, Zhide; Ding, Ding

    2016-11-01

    This work deals with the role of polar interactions on the viscosity and sedimentation behaviors of magnetorheological suspensions with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in oil carriers. The oleic acid and dimer acid were employed to make an adjustment of the hydrophobicity of iron particles, in the interest of performing a comparative evaluation of the contributions of the surface polarity. The viscosity tests show that the adsorbed surfactant layer may impose a hindrance to the movement of iron particles in the oil medium. The polar attractions between dimer acid covered particles gave rise to a considerable increase in viscosity, indicating flocculation structure developed in the suspensions. The observed plateau-like region in the vicinity of 0.1 s-1 for MRF containing dimer acid is possibly due to the flocculation provoked by the carboxylic polar attraction, in which the structure is stable against fragmentation. Moreover, a quick recovery of the viscosity and a higher viscosity-temperature index also suggest the existence of particle-particle polar interaction in the suspensions containing dimer acid. The sedimentation measurements reveal that the steric repulsion of oleic acid plays a limited role in the stability of suspensions only if a large quantity of surfactant was used. The sedimentation results observed in the dimer acid covered particles confirm that loose and open flocculation was formed and enhanced sedimentation stability.

  9. Changes in breath sound power spectra during experimental oleic acid-induced lung injury in pigs.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Jukka; Nemergut, Michael E; Gavriely, Noam

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of acute lung injury on the frequency spectra of breath sounds, we made serial acoustic recordings from nondependent, midlung and dependent regions of both lungs in ten 35- to 45-kg anesthetized, intubated, and mechanically ventilated pigs during development of acute lung injury induced with intravenous oleic acid in prone or supine position. Oleic acid injections rapidly produced severe derangements in the gas exchange and mechanical properties of the lung, with an average increase in venous admixture from 16 ± 12 to 62 ± 16% (P < 0.01), and a reduction in dynamic respiratory system compliance from 25 ± 4 to 14 ± 4 ml/cmH2O (P < 0.01). A concomitant increase in sound power was seen in all lung regions (P < 0.05), predominantly in frequencies 150-800 Hz. The deterioration in gas exchange and lung mechanics correlated best with concurrent spectral changes in the nondependent lung regions. Acute lung injury increases the power of breath sounds likely secondary to redistribution of ventilation from collapsed to aerated parts of the lung and improved sound transmission in dependent, consolidated areas.

  10. Oleic-acid-induced lung injury in the rat. Failure of indomethacin treatment or complement depletion to ablate lung injury.

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, B. F.; Thrall, R. S.; McCormick, J. R.; Ward, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a rat animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome using the intravenous injection of oleic acid. Further, we attempted to inhibit the development of lung injury by pretreatment of the rats with indomethacin or cobra venom factor. Histologic evidence of lung injury was apparent within hours after the administration of a single intravenous injection of oleic acid. By 24 hours, interstitial and intraalveolar edema and hemorrhage were noted with vascular congestion and an extensive interstitial infiltrate. The lungs appeared virtually normal by 12 days, with no evidence of chronic lung injury. Multiple injections of oleic acid also did not progress into chronic pulmonary inflammation. Treatment of the rats with indomethacin or cobra venom factor had no effect on ablating acute lung injury. An animal model of adult respiratory distress syndrome is presented which does not progress to chronic lung injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7234970

  11. Preparation and characterization of biomass carbon-based solid acid catalyst for the esterification of oleic acid with methanol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiantian; Li, Zhilong; Li, Wei; Shi, Congjiao; Wang, Yun

    2013-04-01

    A solid acid catalyst, prepared by sulfonating carbonized corn straw, was proved to be an efficient and environmental benign catalyst for the esterification of oleic acid and methanol. Various synthetic parameters, such as carbonization temperature and time were systematically examined. It was found that the catalyst exhibited the highest acid density of 2.64 mmol/g by NaOH titration. A quantitative yield (98%) of ester was achieved, using the most active sulfonated catalyst at 333 K with a 7 wt.% catalyst/oleic acid ratio for 4h, at a 7:1 M ratio of methanol/oleic acid, while the commercial available Amberlyst-15 only gave 85% yield under the same reaction condition.

  12. ''Pulling'' Nanoparticles into Water: Phase Transfer of Oleic Acid Stabilized Monodisperse Nanoparticles into Aqueous Solutions of alpha-Cyclodextrin

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Wong, J.F.; Teng, X.; Lin, X.Z.; Yang, H.

    2003-10-18

    (B204)This paper describes a general method to drastically improve the disparity of oleic acid stabilized nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. We use oleic acid stabilized monodisperse nanoparticles of iron oxides and silver as model systems, and have modified the surface properties of these nanoparticles through the formation of an inclusion complex between surface-bound surfactant molecules and alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CD). After the modification, the nanoparticles of both iron oxide and Ag can transfer from hydrophobic solvents, such as hexane, to alpha-CD aqueous phase. The efficiency of the phase transfer to the aqueous solutions depend son the initial alpha-CD concentration. The alpha-CD/oleic acid complex stabilized nanoparticles can be stable for long periods of time in aqueous phase under ambient atmospheric conditions. Transmission electron microscopy (TME), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and colorimetric methods have been used in the characterization of these nanoparticles.

  13. A thraustochytrid diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 with broad substrate specificity strongly increases oleic acid content in engineered Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyu; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the last step in acyl-CoA-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and is an important determinant of cellular oil content and quality. In this study, a gene, designated TaDGAT2, encoding a type 2 DGAT (DGAT2)-related enzyme was identified from the oleaginous marine protist Thraustochytrium aureum. The deduced TaDGAT2 sequence contains a ~460 amino acid domain most closely related to DGAT2s from Dictyostelium sp. (45–50% identity). Recombinant TaDGAT2 restored TAG biosynthesis to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246 TAG-deficient mutant, and microsomes from the complemented mutant displayed DGAT activity with C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA and diacylglycerol substrates. To examine its biotechnological potential, TaDGAT2 was expressed under control of a strong seed-specific promoter in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the high linoleic acid fad3fae1 mutant. In both backgrounds, little change was detected in seed oil content, but a striking increase in oleic acid content of seeds was observed. This increase was greatest in fad3fae1 seeds, where relative amounts of oleic acid increased nearly 2-fold to >50% of total fatty acids. In addition, >2-fold increase in oleic acid levels was detected in the triacylglycerol sn-2 position and in the major seed phospholipid phosphatidylcholine. These results suggest that increased seed oleic acid content mediated by TaDGAT2 is influenced in part by the fatty acid composition of host cells and occurs not by enhancing oleic acid content at the TAG sn-3 position directly but by increasing total oleic acid levels in seeds, presumably by limiting flux through phosphatidylcholine-based desaturation reactions. PMID:23814277

  14. Self-assembled structures and pKa value of oleic acid in systems of biological relevance.

    PubMed

    Salentinig, Stefan; Sagalowicz, Laurent; Glatter, Otto

    2010-07-20

    In the human digestion process, triglycerides are hydrolyzed by lipases to monoglycerides and the corresponding fatty acids. Here we report the self-assembly of structures in biologically relevant, emulsified oleic acid-monoolein mixtures at various pH values and oleic acid concentrations. Small-angle X-ray scattering, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering were used to investigate the structures formed, and to follow their transitions while these factors were varied. The addition of oleic acid to monoolein-based cubosomes was found to increase the critical packing parameter in the system. Structural transitions from bicontinuous cubosomes through hexosomes and micellar cubosomes (Fd3m symmetry) to emulsified microemulsions occur with increasing oleic acid concentration. At sufficiently high oleic acid concentration, the internal particle structure was also found to strongly depend on the pH of the aqueous phase: transformations from emulsified microemulsion through micellar cubosomes, hexosomes, and bicontinuous cubosomes to vesicles can be observed as a function of increasing pH. The reversible transition from liquid crystals to vesicles occurs at intestinal pH values (between pH 7 and 8). The hydrodynamic radius of the particles decreases from around 120 nm for internally structured particles to around 60 nm for vesicles. All transitions with pH are reversible. Finally, the apparent pK(a) for oleic acid in monoolein could be determined from the change of structure with pH. This value is within the physiological pH range of the intestine and depends somewhat on composition.

  15. A thraustochytrid diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 with broad substrate specificity strongly increases oleic acid content in engineered Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyu; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Klotz, Elliott T; Stevens, Robyn L; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Nazarenus, Tara J; Pereira, Suzette L; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2013-08-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the last step in acyl-CoA-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and is an important determinant of cellular oil content and quality. In this study, a gene, designated TaDGAT2, encoding a type 2 DGAT (DGAT2)-related enzyme was identified from the oleaginous marine protist Thraustochytrium aureum. The deduced TaDGAT2 sequence contains a ~460 amino acid domain most closely related to DGAT2s from Dictyostelium sp. (45-50% identity). Recombinant TaDGAT2 restored TAG biosynthesis to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246 TAG-deficient mutant, and microsomes from the complemented mutant displayed DGAT activity with C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA and diacylglycerol substrates. To examine its biotechnological potential, TaDGAT2 was expressed under control of a strong seed-specific promoter in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the high linoleic acid fad3fae1 mutant. In both backgrounds, little change was detected in seed oil content, but a striking increase in oleic acid content of seeds was observed. This increase was greatest in fad3fae1 seeds, where relative amounts of oleic acid increased nearly 2-fold to >50% of total fatty acids. In addition, >2-fold increase in oleic acid levels was detected in the triacylglycerol sn-2 position and in the major seed phospholipid phosphatidylcholine. These results suggest that increased seed oleic acid content mediated by TaDGAT2 is influenced in part by the fatty acid composition of host cells and occurs not by enhancing oleic acid content at the TAG sn-3 position directly but by increasing total oleic acid levels in seeds, presumably by limiting flux through phosphatidylcholine-based desaturation reactions.

  16. Fasting increases palmitic acid incorporation into rat hind-limb intramuscular acylglycerols while short-term cold exposure has no effect.

    PubMed

    Synak, M; Zarzeczny, R; Górecka, M; Langfort, J; Kaciuba-Uściłko, H; Zernicka, Ewa

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the palmitic acid incorporation into intramuscular acylglycerols in perfused hind-limb skeletal muscles of different fibre types in rats either fasted for 48 h or exposed to cold (6 °C) for 12 h. Hind-limb preparations of fasted and cold exposed rats were perfused with buffers containing tritium labelled and cold palmitic acid. Palmitic acid incorporation into intracellular lipid pools in the soleus, plantaris, red and white gastrocnemius and red and white quadriceps was measured. It was found that fasting increased approximately 2-fold palmitic acid incorporation in all muscles examined regardless of the fibre type composition of the muscle. On the other hand, exposure to cold had no effect on the palmitic acid incorporation into intramuscular acylglycerols regardless the muscle fibre type. The increased incorporation of palmitic acid into acylglycerols in fasted animals is in line with data showing that 48 h fasting stimulates the expression of plasma membrane proteins putatively facilitating fatty acid uptake. It appears that although 12 h cold exposure increases the use of fatty acids as energy substrates it does not alter the incorporation of palmitic acid into intramuscular acylglycerols in the perfused rat hind-limb.

  17. Proteomic analysis of the palmitate-induced myotube secretome reveals involvement of the annexin A1-formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) pathway in insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Dayea; Jang, Jin-Hyeok; Ghim, Jaewang; Park, Soyeon; Song, Parkyong; Kwon, Yonghoon; Kim, Jaeyoon; Hwang, Daehee; Bae, Yoe-Sik; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Berggren, Per-Olof; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2015-04-01

    Elevated levels of the free fatty acid palmitate are found in the plasma of obese patients and induce insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle secretes myokines as extracellular signaling mediators in response to pathophysiological conditions. Here, we identified and characterized the skeletal muscle secretome in response to palmitate-induced insulin resistance. Using a quantitative proteomic approach, we identified 36 secretory proteins modulated by palmitate-induced insulin resistance. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that palmitate-induced insulin resistance induced cellular stress and modulated secretory events. We found that the decrease in the level of annexin A1, a secretory protein, depended on palmitate, and that annexin A1 and its receptor, formyl peptide receptor 2 agonist, played a protective role in the palmitate-induced insulin resistance of L6 myotubes through PKC-θ modulation. In mice fed with a high-fat diet, treatment with the formyl peptide receptor 2 agonist improved systemic insulin sensitivity. Thus, we identified myokine candidates modulated by palmitate-induced insulin resistance and found that the annexin A1- formyl peptide receptor 2 pathway mediated the insulin resistance of skeletal muscle, as well as systemic insulin sensitivity.

  18. Phase equilibria in four-component system consisting of water, a nonionic surfactant mixture, and oleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Matveenko, V.N.; Drovetskii, B.Yu.; Kirasanov, E.A.

    1994-05-01

    The phase diagram of the system consisting of water, Tween 20, Span 80, and oleic acid has been obtained; the coexisting phases have been identified; and the character of the equilibrium of microemulsion, liquid crystal, and molecular solution has been described. In the water-Tween 20-oleic acid system, the ratio of the water volume to the surfactant volume is identical in all of the coexisting phases; this proves the existence of a corresponding field variable in a system with a nonionic surfactant.

  19. Genome-wide identification of palmitate-regulated immediate early genes and target genes in pancreatic beta-cells reveals a central role of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung Jin; Hwang, Seungwoo; Lee, Se-Hee; Lee, You Ri; Shin, Jiyon; Park, Kyong Soo; Cho, Young Min

    2012-06-01

    Free fatty acid-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. We conducted gene expression microarray analysis to comprehensively investigate the transcription machinery of palmitate-regulated genes in pancreatic β-cells in vitro. In particular, mouse pancreatic βTC3 cells were treated with palmitate in the presence or absence of cycloheximide (CHX), which blocks protein synthesis and thereby allows us to distinguish immediate early genes (IEGs) from their target genes. The microarray experiments identified 34 palmitate-regulated IEGs and 74 palmitate-regulated target genes. In silico promoter analysis revealed that transcription factor binding sites for NF-κB were over-represented, regulating approximately one-third of the palmitate-regulated target genes. In cells treated with CHX, nfkb1 showed an up-regulation by palmitate, suggesting that NF-κB could be an IEG. Functional enrichment analysis of 27 palmitate-regulated genes with NF-κB binding sites showed an over-representation of genes involved in immune response, inflammatory response, defense response, taxis, regulation of cell proliferation, and regulation of cell death pathways. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that palmitate stimulates NF-κB activity both in the presence and absence of CHX. In conclusion, by identifying IEGs and target genes, the present study depicted a comprehensive view of transcription machinery underlying palmitate-induced inflammation and cell proliferation/death in pancreatic β-cells and our data demonstrated the central role of NF-κB.

