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Sample records for oleic palmitic stearic

  1. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by Palmitic, Stearic, and Oleic Acid Sophorolipids and Thiamine Dilauryl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuejie; Ashby, Richard; Solaiman, Daniel K. Y.; Uknalis, Joseph; Fan, Xuetong

    2016-01-01

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of various types of sophorolipids (SLs) and thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS) against pathogenic Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Both free and lactonic forms of SLs were synthesized from Candida bombicola using palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids as co-feedstocks. TDS and purified SLs were used to treat cocktails of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Results showed that lactonic SLs had higher antimicrobial activity than the free-acid form, and Gram-positive Listeria spp. were more susceptible to SLs and TDS than Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Listeria populations were reduced from an initial concentration of 7.2 log CFU/mL to a non-detectible level within a 1 min treatment of 0.1% (w/v) lactonic SLs and TDS in the presence of 20% ethanol, which itself did not significantly reduce the populations. There were no significant differences in the antimicrobial efficacy among palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid-based SLs against Salmonella or Listeria spp. Ethanol was utilized to improve the antimicrobial activity of free-acid SLs against Gram-negative bacteria. In general, TDS was more effective than the SLs against Salmonella and Listeria spp. scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SLs and TDS damaged Listeria cell membranes and resulted in cell lysis. Overall, our results demonstrated that SLs and TDS in the presence of ethanol can be used to inactivate foodborne pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:28066390

  2. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by Palmitic, Stearic, and Oleic Acid Sophorolipids and Thiamine Dilauryl Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuejie; Ashby, Richard; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Uknalis, Joseph; Fan, Xuetong

    2016-01-01

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of various types of sophorolipids (SLs) and thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS) against pathogenic Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Both free and lactonic forms of SLs were synthesized from Candida bombicola using palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids as co-feedstocks. TDS and purified SLs were used to treat cocktails of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Results showed that lactonic SLs had higher antimicrobial activity than the free-acid form, and Gram-positive Listeria spp. were more susceptible to SLs and TDS than Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Listeria populations were reduced from an initial concentration of 7.2 log CFU/mL to a non-detectible level within a 1 min treatment of 0.1% (w/v) lactonic SLs and TDS in the presence of 20% ethanol, which itself did not significantly reduce the populations. There were no significant differences in the antimicrobial efficacy among palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid-based SLs against Salmonella or Listeria spp. Ethanol was utilized to improve the antimicrobial activity of free-acid SLs against Gram-negative bacteria. In general, TDS was more effective than the SLs against Salmonella and Listeria spp. scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SLs and TDS damaged Listeria cell membranes and resulted in cell lysis. Overall, our results demonstrated that SLs and TDS in the presence of ethanol can be used to inactivate foodborne pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria.

  3. Apolipoprotein E isoforms 3/3 and 3/4 differentially interact with circulating stearic, palmitic, and oleic fatty acids and lipid levels in Alaskan Natives.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Tapia, Lyssia; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Ebbesson, Sven O E; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Tejero, M Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Lifestyle changes in Alaskan Natives have been related to the increase of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in the last decades. Variation of the apolipoprotein E (Apo E) genotype may contribute to the diverse response to diet in lipid metabolism and influence the association between fatty acids in plasma and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the interaction between Apo E isoforms and plasma fatty acids, influencing phenotypes related to metabolic diseases in Alaskan Natives. A sample of 427 adult Siberian Yupik Alaskan Natives was included. Fasting glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo A1, and Apo B plasma concentrations were measured using reference methods. Concentrations of 13 fatty acids in fasting plasma were analyzed by gas chromatography, and Apo E variants were identified. Analyses of covariance were conducted to identify Apo E isoform and fatty acid main effects and multiplicative interactions. The means for body mass index and age were 26 ± 5.2 and 47 ± 1.5, respectively. Significant main effects were observed for variation in Apo E and different fatty acids influencing Apo B levels, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Significant interactions were found between Apo E isoform and selected fatty acids influencing total cholesterol, triglycerides, and Apo B concentrations. In summary, Apo E3/3 and 3/4 isoforms had significant interactions with circulating levels of stearic, palmitic, oleic fatty acids, and phenotypes of lipid metabolism in Alaskan Natives.

  4. Stearic acids at sn-1, 3 positions of TAG are more efficient at limiting fat deposition than palmitic and oleic acids in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Gouk, Shiou-Wah; Cheng, Sit-Foon; Ong, Augustine Soon-Hock; Chuah, Cheng-Hock

    2014-04-14

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of long-acyl chain SFA, namely palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0), at sn-1, 3 positions of TAG on obesity. Throughout the 15 weeks of the experimental period, C57BL/6 mice were fed diets fortified with cocoa butter, sal stearin (SAL), palm mid fraction (PMF) and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOS). The sn-1, 3 positions were varied by 16:0, 18:0 and 18:1, whilst the sn-2 position was preserved with 18:1. The HOS-enriched diet was found to lead to the highest fat deposition. This was in accordance with our previous postulation. Upon normalisation of total fat deposited with food intake to obtain the fat:feed ratio, interestingly, mice fed the SAL-enriched diet exhibited significantly lower visceral fat/feed and total fat/feed compared with those fed the PMF-enriched diet, despite their similarity in SFA-unsaturated fatty acid-SFA profile. That long-chain SFA at sn-1, 3 positions concomitantly with an unsaturated FA at the sn-2 position exert an obesity-reducing effect was further validated. The present study is the first of its kind to demonstrate that SFA of different chain lengths at sn-1, 3 positions exert profound effects on fat accretion.

  5. AMPKα, C/EBPβ, CPT1β, GPR43, PPARγ, and SCD Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Choi, S. H.; Park, S. K.; Johnson, B. J.; Chung, K. Y.; Choi, C. W.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, W. Y.; Smith, B.

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC) and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA) were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)/Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC) or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA) with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 μg/mL insulin and 10 μg/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 μM palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001) carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1β) gene expression, but the increase in CPT1β gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases). Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001) stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPKα gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism. PMID:25656188

  6. AMPKα, C/EBPβ, CPT1β, GPR43, PPARγ, and SCD Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Choi, S H; Park, S K; Johnson, B J; Chung, K Y; Choi, C W; Kim, K H; Kim, W Y; Smith, B

    2015-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC) and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA) were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)/Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC) or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA) with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 μg/mL insulin and 10 μg/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 μM palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001) carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1β) gene expression, but the increase in CPT1β gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases). Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001) stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPKα gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism.

  7. Invited review: palmitic and stearic acid metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Loften, J R; Linn, J G; Drackley, J K; Jenkins, T C; Soderholm, C G; Kertz, A F

    2014-01-01

    Energy is the most limiting nutritional component in diets for high-producing dairy cows. Palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids have unique and specific functions in lactating dairy cows beyond a ubiquitous energy source. This review delineates their metabolism and usage in lactating dairy cows from diet to milk production. Palmitic acid is the fatty acid (FA) found in the greatest quantity in milk fat. Dietary sources of C16:0 generally increase milk fat yield and are used as an energy source for milk production and replenishing body weight loss during periods of negative energy balance. Stearic acid is the most abundant FA available to the dairy cow and is used to a greater extent for milk production and energy balance than C16:0. However, C18:0 is also intimately involved in milk fat production. Quantifying the transfer of each FA from diet into milk fat is complicated by de novo synthesis of C16:0 and desaturation of C18:0 to oleic acid in the mammary gland. In addition, incorporation of both FA into milk fat appears to be limited by the cow's requirement to maintain fluidity of milk, which requires a balance between saturated and unsaturated FA. Oleic acid is the second most abundant FA in milk fat and likely the main unsaturated FA involved in regulating fluidity of milk. Because the mammary gland can desaturate C18:0 to oleic acid, C18:0 appears to have a more prominent role in milk production than C16:0. To understand metabolism and utilization of these FA in lactating dairy cows, we reviewed production and milk fat synthesis studies. Additional and longer lactation studies on feeding both FA to lactating dairy cows are required to better delineate their roles in optimizing milk production and milk FA composition and yield.

  8. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The ester...

  9. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The ester...

  10. Selective use of palmitic acid over stearic acid for synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol in lung

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, F.H.

    1986-11-01

    The incorporation of (/sup 3/H)palmitic acid and (/sup 14/C)stearic acid into phospholipids in rabbit lung tissue was studied. Under equal molar concentrations of palmitate and stearate, palmitate was incorporated to the 1- and 2-positions of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) 2-3 times more than stearate. By contrast, palmitate was 30% less than stearate in phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine. These results suggest that preferential utilization of palmitate over stearate, rather than substrate availability, determines the high content of palmitoyl at the 1- and 2-positions of PC and PG in lung.

  11. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND...

  14. High-Stearic and High-Oleic Cottonseed Oils Produced by Hairpin RNA-Mediated Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Singh, Surinder P.; Green, Allan G.

    2002-01-01

    We have genetically modified the fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil using the recently developed technique of hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing to down-regulate the seed expression of two key fatty acid desaturase genes, ghSAD-1-encoding stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein Δ9-desaturase and ghFAD2-1-encoding oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine ω6-desaturase. Hairpin RNA-encoding gene constructs (HP) targeted against either ghSAD-1 or ghFAD2-1 were transformed into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv Coker 315). The resulting down-regulation of the ghSAD-1 gene substantially increased stearic acid from the normal levels of 2% to 3% up to as high as 40%, and silencing of the ghFAD2-1 gene resulted in greatly elevated oleic acid content, up to 77% compared with about 15% in seeds of untransformed plants. In addition, palmitic acid was significantly lowered in both high-stearic and high-oleic lines. Similar fatty acid composition phenotypes were also achieved by transformation with conventional antisense constructs targeted against the same genes, but at much lower frequencies than were achieved with the HP constructs. By intercrossing the high-stearic and high-oleic genotypes, it was possible to simultaneously down-regulate both ghSAD-1 and ghFAD2-1 to the same degree as observed in the individually silenced parental lines, demonstrating for the first time, to our knowledge, that duplex RNA-induced posttranslational gene silencing in independent genes can be stacked without any diminution in the degree of silencing. The silencing of ghSAD-1 and/or ghFAD2-1 to various degrees enables the development of cottonseed oils having novel combinations of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic contents that can be used in margarines and deep frying without hydrogenation and also potentially in high-value confectionery applications. PMID:12177486

  15. Enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from olive oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the present research is to restructure olive oil triacylglycerol (TAG) using enzymatic acidolysis reaction to produce structured lipids that is close to cocoa butter in terms of TAG structure and melting characteristics. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of refined olive oil with a mixture of palmitic-stearic acids at different substrate ratios was performed in an agitated batch reactor maintained at constant temperature and agitation speed. The reaction attained steady-state conversion in about 5 h with an overall conversion of 92.6 % for the olive oil major triacylglycerol 1-palmitoy-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO). The five major TAGs of the structured lipids produced with substrate mass ratio of 1:3 (olive oil/palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture) were close to that of the cocoa butter with melting temperature between 32.6 and 37.7 °C. The proposed kinetics model used fits the experimental data very well.

  16. Investigations of in vitro bioaccessibility from interesterified stearic and oleic acid-rich blends.

    PubMed

    Thilakarathna, S H; Rogers, M; Lan, Y; Huynh, S; Marangoni, A G; Robinson, L E; Wright, A J

    2016-04-01

    Interesterification was previously found to impact stearic acid absorption in a randomized cross-over study, when human volunteers consumed a 70 : 30 wt% high-oleic sunflower and canola stearin blend (NIE) compared to the same blend which had undergone either chemical (CIE) or enzymatic (EIE) interesterification. In this research, in vitro lipid digestion, bioaccessibility, and changes in undigested lipid composition and melting behavior of these same test fats were investigated using the dynamic, multi-compartmental TIM-1 digestion model and compared with the previous human study. Overall, TIM-1 bioaccessibility was higher with interesterification (p < 0.05). Oleic acid bioaccessibility was higher than stearic acid bioaccessibility for NIE, and vice versa for the interesterified blends (p < 0.05). Stearic acid was more concentrated in the undigested triacylglycerols (TAG) from NIE, corresponding to a relatively higher melting temperature of the undigested lipids. The results confirm the impact of TAG composition, fatty acid position and/or physical properties on lipid digestion. TIM-1 bioaccessibility was linearly correlated (R(2) = 0.8640) with postprandial serum TAG concentration in the human study. Therefore, the in vitro digestion model offered predictive insights related to the impacts of lipid interesterificaton on absorption.

  17. Incorporation of Palmitic Acid or Stearic Acid into Soybean Oils Using Enzymatic Interesterification.

    PubMed

    Teh, Soek Sin; Voon, Phooi Tee; Hock Ong, Augustine Soon; Choo, Yuen May

    2016-09-01

    Incorporations of nature fatty acids which were palmitic acid and stearic acid into the end positions of soybean oils were done using sn-1,3 specific immobilised lipase from Rhizomucor miehei at different ratios in order to produce symmetrical triglycerides without changing the fatty acids at sn-2 position. The optimum ratio for the process was 25:75 w/w. There were 19.2% increase of SFA for P25 and 16% increase for S25 at the sn-1,3 positions. The research findings indicated that the structured lipids produced from enzymatic interesterification possessed a higher oxidative stability than soybean oil. The newly formed structured lipids (SUS type) could be good sources for various applications in food industry.

  18. Dynamic molecular behavior of semi-fluorinated oleic, elaidic and stearic acids in the liquid state.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shun; Matsuda, Haruna; Kasahara, Yasutoshi; Iwahashi, Makio; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Baba, Teruhiko; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Ordinary fatty acids such as oleic, elaidic and stearic acids exist as their hydrogen-bonded dimers in their liquids and in non-polar solvents. Infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have revealed that semi-fluorinated (SF) acids containing a perfluorooctyl group (C₈F₁₇) as a terminal segment exist also as hydrogen-bonded dimers, which are the units of inter- and intramolecular movements in their liquids and CCl₄. The dynamic molecular properties, such as self-diffusion coefficients and intramolecular movements of SF-oleic, SF-elaidic, and SF-stearic acids were compared with those of corresponding ordinary fatty acids (H-acids). From the high equilibrium spreading pressures (ESPs) for SF-acids compared with those for their corresponding H-acids, it was expected that the inter-acyl chain interaction is weaker for the SF-acid than for the H-acid: the SF-fatty acids should have higher molecular mobility than the corresponding ordinary H-acids in the liquid state. However, the self-diffusion coefficients obtained for SF-acids were smaller than those for the corresponding H-acids; the apparent activation energies for the self-diffusion process (translational movement) of SF-acids were larger than those for the corresponding H-acids. Namely, the motion of SF-acid molecules in a liquid phase is rather restricted compared with H-acid in spite of lower inter-acyl chain interaction of SF-acid. This unexpected result suggests that the molecular motion of SF-acid in a liquid phase is not directly governed by inter-acyl interaction, but may be interpreted as a reptation movement of an acid molecule, which is related to intramolecular movement. In fact, low intramolecular movements for SF-acid were confirmed by ¹³C-NMR T₁ measurements.

  19. Fat high in stearic acid favorably affects blood lipids and factor VII coagulant activity in comparison with fats high in palmitic acid or high in myristic and lauric acids.

    PubMed

    Tholstrup, T; Marckmann, P; Jespersen, J; Sandström, B

    1994-02-01

    The effect of fats high in individual, prevalent saturated dietary fatty acids on lipoproteins and hemostatic variables in young healthy subjects was evaluated in a randomized strictly controlled metabolic feeding study. Three experimental diets: shea butter (S; 42% stearic acid), palm oil (P; 43% palmitic palmitic acid), and palm-kernel oil with high-oleic sunflower oil (ML; 10% myristic acid, 30% lauric acid) were served to 15 men for 3 wk each, separated by washout periods. Diet S compared with diet P resulted in significant reduction in plasma cholesterol (22%) LDL cholesterol (26%), apolipoprotein B (18%), HDL cholesterol (12%), apolipoprotein A-I (13%), and a 13% lower factor VII coagulant activity (P = 0.001). Similar differences were observed between diets S and ML. In conclusion, intake of shea butter high in stearic acid favorably affects blood lipids and factor VII coagulant activity in young men, compared with fats high in saturated fatty acids with 12-16 carbons.

  20. Evaluation of high oleic-high stearic sunflower hard stearins for cocoa butter equivalent formulation.

    PubMed

    Bootello, Miguel A; Hartel, Richard W; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2012-10-01

    Cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) are produced from vegetable fats by blending palm mid fraction (PMF) and tropical butters coming from shea, mango kernel or kokum fat. In this regard, high oleic-high stearic (HOHS) sunflower hard stearins from solvent fractionation can be used in CBE production since their compositions and physical properties are similar to those found in the above-mentioned tropical butters. In this work, three sunflower hard stearins (SHS) ranging from 65% to 95% of disaturated triacylglycerols and a shea stearin (used as reference) were blended with PMF to evaluate their potential use in CBEs formulation. Isosolid phase diagrams of mixtures of PMF/SHS showed eutectic formation for SHS 65 and SHS 80, but monotectic behaviour with softening effect for SHS 95. Three CBEs from SHS and shea stearin were formulated according to phase behaviour diagrams and solid fat content data at 25 °C. Isosolid phase diagrams of mixtures of these CBEs with cocoa butter showed no eutectic behaviour. Therefore, CBEs elaborated from SHS exhibited full compatibility with cocoa butter.

  1. The 73 kilodalton heat shock cognate protein purified from rat brain contains nonesterified palmitic and stearic acids.

    PubMed

    Guidon, P T; Hightower, L E

    1986-08-01

    A protein related to the 71 kilodalton inducible rat heat shock protein was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in milligram amounts from brain tissue of nonheat-stressed rats. The protein has been designated as a stress cognate protein based on previous studies and data presented herein that this protein cross-reacted with a monoclonal antibody originally raised against the Drosophila 70 kilodalton heat shock protein. The purified protein had an apparent molecular mass of 73 kilodaltons when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and an apparent mass of 150 kilodaltons as determined by nondissociative gel chromatography, suggesting that the purified protein is a homodimer. The purified protein had isoelectric points of 5.0 under nondissociative conditions and 5.6 when exposed to protein denaturants, suggesting loss of bound anionic molecules and/or net exposure of basic residues upon denaturation. Chloroform/methanol extraction of the purified protein and subsequent analyses by thin layer and gas-liquid chromatography resulted in the identification of palmitic and stearic acids noncovalently bound to the protein. Approximately four molecules of fatty acids were bound per dimer with palmitic and stearic acids present in a one-to-one ratio. The purified protein did not bind exogenously added radioactive palmitate, indicating that the fatty acid-binding sites of the cognate protein were fully occupied and that the associated fatty acids were too tightly bound to exchange readily. The possible significance of the fatty acids associated with the 73 kilodalton stress cognate protein is discussed.

  2. Development of a Controlled Release of Salicylic Acid Loaded Stearic Acid-Oleic Acid Nanoparticles in Cream for Topical Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J. O.; Misran, M.; Lee, P. F.; Tan, L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are colloidal carrier systems that have extensively been investigated for controlled drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, a cost effective stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles (SONs) with high loading of salicylic acid, was prepared by melt emulsification method combined with ultrasonication technique. The physicochemical properties, thermal analysis and encapsulation efficiency of SONs were studied. TEM micrographs revealed that incorporation of oleic acid induces the formation of elongated spherical particles. This observation is in agreement with particle size analysis which also showed that the mean particle size of SONs varied with the amount of OA in the mixture but with no effect on their zeta potential values. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the SONs prepared in this method have lower crystallinity as compared to pure stearic acid. Different amount of oleic acid incorporated gave different degree of perturbation to the crystalline matrix of SONs and hence resulted in lower degrees of crystallinity, thereby improving their encapsulation efficiencies. The optimized SON was further incorporated in cream and its in vitro release study showed a gradual release for 24 hours, denoting the incorporation of salicylic acid in solid matrix of SON and prolonging the in vitro release. PMID:24578624

  3. Improving the physical and moisture barrier properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum biodegradable film with stearic and palmitic acids.

    PubMed

    Seyedi, Samira; Koocheki, Arash; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Zahedi, Younes

    2015-01-01

    Stearic and palmitic fatty acids (10%, 20% and 30%, W/W gum) were used to improve the barrier properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum (LPSG) film. The impact of the incorporation of fatty acids into the film matrix was studied by investigating the physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of the films. Addition of stearic and palmitic fatty acids to LPSG films reduced their water vapor permeability (WVP), moisture content, water solubility and water adsorption. Increasing fatty acid concentration from 10% to 30%, reduced the elongation at break (EB). Lower values of tensile strength (TS) and elastic modulus (EM) were obtained in the presence of higher fatty acids concentrations. Incorporation of fatty acids led to production of opaque films and the opacity increased as function of fatty acids concentration. Results showed that moisture content, water solubility and WVP decreased as the chain length of fatty acid increased. Therefore, LPSG-fatty acids composite film could be used for packaging in which a low affinity toward water is needed.

  4. Natural variations in stearoyl-acp desaturase genes affect the conversion of stearic to oleic acid in maize kernel.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingjia; Xu, Gen; Du, Hewei; Hu, Jieyun; Liu, Zhanji; Li, Hui; Li, Jiansheng; Yang, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    We identified 11 SAD genes, and mined their natural variations associated with the conservation of stearic to oleic acid, especially ZmSAD1 supported by both the QTL and an expression QTL. Maize oil is generally regarded as a healthy vegetable oil owing to its low abundance of saturated fatty acids. Stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) is a key rate-limiting enzyme for the conservation of stearic (C18:0) to oleic (C18:1) acid. Here, 11 maize SAD genes were identified to have more divergent functions than Arabidopsis SAD genes. The genomic regional associations in a maize panel including 508 inbred lines identified 6 SAD genes significantly associated (P < 0.01) with the C18:0/C18:1 ratio or the level of C18:0 or C18:1, one gene of which co-localized with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) and 5 of which co-localized with an expression QTL. ZmSAD1, supported by both the QTL and an expression QTL, had the largest effect on C18:0/C18:1. One nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in exon 3 and one 5-bp insertion/deletion in the 3' untranslated region were further shown to contribute to the natural variation in C18:0/C18:1 according to ZmSAD1-based association mapping. Finally, selection tests of ZmSAD1 in teosinte, regular maize, and high-oil maize indicated that ZmSAD1 was not a selection target during the process of maize domestication and high-oil maize development. These results will guide the manipulation of the ratio between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in maize.

  5. Ca(2+)-dependent permeabilization of mitochondria and liposomes by palmitic and oleic acids: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Belosludtsev, Konstantin N; Belosludtseva, Natalia V; Agafonov, Alexey V; Astashev, Maxim E; Kazakov, Alexey S; Saris, Nils-Erik L; Mironova, Galina D

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, we examine and compare the effects of saturated (palmitic) and unsaturated (oleic) fatty acids in relation to their ability to cause the Ca(2+)-dependent membrane permeabilization. The results obtained can be summarized as follows. (1) Oleic acid (OA) permeabilizes liposomal membranes at much higher concentrations of Ca(2+) than palmitic acid (PA): 1mM versus 100μM respectively. (2) The OA/Ca(2+)-induced permeabilization of liposomes is not accompanied by changes in the phase state of lipid bilayer, in contrast to what is observed with PA and Ca(2+). (3) The addition of Ca(2+) to the PA-containing vesicles does not change their size; in the case of OA, it leads to the appearance of larger and smaller vesicles, with larger vesicles dominating. This can be interpreted as a result of fusion and fission of liposomes. (4) Like PA, OA is able to induce a Ca(2+)-dependent high-amplitude swelling of mitochondria, yet it requires higher concentrations of Ca(2+) (30 and 100μM for PA and OA respectively). (5) In contrast to PA, OA is unable to cause the Ca(2+)-dependent high-amplitude swelling of mitoplasts, suggesting that the cause of OA/Ca(2+)-induced permeability transition in mitochondria may be the fusion of the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. (6) The presence of OA enhances PA/Ca(2+)-induced permeabilization of liposomes and mitochondria. The paper discusses possible mechanisms of PA/Ca(2+)- and OA/Ca(2+)-induced membrane permeabilization, the probability of these mechanisms to be realized in the cell, and their possible physiological role.

  6. Impact of stearic acid and oleic acid on hemostatic factors in the context of controlled diets consumed by healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, S K; Tracy, R P; Baer, D J

    2014-09-01

    The effects of stearic acid (STA) on cardiovascular disease risk beyond lipid and lipoprotein risk factors, including hemostasis, are unclear, particularly when compared with unsaturated fatty acids. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of STA with those of oleic acid (OL) on markers of hemostasis. In a randomized crossover study, 50 men consumed six controlled diets for 5 weeks each (39% energy from fat, 15% energy from protein, 46% energy from carbohydrate (CHO)). Fat (8% energy) was replaced across diets by: STA, OL, CHO (control), trans fatty acids (TFAs), TFA/STA and 12:0-16:0 saturated fatty acids. Factor VIIc, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and plasmin alpha-2-antiplasmin complex concentrations were not different between OL and STA (P>0.05). Compared with control, OL increased factor VIIc and PAI-1 (P≤0.05), whereas there were no differences with STA (P>0.05). STA and OL similarly affect markers of hemostasis in healthy men, within the context of a highly controlled diet.

  7. Anaerobic degradation of oleic acid by suspended and granular sludge: identification of palmitic acid as a key intermediate.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M A; Pires, O C; Mota, M; Alves, M M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the maximum potential methane production in batch assays of sludge samples taken along the operation of two EGSB reactors (RI inoculated with granular sludge and RII inoculated with suspended sludge) fed with increasing oleic acid concentrations between 2 and 8 gCOD/l (HRT = 1 day). After removing the residual substrate, the sludge was incubated in batch vials without any added carbon source. A maximum methane production rate of 152+/-21 mlCH4(STP)/gVS.day was obtained for the suspended sludge taken on day 70, when oleate at a concentration of 2 g COD/l was fed with a co-substrate (50% COD). The maximum plateau achieved in the methane production curve was 1145+/-307 mlCH4(STP)/gVS, obtained for the suspended sludge taken on day 162, when oleate was fed as the sole carbon source at 6 g COD/I. The methanization rate of the adsorbed substrate was enhanced under stirring conditions and was inhibited by adding oleic acid. Extraction and GC analysis confirmed that the main adsorbed substrate was palmitate, and not oleate. Accumulated palmitate adsorbed onto the sludge and further beta-oxidation was inhibited when in the presence of oleic acid. If oleic acid was removed from the medium beta-oxidation proceeded with methane production. Suspended sludge was more efficient than granular sludge.

  8. Role of hepatocyte S6K1 in palmitic acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipotoxicity, insulin resistance and in oleic acid-induced protection.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Virginia; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Muntané, Jordi; Kozma, Sara C; Valverde, Ángela M

    2015-06-01

    The excess of saturated free fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, that induces lipotoxicity in hepatocytes, has been implicated in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease also associated with insulin resistance. By contrast, oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, attenuates the effects of palmitic acid. We evaluated whether palmitic acid is directly associated with both insulin resistance and lipoapoptosis in mouse and human hepatocytes and the impact of oleic acid in the molecular mechanisms that mediate both processes. In human and mouse hepatocytes palmitic acid at a lipotoxic concentration triggered early activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related kinases, induced the apoptotic transcription factor CHOP, activated caspase 3 and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells. These effects concurred with decreased IR/IRS1/Akt insulin pathway. Oleic acid suppressed the toxic effects of palmitic acid on ER stress activation, lipoapoptosis and insulin resistance. Besides, oleic acid suppressed palmitic acid-induced activation of S6K1. This protection was mimicked by pharmacological or genetic inhibition of S6K1 in hepatocytes. In conclusion, this is the first study highlighting the activation of S6K1 by palmitic acid as a common and novel mechanism by which its inhibition by oleic acid prevents ER stress, lipoapoptosis and insulin resistance in hepatocytes.

  9. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  10. Anaerobic biodegradation of oleic and palmitic acids: evidence of mass transfer limitations caused by long chain fatty acid accumulation onto the anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M A; Pires, O C; Mota, M; Alves, M M

    2005-10-05

    Palmitic acid was the main long chain fatty acids (LCFA) that accumulated onto the anaerobic sludge when oleic acid was fed to an EGSB reactor. The conversion between oleic and palmitic acid was linked to the biological activity. When palmitic acid was fed to an EGSB reactor it represented also the main LCFA that accumulated onto the sludge. The way of palmitic acid accumulation was different in the oleic and in the palmitic acid fed reactors. When oleic acid was fed, the biomass-associated LCFA (83% as palmitic acid) were mainly adsorbed and entrapped in the sludge that became "encapsulated" by an LCFA layer. However, when palmitic acid was fed, the biomass-associated LCFA (the totality as palmitic acid) was mainly precipitated in white spots like precipitates in between the sludge, which remained "non-encapsulated." The two sludges were compared in terms of the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) in the presence of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and H(2)CO(2), before and after the mineralization of similar amounts of biomass-associated LCFA (4.6 and 5.2 g COD-LCFA/g of volatile suspended solids (VSS), for the oleic and palmitic acid fed sludge, respectively). The "non-encapsulated," sludge exhibited a considerable initial methanogenic activity on all the tested substrates, with the single exception of butyrate. However, with the "encapsulated" sludge only methane production from ethanol and H(2)/CO(2) was detected, after a lag phase of about 50 h. After mineralization of the biomass-associated LCFA, both sludges exhibited activities of similar order of magnitude in the presence of the same individual substrates and significantly higher than before. The results evidenced that LCFA accumulation onto the sludge can create a physical barrier and hinder the transfer of substrates and products, inducing a delay on the initial methane production. Whatever the mechanism, metabolic or physical, that is behind this inhibition, it is reversible, being eliminated after the

  11. The effect of oleic and palmitic acid on induction of steatosis and cytotoxicity on rat hepatocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, A; Červinková, Z; Kučera, O; Mezera, V; Rychtrmoc, D; Lotková, H

    2015-01-01

    In vitro models serve as a tool for studies of steatosis. Palmitic and oleic acids can induce steatosis in cultured hepatocytes. The aim of our study was to verify steatogenic and cytotoxic effects of palmitic acid (PA), oleic acid (OA) and their combinations as well as their impact on functional capacity of rat primary hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were exposed to OA or PA (0.125-2 mmol/l) or their combination at ratios of 3:1, 2:1 or 1:1 at the final concentrations of 0.5-1 mmol/l. Both OA and PA caused a dose-dependent increase in triacylglycerol content in hepatocytes. PA was more steatogenic at 0.25 and 0.5 mmol/l while OA at 0.75 and 1 mmol/l. PA exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect associated with ROS production, present markers of apoptosis and necrosis and a decrease in albumin production. OA induced a damage of the cytoplasmic membrane from 1 mM concentration. Mixture of OA and PA induced lower cytotoxicity with less weakened functional capacity than did PA alone. Extent of steatosis was comparable to that after exposure to OA alone. In conclusion, OA or combination of OA with PA is more suitable for simulation of simple steatosis than PA alone.

  12. Compared with stearic acid, palmitic acid increased the yield of milk fat and improved feed efficiency across production level of cows.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2014-02-01

    The effects of dietary palmitic and stearic acids on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components, and feed efficiency of dairy cows were evaluated in an experiment with a crossover arrangement of treatments with a covariate period. Cows with a wide range of milk production (38 to 65 kg/d) were used to determine if response to fat supplementation varied according to production level. Thirty-two Holstein cows (143 ± 61 d in milk) were assigned randomly to a treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with palmitic acid (PA; 97.9% C16:0) or stearic acid (SA; 97.4% C18:0). Treatment periods were 21 d and cows were fed a nonfat supplemented diet for 14 d immediately before the first treatment period. The final 4d of each period were used for sample and data collection. Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as the covariate. No interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the production response variables measured. Compared with SA, the PA treatment increased milk fat concentration (3.66 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.68 vs. 1.59 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (47.5 vs. 45.6 kg/d). Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, milk protein yield, body weight, or body condition score. Milk protein concentration was lower for PA compared with SA treatment (3.24 vs. 3.29%). The PA treatment increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk yield/dry matter intake) compared with SA (1.48 vs. 1.40). The increase in milk fat yield by PA was entirely accounted for by a 24% increase in 16-carbon fatty acid output into milk. Yields of de novo (3.2%) and preformed fatty acids (2.9%) were only slightly decreased by PA relative to SA. The PA treatment increased plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (96.3 vs. 88.2 μEq/L) and glucose (56.6 vs. 55.7 mg/dL) compared with SA, but insulin and

  13. Impact of stearic acid and oleic acid on hemostatic factors in the context of controlled diets consumed by healthy men

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Evidence suggests that stearic acid (STE) differentially affects lipoprotein risk factors compared with other saturated fatty acids (SFA). When compared to cholesterol-raising SFA, STE lowers LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and has a neutral effect on HDL-C, thus lowering the ratio of total cholesterol to H...

  14. Serum stearic acid/palmitic acid ratio as a potential predictor of diabetes remission after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Linjing; Ni, Yan; Yu, Haoyong; Zhang, Pin; Zhao, Aihua; Bao, Yuqian; Liu, Jiajian; Chen, Tianlu; Xie, Guoxiang; Panee, Jun; Chen, Wenlian; Rajani, Cynthia; Wei, Runmin; Su, Mingming; Jia, Weiping; Jia, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Endogenous fatty acid metabolism that results in elongation and desaturation lipid products is thought to play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we evaluated the potential of estimated elongase and desaturase activities for use as predictive markers for T2DM remission after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The results of a targeted metabolomics approach from 2 independent studies were used to calculate 24 serum FA concentration ratios (product/precursor). Gene expression data from an open public data set was also analyzed. In a longitudinal study of 38 obese diabetic patients with RYGB, we found higher baseline stearic acid/palmitic acid (S/P) ratio. This ratio reflects an elovl6-encoded elongase enzyme activity that has been found to be associated with greater possibility for diabetes remission after RYGB [odds ratio, 2.16 (95% CI 1.10-4.26)], after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, diabetes duration, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, and fasting C-peptide. Our results were validated by examination of postsurgical elovl6 gene expression in morbidly obese patients. The association of S/P with the metabolic status of obese individuals was further validated in a cross-sectional cohort of 381 participants. In summary, higher baseline S/P was associated with greater probability of diabetes remission after RYGB and may serve as a diagnostic marker in preoperative patient assessment. - Zhao, L., Ni, Y., Yu, H., Zhang, P., Zhao, A., Bao, Y., Liu, J., Chen, T., Xie, G., Panee, J., Chen, W., Rajani, C., Wei, R., Su, M., Jia, W., Jia, W. Serum stearic acid/palmitic acid ratio as a potential predictor of diabetes remission after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in obesity. © FASEB.

  15. Metabolism in humans of cis-12,trans-15-octadecadienoic acid relative to palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Emken, E.A.; Rohwedder, W.K.; Adlof, R.O.; Rakoff, H.; Gulley, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    Mixtures of triglycerides containing deuterium-labeled hexadecanoic acid (16:0), octadecanoic acid (18:0), cis-9-octadecenoic acid (9c-18:1), cis-9,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid (9c, 12c-18:2) and cis-12,trans-15-octadecadienoic acid (12c,15t-18:2) were fed to two young-adult males. Plasma lipid classes were isolated from samples collected periodically over 48 hr. Incorporation and turnover of the deuterium-labeled fats in plasma lipids were followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the methyl ester derivatives. Absorption of the deuterated fats was followed by GC-MS analysis of chylomicron triglycerides isolated by ultracentrifugation. Results were the following: (i) endogenous fat contributed about 40% of the total fat incorporated into chylomicron triglycerides; (ii) elongation, desaturation and chain-shortened products from the deuterated fats were not detected; (iii) the polyunsaturated isomer 12c,15t-18:2 was metabolically more similar to saturated and 9c-18:1 fatty acids than to 9c,12c-18:2; (iv) relative incorporation of 9c,12c-18:2 into phospholipids did not increase proportionally with an increase of 9c,12c-18:2 in the mixture of deuterated fats fed; (v) absorption of 16:0, 18:0, 9c-18:1, 9c,12c-18:2 and 12c,15t-18:2 were similar; and (vi) data for the 1- and 2-acyl positions of phosphatidylcholine and for cholesteryl ester fractions reflected the known high specificity of phosphatidylcholine acyltransferase and lecithin:cholesteryl acyltransferase for 9c,12c-18:2. These results illustrate that incorporation of dietary fatty acids into human plasma lipid classes is selectively controlled and that incorporation of dietary 9c,12c-18:2 is limited.

  16. Effects of duodenal infusions of palmitic, stearic, or oleic acids on milk composition and physical properties of butter.

    PubMed

    Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Bayourthe, C; Moncoulon, R

    2000-07-01

    Four dairy cows fitted with a duodenal cannula were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of daily duodenal infusion of 500 g of fatty acids (containing mainly C16:0, C18:0, or cis-C18:1) on fecal concentrations of fatty acids, fatty acid profiles of milk fat, and solid fat content of butter. Fecal concentrations of C16:0 and especially of C18:0 were increased by duodenal infusion. Infusion with C16:0 increased the proportion of C16:0 in milk fat and delayed softening of butter when the temperature rose. Infusion with C18:0 resulted only in a slight increase of C18:0 proportion in milk fat and did not significantly affect solid fat in butter between -10 and 30 degrees C. With the infusion of cis-C18:1, the proportion of cis-C18:1 in milk fat was more than twice that of control, to the detriment of C16:0. Butter contained low proportion of solid fat, even at low temperatures. Increasing C16:0 or cis-C18:1 in milk fatty acid via duodenal infusion can be used to study their specific effects on butter characteristics, but, because of a low transfer from infusion to milk, this method is less efficient with C18:0.

  17. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by palmitic, stearic and oleic acid sophorolipids and thiamine dilauryl sulfate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of th...

  18. Dietary oleic and palmitic acids modulate the ratio of triacylglycerols to cholesterol in postprandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in men and cell viability and cycling in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    López, Sergio; Bermúdez, Beatriz; Pacheco, Yolanda M; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Moreda, Wenceslao; Villar, José; Abia, Rocío; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2007-09-01

    The postprandial metabolism of dietary fats produces triacylglycerol (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRL) that could interact with circulating cells. We investigated whether the ratios of oleic:palmitic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA):SFA in the diet affect the ratio of TG:cholesterol (CHOL) in postprandial TRL of healthy men. The ability of postprandial TRL at 3 h (early postprandial period) and 5 h (late postprandial period) to affect cell viability and cycle in the THP-1 human monocytic cell line was also determined. In a randomized, crossover experiment, 14 healthy volunteers (Caucasian men) ate meals enriched (50 g/m(2) body surface area) in refined olive oil, high-palmitic sunflower oil, butter, and a mixture of vegetable and fish oils, which had ratios of oleic:palmitic acid (MUFA:SFA) of 6.83 (5.43), 2.36 (2.42), 0.82 (0.48), and 13.81 (7.08), respectively. The ratio of TG:CHOL in postprandial TRL was inversely correlated (r = -0.89 to -0.99) with the ratio of oleic:palmitic acid and with the MUFA:SFA ratio in the dietary fats (P < 0.05). Postprandial TRL at 3 h preferentially increased the proportion of necrotic cells, whereas postprandial TRL at 5 h increased the proportion of apoptotic cells (P < 0.05). Cell cycle analysis showed that postprandial TRL blocked the human monocytes in S-phase. Our findings suggest that the level of TG and CHOL into postprandial TRL is associated with the ratios of oleic:palmitic acid and MUFA:SFA in dietary fats, which determines the ability of postprandial TRL to induce cytotoxicity and disturb the cell cycle in THP-1 cells.

  19. Preparation of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) Probes through Polyaniline Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (PANI/MWCNTs) Coating for the Extraction of Palmitic Acid and Oleic Acid in Organic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Khajeamiri, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    A fiber coating from polyaniline (PANI) was electrochemically prepared and employed for Solid phase micreoextraction (SPME). The PANI film was directly electrodeposited on the platinum wire surface using cyclic voltametry (CV) technique. The same method was applied for the preparation of SPME fiber coated by polyaniline multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PANI/MWCNTs) composite. The concentration of sulfuric acid for electropolymerization was 0.1 M in the presence of 0.045 M aniline in aqueous solution. For the electrodeposition of PANI/MWCNT composite, 4 μg/mL of MWCNTs was dispersed into the solution. Film coating was carried out on the platinum wire by repetitive cycling of potentials between 0 and 1.0 V at the scan rate of 0.05 V/s. The applicability of these coatings were assessed through employing a laboratory-made SPME injecting device and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the extraction of palmitic acid and oleic acid from chloroform. The developed method proved to be simple and easy, offering high reproducibility. Both PANI coated and PANI/CNT coated probes had the ability to concentrate palmitic acid and oleic acid on their coating and produced strong signals in GC-MS chromatograms. In the meantime, PANI/CNT coated SPME probes produced signals which were stronger than those produced by PANI coated SPME probes. The amount of extracted palmitic acid and oleic acid from chloroform by the PANI/MWCNTs coating was about 6 and 12 times higher than the amount extracted by plane PANI SPME fibers respectively. It could be suggested that the composite material with CNTs has both an increased surface area and an elevated absorptive capacity which leads to this overall increase in extracted palmitic acid and oleic acid.

  20. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of palm mid fraction oil with palmitic and stearic Fatty Acid mixture for production of cocoa butter equivalent.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2013-10-01

    Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) was prepared by enzymatic acidolysis reaction of substrate consisting of refined palm mid fraction oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture. The reactions were performed in a batch reactor at a temperature of 60 °C in an orbital shaker operated at 160 RPM. Different mass ratios of substrates were explored, and the composition of the five major triacylglycerols (TAGs) of the structured lipids was identified and quantified using cocoa butter certified reference material IRMM-801. The reaction resulted in production of cocoa butter equivalent with the TAGs' composition (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol 30.7%, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-rac-glycerol 40.1%, 1-palmitoy-2,3- dioleoyl glycerol 9.0%, 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol 14.5 %, and 1-stearoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol 5.7%) and with onset melting temperature of 31.6 °C and peak temperature of 40.4 °C which are close to those of cocoa butter. The proposed kinetics model for the acidolysis reaction presented the experimental data very well. The results of this research showed that palm mid fraction oil TAGs could be restructured to produce value added product such as CBE.

  1. Oleic/Palmitate Induces Apoptosis in Human Articular Chondrocytes via Upregulation of NOX4 Expression and ROS Production.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dapeng; Lu, Jianmin; Yang, Sheng

    2016-07-01

    The association between obesity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in osteoarthritis (OA) patients has already been identified. However, the specific mechanism underlying ROS production and OA progression has never been elucidated. Osteoarthritic cartilage was obtained from patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty, and chondrocytes were isolated from these tissues. The cells were treated with varying concentrations (10,100,500 μM, and 5 mM) of oleic/palmitate (O/P) mixture at different times, that is at 6, 24, and 48 h. Cell viability was determined using MTT assay. ROS production was detected using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. The protein levels of NOX4 and cleaved-caspase3 were detected using Western blot assay. O/P significantly decreased cell viability at 10, 100, 500 μM, and 5 mM in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the cell viability was reduced by 500 μM O/P mixture at 6, 24, and 48 h in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with 500 μM O/P significantly enhanced ROS production and cell apoptosis in chondrocytes. Furthermore, treatment with O/P mixture significantly enhanced the expression of NOX4 and caspase3 activation in a dose- and time- dependent manner. More importantly, inhibition of NOX4 could partially eliminate O/P-induced chondrocytes apoptosis by reducing ROS production. To conclude, O/P treatment enhances ROS production and cell apoptosis mainly by upregulating the protein levels of NOX4 and caspase3 activation in chondrocytes, indicating a potential therapeutic target of OA in obesity patients.