  20. Perturbation of N-linked oligosaccharide structure results in an altered incorporation of (/sup 3/H)palmitate into specific proteins in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wellner, R.B.; Ghosh, P.C.; Roecklein, B.; Wu, H.C.

    1987-09-25

    Increased (/sup 3/H)palmitate incorporation into specific cellular proteins has been reported to occur in Chinese hamster ovary and yeast mutant cells. In this paper we report studies concerning the relationship between N-linked oligosaccharide structure and (/sup 3/H)palmitate incorporation into proteins of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We have compared the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)palmitate into proteins of wild-type and four different mutant CHO cell lines defective in various steps of N-linked protein glycosylation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoretic analysis showed that three of the mutants exhibited increased (/sup 3/H)palmitate incorporation into several CHO cellular proteins (approximately 30,000-38,000 molecular weight) as compared to the wild-type cells. One of the affected mutants which accumulates the Man5Gn2Asn intermediate structure was examined in detail. In agreement with earlier reports, virtually all of the (/sup 3/H) palmitate-labeled proteins of both wild-type and mutant cell lines are membrane-bound. Pretreatment of the mutant cell line with tunicamycin blocked the increased (/sup 3/H)palmitate incorporation into the two specific proteins (both of approximately 30,000 molecular weight) observed in untreated cells; the decreased incorporation of (/sup 3/H)palmitate into the 30,000 molecular weight species was accompanied by a concomitant increase in the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)palmitate into two proteins of approximately 20,000 molecular weight. Pretreatment of wild-type cells with tunicamycin also caused increased (/sup 3/H)palmitate incorporation into the 20,000 molecular weight species.

  1. Influence of nanographene platelets (NGP) incorporation on Fe3O4 nanoparticles as materials additives for enhancement thermal properties stearic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuryadin, M. K.; Andiarto, R.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and Fe3O4/NGP composite were used as material additive for enhancement thermal properties of stearic acid (SA). The both material additive were synthesized using sol-gel method. Phase change material (PCM) composites SA-Fe3O4 and Sa-Fe3O4/NGP mixtures were made through the dispersion technique with three different weight % ratio of material additives into stearic acid: 1 wt.%, 3 wt.%, and 5 wt.%. X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to investigate the structural properties. Magnetic properties also measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to see influence of NGP in PCM composites. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used in order to analyse the thermal properties of the samples. The results show an enhancement of the latent heat, thermal stability as well as specific heat by the presence of material additives in SA. Compare to SA- Fe3O4, SA-Fe3O4/NGP show better improvement in enhancement of thermal performance of SA. The improvement by about 41.2% in specific heat and 21.2% in latent heat.

  2. The effect of supplementing layer diets with shark cartilage or chitosan on egg components and yolk lipids.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C M; Zapata, J F F; Fuentes, M F F; Freitas, E R; Craveiro, A A; Aguiar, C M

    2003-05-01

    1. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of the addition of shark cartilage (SC) or chitosan (CH) to layer diets on egg component weights, yolk lipids and hen plasma lipids. 2. Hy-Line laying hens (80) were used during a 56 d feeding trial. Treatments were: basal diet (BD), BD + 20 g/kg SC, BD + 30 g/kg SC, BD + 20 g/kg CH and BD + 30 g/kg CH. Eggs were analysed on d 14, 28, 42 and 56. 3. Egg weight and egg component weights were not affected by these treatments throughout the experimental period. 4. After 14d of experimental feeding, cholesterol levels were higher in eggs from birds given BD + 20 g/kg CH and BD + 30 g/kg CH than in those from birds given BD. 5. Furthermore, eggs from hens given BD + 20 g/kg SC or BD + 20 g/kg CH were higher in palmitic and stearic acids and lower in oleic acid than those from birds fed on BD. After 56 d feeding, however, palmitic and stearic acid contents in eggs from hens given any of the supplemented diets were lower than in those from hens given BD, and oleic acid in eggs from hens given BD + 20 g/kg SC, BD + 30 g/kg SC and BD + 30 g/kg CH was higher than in those from birds fed on BD. 6. Plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were not significantly affected by dietary treatment. 7. Shark cartilage or chitosan at up to 30 g/kg in layer diets did not affect egg component weights (yolk, white and shell) and total lipid contents. During the period from 42 to 56d of experimental feeding, diets containing up to 30 g/kg chitosan reduced egg yolk contents of cholesterol, palmitic and stearic acids and increased the content of oleic acid.

  3. Differentiation of lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat by GCMS and EA-IRMS techniques.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Nizar, Nina Naquiah; Nazrim Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed; Hashim, Dzulkifly Mat

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to differentiate lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Elemental Analyzer-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS). The comparison of overall fatty acid data showed that lard and chicken fat share common characteristics by having palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid as major fatty acids while beef and mutton fats shared common characteristics by possessing palmitic, stearic and oleic acid as major fatty acids. The direct comparisons among the fatty acid data, therefore, may not be suitable for discrimination of different animal fats. When the fatty acid distributional data was subjected to Principle Component Analysis (PCA), it was demonstrated that stearic, oleic and linoleic acids as the most discriminating parameters in the clustering of animal fats into four subclasses. The bulk carbon analysis of animal fats using EA-IRMS showed that determination of the carbon isotope ratios (δ¹³C) would be a good indicator for discriminating lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat. This would lead to a faster and more efficient method to ascertain the source of origin of fats used in food products.

  4. Small-angle X-ray scattering of BAMLET at pH 12: a complex of α-lactalbumin and oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Rath, Emma M; Duff, Anthony P; Håkansson, Anders P; Knott, Robert B; Church, W Bret

    2014-07-01

    BAMLET (Bovine Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumors) is a member of the family of the HAMLET-like complexes, a novel class of protein-based anti-cancer complexes that incorporate oleic acid and deliver it to cancer cells. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was performed on the complex at pH 12, examining the high pH structure as a function of oleic acid added. The SAXS data for BAMLET species prepared with a range of oleic acid concentrations indicate extended, irregular, partially unfolded protein conformations that vary with the oleic acid concentration. Increases in oleic acid concentration correlate with increasing radius of gyration without an increase in maximum particle dimension, indicating decreasing protein density. The models for the highest oleic acid content BAMLET indicate an unusual coiled elongated structure that contrasts with apo-α-lactalbumin at pH 12, which is an elongated globular molecule, suggesting that oleic acid inhibits the folding or collapse of the protein component of BAMLET to the globular form. Circular dichroism of BAMLET and apo-α-lactalbumin was performed and the results suggest that α-lactalbumin and BAMLET unfold in a continuum of increasing degree of unfolded states. Taken together, these results support a model in which BAMLET retains oleic acid by non-specific association in the core of partially unfolded protein, and represent a new type of lipoprotein structure.

  5. Properties of extruded starch-poly(methyl acrylate) graft copolymers prepared from spherulites formed from amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixtures of high amylose corn starch and oleic acid were processed by steam jet-cooking, and the dispersions were rapidly cooled to yield amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes as sub-micron spherulites and spherulite aggregates. Dispersions of these spherulite particles were then graft polymerized ...

  6. Interaction of dietary high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls and different fat sources in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Viveros, A; Ortiz, L T; Rodríguez, M L; Rebolé, A; Alzueta, C; Arija, I; Centeno, C; Brenes, A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of dietary fat sources (high-oleic-acid sunflower seeds, HOASS; palm oil, PO; and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil, HOASO) and high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls (HOAS hulls; 40 g/kg of diet) on performance, digestive organ size, fat digestibility, and fatty acid profile in abdominal fat and blood serum parameters was evaluated in chickens (from 1 to 21 d of age). Bird performance and digestive organ size were not affected by either dietary fat source or sunflower hull supplementation. Fat digestibility in birds fed diets enriched (HOASS and HOASO) in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was increased compared with those fed the PO diet. The addition of sunflower hulls did not modify fat digestibility. The fatty acids pattern of abdominal fat reflected the dietary fat profile. The greatest concentrations of C16:0 and C18:0 were found in birds fed PO diets. The C18:1n-9 content was increased in birds that received HOASS and HOASO diets compared with those fed PO diets. The greatest content of C18:2n-6 was observed in birds fed HOASS diets. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to MUFA was significantly increased in birds fed PO diets compared with those fed HOASS or HOASO diets. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets resulted in a decrease of C18:2n-6 and PUFA concentrations and PUFA:MUFA ratio in abdominal fat. Dietary fat sources and sunflower hulls modify blood triglycerides and serum lipoproteins. A decrease in triglyceride concentrations was observed in birds fed HOASS diets compared with those fed PO and HOASO diets. The greatest concentrations of serum high density, very low density (VLDL), and low density lipoproteins were found in birds receiving HOASO, PO, and HOASS diets, respectively. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets caused an increase of serum triglycerides and VLDL concentrations. The MUFA-enriched diets had lower triglyceride and VLDL concentrations than did diets rich in saturated fatty acids. However, the sunflower hull

  7. Complex formation in alkyldimethylamine oxide/sodium palmitate/water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shimon; Kawasaki, Hideya; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2005-03-01

    The complex formation between nonionic alkyldimethylamine oxide (CnDMAO, n=14, 16, and 18) and sodium palmitate (NaPa) in the solid phase of CnDMAO/NaPa mixtures and the dependence of the interaction parameter beta of the regular solution theory (RST) on the mixed micelle composition of C16DMAO/NaPa mixtures were investigated. The dissolution temperature showed a maximum at a NaPa mole fraction X(Pa)(*) of 0.3-0.4 for C16DMAO/NaPa and 0.2 for C18DMAO/NaPa. The compositions of the complexes suggested by X(Pa)(*) are C16DMAO: NaPa=3:2 or 2:1 and C18DMAO:NaPa=4:1. The composition X(Pa)(*) depended on the chain length of the amine oxides. The maximum was not observed in the case of the C14DMAO/NaPa/water system. In the range 0.7< or =X(Pa)< or =1.0, dissolution temperature depression was observed with decreasing X(Pa). The dissolution temperature depression was analyzed by taking into account the nonideal behavior in the mixed micelles and the counterion binding on the mixed micelle surface. The negative beta values were obtained for all three mixed systems. It was shown that the counterion activity remained practically constant in the range of 0.7< or =X(Pa)< or =1.0. The cmc values of C16DMAO/NaPa mixtures were determined by pyrene fluorescence measurement. For C16DMAO/NaPa mixtures, the dependence of the RST interaction parameter beta on the mixed micelle composition X(Pa) was determined for a wide range (0.2< or =X(Pa) < or =0.9). In the range 0.2< or =X(Pa)< or =0.5, the beta values were obtained from an analysis of cmc based on the RST. In the range 0.7< or=X(Pa)< or=0.9, the beta values were obtained from an analysis of the dissolution temperature depression. From the analysis of the micelle composition dependence of the beta values, a short-range attractive interaction between the headgroup of C16DMAO and palmitate anion is suggested.

  8. Autocrine effects of transgenic resistin reduce palmitate and glucose oxidation in brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Pravenec, Michal; Mlejnek, Petr; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Šimáková, Miroslava; Šilhavý, Jan; Strnad, Hynek; Eigner, Sebastian; Eigner Henke, Kateřina; Škop, Vojtěch; Malínská, Hana; Trnovská, Jaroslava; Kazdová, Ludmila; Drahota, Zdeněk; Mráček, Tomáš; Houštěk, Josef

    2016-06-01

    Resistin has been originally identified as an adipokine that links obesity to insulin resistance in mice. In our previous studies in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) expressing a nonsecreted form of mouse resistin (Retn) transgene specifically in adipose tissue (SHR-Retn), we have observed an increased lipolysis and serum free fatty acids, ectopic fat accumulation in muscles, and insulin resistance. Recently, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disturbances. In the current study, we have analyzed autocrine effects of transgenic resistin on BAT glucose and lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function in the SHR-Retn vs. nontransgenic SHR controls. We observed that interscapular BAT isolated from SHR-Retn transgenic rats compared with SHR controls showed a lower relative weight (0.71 ± 0.05 vs. 0.91 ± 0.08 g/100 g body wt, P < 0.05), significantly reduced both basal and insulin stimulated incorporation of palmitate into BAT lipids (658 ± 50 vs. 856 ± 45 and 864 ± 47 vs. 1,086 ± 35 nmol/g/2 h, P ≤ 0.01, respectively), and significantly decreased palmitate oxidation (37.6 ± 4.5 vs. 57 ± 4.1 nmol/g/2 h, P = 0.007) and glucose oxidation (277 ± 34 vs. 458 ± 38 nmol/g/2 h, P = 0.001). In addition, in vivo microPET imaging revealed significantly reduced (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT induced by exposure to cold in SHR-Retn vs. control SHR (232 ± 19 vs. 334 ± 22 kBq/ml, P < 0.05). Gene expression profiles in BAT identified differentially expressed genes involved in skeletal muscle and connective tissue development, inflammation and MAPK and insulin signaling. These results provide evidence that autocrine effects of resistin attenuate differentiation and activity of BAT and thus may play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in the rat.

  9. Effectiveness of Paliperidone Palmitate vs. Haloperidol Decanoate for Maintenance Treatment of Schizophrenia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Joseph P.; Byerly, Matthew; Hamer, Robert M.; Dominik, Rosalie; Swartz, Marvin S.; Rosenheck, Robert A.; Ray, Neepa; Lamberti, J. Steven; Buckley, Peter F.; Wilkins, Tania M.; Stroup, T. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Importance Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are used to reduce medication non-adherence and subsequent relapse in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The relative effectiveness of LAI versions of second-generation (atypical) and older antipsychotics has not been assessed. Objective To compare the effectiveness of the second-generation LAI antipsychotic paliperidone palmitate (PP) to the older LAI antipsychotic haloperidol decanoate (HD). Design, Setting, and Participants Multisite, double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted at 22 clinical research sites in the U.S. The 311 randomized patients (PP=157, HD=154) were adults diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were clinically assessed to be at risk of relapse and likely to benefit from a LAI antipsychotic. Interventions Intramuscular injections of HD 25–200 mg or PP 39–234 mg every month for up to 24 months. Main Outcome Measures Efficacy failure, which reflected inadequate control of psychopathology by the study medication, as determined by a blinded adjudication committee. Key secondary outcomes were common adverse effects of antipsychotic medications. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of efficacy failure for PP compared to HD (adjusted hazard ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65–1.47). On average, patients on PP gained and those on HD lost weight; after six months the least squares mean weight change on PP was +2.17 kg (1.25 to 3.09) and on HD was −0.96 kg (−1.88 to −0.04). Patients taking PP had significantly greater increases in serum prolactin (men 34.56 µg/L (29.75 to 39.37) vs. 15.41 (10.73 to 20.08), p<0.001; women 75.19 (63.03 to 87.36) vs. 26.84 (13.29 to 40.40), p<0.001). Patients taking HD had significantly larger increases in global ratings of akathisia (0.73 [0.59 to 0.87] vs. 0.45 [0.31 to 0.59], p=0.006). Conclusions and Relevance Among adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, treatment with

  10. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on the modification of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content including oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    An, W S; Lee, S M; Son, Y K; Kim, S E; Kim, K H; Han, J Y; Bae, H R; Park, Y

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (FA), such as oleic acid, are related to acute coronary syndrome. There is no report about the effect of omega-3 FA on oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We hypothesized that omega-3 FA can modify erythrocyte membrane FA, including oleic acid, in PD patients. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 18 patients who were treated with PD for at least 6 months were randomized to treatment for 12 weeks with omega-3 FA or placebo. Erythrocyte membrane FA content was measured by gas chromatography at baseline and after 12 weeks. The erythrocyte membrane content of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was significantly increased and saturated FA and oleic acid were significantly decreased in the omega-3 FA supplementation group after 12 weeks compared to baseline. In conclusion, erythrocyte membrane FA content, including oleic acid, was significantly modified by omega-3 FA supplementation for 12 weeks in PD patients.