  2. Protective Effects of Oleic Acid Against Palmitic Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Pancreatic AR42J Cells and Its Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Joung Hoon; Kim, Min Hye; Kwon, Hyung Joo; Choi, Soo Young

    2013-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PAM), one of the most common saturated fatty acid (SFA) in animals and plants, has been shown to induce apoptosis in exocrine pancreatic AR42J cells. In this study, we investigated cellular mechanisms underlying protective effects of oleic acid (OLA) against the lipotoxic actions of PAM in AR42J cells. Exposure of cells to long-chain SFA induced apoptotic cell death determined by MTT cell viability assay and Hoechst staining. Co-treatment of OLA with PAM markedly protected cells against PAM-induced apoptosis. OLA significantly attenuated the PAM-induced increase in the levels of pro-apoptotic Bak protein, cleaved forms of apoptotic proteins (caspase-3, PARP). On the contrary, OLA restored the decreased levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1) in PAM-treated cells. OLA also induced up-regulation of the mRNA expression of Dgat2 and Cpt1 genes which are involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and mitochondrial β-oxidation, respectively. Intracellular TAG accumulation was increased by OLA supplementation in accordance with enhanced expression of Dgat2 gene. These results indicate that restoration of anti-apoptotic/pro-apoptotic protein balance from apoptosis toward cell survival is involved in the cytoprotective effects of OLA against PAM-induced apoptosis in pancreatic AR42J cells. In addition, OLA-induced increase in TAG accumulation and up-regulation of Dgat2 and Cpt1 gene expressions may be possibly associated in part with the ability of OLA to protect cells from deleterious actions of PAM. PMID:23440052

  3. [The positional isomers of triglycerides in oils, fats and apoB-100 lipoproteins: palmitic and oleic modes of metabolism of fatty acids-substrates for energy acquiring].

    PubMed

    Kotkina, T I; Titov V N

    2014-01-01

    Even total resemblance of content of fatty acids in triglycerides has both no standing for their functional unity nor even identity of their physical chemical characteristics. The etherification of fatty acids in various positions of three-atomic glycerin separates triglycerides on palmitic and oleic substrates for energy acquiring by cells. The kinetic parameters of biochemical reactions under palmitic mode of metabolism of fatty acids are always low. The myocytes in biological reaction of exotrophy experience deficiency of exogenous fatty acids which in vivo is to permanently supply through activation of biological reaction of endotrophy--enhancement of lipolysis in adipocytes. The biological role of insulin is to prevent formation in vivo of palmitic mode of metabolism of saturated and monoenic fatty acids. Under this condition, the necessity to activate lipolysis and to increase in blood plasma concentration of unesteritied fatty acids forms syndrome of resistance to insulin. The surplus of palmitic fatty acid in food and deficiency of insulin show in vivo unidirectional a physiologic action. The formation of palmitic mode of metabolism of energy substrates--portion of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty infiltration of liver and partiallly essential arterial hypertension.

  4. Stearic acid-induced cardiac lipotoxicity is independent of cellular lipid and is mitigated by the fatty acids oleic and capric acid but not by the PPAR agonist troglitazone.

    PubMed

    Rabkin, Simon W; Lodhia, Parth; Lodha, Parth

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of stearic acid to induce cardiomyocyte cell death and the hypothesis that the amount of cellular lipid is a determinant of cell death. In cardiomyocytes from embryonic chick heart, stearic acid (SA) produced a significant (P < 0.001) concentration-dependent increase in cell death with an ED(50) of 71 microM. In contrast, capric (C10:0) or oleic acid (OA; C18:1), at < 200 microM, did not alter cell viability. Stearic acid-induced cell death was significantly reduced by OA and to a lesser extent by capric acid. Neither OA nor capric acid altered cell death produced by potassium cyanide and deoxyglucose. Stearic acid (100 microM) induced a significant (P < 0.05) twofold increase in cellular lipid as assessed by Nile blue and Sudan Black staining. A role for cellular lipid in cardiomyocyte death was excluded because OA increased cellular lipid, at concentrations that did not induce cell death; OA did not alter SA-induced cellular fat stores but reduced cell death; and the PPARgamma; agonist troglitazone at concentrations that reduced cellular lipid content did not alter cell death. High concentrations of troglitazone, however, induced cell death. In summary, SA is a potent inducer of cardiac cell death and intracellular lipid accumulation. The amount of intracellular lipid, however, is not a determinant of cardiomyocyte cell death. Troglitazone has potential cardiotoxicity at high doses but, at lower concentrations, does not prevent cardiac lipotoxicity, which can be completely prevented by low concentrations of oleic acid.

  5. Influence of stearic acid on hemostatic risk factors in humans.

    PubMed

    Tholstrup, Tine

    2005-12-01

    Stearic acid has been claimed to be prothrombotic. Elevated plasma factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc) may raise the risk of coronary thrombosis in the event of plaque rupture. Fibrinogen, an acute-phase protein, is necessary for normal blood clotting; however, elevated levels of fibrinogen increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Here I report the results of three controlled, human dietary intervention studies, which used a randomized crossover design to investigate the hemostatic effects of stearic acid-rich test diets in healthy young men. A diet high in stearic acid (shea butter) resulted in a 13% lower fasting plasma FVIIc than a high palmitic acid diet, and was 18% lower than a diet high in myristic and lauric acids (P = 0.001) after 3 wk of intervention. The stearic acid-rich test fat increased plasma fibrinogen concentrations slightly compared with the myristic-lauric acid diet (P < 0.01). When investigating the acute effects of fatty meals, those high in stearic acid (synthesized test fat) resulted in a smaller postprandial increase in FVII than those high in trans and oleic FA, indicating a smaller increase in activated FVII after ingesting stearic acid compared with fats high in monounsaturated FA, probably caused by lower postprandial lipemia. Thus, the present investigations did not find dietary stearic acid to be more thrombogenic, in either fasting effects compared with other long-chain FA, or in acute effects compared with dietary unsaturated FA, including trans monounsaturated FA. The slightly increased effect on fasting plasma fibrinogen may be biologically insignificant, but it should be investigated further.

  6. Oleic acid prevents detrimental effects of saturated fatty acids on bovine oocyte developmental competence.

    PubMed

    Aardema, Hilde; Vos, Peter L A M; Lolicato, Francesca; Roelen, Bernard A J; Knijn, Hiemke M; Vaandrager, Arie B; Helms, J Bernd; Gadella, Bart M

    2011-07-01

    Mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue during metabolic stress will increase the amount of free fatty acids in blood and follicular fluid and, thus, may affect oocyte quality. In this in vitro study, the three predominant fatty acids in follicular fluid (saturated palmitic and stearic acid and unsaturated oleic acid) were presented to maturing oocytes to test whether fatty acids can affect lipid storage of the oocyte and developmental competence postfertilization. Palmitic and stearic acid had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the amount of fat stored in lipid droplets and a concomitant detrimental effect on oocyte developmental competence. Oleic acid, in contrast, had the opposite effect, causing an increase of lipid storage in lipid droplets and an improvement of oocyte developmental competence. Remarkably, the adverse effects of palmitic and stearic acid could be counteracted by oleic acid. These results suggest that the ratio and amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid is relevant for lipid storage in the maturing oocyte and that this relates to the developmental competence of maturing oocytes.

  7. Manganese accumulation in membrane fractions of primary astrocytes is associated with decreased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake, and is exacerbated by oleic acid and palmitate.

    PubMed

    Fordahl, Steve C; Erikson, Keith M

    2014-05-01

    Manganese (Mn) exposure interferes with GABA uptake; however, the effects of Mn on GABA transport proteins (GATs) have not been identified. We sought to characterize how Mn impairs GAT function in primary rat astrocytes. Astrocytes exposed to Mn (500 μM) had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake despite no change in membrane or cytosolic GAT3 protein levels. Co-treatment with 100 μM oleic or palmitic acids (both known to be elevated in Mn neurotoxicity), exacerbated the Mn-induced decline in (3)H-GABA uptake. Mn accumulation in the membrane fraction of astrocytes was enhanced with fatty acid administration, and was negatively correlated with (3)H-GABA uptake. Furthermore, control cells exposed to Mn only during the experimental uptake had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake, and the addition of GABA (50 μM) blunted cytosolic Mn accumulation. These data indicate that reduced GAT function in astrocytes is influenced by Mn and fatty acids accumulating at or interacting with the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Safflower Seed Oil, Containing Oleic Acid and Palmitic Acid, Enhances the Stemness of Cultured Embryonic Neural Stem Cells through Notch1 and Induces Neuronal Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ghareghani, Majid; Zibara, Kazem; Azari, Hassan; Hejr, Hossein; Sadri, Farzad; Jannesar, Ramin; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Delaviz, Hamdallah; Nouri, Ebrahim; Ghanbari, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Embryonic neural stem cells (eNSCs) could differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. This study was aimed to determine the effect of safflower seed oil, which contains linoleic acid (LA), oleic acid (OA), and palmitic acid (PA), on cultured eNSC proliferation and differentiation, in comparison to linoleic acid alone. Results showed that safflower seed oil, but not LA, increased significantly the viability and proliferation of eNSCs. Moreover, treatment of NSCs by safflower seed oil, but not LA, resulted in a significant increase in mRNA levels of notch1, hes1, and Ki-67, and protein levels of notch intracellular domain (NICD), in comparison to controls, indicating an enhancement of stemness. Finally, safflower seed oil, but not LA, caused an increase in the number of oligodendrocytes (MBP+), astrocytes (GFAP+) and neurons (β-III tubulin+) of which only the increase in β-III tubulin positive cells was statistically significant. In summary, OA and PA, present in safflower seed oil may prove beneficial for the enhancement of eNSCs and their neuronal differentiation.

  9. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of tripalmitin with hazelnut oil fatty acids and stearic acid to produce human milk fat substitutes.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Nese; Akoh, Casimir C; Karaali, Artemis

    2005-07-13

    Structured lipids (SLs) containing palmitic, oleic, stearic, and linoleic acids, resembling human milk fat (HMF), were synthesized by enzymatic acidolysis reactions between tripalmitin, hazelnut oil fatty acids, and stearic acid. Commercially immobilized sn-1,3-specific lipase, Lipozyme RM IM, obtained from Rhizomucor miehei was used as the biocatalyst for the enzymatic acidolysis reactions. The effects of substrate molar ratio, reaction temperature, and reaction time on the incorporation of stearic and oleic acids were investigated. The acidolysis reactions were performed by incubating 1:1.5:0.5, 1:3:0.75, 1:6:1, 1:9:1.25, and 1:12:1.5 substrate molar ratios of tripalmitin/hazelnut oil fatty acids/stearic acid in 3 mL of n-hexane at 55, 60, and 65 degrees C using 10% (total weight of substrates) of Lipozyme RM IM for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. The fatty acid composition of reaction products was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The fatty acids at the sn-2 position were identified after pancreatic lipase hydrolysis and GLC analysis. The results showed that the highest C18:1 incorporation (47.1%) and highest C18:1/C16:0 ratio were obtained at 65 degrees C and 24 h of incubation with the highest substrate molar ratio of 1:12:1.5. The highest incorporation of stearic acid was achieved at a 1:3:0.75 substrate molar ratio at 60 degrees C and 24 h. For both oleic and stearic acids, the incorporation level increased with reaction time. The SLs produced in this study have potential use in infant formulas.

  10. Influence of stearic acid on postprandial lipemia and hemostatic function.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Thomas A B; Berry, Sarah E E

    2005-12-01

    It has been suggested that fats rich in stearic acid may result in exaggerated postprandial lipemia and have adverse effects on hemostatic function. The effects of test meals containing different saturated and monounsaturated FA were compared in healthy subjects in a series of studies to investigate this hypothesis. Stearic acid, when present as cocoa butter, resulted in similar postprandial lipemia and factor VII activation compared with a meal containing high-oleic sunflower oil. Stearic acid when presented as shea butter or as randomized stearate-rich TAG resulted in decreased postprandial lipemia and decreased postprandial activation of factor VII. Stearic acid-rich test meals did not result in impaired fibrinolytic activity compared with either a low-fat meal or a meal high in oleate. The difference in responses between the different stearic acid-rich fats appears to be due to varying solid fat contents of the fats at 37 degrees C.

  11. Temperature effect on triacylglycerol species in seed oil from high stearic sunflower lines with different genetic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Natalia G; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Aguirrezábal, Luis An; Zambelli, Andrés; Reid, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    This study characterized the influence of temperature during grain filling on the saturated fatty acid distribution in triacylglycerol molecules from high stearic sunflower lines with different genetic backgrounds. Two growth chamber experiments were conducted with day/night temperatures of 16/16, 26/16, 26/26 and 32/26 °C. In all genotypes, independently of the genetic background, higher temperatures increased palmitic and oleic acid and reduced linoleic acid concentrations. Increasing night temperature produced an increase in saturated-unsaturated-saturated species, indicating a more symmetrical distribution of saturated fatty acids. The solid fat index was more affected by temperature during grain filling in lines with high linoleic than high oleic background. Higher variations in symmetry among night temperatures were observed in lines with high oleic background, which are more stable in fatty acid composition. The effect of temperature on triacylglycerol composition is not completely explained by its effect on fatty acid composition. Thus night temperature affects oil properties via its effects on fatty acid synthesis and on the distribution of fatty acids in the triacylglycerol molecules. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Genetic enhancement of palmitic acid accumulation in cotton seed oil through RNAi down-regulation of ghKAS2 encoding β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II (KASII).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Wu, Man; Zhang, Baolong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Petrie, James; Green, Allan G; Singh, Surinder P

    2017-01-01

    Palmitic acid (C16:0) already makes up approximately 25% of the total fatty acids in the conventional cotton seed oil. However, further enhancements in palmitic acid content at the expense of the predominant unsaturated fatty acids would provide increased oxidative stability of cotton seed oil and also impart the high melting point required for making margarine, shortening and confectionary products free of trans fatty acids. Seed-specific RNAi-mediated down-regulation of β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II (KASII) catalysing the elongation of palmitoyl-ACP to stearoyl-ACP has succeeded in dramatically increasing the C16 fatty acid content of cotton seed oil to well beyond its natural limits, reaching up to 65% of total fatty acids. The elevated C16 levels were comprised of predominantly palmitic acid (C16:0, 51%) and to a lesser extent palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 11%) and hexadecadienoic acid (C16:2, 3%), and were stably inherited. Despite of the dramatic alteration of fatty acid composition and a slight yet significant reduction in oil content in these high-palmitic (HP) lines, seed germination remained unaffected. Regiochemical analysis of triacylglycerols (TAG) showed that the increased levels of palmitic acid mainly occurred at the outer positions, while C16:1 and C16:2 were predominantly found in the sn-2 position in both TAG and phosphatidylcholine. Crossing the HP line with previously created high-oleic (HO) and high-stearic (HS) genotypes demonstrated that HP and HO traits could be achieved simultaneously; however, elevation of stearic acid was hindered in the presence of high level of palmitic acid.

  13. Effect of Delta 9–Stearoyl-ACP-Desaturase-C mutants in a high oleic background on soybean seed oil composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil typically contains 2-4% stearic acid. Oil with at least 20% stearic acid is desirable because of its baking properties and health profile. This study identifies two new sources of high stearic acid and evaluates the interaction of high stearic and oleic acid al...

  14. Composition of human VLDL triacylglycerols after ingestion of olive oil and high oleic sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V; Morgado, N; Prada, J L; Pérez-Jiménez, F; Muriana, F J

    1998-03-01

    This work was undertaken to determine the effect of diets enriched with olive oil or high oleic sunflower oil on very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol composition of healthy human subjects. Both oils contain a similar proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) but differ in their triacylglycerol composition. All 22 human subjects initially consumed a low fat, high carbohydrate diet as recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-I). They then consumed the two experimental oils (40% dietary energy) in a crossover design. The olive oil and high oleic sunflower oil diets resulted in significant increases in palmitoleic (55%, P < 0.05), oleic (27%, P < 0.01) and eicosenoic (>100%, P < 0.001) acids of VLDL triacylglycerols, whereas there was a significant decrease in linoleic acid (38%, P < 0.001). In addition, the high oleic sunflower oil diet increased the content of stearic acid (60%, P < 0.05) and total saturated fatty acids (14%, P < 0.05). Both MUFA-rich diets significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the content of sn-glycerol-palmitate-linoleate-oleate, sn-glycerol-palmitoleate-dioleate and sn-glycerol-palmitate-dilinoleate in VLDL with regard to the NCEP-I diet, whereas they increased the content of sn-glycerol-trioleate (>100%, P < 0.001 after the olive oil diet; 80%, P < 0.05 after the high oleic sunflower oil diet). Intake of olive oil, in particular, significantly decreased the content of sn-glycerol-tripalmitate (36%, P < 0.01) and increased the content of dioleoyl-containing triacylglycerols. MUFA (P < 0.01) and arachidonic acid (P < 0.001) tended to be rich in the sn-2 position of VLDL triacylglycerols during the periods of consuming the olive oil or high oleic sunflower oil diets. In addition, olive oil, but not high oleic sunflower oil, further contributed to VLDL triacylglycerols that contained alpha-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids acylated in the sn-2 position. These data suggest that differences in the composition

  15. Influence of two different alcohols in the esterification of fatty acids over layered zinc stearate/palmitate.

    PubMed

    de Paiva, Eduardo José Mendes; Corazza, Marcos Lúcio; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Wärnå, Johan; Murzin, Dmitry Yu; Wypych, Fernando; Salmi, Tapio

    2015-10-01

    In this work, esterification of fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and stearic acid) with a commercial zinc carboxylate (a layered compound formed by simultaneous intercalation of stearate and palmitate anions) was performed. Kinetic modeling using a quasi-homogeneous approach successfully fitted experimental data at different molar ratio of fatty acids/alcohols (1-butanol and 1-hexanol) and temperature. An apparent first-order reaction related to all reactants was found and activation energy of 66 kJ/mol was reported. The catalyst showed to be unique, as it can be easily recovered like a heterogeneous catalysts behaving like ionic liquids. In addition, this catalyst demonstrated a peculiar behavior, because higher reactivity was observed with the increase in the alcohols chain length compared to the authors' previous work using ethanol.

  16. Biochemistry of high stearic sunflower, a new source of saturated fats.

    PubMed

    Salas, Joaquín J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Harwood, John L; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Aznar-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Ruíz-López, Noemí; Serrano-Vega, María J; Graham, Ian A; Mullen, Robert T; Garcés, Rafael

    2014-07-01

    Fats based on stearic acid could be a healthier alternative to existing oils especially hydrogenated fractions of oils or palm, but only a few non-tropical species produce oils with these characteristics. In this regard, newly developed high stearic oil seed crops could be a future source of fats and hard stocks rich in stearic and oleic fatty acids. These oil crops have been obtained either by breeding and mutagenesis or by suppression of desaturases using RNA interference. The present review depicts the molecular and biochemical bases for the accumulation of stearic acid in sunflower. Moreover, aspects limiting the accumulation of stearate in the seeds of this species are reviewed. This included data obtained from the characterization of genes and enzymes related to fatty acid biosynthesis and triacylglycerol assembly. Future improvements and uses of these oils are also discussed.

  17. Deletion of ELOVL6 blocks the synthesis of oleic acid but does not prevent the development of fatty liver or insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Moon, Young-Ah; Ochoa, Courtney R; Mitsche, Matthew A; Hammer, Robert E; Horton, Jay D

    2014-12-01

    Elongation of very long chain fatty acid-like family member 6 (ELOVL6) is a fatty acyl elongase that performs the initial and rate-limiting condensing reaction required for microsomal elongation of long-chain fatty acids. Our previous in vitro studies suggested that ELOVL6 elongated long-chain saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids with chain lengths of 12 to 16 carbons. Here, we describe the generation and phenotypic characterization of Elovl6(-/-) mice. As predicted from the in vitro studies, livers from Elovl6(-/-) mice accumulated palmitic (C16:0) and palmitoleic (C16:1, n-7) fatty acids and contained significantly less stearic (C18:0) and oleic (C18:1, n-9) acids, confirming that ELOVL6 is the only enzyme capable of elongating palmitate (C16:0). Unexpectedly, Elovl6(-/-) mice produced vaccenic acid (C18:1, n-7), the elongated product of palmitoleate (C16:1, n-7), suggesting that palmitoleate (C16:1, n-7) to vaccenate (C18:1, n-7) elongation was not specific to ELOVL6. The only detected consequence of deleting Elovl6(-/-) in mice was that their livers accumulated significantly more triglycerides than wild-type mice when fed a fat-free/high-carbohydrate diet. When mice were fed a high-fat diet or ELOVL6 was deleted in ob/ob mice, the absence of ELOVL6 did not alter the development of obesity, fatty liver, hyperglycemia, or hyperinsulinemia. Combined, these results suggest that palmitoleic (C16:1, n-7) and vaccenic (C18:1, n-7) acids can largely replace the roles of oleic acid (C18:1, n-9) in vivo and that the deletion of ELOVL6 does not protect mice from the development of hepatic steatosis or insulin resistance.

  18. Intramuscular paliperidone palmitate.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sheridan M; Scott, Lesley J; Keating, Gillian M

    2010-03-01

    Intramuscular paliperidone palmitate is a long-acting, atypical antipsychotic that is indicated in the US for the acute and maintenance therapy of adult patients with schizophrenia. Paliperidone is the major active metabolite of risperidone. The noninferiority of flexible doses of intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-156 mg to flexible doses of intramuscular long-acting risperidone 25-50 mg was not established in an initial 53-week study. However, these data were utilized to optimize the intramuscular paliperidone palmitate dosage regimen. In four randomized, double-blind studies, intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-234 mg was generally effective in the treatment of adult patients with acute schizophrenia, inducing significantly greater improvements from baseline in the mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score than placebo (primary endpoint). In general, intramuscular paliperidone palmitate recipients achieved significantly better outcomes than placebo recipients with regard to the PANSS subscale, PANSS factor, Personal and Social Performance scale and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale scores. As maintenance therapy, intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-156 mg was significantly more effective than placebo in delaying the time to the first relapse of schizophrenia symptoms in adult patients, according to the results of a randomized, double-blind study. The beneficial effects of intramuscular paliperidone palmitate therapy on the PANSS total score were sustained in a 52-week noncomparative extension phase of the maintenance therapy study. Intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-234 mg was generally well tolerated in adult patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Dietary linseed oil with or without malate increases conjugated linoleic acid and oleic acid in milk fat and and gene expression in mammary gland and milk somatic cells of lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Li, X Z; Choi, S H; Yan, C G; Shin, J S; Smith, S B

    2016-08-01

    Supplementary dietary plant oils have the potential to alter milk fatty acid composition in ruminants as a result of changes in the amount and kind of fatty acid precursors. We hypothesized that linseed oil in combination with malate (a key propionate precursor in the rumen) would increase ∆9 unsaturated fatty acids and specific gene expression in somatic cells and mammary glands of lactating goats. Twelve lactating goats were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Treatments included the basal diet (CON), the CON plus 4% linseed oil (LO), and the CON plus 4% linseed oil and 2% -malate (LOM). Relative to CON, the LO and LOM supplements increased the daily intake of palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1-9), linoleic (18:2-6), α-linolenic (18:3-3), and γ-linolenic acids (18:2-6); α-linolenic acid intake was increased over 9-fold, from 6.77 to over 51 g/d ( < 0.02). The LO and LOM supplements increased daily milk yield, milk fat yield, and milk fat percentage ( < 0.05). The LOM supplement also increased milk lactose percentage and daily yield ( = 0.03). Both the LO and LOM supplements increased plasma glucose and total cholesterol and decreased plasma β-hydroxbutyrate concentrations ( = 0.03). The LO and LOM supplements increased concentrations of stearic acid; -vaccenic acid (TVA; 18:1-11); -9, -11 CLA; -10 -12 CLA; and α-linolenic acid in rumen fluid and increased the concentrations of oleic acid; TVA; -9, -11 CLA; -10, -12 CLA; and α-linolenic acid in plasma lipids and milk fat ( < 0.05). Conversely, the LO and LOM supplements decreased short- and medium-chain SFA, including lauric (12:0), myristic (14:0), and palmitic acids, in plasma and milk fat ( < 0.05). Relative mRNA levels for and () gene expression were increased in somatic cells and mammary gland tissue by LO and LOM ( < 0.05). We conclude that the higher intake and ruminal production of stearic acid promoted SCD gene expression in somatic cells and mammary tissue. Furthermore, milk somatic

  20. Inhibitory Effect of Oleic Acid on Octanoylated Ghrelin Production.

    PubMed

    Oiso, Shigeru; Nobe, Miyuki; Iwasaki, Syuhei; Nii, Wakana; Goto, Natsumi; Seki, Yukari; Nakajima, Kensuke; Nakamura, Kazuo; Kariyazono, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin is a growth hormone-releasing peptide that also displays orexigenic activity. Since serine-3 acylation with octanoylate (octanoylation) is essential for the orexigenic activity of ghrelin, suppression of octanoylation could lead to amelioration or prevention of obesity. To enable the exploration of inhibitors of octanoylated ghrelin production, we developed a cell-based assay system using AGS-GHRL8 cells, in which octanoylated ghrelin concentration increases in the presence of octanoic acid. Using this assay system, we investigated whether fatty acids contained in foods or oils, such as acetic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid, have inhibitory effects on octanoylated ghrelin production. Acetic acid did not suppress the increase in octanoylated ghrelin production in AGS-GHRL8 cells, which was induced by the addition of octanoic acid. However, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid significantly suppressed octanoylated ghrelin production, with the effect of oleic acid being the strongest. Additionally, oleic acid decreased the serum concentration of octanoylated ghrelin in mice. The serum concentration of des-acyl ghrelin (without acyl modification) was also decreased, but the decrease was smaller than that of octanoylated ghrelin. Decreased octanoylated ghrelin production likely resulted from post-translational ghrelin processing, as there were no significant differences in gene expression in the stomach between oleic acid-treated mice and controls. These results suggest that oleic acid is a potential inhibitor of octanoylated ghrelin production and that our assay system is a valuable tool for screening compounds with suppressive effects on octanoylated ghrelin production.

  1. Anaerobic degradation of linoleic oleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Lalman, J.A.; Bagley, D.M.

    1999-07-01

    The anaerobic degradation of linoleic (C18:2) and oleic (C18:1) acids was examined in batch experiments. By-product distribution depended on both the type of long chain fatty acid added and initial substrate concentration. Major by-products were palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and acetic acids. Trace quantities of palmitoleic (C16:1) and lauric (C12) acids were observed together with larger amounts of palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and hexanoic (C6) acids in cultures incubated with 100 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. Bio-hydrogenation of C18 fatty acids was not necessary for the {beta}-oxidation mechanism to proceed. Aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed in cultures inoculated with greater than 50 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. In cultures incubated with greater than 50 mg/L oleic (C18:1) acid, aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed for a short time period.

  2. Transport of Palmitic Acid Across the Tegument of the Entomophilic Nematode Romanomermis culicivorax

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Roger; Burford, Ian R.

    1984-01-01

    Romanomermis culicivorax juveniles, dissected out of Aedes aegypti larvae 7 days after infection, were incubated under controlled conditions in isotonic saline containing ¹⁴C-U-palmitic acid to investigate the nature of the transport mechanism(s) used by the nematode for transcuticular uptake of palmitic acid. Net uptake of the isotope by the nematode was of a logarithmic nature with respect to time. Uptake of palmitic acid was accomplished by a combination of diffusion and a mediated process which was substrate saturable and competitively inhibited by myristic and stearic acids. Both 2,4-dinitrophenol and ouabain inhibited uptake of palmitic acid and thus supported the hypothesis that the carrier system is of the active transport variety and is coupled to a Na⁺K⁺ ATPase pump. PMID:19295867

  3. 21 CFR 184.1090 - Stearic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stearic acid. 184.1090 Section 184.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD... edible sources. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p...

  4. Inhibitory effect of the ether extract of human feces on activities of mutagens: inhibition by oleic and linoleic acids.

    PubMed

    Hayatsu, H; Arimoto, S; Togawa, K; Makita, M

    1981-05-01

    An ether extract of normal human feces showed inhibitory effects on the activities of several mutagens in the Ames tests. By addition of the ether extract at an amount equivalent to 0.5 g of a sample of feces, the mutagenicity of 1.5 nmole of 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) on Salmonella typhimurium TA98 was completely inhibited. No killing of the bacteria was detected during this treatment. Other mutagens also subject to the inhibition were 2-amino-6-methyl-dipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (Glob-P-2), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-d]quinoline (IQ), benzo[a]pyrene and aflatoxin B1. Apart from these mutagens, which require S9 for their activation, the direct mutagen prepared from Trp-P-1 by treatment with S9 was also inhibited by the fecal extract. The inhibitory principles in the fecal extract were fractionated by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel and were identified as oleic and linoleic acids. Whereas these unsaturated fatty acids showed strong inhibitory activities, saturated fatty acids, i.e, stearic and palmitic acids, did not exhibit any inhibition. Although the physiological significance of these effects of oleate and linoleate is yet to be elucidated, this finding has indicated that care must be taken in screening mutagens by the Ames tests to avoid false negatives resulting from the presence of unsaturated fatty acids in the system.

  5. Near infrared spectroscopy of stearic acid adsorbed on montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Lu, Longfei; Cai, Jingong; Frost, Ray L

    2010-03-01

    The adsorption of stearic acid on both sodium montmorillonites and calcium montmorillonites has been studied by near infrared spectroscopy complimented with infrared spectroscopy. Upon adsorption of stearic acid on Ca-Mt additional near infrared bands are observed at 8236 cm(-1) and is assigned to an interaction of stearic acid with the water of hydration. Upon adsorption of the stearic acid on Na-Mt, the NIR bands are now observed at 5671, 5778, 5848 and 5912 cm(-1) and are assigned to the overtone and combination bands of the CH fundamentals. Additional bands at 4177, 4250, 4324, 4337, 4689 and 4809 cm(-1) are attributed to CH combination bands resulting from the adsorption of the stearic acid. Stearic acid is used as a model molecule for adsorption studies. The application of near infrared spectroscopy to the study of this adsorption proved most useful.

  6. Optimized Solid-Phase-Assisted Synthesis of Oleic Acid Containing siRNA Nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Sören; Zhang, Wei; Wagner, Ernst

    2017-09-07

    Cationic lipo-oligomers containing unsaturated oleic acid are potent siRNA carriers based on electrostatic and hydrophobic lipo-polyplex formation and endosomal membrane destabilization. Lipo-oligomers can be produced by solid-phase-supported synthesis in sequence-defined form. However, the trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)-mediated removal of acid-labile protecting groups and cleavage from the resin can be accompanied by side products caused by the addition of TFA to the double bonds of oleic acid. Under aqueous conditions, these TFA adducts of oleic acid are converted into hydroxystearic acid derivatives. The cleavage protocol was optimized to decrease TFA adducts. The pure oleic acid (C18:1) containing lipo-oligomer was compared with analogous structures containing saturated or modified hydrophobic moieties (stearic acid (C18:0), hydroxystearic acid, and 8-nonanamidooctanoic acid). The structure containing intact oleic acid shows favorable pH dependency of lytic activity, efficient gene silencing, and excellent cell tolerability relative to its counterparts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Effect of substitution of high stearic low linolenic acid soybean oil for hydrogenated soybean oil on fatty acid intake.

    PubMed

    DiRienzo, Maureen A; Lemke, Shawna L; Petersen, Barbara J; Smith, Kim M

    2008-05-01

    High stearic, low alpha-linolenic acid soybean oil (HSLL) has been developed via traditional breeding to serve as a substitute for partially hydrogenated soybean oils used in food manufacturing. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact on fatty acid intake in the United States if HSLL were substituted for partially hydrogenated soybean oils used in several food categories, including baked goods, shortenings, fried foods, and margarines. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (1999-2002), baseline intakes of five fatty acids and trans fatty acids (TFA) were determined at the mean and 90th percentile of fat consumption. Then intakes of these fatty acids were determined after HSLL was substituted for 100% of the partially hydrogenated soybean oils used in these four food categories. The results show that baseline intake of stearic acid is 3.0% energy at the mean and 3.3% energy at the 90th percentile. Use of HSLL could increase stearic acid intake to about 4-5% energy. Mean intakes of TFA could decrease from 2.5 to 0.9% energy, and intake of palmitic acid would remain unchanged. Use of HSLL as a substitute for partially hydrogenated soybean oils would result in changes in the fatty acid composition of the US diet consistent with current dietary recommendations.

  8. Dietary oleic acid increases m2 macrophages in the mesenteric adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Camell, Christina; Smith, C Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have implicated fatty-acids as inflammatory regulators, suggesting that there may be a direct role for common dietary fatty-acids in regulating innate immune cells. In humans, a single high-fat meal increases systemic cytokines and leukocytes. In mice, short term high-fat feeding increases adipose tissue (AT) leukocytes and alters the inflammatory profile of AT macrophages. We have seen that short term high fat feeding to C57BL/6J male mice increases palmitic and oleic acid within AT depots, but oleic acid increase is highest in the mesenteric AT (MAT). In vitro, oleic acid increases M2 macrophage markers (CD206, MGL1, and ARG1) in a murine macrophage cell line, while addition of palmitic acid is able to inhibit that increase. Three day supplementation of a chow diet, with oleic acid, induced an increase in M2 macrophage markers in the MAT, but not in the epididymal AT. We tested whether increases in M2 macrophages occur during short term ad lib feeding of a high fat diet, containing oleic acid. Experiments revealed two distinct populations of macrophages were altered by a three day high milk-fat diet. One population, phenotypically intermediate for F4/80, showed diet-induced increases in CD206, an anti-inflammatory marker characteristic of M2 macrophages intrinsic to the AT. Evidence for a second population, phenotypically F4/80(HI)CD11b(HI) macrophages, showed increased association with the MAT following short term feeding that is dependent on the adhesion molecule, ICAM-1. Collectively, we have shown that short term feeding of a high-fat diet changes two population of macrophages, and that dietary oleic acid is responsible for increases in M2 macrophage polarization.

  9. Mutations in a delta9-Stearoyl-ACP-Desaturase Gene Are Associated with Enhanced Stearic Acid Levels in Soybean Seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.; Shanklin, J.; Burton, J. W.; Upchurch, R. G.; Whittle, E.; Dewey, R. E.

    2008-11-01

    Stearic acid (18:0) is typically a minor component of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil, accounting for only 2 to 4% of the total fatty acid content. Increasing stearic acid levels of soybean oil would lead to enhanced oxidative stability, potentially reducing the need for hydrogenation, a process leading to the formation of undesirable trans fatty acids. Although mutagenesis strategies have been successful in developing soybean germplasm with elevated 18:0 levels in the seed oil, the specific gene mutations responsible for this phenotype were not known. We report a newly identified soybean gene, designated SACPD-C, that encodes a unique isoform of {Delta}{sup 9}-stearoyl-ACP-desaturase, the enzyme responsible for converting stearic acid to oleic acid (18:1). High levels of SACPD-C transcript were only detected in developing seed tissue, suggesting that the encoded desaturase functions to enhance oleic acid biosynthetic capacity as the immature seed is actively engaged in triacylglycerol production and storage. The participation of SACPD-C in storage triacylglycerol synthesis is further supported by the observation of mutations in this gene in two independent sources of elevated 18:0 soybean germplasm, A6 (30% 18:0) and FAM94-41 (9% 18:0). A molecular marker diagnostic for the FAM94-41 SACPD-C gene mutation strictly associates with the elevated 18:0 phenotype in a segregating population, and could thus serve as a useful tool in the development of cultivars with oils possessing enhanced oxidative stability.

  10. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a...

  11. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a white to yellow powder....

  12. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a...

  13. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a...

  15. Compact oleic acid in HAMLET.

    PubMed

    Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Nilsson, Hanna; Svanborg, Catharina; Akke, Mikael; Linse, Sara

    2005-11-07

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a complex between alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid that induces apoptosis in tumor cells, but not in healthy cells. Heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of 13C-oleic acid in HAMLET, and to study the 15N-labeled protein. Nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy shows that the two ends of the fatty acid are in close proximity and close to the double bond, indicating that the oleic acid is bound to HAMLET in a compact conformation. The data further show that HAMLET is a partly unfolded/molten globule-like complex under physiological conditions.

  16. Temperature effect on a high stearic acid sunflower mutant.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Moya, Valle; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael

    2002-01-01

    Vegetable oil with elevated saturated fatty acid content may be useful for producing solid fat without hydrogenation or transesterification. Under the nutritional point of view stearic acid is preferred to other saturated fatty acids because of its neutral effect on serum cholesterol lipoproteins. Selection of a very high stearic acid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) line (CAS-14), with up to a 37.3% of stearic acid in the seed oil, and the relationship between the expression of this character and the growth temperature are presented. The mutant was selected from the M(2) progeny of 3000 mutagenized seeds (4 mM sodium azide mutagenesis treatment) by analysing the fatty acid composition of half-seed by gas liquid chromatography. In order to genetically fix the mutant character, plants were grown at high day/night temperatures during seed formation. We found that temperatures higher than 30/20 degrees C are required for good expression of the phenotype, the maximum stearic acid content being obtained at 39/24 degrees C. This behaviour is totally opposed to that observed in normal and previously isolated high-stearic acid sunflower lines that contain more stearic acid at low temperature. Thus, a new type of temperature regulation on the stearate desaturation must occur. This line is the sunflower mutant with the highest stearic acid content reported so far.

  17. GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS studies on unlabelled and deuterium-labelled oleic acid (C18:1) reactions with peroxynitrite (O=N-O-O⁻) in buffer and hemolysate support the pM/nM-range of nitro-oleic acids in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Trettin, Arne; Böhmer, Anke; Zoerner, Alexander A; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2014-08-01

    Oleic acid (cis-9,10-octadecenoic acid) is the most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid in human blood. Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a short-lived species formed from the reaction of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2(-)). Peroxynitrite is a potent oxidizing and moderate nitrating agent. We investigated reactions of unlabelled and deuterium labelled oleic acid in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and lysed human erythrocytes with commercially available sodium peroxynitrite (Na(+)ONOO(-)). Non-derivatized reaction products were analyzed by spectrophotometry, HPLC with UV absorbance detection, and LC-MS/MS electrospray ionization in the negative-ion mode. Reaction products were also analyzed by GC-MS/MS in the electron capture negative-ion chemical ionization mode after derivatization first with pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) bromide and then with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. Identified oleic acid reaction products in PBS and hemolysate include cis-9,10-epoxystearic acid and trans-9,10-epoxystearic acid (about 0.1% with respect to oleic acid), threo- and erythro-9,10-dihydroxy-stearic acids. Vinyl nitro-oleic acids, 9-nitro-oleic acid (9-NO2OA) and 10-nitro-oleic acid (10-NO2OA), or other nitro-oleic acids were not found to be formed from the reaction of oleic acid with peroxynitrite in PBS or hemolysate. Our in vitro study suggests that peroxynitrite oxidizes but does not nitrate oleic acid in biological samples. Unlike thiols and tyrosine, oleic acid is not susceptible to peroxynitrite. GC-MS/MS analysis of PFB esters is by far more efficient than LC-MS/MS analysis of non-derivatized oleic acid and its derivates. Our in vitro results support our previous in vivo findings that nitro-oleic acid plasma concentrations of healthy and diseased subjects are in the pM/nM-range.

  18. Plasma lipoprotein lipid and Lp[a] changes with substitution of elaidic acid for oleic acid in the diet.

    PubMed

    Nestel, P; Noakes, M; Belling, B; McArthur, R; Clifton, P; Janus, E; Abbey, M

    1992-07-01

    The effect of additional dietary trans fatty acids (7% energy) on plasma lipids was assessed in a double-blind comparison of four separate diets: 1, enriched with butter fat (lauric-myristic-palmitic); 2, oleic acid-rich; 3, elaidic acid-rich; 4, palmitic acid-rich. The total dietary period was 11 weeks and comprised normal foods plus specific fat supplements. In 27 mildly hypercholesterolemic men, total and LDL cholesterol were significantly lower during the 3-week oleic acid-rich diet, and were similar during the other three diets. For the four diets LDL cholesterol levels were in mg/dl: 1, 163; 2, 151; 3, 165; 4, 161. HDL cholesterol was significantly higher with the palmitic acid-rich diet, 42 mg/dl, compared with elaidic acid, 38 mg/dl, which in turn was not lower than with oleic acid, 38 mg/dl. Plasma elaidic acid concentration rose seven-fold with the trans fatty acid diet but did not increase the vulnerability of LDL to oxidative change. The elaidic acid-rich diet led to significant elevations in the level of Lp[a] compared to all the other test diets. The Lp[a] level increased to 296 +/- 220 U/l in the elaidic acid-rich period from 235 +/- 182 (mean +/- SD) in the first ("butter") period (P less than 0.001) compared with 249 +/- 204 in the palmitic acid period (P less than 0.001) and 236 +/- 201 in the oleic acid period (NS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. A review of paliperidone palmitate.

    PubMed

    Chue, Pierre; Chue, James

    2012-12-01

    Risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) was the first second-generation antipsychotic available as a long-acting injection. Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone) is the active metabolite of risperidone, introduced initially as an extended release oral (ORal Osmotic System, OROS®, Alza Corporation) formulation (Invega®, Janssen). Paliperidone long-acting injection (PLAI) has now been developed as a suspension of paliperidone palmitate nanocrystals in an aqueous formulation (Invega Sustenna®, Xeplion®), administered monthly by intramuscular injection (deltoid or gluteal). Doses of PLAI can be expressed either in milligram equivalents (mg eq) of paliperidone palmitate or in milligrams of the active fraction of paliperidone. The recommended initiation regimen of 150 mg eq (234 mg) on day 1 and 100 mg eq (156 mg) on day 8 (both administered in the deltoid) achieves therapeutic blood levels rapidly and without the necessity of oral supplementation. No refrigeration or reconstitution prior to administration is required. PLAI has been shown in to be effective in controlling the acute symptoms of schizophrenia as well as delaying time to relapse. Safety and tolerability are comparable to RLAI with no new safety signals. Thus, PLAI may represent the rational development of RLAI with greater ease of use.

  20. Dietary palmitic acid influences LDL-mediated lymphocyte proliferation differently to other mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Tinahones, F J; Gómez-Zumaquero, J M; Monzón, A; Rojo-Martínez, G; Pareja, A; Morcillo, S; Cardona, F; Olveira, G; Soriguer, F

    2004-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that the biological effects of saturated fatty acids depend on the length of their chain. We compared the effect of diets containing different fatty acids on plasma lipids and lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of lovastatin and with increasing amounts of LDL. Lymphocytes from rats fed with a diet rich in palmitic acid had a greater lymphocyte proliferation capacity than those from rats fed with diets rich in oleic acid, linoleic acid, or fish oil. This effect was maintained when small amounts of polyunsaturatwed fatty acids (PUFA; sunflower oil) were added to the palmitic acid diet. LDL receptor activity, measured by the capacity of lovastatin to revert the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation with increasing amounts of LDL in the medium, was greater in the rats fed with palmitic acid, and was similar to the other groups when small amounts of PUFA were added. All the groups had similar levels of plasma cholesterol, but the LDL levels were significantly lower in the group fed with palmitic acid plus PUFA. The highest HDL-cholesterol (HDLc) levels were found in the palmitic acid group and the lowest LDL-cholesterol (LDLc)/HDLc ratio in the palmitic acid plus PUFA group. These results suggest that diets rich in palmitic acid do not raise total cholesterol, but reduce LDLc or keep it normal, and raise HDLc levels. This effect may be partly due to an increase in LDL receptor activity. The inclusion of small amounts of PUFA in the diet rich in palmitic acid substantially modified the LDL receptor response in the lymphocytes, suggesting that the proportion of different families of dietary fatty acids may be more important than the individual amount of each in absolute terms to explain their effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins.

  1. 21 CFR 182.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 182.3149 Section 182.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3149 Ascorbyl palmitate. (a) Product. Ascorbyl...