  11. Potent antimicrobial activity of bone cement encapsulating silver nanoparticles capped with oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Prokopovich, Polina; Köbrick, Mathias; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Perni, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    Bone cement is widely used in surgical treatments for the fixation for orthopaedic devices. Subsequently, 2-3% of patients undergoing these procedures develop infections that are both a major health risk for patients and a cost for the health service providers; this is also aggravated by the fact that antibiotics are losing efficacy because of the rising resistance of microorganisms to these substances. In this study, oleic acid capped silver nanoparticles (NP) were encapsulated into Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based bone cement samples at various ratios. Antimicrobial activity against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter baumannii was exhibited at NP concentrations as low as 0.05% (w/w). Furthermore, the mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the bone cement containing these NP were assessed to guarantee that such material is safe to be used in orthopaedic surgical practice.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and physicochemical properties of oleic acid ether derivatives as biolubricant basestocks.

    PubMed

    Salimon, Jumat; Salih, Nadia; Yousif, Emad

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum is a finite source as well as causing several environmental problems. Therefore petroleum needs to be replaced by alternative and sustainable sources. Plant oils and oleochemicals derived from them represent such alternative sources; the use of oleochemicals as biobased lubricants is of significant interest. This article presents a series of chemical modification on oleic acid to yield synthetic biolubricant basestocks. Measuring of density, volatility, cloud point (CP), pour point (PP), flash point (FP), viscosity index (VI), onset temperature (OT) and signal maximum temperature (SMT) was carried out for each compound. Furthermore, the friction and wear properties were measured using high-frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR). The results showed that octadecyl 9-octadecyloxy-10-hydroxyoctadecanoate exhibited the most favorable low-temperature performance (CP %ndash;26°C, PP %ndash;28°C) and the lowest ball wear scan diameter (42 µm) while propyl 9-propyloxy-10-hydroxyoctadecanoate exhibited the higher oxidation stability (OT 156°C).

  13. Oleic Acid Produced by a Marine Vibrio spp. Acts as an Anti-Vibrio parahaemolyticus Agent

    PubMed Central

    Leyton, Yanett; Borquez, Jorge; Darias, José; Cueto, Mercedes; Díaz-Marrero, Ana R.; Riquelme, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    It is known that some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus are responsible for gastroenteric diseases caused by the ingestion of marine organisms contaminated with these bacterial strains. Organic products that show inhibitory activity on the growth of the pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were extracted from a Vibrio native in the north of Chile. The inhibitory organic products were isolated by reverse phase chromatography and permeation by Sephadex LH20, and were characterized by spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The results showed that the prevailing active product is oleic acid, which was compared with standards by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These active products might be useful for controlling the proliferation of pathogenic clones of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:22073014

  14. Lipid and fatty acid analysis of the Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus (PiGV) envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastri-Bhalla, K.; Funk, C. J.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Virus envelope was isolated from Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus, produced in early fourth-instar larvae. Both polar and neutral lipids were analyzed by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Fatty acid composition of various individual neutral and polar lipids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The major components of envelope neutral lipid were diacylglycerols. Palmitic acid and stearic acid were the major saturated fatty acids in both polar and neutral lipids. Whereas palmitoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acids in neutral lipids, oleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid in the polar lipids.

  15. Fatty acid composition of seeds of some species of Nepeta L.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, Turgut; Dirmenci, Tuncay; Gören, Ahmet C

    2007-05-01

    The fatty acid compositions of Nepeta viscida, N. cilicica, N. crinita, N. nuda ssp. glandulifera and N. aristata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main free fatty acids were found as linolenic acid (49.8-58.5%), linoleic acid (10.9-23.5%), oleic acid (11.5-19.2%), palmitic acid (5.2-6.8%) and stearic acid (2.0-3.7%) and, total fatty acid compositions of species were analyzed and results were found as 36.2-49.8%, 17.1-25.8%, 15.4-25.8%, 6.4-7.8%, and 2.7-4.1%, respectively.

  16. Phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of mixed oleic acid/sodium chloride/water aerosol particles before and after ozonolysis.

    PubMed

    Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J; Hanford, Kate L; Kwamena, Nana-Owusua A; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P

    2012-06-21

    Aerosol optical tweezers are used to probe the phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of single aerosol particles consisting of an inorganic component, sodium chloride, and a water insoluble organic component, oleic acid. Coagulation of oleic acid aerosol with an optically trapped aqueous sodium chloride droplet leads to formation of a phase-separated particle with two partially engulfed liquid phases. The dependence of the phase and morphology of the trapped particle with variation in relative humidity (RH) is investigated by cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy over the RH range <5% to >95%. The efflorescence and deliquescence behavior of the inorganic component is shown to be unaffected by the presence of the organic phase. Whereas efflorescence occurs promptly (<1 s), the deliquescence process requires both dissolution of the inorganic component and the adoption of an equilibrium morphology for the resulting two phase particle, occurring on a time-scale of <20 s. Comparative measurements of the hygroscopicity of mixed aqueous sodium chloride/oleic acid droplets with undoped aqueous sodium chloride droplets show that the oleic acid does not impact on the equilibration partitioning of water between the inorganic component and the gas phase or the time response of evaporation/condensation. The oxidative aging of the particles through reaction with ozone is shown to increase the hygroscopicity of the organic component.

  17. Low density lipoprotein rich in oleic acid is protected against oxidative modification: implications for dietary prevention of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, S; Khoo, J C; Miller, E; Barnett, J; Witztum, J L; Steinberg, D

    1990-01-01

    Oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) enhances its potential atherogenicity in several ways, notably by enhancing its uptake into macrophages. In vivo studies in the rabbit show that inhibition of LDL oxidation slows the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. In the present studies, rabbits were fed either a newly developed variant sunflower oil (Trisun 80), containing more than 80% oleic acid and only 8% linoleic acid, or conventional sunflower oil, containing only 20% oleic acid and 67% linoleic acid. LDL isolated from the plasma of animals fed the variant sunflower oil was highly enriched in oleic acid and very low in linoleic acid. These oleate-rich LDL particles were remarkably resistant to oxidative modification. Even after 16-hr exposure to copper-induced oxidation or 24-hr incubation with cultured endothelial cells, macrophage uptake of the LDL was only marginally enhanced. The results suggest that diets sufficiently enriched in oleic acid, in addition to their LDL-lowering effect, may slow the progression of atherosclerosis by generating LDL that is highly resistant to oxidative modification. PMID:2339129

  18. Infrared spectroscopic study of the effect of oleic acid on the deliquescence behaviour of ammonium sulfate aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Nájera, Juan J; Horn, Andrew B

    2009-01-21

    In order to accurately assess the impact of fatty acids on the hygroscopic properties of atmospheric aerosol particles, (NH4)2SO4 (ammonium sulfate) and oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) were chosen to perform this study as components of the particle phase. Micron-sized (700-900 nm) particles containing (NH4)2SO4 and oleic acid were generated by nebulising aqueous solutions of (NH4)2SO4 and sodium oleate. In this study, the effect of oleic acid on the deliquescence phase transition of particles was investigated in a room temperature aerosol flow tube (AFT) system using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Particles morphologies and their chemical compositions were also analysed using a variety of techniques, including attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). The deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of the (NH4)2SO4 component, determined at 81+/-2%, was slightly lowered or not affected by the presence of different thickness of oleic acid (21 nm, 44 nm and 109 nm) present in the particles. Analyses of the results presented here are consistent with earlier studies about the possible effects of water-insoluble fatty acids coatings on the phase transitions of atmospheric aerosol particles.

  19. Structure-function properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spherulites, produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose starch and oleic acid, were grafted with methyl acrylate, both before and after removal of un-complexed amylopectin. For comparison, granular high-amylose corn starch was graft polymerized in a similar manner. The amount of grafted and ungrafte...

  20. Enzymatic Synthesis of Furfuryl Alcohol Ester with Oleic Acid by Candida antarctica Lipase B and Its Kinetic Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Avery; Dey, Tanmoy; Ghosh, Mahua; Ghosh, Jaydip; Ghosh, Santinath

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the successful enzymatic production of furfuryl oleate and its detailed kinetic study by Michaelis-Menten model. Esterification of oleic acid and furfuryl alcohol by Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435 preparation) in a solvent free system was studied in the present work at 1:1 molar ratio of furfuryl alcohol and oleic acid. About 99 % conversion (on the basis of oleic acid) has been achieved within 6 h at 5 % enzyme concentration. Ping-pong bi-bi mechanism (inhibition phenomenon taken into account) was applied to describe the ratios as a complex kinetic model. The kinetic parameters were determined using MATLAB language programme. The two initial rate constants KA and KB respectively were found out by different progress curves plotted with the help of MATLAB language programme. It was concluded from the results that furfuryl alcohol considerably inhibited the enzymatic reaction while oleic acid had negligible inhibitory effect. It was clearly seen that the initial rate was increased with the increase in the furfuryl alcohol concentration until 2 M/L after which there was a drop in the initial rate depicting the inhibitory effect of furfuryl alcohol. Surprisingly, it has been observed that addition of 0.1 mol of product activated the esterification reaction. Finally, the model was found to be statistically fitting well with the experimental data.

  1. Properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes from corn starch grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn starch granules have been previously investigated as fillers in polymers. In this study, much smaller particles in the form of spherulites produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose corn starch and oleic acid to form amylose inclusion complexes were graft polymerized with methyl acrylate, both ...

  2. Two alleles of ahFAD2B control the high oleic acid trait in cultivated peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high oleic:linoleic acid ratio (O/L) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds is controlled primarily by two recessive genes, ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B (ol1 and ol2). Marker-assisted breeding for high O/L could become routine provided that user-friendly and economical markers could be developed that would...

  3. Oleic acid stimulates system A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblast cells mediated by toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Lager, Susanne; Gaccioli, Francesca; Ramirez, Vanessa I; Jones, Helen N; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2013-03-01

    Obese women have an increased risk to deliver large babies. However, the mechanisms underlying fetal overgrowth in these pregnancies are not well understood. Obese pregnant women typically have elevated circulating lipid levels. We tested the hypothesis that fatty acids stimulate placental amino acid transport, mediated via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Circulating NEFA levels and placental TLR4 expression were assessed in women with varying prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). The effects of oleic acid on system A and system L amino acid transport, and on the activation of the mTOR (4EBP1, S6K1, rpS6), TLR4 (IĸB, JNK, p38 MAPK), and STAT3 signaling pathways were determined in cultured primary human trophoblast cells. Maternal circulating NEFAs (n = 33), but not placental TLR4 mRNA expression (n = 16), correlated positively with BMI (P < 0.05). Oleic acid increased trophoblast JNK and STAT3 phosphorylation (P < 0.05), whereas mTOR activity was unaffected. Furthermore, oleic acid doubled trophoblast system A activity (P < 0.05), without affecting system L activity. siRNA-mediated silencing of TLR4 expression prevented the stimulatory effect of oleic acid on system A activity. Our data suggest that maternal fatty acids can increase placental nutrient transport via TLR4, thereby potentially affecting fetal growth.

  4. Field performance of three recent high-oleic peanut cultivars released for production in the Southwestern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid composition of peanuts has become increasingly important with the realization that oleic acid content significantly affects the development of rancidity. It has been determined that a high O/L in peanut results in an increased shelf life (up to 10 times) and improved flavor when comp...

  5. Oleic acid and linoleic acid from Tenebrio molitor larvae inhibit BACE1 activity in vitro: molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Youn, Kumju; Yun, Eun-Young; Lee, Jinhyuk; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

    2014-02-01

    In our ongoing research to find therapeutic compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) from natural resources, the inhibitory activity of the BACE1 enzyme by Tenebrio molitor larvae and its major compounds were evaluated. The T. molitor larvae extract and its fractions exhibited strong BACE1 suppression. The major components of hexane fraction possessing both high yield and strong BACE1 inhibition were determined by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. A remarkable composition of unsaturated long chain fatty acids, including oleic acid and linoleic acid, were identified. Oleic acid, in particular, noncompetitively attenuated BACE1 activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) value of 61.31 μM and Ki value of 34.3 μM. Furthermore, the fatty acids were stably interacted with BACE1 at different allosteric sites of the enzyme bound with the OH of CYS319 and the NH₃ of TYR320 for oleic acid and with the C=O group of GLN304 for linoleic acid. Here, we first revealed novel pharmacophore features of oleic acids and linoleic acid to BACE1 by in silico docking studies. The present findings would clearly suggest potential guidelines for designing novel BACE1 selective inhibitors.

  6. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from hazelnut, high-oleic peanut and walnut oils and evaluation as biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazelnut, walnut and high-oleic peanut oils were converted into fatty acid methyl esters using catalytic sodium methoxide and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels. These feedstocks were of interest due to their adaptability to marginal lands and their lipid production potentials (780-1780 L ha-1 y...

  7. Nutritive value of high-oleic acid sunflower seed for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M L; Ortiz, L T; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J

    2005-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of high-oleic acid sunflower seed (HOASS) in broiler diets. In the first experiment, HOASS was included in a basal diet at 80, 160, 240, and 320 g/kg at the expense of the energy-yielding ingredients, and the AMEn values of the experimental diets were determined. The linear regression equation of AMEn values on rate of inclusion was calculated. Extrapolation value for the AMEn of HOASS at 100% inclusion was 4224 +/- 77 kcal/kg. In the second experiment, diets containing up to 200 g of HOASS/kg were given to broilers (Cobb) from 0 to 42 d, and performance parameters, nutrient digestibility, and AMEn value were determined at 12 and 42 d of age. Birds fed the diets containing 100 and 200 g HOASS/kg gained less weight (P < 0.001) than those fed the diet containing no HOASS at both ages. Differences in feed-to-gain ratio were only significant for the diet with the highest concentration of HOASS. Apparent digestibility of nutrients and dietary AMEn contents of diets increased with age; thus, the mean digestibility of diets for amino acid N and for total fatty acids increased from 82.1 and 68.0% at 12 d to 86.7 and 84.7% at 42 d, respectively, and AMEn content was improved by 6.5%. Inclusion of HOASS in the diet decreased the digestibilities of fat, oleic acid, and total fatty acids. A decrease in the digestibility of aspartic acid, threonine, tyrosine, valine, isoleucine, and AMEn with increasing inclusion level was also observed at 12 d of age.

  8. CTRP5 ameliorates palmitate-induced apoptosis and insulin resistance through activation of AMPK and fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Won-Mo; Lee, Wan

    2014-09-26

    Lipotoxicity resulting from a high concentration of saturated fatty acids is closely linked to development of insulin resistance, as well as apoptosis in skeletal muscle. CTRP5, an adiponectin paralog, is known to activate AMPK and fatty acid oxidation; however, the effects of CTRP5 on palmitate-induced lipotoxicity in myocytes have not been investigated. We found that globular domain of CTRP5 (gCTRP5) prevented palmitate-induced apoptosis and insulin resistance in myocytes by inhibiting the activation of caspase-3, reactive oxygen species accumulation, and IRS-1 reduction. These beneficial effects of gCTRP5 are mainly attributed to an increase in fatty acid oxidation through phosphorylation of AMPK. These results provide a novel function of CTRP5, which may have preventive and therapeutic potential in management of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  9. 3-MCPD 1-Palmitate Induced Tubular Cell Apoptosis In Vivo via JNK/p53 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Man; Huang, Guoren; Wang, Thomas T Y; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol (3-MCPD esters) are a group of processing induced food contaminants with nephrotoxicity but the molecular mechanism(s) remains unclear. This study investigated whether and how the JNK/p53 pathway may play a role in the nephrotoxic effect of 3-MCPD esters using 3-MCPD 1-palmitate (MPE) as a probe compound in Sprague Dawley rats. Microarray analysis of the kidney from the Sprague Dawley rats treated with MPE, using Gene Ontology categories and KEGG pathways, revealed that MPE altered mRNA expressions of the genes involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (JNK and ERK), p53, and apoptotic signal transduction pathways. The changes in the mRNA expressions were confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses and were consistent with the induction of tubular cell apoptosis as determined by histopathological, TUNEL, and immunohistochemistry analyses in the kidneys of the Sprague Dawley rats. Additionally, p53 knockout attenuated the apoptosis, and the apoptosis-related protein bax expression and cleaved caspase-3 activation induced by MPE in the p53 knockout C57BL/6 mice, whereas JNK inhibitor SP600125 but not ERK inhibitor U0126 inhibited MPE-induced apoptosis, supporting the conclusion that JNK/p53 might play a critical role in the tubular cell apoptosis induced by MPE and other 3-MCPD fatty acid esters.

  10. Role of orexin A signaling in dietary palmitic acid-activated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Cayla M; Yuan, Ce; Wisdorf, Lauren E; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M; Nixon, Joshua P; Butterick, Tammy A

    2015-10-08

    Excess dietary saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid (PA) induce peripheral and hypothalamic inflammation. Hypothalamic inflammation, mediated in part by microglial activation, contributes to metabolic dysregulation. In rodents, high fat diet-induced microglial activation results in nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), and increased central pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (OXA, hypocretin 1) is neuroprotective in brain. In cortex, OXA can also reduce inflammation and neurodegeneration through a microglial-mediated pathway. Whether hypothalamic orexin neuroprotection mechanisms depend upon microglia is unknown. To address this issue, we evaluated effects of OXA and PA on inflammatory response in immortalized murine microglial and hypothalamic neuronal cell lines. We demonstrate for the first time in microglial cells that exposure to PA increases gene expression of orexin-1 receptor but not orexin-2 receptor. Pro-inflammatory markers IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in microglial cells are increased following PA exposure, but are reduced by pretreatment with OXA. The anti-inflammatory marker arginase-1 is increased by OXA. Finally, we show hypothalamic neurons exposed to conditioned media from PA-challenged microglia have increased cell survival only when microglia were pretreated with OXA. These data support the concept that OXA may act as an immunomodulatory regulator of microglia, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing anti-inflammatory factors to promote a favorable neuronal microenvironment.

  11. Palmitic acid induces central leptin resistance and impairs hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in male mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Licai; Yu, Yinghua; Szabo, Alexander; Wu, Yizhen; Wang, Hongqin; Camer, Danielle; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-05-01

    The consumption of diets rich in saturated fat largely contributes to the development of obesity in modern societies. A diet high in saturated fats can induce inflammation and impair leptin signaling in the hypothalamus. However, the role of saturated fatty acids on hypothalamic leptin signaling, and hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism remains largely undiscovered. In this study, we investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of a saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid (PA, C16:0), on central leptin sensitivity, hypothalamic leptin signaling, inflammatory molecules and hepatic energy metabolism in C57BL/6J male mice. We found that the icv administration of PA led to central leptin resistance, evidenced by the inhibition of central leptin's suppression of food intake. Central leptin resistance was concomitant with impaired hypothalamic leptin signaling (JAK2-STAT3, PKB/Akt-FOXO1) and a pro-inflammatory response (TNF-α, IL1-β, IL-6 and pIκBa) in the mediobasal hypothalamus and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei. Furthermore, the pre-administration of icv PA blunted the effect of leptin-induced decreases in mRNA expression related to gluconeogenesis (G6Pase and PEPCK), glucose transportation (GLUT2) and lipogenesis (FAS and SCD1) in the liver of mice. Therefore, elevated central PA concentrations can induce pro-inflammatory responses and leptin resistance, which are associated with disorders of energy homeostasis in the liver as a result of diet-induced obesity.

  12. Effects of inhibition of. beta. -oxidation on tissue kinetics of C-11 palmitate in normal myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Wijns, W.; Schwaiger, M.; Huang, S.C.; Selin, C.; Grover-McKay, M.; Hansen, H.; Phelps, M.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1985-05-01

    C-11 palmitate (CPA) clears from myocardium biexponentially. The late slow tissue clearance curve component is thought to represent tracer deposited in the endogenous lipid pool. The early rapid component is thought to be related to oxidation of CPA. The nature of the curve components can be clarified by specific inhibition of individual metabolic steps, e.g., ..beta..-oxidation. Therefore, 11 dogs were studied at control and again after inhibition of carnitine acyltransferase I with iv. tetradecylglycidic acid (TDGA; 10 mg/kg). CPA was injected into the coronary circulation. Myocardial time activity curves (TAC) were analyzed by least square fitting. After TDGA, the late slow phase was unchanged (RS=32 +- 9%; T=336 +- 146 min) but the early rapid phase was reduced (RS=18 +- 8%; T=2.9 +- 1.4 min) while 50 +- 9% of extracted CPA diffused back (T=10.8 +- 3.6 sec). Thus, inhibition of ..beta..-oxidation shifted substrate usage from FFA to carbohydrates, had no effect on esterification of CPA but enhanced its back diffusion from myocardium. As discussed in this paper the decline of the early rapid phase indicates its relationship to CPA oxidation.

  13. TNF-α stimulates endothelial palmitic acid transcytosis and promotes insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjing; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Tao; Xing, Shasha; Wu, Yaogong; Bian, Fang; Wu, Guangjie; Li, Ye; Li, Juyi; Bai, Xiangli; Wu, Dan; Jia, Xiong; Wang, Ling; Zhu, Lin; Jin, Si

    2017-01-01

    Persistent elevation of plasma TNF-α is a marker of low grade systemic inflammation. Palmitic acid (PA) is the most abundant type of saturated fatty acid in human body. PA is bound with albumin in plasma and could not pass through endothelial barrier freely. Albumin-bound PA has to be transported across monolayer endothelial cells through intracellular transcytosis, but not intercellular diffusion. In the present study, we discovered that TNF-α might stimulate PA transcytosis across cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, which further impaired the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by cardiomyocytes and promoted insulin resistance. In this process, TNF-α-stimulated endothelial autophagy and NF-κB signaling crosstalk with each other and orchestrate the whole event, ultimately result in increased expression of fatty acid transporter protein 4 (FATP4) in endothelial cells and mediate the increased PA transcytosis across microvascular endothelial cells. Hopefully the present study discovered a novel missing link between low grade systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:28304381

  14. Inhibition of Receptor Interacting Protein Kinases Attenuates Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Induced by Palmitic Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingyue; Lu, Lihui; Lei, Song; Chai, Hua; Wu, Siyuan; Tang, Xiaoju; Bao, Qinxue; Chen, Li; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is known to cause cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the important pathological features of PA-induced lipotoxicity, but the mechanism by which PA induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is still unclear. Therefore, our study was to test whether necroptosis, a receptor interacting protein kinase 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3-) dependent programmed necrosis, was involved in the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We used the PA-treated primary neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NCMs) or H9c2 cells to study lipotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was induced by PA treatment, determined by upregulation of hypertrophic marker genes and cell surface area enlargement. Upon PA treatment, the expression of RIPK1 and RIPK3 was increased. Pretreatment with the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, was attenuated. Knockdown of RIPK1 or RIPK3 by siRNA suppressed the PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Moreover, a crosstalk between necroptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was observed in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of RIPK1 with Nec-1, phosphorylation level of AKT (Ser473), and mTOR (Ser2481) was significantly reduced in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, RIPKs-dependent necroptosis might be crucial in PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Activation of mTOR may mediate the effect of necroptosis in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by PA.

  15. Coating of peanuts with edible whey protein film containing alpha-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate.

    PubMed

    Han, J H; Hwang, H-M; Min, S; Krochta, J M

    2008-10-01

    Physical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) coating solution incorporating ascorbic palmitate (AP) and alpha-tocopherol (tocopherol) were characterized, and the antioxidant activity of dried WPI coatings against lipid oxidation in roasted peanuts were investigated. The AP and tocopherol were mixed into a 10% (w/w) WPI solution containing 6.7% glycerol. Process 1 (P1) blended an AP and tocopherol mixture directly into the WPI solution using a high-speed homogenizer. Process 2 (P2) used ethanol as a solvent for dissolving AP and tocopherol into the WPI solution. The viscosity and turbidity of the WPI coating solution showed the Newtonian fluid behavior, and 0.25% of critical concentration of AP in WPI solution rheology. After peanuts were coated with WPI solutions, color changes of peanuts were measured during 16 wk of storage at 25 degrees C, and the oxidation of peanuts was determined by hexanal analysis using solid-phase micro-extraction samplers and GC-MS. Regardless of the presence of antioxidants in the coating layer, the formation of hexanal from the oxidation of peanut lipids was reduced by WPI coatings, which indicates WPI coatings protected the peanuts from oxygen permeation and oxidation. However, the incorporation of antioxidants in the WPI coating layer did not show a significant difference in hexanal production from that of WPI coating treatment without incorporation of antioxidants.

  16. Chemometric approach to develop frying stable sunflower oil blends stabilized with oleoresin rosemary and ascorbyl palmitate.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Sehwag, Sneha; Niwas Mishra, Hari

    2017-03-01

    The frying performance of sunflower oil blends (SOBs) stabilized with oleoresin rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) (ROSM) (200-1500mg/kg) and ascorbyl palmitate (AP) (100-300mg/kg) were tested for 18hopen pan-frying. Sunflower oil with TBHQ (SOTBHQ) (200mg/kg) and without additives (SOcontrol) served as positive and negative controls, respectively. The frying stability was monitored over time by estimating the levels of conjugated dienes, total polar compounds, polymeric compounds viz., triglyceride polymers, dimers, oxidized triglyceride monomers, diglycerides and free fatty acids, and induction period based on Rancimat. Chemometric tools were used to classify the oil samples based on frying stability. Thermo-oxidative changes were reduced significantly for blends stabilized with ROSM and AP (p<0.05). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) distinguished SOBs from positive controls. A formulation consisting of 1309.62 and 129.29mg/kg of ROSM and AP, respectively, was optimized using a hybrid PCA-RSM approach.

  17. Metabolism of palmitic acid in the subcellular fractions of mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Sun, G Y; Horrocks, L A

    1973-03-01

    After an intracerebral injection of [(14)C]palmitic acid to C57BL/10J mice, the radioactivity in the brains decreased rapidly with time. The incorporated radioactivity was primarily in the 16:0 acyl groups of the diacyl phosphoglycerides at 1 and 3 days after injection. At longer times, increasing proportions of the radioactivity were found in cerebrosides, alkenyl groups, and other acyl groups. The specific radioactivities of the phosphoglycerides were highest in the microsomal fraction at 1 day after injection. The exchange of the diacyl glycerophosphorylcholines and diacyl glycerophosphorylethanolamines between the microsomes and the myelin required 8-14 days. When calculated on the basis of the radioactivity in the 16:0 acyl groups, the half-lives for both of these phosphoglycerides were 6-8 days in all subcellular fractions during the period from 14 to 30 days after injection. The radioactivity in the total lipids from the purified myelin fraction did not decline until more than 14 days after injection because of the reutilization of labeled 16:0 acyl groups for lipid biosynthesis. Recycling of the acyl groups explains the long half-lives reported for myelin phosphoglycerides after injection of [(14)C]acetic acid. Lipids with a relatively high specific radioactivity were lost from the myelin fraction during the purification procedure. The most likely source of these lipids is the most recently formed myelin that is not consolidated into the myelin sheath.

  18. Once-monthly paliperidone palmitate in recently diagnosed and chronic non-acute patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hargarter, L; Bergmans, P; Cherubin, P; Keim, S; Conca, A; Serrano-Blanco, A; Bitter, I; Bilanakis, N; Schreiner, A

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To explore the treatment response, tolerability and safety of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP1M) in non-acute patients switched from oral antipsychotics, stratified by time since diagnosis as recently diagnosed (≤3 years) or chronic patients (>3 years). Research design and methods: Post hoc analysis of a prospective, interventional, single-arm, multicentre, open-label, 6-month study performed in 233 recently diagnosed and 360 chronic patients. Main outcome measures: The proportion achieving treatment response (defined as ≥20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] total score from baseline to endpoint) and maintained efficacy (defined as non-inferiority in the change in PANSS total score at endpoint [Schuirmann’s test]). Results: 71.4% of recently diagnosed and 59.2% of chronic patients showed a ≥20% decrease in PANSS total score (p = 0.0028 between groups). Changes in PANSS Marder factors, PANSS subscales, and the proportion of patients with a Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP) total score of 71–100 were significantly greater in recently diagnosed compared with chronic patients. PP1M was well tolerated, presenting no unexpected safety findings. Conclusion: These data show that recently diagnosed patients treated with PP1M had a significantly higher treatment response and improved functioning, as assessed by the PSP total score, than chronic patients. PMID:27042990

  19. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for application of ascorbyl palmitate.