  2. Palmitic Acid and Health: Introduction.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Moreno, Luis; Shamir, Raanan

    2016-09-09

    Interest in the dietary role and metabolic effect of saturated fatty acids has been recently renewed on the basis of epidemiologic observations and economical approach to health and well-being. Saturated fats may favorably increase blood HDL-Cholesterol levels without significant changes of the total cholesterol/HDL-Cholesterol ratio. Also, the negative effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular diseases risk has recently been challenged. Palmitic acid, among all, may have special structural and functional roles in utero and in infancy, and indeed is it is being delivered in a unique form in human milk. Future research should include objective cost-benefit analyses when disentangling the role of saturated fats in dietary recommendations.

  3. Hydroxy-oleic acid, but not oleic acid, inhibits pharmacologic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Oleic acid (OA) and other fatty acids can become abundant in the systemic circulation after air pollution exposure as endogenously released lipolysis byproducts or by entering the body as a component of air pollution. Vascular damage has been observed with OA infusion, but it is not yet established whether increased circulating OA is able to produce the type of adverse cardiovascular effects associated with exposure to air pollution, or the mechanisms involved with such damage. Based on responses observed upon exposure of cultured endothelial cells, we hypothesized that OA and a hydroxylated metabolite (12-OH OA) would increase vascular tissue injury and impair vascular reactivity. Thoracic descending aorta tissue was collected from male Wistar Kyoto rats, aged 13-16 weeks. Prior to reactivity testing, independent LDH assays were performed with aortic rings to establish a subcytotoxic OA dose. To determine changes in vascular reactivity, aortic ring segments (n=3-4) were exposed for 1 hr to 100 µM OA, 12-OH OA, or an equivalent EtOH vehicle, followed by testing using myography and pharmacologic agents. Only 12-OH OA exposure significantly inhibited acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in aortic ring segments (25-30% reduction relative to EtOH control), based on maximum relaxation and dose-response. No change was seen in smooth muscle sensitivity to an exogenous nitric oxide source, sodium nitroprusside. Maximum aortic contractile force ge

  4. Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

  5. The production of ω-hydroxy palmitic acid using fatty acid metabolism and cofactor optimization in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sung, Changmin; Jung, Eunok; Choi, Kwon-Young; Bae, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Minsuk; Kim, Joonwon; Kim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Pyoung Il; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxylated fatty acids (HFAs) are used as important precursors for bulk and fine chemicals in the chemical industry. Here, to overproduce long-chain (C16-C18) fatty acids and hydroxy fatty acid, their biosynthetic pathways including thioesterase (Lreu_0335) from Lactobacillus reuteri DSM20016, β-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase (fabZ) from Escherichia coli, and a P450 system (i.e., CYP153A from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 and camA/camB from Pseudomonas putida ATCC17453) were overexpressed. Acyl-CoA synthase (fadD) involved in fatty acid degradation by β-oxidation was also deleted in E. coli BW25113. The engineered E. coli FFA4 strain without the P450 system could produce 503.0 mg/l of palmitic (C16) and 508.4 mg/l of stearic (C18) acids, of which the amounts are ca. 1.6- and 2.3-fold higher than those of the wild type. On the other hand, the E. coli HFA4 strain including the P450 system for ω-hydroxylation could produce 211.7 mg/l of ω-hydroxy palmitic acid, which was 42.1 ± 0.1 % of the generated palmitic acid, indicating that the hydroxylation reaction was the rate-determining step for the HFA production. For the maximum production of ω-hydroxy palmitic acid, NADH, i.e., an essential cofactor for P450 reaction, was overproduced by the integration of NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from Candida boidinii into E. coli chromosome and the deletion of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Finally, the NADH-level-optimized E. coli strain produced 610 mg/l of ω-hydroxy palmitic acid (ω-HPA), which was almost a threefold increase in its yield compared to the same strain without NADH overproduction.

  6. Effect of oleic acid on store-operated calcium entry in immune-competent cells.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Celia; Giraldo, María; Cavia, M Mar; Alonso-Torre, Sara R

    2017-04-01

    To study the mechanism by which oleic acid (OA) (C18:1) exerts its beneficial effects on immune-competent cells. Since store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is a Ca(2+) influx pathway involved in the control of multiple physiological processes including cell proliferation, we studied the effect of OA in Ca(2+) signals of Jurkat T cells and THP-1 monocytes, paying particular attention to SOCE. Changes in [Ca(2+)]i were measured using the Fura-2 fluorescence dye. Mn(2+) uptake was monitored as a rate of quenching of Fura-2 fluorescence measured at the Ca(2+)-insensitive wavelengths. Thapsigargin was used to induce SOCE in Fura-2-loaded cells. We showed a clear dose-dependent SOCE-inhibitory effect of OA in both cell lines. Such an inhibitory effect was PKC independent and totally restored by albumin, suggesting that OA exerts its effect somewhere in the membrane. We also demonstrated that OA induces increases in [Ca(2+)]i partly mediated by an extracellular Ca(2+) influx through econazole-insensitive channels. Finally, we compared the effect of OA with stearic acid (C18:0), assuming the emerged evidence concerning the link between saturated fats and inflammation disorders. Stearic acid failed to inhibit SOCE, independently on the concentration tested, thus intensifying the physiological relevance of our findings. We suggest a physiological pathway for the beneficial effects of OA in inflammation.

  7. Measurements of Oleic Acid Among Individual Kernels Harvested from Test Plots of Purified Runner and Spanish High Oleic Seed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Normal oleic peanuts are often found within commercial lots of high oleic peanuts when sampling among individual kernels. Kernels not meeting high oleic threshold could be true contamination with normal oleic peanuts introduced via poor handling, or kernels not meeting threshold could be immature a...

  8. Measurements of Oleic Acid among Individual Kernels Harvested from Test Plots of Purified Runner and Spanish High Oleic Seed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Normal oleic peanuts are often found within commercial lots of high oleic peanuts when sampling among individual kernels. Kernels not meeting high oleic threshold could be true contamination with normal oleic peanuts introduced via poor handling, or they could be immature and not fully expressing th...

  9. Measurements of Oleic Acid among Individual kernels Harvested from Test Plots of Purified Runner and Spanish High Oleic Seed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Normal oleic peanuts are often found within commercial lots of high oleic peanuts when sampling among individual kernels. Kernels not meeting high oleic threshold could be true contamination with normal oleic peanuts introduced via poor handling, or they could be immature and not fully expressing th...

  10. Comparative Study of Stearic Acid/Iron-Oxide Binary and Stearic Acid/Iron-Oxide/Titanium-Oxide Ternary for Use as Energy Storage Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andiarto, Rizky; Khalish Nuryadin, Muhammad; Saleh, Rosari

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a series of stearic acid/Fe3O4, and stearic acid/Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites for thermal energy storage (TES) system were synthesized through a two-step process. Fe3O4 nanoparticles and Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites were first prepared using sol-gel methods and then both samples were mixed into stearic acid by dispersion technique at three different weight % ratio to stearic acid: 5%, 10% and 15% to obtain stearic acid/Fe3O4, and stearic acid/Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites. Morphologies and structural properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), while thermal properties of the sample were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fhermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD patterns demonstrate, that stearic acid/Fe3O4 contained characteristic peaks of Fe3O4 and stearic acid structures, while peaks corresponded to anatase TiO2 structures appear in stearic acid/ Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites. From the DSC measurements, it is found that the maximum latent heat was found at samples with weight ratio of 5%. Moreover, the enhancement up to 20% of latent heat in solidifying as well as melting processes was observed. TGA measurements show high degradation temperature in the range of 246 - 251°C. The TGA results also shows that the residual mass of the sample matches the composition of Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/TiO2 which is added to the stearic acid.

  11. Oleic acid stimulates complete oxidation of fatty acids through protein kinase A-dependent activation of SIRT1-PGC1α complex.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji-Hong; Gerhart-Hines, Zachary; Dominy, John E; Lee, Yoonjin; Kim, Sungjin; Tabata, Mitsuhisa; Xiang, Yang K; Puigserver, Pere

    2013-03-08

    Fatty acids are essential components of the dynamic lipid metabolism in cells. Fatty acids can also signal to intracellular pathways to trigger a broad range of cellular responses. Oleic acid is an abundant monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid that impinges on different biological processes, but the mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Here, we report that oleic acid stimulates the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway and activates the SIRT1-PGC1α transcriptional complex to modulate rates of fatty acid oxidation. In skeletal muscle cells, oleic acid treatment increased intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) that turned on protein kinase A activity. This resulted in SIRT1 phosphorylation at Ser-434 and elevation of its catalytic deacetylase activity. A direct SIRT1 substrate is the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC1α), which became deacetylated and hyperactive after oleic acid treatment. Importantly, oleic acid, but not other long chain fatty acids such as palmitate, increased the expression of genes linked to fatty acid oxidation pathway in a SIRT1-PGC1α-dependent mechanism. As a result, oleic acid potently accelerated rates of complete fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle cells. These results illustrate how a single long chain fatty acid specifically controls lipid oxidation through a signaling/transcriptional pathway. Pharmacological manipulation of this lipid signaling pathway might provide therapeutic possibilities to treat metabolic diseases associated with lipid dysregulation.

  12. Enviromental Effects on Oleic Acid in Soybean Seed Oil of Plant Introductions with Elevated Oleic Concentration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil with oleic acid content >500 g per kg is desirable for a broader role in food and industrial uses. Seed oil in commercially grown soybean genotypes averages about 230 g per kg oleic acid (18:1). Some maturity group (MG) II to V plant introductions (PIs) have el...

  13. 21 CFR 182.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ascorbyl palmitate. 182.3149 Section 182.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3149...

  14. 21 CFR 182.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 182.3149 Section 182.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3149...

  15. 21 CFR 582.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 582.3149 Section 582.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582...

  16. 21 CFR 582.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 582.3149 Section 582.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 582.3149 Section 582.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582...

  18. 21 CFR 182.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 182.3149 Section 182.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3149...

  19. 21 CFR 182.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 182.3149 Section 182.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3149...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 582.3149 Section 582.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5936 - Vitamin A palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin A palmitate. 582.5936 Section 582.5936 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5936 Vitamin A palmitate. (a) Product. Vitamin A palmitate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5936 - Vitamin A palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A palmitate. 582.5936 Section 582.5936 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5936 Vitamin A palmitate. (a) Product. Vitamin A palmitate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.5936 - Vitamin A palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin A palmitate. 582.5936 Section 582.5936 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5936 Vitamin A palmitate. (a) Product. Vitamin A palmitate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.5936 - Vitamin A palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin A palmitate. 582.5936 Section 582.5936 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5936 Vitamin A palmitate. (a) Product. Vitamin A palmitate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.5936 - Vitamin A palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin A palmitate. 582.5936 Section 582.5936 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5936 Vitamin A palmitate. (a) Product. Vitamin A palmitate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. Effects of diets containing high or low amounts of stearic acid on plasma lipoprotein fractions and fecal fatty acid excretion of men.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, R M; Allman, M A; Iacono, J M

    1995-05-01

    Ten middle-aged males participated in a crossover study to determine the cholesterolemic effect of high amounts of stearic acid in a natural diet. They consumed a 20-d stabilization diet followed by two 40-d intervention diets containing either 1.5% of energy as stearic (18:0) acid and 7.3% of energy as palmitic (16:0) acid (low stearate: LS) or 2.4% of energy as 16:0 and 7.3% of energy as 18:0 (high stearate: HS). The experimental diets also contained approximately 10% of energy each as saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and 7.2-8% of energy as polyunsaturated fatty acids. The primary source of 18:0 in the HS diet was sheanut oil (commercially referred to as shea butter) and palm oil and butter in the LS diet. Plasma total, low-density-lipoprotein, and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly lower with the HS than with the LS diet. Total fecal fatty acid excretion was higher throughout the HS period. Apparent digestibility of the major dietary fatty acids showed that all of the selected fatty acids, except 18:0, were > or = 95% absorbed. These data demonstrate that feeding diets containing about two times the usual amount of stearic acid consumed in the United States, contributed to an increase in plasma lipoprotein concentrations at 40 d from an earlier decrease at 20 d. The time required to achieve stable cholesterol concentrations appears to vary depending on the kind of saturated fatty acids present in the diet.

  7. Purification of oleic acid and linoleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arudi, R.L.; Sutherland, M.W.; Bielski, B.H.J.

    1983-01-01

    To permit kinetic studies of the reactivity of unsaturated fatty acids towards oxygen radicals, it is essential to remove traces of hydroperoxides and other conjugated lipid impurities commonly present in commercial samples. Removal of these impurities has been satisfactorily achieved for oleic and linoleic acids by anaerobic low temperature recrystallization from acetonitrile. The uv spectra of commercial and purified samples are compared.

  8. Physicochemical and Mechanical Properties of Bambara Groundnut Starch Films Modified with Stearic Acid.

    PubMed

    Oyeyinka, Samson A; Singh, Suren; Amonsou, Eric O

    2017-01-01

    The physicochemical and mechanical properties of biofilm prepared from bambara starch modified with varying concentrations of stearic acid (0%, 2.5%, 3.5%, 5%, 7%, and 10%) were studied. By scanning electron microscopy, bambara starch films modified with stearic acid (≥3.5%) showed a progressively rough surface compared to those with 2.5% stearic acid and the control. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra revealed a peak shift of approximately 31 cm(-1) , suggesting the promotion of hydrogen bond formation between hydroxyl groups of starch and stearic acid. The addition of 2.5% stearic acid to bambara starch film reduced water vapor permeability by approximately 17%. Bambara starch films modified with higher concentration of stearic acid were more opaque and showed significantly high melting temperatures. However, mechanical properties of starch films were generally negatively affected by stearic acid. Bambara starch film may be modified with 2.5% stearic acid for improved water vapor permeability and thermal stability with minimal effect on tensile strength. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Protective Effect of Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Palmitic Acid-Induced Toxicity in Skeletal Muscle Cells is not Mediated by PPARδ Activation.

    PubMed

    Tumova, Jana; Malisova, Lucia; Andel, Michal; Trnka, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Unsaturated free fatty acids (FFA) are able to prevent deleterious effects of saturated FFA in skeletal muscle cells although the mechanisms involved are still not completely understood. FFA act as endogenous ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether activation of PPARδ, the most common PPAR subtype in skeletal muscle, plays a role in mediating the protective effect of unsaturated FFA on saturated FFA-induced damage in skeletal muscle cells and to examine an impact on mitochondrial respiration. Mouse C2C12 myotubes were treated for 24 h with different concentrations of saturated FFA (palmitic acid), unsaturated FFA (oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acid), and their combinations. PPARδ agonist GW501516 and antagonist GSK0660 were also used. Both mono- and polyunsaturated FFA, but not GW501516, prevented palmitic acid-induced cell death. Mono- and polyunsaturated FFA proved to be effective activators of PPARδ compared to saturated palmitic acid; however, in combination with palmitic acid their effect on PPARδ activation was blocked and stayed at the levels observed for palmitic acid alone. Unsaturated FFA at moderate physiological concentrations as well as GW501516, but not palmitic acid, mildly uncoupled mitochondrial respiration. Our results indicate that although unsaturated FFA are effective activators of PPARδ, their protective effect on palmitic acid-induced toxicity is not mediated by PPARδ activation and subsequent induction of lipid regulatory genes in skeletal muscle cells. Other mechanisms, such as mitochondrial uncoupling, may underlie their effect.

  10. Shear rigidity of spread stearic acid monolayers on water

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, B.M.; Ketterson, J.B.; Miyano, K.; Kueny, A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of Al/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and Mg/sup 2 +/ ions and of pH on the two-dimensional shear modulus of stearic acid spread on a water substrate was determined. A large shear modulus was displayed by the films when the subphase contained Al/sup 3 +/ and Fe/sup 3 +/ ions at the self buffered pH. With Fe/sup 3 +/ dissolved in the subphase, the film displayed a viscous relaxation when strained but no residual stress was observed. No effect was observed with the Ca/sup 2 +/ or Mg/sup 2 +/. Reducing the pH value in the subphase with the trivalent ions caused the shear modulus to disappear. The observations are interpreted in terms of hydrogen bonding.

  11. GROWTH OF LEPTOSPIRA CANICOLA IN THE PRESENCE OF FATTY ACIDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the longer fatty acids, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and Tween 80 showed good growth. Growth was so intense in the case of palmitic acid and...longer permitted reproduction. Most favorable were oleic acid in concentrations of .0001 m and . 00001 m, stearic and palmitic acid at .0001. Tween ... 80 gave good growth, but only in the presence of gelatin, in concentrations of 28.2 to 0.00282 mg%. The best results were achieved at higher concentrations of 28.2 and 2.82 mg%. More than 100 organisms were counted in the field.

  12. Preparation of five 3-MCPD fatty acid esters and the effects of their chemical structures on acute oral toxicity in Swiss mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acid esters of 3-monochloro-1, 2-propanediol (3-MCPDEs), including 1-stearic, 1-oleic, 1-linoleic, 1-linoleic-2-palmitic and 1-palmitic-2-linoleic acid esters, were synthetized and examined for their acute oral toxicities in Swiss mice. 3-MCPDEs were obtained through the reaction of 3-MCPD and...

  13. Development of the Oleic Acid/Linoleic Acid Ratio in High-Oleic Valencia Market Type Peanuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The major fatty acids in peanuts are oleic acid (O), a monounsaturated omega-9, and linoleic acid (L), a polyunsaturated omega-6. Peanuts containing these two fatty acids in a ratio (O/L) above 9 are known as high oleic (HO). Normal oleic (NO) peanuts are those with an O/L ratio less than 9. HO pean...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1702 - Sheanut oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Unsaponifiable matter not to exceed 1.5 percent, (4) Free fatty acids not more than 0.1 percent as oleic acid, (5... the Shea tree Butyrospermum parkii and is composed principally of triglycerides containing an oleic acid moiety at the 2-position and saturated fatty acids, usually stearic or palmitic acids, at the...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1702 - Sheanut oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Unsaponifiable matter not to exceed 1.5 percent, (4) Free fatty acids not more than 0.1 percent as oleic acid, (5... the Shea tree Butyrospermum parkii and is composed principally of triglycerides containing an oleic acid moiety at the 2-position and saturated fatty acids, usually stearic or palmitic acids, at the...

  16. A new low linolenic acid allele of GmFAD3A gene in soybean PE1690

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Relative fatty acid content of soybean oil is about 12 % palmitic acid, 4 % stearic acid, 23 % oleic acid, 54 % linoleic acid, and 8 % linolenic acid. To improve oxidative stability and quality of oil, breeding programs have mainly focused on reducing saturated fatty acids, increasing oleic acid, an...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1702 - Sheanut oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... parkii and is composed principally of triglycerides containing an oleic acid moiety at the 2-position and saturated fatty acids, usually stearic or palmitic acids, at the 1- and 3-positions. (b) The ingredient... percent, (4) Free fatty acids not more than 0.1 percent as oleic acid, (5) Peroxide value not more than...

  18. Changes in Oleic Acid Content of Transgenic Soybeans by Antisense RNA Mediated Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiang-dong; Zhang, Yuan-yu; Yang, Jing; Qi, Guang-xun; Guo, Dong-quan; Xing, Guo-jie; Yao, Yao; Xu, Wen-jing; Li, Hai-yun; Li, Qi-yun; Dong, Ying-shan

    2014-01-01

    The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1), which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71%) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3%) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts. PMID:25197629

  19. Oleic Acid Attenuates trans-10, cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Mediated Inflammatory Gene Expression in Human Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Meaghan; Gobern, Semone; Martinez, Kristina; Shen, Wan; Reid, Tanya; McIntosh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The weight loss supplement conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of an equal mixture of trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) and cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) isomers. However, high levels of mixed CLA isomers, or the 10,12 isomer, causes chronic inflammation, lipodystrophy, or insulin resistance. We previously demonstrated that 10,12 CLA decreases de novo lipid synthesis along with the abundance and activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1, a delta-9 desaturase essential for the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Thus, we hypothesized that the 10,12 CLA-mediated decrease in SCD-1, with the subsequent decrease in MUFA, was responsible for the observed effects. To test this hypothesis, 10,12 CLA-treated human adipocytes were supplemented with oleic acid for 12 h to 7 d, and inflammatory gene expression, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and lipid content were measured. Oleic acid reduced inflammatory gene expression in a dose-dependent manner, and restored the lipid content of 10,12 CLA-treated adipocytes without improving insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In contrast, supplementation with stearic acid, a substrate for SCD-1, or 9,11 CLA did not prevent inflammatory gene expression by 10,12 CLA. Notably, 10,12 CLA impacted the expression of several G-protein coupled receptors that was attenuated by oleic acid. Collectively, these data show that oleic acid attenuates 10,12 CLA-induced inflammatory gene expression and lipid content, possibly by alleviating cell stress caused by the inhibition of MUFA needed for phospholipid and neutral lipid synthesis. PMID:22941440

  20. Oleic acid attenuates trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-mediated inflammatory gene expression in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Meaghan; Gobern, Semone; Martinez, Kristina; Shen, Wan; Reid, Tanya; McIntosh, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The weight loss supplement conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of an equal mixture of trans-10,cis-12 (10,12) and cis-9,trans-11 (9,11) isomers. However, high levels of mixed CLA isomers, or the 10,12 isomer, causes chronic inflammation, lipodystrophy, or insulin resistance. We previously demonstrated that 10,12 CLA decreases de novo lipid synthesis along with the abundance and activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1, a δ-9 desaturase essential for the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Thus, we hypothesized that the 10,12 CLA-mediated decrease in SCD-1, with the subsequent decrease in MUFA, was responsible for the observed effects. To test this hypothesis, 10,12 CLA-treated human adipocytes were supplemented with oleic acid for 12 h to 7 days, and inflammatory gene expression, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and lipid content were measured. Oleic acid reduced inflammatory gene expression in a dose-dependent manner, and restored the lipid content of 10,12 CLA-treated adipocytes without improving insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In contrast, supplementation with stearic acid, a substrate for SCD-1, or 9,11 CLA did not prevent inflammatory gene expression by 10,12 CLA. Notably, 10,12 CLA impacted the expression of several G-protein coupled receptors that was attenuated by oleic acid. Collectively, these data show that oleic acid attenuates 10,12 CLA-induced inflammatory gene expression and lipid content, possibly by alleviating cell stress caused by the inhibition of MUFA needed for phospholipid and neutral lipid synthesis.

  1. Identification and expression of a stearoyl-ACP desaturase gene responsible for oleic acid accumulation in Xanthoceras sorbifolia seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Qiuqi; Li, Rufang; Xia, Xinli; Qin, Xiaowei; Guo, Huihong

    2015-02-01

    Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge is an oilseed tree that grows well on barren lands in dry climate. Its seeds contain a large amount of oil rich in oleic acid (18:1(Δ9)) and linoleic acid (18:2(Δ9, 12)). However, the molecular regulation of oil biosynthesis in X. sorbifolia seeds is poorly understood. Stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD, EC 1.14.99.6) is a plastid-localized soluble desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of stearic acid (18:0) to oleic acid, which plays a key role in determining the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, a full-length cDNA of XsSAD was isolated from developing X. sorbifolia embryos. The XsSAD open reading frame had 1194-bp, encoding a polypeptide of 397 amino acids. XsSAD expression in Escherichia coli cells resulted in increased 18:1(Δ9) level, confirming the biological activity of the enzyme encoded by XsSAD. XsSAD expression in Arabidopsis ssi2 mutants partially restored the morphological phenotype and effectively increased the 18:1(Δ9) level. The levels of other unsaturated fatty acids synthesized with 18:1(Δ9) as the substrate also increased to some degree. XsSAD in X. sorbifolia had a much higher expression in embryos than in leaves and petals. XsSAD expression also correlated well with the oleic acid, unsaturated fatty acid, and total fatty acid levels in developing embryos. These data suggested that XsSAD determined the synthesis of oleic acid and contributed to the accumulation of unsaturated fatty acid and total oil in X. sorbifolia seeds. A preliminary tobacco rattle virus-based virus-induced gene silencing system established in X. sorbifolia can also be helpful for further analyzing the functions of XsSAD and other oil synthesis-related genes in woody plants.

  2. Functionality of maize, wheat, teff and cassava starches with stearic acid and xanthan gum.

    PubMed

    Maphalla, Thabelang Gladys; Emmambux, Mohammad Naushad

    2016-01-20

    Consumer concerns to synthetic chemicals have led to strong preference for 'clean' label starches. Lipid and hydrocolloids are food friendly chemicals. This study determines the effects of stearic acid and xanthan gum alone and in combination on the functionality of maize, wheat, teff and cassava starches. An increase in viscosity was observed for all starches with stearic acid and xanthan gum compared to the controls with cassava having the least increase. A further increase in viscosity was observed for the cereal starches with combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum. Stearic acid reduced retrogradation, resulting in soft textured pastes. Combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum reduced the formation of type IIb amylose-lipid complexes, syneresis, and hysteresis in cereal starches compared to stearic acid alone. A combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum produce higher viscosity non-gelling starches and xanthan gum addition increases physical stability to freezing and better structural recovery after shear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Covalent modification of platelet proteins by palmitate

    SciTech Connect

    Muszbek, L.; Laposata, M. )

    1989-09-01

    Covalent attachment of fatty acid to proteins plays an important role in association of certain proteins with hydrophobic membrane structures. In platelets, the structure of many membrane glycoproteins (GPs) has been examined in detail, but the question of fatty acid acylation of platelet proteins has not been addressed. In this study, we wished to determine (a) whether platelet proteins could be fatty acid acylated; and, if so, (b) whether these modified proteins were present in isolated platelet membranes and cytoskeletal fractions; and (c) if the pattern of fatty acid acylated proteins changed on stimulation of the platelets with the agonist thrombin. We observed that in platelets allowed to incorporate 3H-palmitate, a small percentage (1.37%) of radioactivity incorporated into the cells became covalently bound to protein. Selective cleavage of thioester, thioester plus O-ester, and amide-linked 3H-fatty acids from proteins, and their subsequent analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that the greatest part of 3H-fatty acid covalently bound to protein was thioester-linked 3H-palmitate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorography, at least ten major radiolabeled proteins were detected. Activation of platelets by thrombin greatly increased the quantity of 3H-palmitoylated proteins associated with the cytoskeleton. Nearly all radiolabeled proteins were recovered in the membrane fraction, indicating that these proteins are either integral or peripheral membrane proteins or proteins tightly associated to membrane constituents. Components of the GPIIb-IIIa complex were not palmitoylated. Thus, platelet proteins are significantly modified posttranslationally by 3H-palmitate, and incorporation of palmitoylated proteins into the cytoskeleton is a prominent component of the platelet response to thrombin stimulation.

  4. Wollastonite hybridizing stearic acid as thermal energy storage material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dawei; Yang, Huaming

    2014-11-01

    This paper reported on the preparation of a novel stearic acid (SA)/wollastonite (W) composite as a form-stable phase change material (PCM) for thermal energy-storage (TES) by vacuum impregnation, and especially investigated the effect of the size grade of W on the thermal properties of the SA/W composite. Samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser particle-size analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Natural W (Wr) was classified into four size grades by wet screening. The results indicate that no chemical reaction took place between SA and W, and the SA load in the SA/W composite increased with an increase in the length/diameter (L/D) ratio of the W. The SA/W composite with a W L/D ratio of 22.5 exhibited latent heats of melting and freezing of 58.64 J/g and 56.95 J/g, respectively, which was higher than those of the composite incorporating natural W. We believe that the as-prepared form-stable PCM composite could provide a potential means of TES for the concentrated solar power.

  5. Oleic acid phase behavior from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Janke, J Joel; Bennett, W F Drew; Tieleman, D Peter

    2014-09-09

    Fatty acid aggregation is important for a number of diverse applications: from origins of life research to industrial applications to health and disease. Experiments have characterized the phase behavior of oleic acid mixtures, but the molecular details are complex and hard to probe with many experiments. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics computer simulations and free energy calculations are used to model oleic acid aggregation. From random dispersions, we observe the aggregation of oleic acid monomers into micelles, vesicles, and oil phases, depending on the protonation state of the oleic acid head groups. Worm-like micelles are observed when all the oleic acid molecules are deprotonated and negatively charged. Vesicles form spontaneously if significant amounts of both neutral and negative oleic acid are present. Oil phases form when all the fatty acids are protonated and neutral. This behavior qualitatively matches experimental observations of oleic acid aggregation. To explain the observed phase behavior, we use umbrella sampling free energy calculations to determine the stability of individual monomers in aggregates compared to water. We find that both neutral and negative oleic acid molecules prefer larger aggregates, but neutral monomers prefer negatively charged aggregates and negative monomers prefer neutral aggregates. Both neutral and negative monomers are most stable in a DOPC bilayer, with implications on fatty acid adsorption and cellular membrane evolution. Although the CG model qualitatively reproduces oleic acid phase behavior, we show that an updated polarizable water model is needed to more accurately predict the shift in pKa for oleic acid in model bilayers.

  6. Transfer of Oleic Acid between Albumin and Phospholipid Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, James A.; Cistola, David P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by 13C NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted [1-13C]oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles (vesicles or albumin with oleic acid) and acceptor particles (fatty acid-free albumin or vesicles), the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with >= 80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was >= 90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin; at pH 5.4, <= 10% of the oleic acid was bound to albumin and >90% was associated with vesicles. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The 13C NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data.

  7. Palmitate promotes inflammatory responses and cellular senescence in cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Marina; Vinge, Leif Erik; Alfsnes, Katrine; Olsen, Maria Belland; Eide, Lars; Kaasbøll, Ole Jørgen; Attramadal, Håvard; Torp, May-Kristin; Fosshaug, Linn E; Rashidi, Azita; Lien, Egil; Finsen, Alexandra Vanessa; Sandanger, Øystein; Aukrust, Pål; Ranheim, Trine; Yndestad, Arne

    2017-02-01

    Palmitate triggers inflammatory responses in several cell types, but its effects on cardiac fibroblasts are at present unknown. The aims of the study were to (1) assess the potential of palmitate to promote inflammatory signaling in cardiac fibroblasts through TLR4 and the NLRP3 inflammasome and (2) characterize the cellular phenotype of cardiac fibroblasts exposed to palmitate. We examined whether palmitate induces inflammatory responses in cardiac fibroblasts from WT, NLRP3(-/-) and ASC(-/-)mice (C57BL/6 background). Exposure to palmitate caused production of TNF, IL-6 and CXCL2 via TLR4 activation. NLRP3 inflammasomes are activated in a two-step manner. Whereas palmitate did not prime the NLRP3 inflammasome, it induced activation in LPS-primed cardiac fibroblasts as indicated by IL-1β, IL-18 production and NLRP3-ASC co-localization. Palmitate-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in LPS-primed cardiac fibroblasts was associated with reduced AMPK activity, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial dysfunction. The cardiac fibroblast phenotype caused by palmitate, in an LPS and NLRP3 independent manner, was characterized by decreased cellular proliferation, contractility, collagen and MMP-2 expression, as well as increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, and consistent with a state of cellular senescence. This study establishes that in vitro palmitate exposure of cardiac fibroblasts provides inflammatory responses via TLR4 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Palmitate also modulates cardiac fibroblast functionality, in a NLRP3 independent manner, resulting in a phenotype related to cellular senescence. These effects of palmitate could be of importance for myocardial dysfunction in obese and diabetic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Endogenous methyl palmitate modulates nicotinic receptor-mediated transmission in the superior cervical ganglion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung Wen; Liu, Chao-Zong; Cao, Deshou; Chen, Po-Yi; Chen, Mei-Fang; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Mozayan, Mansoor; Chen, Alex F; Premkumar, Louis S; Torry, Donald S; Lee, Tony J-F

    2008-12-09

    Nitric oxide (NO) is identified as the endothelium-derived relaxing factor and a neurotransmitter with a superfusion bioassay cascade technique. By using a similar technique with rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) as donor tissue and rabbit endothelium-denuded aortic ring as detector tissue, we report here that a vasodilator, which is more potent than NO, is released in the SCG upon field electrical stimulation (FES) or addition of nicotine. Release of this vasodilator was enhanced by arginine analogs, including N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine (a NO synthase inhibitor), suggesting that it is not NO. Analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry identified 2 saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid methyl ester (PAME) and stearic acid methyl ester (SAME), being released from the SCG upon FES in the presence of arginine analogs. Exogenous PAME but not SAME induced significant aortic dilation (EC(50) = 0.19 nM), indicating that PAME is the potent vasodilator. Release of PAME and SAME was significantly diminished in chronically decentralized SCG but not denervated SCG, suggesting the preganglionic origin. Furthermore, release of both fatty acids was calcium- and myosin light chain kinase-dependent, suggesting that both were released from axoplasmic vesicular stores. Electrophysiological studies further demonstrated that PAME but not SAME inhibited nicotine-induced inward currents in cultured SCG and the alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-expressing Xenopus oocytes. Endogenous PAME appears to play a role in modulation of the autonomic ganglionic transmission and to complement the vasodilator effect of NO.

  9. Paliperidone Palmitate Intramuscular 3-Monthly Formulation: A Review in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Yvette N; Keating, Gillian M

    2016-10-01

    A 3-monthly formulation of intramuscular paliperidone palmitate (3-monthly paliperidone palmitate) has recently been approved for the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adult patients in the EU (Trevicta(®)), following earlier approval in the USA (Invega Trinza(®)). This narrative review discusses the clinical use of 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adult patients and summarizes its pharmacological properties. The efficacy of the 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate formulation as a maintenance treatment for schizophrenia has been demonstrated in well designed, phase III trials. Three-monthly paliperidone palmitate was more effective than placebo in delaying time to relapse and reducing relapse rates, and was noninferior to 1-monthly paliperidone palmitate in the proportion of patients that remained relapse-free. The 3-monthly formulation was also more effective than placebo in controlling the symptoms of schizophrenia, whilst not differing significantly from the 1-monthly formulation in terms of symptomatic control. Three-monthly paliperidone palmitate was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with a tolerability profile consistent with that of the 1-monthly formulation. In conclusion, 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate is a useful treatment option for adult patients with schizophrenia who are adequately treated with the 1-monthly formulation, particularly for those who would prefer, or may benefit from, longer dosing intervals.

  10. Hydroxy-oleic acid, but not oleic acid, inhibits vascular responsiveness in isolated aortic tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oleic acid (OA) and other fatty acids can become abundant in circulation after air pollution exposure as endogenously released lipolysis byproducts or by entering the body as a component of air pollution. Vascular damage has been observed with OA infusion, but it is not yet estab...

  11. Hydroxy-oleic acid, but not oleic acid, inhibits vascular responsiveness in isolated aortic tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oleic acid (OA) and other fatty acids can become abundant in circulation after air pollution exposure as endogenously released lipolysis byproducts or by entering the body as a component of air pollution. Vascular damage has been observed with OA infusion, but it is not yet estab...

  12. Hydroxy-oleic acid, but not oleic acid, inhibits pharmacologic vascular responsiveness in isolated aortic tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oleic acid (OA) and other fatty acids can become abundant in the systemic circulation after air pollution exposure as endogenously released lipolysis byproducts or by entering the body as a component of air pollution. Vascular damage has been observed with OA infusion, but it is ...

  13. Interaction among molecules in mixtures of ceramide/stearic acid, ceramide/cholesterol and ceramide/stearic acid/cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Noboru; Hatta, Ichiro

    2002-05-01

    To elucidate the interaction among the molecules which constitute intercellular lipids of stratum corneum, the phase diagrams in the binary mixtures of N-octadecanoyl-phytosphingosine (CER)/stearic acid (SA) and CER/cholesterol (CHOL) were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and by small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. These phase diagrams are mostly expressed by a eutectic type one. However, from their detailed analyses, it was revealed that in the phase diagram of CER/SA a new solid structure is formed just above the eutectic temperature. The lamellar spacing of the new structure is nearly equal to the length given by the sum of the two molecules of CER and/or SA, that is, in the lipid bilayer the hydrocarbon chains of CER and SA lie almost perpendicular to the lipid bilayer surface and the two kinds of molecules distribute homogeneously. On the other hand, in the binary mixture of CER/CHOL, CHOL molecules are apt to be isolated from the mixture. In a ternary mixture composed of equimolar lipids of CER, CHOL and SA, it was found that a pseudo-hexagonal structure takes place even in the solid state. This fact indicates that the three components are miscible and the hydrocarbon chains lie perpendicular to the lipid bilayer surface. We can draw the conclusion that the multi-component mixtures containing ceramide are apt to form the lamellar structure where even in the solid state the hydrocarbon chains lie perpendicular to the lipid bilayer surface and the components with hydrocarbon chains distribute homogeneously.

  14. Oleic acid content is responsible for the reduction in blood pressure induced by olive oil.

    PubMed

    Terés, S; Barceló-Coblijn, G; Benet, M; Alvarez, R; Bressani, R; Halver, J E; Escribá, P V

    2008-09-16

    Numerous studies have shown that high olive oil intake reduces blood pressure (BP). These positive effects of olive oil have frequently been ascribed to its minor components, such as alpha-tocopherol, polyphenols, and other phenolic compounds that are not present in other oils. However, in this study we demonstrate that the hypotensive effect of olive oil is caused by its high oleic acid (OA) content (approximately 70-80%). We propose that olive oil intake increases OA levels in membranes, which regulates membrane lipid structure (H(II) phase propensity) in such a way as to control G protein-mediated signaling, causing a reduction in BP. This effect is in part caused by its regulatory action on G protein-associated cascades that regulate adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. In turn, the OA analogues, elaidic and stearic acids, had no hypotensive activity, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that link membrane lipid structure and BP regulation are very specific. Similarly, soybean oil (with low OA content) did not reduce BP. This study demonstrates that olive oil induces its hypotensive effects through the action of OA.

  15. Transfer of oleic acid between albumin and phospholipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.A.; Cistola, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by TC NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted (1- TC)oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles, the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with greater than or equal to80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was greater than or equal to90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The TC NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data.

  16. Maturity Effects on Contamination of High-Oleic Peanut Lots with Normal-Oleic Seeds of a Large Seeded Virginia Type Peanut Variety.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The need to segregate high- and normal-oleic peanut seeds has lead to investigations into potential sources of mixing. Previous work in our lab examined the development of in two lines of virginia type seeds, Bailey (normal-oleic) and Spain (high-oleic) for changes in the oleic to linoleic ratios (...

  17. High oleic enhancement of palm olein via enzymatic interesterification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Siew Wai; Huey, Saw Mei

    2009-01-01

    Acidolysis to incorporate oleic acid into refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein (IV 56) using various lipases (enzymes) as catalysts to increase the oleic content of the oil was investigated. Immobilised lipases (lipase PLG, Lipozyme TL IM, Lipozyme RM IM and Novozym 435) and non-immobilised lipase (lipase PL) were used in this study to compare the effectiveness of the selected lipases in catalyzing the reaction to produce a high oleic oil. The results showed that the TAG of OLO/OOL content was increased at least 4 fold and OOO content was increased at least 3 fold when a 5% enzyme load was used. Lipase PL showed the greatest increase in tri-unsaturated triacylglycerols (TAGs) content. A pilot scale experiment conducted using TL IM enzyme, followed by recovery of the oil and fractionation allows the production of oils with varying oleic contents. A high oleic content of 56% was achievable.

  18. Interaction of the acid soap of triethanolamine stearate and stearic acid with water.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S; Pudney, P D A; Heppenstall-Butler, M; Butler, M F; Ferdinando, D; Kirkland, M

    2007-02-08

    Stearic acid and triethanolamine (TEA) in a molar ratio of 2:1 were mixed in aqueous solution at 80 degrees C and subsequently cooled to ambient temperature. The structural evolution of the resultant sample during storage was characterized by using light microscopy, Cryo-SEM, differential scanning calorimetery, pH, infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and simultaneous small and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. It was found that a lamellar liquid crystalline phase was formed when stearic acid and TEA solution were mixed at 80 degrees C and multilamellar spheres of a few microns diameter were formed initially after cooling. A hydrolysis reaction (i.e., the reverse reaction of neutralization between stearic acid and TEA) occurred thereafter that caused the breakdown of the lamellar gel phase and the formation of platelet stearic acid crystals. Three polymorphs of stearic acid (defined following previous work as the A, C, and E forms) were formed as the result of hydrolysis reaction, which gave rise to a strong optically pearlescent appearance.

  19. The healing effect of stearic acid applied on amorphous carbon film with dispersed nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Shoji, K.; Ikeshoji, T.-T.; Suzumura, A.

    2012-08-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been shown to improve the friction and wear properties of applications with severe loads. Hydrogenated amorphous carbon films (a-C:H), a type of DLC film, were coated onto 440C stainless steel disk surfaces. The plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition method was used as a coating process, and nanodiamond (ND) particles were dispersed into the film during the deposition process. Stearic acid was expected to affect the lubricating properties of the film because of its reported effectiveness on diamond surfaces. A lubricated reciprocal sliding friction test with 10,000 cycles confirmed that stearic acid improved the friction and wear properties of the ND dispersed a-C:H film. Furthermore, film wear caused by a sliding test without stearic acid could be healed by sliding with stearic acid as long as the level of critical damage was not reached. Raman spectra for the worn tracks revealed the healing effect of the stearic acid on the film because the spectra for the worn tracks after 10,000 cycles were identical to those of the control film, which was not worn. In contrast, the spectra for the worn tracks or debris showed a broad D band peak and no G peak, which was consistent with disordered amorphous carbon.

  20. Dispersion Process and Effect of Oleic Acid on Properties of Cellulose Sulfate- Oleic Acid Composite Film

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The cellulose sulfate (CS) is a newly developed cellulose derivative. The work aimed to investigate the effect of oleic acid (OA) content on properties of CS-OA film. The process of oleic acid dispersion into film was described to evaluate its effect on the properties of the film. Among the formulations evaluated, the OA addition decreased the solubility and water vapor permeability of the CS-OA film. The surface contact angle changed from 64.2° to 94.0° by increasing CS/OA ratio from 1:0 to 1:0.25 (w/w). The TS increased with OA content below 15% and decreased with OA over 15%, but the ε decreased with higher OA content. The micro-cracking matrices and micro pores in the film indicated the condense structure of the film destroyed by the incorporation of oleic acid. No chemical interaction between the OA and CS was observed in the XRD and FTIR spectrum. Film formulation containing 2% (w/w) CS, 0.3% (w/w) glycerol and 0.3% (w/w) OA, showed good properties of mechanic, barrier to moisture and homogeneity.

  1. The ratio of oleic-to-stearic acid in the prostate predicts biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our study examined lifestyle-related factors that may influence the prognosis of clinically localized prostate cancer, we evaluated the relative impact of obesity and prostatic fatty acid concentrations at diagnosis on risk of biochemical failure following radical prostatectomy. Height and weight w...

  2. Palmitic Acid in Early Human Development.

    PubMed

    Innis, Sheila M

    2016-09-09

    Palmitic acid (16:0) is a saturated fatty acid present in the diet and synthesized endogenously. Although often considered to have adverse effects on chronic disease in adults, 16:0 is an essential component of membrane, secretory, and transport lipids, with crucial roles in protein palmitoylation and signal molecules. At birth, the term infant is 13-15% body fat, with 45-50% 16:0, much of which is derived from endogenous synthesis in the fetus. After birth, the infant accumulates adipose tissue at high rates, reaching 25% body weight as fat by 4-5 months age. Over this time, human milk provides 10% dietary energy as 16:0, but in unusual triglycerides with 16:0 on the glycerol center carbon. This paper reviews the synthesis and oxidation of 16:0 and possible reasons why the infant is endowed with large amounts of fat and 16:0. The marked deviations in tissues with displacement of 16:0 that can occur in infants fed vegetable oil formulas is introduced. Assuming fetal fatty acid synthesis and the unusual delivery of 16:0 in human milk evolved to afford survival advantage to the neonate, it is timely to question if 16:0 is an essential component of tissue lipids whereby both deficiency and excess are detrimental.