    PubMed

    Uner, M; Wissing, S A; Yener, G; Müller, R H

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the chemical stability of ascorbyl palmitate (AP) in a colloidal lipid carrier for its topical use. For this purpose, AP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and for comparison, a nanoemulsion (NE) were prepared employing the high pressure homogenization technique and stored at room temperature (RT), 4 degrees C and 40 degrees C. During 3 months, physical stability of these formulations compared to placebo formulations which were prepared by the same production method, was studied including recrystallization behaviour of the lipid with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), particle size distribution and storage stability with photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and laser diffractometry (LD). After evaluating data indicating excellent physical stability, AP-loaded SLN, NLC and NE were incorporated into a hydrogel by the same production method as the next step. Degradation of AP by HPLC and physical stability in the same manner were investigated at the same storage temperatures during 3 months. As a result, AP was found most stable in both the NLC and SLN stored at 4 degrees C (p > 0.05) indicating the importance of storage temperature. Nondegraded AP content in NLC, SLN and NE was found to be 71.1% +/- 1.4, 67.6% +/- 2.9 and 55.2% +/- 0.3 after 3 months, respectively. Highest degradation was observed with NE at all the storage temperatures indicating even importance of the carrier structure.

  20. Nerve growth factor protects against palmitic acid-induced injury in retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Pan-shi; Tang, Shu; Zhang, Hai-feng; Guo, Yuan-yuan; Zeng, Zhi-wen; Wen, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports an important role for nerve growth factor (NGF) in diabetic retinopathy. We hypothesized that NGF has a protective effect on rat retinal ganglion RGC-5 cells injured by palmitic acid (PA), a metabolic factor implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications. Our results show that PA exposure caused apoptosis of RGC-5 cells, while NGF protected against PA insult in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, NGF significantly attenuated the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in RGC-5 cells. Pathway inhibitor tests showed that the protective effect of NGF was completely reversed by LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor), Akt VIII inhibitor, and PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor). Western blot analysis revealed that NGF induced the phosphorylation of Akt/FoxO1 and ERK1/2 and reversed the PA-evoked reduction in the levels of these proteins. These results indicate that NGF protects RGC-5 cells against PA-induced injury through anti-oxidation and inhibition of apoptosis by modulation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. PMID:28123432

  1. Oxidative stress and calcium dysregulation by palmitate in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Luong Dai; Xu, Shanhua; Choi, Seong-Kyung; Ha, Chae-Myeong; Thoudam, Themis; Cha, Seung-Kuy; Wiederkehr, Andreas; Wollheim, Claes B; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Kyu-Sang

    2017-01-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) are important substrates for mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and ATP synthesis but also cause serious stress to various tissues, contributing to the development of metabolic diseases. CD36 is a major mediator of cellular FFA uptake. Inside the cell, saturated FFAs are able to induce the production of cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can be prevented by co-exposure to unsaturated FFAs. There are close connections between oxidative stress and organellar Ca2+ homeostasis. Highly oxidative conditions induced by palmitate trigger aberrant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ release and thereby deplete ER Ca2+ stores. The resulting ER Ca2+ deficiency impairs chaperones of the protein folding machinery, leading to the accumulation of misfolded proteins. This ER stress may further aggravate oxidative stress by augmenting ER ROS production. Secondary to ER Ca2+ release, cytosolic and mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ concentrations can also be altered. In addition, plasmalemmal ion channels operated by ER Ca2+ depletion mediate persistent Ca2+ influx, further impairing cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis. Mitochondrial Ca2+ overload causes superoxide production and functional impairment, culminating in apoptosis. This vicious cycle of lipotoxicity occurs in multiple tissues, resulting in β-cell failure and insulin resistance in target tissues, and further aggravates diabetic complications. PMID:28154371

  2. Effect of artichoke extract (Cynara scolymus L.) on palmitic-1-14C acid oxidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Juzyszyn, Zygmunt; Czerny, Boguslaw; Pawlik, Andrzej; Drozdzik, Marek

    2008-05-01

    Studies on the effect of the artichoke extract (AE) on oxidation of palmitic-1-14C acid administered intravenously to rats at a dose 25 and 50 mg/kg bw demonstrated marked enhancement of both 14CO2 expiration rate and 14CO2 recovery in the expired air. The extract suppressed accumulation of palmitic-1-14C acid in serum lipids and epididymal fat pad tissue as well. The effects of the extract on 14CO2 expiration rate, 14CO2 recovery, as well as accumulation of palmitic-1-14C acid were dose dependent. Total14CO2 recovery in expired air during 60 min was elevated by 17.3% (p < 0.05) and 52.1% (p < 0.001) in rats administered the extract at a dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg, respectively. The rats supplemented with the AE at a dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg bw were characterized by 10.0% (not significant) and 19% (p < 0.05) decrease in( 14)C radioactivity of serum lipids as well as reduction of epididymal fat tissue 14C radioactivity by 8.7 and 17.5% (p < 0.05), respectively, in comparison with the control rats. Thus, the results demonstrate that the AE possess stimulatory properties with respect to oxidation of palmitic acid administered to rats, and provide new information on the mechanism of antilipemic activity of the extract associated with activation of lipid oxidation in the organism.

  3. Amelioration of palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C₂C₁₂ muscle cells by rooibos (Aspalathus linearis).

    PubMed

    Mazibuko, S E; Muller, C J F; Joubert, E; de Beer, D; Johnson, R; Opoku, A R; Louw, J

    2013-07-15

    Increased levels of free fatty acids (FFAs), specifically saturated free fatty acids such as palmitate are associated with insulin resistance of muscle, fat and liver. Skeletal muscle, responsible for up to 80% of the glucose disposal from the peripheral circulation, is particularly vulnerable to increased levels of saturated FFAs. Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and its unique dihydrochalcone C-glucoside, aspalathin, shown to reduce hyperglycemia in diabetic rats, could play a role in preventing or ameliorating the development of insulin resistance. This study aims to establish whether rooibos can ameliorate experimentally-induced insulin-resistance in C₂C₁₂ skeletal muscle cells. Palmitate-induced insulin resistant C₂C₁₂ cells were treated with an aspalathin-enriched green (unfermented) rooibos extract (GRE), previously shown for its blood glucose lowering effect in vitro and in vivo or an aqueous extract of fermented rooibos (FRE). Glucose uptake and mitochondrial activity were measured using 2-deoxy-[³H]-D-glucose, MTT and ATP assays, respectively. Expression of proteins relevant to glucose metabolism was analysed by Western blot. GRE contained higher levels of all compounds, except the enolic phenylpyruvic acid-2-O-glucoside and luteolin-7-O-glucoside. Both rooibos extracts increased glucose uptake, mitochondrial activity and ATP production. Compared to FRE, GRE was more effective at increasing glucose uptake and ATP production. At a mechanistic level both extracts down-regulated PKC θ activation, which is associated with palmitate-induced insulin resistance. Furthermore, the extracts increased activation of key regulatory proteins (AKT and AMPK) involved in insulin-dependent and non-insulin regulated signalling pathways. Protein levels of the glucose transporter (GLUT4) involved in glucose transport via these two pathways were also increased. This in vitro study therefore confirms that rooibos can ameliorate palmitate-induced insulin resistance in

  4. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols prevent palmitate-induced renal epithelial mesenchymal transition by alleviating dipeptidyl peptidase-4-mediated insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong; Yang, Yi-Sun; Lin, Chih-Li; Peng, Chiung-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy has a significant socioeconomic impact, but its mechanism is unclear and needs to be examined. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols (HPE) inhibited high glucose-induced angiotensin II receptor-1 (AT-1), thus attenuating renal epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Recently, we reported HPE inhibited dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4, the enzyme degrades type 1 glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1)), which mediated insulin resistance signals leading to EMT. Since free fatty acids can realistically bring about insulin resistance, using the palmitate-stimulated cell model in contrast with type 2 diabetic rats, in this study we examined if insulin resistance causes renal EMT, and the preventive effect of HPE. Our findings reveal that palmitate hindered 30% of glucose uptake. Treatment with 1 mg mL(-1) of HPE and the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin completely recovered insulin sensitivity and palmitate-induced signal cascades. HPE inhibited DPP-4 activity without altering the levels of DPP-4 and the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). HPE decreased palmitate-induced phosphorylation of Ser307 of insulin receptor substrate-1 (pIRS-1 (S307)), AT-1 and vimentin, while increasing phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (pPI3K). IRS-1 knockdown revealed its essential role in mediating downstream AT-1 and EMT. In type 2 diabetic rats, it suggests that HPE concomitantly decreased the protein levels of DPP-4, AT-1, vimentin, and fibronectin, but reversed the in vivo compensation of GLP-1R. In conclusion, HPE improves insulin sensitivity by attenuating DPP-4 and the downstream signals, thus decreasing AT-1-mediated tubular-interstitial EMT. HPE could be an adjuvant to prevent diabetic nephropathy.

  5. Heterofunctional hydrophilic-hydrophobic porous silica as support for multipoint covalent immobilization of lipases: application to lactulose palmitate synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Claudia; Illanes, Andres; Wilson, Lorena

    2014-04-01

    Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of sugar esters, as lactulose palmitate, requires harsh conditions, making it necessary to immobilize the enzyme. Therefore, a study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different chemical surfaces of hierarchical meso-macroporous silica in the immobilization of two lipases from Pseudomonas stutzeri (PsL) and Alcaligenes sp. (AsL), which exhibit esterase activity. Porosity and chemical surface of silica supports, before and after functionalization and after immobilization, were characterized by gas adsorption and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. PsL and AsL were immobilized in octyl (OS), glyoxyl (GS), and octyl-glyoxyl silica (OGS). Hydrolytic activity, thermal and solvent stability, and sugar ester synthesis were evaluated with those catalysts. The best support in terms of expressed activity was OS in the case of PsL (100 IU g(-1)), while OS and OGS were the best for AsL with quite similar expressed activities (60 and 58 IU g(-1), respectively). At 60 °C in aqueous media the more stable biocatalysts were GS-PsL and OGS-AsL (half-lives of 566 and 248 h, respectively), showing the advantage of a heterofunctional support in the latter case. Lactulose palmitate synthesis was carried out in acetone medium (with 4% of equilibrium moisture) at 40 °C obtaining palmitic acid conversions higher than 20% for all biocatalysts, being the highest of those obtained with OGS-AsL and OS-PsL. Therefore, screening of different chemical surfaces on porous silica used as supports for lipase immobilization allowed obtaining active and stable biocatalyst to be employed in the novel synthesis of lactulose palmitate.

  6. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays fatb reduces the palmitic acid content of fatty acids in maize grain.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Li, Hui; Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20-60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding.

  7. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of ethyl palmitate calibration and resolution with ethyl oleate as biomarker ethanol sub acute in urine application study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suaniti, Ni Made; Manurung, Manuntun

    2016-03-01

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry is used to separate two and more compounds and identify fragment ion specific of biomarker ethanol such as palmitic acid ethyl ester (PAEE), as one of the fatty acid ethyl esters as early detection through conyugated reaction. This study aims to calibrate ethyl palmitate and develop analysis with oleate acid. This methode can be used analysis ethanol and its chemistry biomarker in ethanol sub-acute consumption as analytical forensic toxicology. The result show that ethanol level in urine rats Wistar were 9.21 and decreased 6.59 ppm after 48 hours consumption. Calibration curve of ethyl palmitate was y = 0.2035 x + 1.0465 and R2 = 0.9886. Resolution between ethyl palmitate and oleate were >1.5 as good separation with fragment ion specific was 88 and the retention time was 18 minutes.

  8. Synergistic effect of cAMP and palmitate in promoting altered mitochondrial function and cell death in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linxia; Seitz, Linsey C.; Abramczyk, Amy M.; Chan, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Saturated free fatty acids (FFAs), e.g. palmitate, have long been shown to induce toxicity and cell death in various types of cells. In this study, we demonstrate that cAMP synergistically amplifies the effect of palmitate on the induction of cell death in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2 cells. Elevation of cAMP level in palmitate treated cells led to enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial biogenesis. Mitochondrial fragmentation precedes mitochondrial ROS generation and mitochondrial biogenesis, and may contribute to mitochondrial ROS overproduction and subsequent mitochondrial biogenesis. Fragmentation of mitochondria also facilitated the release of cytotoxic mitochondrial proteins, such as Smac, from the mitochondria and subsequent activation of caspases. However, cell death induced by palmitate and cAMP was caspase-independent and mainly necrotic. PMID:20026039

  9. A Comparison of Retinyl Palmitate and Red Palm Oil β-Carotene as Strategies to Address Vitamin A Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Souganidis, Ellie; Laillou, Arnaud; Leyvraz, Magali; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency continues to be an international public health problem with several important health consequences including blindness and overall increased rates of morbidity and mortality. To address this widespread issue, a series of strategies have been put into place from dietary diversification to supplementation and fortification programs. Retinyl palmitate has been used successfully for decades as a supplement as well as a way to fortify numerous foods, including vegetable oil, rice, monosodium glutamate, cereal flours and sugar. Recently, there has been rising interest in using a natural source of carotenoids, β-carotene from red palm oil (RPO), for fortification. Although RPO interventions have also been shown to effectively prevent Vitamin A deficiency, there are numerous challenges in using beta-carotene from RPO as a fortification technique. β-Carotene can induce significant changes in appearance and taste of the fortified product. Moreover, costs of fortifying with beta-carotene are higher than with retinyl palmitate. Therefore, RPO should only be used as a source of Vitamin A if it is produced and used in its crude form and regularly consumed without frying. Furthermore, refined RPO should be fortified with retinyl palmitate, not β-carotene, to ensure that there is adequate Vitamin A content. PMID:23955382

  10. Conformational change in the C form of palmitic acid investigated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, F. F.; Nogueira, C. E. S.; Freire, P. T. C.; Moreira, S. G. C.; Teixeira, A. M. R.; de Menezes, A. S.; Mendes Filho, J.; Saraiva, G. D.

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acids are substances found in most living beings in nature. Here we report the effect of the low temperature in the vibrational and structural properties of the C form of palmitic acid, a fatty acid with 16 carbon atoms. The Raman spectra were obtained in the temperature interval from 300 to 18 K in the spectral range between 30 and 3100 cm- 1. The assignment of the duly observed bands was done based on the density functional theory. On cooling, the main changes observed in the lattice mode region of the Raman spectra were interpreted as a conformational modification undergone by the palmitic acid molecules in the unit cell. The X-ray diffraction measurements were obtained from 290 to 80 K showing a slight modification in the lattice parameters at about 210 K. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were recorded between 150 and 300 K and no enthalpic anomaly in the DSC thermogram was observed. These techniques provided strong evidence of the conformational change in the molecules of palmitic acid at low temperatures.

  11. Susceptibility of podocytes to palmitic acid is regulated by stearoyl-CoA desaturases 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Jonas; Weins, Astrid; Kampe, Kapil; Gruber, Stefan; Lindenmeyer, Maja T; Cohen, Clemens D; Orellana, Jana M; Mundel, Peter; Jehle, Andreas W

    2013-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by dyslipidemia with elevated free fatty acids (FFAs). Loss of podocytes is a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy, and podocytes are highly susceptible to saturated FFAs but not to protective, monounsaturated FFAs. We report that patients with diabetic nephropathy develop alterations in glomerular gene expression of enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism, including induction of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1, which converts saturated to monounsaturated FFAs. By IHC of human renal biopsy specimens, glomerular SCD-1 induction was observed in podocytes of patients with diabetic nephropathy. Functionally, the liver X receptor agonists TO901317 and GW3965, two known inducers of SCD, increased Scd-1 and Scd-2 expression in cultured podocytes and reduced palmitic acid-induced cell death. Similarly, overexpression of Scd-1 attenuated palmitic acid-induced cell death. The protective effect of TO901317 was associated with a reduction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. It was lost after gene silencing of Scd-1/-2, thereby confirming that the protective effect of TO901317 is mediated by Scd-1/-2. TO901317 also shifted palmitic acid-derived FFAs into biologically inactive triglycerides. In summary, SCD-1 up-regulation in diabetic nephropathy may be part of a protective mechanism against saturated FFA-derived toxic metabolites that drive endoplasmic reticulum stress and podocyte death.

  12. Conformational change in the C form of palmitic acid investigated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, F F; Nogueira, C E S; Freire, P T C; Moreira, S G C; Teixeira, A M R; de Menezes, A S; Mendes Filho, J; Saraiva, G D

    2016-05-15

    Fatty acids are substances found in most living beings in nature. Here we report the effect of the low temperature in the vibrational and structural properties of the C form of palmitic acid, a fatty acid with 16 carbon atoms. The Raman spectra were obtained in the temperature interval from 300 to 18K in the spectral range between 30 and 3100 cm(-1). The assignment of the duly observed bands was done based on the density functional theory. On cooling, the main changes observed in the lattice mode region of the Raman spectra were interpreted as a conformational modification undergone by the palmitic acid molecules in the unit cell. The X-ray diffraction measurements were obtained from 290 to 80K showing a slight modification in the lattice parameters at about 210K. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were recorded between 150 and 300K and no enthalpic anomaly in the DSC thermogram was observed. These techniques provided strong evidence of the conformational change in the molecules of palmitic acid at low temperatures.

  13. Glucose and Palmitate Differentially Regulate PFKFB3/iPFK2 and Inflammatory Responses in Mouse Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Botchlett, Rachel; Li, Honggui; Guo, Xin; Qi, Ting; Zhao, JiaJia; Zheng, Juan; Woo, Shih-Lung; Pei, Ya; Liu, Mengyang; Hu, Xiang; Chen, Guang; Guo, Ting; Yang, Sijun; Li, Qifu; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Huo, Yuqing; Wu, Chaodong

    2016-01-01

    The gene PFKFB3 encodes for inducible 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, a glycolysis-regulatory enzyme that protects against diet-induced intestine inflammation. However, it is unclear how nutrient overload regulates PFKFB3 expression and inflammatory responses in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). In the present study, primary IECs were isolated from small intestine of C57BL/6J mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Additionally, CMT-93 cells, a cell line for IECs, were cultured in low glucose (LG, 5.5 mmol/L) or high glucose (HG, 27.5 mmol/L) medium and treated with palmitate (50 μmol/L) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 24 hr. These cells were analyzed for PFKFB3 and inflammatory markers. Compared with LFD, HFD feeding decreased IEC PFKFB3 expression and increased IEC proinflammatory responses. In CMT-93 cells, HG significantly increased PFKFB3 expression and proinflammatory responses compared with LG. Interestingly, palmitate decreased PFKFB3 expression and increased proinflammatory responses compared with BSA, regardless of glucose concentrations. Furthermore, HG significantly increased PFKFB3 promoter transcription activity compared with LG. Upon PFKFB3 overexpression, proinflammatory responses in CMT-93 cells were decreased. Taken together, these results indicate that in IECs glucose stimulates PFKFB3 expression and palmitate contributes to increased proinflammatory responses. Therefore, PFKFB3 regulates IEC inflammatory status in response to macronutrients. PMID:27387960

  14. Palmitic acid suppresses apolipoprotein M gene expression via the pathway of PPAR{sub β/δ} in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Guanghua; Shi, Yuanping; Zhang, Jun; Mu, Qinfeng; Qin, Li; Zheng, Lu; Feng, Yuehua; Berggren-Söderlund, Maria; Nilsson-Ehle, Peter; Zhang, Xiaoying; Xu, Ning

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • Palmitic acid significantly inhibited APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. • Palmitic acid could obviously increase PPARB/D mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. • PPAR{sub β/δ} antagonist, GSK3787, had no effect on APOM expression. • GSK3787 could reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression. • Palmitic acid induced suppression of APOM expression is mediated via the PPAR{sub β/δ} pathway. - Abstract: It has been demonstrated that apolipoprotein M (APOM) is a vasculoprotective constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which could be related to the anti-atherosclerotic property of HDL. Investigation of regulation of APOM expression is of important for further exploring its pathophysiological function in vivo. Our previous studies indicated that expression of APOM could be regulated by platelet activating factor (PAF), transforming growth factors (TGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), leptin, hyperglycemia and etc., in vivo and/or in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid could significantly inhibit APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. Further study indicated neither PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 nor protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GFX could abolish palmitic acid induced down-regulation of APOM expression. In contrast, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPAR{sub β/δ}) antagonist GSK3787 could totally reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression, which clearly demonstrates that down-regulation of APOM expression induced by palmitic acid is mediated via the PPAR{sub β/δ} pathway.

  15. Sensitization of vascular smooth muscle cell to TNF-{alpha}-mediated death in the presence of palmitate

    SciTech Connect

    Rho, Mun-Chual; Ah Lee, Kyeong; Mi Kim, Sun; Sik Lee, Chang; Jeong Jang, Min; Kook Kim, Young; Sun Lee, Hyun; Hyun Choi, Yung; Yong Rhim, Byung; Kim, Koanhoi . E-mail: koanhoi@pusan.ac.kr

    2007-05-01

    Saturated free fatty acids (FFAs), including palmitate, can activate the intrinsic death pathway in cells. However, the relationship between FFAs and receptor-mediated death pathway is still unknown. In this study, we have investigated whether FFAs are able to trigger receptor-mediated death. In addition, to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the activation, we examined the biochemical changes in dying vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and the effects of various molecules to the receptor-mediated VSMC death. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-mediated VSMC death occurred in the presence of sub-cytotoxic concentration of palmitate as determined by assessing viability and DNA degradation, while the cytokine did not influence VSMC viability in the presence of oleate. The VSMC death was inhibited by the gene transfer of a dominant-negative Fas-associated death domain-containing protein and the baculovirus p35, but not by the bcl-xL or the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) binding domain of JNK-interacting protein-1, in tests utilizing recombinant adenoviruses. The VSMC death was also inhibited by a neutralizing anti-TNF receptor 1 antibody, the caspase inhibitor z-VAD, and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA074, a finding indicative of the role of both caspases and cathepsin B in this process. Consistent with this finding, caspase-3 activation and an increase in cytosolic cathepsin B activity were detected in the dying VSMC. Palmitate inhibited an increase of TNF-{alpha}-mediated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity, the survival pathway activated by the cytokine, by hindering the translocation of the NF-{kappa}B subunit of p65 from the cytosol into the nucleus. The gene transfer of inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B predisposed VSMC to palmitate-induced cell death. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate the activation of TNF-{alpha}-mediated cell death in the presence of palmitate. The current study proposes that FFAs would take part in

  16. Role of Stearic Acid in the Strain-Induced Crystallization of Crosslinked Natural Rubber and Synthetic Cis-1,4-Polyisoprene

    SciTech Connect

    Kohjiya,S.; Tosaka, M.; Furutani, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Toki, S.; Hsiao, B.

    2007-01-01

    Strain-induced crystallization of crosslinked natural rubber (NR) and its synthetic analogue, cis-1,4-polyisoprene (IR), both mixed with various amounts of stearic acid (SA), were investigated by time-resolved X-ray diffraction using a powerful synchrotron radiation source and simultaneous mechanical (tensile) measurement. No acceleration or retardation was observed on NR in spite of the increase of SA amount. Even the SA-free IR crystallized upon stretching, and the overall crystallization behavior of IR shifted to the larger strain ratio with increasing SA content. No difference due to the SA was detected in the deformation of crystal lattice by stress for both NR and IR. These results suggested that the extended network chains are effective for the initiation of crystallization upon stretching, while the role of SA is trivial. These behaviors are much different from their crystallization at low temperature by standing, where SA acts as a nucleating agent.

  17. Origin of Epilachnapaenulata defensive alkaloids: incorporation of [1-13C]-sodium acetate and [methyl-2H3]-stearic acid.

    PubMed

    Camarano, S; González, A; Rossini, C

    2012-01-01

    Ladybird beetles produce a large number of defensive alkaloids. Previous studies suggest that the structural diversity of these endogenous alkaloids can be traced to a common biosynthetic route based on the condensation of several acetate units. In this study, adults of Epilachna paenulata, a phytophagous neotropical species, were fed on diet enriched with potential precursors (sodium acetate, fatty acids and the amino acids lysine and ornithine) labeled with stable isotopes ((13)C, (2)H and (15)N). Labeled acetate was incorporated into the structurally related homotropane and piperidine alkaloids. The later also showed incorporation of [methyl-(2)H3] stearic acid. Our results hence support a fatty acid pathway for the biosynthesis of E. paenulata alkaloids. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the incorporation of a labeled fatty acid into a defensive piperidine alkaloid in insects.

  18. Immobilization of urease on poly(N-vinyl carbazole)/stearic acid Langmuir-Blodgett films for application to urea biosensor.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Rahul; Gambhir, Anamika; Pandey, M K; Annapoorni, S; Malhotra, B D

    2002-08-01

    Urease was immobilized in mixed monolayers of poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PNVK) and stearic acid (SA) formed at an air-water interface. The monolayers were transferred onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plates using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film deposition technique. Urease immobilized on PNVK/SA LB films, characterized using FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy, was found to exhibit increased stability over a wide pH (6.5-8.5) and temperature (25-50 degrees C) range. Potentiometric measurements on these urease electrodes were carried out using an ammonium ion analyzer. Two values for K(m)(app) were obtained at lower and higher concentrations of substrate urea.

  19. Impact of the oxygen defects and the hydrogen concentration on the surface of tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO2 on the reduction rates of stearic acid on Ni/ZrO2

    SciTech Connect

    Foraita, Sebastian D.; Fulton, John L.; Chase, Zizwe A.; Vjunov, Aleksei; Xu, Pinghong; Barath, Eszter; Camaioni, Donald M.; Zhao, Chen; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-02-02

    The effect of the physicochemical properties of ZrO2 phases on the activity of Ni/ZrO2 catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation of stearic acid are described. A synergistic interaction between Ni and ZrO2 support was found. The effect is greatest for the monoclinic phase of ZrO2.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of Palmitic acid adsorbed on NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovrić, Josip; Brizquez, Stéphane; Duflot, Denis; Monnerville, Maurice; Pouilly, Brigitte; Toubin, Céline

    2015-04-01

    The aerosol and gases effects in the atmosphere play an important role on health, air quality and climate, affecting both political decisions and economic activities around the world [1]. Among the several approaches of studying the origin of these effects, computational modeling is of fundamental importance, providing insights on the elementary chemical processes. Sea salts are the most important aerosol in the troposphere (109T/year) [2]. Our theoretical work consists in modeling a (100) NaCl surface coated with palmitic acid (PA) molecules. Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out with the GROMACS package [3], in the NPT ensemble at different temperatures, different PA coverages and various humidity. We focus on two aspects of the PA organization at the salt surface: the first one is related to transition in molecular orientation of the adsorbate as a function of PA coverage. The second one implies the effect of humidity, by adding water molecules, on the organization of the fatty acid at the salt surface, and especially on the occurrence of PA isolated islands as observed in the experiments [4]. For high humidity conditions, PA are removed from the salt surface and form islands on top of the water. This effect is enhanced when temperature increases. Acknowledgments: this research has been supported by the CaPPA project (Chemical and Physical Properties of the Atmosphere), funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR) through the PIA (Programme d'Investissement d'Avenir) under contract ANR-10-LABX-005. [1] O. Boucher et al, 5th Assessment Report IPCC, (2013) [2] B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, Chem. Rev.103, 4801-4822 (2003) [3] http://www.gromacs.org/ [4] S. Sobanska et al, private communication

  1. Reactivity of chlorine radical with submicron palmitic acid particles: kinetic measurements and product identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, M.; Ciuraru, R.; Gosselin, S.; Batut, S.; Visez, N.; Petitprez, D.

    2013-12-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of Cl• radicals with submicron palmitic acid (PA) particles was studied in an aerosol flow tube in the presence or in the absence of O2. Fine particles were generated by homogeneous condensation of PA vapours and introduced into the reactor, where chlorine atoms were produced by photolysis of Cl2 using UV lamps surrounding the reactor. The effective reactive uptake coefficient (γ) has been determined from the rate loss of PA measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis of reacted particles as a function of the chlorine exposure. In the absence of O2, γ = 14 ± 5 indicates efficient secondary chemistry involving Cl2. GC/MS analysis has shown the formation of monochlorinated and polychlorinated compounds in the oxidized particles. Although the PA particles are solid, the complete mass can be consumed. In the presence of oxygen, the reaction is still dominated by secondary chemistry but the propagation chain length is smaller than in the absence of O2, which leads to an uptake coefficient γ = 3 ± 1. In the particulate phase, oxocarboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids were identified by GC/MS. The formation of alcohols and monocarboxylic acids is also suspected. A reaction pathway for the main products and more functionalized species is proposed. All these results show that solid organic particles could be efficiently oxidized by gas-phase radicals not only on their surface but also in bulk by mechanisms which are still unclear. They help to understand the aging of primary tropospheric aerosol containing fatty acids.