  3. Mononuclear phagocyte accumulates a stearic acid derivative during differentiation into macrophages. Effects of stearic acid on macrophage differentiation and Mycobacterium tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Restrepo, Sergio Fabián; Caro, Ana Cecilia; Peláez-Jaramillo, Carlos Alberto; Rojas, Mauricio

    2016-05-01

    The fatty acid composition of monocytes changes substantially during differentiation into macrophages, increasing the proportion of saturated fatty acids. These changes prompted us to investigate whether fatty acid accumulation in the extracellular milieu could affect the differentiation of bystander mononuclear phagocytes. An esterified fatty acid derivative, stearate, was the only fatty acid that significantly increased in macrophage supernatants, and there were higher levels when cells differentiated in the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv or purified protein derivative (PPD). Exogenous stearic acid enhanced the expression of HLA-DR and CD64; there was also accumulation of IL-12, TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-1 α and β and a reduction in MCP-1 and the bacterial load. These results suggested that during differentiation, a derivative of stearic acid, which promotes the process as well as the effector mechanisms of phagocytes against the mycobacterium, accumulates in the cell supernatants.

  4. Oviposition response ofLobesia botrana females to long-chain free fatty acids and esters from its eggs.

    PubMed

    Gabel, B; Thiéry, D

    1996-01-01

    Avoidance of occupied ovisposition sites supposes that females perceive information related to their own progency. Fatty acids identified from egg extracts have been reevaluated using a different extraction method, and we have investigated the dose-dependent oviposition response of European grape vine moths (Lobesia botrana) to myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, methyl palmitate, methyl oleate, and ethyl palmitate; all except ethyl palmitate have been identified from eggs ofL. botrana. A methylene dichloride extract of eggs fromL. botrana revealed the presence of saturated free fatty acids (myristic, palmitic, and stearic) and unsaturated acids (palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic) in amounts ranging from 3.9 ng/egg equivalent for myristic acid to 30 ng/egg equivalent for palmitic and oleic acids. The extract also contained traces of methyl palmitate and methyl stearate. The greatest avoidance indexes were observed in response to palmitic, palmitoleic, and oleic acids. All the other compounds tested caused weaker responses. A reduction in the number of eggs laid was observed when moths were exposed to each of the esters applied at 0.3 µg per application spot. Reduction in eggs laid was also observed at a 10-fold higher dose of oleic acid. The present results confirm that general and simple molecules can be involved in the regulation of oviposition site selection and that they may participate in chemical marking of the eggs.

  5. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C.; Ford, Jeffery J.; Lee, John C.; Adamo, Martin L.

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects.

  6. Dietary stearic acid and risk of cardiovascular disease: intake, sources, digestion, and absorption.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Griel, Amy E; Psota, Tricia L; Gebauer, Sarah K; Zhang, Jun; Etherton, Terry D

    2005-12-01

    Individual FA have diverse biological effects, some of which affect the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the context of food-based dietary guidance designed to reduce CVD risk, fat and FA recommendations focus on reducing saturated FA (SFA) and trans FA (TFA), and ensuring an adequate intake of unsaturated FA. Because stearic acid shares many physical properties with the other long-chain SFA but has different physiological effects, it is being evaluated as a substitute for TFA in food manufacturing. For stearic acid to become the primary replacement for TFA, it is essential that its physical properties and biological effects be well understood.

  7. Identification of the molecular genetic basis of the low palmitic acid seed oil trait in soybean mutant line RG3 and association analysis of molecular markers with elevated seed stearic acid and reduced seed palmitic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fatty acid composition of vegetable oil is becoming increasingly critical for the ultimate functionality and utilization in foods and industrial products. Partial chemical hydrogenation of soybean oil increases oxidative stability and shelf life but also results in the introduction of trans fats...

  8. Polymorphism, crystallinity and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of stearic acid and stearic acid-capric/caprylic triglyceride matrices for production of stable nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Severino, Patrícia; Pinho, Samantha C; Souto, Eliana B; Santana, Maria H A

    2011-08-01

    There is an increasing interest in lipid nanoparticles because of their suitability for several administration routes. Thus, it becomes even more relevant the physicochemical characterization of lipid materials with respect to their polymorphism, lipid miscibility and stability, as well as the assessment of the effect of surfactant on the type and structure of these nanoparticles. This work focuses on the physicochemical characterization of lipid matrices composed of pure stearic acid or of mixtures of stearic acid-capric/caprylic triglycerides, for drug delivery. The lipids were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) in combination with selected surfactants to determine the best solid-to-liquid ratio. Based on the results obtained by DSC and WAXD, the selected qualitative and quantitative composition contributed for the production of stable nanoparticles, since the melting and the tempering processes provided important information on the thermodynamic stability of solid lipid matrices. The best HLB value obtained for stearic acid-capric/caprylic triglycerides was 13.8, achieved after combining these lipids with accepted surfactants (trioleate sorbitan and polysorbate 80 in the ratio of 10:90). The proposed combinations were shown useful to obtain a stable emulsion to be used as intermediate form for the production of lipid nanoparticles.

  9. Hydrothermal catalytic deoxygenation of palmitic acid over nickel catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Chao; Marin-Flores, Oscar; Davidson, Stephen D.; Li, Tingting; Dong, Tao; Gao, Difeng; Wang, Yong; Garcia-Pérez, Manuel; Chen, Shulin

    2016-02-01

    Fatty acid has recently received considerable interest as a possible precursor for producing renewable hydrocarbon. In this study, we investigated hydrothermal catalytic deoxygenation of palmitic acid to produce paraffin over a Ni/ZrO2 catalyst with no or low-pressure (100 psi) external supply of H2. The results show that the presence of water greatly improved conversion of palmitic acid and paraffin yield. Significant improvement was attributed to the formation of in-situ H2. Without an external H2 supply, a 64.2 C% conversion of palmitic acid was achieved in the presence of water, while only a 17.2 C% conversion was achieved without water. The results also show that the presence of water suppressed the side reactions of palmitic acid, specifically ketonization and esterification. We concluded that, compared with decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation, decarbonylation was the major route for palmitic acid deoxygenation catalyzed by Ni/ZrO2. Varieties of shorter-chain paraffin (C8–C14) were formed through hydrogenolysis, which also produced a considerable amount of CH4. A viable reaction pathway for hydrothermal catalytic deoxygenation of palmitic acid in the presence of Ni/ZrO2 was suggested. The results show that hydrogenolysis and decarbonylation were the major reactions that occurred. This study demonstrates that this hydrothermal catalytic process is a promising approach for producing liquid paraffin (C8–C15) from fatty acids under no or low-pressure H2.

  10. Increased palmitate intake: higher acylcarnitine concentrations without impaired progression of β-oxidation1[S

    PubMed Central

    Kien, C. Lawrence; Matthews, Dwight E.; Poynter, Matthew E.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Fukagawa, Naomi K.; Crain, Karen I.; Ebenstein, David B.; Tarleton, Emily K.; Stevens, Robert D.; Koves, Timothy R.; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is associated with higher blood concentrations of medium-chain acylcarnitines (MCACs), and we hypothesized that PA may inhibit progression of FA β-oxidation. Using a cross-over design, 17 adults were fed high PA (HPA) and low PA/high oleic acid (HOA) diets, each for 3 weeks. The [1-13C]PA and [13-13C]PA tracers were administered with food in random order with each diet, and we assessed PA oxidation (PA OX) and serum AC concentration to determine whether a higher PA intake promoted incomplete PA OX. Dietary PA was completely oxidized during the HOA diet, but only about 40% was oxidized during the HPA diet. The [13-13C]PA/[1-13C]PA ratio of PA OX had an approximate value of 1.0 for either diet, but the ratio of the serum concentrations of MCACs to long-chain ACs (LCACs) was significantly higher during the HPA diet. Thus, direct measurement of PA OX did not confirm that the HPA diet caused incomplete PA OX, despite the modest, but statistically significant, increase in the ratio of MCACs to LCACs in blood. PMID:26156077

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Noha M.; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M.; Algandaby, Mardi M.; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Noha M; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M; Algandaby, Mardi M; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models.

  13. Dietary intake of palmitate and oleate has broad impact on systemic and tissue lipid profiles in humans123

    PubMed Central

    Kien, C Lawrence; Bunn, Janice Y; Stevens, Robert; Bain, James; Ikayeva, Olga; Crain, Karen; Koves, Timothy R; Muoio, Deborah M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence has suggested that diets with a high ratio of palmitic acid (PA) to oleic acid (OA) increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: To gain additional insights into the relative effect of dietary fatty acids and their metabolism on CVD risk, we sought to identify a metabolomic signature that tracks with diet-induced changes in blood lipid concentrations and whole-body fat oxidation. Design: We applied comprehensive metabolomic profiling tools to biological specimens collected from 18 healthy adults enrolled in a crossover trial that compared a 3-wk high–palmitic acid (HPA) with a low–palmitic acid and high–oleic acid (HOA) diet. Results: A principal components analysis of the data set including 329 variables measured in 15 subjects in the fasted state identified one factor, the principal components analysis factor in the fasted state (PCF1-Fasted), which was heavily weighted by the PA:OA ratio of serum and muscle lipids, that was affected by diet (P < 0.0001; HPA greater than HOA). One other factor, the additional principal components analysis factor in the fasted state (PCF2-Fasted), reflected a wide range of acylcarnitines and was affected by diet in women only (P = 0.0198; HPA greater than HOA). HOA lowered the ratio of serum low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein (LDL:HDL) in men and women, and adjustment for the PCF1-Fasted abolished the effect. In women only, adjustment for the PCF2-Fasted eliminated the HOA-diet effect on serum total- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The respiratory exchange ratio in the fasted state was lower with the HPA diet (P = 0.04), and the diet effect was eliminated after adjustment for the PCF1-Fasted. The messenger RNA expression of the cholesterol regulatory gene insulin-induced gene-1 was higher with the HOA diet (P = 0.008). Conclusions: These results suggest that replacing dietary PA with OA reduces the blood LDL concentration and whole-body fat oxidation by

  14. Stearic acid based oleogels: a study on the molecular, thermal and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Sagiri, S S; Singh, Vinay K; Pal, K; Banerjee, I; Basak, Piyali

    2015-03-01

    Stearic acid and its derivatives have been used as gelators in food and pharmaceutical gel formulations. However, the mechanism pertaining to the stearic acid based gelation has not been deciphered yet. Keeping that in mind, we investigated the role of stearic acid on physic-chemical properties of oleogel. For this purpose, two different oil (sesame oil and soy bean oil) formulations/oleogels were prepared. In depth analysis of gel kinetics, gel microstructure, molecular interactions, thermal and mechanical behaviors of the oleogels were done. The properties of the oleogels were dependent on the type of the vegetable oil used and the concentration of the stearic acid. Avrami analysis of DSC thermograms indicated that heterogeneous nucleation was coupled with the one-dimensional growth of gelator fibers as the key phenomenon in the formation of oleogels. Viscoelastic and pseudoplastic nature of the oleogels was analyzed in-depth by fitting the stress relaxation data in modified Peleg's model and rheological studies, respectively. Textural studies have revealed that the coexistence of hydrogen bond dissipation and formation of new bonds is possible under stress conditions in the physical oleogels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analytical method for studying terahertz vibrations in a stearic acid single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanno, Takenori; Arnold, Stevanus; Asari, Junya; Yodokawa, Shinichi; Kurabayashi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    The anisotropy of terahertz absorption was investigated for a B-form single crystal of stearic acid. A polarized terahertz spectrometer was used to obtain absorption spectra over the range of 1-5 THz. Seven vibrational modes were observed; four exhibited significant angular dependence. Additionally, we demonstrated a simple approach for estimating the angle of the dipole moment for each vibrational mode.

  16. Effect of microfluidized and stearic acid modified soy protein in natural rubber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microfluidized and stearic acid modified soy protein aggregates were used to reinforced natural rubber. The size of soy protein particles was reduced with a microfluidizing and ball milling process. Filler size reduction with longer ball milling time tends to increase tensile strength of the rubber ...

  17. Improvement of Liver Cell Therapy in Rats by Dietary Stearic Acid.

    PubMed

    Hashemi Goradel, Nasser; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali; Darabi, Masoud; Roshangar, Leila; Asadi, Maryam; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Nouri, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Stearic acid is known as a potent anti-inflammatory lipid. This fatty acid has profound and diverse effects on liver metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of stearic acid on markers of hepatocyte transplantation in rats with acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver damage. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 10-day treatment. Stearic acid was administered to the rats with APAP-induced liver damage. The isolated liver cells were infused intraperitoneally into rats. Blood samples were obtained to evaluate the changes in the serum liver enzymes, including activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the level of serum albumin. To assess the engraftment of infused hepatocytes, rats were euthanized, and the liver DNA was used for PCR using sex-determining region Y (SRY) primers. The levels of AST, ALT and ALP in the serum of rats with APAP-induced liver injury were significantly increased and returned to the levels in control group by day six. The APAP-induced decrease in albumin was significantly improved in rats through cell therapy, when compared with that in the APAP-alone treated rats. SRY PCR analysis showed the presence of the transplanted cells in the liver of transplanted rats. Stearic acid-rich diet in combination with cell therapy accelerates the recovering of hepatic dysfunction in a rat model of liver injury.

  18. Oleic acid-derived oleoylethanolamide: A nutritional science perspective.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kate J; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Shearer, Gregory C; West, Sheila G; Reddivari, Lavanya; Jones, Peter J H

    2017-07-01

    The fatty acid ethanolamide oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endogenous lipid mediator derived from the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid. OEA is synthesized from membrane glycerophospholipids and is a high-affinity agonist of the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α). Dietary intake of oleic acid elevates circulating levels of OEA in humans by increasing substrate availability for OEA biosynthesis. Numerous clinical studies demonstrate a beneficial relationship between high-oleic acid diets and body composition, with emerging evidence to suggest OEA may mediate this response through modulation of lipid metabolism and energy intake. OEA exposure has been shown to stimulate fatty acid uptake, lipolysis, and β-oxidation, and also promote food intake control. Future research on high-oleic acid diets and body composition is warranted to confirm these outcomes and elucidate the underlying mechanisms by which oleic acid exerts its biological effects. These findings have significant practical implications, as the oleic acid-derived OEA molecule may be a promising therapeutic agent for weight management and obesity treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Olestra ingestion and retinyl palmitate absorption in humans.

    PubMed

    Daher, G C; Cooper, D A; Zorich, N L; King, D; Riccardi, K A; Peters, J C

    1997-08-01

    This study examined the effect of olestra, a zero-calorie fat replacement, on the absorption of retinyl palmitate in humans. After a 30-d adaptation period during which they consumed 10 g olestra/d in potato chips under free-living conditions, 68 healthy male subjects were housed in a metabolic ward and given a single dose of retinyl palmitate (0.33 RDA) containing a trace amount of 3H-retinyl palmitate with a breakfast that contained 0, 8, 20 or 32 g of olestra and about 38 g of triglyceride. Blood was collected at defined intervals for 48 h and plasma analyzed for 3H-retinyl esters by HPLC and liquid scintillation spectrometry. There was no significant effect on retinyl palmitate absorption as determined from the area under the plasma 3H-retinyl esters concentration-time curve. However, an area under the plasma concentration-time curve in the 32-g olestra group that was 81% (mean value) or 70% (median value) of the area under the curve for the placebo group suggested that olestra may have affected retinyl palmitate absorption. Inclusion or exclusion of 13 high responders did not change the results.

  20. Switching away from pipotiazine palmitate: a naturalistic study

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Feras Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: In March 2015, pipotiazine palmitate depot antipsychotic was globally withdrawn due to the shortage of its active ingredient. Thus, all patients receiving this medication had to be switched to an alternative antipsychotic drug. In this study we set to evaluate the process of switching away from pipotiazine palmitate within our clinical service, and its impact on hospitalization. Methods: Demographic and clinical data on patients who were receiving pipotiazine palmitate in Northamptonshire at the time of its withdrawal were anonymously extracted from their electronic records and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 17 patients were switched away from pipotiazine palmitate at the time of its withdrawal, all of whom had a prior history of nonadherence with oral treatment. A total of 14 patients were switched to another depot antipsychotic drug, while three patients chose an oral alternative which they subsequently discontinued resulting in relapse and hospitalization. There was a five-fold increase in mean hospitalization among patients who completed a year after the switch. Conclusion: Switching away from pipotiazine palmitate was associated with significant clinical deterioration in patients who switched to an oral antipsychotic, whereas most patients who switched to another depot treatment maintained stability. Clinicians should exercise caution when switching patients with schizophrenia away from depot antipsychotic drugs, especially in cases of patients with a history of treatment nonadherence who prefer to switch to oral antipsychotics. PMID:28101321

  1. Improvement of efficiency in the enzymatic synthesis of lactulose palmitate.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Claudia; Illanes, Andres; Wilson, Lorena

    2015-04-15

    Sugar esters are considered as surfactants due to its amphiphilic balance that can lower the surface tension in oil/water mixtures. Enzymatic syntheses of these compounds are interesting both from economic and environmental considerations. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of four solvents, temperature, substrate molar ratio, biocatalyst source, and immobilization methodology on the yield and specific productivity of lactulose palmitate monoester synthesis. Lipases from Pseudomonas stutzeri (PsL) and Alcaligenes sp. (AsL), immobilized in porous silica functionalized with octyl groups (adsorption immobilization, OS) and with glyoxyl-octyl groups (both adsorption and covalent immobilization, OGS), were used. The highest lactulose palmitate yields were obtained at 47 °C in acetone, for all biocatalysts, while the best lactulose:palmitic acid molar ratio differed according to the immobilization methodology, being 1:1 for AsL-OGS biocatalyst (20.7 ± 3%) and 1:3 for the others (30-50%).

  2. Determination of long chain fatty acids in anaerobic digesters using a rapid non-derivatisation GC-FID method.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles J

    2012-01-01

    A rapid non-derivatisation gas chromatographic (GC) method for quantification of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids was achieved using a flame ionisation detector and a highly polar capillary column at elevated temperature. These long chain fatty acids (LCFA) can accumulate in anaerobic digesters and a simple extraction method was also developed to permit a more rapid sample turn-around time, facilitating more frequent monitoring. The GC method was satisfactory in terms of peak separation, signal response, reproducibility and linearity range. The extraction method achieved recoveries of 103.8, 127.2 and 84.2% for palmitic, stearic and oleic acid respectively. The method was tested on digestate from mesophilic laboratory-scale digesters fed with source-segregated domestic food waste, and showed good repeatability between replicate samples. It was observed that the concentrations of stearic and palmitic acid in digesters routinely supplemented with trace elements were lower in proportion to the applied lipid loading than those without supplementation.

  3. Paliperidone palmitate versus oral antipsychotics in recently diagnosed schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Andreas; Aadamsoo, Kaire; Altamura, A Carlo; Franco, Manuel; Gorwood, Philip; Neznanov, Nikolaj G; Schronen, Juan; Ucok, Alp; Zink, Mathias; Janik, Adam; Cherubin, Pierre; Lahaye, Marjolein; Hargarter, Ludger

    2015-12-01

    Relapse and acute exacerbation are common in schizophrenia and may impact treatment response and outcome. Evidence is conflicting in respect to superiority of long-acting injectable antipsychotic therapies versus oral antipsychotics in relapse prevention. This randomized controlled study assessed the efficacy of paliperidone palmitate versus oral antipsychotics for relapse prevention. Eligible patients with a recent diagnosis of schizophrenia (within 1-5 years) were randomized 1:1 to paliperidone palmitate (n=376) or oral antipsychotic monotherapy (n=388) and entered a 2-week initial acute oral treatment phase. Patients who met predefined response criteria were eligible to enter the 24-month rater-blinded core treatment phase. Patients were evaluated for relapse, symptoms, functioning, quality of life, treatment satisfaction, and tolerability. In the core treatment phase, time to relapse was significantly longer in the paliperidone palmitate (n=352) compared with the oral antipsychotics arm (n=363): 85% of patients were relapse-free at 469 versus 249 days (P=0.019). Significantly fewer patients receiving paliperidone palmitate met the relapse criteria (52 [14.8%] versus 76 [20.9%, oral antipsychotics]; P=0.032), representing a 29.4% relative risk reduction. For paliperidone palmitate, a significantly greater improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score on Day 8 (P=0.021) and a trend at endpoint (P=0.075) were observed. Functioning improvements were comparable between treatment arms. No new safety signals were identified. The observed time to relapse superiority of paliperidone palmitate over oral antipsychotics provides further evidence for the value of long-acting injectable antipsychotic therapies in the treatment of schizophrenia, including during the early stages of illness. Copyright © 2015 Janssen Pharmaceutica NV. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Solid-state interaction of stearic acid with povidone and its effect on dissolution stability of capsules.

    PubMed

    Desai, D; Kothari, S; Huang, M

    2008-04-16

    Capsule formulations of two drugs under development showed slower dissolution upon storage; Drug A, after 2.5 weeks at 40 degrees C/23% RH and 4 weeks at 30 degrees C/60% RH, and Drug B, after 6 weeks at 50 degrees C and 40 degrees C/75% RH. The formulations of both drugs contained povidone as a binder and stearic acid as a lubricant. Replacement of stearic acid by magnesium stearate from the formulation of Drug B, which was selected for further studies, provided rapid dissolution profiles under similar storage conditions with no change occurring on storage. In order to investigate the role of stearic acid further, binary mixtures of stearic acid with the drugs and other excipients used in their respective formulations were prepared and stored at 40 degrees C/75% RH and 50 degrees C. After 1 week of storage, it was observed that povidone and stearic acid mixture formed a transparent, hard, glass-like insoluble substance. It is hypothesized that the substance formed by the interaction can reduce the porosity of the granules and thereby reduces the ingress of the dissolution medium leading to slower dissolution. The infrared (IR) spectra of the glass-like substance showed a slight broadening of the povidone carbonyl band at 1662 cm(-1). The powder X-ray diffraction of the stored mixture showed that the crystallinity of stearic acid was lost. Furthermore, repeated heating and cooling cycles of povidone and stearic acid mixtures in various proportions using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that recrystallization of stearic acid from its melt was strongly affected by the presence of increasing amounts of povidone. Based on the observed solid-state interaction, a combination of stearic and povidone should be avoided for immediate release formulations.

  5. A Guide to the George Palmiter River Restoration Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    AD-Ri34 232 A GUIDE TO THE GEORGE PRLMITER RIVER RESTORATION TECHNIQUES (U) MTRMI UNIY OXFORD OH INST OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES C N HERBKERSMAN MAR 82...Water Resources A Guide to the George Palmiter River Restoration Techniques "DTIC T 3 1 1983 C-) This docurne1’ hc p crt O"ed for p\\."Ai e...Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Contributing Report A Guide to the George Palmiter Rivei Restorat ion March 1982 Techniques 6. PERFORMING

  6. Synthesis, characterisation and antioxidant features of procyanidin B4 and malvidin-3-glucoside stearic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Luis; Fernandes, Virgínia C; Araújo, Paula; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2015-05-01

    The acylation of procyanidin B4 with a saturated fatty acid chloride containing 18 carbon atoms was studied in order to obtain procyanidin B4 3-O-di-stearic acid conjugate. This compound was structurally characterised by mass spectrometry and 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Derivatization of malvidin-3-glucoside using stearoyl chloride in acetonitrile was also performed yielding mono-, di- and tri-stearic ester derivatives. The novel derivatives obtained revealed significant antioxidant activity, although lower than the respective precursors. However, the chemical modification of anthocyanins and procyanidins (water soluble pigments) to more lipophilic compounds has the advantage of increased bioavailability in biological matrices, and to potentiate their application in food matrices and cosmetic products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Defective (U-14 C) palmitic acid oxidation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.E.; Norris, B.J.; Brooke, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Compared with normal skeletal muscle, muscle from patients with Duchenne dystrophy had decreased (U-14 C) palmitic acid oxidation. (1-14 C) palmitic acid oxidation was normal. These results may indicate a defect in intramitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

  8. CO2-Controllable Foaming and Emulsification Properties of the Stearic Acid Soap Systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenlong; Gu, Hongyao; Zhu, Xionglu; Zhong, Yingping; Jiang, Liwen; Xu, Mengxin; Song, Aixin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-06-02

    Fatty acids, as a typical example of stearic acid, are a kind of cheap surfactant and have important applications. The challenging problem of industrial applications is their solubility. Herein, three organic amines-ethanolamine (EA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA)-were used as counterions to increase the solubility of stearic acid, and the phase behaviors were investigated systematically. The phase diagrams were delineated at 25 and 50 °C, respectively. The phase-transition temperature was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements, and the microstructures were vesicles and planar sheets observed by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) observations. The apparent viscosity of the samples was determined by rheological characterizations. The values, rcmc, for the three systems were less than 30 mN·m(-1). Typical samples of bilayers used as foaming agents and emulsifiers were investigated for the foaming and emulsification assays. CO2 was introduced to change the solubility of stearic acid, inducing the transition of their surface activity and further achieving the goal of defoaming and demulsification.

  9. Improvement of β-TCP/PLLA biodegradable material by surface modification with stearic acid.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fengcang; Chen, Sai; Liu, Ping; Geng, Fang; Li, Wei; Liu, Xinkuan; He, Daihua; Pan, Deng

    2016-05-01

    Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) is a biodegradable polymer and used widely. Incorporation of beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) into PLLA can enhance its osteoinductive properties. But the interfacial layer between β-TCP particles with PLLA matrix is easy to be destroyed due to inferior interfacial compatibility of the organic/inorganic material. In this work, a method of β-TCP surface modification with stearic acid was investigated to improve the β-TCP/PLLA biomaterial. The effects of surface modification on the β-TCP were investigated by FTIR, XPS, TGA and CA. It was found that the stearic acid reacted with β-TCP and oxhydryl was formed during the surface modification. Hydrophilicity of untreated or modified β-TCP/PLLA composite was increased by the addition of 10 wt.% β-TCP, but it decreased as the addition amount increased from 10 wt.% to 20 wt.%. Two models were suggested to describe the effect of β-TCP concentration on CA of the composites. Mechanical properties of β-TCP/PLLA composites were tested by bending and tensile tests. Fractures of the composites after mechanical test were observed by SEM. It was found that surface modification with stearic acid improved bending and tensile strengths of the β-TCP/PLLA composites obviously. The SEM results indicated that surface modification decreased the probability of interface debonding between fillers and matrix under load.

  10. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Koichi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Rikimaru; Obata, Toru

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  11. 21 CFR 520.390c - Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. 520.390c Section 520.390c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  12. 21 CFR 520.390c - Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. 520.390c Section 520.390c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN.... Not for use in animals that are raised for food production. Must not be used in meat-, egg-, or...

  13. Cysteine aggravates palmitate-induced cell death in hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Xiaobing; Wang, Zhigang; Yao, Tong; Song, Zhenyuan

    2011-01-01

    Aims Lipotoxicity, defined as cell death induced by excessive fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acids, is critically involved in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recent studies report that plasma cysteine concentrations is elevated in the subjects with either alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) or NASH than normal subjects. The present study was conducted to determine if elevation of cysteine could be a deleterious factor in palmitate-induced hepatocyte cell death. Main methods HepG2 and Hep3B cells were treated with palmitate with/without the inclusion of cysteine in the media for 24 hours. The effects of cysteine inclusion on palmitate induced cell death were determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and MTT assay. Oxidative stress was evaluated by intracellular glutathione (GSH) level, malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and DCFH-DA assay. Western blotting was performed to detect the changes of endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress markers: C/EBP homologous transcription factor (CHOP), GRP-78, and phosphorylated c-jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK). Key findings Elevated intracellular cysteine aggravates hepatocytes to palmitate-induced cell death. Enhancement of ER stress, specifically increased activation of JNK pathway, contributed to this cell death process. Significance Increase of plasma cysteine levels, as observed in both ASH and NASH patients, may play a pathological role in the development of the liver diseases. Manipulation of dietary amino acids supplementation could be a therapeutic choice. PMID:22008477

  14. Biosysthesis of corn starch palmitate by lipase Novozym 435.

    PubMed

    Xin, Jia-Ying; Wang, Yan; Liu, Tie; Lin, Kai; Chang, Le; Xia, Chun-Gu

    2012-01-01

    Esterification of starch was carried out to expand the usefulness of starch for a myriad of industrial applications. Lipase B from Candida antarctica, immobilized on macroporous acrylic resin (Novozym 435), was used for starch esterification in two reaction systems: micro-solvent system and solvent-free system. The esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid in the solvent-free system and micro-solvent system gave a degree of substitution (DS) of 1.04 and 0.0072 respectively. Esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid was confirmed by UV spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. The results of emulsifying property analysis showed that the starch palmitate with higher DS contributes to the higher emulsifying property (67.6%) and emulsion stability (79.6%) than the native starch (5.3% and 3.9%). Modified starch obtained by esterification that possesses emulsifying properties and has long chain fatty acids, like palmitic acid, has been widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications industries.

  15. Oleic acid-embedded nanoliposome as a selective tumoricidal agent.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sujin; Lee, Sangah; Lee, Hyejin; Yoon, Jaejin; Lee, E K

    2016-10-01

    HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cell), a molecular complex of human α-lactalbumin and oleic acid, is known to have selective cytotoxic activity against certain types of tumors. This cytotoxicity is known to stem from water-insoluble oleic acid. In this study, we manufactured an alternative complex using liposome as an oleic acid delivery vesicle. We named this nanolipoplex LIMLET (LIposome Made LEthal to Tumor cell). The LIMLET vesicle contained approximately 90,200 oleic acid molecules inserted into its lipophilic phospholipid bilayer and had a nominal mean diameter of 127nm. Using a WST-1 assay, its cytotoxicity against two cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer) and A549 (human lung cancer), were tested. The results were compared with that of a normal cell line, Vero (from monkey kidney). We found that (1) LIMLET showed distinctive cytotoxicity against A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas bare liposomes (containing no oleic acid) had no toxicity, even at high concentrations, and (2) LIMLET demonstrated selective, concentration-dependent toxicity against the cancer cells: the LD50 values of MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells were 1.3 and 2.2nM LIMLET, respectively, whereas the LD50 of Vero was 5.7nM. The strength of the tumoricidal effect appeared to stem from the number of oleic acid molecules present. Our result suggests that LIMLET, like HAMLET, is an interesting nanolipoplex that can potentially be developed into tumor treatments.

  16. Oleic acid-enhanced transdermal delivery pathways of fluorescent nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Wen; Ghazaryan, Ara; Tso, Chien-Hsin; Hu, Po-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Liang; Kuo, Tsung-Rong; Lin, Sung-Jan; Chen, Shean-Jen; Chen, Chia-Chun; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2012-05-01

    Transdermal delivery of nanocarriers provides an alternative pathway to transport therapeutic agents, alleviating pain, improving compliance of patients, and increasing overall effectiveness of delivery. In this work, enhancement of transdermal delivery of fluorescent nanoparticles and sulforhodamine B with assistance of oleic acid was visualized utilizing multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and analyzed quantitatively using multi-photon excitation-induced fluorescent signals. Results of MPM imaging and MPM intensity-based spatial depth-dependent analysis showed that oleic acid is effective in facilitating transdermal delivery of nanoparticles.

  17. Manipulating catalytic pathways: deoxygenation of palmitic acid on multifunctional catalysts.

    PubMed

    Peng, Baoxiang; Zhao, Chen; Kasakov, Stanislav; Foraita, Sebastian; Lercher, Johannes A

    2013-04-08

    The mechanism of the catalytic reduction of palmitic acid to n-pentadecane at 260 °C in the presence of hydrogen over catalysts combining multiple functions has been explored. The reaction involves rate-determining reduction of the carboxylic group of palmitic acid to give hexadecanal, which is catalyzed either solely by Ni or synergistically by Ni and the ZrO2 support. The latter route involves adsorption of the carboxylic acid group at an oxygen vacancy of ZrO2 and abstraction of the α-H with elimination of O to produce the ketene, which is in turn hydrogenated to the aldehyde over Ni sites. The aldehyde is subsequently decarbonylated to n-pentadecane on Ni. The rate of deoxygenation of palmitic acid is higher on Ni/ZrO2 than that on Ni/SiO2 or Ni/Al2O3, but is slower than that on H-zeolite-supported Ni. As the partial pressure of H2 is decreased, the overall deoxygenation rate decreases. In the absence of H2, ketonization catalyzed by ZrO2 is the dominant reaction. Pd/C favors direct decarboxylation (-CO2), while Pt/C and Raney Ni catalyze the direct decarbonylation pathway (-CO). The rate of deoxygenation of palmitic acid (in units of mmol moltotal metal(-1) h(-1)) decreases in the sequence r(Pt black) ≈r(Pd black) >r(Raney Ni) in the absence of H2 . In situ IR spectroscopy unequivocally shows the presence of adsorbed ketene (C=C=O) on the surface of ZrO2 during the reaction with palmitic acid at 260 °C in the presence or absence of H2.

  18. LNK deficiency aggravates palmitate-induced preadipocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Du, Jie-Yi; Jin, Chen-Chen; Wang, Guo-Hao; Huang, Xiong-Qing; Cheng, Jian-Ding; Wen, Xue-Jun; Zhao, Xiao-Miao; Wang, Guan-Lei

    2017-08-19

    LNK (SH2B3) is an intracellular adaptor protein that negatively regulates cellular proliferation or self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells and some other progenitor cells. LNK is also recognized as a key regulator of insulin resistance and inflammatory responses in several tissues and organs. The function of LNK in adipose tissue is unknown. We previously demonstrated that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mouse model had elevated serum free fatty acids (FFAs) levels and increased preadipocyte apoptosis in visceral fat tissue, showing the occurrence of lipotoxicity. Herein, when compared to control mice, the protein expression of LNK decreased in epididymal fat tissue from the high-sucrose/fat diet, low-dose streptozotocin induced T2DM mouse model. We thus investigated whether LNK could regulate palmitate-induced preadipocyte apoptosis in an in vitro apoptotic model in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. LNK specific siRNA exacerbated palmitate-induced apoptosis and increased pro-apoptotic protein levels of cleaved caspase-3, Bax and cytochrome C; while overexpression of LNK cDNA exhibited significant anti-apoptotic effects. Consistently, LNK specific siRNA further decreased the Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation reduced by palmitate and located on upstream of Bax and cytochrome C. The siRNA-mediated LNK knockdown exacerbated mitochondrial membrane depolarization and mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species production induced by palmitate, whereas overexpression of LNK attenuated that. These results indicated that LNK plays a regulatory role in the palmitate-related preadipocyte apoptosis and might be involved in adipose tissue dysfunction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling protein, oil, and five major fatty acids’ contents in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improved seed composition in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) for protein and oil quality is one of the major goals of soybean breeders. A group of genes that act as quantitative traits with their effects can alter protein, oil, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids percentage in soy...

  20. Identification of quantitative trait loci(QTL) controlling important fatty acids in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acids play important role in controlling oil quality of peanut. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80%, there are several minor fatty acids accounting for about 20% in peanut oil, such as palmitic acid (PA, C16:0), stearic (S...

  1. Process strategies for high titers of lipid production by oleaginous yeasts in undetoxified hydrolyzates of lignocellulosic biomass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oleaginous yeasts can accumulate up to 70% of cell biomass as lipid, predominantly as triacylglycerols. Yeast lipid fatty acid profiles have been reported to be similar to that of vegetable oils and consist primarily of oleic, palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids. This capability provides the oppor...

  2. Process strategies to maximize lipid accumulations of novel yeast in acid and base treated hydrolyzates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oleaginous yeasts can accumulate up to 70% of cell biomass as lipids, predominantly as triacylglycerols. Yeast lipid fatty acid profiles have been reported to be similar to that of vegetable oils and consist primarily of oleic, palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids. This capability provides the oppo...

  3. Glyphosate and boron application effects on seed composition and seed boron in glyphosate-resistant soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean seed is a major source of protein and oil in the world. Seed quality is determined by the content of protein and oil. Soybean seed contains five major fatty acids, saturated fatty acids (stearic and palmitic), and unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and linolenic). Both linoleic and li...

  4. Self-Assembly of Helical Ribbons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    by nonchiral ones (Table 1): NaTC was substituted by a mixture of block copolymer Pluronic F-68 and nonionic sur- factant Tween 80 (in CDLC and LC...ergosterol, lanosterol. ‡A mixture of Tween 80 and Pluronic F-68. §Mixture of the following fatty acids: myristic, palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic, oleic

  5. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in the presence of an alkaline...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  10. Antimicrobial activity and inactivation mechanism of lactonic and free acid sophorolipids against Escherichia coli O157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, we synthesized sophorolipids (SLs) from glucose and either palmitic, stearic or oleic acid via fermentation using the osmophilic yeast Starmerella bombicola, purified and separated the SLs into lactonic and free-acid forms and assessed their antimicrobial efficacy against 5 strains of...

  11. Preparation of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles from amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate complexes by first converting sodium palmitate to silver palmitate by reaction with silver nitrate and then reducing the silver ion to metallic silver. This process produced water solutions that could be dried and the...

  12. Effect of amylopectin on the rheological properties of aqueous dispersions of starch-sodium palmitate complexes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aqueous dispersions of normal and high-amylose corn starch were steam jet cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of sodium palmitate to form amylose inclusion complexes. Partial conversion of complexed sodium palmitate to palmitic acid by addition of acetic acid led to the formation of gels. Bl...

  13. Type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases of Brassica napus preferentially incorporate oleic acid into triacylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose; Denolf, Peter; Van Audenhove, Katrien; De Bodt, Stefanie; Engelen, Steven; Fahy, Deirdre; Wallis, James G.; Browse, John

    2015-01-01

    DGAT1 enzymes (acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyse the formation of triacylglycerols (TAGs), the most abundant lipids in vegetable oils. Thorough understanding of the enzymology of oil accumulation is critical to the goal of modifying oilseeds for improved vegetable oil production. Four isoforms of BnDGAT1, the final and rate-limiting step in triacylglycerol synthesis, were characterized from Brassica napus, one of the world’s most important oilseed crops. Transcriptional profiling of developing B. napus seeds indicated two genes, BnDGAT1-1 and BnDGAT1-2, with high expression and two, BnDGAT1-3 and BnDGAT1-4, with low expression. The activities of each BnDGAT1 isozyme were characterized following expression in a strain of yeast deficient in TAG synthesis. TAG from B. napus seeds contain only 10% palmitic acid (16:0) at the sn-3 position, so it was surprising that all four BnDGAT1 isozymes exhibited strong (4- to 7-fold) specificity for 16:0 over oleic acid (18:1) as the acyl-CoA substrate. However, the ratio of 18:1-CoA to 16:0-CoA in B. napus seeds during the peak period of TAG synthesis is 3:1. When substrate selectivity assays were conducted with 18:1-CoA and 16:0-CoA in a 3:1 ratio, the four isozymes incorporated 18:1 in amounts 2- to 5-fold higher than 16:0. This strong sensitivity of the BnDGAT1 isozymes to the relative concentrations of acyl-CoA substrates substantially explains the observed fatty acid composition of B. napus seed oil. Understanding these enzymes that are critical for triacylglycerol synthesis will facilitate genetic and biotechnological manipulations to improve this oilseed crop. PMID:26195728

  14. Arachidonic and oleic acid exert distinct effects on the DNA methylome

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Martínez, Guillermo A.; Rodríguez-Ríos, Dalia; Alvarado-Caudillo, Yolanda; Vaquero, Alejandro; Esteller, Manel; Carmona, F. Javier; Moran, Sebastian; Nielsen, Finn C.; Wickström-Lindholm, Marie; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Zaina, Silvio; Lund, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Abnormal fatty acid metabolism and availability are landmarks of metabolic diseases, which in turn are associated with aberrant DNA methylation profiles. To understand the role of fatty acids in disease epigenetics, we sought DNA methylation profiles specifically induced by arachidonic (AA) or oleic acid (OA) in cultured cells and compared those with published profiles of normal and diseased tissues. THP-1 monocytes were stimulated with AA or OA and analyzed using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina) and Human Exon 1.0 ST array (Affymetrix). Data were corroborated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Comparisons with publicly available data were conducted by standard bioinformatics. AA and OA elicited a complex response marked by a general DNA hypermethylation and hypomethylation in the 1–200 μM range, respectively, with a maximal differential response at the 100 μM dose. The divergent response to AA and OA was prominent within the gene body of target genes, where it correlated positively with transcription. AA-induced DNA methylation profiles were similar to the corresponding profiles described for palmitic acid, atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity, and autism, but relatively dissimilar from OA-induced profiles. Furthermore, human atherosclerosis grade-associated DNA methylation profiles were significantly enriched in AA-induced profiles. Biochemical evidence pointed to β-oxidation, PPAR-α, and sirtuin 1 as important mediators of AA-induced DNA methylation changes. In conclusion, AA and OA exert distinct effects on the DNA methylome. The observation that AA may contribute to shape the epigenome of important metabolic diseases, supports and expands current diet-based therapeutic and preventive efforts. PMID:27088456

  15. α-Lactalbumin:Oleic Acid Complex Spontaneously Delivers Oleic Acid to Artificial and Erythrocyte Membranes.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hanzhen; Strømland, Øyvind; Halskau, Øyvind

    2015-09-25

    Human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) is a tumoricidal complex consisting of human α-lactalbumin and multiple oleic acids (OAs). OA has been shown to play a key role in the activity of HAMLET and its related complexes, generally known as protein-fatty acid (PFA) complexes. In contrast to what is known about the fate of the protein component of such complexes, information about what happens to OA during their action is still lacking. We monitored the membrane, OA and protein components of bovine α-lactalbumin complexed with OA (BLAOA; a HAMLET-like substance) and how they associate with each other. Using ultracentrifugation, we found that the OA and lipid components follow each other closely. We then firmly identify a transfer of OA from BLAOA to both artificial and erythrocyte membranes, indicating that natural cells respond similarly to BLAOA treatment as artificial membranes. Uncomplexed OA is unable to similarly affect membranes at the conditions tested, even at elevated concentrations. Thus, BLAOA can spontaneously transfer OA to a lipid membrane. After the interaction with the membrane, the protein is likely to have lost most or all of its OA. We suggest a mechanism for passive import of mainly uncomplexed protein into cells, using existing models for OA's effect on membranes. Our results are consistent with a membrane destabilization mediated predominantly by OA insertion being a significant contribution to PFA cytotoxicity.

  16. Oleic Acid: Natural variation and potential enhancement in oilseed crops.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega 9 fatty acid (MUFA, C18:1) which can be found in various plant lipids and animal fats. Unlike omega 3 (a-linolenic acid, C18:3) and omega 6 (linoleic acid, C18:2) fatty acids which are essential because they cannot be synthesized by humans and must be obtained f...