  2. Reactivity of chlorine radical with submicron palmitic acid particles: kinetic measurements and products identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, M.; Ciuraru, R.; Gosselin, S.; Batut, S.; Visez, N.; Petitprez, D.

    2013-06-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of Cl. radicals with sub-micron palmitic acid (PA) particles was studied in an aerosol flow tube in the presence or in the absence of O2. Fine particles were generated by homogeneous condensation of PA vapors and introduced in the reactor where chlorine atoms are produced by photolysis of Cl2 using UV lamps surrounding the reactor. The effective reactive uptake coefficient (γ) has been determined from the rate loss of PA measured by GC/MS analysis of reacted particles as a function of the chlorine exposure. In the absence of O2, γ = 14 ± 5 indicates efficient secondary chemistry involving Cl2. GC/MS analyses have shown the formation of monochlorinated and polychlorinated compounds in the oxidized particles. Although, the PA particles are solid, the complete mass can be consumed. In the presence of oxygen, the reaction is still dominated by secondary chemistry but the propagation chain length is smaller than in the absence of O2 which leads to an uptake coefficient γ = 3 ± 1. In the particulate phase, oxocarboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids are identified by GC/MS. Formation of alcohols and monocarboxylic acids are also suspected. All these results show that solid organic particles could be efficiently oxidized by gas-phase radicals not only on their surface, but also in bulk by mechanisms which are still unclear. Furthermore the identified reaction products are explained by a chemical mechanism showing the pathway of the formation of more functionalized products. They help to understand the aging of primary tropospheric aerosol containing fatty acids.

  3. Reduced sexual dysfunction with aripiprazole once-monthly versus paliperidone palmitate: results from QUALIFY

    PubMed Central

    Loze, Jean-Yves; Forray, Carlos; Baker, Ross A.; Sapin, Christophe; Peters-Strickland, Timothy; Beillat, Maud; Nylander, Anna-Greta; Hertel, Peter; Steen Andersen, Henrik; Eramo, Anna; Hansen, Karina; Naber, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction, a common side effect of antipsychotic medications, may be partly caused by dopamine antagonism and elevation of prolactin. In QUALIFY, a randomized study, aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg (AOM 400), a dopamine D2 receptor partial agonist, showed noninferiority and subsequent superiority versus paliperidone palmitate (PP), a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, on the Heinrichs–Carpenter Quality-of-Life Scale (QLS) in patients with schizophrenia aged 18–60 years. Sexual dysfunction (Arizona Sexual Experience Scale) and serum prolactin levels were also assessed. Odds for sexual dysfunction were lower with AOM 400 versus PP [week 28 adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 0.29 (0.14–0.61); P=0.0012] in men [0.33 (0.13–0.86); P=0.023], women [0.14 (0.03–0.62); P=0.0099], and patients aged 18–35 years [0.04 (<0.01–0.34); P=0.003]. Among patients shifting from sexual dysfunction at baseline to none at week 28, there was a trend toward greater improvement in the QLS total score. The mean (SD) prolactin concentrations decreased with AOM 400 [−150.6 (274.4) mIU/l] and increased with PP [464.7 (867.5) mIU/l] in both men and women. Six PP-treated patients experienced prolactin-related adverse events. In addition to greater improvement on QLS, patients had a lower risk for sexual dysfunction and prolactin elevation with AOM 400 versus PP in QUALIFY. PMID:28252452

  4. High dietary vitamin A (retinyl palmitate) and cellular immune functions in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Moriguchi, S; Werner, L; Watson, R R

    1985-01-01

    High dietary intakes (4000-650,000 IU/kg diet) of vitamin A (retinyl palmitate, RP) modified the functions of peritoneal macrophages (PM). The number of peritoneal exudated cells (PEC) obtained from CD-1 mice increased significantly at both 7 and 10 weeks after initiation of the RP diets. The percentage of PM in PEC showed no significant difference between dietary groups and was at levels of 55-60%. PM from mice fed high RP diets showed higher tumoricidal activities than PM from controls without any preincubation with macrophage activators. Enhancement of in vitro tumoricidal activity of PM increased with increasing contents of RP in the diets, reaching 30% lysis by PM isolated from mice fed the highest RP (650,000 IU/kg diet) diet. However, the in vitro activation of tumoricidal ability of PM by macrophage-activating factor (MAF) was inversely correlated with the dietary RP content. The tumoricidal activities of PM from mice fed the highest RP diet were not enhanced by MAF. However, these PM showed an increased ability to phagocytose SRBC and opsonized SRBC compared to controls. Splenocytes and thymocytes were incubated with [3H]thymidine immediately after isolation and their mitogenic activities were measured. Splenocytes, but not thymocytes, isolated from mice fed the highest RP diet had increased mitogenesis. On the other hand, NK activity was not affected by dietary RP intake. There was a similar lysis of target cells by both splenocytes and thymocytes from mice fed diets with various RP levels. IL-1 was produced from PM by incubation with LPS, and its production was assessed using the proliferation of normal mice thymocytes. Production of IL-1 in vitro showed about a two-fold increase using cells from mice fed the highest RP diet compared to controls. High RP diets induced increased phagocytic ability and tumoricidal activity of PM but did not enhance NK activity. These findings suggest that high RP diet may cause activation of PM. PMID:3876274

  5. Nanoemulsions (NEs), liposomes (LPs) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for retinyl palmitate: effect on skin permeation.

    PubMed

    Clares, Beatriz; Calpena, Ana C; Parra, Alexander; Abrego, Guadalupe; Alvarado, Helen; Fangueiro, Joana F; Souto, Eliana B

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop biocompatible lipid-based nanocarriers for retinyl palmitate (RP) to improve its skin delivery, photostability and biocompatibility, and to avoid undesirable topical side effects. RP loaded nanoemulsions (NEs), liposomes (LPs) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were characterized in terms of size, surface electrical charge, pH, drug encapsulation efficiency and morphology. Spherical-shaped nanocarriers with a negatively charged surface (>|40|mV) and mean size lower than 275 nm were produced with adequate skin compatibility. The rheological properties showed that aqueous dispersions of SLNs followed a non-Newtonian behavior, pseudoplastic fluid adjusted to Herschel-Bulkley equation, whereas LPs and NEs exhibited a Newtonian behavior. SLNs offered significantly better photoprotection than LPs and NEs for RP. The cumulative amount of drug permeated through human skin at the end of 38 h was 6.67 ± 1.58 μg, 4.36 ± 0.21 μg and 3.64 ± 0.28 μg for NEs, LPs and SLNs, respectively. NEs flux was significantly higher than SLNs and LPs: NEs (0.37 ± 0.12 μg/h) > LPs (0.15 ± 0.09 μg/h) > SLNs (0.10 ± 0.05 μg/h). LPs offered significant higher skin retention than NEs and SLNs. Finally, even though all developed nanocarriers were found to be biocompatible, according to histological studies, NE was the system that most disrupted the skin. These encouraging findings can guide in proper selection of topical carriers among the diversity of available lipid-based nanocarriers, especially when a dermatologic or cosmetic purpose is desired.

  6. Dynamics of palmitic acid complexed with rat intestinal fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L; Kurian, E; Prendergast, F G; Kemple, M D

    1999-02-02

    Dynamics of palmitic acid (PA), isotopically enriched with 13C at the second, seventh, or terminal methyl position, were investigated by 13C NMR. Relaxation measurements were made on PA bound to recombinant rat intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) at pH 5.5 and 23 degreesC, and, for comparison, on PA incorporated into 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (MPPC) micelles, and dissolved in methanol. The 13C relaxation data, T1, and steady-state nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) obtained at two different magnetic fields were interpreted using the model-free approach [Lipari, G., and Szabo, A. (1982) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 4546-4559]. The overall rotational correlation time of the fatty acid.protein complex was 2.5 +/- 0.4 ns, which is substantially less than the value expected for the protein itself (>6 ns). Order parameters (S2), which are a measure of the amplitude of the internal motion of individual C-H vectors with respect to the PA molecule, while largest for C-2 and smallest for the methyl carbon, were relatively small (<0.4) in the protein complex. S2 values for given C-H vectors also were smaller for PA in the MPPC micelles and in methanol than in the protein complex. Correlation times reflective of the time scale of the internal motion of the C-H vectors were in all cases <60 ps. These results support the view that the fatty acid is not rigidly anchored within the I-FABP binding pocket, but rather has considerable freedom to move within the pocket.

  7. Inhibitory effect of added adenosine diphosphate on palmitate oxidation in mitochondria from rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, N.

    1986-05-01

    It is generally accepted that fatty acids are poor substrates for the oxidation in brain because plasma fatty acids do not traverse the blood-brain barrier. However, a regional difference in the barrier suggests that fatty acids are available for oxidation. Why most of fatty acids are not oxidized is not certain. For this reason, regulation of oxidation of (1-/sup 14/C)palmitate (pal) in rat brain has been studied in nonsynaptic mitochondria (mit) prepared by use of Ficoll/sucrose density gradient. The authors found two contrasting oxidations with respect to ATP concentration; Type A at 2 mM and Type B at 0.5 mM. The rate of Type A was 50% of the level of B. Type A was inhibited by high levels of L-carnitine (car) and Mg/sup 2 +/. Added ADP inhibited Type A, but stimulated B. Addition of carboxyatractyloside was stimulatory for Type A, but inhibitory for B. The rate of Type A showed a downward curvature with increasing protein concentration while that of B showed a linear relationship. Addition of NH/sub 4//sup +/ to Type A stimulated the rate and reduced the inhibitory effects of both added ADP and high levels of car. These results suggest that under the normal level of ATP, the carnitine-dependent transport of pal is inhibited (thereby resulting in the inhibition in pal oxidation) by the transport of ADP into mit mediated by the ATP-ADP translocase, but that the inhibition is not observed under the specified conditions or regions where ATP levels are low or ammonia levels are high.

  8. Insights antifibrotic mechanism of methyl palmitate: Impact on nuclear factor kappa B and proinflammatory cytokines

    SciTech Connect

    Mantawy, Eman M.; Tadros, Mariane G.; Awad, Azza S.; Hassan, Dina A.A.; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2012-01-01

    Fibrosis accompanies most chronic liver disorders and is a major factor contributing to hepatic failure. Therefore, the need for an effective treatment is evident. The present study was designed to assess the potential antifibrotic effect of MP and whether MP can attenuate the severity of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in chronic liver injury. Male albino rats were treated with either CCl{sub 4} (1 ml/kg, twice a week) and/or MP (300 mg/kg, three times a week) for six weeks. CCl{sub 4}-intoxication significantly increased liver weight, serum aminotransferases, total cholesterol and triglycerides while decreased albumin level and these effects were prevented by co-treatment with MP. As indicators of oxidative stress, CCl{sub 4}-intoxication caused significant glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation while MP co-treatment preserved them within normal values. As markers of fibrosis, hydroxyproline content and α-SMA expression increased markedly in the CCl{sub 4} group and MP prevented these alterations. Histopathological examination by both light and electron microscope further confirmed the protective efficacy of MP. To elucidate the antifibrotic mechanisms of MP, the expression of NF-κB, iNOS and COX-2 and the tissue levels of TNF-α and nitric oxide were assessed; CCl{sub 4} increased the expression of NF-κB and all downstream inflammatory cascade while MP co-treatment inhibited them. Collectively these findings indicate that MP possesses a potent antifibrotic effect which may be partly a consequence of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. -- Highlights: ► Methyl palmitate is free fatty acid methyl ester. ► It possesses a strong antifibrotic effect. ► It inhibits NF-κB and the consequent proinflammatory and oxidative stress response.

  9. PPAR agonists reduce steatosis in oleic acid-overloaded HepaRG cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rogue, Alexandra; Anthérieu, Sébastien; Vluggens, Aurore; Umbdenstock, Thierry; Claude, Nancy; Moureyre-Spire, Catherine de la; Weaver, Richard J.; Guillouzo, André

    2014-04-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of chronic liver disease there is no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are closely associated with hepatic lipid metabolism, they seem to play important roles in NAFLD. However, the effects of PPAR agonists on steatosis that is a common pathology associated with NAFLD, remain largely controversial. In this study, the effects of various PPAR agonists, i.e. fenofibrate, bezafibrate, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, muraglitazar and tesaglitazar on oleic acid-induced steatotic HepaRG cells were investigated after a single 24-hour or 2-week repeat treatment. Lipid vesicles stained by Oil-Red O and triglycerides accumulation caused by oleic acid overload, were decreased, by up to 50%, while fatty acid oxidation was induced after 2-week co-treatment with PPAR agonists. The greatest effects on reduction of steatosis were obtained with the dual PPARα/γ agonist muraglitazar. Such improvement of steatosis was associated with up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation activity and down-regulation of many genes involved in lipogenesis. Moreover, modulation of expression of some nuclear receptor genes, such as FXR, LXRα and CAR, which are potent actors in the control of lipogenesis, was observed and might explain repression of de novo lipogenesis. Conclusion: Altogether, our in vitro data on steatotic HepaRG cells treated with PPAR agonists correlated well with clinical investigations, bringing a proof of concept that drug-induced reversal of steatosis in human can be evaluated in in vitro before conducting long-term and costly in vivo studies in animals and patients. - Highlights: • There is no pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of NAFLD. • This study demonstrates that PPAR agonists can reduce fatty acid-induced steatosis. • Some nuclear receptors appear to be potent actors in the control

  10. Protease Inhibition by Oleic Acid Transfer From Chronic Wound Dressings to Albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J. V.; Howley, Phyllis; Davis, Rachel M.; Mashchak, Andrew D.; Goheen, Steven C.