  17. Physical Inactivity Differentially Alters Dietary Oleate and Palmitate Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Trudel, Guy; Simon, Chantal; Chopard, Angèle; Schoeller, Dale A.; Momken, Iman; Votruba, Susanne B.; Desage, Michel; Burdge, Graham C.; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Normand, Sylvie; Blanc, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE— Obesity and diabetes are characterized by the incapacity to use fat as fuel. We hypothesized that this reduced fat oxidation is secondary to a sedentary lifestyle. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— We investigated the effect of a 2-month bed rest on the dietary oleate and palmitate trafficking in lean women (control group, n = 8) and the effect of concomitant resistance/aerobic exercise training as a countermeasure (exercise group, n = 8). Trafficking of stable isotope–labeled dietary fats was combined with muscle gene expression and magnetic resonance imaging–derived muscle fat content analyses. RESULTS— In the control group, bed rest increased the cumulative [1-13C]oleate and [d31]palmitate appearance in triglycerides (37%, P = 0.009, and 34%, P = 0.016, respectively) and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (37%, P = 0.038, and 38%, P = 0.002) and decreased muscle lipoprotein lipase (P = 0.043) and fatty acid translocase CD36 (P = 0.043) mRNA expressions. Plasma NEFA-to-triglyceride ratios for [1-13C]oleate and [d31]palmitate remained unchanged, suggesting that the same proportion of tracers enters the peripheral tissues after bed rest. Bed rest did not affect [1-13C]oleate oxidation but decreased [d31]palmitate oxidation by −8.2 ± 4.9% (P < 0.0001). Despite a decreased spontaneous energy intake and a reduction of 1.9 ± 0.3 kg (P = 0.001) in fat mass, exercise training did not mitigate these alterations but partially maintained fat-free mass, insulin sensitivity, and total lipid oxidation in fasting and fed states. In both groups, muscle fat content increased by 2.7% after bed rest and negatively correlated with the reduction in [d31]palmitate oxidation (r2 = 0.48, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS— While saturated and monounsaturated fats have similar plasma trafficking and clearance, physical inactivity affects the partitioning of saturated fats toward storage, likely leading to an accumulation of palmitate in muscle fat. PMID:19017764

  18. Removal of Grease from Secondary Effluent by Granular Medium Filtration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-24

    verified using TLC analysis (5, 12). Fatty acids of this composition are oleic, stearic, linoleic, arachridic, lauric , and palmitic, and are the...secondary effluent and oleic acid , wnich was DD I FON 1473 EmnTON OF I NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Whm Dote Entered) SECURITY...sterols, fatty acids , and compound lipids such as phospholids (12). Grease and oil are also referred to as freon extractables because of their

  19. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  20. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  1. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  2. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  3. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as a component in the manufacture of...

  4. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  5. Urea biosensors based on PVC membrane containing palmitic acid.

    PubMed

    Karakuş, Emine; Pekyardimci, Sule; Esma, Kiliç

    2005-01-01

    A new urea biosensor was prepared by immobilizing urease with four different procedures on poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) ammonium membrane electrode containing palmitic acid by using nonactine as an ammonium-ionophore. The analytical characteristics were investigated and were compared those of the biosensor prepared by using carboxylated PVC. The effect of pH, buffer concentration, temperature, urease concentration, stirring rate and enzyme immobilization procedures on the response to urea of the enzyme electrode were investigated. The linear working range and sensitivity of the biosensor were also determined. The urea biosensor prepared by using the PVC membranes containing palmitic acid showed more effective performance than those of the carboxylated PVC based biosensors. Additionally, urea assay in serum was successfully carried out by using the standard addition method.

  6. β cells keep bad epigenetic memories of palmitate.

    PubMed

    Fradin, Delphine; Bougnères, Pierre

    2014-06-23

    Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid, a 16-carbon saturated fatty acid (FA), accounts for approximately 38% of the total circulating FA in lean or obese humans. In an article published in BMC Medicine, Hall et al. report that cultured islets from healthy donors, when exposed to palmitate, undergo changes in CpG methylation that are associated with modifications of expression in 290 genes. Their results provide a first look at the mechanisms used by the endocrine pancreas of humans to keep a durable genomic imprint from their exposure to FA that can influence gene expression and possibly cell phenotype in the long term. It is likely that such studies will help understand the epigenetic response of β cells to a disturbed metabolic environment, especially one created by obesity.

  7. Retinol and Retinyl Palmitate in Foetal Lung Mice: Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Olga; Gonçalves, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the lung retinoids content to study the possible difference between male and female mice during prenatal development and to comprehend if the vitamin A metabolism is similar in both genders. The study occurred between developmental days E15 and E19, and the retinol and retinyl palmitate lung contents were determined by HPLC analysis. We established two main groups: the control, consisting of foetuses obtained from pregnant females without any manipulation, and vitamin A, composed of foetuses from pregnant females submitted to vitamin A administration on developmental day E14. Each of these groups was subdivided by gender, establishing the four final groups. In the lung of control group, retinol was undetected in both genders and retinyl palmitate levels exhibited a sexual dimorphism. In the vitamin A group, we detected retinol and retinyl palmitate in both genders, and we observed a more evident sexual dimorphism for both retinoids. Our study also indicates that, from developmental day E15 to E19, there is an increase in the retinoids content in foetal lung and a gender difference in the retinoids metabolism. In conclusion, there is a sexual dimorphism in the lung retinoids content and in its metabolism during mice development. PMID:23365730

  8. Obtaining and Characterization of Polyolefin-Filled Calcium Carbonate Composites Modified with Stearic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croitoru, C.; Pascu, A.; Roata, I. C.; Stanciu, E. M.

    2017-06-01

    In order to obtain high performance calcium carbonate-reinforced HDPE and PP composites, the dispersibility and compatibility of the inorganic phase in the polymer has been achieved through surface treatment of the amorphous calcium carbonate filler with stearic acid. The surface coating of the inorganic phase has been proved by XRD and FTIR spectroscopy, through forming of an intermediate layer of calcium stearate which acts as a surfactant, efficient in providing an optimum compatibility with the dominatingly hydrophobic polymer matrix, as determined from the structural information obtained through samples cross-sections analysing.

  9. Metastable McLafferty rearrangement reaction in the electron impact ionization of stearic acid methyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Mitsuo

    1995-06-01

    The metastable peaks for the McLafferty rearrangement and double hydrogen rearrangement reactions have been observed in the stearic acid methyl ester system under electron impact ionization. The metastable ion spectrum of the M+. ion gave peaks corresponding to the ions at m/z 74, 75, 87 and 88, whereas the collision-induced dissociation spectrum showed low intensity ions at m/z 75 and 88 which come from double hydrogen rearrangement reactions of M+. ions. The kinetics for the change of the molecular ions to different structures before fragmentation have been discussed.

  10. Palmitic acid-rich diet suppresses glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pancreatic islets in mice.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Takumi; Kawai, Toshihide; Hirose, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kumiko; Kurosawa, Hideaki; Fujii, Chikako; Fujita, Haruhisa; Seto, Yoshiko; Matsumoto, Hideo; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to clarify whether dietary palmitic acid supplementation affects glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in pancreatic islets in mice. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three treatment diet groups: control diet, palmitic acid-supplemented diet (PAL) and oleic acid-supplemented diet (OLE). After 2 weeks of treatment, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test were performed. GSIS was assessed by pancreatic perfusion in situ with basal (100 mg/dL) glucose followed by a high (300 mg/dL) glucose concentration. We measured mRNA levels of ER stress markers such as C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (BIP) and X-box binding protein (XBP)-1 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses in isolated islets. Immunohistochemical staining was also performed. Mice fed PAL showed significantly decreased glucose tolerance (p < 0.05). In the perfusion study, GSIS was significantly suppressed in the PAL group (p < 0.05). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that islet CHOP, BIP, and XBP-1 mRNA expression were significantly increased in the PAL group (p < 0.05). TUNEL-positive β-cells were not detected in all groups. Dietary palmitic acid-supplementation for 2 weeks might suppress GSIS and induce ER stress in pancreatic islets in mice, in the early stage of lipotoxicity.

  11. Simultaneous analysis of glycolipids and phospholids molecular species in avocado (Persea americana Mill) fruit.

    PubMed

    Pacetti, Deborah; Boselli, Emanuele; Lucci, Paolo; Frega, Natale G

    2007-05-25

    The molecular species of phospholipids (PLs) and glycolipids (GLs) were simultaneously characterized in the pulp and almond of the avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill) of four varieties by means of high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry. In the pulp, the predominant species of monoglycosyldiglycerides (MGD) were m/z 796.6 (oleic/linolenic and linoleic/linoleic acids) and m/z 800.4 (stearic/linoleic and oleic/oleic acids). One of the main diglycosyldiglycerides (DGD) both in the pulp and almond was m/z 958.5 (oleic/linolenic); however, the pulp was also rich of m/z 962.4 (oleic/oleic), whereas in the almond, m/z 934.5 (palmitic/linoleic and palmitoleic/oleic) and m/z 960.5 (oleic/linoleic and stearic/linolenic) were more abundant. In the almond, the main PL classes (phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI)) contained always palmitic/linoleic acids. Alpha-linolenic acid was contained as MGD (linolenic/linolenic) and DGD (linolenic/linolenic), more present in the pulp than in the almond. The major molecular species of glycocerebrosides (GCer) in the pulp and almond carried hydroxy-palmitic acid (C(16h:0))/4,8-sphyngadienine (d(18:2)).

  12. Production of Structured Triacylglycerols Containing Palmitic Acids at sn-2 Position and Docosahexaenoic Acids at sn-1, 3 Positions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Guo, Yongli; Sun, Zhaomin; Jie, Xu; Li, Zhaojie; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Xue, Changhu

    2015-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation has been shown well-established health benefits that justify their use as functional ingredients in healthy foods and nutraceutical products. Structured triacylglycerols rich in 1,3-docosahexenoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol were produced from algal oil (Schizochytrium sp) which was prepared by a two-step process. Novozym 435 lipase was used to produce tripalmitin. Tripalmitin was then used to produce the final structured triacylglycerol (STAG) through interesterification reactions using Lipozyme RM IM. The optimum conditions for the enzymatic reaction were a mole ratio of tripalmitin/fatty acid ethyl esters 1:9, 60°C, 10% enzyme load (wt % of substrates), 10 h; the enzymatic product contained 51.6% palmitic acid (PA), 30.13% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3) and 5.33% docosapentanoic acid (DPA, C22:5 n-3), 12.15% oleic acid (OLA). This STAG can be used as a functional ingredient in dietary supplementation to provide the benefits of DHA.

  13. Comparative Proteomic Study of Fatty Acid-treated Myoblasts Reveals Role of Cox-2 in Palmitate-induced Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiulan; Xu, Shimeng; Wei, Shasha; Deng, Yaqin; Li, Yiran; Yang, Fuquan; Liu, Pingsheng

    2016-02-22

    Accumulated studies demonstrate that saturated fatty acids (FAs) such as palmitic acid (PA) inhibit insulin signaling in skeletal muscle cells and monounsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid (OA) reverse the effect of PA on insulin signaling. The detailed molecular mechanism of these opposite effects remains elusive. Here we provide a comparative proteomic study of skeletal myoblast cell line C2C12 that were untreated or treated with PA, and PA plus OA. A total of 3437 proteins were quantified using SILAC in this study and 29 proteins fall into the pattern that OA reverses PA effect. Expression of some these proteins were verified using qRT-PCR and Western blot. The most significant change was cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). In addition to whole cell comparative proteomic study, we also compared lipid droplet (LD)-associated proteins and identified that Cox-2 was one of three major altered proteins under the FA treatment. This finding was then confirmed using immunofluorescence. Finally, Cox-2 selective inhibitor, celecoxib protected cells from PA-reduced insulin signaling Akt phosphorylation. Together, these results not only provide a dataset of protein expression change in FA treatment but also suggest that Cox-2 and lipid droplets (LDs) are potential players in PA- and OA-mediated cellular processes.

  14. Effects of stearic acid and gamma irradiation, alone and in combination, on pasting properties of high amylose maize starch.

    PubMed

    Ocloo, Fidelis C K; Minnaar, Amanda; Emmambux, Naushad M

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stearic acid and gamma irradiation on pasting properties of high amylose maize starch (HAMS) were studied. Stearic acid (0%, 1.5%, and 5%) was added to HAMS, and then irradiated at 0, 30, and 60 kGy before pasting. Stearic acid increased the paste viscosity of un-irradiated HAMS from 420 mPas to 557 and 652 mPas for 1.5% and 5% stearic acid, respectively. This observation related well with the formation of type II amylose-lipid complexes, with melting temperatures of about 100-120 °C. Gamma irradiation (30 and 6 0kGy) reduced pasting viscosity of HAMS. Pasting of gamma irradiated HAMS resulted in the formation of type I amylose-lipid complexes, with melting temperatures and enthalpies ranging from 82 to 102 °C and 0.22 to 1.85 J/g, respectively. Stearic acid addition followed by irradiation creates means of producing different types of amylose-lipid complexes from HAMS for industrial utilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structure and Biosynthesis of Cuticular Lipids: Hydroxylation of Palmitic Acid and Decarboxylation of C(28), C(30), and C(32) Acids in Vicia faba Flowers.

    PubMed

    Kolattukudy, P E; Croteau, R; Brown, L

    1974-11-01

    The structure and composition of the cutin monomers from the flower petals of Vicia faba were determined by hydrogenolysis (LiAlH(4)) or deuterolysis (LiAlD(4)) followed by thin layer chromatography and combined gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The major components were 10, 16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid (79.8%), 9, 16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid (4.2%), 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (4.2%), 18-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid (1.6%), and hexadecanoic acid (2.4%). These results show that flower petal cutin is very similar to leaf cutin of V. faba. Developing petals readily incorporated exogenous [1-(14)C]palmitic acid into cutin. Direct conversion of the exogeneous acid into 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 10, 16-dihydroxy-, and 9, 16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid was demonstrated by radio gas-liquid chromatography of their chemical degradation products. About 1% of the exogenous [1-(14)C]palmitic acid was incorporated into C(27), C(29), and C(31)n-alkanes, which were identified by combined gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry as the major components of the hydrocarbons of V. faba flowers. The radioactivity distribution among these three alkanes (C(27), 15%; C(29), 48%; C(31), 38%) was similar to the per cent composition of the alkanes (C(27), 12%; C(29), 43%; C(31), 44%). [1-(14)C]Stearic acid was also incorporated into C(27), C(29), and C(31)n-alkanes in good yield (3%). Trichloroacetate, which has been postulated to be an inhibitor of fatty acid elongation, inhibited the conversion of [1-(14)C]stearic acid to alkanes, and the inhibition was greatest for the longer alkanes. Developing flower petals also incorporated exogenous C(28), C(30), and C(32) acids into alkanes in 0.5% to 5% yields. [G-(3)H]n-octacosanoic acid (C(28)) was incorporated into C(27), C(29), and C(31)n-alkanes. [G-(3)H]n-triacontanoic acid (C(30)) was incorporated mainly into C(29) and C(31) alkanes, whereas [9, 10, 11-(3)H]n-dotriacontanoic acid (C(32)) was converted mainly to C(31

  16. Variation of unsaturated fatty acids in soybean sprout of high oleic acid accessions.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Krishna Hari; Jung, Ki-Hwal; Chae, Jong-Hyun; Shannon, J Grover; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Oleic acid and oleic acid rich foods may have beneficial health effects in humans. Soybeans with high oleic acid (around 80% in seed oil) have been developed. Soybean sprouts are an important vegetable in Korea, Japan and China. The objective of this study was to investigate the variation of unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids, in sprouts from soybeans with normal and high oleic acid concentration. Twelve soybean accessions with six high oleic acid lines, three parents of high oleic acid lines, and three checks with normal and high oleic acid concentration were used in this study. The unsaturated fatty acid concentration in sprouts from each genotype was similar to the concentration in the ungerminated seed. The oleic acid concentration in the sprouts of high oleic acid lines (up to 80%) was still high (>70%) compared to the ungerminated seed. Thus, high oleic soybean varieties developed for sprout production could add valuable health benefits to sprouts and the individuals who consume this vegetable.

  17. Lipoprotein profiles and serum peroxide levels of aged women consuming palmolein or oleic acid-rich sunflower oil diets.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, C; Ródenas, S; Merinero, M C; Rodríguez-Gil, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    1998-09-01

    To investigate the hypercholesterolemic effects of a dietary exchange between 16:0 and 18:1 while 18:2 was at relatively lower level (approximately 4%) in aged women with initially high total serum cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values and with high intakes of dietary cholesterol. Subjects were assigned to two consecutive 28 d periods. In the first period all subjects followed an oleic acid-rich diet in the form of oleic acid-rich sunflower oil. This was followed by a second period rich in palmitic acid in the form of palmolein. Nutrient intakes, serum lipids, lipoproteins, antioxidant vitamins, peroxides and LDL-peroxides were measured at two dietary periods. Instituto de Nutrición y Bromatología (CSIC), Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología I (Nutrición) and Sección Departamental de Quimica Analítica, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. The palmolein period led to an increase in TC (P < 0.001; 17.7%) and serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels (P < 0.001; 18.0%). LDL-C and LDL-Apo B concentrations were higher (P < 0.001, 4.33+/-0.94 mmol/L and P < 0.01, 1.08+/-0.20 g/L, respectively) following this period than following the oleic acid-rich sunflower oil diet (3.56+/-0.85 mmol/L, 0.93+/-0.16g/L, respectively). No significant differences were observed in the TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio between the two dietary periods. Serum and LDL-peroxides were lower (P < 0.01, 49.5%, and P < 0.001, 69.0%, respectively) after the palmolein diet than after the oleic acid-rich sunflower oil diet. The palmolein diet significantly increased TC, LDL-C, Apo B, VLDL-ApoB, LDL-ApoB in women with TC > or = 6.21 mmol/L or with TC < 6.21 mmol/L, but the increase in Apo B, LDL-C and LDL-Apo B was greater among the women with high TC. The palmolein diet increased HDL-C in women with high or with low TC but this rise was on the borderline of statistical significance (P = 0.06) only in normocholesterolemics. Serum and LDL

  18. Calcium Sulfate with Stearic Acid as an Encouraging Carrier for Reindeer Bone Protein Extract

    PubMed Central

    Tölli, Hanna; Birr, Elli; Sandström, Kenneth; Jämsä, Timo; Jalovaara, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Various bone proteins and growth factors in specific concentrations are required for bone formation. If the body cannot produce sufficient quantities of these factors, bone trauma can be healed with an implant that includes the required factors in a carrier. This study was designed to evaluate various calcium salt candidates that can be used as carrier with reindeer bone protein extract to induce ectopic bone formation in the muscle pouch model of mouse. The bone protein extract was either impregnated into the disc form of carrier or mixed with carrier powder before implantation. The radiographic analysis indicated increased bone formation in all of the active groups containing the bone protein extract compared to the controls within 21 days follow-up. The highest bone formation was seen in the group with calcium sulfate with stearic acid where new bone and calcified cartilage were clearly visible. The greatest bone formation occurred in the groups that had bone protein extract readily available. This indicates that the bone forming factors in sufficient concentrations are required at the early stage of bone formation. The calcium sulfate with stearic acid was the most suitable and effective carrier for reindeer bone protein extract. PMID:28824145

  19. Binding of doxyl stearic spin labels to human serum albumin: an EPR study.

    PubMed

    Pavićević, Aleksandra A; Popović-Bijelić, Ana D; Mojović, Miloš D; Šušnjar, Snežana V; Bačić, Goran G

    2014-09-18

    The binding of spin-labeled fatty acids (SLFAs) to the human serum albumin (HSA) examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was studied to evaluate the potential of the HSA/SLFA/EPR technique as a biomarking tool for cancer. A comparative study was performed on two spin labels with nitroxide groups attached at opposite ends of the fatty acid (FA) chain, 5-doxyl stearic (5-DS) and 16-doxyl stearic (16-DS) acid. The effects of incubation time, different [SLFA]/[HSA] molar ratios, ethanol, and temperature showed that the position of the nitroxide group produces certain differences in binding between the two SLFAs. Spectra for different [SLFA]/[HSA] molar ratios were decomposed into two spectral components, which correspond to the weakly and strongly bound SLFAs. The reduction of SLFA with ascorbate showed the existence of a two component process, fast and slow, confirming the decomposition results. Warfarin has no effect on the binding of the two SLFAs, whereas ibuprofen significantly decreases the binding of 5-DS and has no effect on 16-DS. Together, the results of this study indicate that both SLFAs, 5-DS and 16-DS, should be used for the study of HSA conformational changes in blood induced by various medical conditions.

  20. Growth and Dissolution of Calcite in the Presence of Adsorbed Stearic Acid.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Maria; Segura, Juan José; Erickson, Blake W; Fantner, Georg; Stellacci, Francesco; Voïtchovsky, Kislon

    2015-07-14

    The interaction of organic molecules with the surface of calcite plays a central role in many geochemical, petrochemical, and industrial processes and in biomineralization. Adsorbed organics, typically fatty acids, can interfere with the evolution of calcite when immersed in aqueous solutions. Here we use atomic force microscopy in liquid to explore in real-time the evolution of the (1014) surface of calcite covered with various densities of stearic acid and exposed to different saline solutions. Our results show that the stearic acid molecules tend to act as "pinning points" on the calcite's surface and slow down the crystal's restructuring kinetics. Depending on the amount of material adsorbed, the organic molecules can form monolayers or bilayer islands that become embedded into the growing crystal. The growth process can also displaces the organic molecules and actively concentrate them into stacked multilayers. Our results provide molecular-level insights into the interplay between the adsorbed fatty acid molecules and the evolving calcite crystal, highlighting mechanisms that could have important implications for several biochemical and geochemical processes and for the oil industry.

  1. A simple sonochemical method for fabricating poly(methyl methacrylate)/stearic acid phase change energy storage nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guxia; Xu, Weibing; Hou, Qian; Guo, Shengwei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, stearic acid suitable for thermal energy storage applications was nanoencapsulated in a poly(methyl methacrylate) shell. The nanocapsules were prepared using a simple ultrasonically initiated in situ polymerization method. The morphology and particle size of the poly(methyl methacrylate)/stearic acid phase change energy storage nanocapsules (PMS-PCESNs) were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The latent heat storage capacities of stearic acid and the PMS-PCESNs were determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The chemical composition of the nanocapsules was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. All of the results show that the PMS-PCESNs were synthesized successfully and that the latent heat storage capacity and encapsulation efficiency were 155.6 J/g and 83.0%, respectively, and the diameter of each nanocapsule was 80-90 nm.

  2. Oleic acid-induced mucosal injury in developing piglet intestine.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, O R; Henninger, K; Fowler, M; Tso, P; Crissinger, K D

    1993-03-01

    A role for luminal nutrients, in particular products of lipid digestion, in the pathogenesis of mucosal injury to developing intestine has been postulated. We evaluated changes in mucosal permeability and light and electron microscopic histology induced by luminal perfusion with the long-chain fatty acid oleate in developing piglet intestine as a function of age and concentration of the fatty acid. 51Cr-labeled EDTA plasma-to-lumen clearance was measured in jejunum and ileum of 1-day-, 3-day-, 2-wk-, and 1-mo-old piglets during sequential perfusion with saline control (20 min); 0, 1, 5, and 10 mM oleic acid/10 mM taurocholate in saline (20 min); and normal saline (60 min). The jejunum of piglets < or = 2 wk showed significantly greater increases in mucosal permeability compared with 1-mo-old animals after perfusion with oleic acid. This effect was dependent on the luminal concentration of the fatty acid and was associated with mucosal injury evident under light and electron microscopy. In contrast, the overall response in ileum was more attenuated compared with jejunum. Thus oleic acid, a common dietary fatty acid, induces dose- and age-dependent injury in developing piglet intestine. Investigation of the mechanisms of this injury may provide the basis for dietary modifications directed at decreasing the risk of mucosal injury during enteral feeding in neonatal intestine.

  3. Oleic acid-based gemini surfactants with carboxylic acid headgroups.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Umemoto, Naoki; Matsuda, Wataru; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Anionic gemini surfactants with carboxylic acid headgroups have been synthesized from oleic acid. The hydrocarbon chain is covalently bound to the terminal carbonyl group of oleic acid via an ester bond, and the carboxylic acid headgroups are introduced to the cis double bond of oleic acid via disuccinyl units. The surfactants exhibit pH-dependent protonation-deprotonation behavior in aqueous solutions. In alkaline solutions (pH 9 in the presence of 10 mmol dm(-3) NaCl as the background electrolyte), the surfactants can lower the surface tension as well as form molecular assemblies, even in the region of low surfactant concentrations. Under acidic (pH 3) or neutral (pH 6-7) conditions, the surfactants are intrinsically insoluble in aqueous media and form a monolayer at the air/water interface. In this study, we have investigated physicochemical properties such as the function of the hydrocarbon chain length by means of static surface tension, pyrene fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, surface pressure-area isotherms, and infrared external reflection measurements.

  4. Stearic acid coating on circulating fluidized bed combustion fly ashes and its effect on the mechanical performance of polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Nina; Zhang, Ping; Song, Lixian; Kang, Ming; Lu, Zhongyuan; Zheng, Rong

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this work was to test circulating fluidized bed combustion fly ashes (CFAs) for its potential to be utilized in polymer composites manufacturing to improve its toughness. CFAs was coated by stearic acid and used in the composite of polypropylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/high density polyethylene (PP/EVA/HDPE) by molding process method. The resulting coated and uncoated CFAs were fully characterized by particle size analyzer, contact angles, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The stearic acid coated onto the surface of CFAs particles in the physical and chemical ways, and the total clad ratio reached 2.05% by measuring TGA/DTA curve. The percentage of CFAs particles focused to a narrow range 2-4 μm and the median mean size was 3.2 μm more than uncoated CFAs. The properties of hydrophobic and dispersive of CFAs particles improved and original activity was reserved after stearic acid coating. The stearic acid was verified as a coupling agent by how much effect it had on the mechanical properties. It showed the elongation at break of PP/EVA/HDPE reinforced with 15 wt% coated CFAs (c-CFAs) was 80.20% and higher than that of the uncoated. The stearic acid treatment of CFAs is a very promising approach to improve the mechanical strength due to the incorporation of stearic acid on the CFAs surface, and hence, further enhances the potential for recycling CFAs as a suitable filler material in polymer composites.

  5. [Fatty acids profile characterization of white maize hybrids grown in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Alezones, Jesús; Avila, Manuel; Chassaigne, Alberto; Barrientos, Venancio

    2010-12-01

    In Venezuela, white corn is the most important crop regarding production, harvest area and consumption. One of its main by-products is corn oil, whose positive effect on health caused by the high content of unsaturated fatty acids has been widely recognized. In order to characterize the fatty acids profile of twelve white grained maize hybrids extensively grown in Venezuela, and the effect that divergent localities has on this profile, three semi commercial scale trials where established in Portuguesa, Yaracuy and Guárico states. Proportions of the main fatty acids in the raw oil of the different grain samples were determined using gas chromatography. Significant differences (p < 0,01) between hybrids were found for arachidic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, gadoleic and linoleic acids; non significant differences were found for linolenic acid. Significant differences between localities were found for all the fatty acids evaluated. High and significant correlations between fatty acids content were found; the most important relations were: linoleic-oleic (Rho = -0,98**), arachidic-palmitic (Rho = -0,61**), linoleic-stearic (Rho = -0,61**) and oleic-stearic (Rho = 0,58**). Corn produced in Venezuela presents lower levels of linoleic and higher levels of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids than the levels found in temperate corn. These differences involve significant changes in the nutritional properties of Venezuelan corn oil that should be considered in the development of new cultivars and industrial processes for oil production.

  6. Antitumor activity of palmitic acid found as a selective cytotoxic substance in a marine red alga.

    PubMed

    Harada, Hideki; Yamashita, Uki; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Fukushi, Eri; Kawabata, Jun; Kamei, Yuto

    2002-01-01

    In a previous report, we discussed an extract from a marine red alga, Amphiroa zonata, which shows selective cytotoxic activity to human leukemic cells, but no cytotoxicity to normal human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells in vitro. In this study, we identified palmitic acid, a selective cytotoxic substance from the marine algal extract, and investigated its biological activities. At concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 50 micrograms/ml, palmitic acid shows selective cytotoxicity to human leukemic cells, but no cytotoxicity to normal HDF cells. Furthermore, palmitic acid induces apoptosis in the human leukemic cell line MOLT-4 at 50 micrograms/ml. Palmitic acid also shows in vivo antitumor activity in mice. One molecular target of palmitic acid in tumor cells is DNA topoisomerase I, however, interestingly, it does not affect DNA topoisomerase II, suggesting that palmitic acid may be a lead compound of anticancer drugs.

  7. Investigation of the interaction of naringin palmitate with bovine serum albumin: spectroscopic analysis and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Li, Lin; Xu, Zhenbo; Liang, Zhili; Su, Jianyu; Huang, Jianrong; Li, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) contains high affinity binding sites for several endogenous and exogenous compounds and has been used to replace human serum albumin (HSA), as these two compounds share a similar structure. Naringin palmitate is a modified product of naringin that is produced by an acylation reaction with palmitic acid, which is considered to be an effective substance for enhancing naringin lipophilicity. In this study, the interaction of naringin palmitate with BSA was characterised by spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques. The goal of this study was to investigate the interactions between naringin palmitate and BSA under physiological conditions, and differences in naringin and naringin palmitate affinities for BSA were further compared and analysed. The formation of naringin palmitate-BSA was revealed by fluorescence quenching, and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV ) was found to decrease with increasing temperature, suggesting that a static quenching mechanism was involved. The changes in enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) for the interaction were detected at -4.11 ± 0.18 kJ·mol(-1) and -76.59 ± 0.32 J·mol(-1)·K(-1), respectively, which indicated that the naringin palmitate-BSA interaction occurred mainly through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond formation. The negative free energy change (ΔG) values of naringin palmitate at different temperatures suggested a spontaneous interaction. Circular dichroism studies revealed that the α-helical content of BSA decreased after interacting with naringin palmitate. Displacement studies suggested that naringin palmitate was partially bound to site I (subdomain IIA) of the BSA, which was also substantiated by the molecular docking studies. In conclusion, naringin palmitate was transported by BSA and was easily removed afterwards. As a consequence, an extension of naringin applications for use in food, cosmetic and medicinal preparations may be clinically and practically significant

  8. Paliperidone palmitate use in pregnancy in a woman with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Aslı Karadağ; Pak, Şima Ceren; Canan, Fatih; Geçici, Ömer; Kuloğlu, Murat; Gücer, Mustafa Kadri

    2015-10-01

    Long-acting antipsychotic use in schizophrenia has become an advantage for treatment compliance and convenient administration of the drugs. There is no data on paliperidone palmitate (PP) use in pregnancy, which is the longest-acting (i.e., 1 month) atypical antipsychotic. In this case report, we aim to present a patient diagnosed with schizophrenia who had been using PP before and during her pregnancy until week 28 of gestation and gave birth to a male baby that weighed 3000 g at 39 weeks. As far as we know, this is the first case report on PP use during pregnancy.

  9. Palmitate Inhibits SIRT1-Dependent BMAL1/CLOCK Interaction and Disrupts Circadian Gene Oscillations in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xin; Zhang, Deqiang; Arthurs, Blake; Li, Pei; Durudogan, Leigh; Gupta, Neil; Yin, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of serum saturated fatty acid palmitate have been shown to promote insulin resistance, increase cellular ROS production, and trigger cell apoptosis in hepatocytes during the development of obesity. However, it remains unclear whether palmitate directly impacts the circadian clock in hepatocytes, which coordinates nutritional inputs and hormonal signaling with downstream metabolic outputs. Here we presented evidence that the molecular clock is a novel target of palmitate in hepatocytes. Palmitate exposure at low dose inhibits the molecular clock activity and suppresses the cyclic expression of circadian targets including Dbp, Nr1d1 and Per2 in hepatocytes. Palmitate treatment does not seem to alter localization or reduce protein expression of BMAL1 and CLOCK, the two core components of the molecular clock in hepatocytes. Instead, palmitate destabilizes the protein-protein interaction between BMAL1-CLOCK in a dose and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we showed that SIRT1 activators could reverse the inhibitory action of palmitate on BMAL1-CLOCK interaction and the clock gene expression, whereas inhibitors of NAD synthesis mimic the palmitate effects on the clock function. In summary, our findings demonstrated that palmitate inhibits the clock function by suppressing SIRT1 function in hepatocytes. PMID:26075729

  10. [THE EXCESS OF PALMITIC FATTY ACID IN FOOD AS MAIN CAUSE OF LIPOIDOSIS OF INSULIN-DEPENDENT CELLS: SKELETAL MYOCYTES, CARDIO-MYOCYTES, PERIPORTAL HEPATOCYTES, KUPFFER MACROPHAGES AND B-CELLS OF PANCREAS].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N

    2016-02-01

    In phylogenesis, becoming of biologicalfunctions and biological reactions proceeds with the purpose ofpermanent increasing of "kinetic perfection ". The main role belongs to factors ofphysical, chemical and biological kinetics, their evaluation using systemic approach technique under permanent effect of natural selection. The late-in-phylogenesis insulin, proceeded with, in development of biological function of locomotion, specialization of insulin-dependent cells: skeletal myocytes, syncytium of cardiomyocytes, subcutaneous adipocytes, periportal hepatocytes, Kupffer's macrophages and β-cells of islets of pancreas. The insulin initiated formation of new, late in phylogenesis, large pool of fatty cells-subcutaneous adipocytes that increased kinetic parameters of biological function of locomotion. In realization of biological function of locomotion only adipocytes absorb exogenous mono unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the form of triglycerides in composition of oleic and palmitic lipoproteins of very low density using apoE/B-100 endocytosis. The rest of insulin-dependent cells absorb fatty acids in the form of unesterified fatty acids from associates with albumin and under effect of CD36 of translocase offatty acids. The insulin in all insulin-depended cells inhibits biological reaction of lipolysis enhancing contributing into development of lipoidosis. The insulin expresses transfer offatty acids in the form of unsaturated fatty acids from adipocytes into matrix of mitochondria. The insulin supplies insulin-dependent cells with substrates for acquiring energy subject to that in pool of unsaturated fatty acids in adipocytes prevails hydrophobic palmitic unsaturated fatiy acid that slowly passes into matrix through external membrane ofmitochondria; oxidases of mitochondria so slowly implement its β-oxidation that content of exogenous palmitic unsaturatedfatty acid can't be higher than phylogenetic, physiological level - 15% of all amount offatty acids

  11. Retinyl palmitate flexible polymeric nanocapsules: characterization and permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Zaine; Zanchetta, Beatriz; Melo, Bruna A G; Oliveira, Luciana L; Santana, Maria H A; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Justo, Giselle Z; Nader, Helena B; Guterres, Sílvia S; Durán, Nelson

    2010-11-01

    Polymeric nanocapsules with elastic characteristics were prepared by the pre-formed polymer interfacial deposition method. The system consists of an oily core of retinyl palmitate with Span 60 and a polymeric wall of poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA). A narrow size distribution (215 nm, P.D.I. 0.10) was showed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) analyses. Particle deformability was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and permeation of the particles through two superposed membranes of smaller pore diameters. Permeation studies were achieved using plastic surgery abdominal human skin by Franz diffusion cell. Retinyl palmitate permeates into deep skin layers. Besides, a PLA fluorescent derivative conjugated with Nile blue dye by an amide covalent bound was additionally obtained. Permeation profile of the nanocapsules with the fluorescent polymer was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The CLSM showed that nanocapsules were distributed uniformly, suggesting that the permeation mechanism through skin is intercellular. Thus, the use of these nanocapsules may be a feasible strategy to enhance the permeation of actives into the skin when delivery to deep layers is aimed.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Canola Oil-Stearic Acid-Based Trans-Free Structured Lipids for Possible Margarine Application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Incorporation of stearic acid into canola oil to produce trans-free structured lipid (SL) as a healthy alternative to partially hydrogenated fats for margarine formulation was investigated. Response surface methodology was used to study the effects of lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei and Candi...

  13. Effect of processing methods on the mechanical properties of natural rubber filled with stearic acid modified soy protein particles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural rubber was reinforced with stearic acid modified soy protein particles prepared with a microfluidizing and ball milling process. Longer ball milling time tends to increase tensile strength of the rubber composites. Elastic modulus of the composites increased with the increasing filler concen...

  14. Enhanced phagocytosis of group A streptococci M type 6 by oleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Speert, D.P.; Quie, P.G.; Wannamaker, L.W.

    1981-04-01

    M protein, located on the surface fimbriae of group A streptococci, is antiphagocytic by unknown means. It is known that oleic acid kills group A streptococci and distorts the fimbriae. The effect of oleic acid on phagocytosis of group A streptococci was examined. Phagocytosis of a strain possessing M protein (M+) and its M- variant was assessed by uptake of radiolabeled bacteria and by chemiluminescence. The M- but not the M+ streptococci were well phagocytized and induced chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed and heat-killed streptococci (both M+ and M-) were readily phagocytized and induced sustained chemiluminescence. M+ streptococci killed by ultraviolet irradiation were inefficiently phagocytized and did not induce chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed M+ streptococci absorbed type-specific antibody. An extract of M protein reduced the bactericidal capacity of oleic acid. It is proposed that oleic acid may bind to and alter the M protein of group A streptococci and thereby enhance phagocytosis.

  15. An investigation of the likely role of (O-acyl) ω-hydroxy fatty acids in meibomian lipid films using (O-oleyl) ω-hydroxy palmitic acid as a model.

    PubMed

    Schuett, Burkhardt S; Millar, Thomas J

    2013-10-01

    (O-acyl) ω-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFAs) are a recently found group of polar lipids in meibum. Since these lipids can potentially serve as a surfactant in the tear film lipid layer, the surface properties of a molecule of this lipid class was investigated and compared with a structurally related wax ester and a fatty acid. (O-oleyl) ω-hydroxy palmitic acid was synthesized and used as the model OAHFA. It was spread either alone or mixed with human meibum on an artificial tear buffer in a Langmuir trough, and pressure-area isocycle profiles were recorded at different temperatures and compared with those of palmityl oleate and oleic acid. These measurements were accompanied by fluorescence microscopy of meibum mixed films during pressure-area isocycles. The pressure area curves indicated that pure films of the model OAHFA are as surface active as oleic acid films, cover a much larger surface area than either palmityl oleate or oleic acid and show a distinct biphasic pressure-area isocycle profile. The OAHFAs appeared to remain on the aqueous surface and show only a minor re-arrangement into multi-layered structures during repetitive pressure area isocycles. All these properties can be explained by OAHFAs binding weakly to the aqueous surface via an ester group and strongly via a carboxyl group. By contrast, the pressure area profiles of palmityl oleate films indicate that they form multi-layers and oleic acid presumably forms micelles and desorbs into the subphase. When mixed with meibum, similar features as for pure films were observed. In addition, meibum-OAHFA films appeared very homogeneous; a feature not seen with other mixtures. In conclusion these data support the notion that the tested OAHFA is a very potent surfactant which is important in spreading and stabilising meibomian lipid films.

  16. Type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases of Brassica napus preferentially incorporate oleic acid into triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose; Denolf, Peter; Van Audenhove, Katrien; De Bodt, Stefanie; Engelen, Steven; Fahy, Deirdre; Wallis, James G; Browse, John

    2015-10-01

    DGAT1 enzymes (acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyse the formation of triacylglycerols (TAGs), the most abundant lipids in vegetable oils. Thorough understanding of the enzymology of oil accumulation is critical to the goal of modifying oilseeds for improved vegetable oil production. Four isoforms of BnDGAT1, the final and rate-limiting step in triacylglycerol synthesis, were characterized from Brassica napus, one of the world's most important oilseed crops. Transcriptional profiling of developing B. napus seeds indicated two genes, BnDGAT1-1 and BnDGAT1-2, with high expression and two, BnDGAT1-3 and BnDGAT1-4, with low expression. The activities of each BnDGAT1 isozyme were characterized following expression in a strain of yeast deficient in TAG synthesis. TAG from B. napus seeds contain only 10% palmitic acid (16:0) at the sn-3 position, so it was surprising that all four BnDGAT1 isozymes exhibited strong (4- to 7-fold) specificity for 16:0 over oleic acid (18:1) as the acyl-CoA substrate. However, the ratio of 18:1-CoA to 16:0-CoA in B. napus seeds during the peak period of TAG synthesis is 3:1. When substrate selectivity assays were conducted with 18:1-CoA and 16:0-CoA in a 3:1 ratio, the four isozymes incorporated 18:1 in amounts 2- to 5-fold higher than 16:0. This strong sensitivity of the BnDGAT1 isozymes to the relative concentrations of acyl-CoA substrates substantially explains the observed fatty acid composition of B. napus seed oil. Understanding these enzymes that are critical for triacylglycerol synthesis will facilitate genetic and biotechnological manipulations to improve this oilseed crop. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Oleic acid increases intestinal absorption of the BCRP/ABCG2 substrate, mitoxantrone, in mice.

    PubMed

    Aspenström-Fagerlund, Bitte; Tallkvist, Jonas; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar; Glynn, Anders W

    2015-09-02

    The efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) decrease intestinal absorption of many food toxicants. Oleic acid increases absorption of the specific BCRP substrate mitoxantrone (MXR), and also BCRP gene expression in human intestinal Caco-2 cells, suggesting that oleic acid affect the BCRP function. Here, we investigated the effect of oleic acid on intestinal absorption of MXR in mice. Mice were orally dosed with 2.4g oleic acid/kg b.w. and 1mg MXR/kg b.w., and sacrificed 30, 60, 90 or 120min after exposure, or were exposed to 0.6, 2.4 or 4.8g oleic acid/kg b.w. and 1mg MXR/kg b.w., and sacrificed 90min after exposure. Mice were also treated with Ko143 together with MXR and sacrificed after 60min, as a positive control of BCRP-mediated effects on MXR absorption. Absorption of MXR increased after exposure to oleic acid at all doses, and also after exposure to Ko143. Intestinal BCRP gene expression tended to increase 120min after oleic acid exposure. Our results in mice demonstrate that oleic acid decreases BCRP-mediated efflux, causing increased intestinal MXR absorption in mice. These findings may have implications in humans, concomitantly exposed to oleic acid and food contaminants that, similarly as MXR, are substrates of BCRP.

  18. Palmitate causes endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in human mesenchymal stem cells: prevention by AMPK activator.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Wang, Qinghua; Huang, Lianghu; Dong, Huiyue; Lin, Lingjing; Lin, Na; Zheng, Feng; Tan, Jianming

    2012-11-01

    Elevated circulating saturated fatty acids concentration is commonly associated with poorly controlled diabetes. The highly prevalent free fatty acid palmitate could induce apoptosis in various cell types, but little is known about its effects on human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here, we report that prolonged exposure to palmitate induces human bone marrow-derived MSC (hBM-MSC) and human umbilical cord-derived MSC apoptosis. We investigated the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is known to promote cell apoptosis. Palmitate activated XBP1 splicing, elF2α (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α) phosphorylation, and CHOP, ATF4, BiP, and GRP94 transcription in hBM-MSCs. ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation were also induced by palmitate in hBM-MSCs. A selective p38 inhibitor inhibited palmitate activation of the ER stress, whereas the ERK1/2 inhibitors had no effect. The AMP-activated protein kinase activator aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide blocked palmitate-induced ER stress and apoptosis. These findings suggest that palmitate induces ER stress and ERK1/2 and p38 activation in hBM-MSCs, and AMP-activated protein kinase activator prevents the deleterious effects of palmitate by inhibiting ER stress and apoptosis.

  19. Studies on the fate of labelled palmitic acid in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Miras, F; Hernandez, J; de la Higuera Torres, J; Nuñez, J; Martin, A; de la Higuera Rojas, J

    1983-01-01

    1. Pulmonary palmitic acid metabolism was studied in rats in basal conditions and after experimental talcosis. 2. Palmitic acid was rapidly incorporated into phospholipids and stored in the form of esterified cholesterol. 3. During the experiment a de novo synthesis of triglycerides was not detected.

  20. New alleles of FATB-1A to reduce palmitic acid levels in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In wild-type soybeans, palmitic acid typically constitutes 10% of the total seed oil. Palmitic acid is a saturated fat linked to increased cholesterol levels, and reducing levels of saturated fats in soybean oil has been a breeding target. To identify novel and useful variation that could help in re...

  1. 78 FR 73200 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Paliperidone Palmitate Extended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

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  2. Beta-palmitate - a natural component of human milk in supplemental milk formulas.

    PubMed

    Havlicekova, Zuzana; Jesenak, Milos; Banovcin, Peter; Kuchta, Milan

    2016-03-17

    The composition and function of human milk is unique and gives a basis for the development of modern artificial milk formulas that can provide an appropriate substitute for non-breastfed infants. Although human milk is not fully substitutable, modern milk formulas are attempting to mimic human milk and partially substitute its complex biological positive effects on infants. Besides the immunomodulatory factors from human milk, research has been focused on the composition and structure of human milk fat with a high content of β-palmitic acid (sn-2 palmitic acid, β-palmitate). According to the available studies, increasing the content of β-palmitate added to milk formulas promotes several beneficial physiological functions. β-palmitate positively influences fatty acid metabolism, increases calcium absorption, improves bone matrix quality and the stool consistency, and has a positive effect on the development of the intestinal microbiome.

  3. Oleic acid coated magnetic nano-particles: Synthesis and characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Biswajit Goyal, P. S.

    2015-06-24

    Magnetic nano particles of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} coated with oleic acid were synthesized using wet chemical route, which involved co-precipitation of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions. The nano particles were characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, TGA and VSM. X-ray diffraction studies showed that nano particles consist of single phase Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} having inverse spinel structure. The particle size obtained from width of Bragg peak is about 12.6 nm. TEM analysis showed that sizes of nano particles are in range of 6 to 17 nm with a dominant population at 12 - 14 nm. FTIR and TGA analysis showed that -COOH group of oleic acid is bound to the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles and one has to heat the sample to 278° C to remove the attached molecule from the surface. Further it was seen that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles exhibit super paramagnetism with a magnetization of about 53 emu/ gm.

  4. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  5. SN2-Palmitate Reduces Fatty Acid Excretion in Chinese Formula-fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Lifshitz, Yael; Cohen, Tzafra; Malard, Patrice; Xu, Chungdi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Palmitic acid (PA) comprises 17% to 25% of human milk fatty acids, of which 70% to 75% are esterified to the SN2 position of the triglyceride (SN2-palmitate). In vegetable oils, which are commonly used in infant formulas, palmitate is primarily esterified to other positions, resulting in reduced calcium and fat absorption and hard stools. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of SN2-palmitate on nutrient excretion. Methods: In total, 171 Chinese infants were included (within 14 days of birth) in this multicenter study. Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive either SN2-palmitate formula (INFAT, n = 57) or control formula (n = 57). The formulas (Biostime, China) differed only in their SN2 PA proportions. Stool was collected at 6 postnatal weeks. Results: The stool dry weight and fat content of the SN2-palmitate group were lower compared with the control group (dry weight 4.25 g vs 7.28 g, P < 0.05; fat 0.8 g vs 1.2 g, P < 0.05). The lipid component was also significantly lower for the SN2-palmitate group (0.79 g vs 1.19 g, P < 0.05). PA, representing ∼50% of the saponified fatty acids, was significantly lower in the SN2-palmitate group compared with the control group (0.3 g vs 0.7 g, P < 0.01). Breast-fed infants had a significantly lower stool dry weight, fat content, and saponified fat excretion compared with formula-fed infants (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Similar to breast milk, the SN2-palmitate infant formula primarily reduced calcium-saponified fat excretion. The results of this study further emphasize the nutritional importance of SN2-palmitate structured fat for infants. PMID:26334255

  6. Stevioside counteracts the alpha-cell hypersecretion caused by long-term palmitate exposure.

    PubMed

    Hong, J; Chen, L; Jeppesen, P B; Nordentoft, I; Hermansen, K

    2006-03-01

    Long-term exposure to fatty acids impairs beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes, but little is known about the chronic effects of fatty acids on alpha-cells. We therefore studied the prolonged impact of palmitate on alpha-cell function and on the expression of genes related to fuel metabolism. We also investigated whether the antihyperglycemic agent stevioside was able to counteract these effects of palmitate. Clonal alpha-TC1-6 cells were cultured with palmitate in the presence or absence of stevioside. After 72 h, we evaluated glucagon secretion, glucagon content, triglyceride (TG) content, and changes in gene expression. Glucagon secretion was dose-dependently increased after 72-h culture, with palmitate at concentrations >or=0.25 mM (P< 0.05). Palmitate (0.5 mM) enhanced TG content of alpha-cells by 73% (P< 0.01). Interestingly, stevioside (10(-8) and 10(-6) M) reduced palmitate-stimulated glucagon release by 22 and 45%, respectively (P< 0.01). There was no significant change in glucagon content after 72-h culture with palmitate and/or stevioside. Palmitate increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) mRNA level, whereas stevioside enhanced CPT I, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene expressions in the presence of palmitate (P<0.05). In conclusion, long-term exposure to elevated fatty acids leads to a hypersecretion of glucagon and an accumulation of TG content in clonal alpha-TC1-6 cells. Stevioside was able to counteract the alpha-cell hypersecretion caused by palmitate and enhanced the expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. This indicates that stevioside may be a promising antidiabetic agent in treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  7. Conserved Function of ACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE 5 on Seed Oil and Oleic Acid Biosynthesis between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Changyu; Li, Dong; Gao, Chenhao; Liu, Kaige; Qi, Shuanghui; Duan, Shaowei; Li, Zixiong; Gong, Jingyun; Wang, Jianjun; Hai, Jiangbo; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that several ACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE (AtAAD) members in Arabidopsis thaliana are responsible for oleic acid (C18:1) biosynthesis. Limited research has been conducted on another member, AtAAD5, and its paralog BnAAD5 in the closely related and commercially important plant, Brassica napus. Here, we found that AtAAD5 was predominantly and exclusively expressed in developing embryos at the whole seed developmental stages. The aad5 mutation caused a significant decrease in the amounts of oil and C18:1, and a considerable increase in the content of stearic acid (C18:0) in mature seeds, suggesting that AtAAD5 functioned as an important facilitator of seed oil biosynthesis. We also cloned the full-length coding sequence of BnAAD5-1 from the A3 subgenome of the B. napus inbred line L111. We showed that ectopic expression of BnAAD5-1 in the A. thaliana aad5-2 mutant fully complemented the phenotypes of the mutant, such as lower oil content and altered contents of C18:0 and C18:1. These results help us to better understand the functions of AAD members in A. thaliana and B. napus and provide a promising target for genetic manipulation of B. napus.

  8. A Novel Cationic Microbubble Coated with Stearic Acid-Modified Polyethylenimine to Enhance DNA Loading and Gene Delivery by Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Qiaofeng; Wang, Zhiyong; Yan, Fei; Deng, Zhiting; Ni, Fei; Wu, Junru; Shandas, Robin; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

    2013-01-01

    A novel cationic microbubble (MB) for improvement of the DNA loading capacity and the ultrasound-mediated gene delivery efficiency has been developed; it has been prepared with commercial lipids and a stearic acid modified polyethylenimine 600 (Stearic-PEI600) polymer synthesized via acylation reaction of branched PEI600 and stearic acid mediated by N, N'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI). The MBs’ concentration, size distribution, stability and zeta potential (ζ-potential) were measured and the DNA loading capacity was examined as a function of the amount of Stearic-PEI600. The gene transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity were also examined using breast cancer MCF-7 cells via the reporter plasmid pCMV-Luc, encoding the firefly luciferase gene. The results showed that the Stearic-PEI600 polymer caused a significant increase in magnitude of ζ-potential of MBs. The addition of DNA into cationic MBs can shift ζ-potentials from positive to negative values. The DNA loading capacity of the MBs grew linearly from (5±0.2) ×10−3 pg/µm2 to (20±1.8) ×10−3 pg/µm2 when Stearic-PEI600 was increased from 5 mol% to 30 mol%. Transfection of MCF-7 cells using 5% PEI600 MBs plus ultrasound exposure yielded 5.76±2.58×103 p/s/cm2/sr average radiance intensity, was 8.97- and 7.53-fold higher than those treated with plain MBs plus ultrasound (6.41±5.82) ×102 p/s/cm2/sr, (P<0.01) and PEI600 MBs without ultrasound (7.65±6.18) ×102 p/s/cm2/sr, (P<0.01), respectively. However, the PEI600 MBs showed slightly higher cytotoxicity than plain MBs. The cells treated with PEI600-MBs and plain MBs plus ultrasound showed 59.5±6.1% and 71.4±7.1% cell viability, respectively. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the novel cationic MBs were able to increase DNA loading capacity and gene transfection efficiency and could be potentially applied in targeted gene delivery and therapy. PMID:24086748

  9. A novel cationic microbubble coated with stearic acid-modified polyethylenimine to enhance DNA loading and gene delivery by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiaofeng; Wang, Zhiyong; Yan, Fei; Deng, Zhiting; Ni, Fei; Wu, Junru; Shandas, Robin; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

    2013-01-01

    A novel cationic microbubble (MB) for improvement of the DNA loading capacity and the ultrasound-mediated gene delivery efficiency has been developed; it has been prepared with commercial lipids and a stearic acid modified polyethylenimine 600 (Stearic-PEI600) polymer synthesized via acylation reaction of branched PEI600 and stearic acid mediated by N, N'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI). The MBs' concentration, size distribution, stability and zeta potential (ζ-potential) were measured and the DNA loading capacity was examined as a function of the amount of Stearic-PEI600. The gene transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity were also examined using breast cancer MCF-7 cells via the reporter plasmid pCMV-Luc, encoding the firefly luciferase gene. The results showed that the Stearic-PEI600 polymer caused a significant increase in magnitude of ζ-potential of MBs. The addition of DNA into cationic MBs can shift ζ-potentials from positive to negative values. The DNA loading capacity of the MBs grew linearly from (5±0.2) ×10⁻³ pg/µm² to (20±1.8) ×10⁻³ pg/µm² when Stearic-PEI600 was increased from 5 mol% to 30 mol%. Transfection of MCF-7 cells using 5% PEI600 MBs plus ultrasound exposure yielded 5.76±2.58×10³ p/s/cm²/sr average radiance intensity, was 8.97- and 7.53-fold higher than those treated with plain MBs plus ultrasound (6.41±5.82) ×10² p/s/cm²/sr, (P<0.01) and PEI600 MBs without ultrasound (7.65±6.18) ×10² p/s/cm²/sr, (P<0.01), respectively. However, the PEI600 MBs showed slightly higher cytotoxicity than plain MBs. The cells treated with PEI600-MBs and plain MBs plus ultrasound showed 59.5±6.1% and 71.4±7.1% cell viability, respectively. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the novel cationic MBs were able to increase DNA loading capacity and gene transfection efficiency and could be potentially applied in targeted gene delivery and therapy.

  10. Palmitic Acid Reduces Circulating Bone Formation Markers in Obese Animals and Impairs Osteoblast Activity via C16-Ceramide Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Alsahli, Ahmad; Kiefhaber, Kathryn; Gold, Tziporah; Muluke, Munira; Jiang, Hongfeng; Cremers, Serge; Schulze-Späte, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    Obesity and impaired lipid metabolism increase circulating and local fatty acid (FA) levels. Our previous studies showed that a high high-saturated -fat diet induced greater bone loss in mice than a high high-unsaturated-fat diet due to increased osteoclast numbers and activity. The impact of elevated FA levels on osteoblasts is not yet clear. We induced obesity in 4 week old male mice using a palmitic acid (PA)- or oleic acid (OA)-enriched high fat high-fat diet (HFD) (20 % of calories from FA), and compared them to mice on a normal (R) caloric diet (10 % of calories from FA). We collected serum to determine FA and bone metabolism marker levels. Primary osteoblasts were isolated; cultured in PA, OA, or control (C) medium; and assessed for mineralization activity, gene expression, and ceramide levels. Obese animals in the PA and OA groups had significantly lower serum levels of bone formation markers P1NP and OC compared to normal weight animals (*p < 0.001), with the lowest marker levels in animals on an PA-enriched HFD (*p < 0.001). Accordingly, elevated levels of PA significantly reduced osteoblast mineralization activity in vitro (*p < 0.05). Elevated PA intake significantly increased C16 ceramide accumulation. This accumulation was preventable through inhibition of SPT2 (serine palmitoyl transferase 2) using myriocin. Elevated levels of PA reduce osteoblast function in vitro and bone formation markers in vivo. Our findings suggest that saturated PA can compromise bone health by affecting osteoblasts, and identify a potential mechanism through which obesity promotes bone loss.

  11. Synthesis and low temperature characterization of iso-oleic ester derivatives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three new iso-oleic ester derivatives (i.e., isopropyl esters (IOA-iPrE), n-butyl esters (IOA-n-BuE), and 2-ethylhexyl esters (IOA-2-EHE)) were synthesized from iso-oleic acid (IOA) using a standard esterification method. These esterified alcohols were chosen because of their bulky and branched-cha...

  12. Real-Time PCR Genotyping using Taqman Probes to Detect High Oleic Acid Peanuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oleic acid, a monounsaturated, omega-9 fatty acid is an important agronomic trait in peanut cultivars because it provides increased shelf life, improved flavor, enhanced fatty acid composition, and a beneficial effect on human health. Currently, most high oleic peanuts confer limited resistance to ...

  13. Synthesis and physical properties of new coco-oleic estolide branched esters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oils derived from vegetable oils tend to not meet the standards for industrial lubricants because of unacceptable low temperature properties, pour point (PP), and/or cloud point (CP). However, a catalytic amount of perchloric acid with oleic and coconut (coco) fatty acids produced a coco-oleic estol...

  14. Energy absorption is reduced with oleic acid supplements in human short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Compher, Charlene W; Kinosian, Bruce P; Rubesin, Stephen E; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Metz, David C

    2009-01-01

    Oleic acid premeal supplements have been described as a method to trigger the ileal brake and thus lengthen transit time and the opportunity for nutrient absorption. The aims of this study were to determine whether oleic acid supplements would lengthen transit time and improve absorption of nutrients in study participants with short bowel syndrome as well as affect diarrhea or patient weight. A double-blind, controlled, random-order crossover trial was conducted in 8 study participants with longstanding and severe short bowel syndrome, employing blue food color appearance, breath hydrogen testing, and radio-opaque markers as measures of transit time. Absorption of energy, protein, fat, and fluid was conducted by classic nutrient balance methods. Diarrhea was estimated by daily stool weight and number of bowel actions. Although 8 patients were enrolled, only 7 completed the study. Transit time was not significantly different between oleic acid and placebo treatment, although peptide YY levels trended higher with the oleic acid treatment. Energy absorption was reduced 14% by oleic acid, significantly more than the 3% reduction by placebo. Fat, protein, and fluid absorption was not changed significantly. Neither diarrhea nor patient body weight was changed by oleic acid. Energy absorption is reduced by oleic acid supplements in severe short bowel syndrome. The study may have lacked power to determine whether oleic acid affects diarrhea or body weight.

  15. Effect of oleic acid on the allergenic properties of peanut and cashew allergens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oleic acid is the major fatty acid in peanuts and cashews. There is limited information about its effect on peanut and cashew allergens during heating. The objective was to determine if heat treatment with oleic acid changes the allergenic properties of these nut proteins. Peanut and cashew protein...

  16. Determining the oleic/linoleic acid content of a single seed: A comparison of available methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanut varieties with high oleic/linoleic acid ratios have become preferred by the peanut industry due to their increased shelf life and improved health benefits. Many peanut breeding programs are trying to incorporate the high oleic trait into new and improved varieties and are in need of diagnost...

  17. Novel FAD2-1A alleles confer an elevated oleic acid phenotype in soybean seeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To identify novel sources of genetic variation for the high oleic acid seed trait, soybean lines containing a higher fraction than normal of oleic acid were identified through a forward-genetic screen of a chemically mutagenized population. Mutant lines contained 30%- 40% of the oil fraction as olei...

  18. Evidence that oleic acid exists in a separate phase within stratum corneum lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Ongpipattanakul, B.; Burnette, R.R.; Potts, R.O.; Francoeur, M.L. )

    1991-03-01

    Oleic acid is known to be a penetration enhancer for polar to moderately polar molecules. A mechanism related to lipid phase separation has been previously proposed by this laboratory to explain the increases in skin transport. In the studies presented here, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was utilized to investigate whether or not oleic acid exists in a separate phase within stratum corneum (SC) lipids. Per-deuterated oleic acid was employed allowing the conformational phase behavior of the exogenously added fatty acid and the endogenous SC lipids to be monitored independently of each other. The results indicated that oleic acid exerts a significant effect on the SC lipids, lowering the lipid transition temperature (Tm) in addition to increasing the conformational freedom or flexibility of the endogenous lipid alkyl chains above their Tm. At temperatures lower than Tm, however, oleic acid did not significantly change the chain disorder of the SC lipids. Similar results were obtained with lipids isolated from the SC by chloroform:methanol extraction. Oleic acid, itself, was almost fully disordered at temperatures both above and below the endogenous lipid Tm in the intact SC and extracted lipid samples. This finding suggested that oleic acid does exist as a liquid within the SC lipids. The coexistence of fluid oleic acid and ordered SC lipids, at physiological temperatures, is consistent with the previously proposed phase-separation transport mechanism for enhanced diffusion.

  19. The complex tale of the high oleic acid trait in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acid composition of oil extracted from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed is an important quality trait. In particular, a high ratio of oleic (C18:1) relative to linoleic (C18:2) fatty acid (O/L = 10) results in a longer shelf life. Previous reports suggest that the high oleic (~80%) trait wa...

  20. Interaction forces and membrane charge tunability: Oleic acid containing membranes in different pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, James; Suga, Keishi; Kuhl, Tonya L

    2017-02-01

    Oleic acid is known to interact with saturated lipid molecules and increase the fluidity of gel phase lipid membranes. In this work, the thermodynamic properties of mixed monolayers of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and oleic acid at the air-water interface were determined using Langmuir isotherms. The isotherm study revealed an attractive interaction between oleic acid and DPPC. The incorporation of oleic acid also monotonically decreased the elastic modulus of the monolayer indicative of higher fluidity with increasing oleic acid content. Using the surface force apparatus, intermembrane force-distance profiles were obtained for substrate supported DPPC membranes containing 30mol% oleic acid at pH5.8 and 7.4. Three different preparation conditions resulted in distinct force profiles. Membranes prepared in pH5.8 subphase had a low number of nanoscopic defects ≤1% and an adhesion magnitude of ~0.6mN/m. A slightly higher defect density of 1-4% was found for membranes prepared in a physiological pH7.4 subphase. The presence of the exposed hydrophobic moieties resulted in a higher adhesion magnitude of 2.9mN/m. Importantly, at pH7.4, some oleic acid deprotonates resulting in a long-range electrostatic repulsion. Even though oleic acid increased the DPPC bilayer fluidity and the number of defects, no membrane restructuring was observed indicating that the system maintained a stable configuration.

  1. Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of dietary triacylglycerols does not affect insulin secretion or glucose homeostasis in healthy men and women

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, A; Teng, K-T; Berry, S E; Sanders, T A B

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: Dietary triacylglycerols containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose. Subjects/Methods: We used a cross-over designed feeding trial in 53 healthy Asian men and women (20–50 years) to test this hypothesis by exchanging 20% energy of palm olein (PO; control) with randomly interesterified PO (IPO) or high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS). After a 2-week run-in period on PO, participants were fed PO, IPO and HOS for 6 week consecutively in randomly allocated sequences. Fasting (midpoint and endpoint) and postprandial blood at the endpoint following a test meal (3.54 MJ, 14 g protein, 85 g carbohydrate and 50 g fat as PO) were collected for the measurement of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, lipids and apolipoproteins; pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were postprandial changes in C-peptide and plasma glucose. Results: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.3 mmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) 0.1, 0.5; P<0.001) lower on HOS than on PO or IPO as predicted, indicating good compliance to the dietary intervention. There were no significant differences (P=0.58) between diets among the 10 male and 31 female completers in the incremental area under the curve (0–2 h) for C-peptide in nmol.120 min/l: GM (95% CI) were PO 220 (196, 245), IPO 212 (190, 235) and HOS 224 (204, 244). Plasma glucose was 8% lower at 2 h on IPO vs PO and HOS (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position does not adversely impair insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25052227

  2. Palmitate potentiation of glucose-induced insulin release: a study using 2-bromopalmitate.

    PubMed

    Parker, S M; Moore, P C; Johnson, L M; Poitout, V

    2003-10-01

    The mechanisms whereby fatty acids (FA) potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cell are incompletely understood. In this study, the effects of palmitate on insulin secretion were investigated in isolated rat islets. Palmitate did not initiate insulin secretion at nonstimulatory glucose concentrations, but markedly stimulated insulin release at concentrations of glucose > or = 5.6 mmol/L. At concentrations of palmitate > or =0.5 mmol/L, the important determinant of the potency of the FA was its unbound concentration. At total concentrations < or = 0.5 mmol/L, both the total and unbound concentrations appeared important. Surprisingly, 2-bromopalmitate did not affect palmitate oxidation, but significantly diminished palmitate esterification into cellular lipids. Neither methyl palmitate, which is not activated into a long-chain acyl-CoA ester, nor 2-bromopalmitate affected glucose-stimulated insulin release. Further, 2-bromopalmitate partly inhibited the potentiating effect of palmitate. These results support the concept that FA potentiation of insulin release is mediated by FA-derived signals generated in the esterification pathway.

  3. Methyl palmitate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Kalemci, S; Zeybek, A; Intepe, Y S; Uner, A G; Acar, T; Yaylali, A; Aksun, S; Can, C; Gulaydin, A; Sütçü, R

    2013-01-01

    The study is aimed to determine the beneficial effects of methyl palmitate (MP) which has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects demonstrated on murine model of acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Forty male BALB/C mice were randomly allocated into four groups (n=10, each): control group, methyl palmitate group (300 mg/kg), LPS group, and methyl palmitate -treated groups. Methyl palmitate or vehicle was given with an intraperitoneal administration 1 h before an intratracheal instillation of LPS (5 mg/kg). The severity of pulmonary injury was evaluated 6 h after LPS challenge. All experimental procedures complied with the requirements of the Animal Care and Ethics Committee of the Adnan Menderes University. Methyl palmitate pretreatment significantly attenuated LPS-induced pulmonary histopathologic changes, alveolar hemorrhage, and neutrophil infiltration. Methyl palmitate pretreatment also reduced the concentrations of malondialdehyde in lung tissues. This study indicates that methyl palmitate may have a protective effect against LPS-induced acute lung injury, and the potential mechanism of this action may involve the inhibition of NF-κB. activation.

  4. The saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, induces anxiety-like behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Morgan L.; Joesting, Jennifer J.; Lawson, Marcus A.; Chiu, Gabriel S.; Blevins, Neil A.; Kwakwa, Kristin A.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Excess fat in the diet can impact neuropsychiatric functions by negatively affecting cognition, mood and anxiety. We sought to show that the free fatty acid (FFA), palmitic acid, can cause adverse biobehaviors in mice that lasts beyond an acute elevation in plasma FFAs. Methods Mice were administered palmitic acid or vehicle as a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Biobehaviors were profiled 2 and 24 hrs after palmitic acid treatment. Quantification of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT) and their major metabolites was performed in cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. FFA concentration was determined in plasma. Relative fold change in mRNA expression of unfolded protein response (UPR)-associated genes was determined in brain regions. Results In a dose-dependent fashion, palmitic acid rapidly reduced mouse locomotor activity by a mechanism that did not rely on TLR4, MyD88, IL-1, IL-6 or TNFα but was dependent on fatty acid chain length. Twenty-four hrs after palmitic acid administration mice exhibited anxiety-like behavior without impairment in locomotion, food intake, depressive-like behavior or spatial memory. Additionally, the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA was increased by 33% in the amygdala 24 hrs after palmitic acid treatment. Conclusions Palmitic acid induces anxiety-like behavior in mice while increasing amygdala-based serotonin metabolism. These effects occur at a time point when plasma FFA levels are no longer elevated. PMID:25016520

  5. Thermal Characterization of Lauric-Stearic Acid/Expanded Graphite Eutectic Mixture as Phase Change Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hua; Zhang, Peng; Meng, Zhaonan; Li, Ming

    2015-04-01

    The eutectic mixture of lauric acid (LA) and stearic acid (SA) is a desirable phase change material (PCM) due to the constant melting temperature and large latent heat. However, its poor thermal conductivity has hampered its broad utilization. In the present study, pure LA, SA and the mixtures with various mass fractions of LA-SA were used as the basic PCMs, and 10 wt% expanded graphite (EG) was added to enhance the thermal conductivities. The phase change behaviors, microstructural analysis, thermal conductivities and thermal stabilities of the mixtures of PCMs were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), transient plane source (TPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The results show that the LA-SA binary mixture of mixture ratio of 76.3 wt%: 23.7 wt% forms an eutectic mixture, which melts at 38.99 °C and has a latent heat of 159.94 J/g. The melted fatty acids are well absorbed by the porous network of EG and they have a good thermal stability. Furthermore, poor thermal conductivities can be well enhanced by the addition of EG.

  6. Silymarin-Loaded Nanoparticles Based on Stearic Acid-Modified Bletilla striata Polysaccharide for Hepatic Targeting.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanni; He, Shaolong; Ma, Xueqin; Hong, Tongtong; Li, Zhifang; Park, Kinam; Wang, Wenping

    2016-02-29

    Silymarin has been widely used as a hepatoprotective drug in the treatment of various liver diseases, yet its effectiveness is affected by its poor water solubility and low bioavailability after oral administration, and there is a need for the development of intravenous products, especially for liver-targeting purposes. In this study, silymarin was encapsulated in self-assembled nanoparticles of Bletilla striata polysaccharide (BSP) conjugates modified with stearic acid and the physicochemical properties of the obtained nanoparticles were characterized. The silymarin-loaded micelles appeared as spherical particles with a mean diameter of 200 nm under TEM. The encapsulation of drug molecules was confirmed by DSC thermograms and XRD diffractograms, respectively. The nanoparticles exhibited a sustained-release profile for nearly 1 week with no obvious initial burst. Compared to drug solutions, the drug-loaded nanoparticles showed a lower viability and higher uptake intensity on HepG2 cell lines. After intravenous administration of nanoparticle formulation for 30 min to mice, the liver became the most significant organ enriched with the fluorescent probe. These results suggest that BSP derivative nanoparticles possess hepatic targeting capability and are promising nanocarriers for delivering silymarin to the liver.

  7. Ruminal microbe of biohydrogenation of trans-vaccenic acid to stearic acid in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wang, Jia Qi; Bu, Deng Pan

    2012-02-15

    Optimization of the unsaturated fatty acid composition of ruminant milk and meat is desirable. Alteration of the milk and fatty acid profile was previously attempted by the management of ruminal microbial biohydrogenation. The aim of this study was to identify the group of ruminal trans-vaccenic acid (trans-11 C18:1, t-VA) hydrogenating bacteria by combining enrichment studies in vitro. The enrichment culture growing on t-VA was obtained by successive transfers in medium containing t-VA. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatograph and changes in the microbial composition during enrichment were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Prominent DGGE bands of the enrichment cultures were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The growth of ruminal t-VA hydrogenating bacteria was monitored through the process of culture transfer according to the accumulation of stearic acid (C18:0, SA) and ratio of the substrate (t-VA) transformed to the product (SA). A significant part of the retrieved 16S rRNA gene sequences was most similar to those of uncultured bacteria. Bacteria corresponding to predominant DGGE bands in t-VA enrichment cultures clustered with t-VA biohydrogenated bacteria within Group B. This study provides more insight into the pathway of biohydrogenation. It also may be important to control the production of t-VA, which has metabolic and physiological benefits, through management of ruminal biohydrogenation bacterium.

  8. Optimization of a metformin effervescent floating tablet containing hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and stearic acid.

    PubMed

    Rajab, M; Jouma, M; Neubert, R H; Dittgen, M

    2010-02-01

    This study optimizes the composition of an effervescent floating tablet (EFT) containing metformin hydrochloride (M) regarding tablet hardness (H), time to dissolve 60% of the embedded drug (t60%), and buoyancy, the floating lag time (FLT). A simplex lattice experimental design has been used comprising different levels of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), stearic acid (SA), sodium bicarbonate (SB) as tablet matrix components, and hardness (H), t60%, FLT as response variables. Two models have been applied to decide which composition will result in Fickian diffusion or in overlapping of two dissolution mechanisms, diffusion and matrix erosion. Three of EFT showed the two dissolution mechanisms but most of EFT showed Fickian diffusion only. Checking the experimental response by a linear, quadratic, special cubic and cubic model using multivariate regression analysis resulted in best fit for the cubic model. Overlaying the results for the cubic model under constraints defined shows the domain of accepted values of response variables. The optimized EFT shall have been included HPMC between 15.6% and 24.2%, SA between 12.8 and 15.6% and SB between 16.1% and 17.5%. The result of this study has been critically evaluated considering analogous EFT described in literature.

  9. Studies on oral absorption of stearic acid SLN by a novel fluorometric method.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hong; Chen, Jian; Du, Yong-Zhong; Hu, Fu-Qiang; Zeng, Su; Zhao, Hang-Li

    2007-08-01

    In this study, the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled otcadecylamine (ODA), otcadecylamine-fluorescein isothiocyanate (ODA-FITC), was synthesized and used as a fluorescence marker to be incorporated into stearic acid solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) by solvent diffusion method. Approximately 97.9% of added ODA-FITC was incorporated into SLN. Under sink condition, approximately 7% and less than 3% of ODA-FITC leaked from SLN in 24 h, when the ODA-FITC loaded SLNs were dispersed in plasma or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 6.8) containing 0.3 wt% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), respectively. The ODA-FITC loaded SLNs were then subjected to the in vivo transport experiments. The results showed that the transport efficiency of SLN by oral administration was 30%. The SLN could be extensively absorbed, and indicated a linear absorption mechanism in gastrointestinal tract within certain range of concentrations. By the external diversion experiments on lymph, it showed that approximately 77.9% of absorbed SLN was transported into systematic circulation via lymph, which is a major SLN transport pathway in gastrointestinal tract. The rest of absorbed SLN was transported directly into blood, which might be through capillary vessel or intestinal epithelial cell by paracellular pathway. The further experiment demonstrated that the polyethylene glycol monostearate (PEG2000-SA)-modified SLN could also be absorbed in gastrointestinal tract and achieved a prolonged effect in vivo.

  10. Preparation and tribological properties of stearic acid-modified hierarchical anatase TiO 2 microcrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jianhua; Yin, Xiangyu; Wang, Ning; Liu, Lin; Xing, Jinjuan

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical TiO2 microcrystals were synthesized through a facile solvothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements were used to characterize the structure of the as-prepared samples. The results indicated that the synthesized hierarchical titania (TiO2) microspheres were composed of numerous anatase phase TiO2 particles. The as-prepared samples were chemically modified with stearic acid to improve their dispersion in oil. Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) were carried out to evaluate the characteristics of the modified TiO2 microcrystals. The tribological properties of the modified TiO2 microcrystals as additives of liquid paraffin were studied by a four-ball tester, and the results showed that they could significantly improve anti-wear performance, friction-reduction property and load-carrying capacity of liquid paraffin. These advantages make the modified TiO2 microcrystals promising for green lubricating oil additives.

  11. Involvement of iron depletion in palmitate-induced lipotoxicity of beta cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ik-Rak; Choi, Sung-E; Jung, Jong-Gab; Lee, Sang-A; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Kang, Yup

    2015-05-15

    High levels of plasma free fatty acid are thought to contribute to the loss of pancreatic beta-cells in type 2 diabetes. In particular, saturated fatty acid such as palmitate or stearate can induce apoptosis in cultured beta cells (lipotoxicity). Endoplasmic reticulum stress is a critical mediator of free fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity. Recently, disorders in mitochondrial respiratory metabolism have been linked to lipotoxicity. Since iron is a critical component of respiratory metabolism, this study is initiated to determine whether abnormal iron metabolism is involved in palmitate-induced beta cell death. Immunoblotting analysis showed that treatment of INS-1 beta cells with palmitate reduced the level of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), but increased the level of heavy chain ferritin (FTH). In addition, palmitate reduced intracellular labile iron pool. Whereas iron depletion through treatment with iron-chelators deferoxamine or deferasirox augmented palmitate-induced cell death, iron supplementation with ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate, or holo-transferrin significantly protected cells against palmitate-induced death. Furthermore, overexpression of TfR1 reduced palmitate-induced cell death, whereas knockdown of TfR1 augmented cell death. In particular, treatment with deferoxamine increased the level of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers phospho-PERK, phospho-eIF2α, CHOP and phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Treatment with chemical chaperone significantly protected cells against deferoxamine-induced apoptosis. Iron supplementation also protected cells against palmitate-induced primary islet death. These data suggest that iron depletion plays an important role in palmitate-induced beta cell death through inducing ER stress. Therefore, attempts to block iron depletion might be able to prevent beta cell loss in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of high oleic oil crop platform in flax through RNAi-mediated multiple FAD2 gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yurong; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Dribnenki, Paul; Singh, Surinder; Green, Allan

    2015-04-01

    Simultaneous gene silencing of both FAD2 genes in high linoleic acid flax leads to high level of oleic acid, which is stable across multiple generations. High oleic oil is one of the preferred traits in oil crop engineering due to its stability and multiple applications as an industrial feedstock. Flax possesses two isoforms of FAD2 enzymes that desaturate monounsaturated oleic acid to polyunsaturated linoleic acid. These two enzymes are encoded by two FAD2 genes. By simultaneous gene silencing both FAD2 genes in high linoleic acid flax, Linola, high level of oleic acid up to 80% was achieved in 69 silencing lines. The high oleic trait was stable across multiple generations with oleic acid reaching up to 77% in homozygote T3 progeny. The RNAi-mediated gene-silencing approach generated high oleic linseed oil, as well as a high oleic platform that can be exploited for further fatty acid engineering.

  13. Investigation of the Interaction of Naringin Palmitate with Bovine Serum Albumin: Spectroscopic Analysis and Molecular Docking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Li, Lin; Xu, Zhenbo; Liang, Zhili; Su, Jianyu; Huang, Jianrong; Li, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine serum albumin (BSA) contains high affinity binding sites for several endogenous and exogenous compounds and has been used to replace human serum albumin (HSA), as these two compounds share a similar structure. Naringin palmitate is a modified product of naringin that is produced by an acylation reaction with palmitic acid, which is considered to be an effective substance for enhancing naringin lipophilicity. In this study, the interaction of naringin palmitate with BSA was characterised by spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings The goal of this study was to investigate the interactions between naringin palmitate and BSA under physiological conditions, and differences in naringin and naringin palmitate affinities for BSA were further compared and analysed. The formation of naringin palmitate-BSA was revealed by fluorescence quenching, and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) was found to decrease with increasing temperature, suggesting that a static quenching mechanism was involved. The changes in enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) for the interaction were detected at −4.11±0.18 kJ·mol−1 and −76.59±0.32 J·mol−1·K−1, respectively, which indicated that the naringin palmitate-BSA interaction occurred mainly through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond formation. The negative free energy change (ΔG) values of naringin palmitate at different temperatures suggested a spontaneous interaction. Circular dichroism studies revealed that the α-helical content of BSA decreased after interacting with naringin palmitate. Displacement studies suggested that naringin palmitate was partially bound to site I (subdomain IIA) of the BSA, which was also substantiated by the molecular docking studies. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, naringin palmitate was transported by BSA and was easily removed afterwards. As a consequence, an extension of naringin applications for use in food, cosmetic and medicinal

  14. Use of Paliperidone Palmitate Throughout a Schizoaffective Disorder Patient's Gestation Period.

    PubMed

    Zamora Rodríguez, F J; Benítez Vega, C; Sánchez-Waisen Hernández, M R; Guisado Macías, J A; Vaz Leal, F J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Paliperidone palmitate treatment of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder is effective and well tolerated, but there is almost no data on its safety during pregnancy. Case report: An analysis is made of the safety and tolerability of paliperidone palmitate treatment throughout the gestation period in a 34-year-old patient diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder. Discussion: Paliperidone palmitate treatment throughout the gestation period was safe and well tolerated by both mother and foetus, there being no malformations or other perinatal complications in the newborn to date. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Comparison of plasma lipids and vitamin E in young and middle-aged subjects on potato crisps fried in palmolein and highly oleic sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, N; Truswell, A S; McNeil, Y

    1997-01-01

    We previously found no difference in healthy young adults' plasma cholesterols between palmolein and olive oil as the major dietary lipid, although the former is high in palmitic acid (16:0) but the latter in oleic acid (18:1 cis). In the experiment reported here we compared the effects of palmolein against another monounsaturated oil, highly oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), on plasma cholesterol in both young and middle-aged healthy adults. The test oils were provided as frying oil of potato crisps (150 g/day in men; 100 g/day in women) against low-fat background diets in free-living motivated volunteers. The design was a randomised double-blind 4-week/3-week crossover trial. Compliance was monitored with continuous dietary diaries and by measuring (fasting) plasma lipid fatty-acid pattern. Plasma lipids and vitamin-E compounds were measured at the start and twice at the end of each test period. In combined young plus older subjects (n = 42) mean plasma total and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) values were both 7% (significantly) lower on HOSO than on palmolein, but because high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was also 5% lower, the LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was only 3% lower on HOSO than on palmolein. The difference between the present results with HOSO and previous results with olive oil both compared against palmolein suggest that olive oil is associated with higher plasma cholesterols than other monounsaturated oils. In both the young and older subgroup, LDL-c was lower on HOSO but because HDL-c moved down too in the young subgroup, the LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was lower on HOSO only in the older subjects. Palmolein has an unusual pattern of E vitamins, with a high content of tocotrienols, notably the gamma-isomer. Unlike alpha-tocopherol however, there was no sign of these tocotrienols in subjects' plasmas.

  16. Effects of spray-drying on w/o/w multiple emulsions prepared from a stearic acid matrix

    PubMed Central

    Mlalila, Nichrous; Swai, Hulda; Kalombo, Lonji; Hilonga, Askwar

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of spray-drying on w/o/w double emulsions of methyltestosterone (MT) loaded in a stearic acid matrix. MT-loaded nanoparticles were formulated by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion technique using 50, 75, and 100 mg of stearic acid, 2% and 3% w/v polyvinyl alcohol, 5% w/v lactose, and 0.2% w/v chitosan. The emulsions were immediately spray-dried based on an optimized model of inlet temperature and pump rate, and characterized for optimized responses with regard to particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential, for both emulsion and powder samples. Dynamic light scattering analysis shown that the nanoparticles increased in size with increasing concentrations of polyvinyl alcohol and stearic acid. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the MT-loaded nanoparticles were spherical in shape, had a smooth surface, and were in an amorphous state, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. These MT-loaded nanoparticles are a promising candidate carrier for the delivery of MT; however, further studies are needed in order to establish the stability of the system and the cargo release profile under normal conditions of use. PMID:25489238

  17. Anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of methyl palmitate

    SciTech Connect

    El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2011-08-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) has been shown earlier to inhibit Kupffer cells and rat peritoneal macrophages. To evaluate the potential of MP to inhibit the activation of other macrophages, RAW cells (macrophages of alveolar origin) were treated with varying concentrations of MP (0.25, 0.5, 1 mM). Assessment of cytotoxicity using MTT assay revealed that 0.25 and 0.5 mM are not toxic to RAW cells. MP was able to inhibit the phagocytic function of RAW cells. Treatment of cells with MP 24 hours prior to LPS stimulation significantly decreased nitric oxide release and altered the pattern of cytokines release; there was a significant decrease in TNF-{alpha} and a significant increase in IL-10 compared to the controls. However, there is a non-significant change in IL-6 level. Furthermore, phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) protein was significantly decreased in RAW cells treated with 0.5 mM MP after LPS stimulation. Based upon the in-vitro results, it was examined whether MP treatment will be effective in preventing bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in-vivo. Bleomycin given by itself caused destruction of the lung architecture characterized by pulmonary fibrosis with collapse of air alveoli and emphysematous. Bleomycin induced a significant increase in hydroxyproline level and activated NF-{kappa}B, p65 expression in the lung. MP co-treatment significantly ameliorated bleomycin effects. These results suggest that MP has a potential of inhibiting macrophages in general. The present study demonstrated for the first time that MP has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect that could be through NF-kB inhibition. Thus MP like molecule could be a promising anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drug. - Research Highlights: >Methyl palmitate is a universal macrophage inhibitor. >It could be a promising nucleus of anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drugs. >The underlying mechanism of these effects could be through NF-kB inhibition.

  18. Liquid to Semisolid Rheological Transition of Normal and High-Oleic Peanut Oils Upon Cooling to Refrigeration Temperatures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rheological transitions of peanut oils cooled from 20 to 3ºC at 0.5ºC/min were monitored via small strain oscillatory measurements at 0.1 Hz and 1 Pa. Oils were from 9 different cultivars of peanut, and 3 oils were classified as high-oleic (approximately 80% oleic acid). High-oleic oils maintained...

  19. Molecular mechanism of flip-flop in triple-layer oleic-acid membrane: correlation between oleic acid and water.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Van A; Kalia, Rajiv K; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2012-11-15

    We perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study a pure oleic acid (OA) membrane in water that results in a triple-layer structure. We compute the pressure profiles to examine the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions, and to estimate the surface tension (≈34.5 mN/m), which is similar to those of lipid membranes. We observe that the membrane of OAs having a large diffusion coefficient (0.4 × 10(-7) cm(2)/s) along the normal to the membrane is an ideal model to study oleic acid flip-flop. In the model, the membrane contains a middle layer serving as an intermediate for water and OAs to easily migrate (flip-flop) from one to other leaflets. Water molecules surrounding OA head-groups help to reduce the barriers at the hydrophobic interface to trigger flip-flop events. Within 500 ns, we observe 175 flip-flop events of OAs and 305 events of water traversing the membrane. The ratio of water passing rate (k(H(2)O) = 0.673 ns(-1)) to OA flip-flop rate (k(OA) = 0.446 ns(-1)) is 3/2. The ratio of the totally correlated water-OA events to the totally uncorrelated water-OA events, n(cor)/n(uncor), is also 3/2. The probability of the totally and partially correlated events is 69%. The results indicate that the trans-membrane movement of water and OAs is cooperative and correlated, and agrees with experimentally measured absorption rates. They support the idea that OA flip-flop is more favorable than transport by means of functional proteins. This study might provide further insight into how primitive cell membranes work, and how the interplay and correlation between water and fatty acids may occur.

  20. Determination of protein-bound palmitate turnover rates using a three-compartment model that formally incorporates [3H]palmitate recycling.

    PubMed

    Qanbar, Riad; Bouvier, Michel

    2004-09-28

    The observation that the palmitoylation state of certain proteins can be biologically modulated led to the proposal that it could, much like phosphorylation, be an important dynamic regulator of protein function. However, based on single-phase exponential decay analysis of data from [(3)H]palmitate pulse/chase experiments, the measured protein-bound palmitate turnover rates were often found to be too slow to account for rapid physiological responses. This paper reports that exponential decay does not adequately describe the results of such experiments because it fails to account for the recycling of [(3)H]palmitate from cellular lipids to palmitoyl CoA. Taking this recycling into account, a three-compartment model was used to deduce the time-dependent changes of cellular [(3)H]palmitoyl CoA and to infer the time course for the incorporation of [(3)H]palmitate into proteins. The validity of the inferences made by the model was checked against data obtained by metabolic labeling of endogenous HEK293 cell proteins. In addition, the model could account for reported anomalies, discrepancies, and apparently paradoxical observations obtained by traditional analysis of data from pulse/chase experiments. Including the recycling of cellular palmitate in the formal description of the system offers a new tool for quantitative assessment of protein-bound palmitate turnover rates. Through the re-evaluation of these rates, the model provides a means for the reassessment of the potential physiological implications of dynamic palmitoylation. The model may also be generally applicable to other areas of research where recycling of tracer is a concern.