    2007-08-01

    High elastase and cathepsin G activities have been observed in chronic wounds. These levels can inhibit healing through degradation of growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix proteins. Oleic acid (18:1) is a non-toxic elastase inhibitor with some potential for redressing the imbalance of elastase activity found in chronic wounds. Cotton wound dressing material was characterized as a transfer carrier for affinity uptake of 18:1 by albumin under conditions mimicking chronic wounds. 18:1-treated cotton was examined for its ability to bind and release the fatty acid in the presence of albumin. The mechanism of 18:1 uptake from cotton and binding by albumin was examined with both intact dressings and cotton fiber-designed chromatography. Raman spectra of the albumin-18:1 complexes under liquid-liquid equilibrium conditions revealed fully saturated albumin-18:1 complexes with a 1:1 weight ratio of albumin:18:1. Cotton chromatography under liquid-solid equilibrium conditions revealed oleic acid transfer from cotton to albumin at 27 mole equivalents of 18:1 per mole albumin. Cotton was contrasted with hydrogel, and hydrocolloid wound dressing for its comparative ability to lower elastase activity. Each dressing material evaluated was found to release 18:1 in the presence of albumin with significant inhibition of elastase activity. The 18:1-formulated wound dressings lowered elastase activity in a dose dependent manner in the order cotton gauze > hydrogel > hydrocolloid. In contrast the cationic serine protease Cathepsin G was inihibited by 18:1 within a narrow range of 18:1-cotton formulations. Four per cent Albumin solutions were most effective in binding cotton bound-18:1. However, 2% albumin was sufficient to transfer quantities of 18:1 necessary to achieve a significant elastase-lowering effect. Formulations with 128 mg 18:1/g cotton gauze had equivalent elastase lowering with 1 - 4% albumin. 18:1 bound to cotton wound dressings may have promise in the

  11. Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppress oleic acid-induced acute lung injury via protein kinase A

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chaoyun; Huang, Qingxian; Wang, Chunhua; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Duan, Yunfeng; Yuan, Shuai; Bai, Xianyong

    2013-11-01

    Inflammation response and oxidative stress play important roles in acute lung injury (ALI). Activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway may attenuate ALI by suppressing immune responses and inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a natural flavonoid compound that reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine-mediated damage. In this study, we examined whether HSYA could protect the lungs from oleic acid (OA)-induced injury, which was used to mimic ALI, and determined the role of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in this process. Arterial oxygen tension (PaO{sub 2}), carbon dioxide tension, pH, and the PaO{sub 2}/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio in the blood were detected using a blood gas analyzer. We measured wet/dry lung weight ratio and evaluated tissue morphology. The protein and inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, PKA, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and the concentrations of cAMP and malondialdehyde in the lung tissue were detected using assay kits. Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, and p22{sup phox} levels in the lung tissue were analyzed using Western blotting. OA increased the inflammatory cytokine and ROS levels and caused lung dysfunction by decreasing cAMP synthesis, inhibiting PKA activity, stimulating caspase 3, and reducing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. H-89 increased these effects. HSYA significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibited the inflammatory response via cAMP/PKA pathway activation, and attenuated OA-induced lung injury. Our results show that the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is required for the protective effect of HSYA against ALI. - Highlights: • Oleic acid (OA) cause acute lung injury (ALI) via inhibiting cAMP/PKA signal pathway. • Blocking protein kinase A (PKA) activation may

  12. Palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells is increased by liver X receptor agonist and attenuated by eicosapentaenoate.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huasheng; Zhong, Yuhua; Zhou, Shaobi; Li, Qingdi Quentin

    2011-01-01

    Saturated fatty acids are implicated in the development of diabetes via the impairment of pancreatic islet β-cell viability and function. Liver X receptors (LXRs) and eicosapentaenoate (EPA) are known regulators of fatty acid metabolism. However, their roles in the pathogenesis of diabetes remain incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of EPA and the LXR agonist T0901317 on saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid)-induced apoptosis in the insulinoma β-cell line INS-1, a model for insulin-secreting β-cells. T0901317 significantly promoted palmitic acid-induced apoptotic cell death in the INS-1 cells. Consistent with these results, caspase-3 activity and BAX and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA levels were markedly increased in INS-1 cells co-administered palmitic acid and T0901317. The production of reactive oxygen species was considerably higher in the cells cultured concurrently with T0901317 and palmitic acid than in the cells incubated with either agent alone. EPA treatment attenuated the cellular death promoted by palmitic acid and T0901317 in the INS-1 cells, disclosing a possible mediating mechanism involving the inhibition of SREBP-1c. Finally, T0901317 up-regulated the palmitic acid-induced expression of p27(KIP1), transforming growth factor beta 1, and SMAD3 proteins in INS-1 cells. These results demonstrate that palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in β-cells is enhanced by T0901317 via the activation of LXRs and is blocked by EPA via the inhibition of SREBP-1c, suggesting that the regulation of lipogenesis and lipotoxicity affecting pancreatic β-cell viability and insulin production may be a unique strategy for diabetes therapy.

  13. The influence of dietary palmitic acid triacylglyceride position on the fatty acid, calcium and magnesium contents of at term newborn faeces.

    PubMed

    López-López, A; Castellote-Bargalló, A I; Campoy-Folgoso, C; Rivero-Urgël, M; Tormo-Carnicé, R; Infante-Pina, D; López-Sabater, M C

    2001-11-01

    The distribution of long-chain saturated fatty acids in triglycerides is different in infant formulas to that in human milk. In human milk, palmitic acid is predominantly esterified in the sn-2 position (beta-position) of the triglycerides, whereas in infant formulas, it is esterified mainly in the sn-1,3 positions (alpha,alpha'-positions). The specific distribution of the fatty acids in the triglyceride plays a key role in lipid digestion and absorption. We studied fatty-acid, calcium and magnesium composition in the faeces of three groups of at term newborn infants fed different diets: Group A (n=12) was fed from birth to 2 months with human milk (66% palmitic acid in beta-position), Group B (n=12) was fed with formula alpha (19% palmitic acid esterified in beta-position) for 2 months, and Group C (n=12) was fed with formula alpha during the first month and with formula beta (44.5% palmitic acid in beta-position) during the second month. Samples were taken at the end of the first month (t0) and at the end of the second month (t1). Groups A and C presented significantly lower contents of palmitic acid in faeces at t1 than at t0, whereas in Group B, amounts remained similar. Faecal calcium in Groups A and C decreased in the second month (t1), although the fall was no statistically significant. In Group B, calcium amounts showed no change. We found that infant formula beta when compared with infant formula alpha reduced significantly the contents of total fatty acids and palmitic acid in faeces. We conclude that palmitic acid in beta-position is, therefore, beneficial for term infants.

  14. Permeability of water and oleic acid in composite films of phase separated polypropylene and cellulose stearate blends.

    PubMed

    Krasnou, Illia; Gårdebjer, Sofie; Tarasova, Elvira; Larsson, Anette; Westman, Gunnar; Krumme, Andres

    2016-11-05

    Cellulose esters with long carbon side chains (e.g. stearate) were produced via a homogenous reaction in ionic liquids. The degree of substitution was calculated to approximately 2. The melt rheology was studied for the pure cellulose esters but also combinations of the esters and polypropylene to study the processability of a blended composite material. It was shown that the compatibility between the two components was weak, which resulted in a phase-separated composite material. The morphology and permeability of water and oleic acid of the composite films were studied and it was shown that the water permeability decreased upon addition of the cellulose ester to the polymer. The permeability of oleic acid was however unchanged, which is most probable a result of high solubility in the cellulose ester rich domains of the composites. Also, the following hypothesis is stated: cellulose stearate influence the polypropylene crystallization process by decreasing the size of spherulites.

  15. Research of fluorescent spectra of oleic acid-stabilized ZnSe nanocrystals based on UV light modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Licai; Bai, Zhongchen; Huang, Zhaoliang; Liao, Sha; Zhang, Zhengping

    2016-11-01

    The non-aqueous synthesized and post-preparative treatment of oleic acid (OA)-stabilized ZnSe nanocrystals were studied systematically. ZnSe nanocrystals were successfully synthesized via paraffin liquid and oleic acid system by using OA as stabilizer. Synthesized nanocrystals were characterized by means of absorption and fluorescent spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Furthermore, solutions of ZnSe nanocrystals were illuminated with UV light. The experimental results showed that the fluorescent peak was red-shifted from 445 to 510 nm. The results suggested that, when the solution under illumination, OA was removed from the surface of ZnSe nanocrystals and the surface of ZnSe nanocrystals was oxidized to ZnO nanocrystals. ZnSe/ZnO core/shell nanocrystals were formed when the solution of ZnSe nanocrystals illuminated with UV light.

  16. Rutin inhibits oleic acid induced lipid accumulation via reducing lipogenesis and oxidative stress in hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Wang, Hsueh-Chun; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Jou, Ming-Jia; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2011-03-01

    Excessive lipid accumulation within liver has been proposed to cause obesity, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. Rutin, a common dietary flavonoid that is consumed in fruits, vegetables, and plant-derived beverages, has various biological functions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. However, a hypolipidemic effect of rutin on fatty liver disease has not been reported. In this study, we examined the effect of rutin on reducing lipid accumulation in hepatic cells. Hepatocytes were treated with oleic acid (OA) containing with or without rutin to observe the lipid accumulation by Nile red stain. The result showed rutin suppressed OA-induced lipid accumulation and increased adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in hepatocytes. The expression of critical molecule involved in lipid synthesis, sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1 (SREBP-1), was attenuated in rutin-treated cells. Moreover, long-term incubation of rutin inhibited the transcriptions of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGCR), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl-coenzyme carboxylase (ACC). Besides, we also found out the antioxidative effect of rutin by increasing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and antioxidative enzymes. Taken together, our findings suggest rutin could attenuate lipid accumulation by decreasing lipogenesis and oxidative stress in hepatocyte.

  17. Evaluation of 10-Nitro Oleic Acid Bio-Elimination in Rats and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Sonia R.; Vitturi, Dario A.; Fazzari, Marco; Jorkasky, Diane K.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids are endogenously present in human and animal tissues, as well as in plant-derived oils. In particular, 10-nitro oleic acid (10-NO2-OA) potently induces Nrf2-dependent antioxidant gene expression and inhibits TLR4/NF-κB signaling, thus promoting an overall cyto-protective and anti-inflammatory response. 10-NO2-OA has been extensively tested in animal models and is currently undergoing clinical evaluation in humans. Bio-elimination pathways for 10-NO2-OA were evaluated in rats (30 mg/kg·day) and in humans (0.34 mg/kg) using samples obtained from a double-blind, dose-rising clinical trial. Quantitative radiochromatographic/MS analysis indicated that the renal and fecal pathways are the main routes for 10-NO2-OA excretion in rats, and allowed the identification of 4-nitro-octanedioic acid (NO2-8:0-diCOOH) as the most abundant metabolite in rat urine. In addition, high resolution LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of a novel series of urinary metabolites including ω-carboxylation and β-oxidation products, as well as N-acetylcysteine, taurine and sulfo-conjugates in both rats and humans. Overall, the findings reported herein not only provide valuable tools for the experimental evaluation of 10-NO2-OA levels in vivo, but importantly they also set the basis for monitoring its metabolism during potential clinical interventions in humans. PMID:28054588

  18. Influence of Oleic Acid on Rumen Fermentation and Fatty Acid Formation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaoxun; Guan, Leluo; He, Zhixiong; Guan, Yongjuan; Tan, Zhiliang; Han, Xuefeng; Zhou, Chuanshe; Kang, Jinhe; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    A series of batch cultures were conducted to investigate the effects of oleic acid (OA) on in vitro ruminal dry matter degradability (IVDMD), gas production, methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) production, and proportion of fatty acids. Rumen fluid was collected from fistulated goats, diluted with incubation buffer, and then incubated with 500 mg Leymus chinensis meal supplemented with different amounts of OA (0, 20, 40, and 60 mg for the CON, OA20, OA40 and OA60 groups, respectively). Incubation was carried out anaerobically at 39°C for 48 h, and the samples were taken at 12, 24 and 48 h and subjected to laboratory analysis. Supplementation of OA decreased IVDMD, the cumulative gas production, theoretical maximum of gas production and CH4 production, but increased H2 production. However, no effect was observed on any parameters of rumen fermentation (pH, ammonia, production of acetate, propionate and butyrate and total volatile fatty acid production). The concentrations of some beneficial fatty acids, such as cis monounsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were higher (P < 0.05) from OA groups than those from the control group at 12 h incubation. In summary, these results suggest that the OA supplementation in diet can reduce methane production and increase the amount of some beneficial fatty acids in vitro. PMID:27299526

  19. CD36 is involved in oleic acid detection by the murine olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Oberland, Sonja; Ackels, Tobias; Gaab, Stefanie; Pelz, Thomas; Spehr, Jennifer; Spehr, Marc; Neuhaus, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory signals influence food intake in a variety of species. To maximize the chances of finding a source of calories, an animal’s preference for fatty foods and triglycerides already becomes apparent during olfactory food search behavior. However, the molecular identity of both receptors and ligands mediating olfactory-dependent fatty acid recognition are, so far, undescribed. We here describe that a subset of olfactory sensory neurons expresses the fatty acid receptor CD36 and demonstrate a receptor-like localization of CD36 in olfactory cilia by STED microscopy. CD36-positive olfactory neurons share olfaction-specific transduction elements and project to numerous glomeruli in the ventral olfactory bulb. In accordance with the described roles of CD36 as fatty acid receptor or co-receptor in other sensory systems, the number of olfactory neurons responding to oleic acid, a major milk component, in Ca2+ imaging experiments is drastically reduced in young CD36 knock-out mice. Strikingly, we also observe marked age-dependent changes in CD36 localization, which is prominently present in the ciliary compartment only during the suckling period. Our results support the involvement of CD36 in fatty acid detection by the mammalian olfactory system. PMID:26441537

  20. Distinctive interactions of oleic acid covered magnetic nanoparticles with saturated and unsaturated phospholipids in Langmuir monolayers.

    PubMed

    Matshaya, Thabo J; Lanterna, Anabel E; Granados, Alejandro M; Krause, Rui W M; Maggio, Bruno; Vico, Raquel V

    2014-05-27

    The growing number of innovations in nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology are posing new challenges in understanding the full spectrum of interactions between nanomateriales and biomolecules at nano-biointerfaces. Although considerable achievements have been accomplished by in vivo applications, many issues regarding the molecular nature of these interactions are far from being well-understood. In this work, we evaluate the interaction of hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) covered with a single layer of oleic acid with saturated and unsaturated phospholipids found in biomembranes through the use of Langmuir monolayers. We find distinctive interactions among the MNP with saturated and unsaturated phospholipids that are reflected by both, the compression isotherms and the surface topography of the films. The interaction between MNP and saturated lipids causes a noticeable reduction of the mean molecular area in the interfacial plane, while the interaction with unsaturated lipids promotes area expansion compared to the ideally mixed films. Moreover, when liquid expanded and liquid condensed phases of the phospholipid(s) coexist, the MNP preferably partition to the liquid-expanded phase, thus hindering the coalescence of the condensed domains with increasing surface pressure. In consequence organizational information on long-range order is attained. These results evidence the existence of a sensitive composition-dependent surface regulation given by phospholipid-nanoparticle interactions which enhance the biophysical relevance of understanding nanoparticle surface functionalization in relation to its interactions in biointerfaces constituted by defined types of biomolecules.