  1. Paliperidone Palmitate Treatment in Outpatient Care Setting: A Naturalistic Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Rosaria; Cameli, Michela; Bolondi, Marisa; Landi, Giulia; Moretti, Valentina; Piemonte, Chiara; Pollutri, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate paliperidone palmitate (PP) effectiveness, safety and adherence to treatment. Methods We collected data of all patients (n = 50) affected by Schizophrenia Disorders, treated with PP for a 3 month minimum period in the outpatient setting of Mental Health Department in Modena, from 01/01/2014 to 31/01/2015. We evaluated reasons and modality for PP implementation, improvement in symptom and functioning scales, adverse effects, discontinuations and relapses. We statistically correlated socio-demographic and clinical variables of our sample with PP therapeutic variables. Results We registered an improvement in all scales, with a superior percentage in PANSS positive subscale. The mean PP dose in some patients was lower than official indications, although our sample was clinically severe. Illness relapses affected 60% and dropout 18% of patients. PP was well tolerated and in just a few cases adverse events required treatment interruption. The risk factors for discontinuation were represented by “lack of therapeutic compliance” (HR = 4.11, p < 0.0001) and “inefficacy” (HR = 1.67, p < 0.0001). Conclusions With limitations of observational design, this research highlights that PP was well tolerated and effective in improving both psychotic symptoms and functioning, but moderately effective in preventing relapse, probably due to clinical severity of our patients associated with extremely cautious and flexible PP prescriptions. PMID:27738372

  2. Influence of salt purity on Na+ and palmitic acid interactions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zishuai; Hua, Wei; Verreault, Dominique; Allen, Heather C

    2013-12-19

    The influence of salt purity on the interactions between Na(+) ions and the carboxylate (COO(-)) head group of palmitic acid (PA) monolayers is studied in the COO(-) and OH stretching regions using broad-band vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Ultrapure (UP) and ACS grade NaCl salts are used for aqueous solution preparation after proper pretreatment. The time evolution of VSFG spectra of PA monolayers on solutions made from these two grades of salts is different, which reveals that the salt purity has a significant impact on the interactions between Na(+) ions and the COO(-) group of PA. The trace metal impurities in ACS grade salt, which are more abundant than those in UP grade salt, are responsible for this difference due to their stronger affinity for the carboxylate group relative to Na(+) and further affects the interfacial water structure. These results suggest that the alkali salt grade even after pretreatment is critical in the studies of alkali cation-carboxylate interactions and comparison of relative binding affinities of different cations.

  3. Biological and Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil and Palmitic Acid: Effects on Health.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Annamaria; Imperlini, Esther; Nigro, Ersilia; Montagnese, Concetta; Daniele, Aurora; Orrù, Stefania; Buono, Pasqualina

    2015-09-18

    A growing body of evidence highlights the close association between nutrition and human health. Fat is an essential macronutrient, and vegetable oils, such as palm oil, are widely used in the food industry and highly represented in the human diet. Palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid, is the principal constituent of refined palm oil. In the last few decades, controversial studies have reported potential unhealthy effects of palm oil due to the high palmitic acid content. In this review we provide a concise and comprehensive update on the functional role of palm oil and palmitic acid in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The atherogenic potential of palmitic acid and its stereospecific position in triacylglycerols are also discussed.

  4. Synergistic mechanism between SDBS and oleic acid in anionic flotation of rhodochrosite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Yong-jie; Liu, Run-qing; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yue-hua

    2015-05-01

    Pure mineral flotation experiments, zeta potential testing, and infrared spectroscopy were employed to investigate the interfacial reactions of oleic acid (collector), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS, synergist), and rhodochrosite in an anionic system. The pure mineral test shows that oleic acid has a strong ability to collect products on rhodochrosite. Under neutral to moderately alkaline conditions, low temperature (e.g., 10°C) adversely affects the flotation performance of oleic acid; the addition of SDBS significantly improves the dispersion and solubility of oleic acid, enhancing its collecting ability and flotation recovery. The zeta potential test shows that rhodochrosite interacts with oleic acid and SDBS, resulting in a more negative zeta potential and the co-adsorption of the collector and synergist at the mineral surface. Infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that when oleic acid and SDBS are used as a mixed collector, oleates along with -COO- and -COOH functional groups are formed on the mineral surface, indicating chemical adsorption on rhodochrosite. The results demonstrate that oleic acid and SDBS co-adsorb chemically on the surface of rhodochrosite, thereby improving the flotation performance of the collector.

  5. Bilayer structure and lipid dynamics in a model stratum corneum with oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Hoopes, Matthew I; Noro, Massimo G; Longo, Marjorie L; Faller, Roland

    2011-03-31

    The stratum corneum is the uppermost layer of the skin and acts as a barrier to keep out contaminants and retain moisture. Understanding the molecular structure and behavior of this layer will provide guidance for optimizing its biological function. In this study we use a model mixture comprised of equimolar portions of ceramide NS (24:0), lignoceric acid, and cholesterol to model the effect of the addition of small amounts of oleic acid to the bilayer at 300 and 340 K. Five systems at each temperature have been simulated with concentrations between 0 and 0.1 mol % oleic acid. Our major finding is that subdiffusive behavior over the 200 ns time scale is evident in systems at 340 K, with cholesterol diffusion being enhanced with increased oleic acid. Importantly, cholesterol and other species diffuse faster when radial densities indicate nearest neighbors include more cholesterol. We also find that, with the addition of oleic acid, the bilayer midplane and interfacial densities are reduced and there is a 3% decrease in total thickness occurring mostly near the hydrophilic interface at 300 K with reduced overall density at 340 K. Increased interdigitation occurs independent of oleic acid with a temperature increase. Slight ordering of the long non-hydroxy fatty acid of the ceramide occurs near the hydrophilic interface as a function of the oleic acid concentration, but no significant impact on hydrogen bonding is seen in the chosen oleic acid concentrations.

  6. Bilayer Structure and Lipid Dynamics in a Model Stratum Corneum with Oleic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopes, Matthew I.; Noro, Massimo G.; Longo, Marjorie L.; Faller, Roland

    2011-03-31

    The stratum corneum is the uppermost layer of the skin and acts as a barrier to keep out contaminants and retain moisture. Understanding the molecular structure and behavior of this layer will provide guidance for optimizing its biological function. In this study we use a model mixture comprised of equimolar portions of ceramide NS (24:0), lignoceric acid, and cholesterol to model the effect of the addition of small amounts of oleic acid to the bilayer at 300 and 340 K. Five systems at each temperature have been simulated with concentrations between 0 and 0.1 mol % oleic acid. Our major finding is that subdiffusive behavior over the 200 ns time scale is evident in systems at 340 K, with cholesterol diffusion being enhanced with increased oleic acid. Importantly, cholesterol and other species diffuse faster when radial densities indicate nearest neighbors include more cholesterol. We also find that, with the addition of oleic acid, the bilayer midplane and interfacial densities are reduced and there is a 3% decrease in total thickness occurring mostly near the hydrophilic interface at 300 K with reduced overall density at 340 K. Increased interdigitation occurs independent of oleic acid with a temperature increase. Slight ordering of the long non-hydroxy fatty acid of the ceramide occurs near the hydrophilic interface as a function of the oleic acid concentration, but no significant impact on hydrogen bonding is seen in the chosen oleic acid concentrations.

  7. Effect of stearic acid on enalapril stability and dissolution from multiparticulate solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Talita A; Serpa, Raphael C; de Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Nasser, Letícia N; de Freitas, Luis Alexandre P; Taveira, Stephania F; Diniz, Danielle G A; Lima, Eliana M; Marreto, Ricardo N

    2013-09-01

    Enalapril maleate (EM) is a widely used anti-hypertensive drug which is unstable when mixed with excipients. Enalaprilate and diketopiperazine (DPK) are the main degradation products of enalapril. The in situ preparation of enalapril sodium salt (NaE) has been used to improve drug stability in dosage forms; however, gas release and product rejection ensue when the chemical reaction for obtaining the sodium salt is not completely finished before packaging. This study evaluated the effect of stearic acid (SA) on enalapril stability in microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) pellets containing EM or NaE. MCC pellets containing SA were prepared by the extrusion-spheronization technique and characterized. Enalapril stability and dissolution were then evaluated. DPK and enalaprilate formation were reduced by the addition of SA in pellets containing EM. The overall enalapril degradation in these formulations was lower when compared with pellets containing EM or even NaE prepared without SA. The immediate-release characteristic was maintained by the addition of 5% crospovidone to all the formulations tested. The incorporation of SA into NaE pellets resulted in unexpected enalapril degradation, caused by the interaction of these compounds, as suggested by a thermal analysis of the SA-NaE binary mixture. The findings presented here showed that formulations containing SA could substitute the formation of NaE, since they provide better enalapril stability in solid dosage forms. In addition, it is suggested that the stabilization effects would be observed for other N-carboxyalkyl dipeptide analogs with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, since these new entities share the same degradation pathway of enalapril.

  8. Phase diagram of mixed monolayers of stearic acid and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine. Effect of the acid ionization.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Franco Vega; Maggio, Bruno; Wilke, Natalia

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study the phase diagram of mixed monolayers composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and stearic acid (SA) at different ionic strength and bulk pH of the aqueous subphase. In this way, the effect of ionization of SA on the interaction and thus on phase separation with the DMPC matrix can be analyzed. To this purpose, we first determined the ionization state of pure SA monolayers as a function of the bulk subphase pH. The SA monolayers are nearly fully ionized at pH 10 and essentially neutral at pH 4 and the mixture of DMPC and SA was studied at those two pHs. We found that the DMPC-enriched phase admits more SA if the SA monolayer is in a liquid-expanded state, which is highly related to the acid ionization state, and thus to the bulk pH and ionic strength. At pH 4 the molecules hardly mix while at pH 10 the mixed monolayer with DMPC can admit between 30 and 100% of SA (depending on the lateral pressure) before phase separation is established. The addition of calcium ions to the subphase has a condensing effect on SA monolayers at all pHs and the solubility of SA in the DMPC matrix does not depend on the bulk pH in these conditions. The observed phase diagrams are independent on the manner in which the state of the mixed film is reached and may thus be considered states of apparent equilibrium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical surface modification of calcium carbonate particles with stearic acid using different treating methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhi; Daly, Michael; Clémence, Lopez; Geever, Luke M.; Major, Ian; Higginbotham, Clement L.; Devine, Declan M.

    2016-08-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is often treated with stearic acid (SA) to decrease its polarity. However, the method of application of the SA treatments has a strong influence on CaCO3 thermoplastic composite's interfacial structure and distribution. Several of papers describe the promising effects of SA surface treatment, but few compare the treatment process and its effect on the properties of the final thermoplastic composite. In the current study, we assessed a new SA treatment method, namely, complex treatment for polymer composite fabrication with HDPE. Subsequently, a comparative study was performed between the "complex" process and the other existing methods. The composites were assessed using different experiments included scanning electron microscopy (SEM), void content, density, wettability, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile tests. It was observed that the "complex" surface treatment yielded composites with a significantly lower voids content and higher density compared to other surface treatments. This indicates that after the "complex" treatment process, the CaCO3 particles and HDPE matrix are more tightly packed than other methods. DSC and wettability results suggest that the "wet" and "complex" treated CaCO3 composites had a significantly higher heat of fusion and moisture resistance compared to the "dry" treated CaCO3 composites. Furthermore, "wet" and "complex" treated CaCO3 composites have a significantly higher tensile strength than the composites containing untreated and "dry" treated CaCO3. This is mainly because the "wet" and "complex" treatment processes have increased adsorption density of stearate, which enhances the interfacial interaction between matrix and filler. These results confirm that the chemical adsorption of the surfactant ions at the solid-liquid interface is higher than at other interface. From this study, it was concluded that the utilization of the "complex" method minimised the negative effects of void

  10. Free Fatty Acid Palmitate Impairs the Vitality and Function of Cultured Human Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oberbach, Andreas; Schlichting, Nadine; Heinrich, Marco; Till, Holger; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Background Incidence of urinary tract infections is elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus. Those patients show increased levels of the saturated free fatty acid palmitate. As recently shown metabolic alterations induced by palmitate include production and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukine-6 (IL-6) in cultured human bladder smooth muscle cells (hBSMC). Here we studied the influence of palmitate on vital cell properties, for example, regulation of cell proliferation, mitochondrial enzyme activity and antioxidant capacity in hBSMC, and analyzed the involvement of major cytokine signaling pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings HBSMC cultures were set up from bladder tissue of patients undergoing cystectomy and stimulated with palmitate. We analyzed cell proliferation, mitochondrial enzyme activity, and antioxidant capacity by ELISA and confocal immunofluorescence. In signal transduction inhibition experiments we evaluated the involvement of NF-κB, JAK/STAT, MEK1, PI3K, and JNK in major cytokine signaling pathway regulation. We found: (i) palmitate decreased cell proliferation, increased mitochondrial enzyme activity and antioxidant capacity; (ii) direct inhibition of cytokine receptor by AG490 even more strongly suppressed cell proliferation in palmitate-stimulated cells, while counteracting palmitate-induced increase of antioxidant capacity; (iii) in contrast knockdown of the STAT3 inhibitor SOCS3 increased cell proliferation and antioxidant capacity; (iv) further downstream JAK/STAT3 signaling cascade the inhibition of PI3K or JNK enhanced palmitate induced suppression of cell proliferation; (v) increase of mitochondrial enzyme activity by palmitate was enhanced by inhibition of PI3K but counteracted by inhibition of MEK1. Conclusions/Significance Saturated free fatty acids (e.g., palmitate) cause massive alterations in vital cell functions of cultured hBSMC involving distinct major cytokine signaling pathways. Thereby, certain

  11. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Role of Oleic Acid-Triggered Lung Injury and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano Felippe; Silva, Adriana Ribeiro; Burth, Patrícia; Castro-Faria, Mauro Velho; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire

    2015-01-01

    Lung injury especially acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be triggered by diverse stimuli, including fatty acids and microbes. ARDS affects thousands of people worldwide each year, presenting high mortality rate and having an economic impact. One of the hallmarks of lung injury is edema formation with alveoli flooding. Animal models are used to study lung injury. Oleic acid-induced lung injury is a widely used model resembling the human disease. The oleic acid has been linked to metabolic and inflammatory diseases; here we focus on lung injury. Firstly, we briefly discuss ARDS and secondly we address the mechanisms by which oleic acid triggers lung injury and inflammation. PMID:26640323

  12. Amplified spontaneous emission from the exciplex state of a conjugated polymer "PFO" in oleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idriss, Hajo; Taha, Kamal K.; Aldaghri, O.; Alhathlool, R.; AlSalhi, M. S.; Ibnaouf, K. H.

    2016-09-01

    The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) characteristics of a conjugated polymer poly (9, 9-dioctylfluorenyl-2, 7-diyl) (PFO) in oleic acid have been studied under different concentrations and temperatures. Here, the ASE spectra of PFO in oleic acid have been obtained using a transverse cavity configuration where the conjugated PFO was pumped by laser pulses from the third harmonic of Nd: YAG laser (355 nm). The PFO in oleic acid produces ASE from an exciplex state - a new molecular species. The obtained results were compared with the PFO in benzene. Such ASE spectra from the exciplex state have not been observed for the PFO in benzene.

  13. MpFAE3, a beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase gene in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L., is preferentially involved in elongation of palmitic acid to stearic acid.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Masataka; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Kanamaru, Hiroyuki; Sakuradani, Eiji; Shimizu, Sakayu; Fukuzawa, Hideya; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Ohyama, Kanji

    2003-08-01

    Fatty acid chain elongation is a crucial step in the biosynthesis of long chain fatty acids. An essential reaction in the elongation process is condensation of malonyl-CoA with acyl-CoA, which is catalyzed by beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) in plants. We have isolated and characterized the MpFAE3 gene, one of the KCS gene family in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. Transgenic M. polymorpha plants overexpressing MpFAE3 accumulate fatty acids 18:0, 20:0, and 22:0. In these plants, the amount of 16:0 is reduced to 50% of wild type. In a heterologous assay, transgenic methylotrophic yeast expressing the MpFAE3 gene accumulates fatty acid 18:0 and generates several longer fatty acids which are not detectable in the control, accompanied by a decrease of 16:0. These observations indicate that the MpFAE3 protein is preferentially involved in the elongation of 16:0 to 18:0 and also in the subsequent steps of 18:0 to 20:0 and 20:0 to 22:0 in M. polymorpha.

  14. Determination of the fatty acid composition of saponified vegetable oils using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ayorinde, F O; Garvin, K; Saeed, K

    2000-01-01

    A method using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) for the determination of the fatty acid composition of vegetable oils is described and illustrated with the analysis of palm kernel oil, palm oil, olive oil, canola oil, soybean oil, vernonia oil, and castor oil. Solutions of the saponified oils, mixed with the matrix, meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin, provided reproducible MALDI-TOF spectra in which the ions were dominated by sodiated sodium carboxylates [RCOONa + Na]+. Thus, palm kernel oil was found to contain capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and stearic acid. Palm oil had a fatty acid profile including palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic. The relative percentages of the fatty acids in olive oil were palmitoleic (1.2 +/- 0.5), palmitic (10.9 +/- 0.8), linoleic (0.6 +/- 0.1), linoleic (16.5 +/- 0.8), and oleic (70.5 +/- 1.2). For soybean oil, the relative percentages were: palmitoleic (0.4 +/- 0.4), palmitic (6.0 +/- 1.3), linolenic (14.5 +/- 1.8), linoleic (50.1 +/- 4.0), oleic (26.1 +/- 1.2), and stearic (2.2 +/- 0.7). This method was also applied to the analysis of two commercial soap formulations. The first soap gave a fatty acid profile that included: lauric (19.4% +/- 0.8), myristic (9.6% +/- 0.5), palmitoleic (1.9% +/- 0.3), palmitic (16.3% +/- 0.9), linoleic (5.6% +/- 0.4), oleic (37.1% +/- 0.8), and stearic (10.1% +/- 0.7) and that of the second soap was: lauric (9.3% +/- 0.3), myristic (3.8% +/- 0.5), palmitoleic (3.1% +/- 0.8), palmitic (19.4% +/- 0.8), linoleic (4.9% +/- 0.7), oleic (49.5% +/- 1.1), and stearic (10.0% +/- 0.9). The MALDI-TOFMS method described in this communication is simpler and less time-consuming than the established transesterification method that is coupled with analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The new method could be used routinely to determine the qualitative fatty acid composition of vegetable oils

  15. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of paliperidone palmitate for treating schizophrenia in Greece

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients having chronic schizophrenia with frequent relapses and hospitalizations represent a great challenge, both clinically and financially. Risperidone long-acting injection (RIS-LAI) has been the main LAI atypical antipsychotic treatment in Greece. Paliperidone palmitate (PP-LAI) has recently been approved. It is dosed monthly, as opposed to biweekly for RIS-LAI, but such advantages have not yet been analysed in terms of economic evaluation. Purpose To compare costs and outcomes of PP-LAI versus RIS-LAI in Greece. Methods A cost-utility analysis was performed using a previously validated decision tree to model clinical pathways and costs over 1 year for stable patients started on either medication. Rates were taken from the literature. A local expert panel provided feedback on treatment patterns. All direct costs incurred by the national healthcare system were obtained from the literature and standard price lists; all were inflated to 2011 costs. Patient outcomes analyzed included average days with stable disease, numbers of hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Results The total annual healthcare cost with PP-LAI was €3529; patients experienced 325 days in remission and 0.840 QALY; 28% were hospitalized and 15% received emergency room treatment. With RIS-LAI, the cost was €3695, patients experienced 318.6 days in remission and 0.815 QALY; 33% were hospitalized and 17% received emergency room treatment. Thus, PP-LAI dominated RIS-LAI. Results were generally robust in sensitivity analyses with PP-LAI dominating in 74.6% of simulations. Results were sensitive to the price of PP-LAI. Conclusions PP-LAI appears to be a cost-effective option for treating chronic schizophrenia in Greece compared with RIS-LAI since it results in savings to the health care system along with better patient outcomes. PMID:22747533

  16. Product study of oleic acid ozonolysis as function of humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesna, O.; Sax, M.; Kalberer, M.; Gaschen, A.; Ammann, M.

    The heterogeneous reaction of ozone with oleic acid (OA) aerosol particles was studied as function of humidity and reaction time in an aerosol flow reactor using an off-line gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. We report quantitative yields of the major C9 ozonolysis products in both gas and condensed phases and the effect of relative humidity on the product distribution. The measurements were carried out with OA aerosol particles at room temperature. The results indicate that the product yields are increasing with increasing relative humidity during the reaction. Nonanal (NN) was detected as the major gas-phase product (55.6 ± 2.3%), with 94.5 ± 2.4% of the NN yield in the gas, and 5.5 ± 2.7% in the particulate phase, whereas nonanoic, oxononanoic and azelaic acids were detected exclusively in the particulate phase. Using UV-spectrometry, we observed that peroxides make up the largest fraction of products, about half of the product aerosol mass, and their concentration decreased with increasing humidity.

  17. Regional expansion of oleic acid-injured lungs.

    PubMed

    Martynowicz, M A; Minor, T A; Walters, B J; Hubmayr, R D

    1999-07-01

    It has been suggested that dependent regions of an injured lung are collapsed and subject to cyclic reopening and collapse during mechanical ventilation. To test this hypothesis, we measured both temporal and spatial heterogeneity of lobar expansion in oleic acid (OA)-injured dogs. Regional volumes were measured in nine dogs (seven supine and two prone) during closed loop sinusoidal oscillations of the lungs before and after OA injury using the parenchymal marker technique. In contrast to computer tomography, the parenchymal marker technique provides absolute measures of regional tissue dimensions as opposed to relative measures of regional air to liquid content. The experiments generated three major findings: (1) OA injury did not lead to the collapse of dependent lung units at FRC, (2) OA injury did not steepen the vertical gradient in regional lung volumes at FRC, and (3) during sinusoidal oscillation of the OA-injured lungs from FRC, dependent regions did not undergo cyclic reopening and collapse. On the basis of these results, we propose an alternative mechanism for the topographic variability in regional impedances and lung expansion after injury, namely liquid and foam in conducting airways.

  18. An innate bactericidal oleic acid effective against skin infection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a therapy concordant with evolutionary medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Hsuan; Wang, Yanhan; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Liu, Yu-Tuseng; Zouboulis, Christos; Gallo, Richard; Zhang, Liangfang; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2011-04-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) are known to have bacteriocidal activity and are important components of the innate immune system. Many FFAs are naturally present in human and animal skin, breast milk, and in the bloodstream. Here, the therapeutic potential of FFAs against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is demonstrated in cultures and in mice. Among a series of FFAs, only oleic acid (OA) (C18:1, cis-9) can effectively eliminate Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) through cell wall disruption. Lauric acid (LA, C12:0) and palmitic acid (PA, C16:0) do not have this ability. OA can inhibit growth of a number of Gram-positive bacteria, including hospital and community-associated MRSA at a dose that did not show any toxicity to human sebocytes. The bacteriocidal activities of FFAs were also demonstrated in vivo through injection of OA into mouse skin lesions previously infected with a strain of MRSA. In conclusion, our results suggest a promising therapeutic approach against MRSA through boosting the bacteriocidal activities of native FFAs, which may have been co-evolved during the interactions between microbes and their hosts.

  19. Isosteviol Has Beneficial Effects on Palmitate-Induced α-Cell Dysfunction and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoping; Hermansen, Kjeld; Xiao, Jianzhong; Bystrup, Sara Kjaergaard; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2012-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to high levels of fatty acids impairs insulin secretion and exaggerates glucagon secretion. The aim of this study was to explore if the antihyperglycemic agent, Isosteviol (ISV), is able to counteract palmitate-induced α-cell dysfunction and to influence α-cell gene expression. Methodology/Principal Findings Long-term incubation studies with clonal α-TC1–6 cells were performed in the presence of 0.5 mM palmitate with or without ISV. We investigated effects on glucagon secretion, glucagon content, cellular triglyceride (TG) content, cell proliferation, and expression of genes involved in controlling glucagon synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and insulin signal transduction. Furthermore, we studied effects of ISV on palmitate-induced glucagon secretion from isolated mouse islets. Culturing α-cells for 72-h with 0.5 mM palmitate in the presence of 18 mM glucose resulted in a 56% (p<0.01) increase in glucagon secretion. Concomitantly, the TG content of α-cells increased by 78% (p<0.01) and cell proliferation decreased by 19% (p<0.05). At 18 mM glucose, ISV (10−8 and 10−6 M) reduced palmitate-stimulated glucagon release by 27% (p<0.05) and 27% (p<0.05), respectively. ISV (10−6 M) also counteracted the palmitate-induced hypersecretion of glucagon in mouse islets. ISV (10−6 M) reduced α-TC1–6 cell proliferation rate by 25% (p<0.05), but ISV (10−8 and 10−6 M) had no effect on TG content in the presence of palmitate. Palmitate (0.5 mM) increased Pcsk2 (p<0.001), Irs2 (p<0.001), Fasn (p<0.001), Srebf2 (p<0.001), Acaca (p<0.01), Pax6 (p<0.05) and Gcg mRNA expression (p<0.05). ISV significantly (p<0.05) up-regulated Insr, Irs1, Irs2, Pik3r1 and Akt1 gene expression in the presence of palmitate. Conclusions/Significance ISV counteracts α-cell hypersecretion and apparently contributes to changes in expression of key genes resulting from long-term exposure to palmitate. ISV apparently acts as a glucagonostatic drug with

  20. Inhibitory Effect of Long-Chain Fatty Acids on Biogas Production and the Protective Effect of Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Dasa, Kris Triwulan; Westman, Supansa Y.; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Niklasson, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of lipid-containing wastes for biogas production is often hampered by the inhibitory effect of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). In this study, the inhibitory effects of LCFAs (palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid) on biogas production as well as the protective effect of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) against LCFAs were examined in thermophilic batch digesters. The results showed that palmitic and oleic acid with concentrations of 3.0 and 4.5 g/L resulted in >50% inhibition on the biogas production, while stearic acid had an even stronger inhibitory effect. The encased cells in the MBR system were able to perform better in the presence of LCFAs. This system exhibited a significantly lower percentage of inhibition than the free cell system, not reaching over 50% at any LCFA concentration tested. PMID:27699172

  1. Fuel properties of heptadecene isomers prepared via tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of oleic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heptadecene isomers were prepared via tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of oleic acid using catalytic triruthenium dodecacarbonyl [Ru3(CO)12]. Chromatographic and spectroscopic characterization of the isolated heptadecene mixture indicated that it consisted of 96% internal isomers and 4% aromatic...

  2. Influencing the crystallization behavior of binary mixtures of stearyl alcohol and stearic acid (SOSA) using ethylcellulose.

    PubMed

    Gravelle, Andrew J; Davidovich-Pinhas, Maya; Barbut, Shai; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2017-01-01

    In the present study we have characterized the influence of the polymer gelator ethylcellulose (EC) on the crystallization behavior of mixtures of stearyl alcohol and stearic acid (SOSA). The presence of EC led to a more abrupt thermo-reversible crystallization process and an increase in the onset of crystallization temperature from 22.7±0.35°C to 26.5±0.42°C. X-ray analysis indicated that the polymorphism of the mixed SOSA crystals was maintained in the presence of EC; however, changes in the small angle region indicated the presence of the polymer network altered the higher-order organization of the crystal network. Significant changes in the microstructural organization were also observed by light microscopy. A random distribution of needle-like, oriented platelets were observed in SOSA gels, while branched, feather-like structures were apparent in the mixed EC/SOSA system. Temperature-sweep rheological experiments of the combined EC/SOSA system also indicated that prior to crystallizing, SOSA molecules plasticized the polymer chains, resulting in a decrease in the gelation point (cross-over point; G'=G″) from ~110°C to 90°C. This effect was corroborated by DSC experiments, in which it was observed that the glass transition temperature of EC decreased and broadened with increasing SOSA content. Back extrusion flow curves indicated that the addition of EC reduces the brittleness and increases the plasticity of the bulk material, as indicated by the brittleness factor quantified over the steady-state flow regime, even when the combined gelator system was substantially firmer. Although the presence of the EC network resulted in a stress overshoot during initial penetration, by incorporating EC below its critical gelation concentration eliminated the overshoot while still providing plasticity to the SOSA network, such that the flow behavior was shown to be comparable to several commercial margarines. This study has demonstrated the ability of EC to modify

  3. Trimetazidine prevents palmitate-induced mitochondrial fission and dysfunction in cultured cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kuzmicic, Jovan; Parra, Valentina; Verdejo, Hugo E; López-Crisosto, Camila; Chiong, Mario; García, Lorena; Jensen, Michael D; Bernlohr, David A; Castro, Pablo F; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    Metabolic and cardiovascular disease patients have increased plasma levels of lipids and, specifically, of palmitate, which can be toxic for several tissues. Trimetazidine (TMZ), a partial inhibitor of lipid oxidation, has been proposed as a metabolic modulator for several cardiovascular pathologies. However, its mechanism of action is controversial. Given the fact that TMZ is able to alter mitochondrial metabolism, we evaluated the protective role of TMZ on mitochondrial morphology and function in an in vitro model of lipotoxicity induced by palmitate. We treated cultured rat cardiomyocytes with BSA-conjugated palmitate (25 nM free), TMZ (0.1-100 μM), or a combination of both. We evaluated mitochondrial morphology and lipid accumulation by confocal fluorescence microscopy, parameters of mitochondrial metabolism (mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption rate [OCR], and ATP levels), and ceramide production by mass spectrometry and indirect immunofluorescence. Palmitate promoted mitochondrial fission evidenced by a decrease in mitochondrial volume (50%) and an increase in the number of mitochondria per cell (80%), whereas TMZ increased mitochondrial volume (39%), and decreased mitochondrial number (56%), suggesting mitochondrial fusion. Palmitate also decreased mitochondrial metabolism (ATP levels and OCR), while TMZ potentiated all the metabolic parameters assessed. Moreover, pretreatment with TMZ protected the cardiomyocytes from palmitate-induced mitochondrial fission and dysfunction. TMZ also increased lipid accumulation in cardiomyocytes, and prevented palmitate-induced ceramide production. Our data show that TMZ protects cardiomyocytes by changing intracellular lipid management. Thus, the beneficial effects of TMZ on patients with different cardiovascular pathologies can be related to modulation of the mitochondrial morphology and function.

  4. Muscle palmitate uptake and binding are saturable and inhibited by antibodies to FABP(PM).

    PubMed

    Turcotte, L P; Swenberger, J R; Tucker, M Z; Yee, A J; Trump, G; Luiken, J J; Bonen, A

    2000-07-01

    Studies show that uptake of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) across the plasma membranes (PM) may occur partly via a carrier-mediated process and that the plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein (FABP(PM)) may be a component of this system. To test the hypothesis that FABP(PM) is involved in transsarcolemmal transport of LCFA in muscle, we measured palmitate uptake in giant sarcolemmal vesicles and palmitate binding to PM proteins in rat muscles, (1) in the presence of increasing amounts of unbound palmitate and (2) in the absence or presence of antibody to FABP(PM). Both palmitate uptake and binding were found to be saturable functions of the unbound palmitate concentration with calculated Vmax values of 10.5 +/- 1.2 pmol/mg protein/15 sec and 45.6 +/- 2.9 nmol/mg protein/15 min and Km values of 12.8 +/- 3.8 and 18.4 +/- 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. The Vmax values for both palmitate uptake and binding were significantly decreased by 75-79% in the presence of a polyclonal antibody to the rat hepatic FABP(PM). Antibody inhibition was found to be dose-dependent and specific to LCFA. Glucose uptake was not affected by the presence of the antibody to FABP(PM). Palmitate uptake and binding were also inhibited in the presence of trypsin and phloretin. These results support the hypothesis that transsarcolemmal LCFA transport occurs in part by a carrier-mediated process and that FABP(PM) is a component of this process in muscle.

  5. Partitioning of oleic acid into phosphatidylcholine membranes is amplified by strain.

    PubMed

    Mally, Mojca; Peterlin, Primož; Svetina, Saša

    2013-10-10

    Partitioning of fatty acids into phospholipid membranes is studied on giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) utilizing phase-contrast microscopy. With use of a micropipet, an individual GUV is transferred from a vesicle suspension in a mixed glucose/sucrose solution into an isomolar glycerol solution with a small amount of oleic acid added. Oleic acid molecules intercalate into the phospholipid membrane and thus increase the membrane area, while glycerol permeates into the vesicle interior and thus via osmotic inflation causes an increase of the vesicle volume. The conditions are chosen at which a vesicle swells as a sphere. At sufficiently low oleic acid concentrations, when the critical membrane strain is reached, the membrane bursts and part of vesicle content is ejected, upon which the membrane reseals and the swelling commences again. The radius of the vesicle before and after the burst is determined at different concentrations of oleic acid in suspension. The results of our experiments show that the oleic acid partitioning increases when the membrane strain is increased. The observed behavior is interpreted on the basis of a tension-dependent intercalation of oleic acid into the membrane.

  6. Binding and solubility of oleic acid to laboratory materials: A possible artifact

    SciTech Connect

    Mailman, D.; Rose, C. )

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that significant amounts of fatty acids were dissolved in or bound to the surfaces of common laboratory materials was examined. The uptake or adsorption of radioisotopically labeled oleic acid and cholic acid by plastic tubing of Tygon{trademark}, Teflon{trademark}, and polyethylene, and Pyrex{trademark}, and borosilicate glass, and steel was measured. {sup 3}H-oleic acid and {sup 14}C-cholic acid were used in the presence of different concentration of unlabeled oleic acid, cholic acid, and/or bovine serum albumin. Concentrations, composition, pH, and perfusion rates were varied. Relatively large amounts of oleic acid were lost by dissolving in plastic and adsorption to glass or metal. The degree of losses decreased in the presence of compounds in the perfusion solution which could bind or dissolve oleic acid. In contrast, cholic acid was not lost to plastic, glass or metal. The magnitude of and influence of perfusion rate, composition, pH, and sequence of perfusion solutions on oleic acid losses were sufficiently large that the results of certain studies, such as those of unstirred water layers or albumin-stimulated fatty acid uptake by hepatocytes may need to be reexamined.

  7. Effect of NAD on PARP-mediated insulin sensitivity in oleic acid treated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jing; Cui, Ju; Gong, Huan; Xi, Chao; Zhang, Tie-Mei

    2015-07-01

    High serum free fatty acids levels are associated with the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes; however, the precise mechanisms underlying this lipid toxicity are unclear. To investigate whether PARP1 activation and NAD depletion are involved in the impairment of insulin sensitivity associated with lipotoxicity, HepG2 cells were cultured with 500 μM oleic acid for 48 h. Oleic acid-treated cells exhibited increased ROS generation, lipid accumulation and PARP1 activation. Treatment with the PARP1 inhibitor PJ34 and transfection with PARP1 small interfering RNA both prevented the oleic acid-induced impairment of the insulin signaling pathway. Furthermore, treatment with PJ34 reversed the oleic acid-induced decrease in intracellular NAD concentration, while exogenous NAD protected cells against oleic acid-induced insulin insensitivity. Combined NAD and PJ34 administration did not enhance the effects obtained by treatment with either NAD or PJ34 alone. Interestingly, when cells were treated with the SIRT1 inhibitor EX527, the protective effects of PJ34 and NAD treatment were diminished. Taken together, these data suggest that NAD depletion by PARP1 activation is essential for the modulation of insulin sensitivity in oleic acid-induced lipotoxicity.

  8. Oleic acid promotes the expression of neural markers in differentiated human endometrial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kojour, Maryam Ali Mohammadie; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Kouchesfehani, Homa Mohseni; Jalali, Hanieh; Ebrahim, Mohammah Hosein Karbalaie

    2017-01-01

    Variety of neurodegenerative diseases in humans are caused by loss of cells along with loss of function and disability. Cell replacement therapy is a potential strategy to cure neurodegenerative diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells are pluripotent non-hematopoietic cells that can be isolated from numerous tissues. Human endometrial-derived stem cell (hEnSC) are the abundant and easy available source with no immunological response, for cell replacement therapy. In the nervous system, where fatty acids are found in huge amounts, they participate in its development and maintenance throughout life. Oleic acid is a kind of the saturated fatty acids which plays crucial role in brain development. Oleic acid released by astrocytes is used by neurons for the synthesis of phospholipids and is specifically incorporated into growth cones. Human endometrial-derived stem cells in the third passage were divided into 3 groups including: control, sham (cultured in full differentiation medium without oleic acid) and experimental group (cultured in full differentiation medium with oleic acid) to differentiate over a 18-day period. Data from Real-Time PCR showed that mRNA levels of NF and β-TUBULIN were increased significantly (p<0.05) in oleic acid treated cells in comparison to control and sham groups. Immunocytochemistry analysis of Chat and NF expression also showed the same results. The present study clearly demonstrates that oleic acid promotes neural differentiation of hEnSC through regulation of gene expression.

  9. Model Systems of Precursor Cellular Membranes: Long-Chain Alcohols Stabilize Spontaneously Formed Oleic Acid Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Rendón, Adela; Carton, David Gil; Sot, Jesús; García-Pacios, Marcos; Montes, Ruth; Valle, Mikel; Arrondo, José-Luis R.; Goñi, Felix M.; Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa

    2012-01-01

    Oleic acid vesicles have been used as model systems to study the properties of membranes that could be the evolutionary precursors of more complex, stable, and impermeable phospholipid biomembranes. Pure fatty acid vesicles in general show high sensitivity to ionic strength and pH variation, but there is growing evidence that this lack of stability can be counterbalanced through mixtures with other amphiphilic or surfactant compounds. Here, we present a systematic experimental analysis of the oleic acid system and explore the spontaneous formation of vesicles under different conditions, as well as the effects that alcohols and alkanes may have in the process. Our results support the hypothesis that alcohols (in particular 10- to 14-C-atom alcohols) contribute to the stability of oleic acid vesicles under a wider range of experimental conditions. Moreover, studies of mixed oleic-acid-alkane and oleic-acid-alcohol systems using infrared spectroscopy and Langmuir trough measurements indicate that precisely those alcohols that increased vesicle stability also decreased the mobility of oleic acid polar headgroups, as well as the area/molecule of lipid. PMID:22339864

  10. Adipocytes Differentiated In Vitro from Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells Lack Essential Free Fatty Acids Compared to Adult Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bojin, Florina Maria; Gruia, Alexandra Teodora; Cristea, Mirabela Iustina; Ordodi, Valentin Laurentiu; Paunescu, Virgil

    2012-01-01

    Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can be differentiated in vitro to become adipocyte-like cells with lipid vacuoles, similar to adipocytes derived from adult adipose tissue. Little is known regarding the composition of free fatty acids (FFAs) of the in vitro-differentiated adipocytes, or whether it resembles that of native adult adipocytes. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify FFA species in BMSC-derived adipocytes and compared them with FFAs found in adipocytes derived from adult adipose tissue. We found that adult adipocytes contained significant percentages of saturated and monounsaturated FFAs, including palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1); some polyunsaturated FFAs, such as linoleic acid (C18:2), a small percentage of arachidonic acid (C20:4), and very little linolenic acid (C18:3). In comparison, 80%–90% confluent BMSCs contained comparable percentages of palmitic and oleic acids, significantly more arachidonic and stearic acids, very little linoleic acid, and no linolenic acid. After differentiation, compared with adult adipocytes, BMSC-derived adipocytes contained a comparable percentage of palmitic acid, more stearic and arachidonic acids, less oleic acid, almost no linoleic acid, and no detectable linolenic acid. This composition was quite similar to that of undifferentiated BMSCs. The differentiation medium contained only palmitic and stearic acids, with traces of oleic acid; it did not contain the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, the composition of FFAs in BMSC-derived adipocytes was altered compared with adult adipocytes. BMSC-derived adipocytes had an altered composition of saturated and monounsaturated FFAs and lacked essential FFAs that may directly affect signaling related to their lipolysis/lipogenesis functions. PMID:22023262

  11. Adipocytes differentiated in vitro from rat mesenchymal stem cells lack essential free fatty acids compared to adult adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Bojin, Florina Maria; Gruia, Alexandra Teodora; Cristea, Mirabela Iustina; Ordodi, Valentin Laurentiu; Paunescu, Virgil; Mic, Felix Aurel

    2012-03-01

    Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can be differentiated in vitro to become adipocyte-like cells with lipid vacuoles, similar to adipocytes derived from adult adipose tissue. Little is known regarding the composition of free fatty acids (FFAs) of the in vitro-differentiated adipocytes, or whether it resembles that of native adult adipocytes. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify FFA species in BMSC-derived adipocytes and compared them with FFAs found in adipocytes derived from adult adipose tissue. We found that adult adipocytes contained significant percentages of saturated and monounsaturated FFAs, including palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1); some polyunsaturated FFAs, such as linoleic acid (C18:2), a small percentage of arachidonic acid (C20:4), and very little linolenic acid (C18:3). In comparison, 80%-90% confluent BMSCs contained comparable percentages of palmitic and oleic acids, significantly more arachidonic and stearic acids, very little linoleic acid, and no linolenic acid. After differentiation, compared with adult adipocytes, BMSC-derived adipocytes contained a comparable percentage of palmitic acid, more stearic and arachidonic acids, less oleic acid, almost no linoleic acid, and no detectable linolenic acid. This composition was quite similar to that of undifferentiated BMSCs. The differentiation medium contained only palmitic and stearic acids, with traces of oleic acid; it did not contain the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, the composition of FFAs in BMSC-derived adipocytes was altered compared with adult adipocytes. BMSC-derived adipocytes had an altered composition of saturated and monounsaturated FFAs and lacked essential FFAs that may directly affect signaling related to their lipolysis/lipogenesis functions.

  12. 21 CFR 357.210 - Cholecystokinetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a melting point of 41 to 43.5 °C, an iodine value of 65 to 69, and a fatty acid composition as follows: Fatty acid Percent composition Myristic acid 0.1 Palmitic acid 10.0 Palmitoleic acid 0.1 Stearic acid 13.5 Oleic acid 72.0 Linoleic acid 3.8 Linolenic acid 0.1 Arachidic acid 0.5 Behenic acid 0.2...

  13. 21 CFR 357.210 - Cholecystokinetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a melting point of 41 to 43.5 °C, an iodine value of 65 to 69, and a fatty acid composition as follows: Fatty acid Percent composition Myristic acid 0.1 Palmitic acid 10.0 Palmitoleic acid 0.1 Stearic acid 13.5 Oleic acid 72.0 Linoleic acid 3.8 Linolenic acid 0.1 Arachidic acid 0.5 Behenic acid 0.2...

  14. 21 CFR 357.210 - Cholecystokinetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a melting point of 41 to 43.5 °C, an iodine value of 65 to 69, and a fatty acid composition as follows: Fatty acid Percent composition Myristic acid 0.1 Palmitic acid 10.0 Palmitoleic acid 0.1 Stearic acid 13.5 Oleic acid 72.0 Linoleic acid 3.8 Linolenic acid 0.1 Arachidic acid 0.5 Behenic acid 0.2...

  15. 21 CFR 357.210 - Cholecystokinetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a melting point of 41 to 43.5 °C, an iodine value of 65 to 69, and a fatty acid composition as follows: Fatty acid Percent composition Myristic acid 0.1 Palmitic acid 10.0 Palmitoleic acid 0.1 Stearic acid 13.5 Oleic acid 72.0 Linoleic acid 3.8 Linolenic acid 0.1 Arachidic acid 0.5 Behenic acid 0.2...

  16. 21 CFR 357.210 - Cholecystokinetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a melting point of 41 to 43.5 °C, an iodine value of 65 to 69, and a fatty acid composition as follows: Fatty acid Percent composition Myristic acid 0.1 Palmitic acid 10.0 Palmitoleic acid 0.1 Stearic acid 13.5 Oleic acid 72.0 Linoleic acid 3.8 Linolenic acid 0.1 Arachidic acid 0.5 Behenic acid 0.2...

  17. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yi Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ► Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ► The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ► Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated

  18. Effect of Span 60 on the Microstructure, Crystallization Kinetics, and Mechanical Properties of Stearic Acid Oleogels: An In-Depth Analysis.

    PubMed

    Uvanesh, K; Sagiri, S S; Senthilguru, K; Pramanik, K; Banerjee, I; Anis, Arfat; Al-Zahrani, S M; Pal, Kunal

    2016-02-01

    Modulation of crystallization of stearic acid and its derivatives is important for tuning the properties of stearate oleogels. The present study delineates the crystallization of stearic acid in stearate oleogels in the presence of Span 60. Microarchitecture analysis revealed that stearic acid crystals in the oleogels changed its shape from plate-like structure to a branched architecture in the presence of Span 60. Consequently, a significant variation in the mobility of the solute molecules inside the oleogel (Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching studies, FRAP analysis) was observed. Thermal analysis (gelation kinetics and DSC) revealed shortening of nucleation induction time and secondary crystallization with an increase in the Span 60 concentration. Furthermore, isosolid diagram suggested better physical stability of the formulations at higher proportions of Span 60. XRD analysis indicated that there was a decrease in the crystal size and the crystallinity of the stearic acid crystals with an increase in Span 60 concentration in the Span 60 containing oleogels. However, crystal growth orientation was unidirectional and found unaltered with Span 60 concentration (Avarmi analysis using DSC data). The mechanical study indicated a composition-dependent variation in the viscoelastic properties (instantaneous [τ1 ], intermediate [τ2 ], and delayed [τ3 ] relaxation times) of the formulations. In conclusion, Span 60 can be used to alter the kinetics of the crystallization, crystal habit and crystal structure of stearic acid. This study provides a number of clues that could be used further for developing oleogel based formulation. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Palmitate acutely raises glycogen synthesis in rat soleus muscle by a mechanism that requires its metabolization (Randle cycle).

    PubMed

    Massao Hirabara, Sandro; de Oliveira Carvalho, Carla Roberta; Mendonça, José Roberto; Piltcher Haber, Esther; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio; Curi, Rui

    2003-04-24

    The acute effect of palmitate on glucose metabolism in rat skeletal muscle was examined. Soleus muscles from Wistar male rats were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer, for 1 h, in the absence or presence of 10 mU/ml insulin and 0, 50 or 100 microM palmitate. Palmitate increased the insulin-stimulated [(14)C]glycogen synthesis, decreased lactate production, and did not alter D-[U-(14)C]glucose decarboxylation and 2-deoxy-D-[2,6-(3)H]glucose uptake. This fatty acid decreased the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and [1-(14)C]pyruvate decarboxylation and increased (14)CO(2) produced from [2-(14)C]pyruvate. Palmitate reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1/2, Akt, and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Bromopalmitate, a non-metabolizable analogue of palmitate, reduced [(14)C]glycogen synthesis. A strong correlation was found between [U-(14)C]palmitate decarboxylation and [(14)C]glycogen synthesis (r=0.99). Also, palmitate increased intracellular content of glucose 6-phosphate in the presence of insulin. These results led us to postulate that palmitate acutely potentiates insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis by a mechanism that requires its metabolization (Randle cycle). The inhibitory effect of palmitate on insulin-stimulated protein phosphorylation might play an important role for the development of insulin resistance in conditions of chronic exposure to high levels of fatty acids.

  20. The Effects of plasticizers and palmitic acid toward the properties of the carrageenan Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heru Wibowo, Atmanto; Listiyawati, Oktaviana; Purnawan, Candra

    2016-02-01

    Varied plasticizers and palmitic acid additive have been added in the carrageenan film. The film was made by mixing of the carrageenan and plasticizers (glycerol, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol) with composition of 92:3, 90:6, 87:9, 84:12, 81:15(%w/w) and in the presence of palmitic acid as additive with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% of total weight. Casting method was used for the film molding and drying at 60oC with the oven for 12 hours. To investigate the effects of plasticizers and additive, some mechanical tests on film were performed. The test result concludes that plasticizers in the film decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation break of the carrageenan film. The additive of palmitic acid decreased the tensile strength of the carrageenan film and also decreased the-the water absorbance of the film. The highest tensile strength of films made was with the formulation of carrageenan: PEG with composition of 92:3 (% w/w). The highest elongation break of the film was for carrageenan:PVA with the composition of 81: 15 (%w/w) and carrageenan:palmitic acid:PEG with the composition of 92: 3: 1 (%w/w). The lowest water absorption of the film was achieved for carrageenan:PVA:palmitic acid with the composition of 87: 3: 5 (%w/w).

  1. Effects of lipids and oleic acid on biomass development in anaerobic fixed-bed reactors. Part II: Oleic acid toxicity and biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Alves, M M; Vieira, J A; Pereira, R M; Pereira, M A; Mota, M

    2001-01-01

    Oleic acid toxicity and biodegradability were followed during long-term operation of two similar anaerobic fixed-bed units. When treating an oleate based effluent, the sludge from the bioreactor that was acclimated with lipids during the first operation period, showed a higher tolerance to oleic acid toxicity (IC50 = 137 mg/l) compared with the sludge fed with a non-fat substrate (IC50 = 80 mg/l). This sludge showed also the highest biodegradation capacity of oleic acid, achieving maximum methane production rates between 33 and 46 mlCH4(STP)/gVS.day and maximum percentages of methanization between 85 and 98% for the range of concentrations between 500 and 900 mg oleate/l. When oleate was the sole carbon source fed to both digesters, the biomass became encapsulated with organic matter, possibly oleate or an intermediate of its degradation, e.g. stearate that was degraded at a maximum rate of 99 mlCH4(STP)/gVS.day. This suggests the possibility of using adsorption-degradation cycles for the treatment of LCFA based effluents. Both tolerance to toxicity and biodegradability of oleic acid were improved by acclimatization with lipids or oleate below a threshold concentration.

  2. A Robust Epoxy Resins @ Stearic Acid-Mg(OH)2 Micronanosheet Superhydrophobic Omnipotent Protective Coating for Real-Life Applications.

    PubMed

    Si, Yifan; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2016-06-29

    Superhydrophobic coating has extremely high application value and practicability. However, some difficult problems such as weak mechanical strength, the need for expensive toxic reagents, and a complex preparation process are all hard to avoid, and these problems have impeded the superhydrophobic coating's real-life application for a long time. Here, we demonstrate one kind of omnipotent epoxy resins @ stearic acid-Mg(OH)2 superhydrophobic coating via a simple antideposition route and one-step superhydrophobization process. The whole preparation process is facile, and expensive toxic reagents needed. This omnipotent coating can be applied on any solid substrate with great waterproof ability, excellent mechanical stability, and chemical durability, which can be stored in a realistic environment for more than 1 month. More significantly, this superhydrophobic coating also has four protective abilities, antifouling, anticorrosion, anti-icing, and flame-retardancy, to cope with a variety of possible extreme natural environments. Therefore, this omnipotent epoxy resins @ stearic acid-Mg(OH)2 superhydrophobic coating not only satisfies real-life need but also has great application potential in many respects.

  3. Investigation into the Coating and Desensitization Effect on HNIW of Paraffin Wax/Stearic Acid Composite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Xu; Chen, Shu-Sen; Jin, Shao-Hua; Shu, Qing-Hai; Jiang, Zhen-Ming; Shang, Feng-Qin; Li, Jin-Xin

    2016-01-01

    2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW) was bonded by fluorine rubber and then desensitized by paraffin wax (PW), stearic acid (SA), and a PW/SA composite system using an aqueous suspension method. The coating and desensitization effects of the composite systems on HNIW and the influence of the addition of SA on the mechanical properties of the coated HNIW samples were studied. In addition, the PW/SA composite solution was simulated using a molecular dynamics method, and the relationship between the desensitization effect on HNIW and the properties of the composite solution was investigated. The results showed that the PW/SA composite system, of which the desensitization effect on HNIW was between those of the two desensitizers, could effectively coat HNIW and that the composite solution had the most stable and well-distributed state when using benzene as solvent with the mass ratio of PW/SA equal to 7/3 or 3/7, thus resulting in the best desensitization effect on HNIW. Moreover, the addition of stearic acid was successful in enhancing the mechanical properties of the coated HNIW samples.

  4. Preparation of Mg-MgH2 flakes by planetary ball milling with stearic acid and their hydrogen storage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seong-Hyeon; Song, Myoung Youp

    2016-05-01

    Many studies preparing magnesium hydride using catalyst addition were performed, resulting in the preparation of additive-containing magnesium hydride. Preparation of a sample with a MgH2 phase without additives requires high pressure and high temperature and is time-demanding. In order to prepare an additive-free sample with a MgH2 phase, 90 wt% Mg+10 wt% MgH2 (named 90Mg+10MgH2) was milled under a hydrogen atmosphere with 6 wt% stearic acid as a process-controlling agent, which led to a formation of Mg-MgH2 flakes. The hydrogen storing and releasing properties of the prepared flakes were investigated and compared with those of purchased MgH2. A sample with a majority fraction of MgH2 phase was prepared by planetary ball milling of 90 Mg+10 MgH2 with 6 wt% stearic acid. The resultant particles of 90 Mg+10 MgH2 obtained after hydridingdehydriding cycling were much smaller and had significantly more cracks and defects than those of MgH2 after hydriding-dehydriding cycling. 90 Mg+10 MgH2 released 0.12 wt% hydrogen for 4 min, 3.70 wt% for 20 min, and 5.30 wt% for 60 min at 648 K at the first cycle.

  5. A complex of equine lysozyme and oleic acid with bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Emily A; Wilhelm, Kristina R; Schleucher, Jürgen; Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A; Hakansson, Anders P

    2013-01-01

    HAMLET and ELOA are complexes consisting of oleic acid and two homologous, yet functionally different, proteins with cytotoxic activities against mammalian cells, with HAMLET showing higher tumor cells specificity, possibly due to the difference in propensity for oleic acid binding, as HAMLET binds 5-8 oleic acid molecules per protein molecule and ELOA binds 11-48 oleic acids. HAMLET has been shown to possess bactericidal activity against a number of bacterial species, particularly those with a respiratory tropism, with Streptococcus pneumoniae displaying the greatest degree of sensitivity. We show here that ELOA also displays bactericidal activity against pneumococci, which at lower concentrations shows mechanistic similarities to HAMLET's bactericidal activity. ELOA binds to S. pneumoniae and causes perturbations of the plasma membrane, including depolarization and subsequent rupture, and activates an influx of calcium into the cells. Selective inhibition of calcium channels and sodium/calcium exchange activity significantly diminished ELOA's bactericidal activity, similar to what we have observed with HAMLET. Finally, ELOA-induced death was also accompanied by DNA fragmentation into high molecular weight fragments - an apoptosis-like morphological phenotype that is seen during HAMLET-induced death. Thus, in contrast to different mechanisms of eukaryote cell death induced by ELOA and HAMLET, these complexes are characterized by rather similar activities towards bacteria. Although the majority of these events could be mimicked using oleic acid alone, the concentrations of oleic acid required were significantly higher than those present in the ELOA complex, and for some assays, the results were not identical between oleic acid alone and the ELOA complex. This indicates that the lipid, as a common denominator in both complexes, is an important component for the complexes' bactericidal activities, while the proteins are required both to solubilize and/or present the

  6. Engineering cytochrome P450 BM3 of Bacillus megaterium for terminal oxidation of palmitic acid.

    PubMed

    Brühlmann, Fredi; Fourage, Laurent; Ullmann, Christophe; Haefliger, Olivier P; Jeckelmann, Nicolas; Dubois, Cédric; Wahler, Denis

    2014-08-20

    Directed evolution via iterative cycles of random and targeted mutagenesis was applied to the P450 domain of the subterminal fatty acid hydroxylase CYP102A1 of Bacillus megaterium to shift its regioselectivity towards the terminal position of palmitic acid. A powerful and versatile high throughput assay based on LC-MS allowed the simultaneous detection of primary and secondary oxidation products, which was instrumental for identifying variants with a strong preference for the terminal oxidation of palmitic acid. The best variants identified acquired up to 11 amino acid alterations. Substitutions at F87, I263, and A328, relatively close to the bound substrate based on available crystallographic information contributed significantly to the altered regioselectivity. However, non-obvious residues much more distant from the bound substrate showed surprising strong contributions to the increased selectivity for the terminal position of palmitic acid.

  7. Structural, electronic, thermodynamical and charge transfer properties of Chloramphenicol Palmitate using vibrational spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rashmi; Srivastava, Anubha; Sharma, Anamika; Tandon, Poonam; Baraldi, Cecilia; Gamberini, Maria Christina

    2013-01-01

    The global problem of advancing bacterial resistance to newer drugs has led to renewed interest in the use of Chloramphenicol Palmitate (C27H42Cl2N2O6) [Palmitic acid alpha ester with D-threo-(-),2-dichloro-N-(beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl)acetamide also known as Detereopal]. The characterization of the three polymorphic forms of Chloramphenicol Palmitate (CPP) was done spectroscopically by employing FT-IR and FT-Raman techniques. The equilibrium geometry, various bonding features, and harmonic wavenumbers have been investigated for most stable form A with the help of DFT calculations and a good correlation was found between experimental data and theoretical values. Electronic properties have been analyzed employing TD-DFT for both gaseous and solvent phase. The theoretical calculation of thermodynamical properties along with NBO analysis has also been performed to have a deep insight into the molecule for further applications.

  8. Tibolone Preserves Mitochondrial Functionality and Cell Morphology in Astrocytic Cells Treated with Palmitic Acid.

    PubMed

    González-Giraldo, Yeimy; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Echeverria, Valentina; Barreto, George E

    2017-06-30

    Obesity has been associated with increased chronic neuroinflammation and augmented risk of neurodegeneration. This is worsened during the normal aging process when the levels of endogenous gonadal hormones are reduced. In this study, we have assessed the protective actions of tibolone, a synthetic steroid with estrogenic actions, on T98G human astrocytic cells exposed to palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid used to mimic obesity in vitro. Tibolone improved cell survival, and preserved mitochondrial membrane potential in palmitic acid-treated astrocytic cells. Although we did not find significant actions of tibolone on free radical production, it modulated astrocytic morphology after treatment with palmitic acid. These data suggest that tibolone protects astrocytic cells by preserving both mitochondrial functionality and morphological complexity.

  9. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients.

  10. Physical activity is associated with retained muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with palmitate.

    PubMed

    Green, C J; Bunprajun, T; Pedersen, B K; Scheele, C

    2013-09-15

      The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity is associated with preserved muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with saturated fatty acids. Human muscle satellite cells were isolated from sedentary or active individuals and differentiated into myocytes in culture. Metabolic differences were then investigated in the basal state or after chronic palmitate treatment. At basal, myocytes from sedentary individuals exhibited higher CD36 and HSP70 protein expression as well as elevated phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) serine(307) compared to myocytes from active individuals. Despite equal lipid accumulation following palmitate treatment, myocytes from sedentary individuals exhibited delayed acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase phosphorylation compared to the active group. Myocytes from sedentary individuals had significantly higher basal glucose uptake and palmitate promoted insulin resistance in sedentary myocytes. Importantly, myocytes from active individuals were partially protected from palmitate-induced insulin resistance. Palmitate treatment enhanced IRS1 serine307 phosphorylation in myocytes from sedentary individuals and correlated positively to JNK phosphorylation. In conclusion, muscle satellite cells retain metabolic differences associated with physical activity. Physical activity partially protects myocytes from fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and inactivity is associated with dysregulation of metabolism in satellite cells challenged with palmitate. Although the benefits of physical activity on whole body physiology have been well investigated, this paper presents novel findings that both diet and exercise impact satellite cells directly. Given the fact that satellite cells are important for muscle maintenance, a dysregulated function could have profound effects on health. Therefore the effects of lifestyle on satellite cells needs to be delineated.

  11. Expected genetic response for oleic acid content in pork.

    PubMed

    Ros-Freixedes, R; Reixach, J; Tor, M; Estany, J

    2012-12-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) and oleic acid (C18:1) content in pork are important issues for the pig industry and consumers. Data from a purebred Duroc line were used to i) estimate the genetic parameters of IMF and C18:1 and their genetic correlations with lean growth components, and ii) evaluate the opportunities for genetically improving C18:1 in IMF. The data set used for estimating genetic parameters consisted of 93,920 pigs, from which 85,194 had at least 1 record for BW or backfat thickness (BT) at 180 d and 943 for IMF and C18:1 at 205 d. Intramuscular fat content and C18:1, expressed as percentage of total fatty acids, were determined in the gluteus medius muscle by gas chromatography. Genetic parameters for C18:1 were estimated under a Bayesian 4-trait multivariate animal mixed model. Heritability of C18:1 was 0.50, with a probability of 95% of being greater than 0.37. Genetic correlations of C18:1 with BW, BT, and IMF were 0.11, 0.22, and 0.47, respectively (with a probability of 95% of being greater than -0.07, 0.04, and 0.27, respectively). Genetic responses were evaluated by deterministic simulation using a half-sib recording scheme for C18:1 and the previously estimated parameters. The C18:1 content is expected to exhibit only minor changes in selection programs directed at growth rate but to decrease in those focusing on lean content. Maximum expected response in C18:1 at no lean growth loss (i.e., at no change in BW and BT) was 0.44%, with a resulting correlated response in IMF of 0.15%. However, because lean growth is emphasized in the breeding goal, the resulting response scenarios are more constrained. We concluded that there is evidence to support the idea that C18:1 in IMF is genetically determined and defined selection strategies can lead to response scenarios in which C18:1, IMF, BT, and BW can be simultaneously improved. However, if adopted, the potential for lean growth would be reduced. The extent to which it is affordable relies on how much

  12. Liquid chromatographic analysis of all-trans-retinyl palmitate, beta-carotene, and vitamin E in fortified foods and the extraction of encapsulated and nonencapsulated retinyl palmitate.

    PubMed

    Ye, L; Landen, W O; Eitenmiller, R R

    2000-09-01

    A liquid chromatographic method is described for the analysis of natural vitamin E homologues, all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate, retinyl palmitate (encapsulated and nonencapsulated), and beta-carotene in various fortified foods. The vitamins are extracted in 2-propanol and hexane without saponification and quantitated by normal phase chromatography with fluorescence and visible detection. The sample components were identified using an on-line three-dimensional photodiode array detector, which permitted profiling of the 190-800 nm absorption spectrum of any chromatographic peak. The method showed linearity for the analytes in their respective calibration ranges. The percent recoveries for retinyl palmitate using starch- and gelatin-encapsulated standards were 101.0 +/- 1.0 and 100.1 +/- 0.9, respectively. The method measures six or more analytes in a single injection and differentiates between natural and synthetic forms of vitamin E.

  13. Quantitative measurement of ligand exchange on iron oxides via radiolabeled oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kathleen; Qi, Bin; Witmer, Michael; Kitchens, Christopher L; Powell, Brian A; Mefford, O Thompson

    2014-09-16

    Ligand exchange of hydrophilic molecules on the surface of hydrophobic iron oxide nanoparticles produced via thermal decomposition of chelated iron precursors is a common method for producing aqueous suspensions of particles for biomedical applications. Despite the wide use, relatively little is understood about the efficiency of ligand exchange on the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles and how much of the hydrophobic ligand is removed. To address this issue, we utilized a radiotracer technique to track the exchange of a radiolabeled (14)C-oleic acid ligand with hydrophilic ligands on the surface of magnetite nanoparticles. Iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with (14)C-oleic acid were modified with poly(ethylene glycol) with terminal functional groups including, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, a nitrated L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, carboxylic acid, a phosphonate, and an amine. Following ligand exchange, the nanoparticles and byproducts were analyzed using liquid scintillation counting and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The labeled and unlabeled particles were further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering to determine particle size, hydrodynamic diameter, and zeta potential. The unlabeled particles were characterized via thermogravimetric analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry. Radioanalytical determination of the (14)C from (14)C-oleic acid was used to calculate the amount of oleic acid remaining on the surface of the particles after purification and ligand exchange. There was a significant loss of oleic acid on the surface of the particles after ligand exchange with amounts varying for the different functional binding groups on the poly(ethylene glycol). Nonetheless, all samples demonstrated some residual oleic acid associated with the particles. Quantification of the oleic acid remaining after ligand exchange reveals a binding hierarchy in which catechol derived anchor groups displace oleic acid on

  14. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  15. Pulmonary vasoconstriction in oleic acid induced lung injury. A morphometric study.

    PubMed Central

    Grotjohan, H. P.; van der Heijde, R. M.; Wagenvoort, C. A.; Wagenvoort, N.; Versprille, A.

    1993-01-01

    Distribution and severity of active vasoconstriction of muscular pulmonary arteries were morphometrically assessed in anaesthetized, paralysed and mechanically ventilated pigs with respiratory distress, induced by oleic acid. Vasoconstriction was deduced from the medial thickness which was measured and expressed as a percentage of external diameter. Six pigs received oleic acid (0.12 +/- 0.07 ml/kg), dissolved 1:1 in 96% alcohol, in multiple injections of 0.1 ml. Six pigs were used as controls. After the oleic acid injections a stable hypoxaemia (PaO2 = 57 +/- 8 mmHg, at an inspiratory oxygen fraction of 0.6) and pulmonary hypertension (mean Ppa = 36 +/- 2 mmHg) were obtained for several hours. Electron microscopy revealed swelling of endothelial cells with signs of degeneration. Medial thickness was far greater in the oleic acid group than in the control group; overall mean values were 8.1 +/- 3.2 and 3.8 +/- 1.7% respectively (P < 0.001). Arteries with prominent vasoconstriction were lying in clusters. This pattern was the same in dependent and non-dependent regions. We concluded that in oleic acid induced respiratory distress active vasoconstriction of muscular pulmonary arteries is an important factor in the development of pulmonary hypertension. Besides vasoconstriction, endothelial swelling and intravascular clotting may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypertension. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8398807

  16. Oleic Acid enhances all-trans retinoic Acid loading in nano-lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Chinsriwongkul, Akhayachatra; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Sila-On, Warisada; Ruktanonchai, Uracha

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the enhancement of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) loading in nano-lipid emulsions and stability by using oleic acid. The effect of formulation factors including initial ATRA concentration and the type of oil on the physicochemical properties, that is, percentage yield, percentage drug release, and photostability of formulations, was determined. The solubility of ATRA was increased in the order of oleic acid > MCT > soybean oil > water. The physicochemical properties of ATRA-loaded lipid emulsion, including mean particle diameter and zeta potential, were modulated by changing an initial ATRA concentration as well as the type and mixing ratio of oil and oleic acid as an oil phase. The particles of lipid emulsions had average sizes of less than 250 nm and negative zeta potential. The addition of oleic acid in lipid emulsions resulted in high loading capacity. The photodegradation rate was found to be dependent on the initial drug concentration but independent of the type of oily phase used in this study. The release rates were not affected by initial ATRA concentration but were affected by the type of oil, where oleic acid showed the highest release rate of ATRA from lipid emulsions.

  17. Differential regulation of ABCA1 and macrophage cholesterol efflux by elaidic and oleic acids.

    PubMed

    Shao, Fei; Ford, David A

    2013-08-01

    Trans fatty acid consumption is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. This increased risk has been attributed to decreased levels of HDL cholesterol and increased levels of LDL cholesterol. However, the mechanism by which trans fatty acid modulates cholesterol transit remains poorly defined. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-mediated macrophage cholesterol efflux is the rate-limiting step initiating apolipoprotein A-I lipidation. In this study, elaidic acid, the most abundant trans fatty acid in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, was shown to stabilize macrophage ABCA1 protein levels in comparison to that of its cis fatty acid isomer, oleic acid. The mechanism responsible for the disparate effects of oleic and elaidic acid on ABCA1 levels was through accelerated ABCA1 protein degradation in cells treated with oleic acid. In contrast, no apparent differences were observed in ABCA1 mRNA levels, and only minor changes were observed in Liver X receptor/Retinoic X receptor promoter activity in cells treated with elaidic and oleic acid. Efflux of both tracers and cholesterol mass revealed that elaidic acid slightly increased ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux, while oleic acid led to decreased ABCA1-mediated efflux. In conclusion, these studies show that cis and trans structural differences in 18 carbon n-9 monoenoic fatty acids variably impact cholesterol efflux through disparate effects on ABCA1 protein degradation.

  18. Effects of chemical and enzymatic modifications on starch-oleic acid complex formation.

    PubMed

    Arijaje, Emily Oluwaseun; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2015-04-29

    The solubility of starch-inclusion complexes affects the digestibility and bioavailability of the included molecules. Acetylation with two degrees of substitution, 0.041 (low) and 0.091 (high), combined without or with a β-amylase treatment was employed to improve the yield and solubility of the inclusion complex between debranched potato starch and oleic acid. Both soluble and insoluble complexes were recovered and analyzed for their degree of acetylation, complexation yields, molecular size distributions, X-ray diffraction patterns, and thermal properties. Acetylation significantly increased the amount of recovered soluble complexes as well as the complexed oleic acid in both soluble and insoluble complexes. High-acetylated debranched-only starch complexed the highest amount of oleic acid (38.0 mg/g) in the soluble complexes; low-acetylated starch with or without the β-amylase treatment resulted in the highest complexed oleic acid in the insoluble complexes (37.6-42.9 mg/g). All acetylated starches displayed the V-type X-ray pattern, and the melting temperature generally decreased with acetylation. The results indicate that starch acetylation with or without the β-amylase treatment can improve the formation and solubility of the starch-oleic acid complex.

  19. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids increase ros production by fibroblasts via NADPH oxidase activation.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47 (phox) phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47 (phox) mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts.

  20. Palmitic acid but not palmitoleic acid induces insulin resistance in a human endothelial cell line by decreasing SERCA pump expression.

    PubMed

    Gustavo Vazquez-Jimenez, J; Chavez-Reyes, Jesus; Romero-Garcia, Tatiana; Zarain-Herzberg, Angel; Valdes-Flores, Jesus; Manuel Galindo-Rosales, J; Rueda, Angelica; Guerrero-Hernandez, Agustin; Olivares-Reyes, J Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Palmitic acid is a negative regulator of insulin activity. At the molecular level, palmitic acid reduces insulin stimulated Akt Ser473 phosphorylation. Interestingly, we have found that incubation with palmitic acid of human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced a biphasic effect, an initial transient elevation followed by a sustained reduction of SERCA pump protein levels. However, palmitic acid produced a sustained inhibition of SERCA pump ATPase activity. Insulin resistance state appeared before there was a significant reduction of SERCA2 expression. The mechanism by which palmitic acid impairs insulin signaling may involve endoplasmic reticulum stress, because this fatty acid induced activation of both PERK, an ER stress marker, and JNK, a kinase associated with insulin resistance. None of these effects were observed by incubating HUVEC-CS cells with palmitoleic acid. Importantly, SERCA2 overexpression decreased the palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance state. All these results suggest that SERCA pump might be the target of palmitic acid to induce the insulin resistance state in a human vascular endothelial cell line. Importantly, these data suggest that HUVEC-CS cells respond to palmitic acid-exposure with a compensatory overexpression of SERCA pump within the first hour, which eventually fades out and insulin resistance prevails.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of SiO2-deposited stearic acid-g-chitosan nanoparticles for doxorubicin delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hong; Bao, Xin; Du, Yong-Zhong; You, Jian; Hu, Fu-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Both polymer micelles and mesoporous silica nanoparticles have been widely researched as vectors for small molecular insoluble drugs. To combine the advantages of copolymers and silica, studies on the preparation of copolymer-silica composites and cellular evaluation were carried out. Methods: First, a stearic acid-g-chitosan (CS-SA) copolymer was synthesized through a coupling reaction, and then silicone oxide (SiO2)-deposited doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded stearic acid-g-chitosan (CS-SA/SiO2/DOX) nanoparticles were prepared through the sol-gel reaction. Physical and chemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential, and morphologies were examined, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis was employed to identify the mesoporous structures of the generated nanoparticles. Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity studies were also conducted. Results: CS-SA/SiO2/DOX nanoparticles with different amounts of SiO2 deposited were obtained, and SAXS studies showed that mesoporous structures existed in the CS-SA/SiO2/DOX nanoparticles. The mesoporous size of middle-ratio and high-ratio deposited CS-SA/SiO2/DOX nanoparticles were 4–5 nm and 8–10 nm, respectively. Based on transmission electron microscopy images of CS-SA/SiO2/DOX nanoparticles, dark rings around the nanoparticles could be observed in contrast with CS-SA/DOX micelles. Furthermore, CS-SA/SiO2/DOX nanoparticles exhibited faster release behavior in vitro than CS-SA/DOX micelles; cellular uptake research in A549 indicated that the CS-SA/SiO2/DOX nanoparticles were taken up by A549 cells more rapidly, and that CS-SA/SiO2/DOX nanoparticles entered the cell more easily when the amount of SiO2 was higher. IC50 values of CS-SA/DOX micelles, CS-SA/SiO2/DOX-4, CS-SA/SiO2/DOX-8, and CS-SA/SiO2/DOX-16 nanoparticles against A549 cells measured using the MTT assay were 1.69, 0.93, 0.32, and 0.12 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: SiO2-deposited stearic acid-g-chitosan organic–inorganic composites show promise

  2. Sensitivity of scintigraphy for detection of pulmonary capillary albumin leak in canine oleic acid ARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Sugerman, H.J.; Strash, A.M.; Hirsch, J.I.; Glauser, F.L.; Shirazi, K.K.; Sharp, D.E.; Greenfield, L.J.

    1981-07-01

    Computerized gamma scintigraphy was shown in this study to be a sensitive technique for the detection and kinetic analysis of a pulmonary capillary protein leak. A rising lung:heart radioactivity of slope of injury was found at each dose of intravenous oleic acid in dogs from 0.01 to 0.20 ml/kg (p less than 0.01). This slope of injury was proportional to the dose of oleic acid (r . +0.97; p less than 0.004) and was more sensitive than changes in arterial oxygen tension, standard chest radiography, bloodless wet:dry lung weight, or alveolar epithelial membrane permeability. Only standard light microscopy and right lymphatic duct flow were able to document the leakage of protein detected by gamma scintigraphy at 0.01 ml/kg oleic acid.

  3. The distribution of oleic acid between salbutamol base drug and different propellant blends.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, P M; Sandström, K B; Rosenholm, J B

    1995-05-01

    The distribution of oleic acid between Salbutamol base drug and the solvent in metered-dose inhalers (MDI's) has been investigated. The equilibrium surfactant concentration in the drug dispersions has been determined using a colorimetric method. The samples examined contained Salbutamol base drug particles and oleic acid dispersed in different propellant blends of freon 11 and 12. The maximum equilibrium concentration observed depended on the propellant blend used. The propellant blend and the distribution of the surfactant affected the dispersion stability. The effect of the surfactant is illustrated by the adsorption isotherm for oleic acid onto the Salbutamol particles. The results are correlated with zeta-potentials and particle size measurements made on similar systems in order to characterize the properties of surfactant stabilized MDI's.

  4. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with a bilayer of oleic acid for magnetic hyperthermia and MRI applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Paula I. P.; Laia, César A. T.; Carvalho, Alexandra; Pereira, Laura C. J.; Coutinho, Joana T.; Ferreira, Isabel M. M.; Novo, Carlos M. M.; Borges, João Paulo

    2016-10-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4, IONPs) are promising candidates for several biomedical applications such as magnetic hyperthermia and as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their colloidal stability in physiological conditions hinders their application requiring the use of biocompatible surfactant agents. The present investigation focuses on obtaining highly stable IONPs, stabilized by the presence of an oleic acid bilayer. Critical aspects such as oleic acid concentration and pH were optimized to ensure maximum stability. NPs composed of an iron oxide core with an average diameter of 9 nm measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) form agglomerates with an hydrodynamic diameter of around 170 nm when dispersed in water in the presence of an oleic acid bilayer, remaining stable (zeta potential of -120 mV). Magnetic hyperthermia and the relaxivities measurements show high efficiency at neutral pH which enables their use for both magnetic hyperthermia and MRI.

  5. GLP1 protects cardiomyocytes from palmitate-induced apoptosis via Akt/GSK3b/b-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Ying, Ying; Zhu, Huazhang; Liang, Zhen; Ma, Xiaosong; Li, Shiwei

    2015-12-01

    Activation of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes by saturated palmitic acids contributes to cardiac dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Beta-catenin (b-catenin) is a transcriptional regulator of several genes involved in survival/anti-apoptosis. However, its role in palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains unclear. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) has been shown to exhibit potential cardioprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the role of b-catenin signalling in palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effects of GLP1 on palmitate-stressed cardiomyocytes. Exposure of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to palmitate increased the fatty acid transporter CD36-mediated intracellular lipid accumulation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, decreased accumulation and nuclear translocation of active b-catenin, and reduced expression of b-catenin target protein survivin and BCL2. These detrimental effects of palmitate were significantly attenuated by GLP1 co-treatment. However, the anti-apoptotic effects of GLP1 were markedly abolished when b-catenin was silenced with a specific short hairpin RNA. Furthermore, analysis of the upstream molecules and mechanisms responsible for GLP1-associated cardiac protection revealed that GLP1 restored the decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase-3b (GSK3b) in palmitate-stimulated cardiomyocytes. In contrast, inhibition of Akt with an Akt-specific inhibitor MK2206 or blockade of GLP1 receptor (GLP1R) with a competitive antagonist exendin-(9-39) significantly abrogated the GLP1-mediated activation of GSK3b/b-catenin signalling, leading to increased apoptosis in palmitate-stressed cardiomyocytes. Collectively, our results demonstrated for the first time that the attenuated b-catenin signalling may contribute to palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, while GLP1 can protect cardiomyocytes from palmitate-induced apoptosis through

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid-induced amelioration on impairment of memory learning in amyloid beta-infused rats relates to the decreases of amyloid beta and cholesterol levels in detergent-insoluble membrane fractions.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Michio; Hossain, Shahdat; Agdul, Haqu; Shido, Osamu

    2005-12-30

    We investigated the effects of dietary administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) on the levels of amyloid beta (A beta) peptide (1-40) and cholesterol in the nonionic detergent Triton 100 x-insoluble membrane fractions (DIFs) of the cerebral cortex and, also, on learning-related memory in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats infused with A beta peptide (1-40) into the cerebral ventricle. The infusion increased the levels of A beta peptide and cholesterol in the DIFs concurrently with a significant increase in reference memory errors (measured by eight-arm radial-maze tasks) compared with those of vehicle rats. Conversely, the dietary administration of DHA to AD-model rats decreased the levels of A beta peptide and cholesterol in the DIFs, with the decrease being more prominent in the DHA-administered rats. Regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between A beta peptide and each of cholesterol, palmitic acid and stearic acid, and between the number of reference memory errors and each of cholesterol, palmitic, stearic and oleic acid; moreover, a significant negative correlation was observed between the number of reference memory errors and the molar ratio of DHA to palmitic plus stearic acid. These results suggest that DHA-induced protection of memory deficits in AD-model rats is related to the interactions of cholesterol, palmitic acid or stearic acid with A beta peptides in DIFs where DHA ameliorates these interactions.

  7. Neutron scattering shows a droplet of oleic acid at the center of the BAMLET complex.

    PubMed

    Rath, Emma M; Duff, Anthony P; Gilbert, Elliot P; Doherty, Greg; Knott, Robert B; Church, W Bret

    2017-07-01

    The anti-cancer complex, Bovine Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumors (BAMLET), has intriguing broad-spectrum anti-cancer activity. Although aspects of BAMLET's anti-cancer mechanism are still not known, it is understood that it involves the oleic acid or oleate component of BAMLET being preferentially released into cancer cell membranes leading to increased membrane permeability and lysis. The structure of the protein component of BAMLET has previously been elucidated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to be partially unfolded and dramatically enlarged. However, the structure of the oleic acid component of BAMLET and its disposition with respect to the protein component was not revealed as oleic acid has the same X-ray scattering length density (SLD) as water. Employing the difference in the neutron SLDs of hydrogen and deuterium, we carried out solvent contrast variation small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments of hydrogenated BAMLET in deuterated water buffers, to reveal the size, shape, and disposition of the oleic acid component of BAMLET. Our resulting analysis and models generated from SANS and SAXS data indicate that oleic acid forms a spherical droplet of oil incompletely encapsulated by the partially unfolded protein component. This model provides insight into the anti-cancer mechanism of this cache of lipid. The model also reveals a protein component "tail" not associated with the oleic acid component that is able to interact with the tail of other BAMLET molecules, providing a plausible explanation of how BAMLET readily forms aggregates. Proteins 2017; 85:1371-1378. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Photodegradation of Stearic Acid Adsorbed on Superhydrophilic TiO2 Surface: In Situ FT-IR and LDI Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Natalia; Fesenko, Tatiana; Zhukovsky, Maxim; Goworek, Jacek; Eremenko, Anna

    2015-12-01

    TiO2 films prepared by template-assisted sol-gel method were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning and atomic force electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Based on the hexane adsorption-desorption analysis, the films have a surface area of 390-540 m2/g with pore size distribution narrowly centered around 10 nm. Optimal component ratio and condition of heat treatment of mesoporous titania films have been found. Photocatalytic activity of the coatings was determined by the destruction of stearic acid layers, monitored using FT-IR spectroscopy and laser desorption-ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry. Under UV illumination, all the used films reach hydrophilicity with water contact angle of 0°. As the result, hydrophobic fat acid molecules undergo self-association and active desorption from the hydrophilic surface during mass-spectrometric experiment.

  9. Photodegradation of Stearic Acid Adsorbed on Superhydrophilic TiO2 Surface: In Situ FT-IR and LDI Study.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia; Fesenko, Tatiana; Zhukovsky, Maxim; Goworek, Jacek; Eremenko, Anna

    2015-12-01

    TiO2 films prepared by template-assisted sol-gel method were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning and atomic force electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Based on the hexane adsorption-desorption analysis, the films have a surface area of 390-540 m(2)/g with pore size distribution narrowly centered around 10 nm. Optimal component ratio and condition of heat treatment of mesoporous titania films have been found. Photocatalytic activity of the coatings was determined by the destruction of stearic acid layers, monitored using FT-IR spectroscopy and laser desorption-ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry. Under UV illumination, all the used films reach hydrophilicity with water contact angle of 0°. As the result, hydrophobic fat acid molecules undergo self-association and active desorption from the hydrophilic surface during mass-spectrometric experiment.

  10. Interactions of Veratrum Alkaloids, Procaine, and Calcium with Monolayers of Stearic Acid and Their Implications for Pharmacological Action

    PubMed Central

    Shanes, Abraham M.; Gershfeld, Norman L.

    1960-01-01

    The interactions of veratridine, cevadine, veracevine, and veratramine with monolayers of stearic acid show marked differences. Veratridine and cevadine, at concentrations that are known from potential, ionic flux, and other measurements to affect living membranes, react strongly with the film and appear to cause an "interfacial dissolution" whereby both the alkaloid and the stearate leave the surface. Veracevine at the same concentration does not interact with the film. The veratramine reaction is weak, much like that of the local anesthetic procaine. The veratridine and cevadine effects are antagonized by 10-3 M Ca++, low pH, and 3.7 and 7.4 x 10-3 M procaine. These differences among the veratrum alkaloids and the antagonisms parallel effects observed in living systems. Such parallelism suggests that similar physical interactions are involved in the stearate film and in natural membranes. PMID:13750673

  11. Palmitate Antagonizes Wnt/Beta-catenin Signaling in 3T3-L1 Pre-adipocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long chain saturated free fatty acids such as palmitate (PA) produce insulin resistance, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptosis in mature adipocytes and pre-adipocytes. In pre-adipocytes, saturated free fatty acids also promote adipogenic induction in the presence of adipogenic hormones. Wnt/be...

  12. Autophagy Protects against Palmitic Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Podocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xu-shun; Chen, Xue-mei; Wan, Jiang-min; Gui, Hai-bo; Ruan, Xiong-zhong; Du, Xiao-gang

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation process that is involved in the clearance of proteins and damaged organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis and cell integrity. Type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by dyslipidemia with elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs). Podocytes, as an important component of the filtration barrier, are susceptible to lipid disorders. The loss of podocytes causes proteinuria, which is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid (PA) promoted autophagy in podocytes. We further found that PA increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in podocytes and that NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine), a potent antioxidant, significantly eliminated the excessive ROS and suppressed autophagy, indicating that the increased generation of ROS was associated with the palmitic acid-induced autophagy in podocytes. Moreover, we also found that PA stimulation decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in podocytes and induced podocyte apoptosis, while the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine (CQ) enhanced palmitic acid-induced apoptosis accompanied by increased ROS generation, and the stimulation of autophagy by rapamycin (Rap) remarkably suppressed palmitic acid-induced ROS generation and apoptosis. Taken together, these in vitro findings suggest that PA-induced autophagy in podocytes is mediated by ROS production and that autophagy plays a protective role against PA-induced podocyte apoptosis. PMID:28225005

  13. Short-term effects of palmitate and 2-bromopalmitate on the lipolytic activity of rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Szkudelski, Tomasz; Szkudelska, Katarzyna

    2011-09-26

    Fatty acids are involved in the regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes; however, this regulatory action is unclear. The present study aimed to determine the short-term influence of palmitate and its non-metabolisable analogue, 2-bromopalmitate, on the lipolytic activity of adipocytes. Freshly isolated rat adipocytes were exposed to lipolytic modulators with or without palmitate or 2-bromopalmitate. Glycerol released from cells was determined as an indicator of lipolysis. Moreover, cAMP, ATP and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were measured in cells treated with 2-bromopalmitate. It was demonstrated that glycerol release from adipocytes incubated with epinephrine alone or epinephrine with insulin was unchanged by palmitate. However, 2-bromopalmitate was found to significantly decrease lipolysis stimulated by epinephrine or dibutyryl-cAMP. The inhibitory effect of 2-bromopalmitate on lipolysis was accompanied by reduced cAMP in adipocytes. Moreover, 2-bromopalmitate diminished hyperpolarisation of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Adipocyte exposure to 2-bromopalmitate also resulted in a substantial ATP depletion. The effects of 2-bromopalmitate on lipolysis and on ATP content were prevented neither by high glucose nor by alanine in the incubation medium. These findings demonstrate that short-term adipocyte exposure to palmitate disturbs neither the lipolytic action of epinephrine nor the antilipolytic action of insulin. However, 2-bromopalmitate significantly decreases lipolysis probably due to impaired metabolic activity of mitochondria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Induction of micronuclei by palmitic acid and its unique radiolytic product 2-dodecylcyclobutanone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Palmitic acid (PA), one of the most abundant fatty acids in the human diet, can cause oxidative stress, DNA strand breakage, cellular necrosis and apoptosis in human and rodent cells in vitro. Radiolysis of PA leads to the formation of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB), a unique radiolytic product for...

  15. Autophagy Protects against Palmitic Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Podocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xu-Shun; Chen, Xue-Mei; Wan, Jiang-Min; Gui, Hai-Bo; Ruan, Xiong-Zhong; Du, Xiao-Gang

    2017-02-22

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation process that is involved in the clearance of proteins and damaged organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis and cell integrity. Type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by dyslipidemia with elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs). Podocytes, as an important component of the filtration barrier, are susceptible to lipid disorders. The loss of podocytes causes proteinuria, which is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid (PA) promoted autophagy in podocytes. We further found that PA increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in podocytes and that NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine), a potent antioxidant, significantly eliminated the excessive ROS and suppressed autophagy, indicating that the increased generation of ROS was associated with the palmitic acid-induced autophagy in podocytes. Moreover, we also found that PA stimulation decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in podocytes and induced podocyte apoptosis, while the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine (CQ) enhanced palmitic acid-induced apoptosis accompanied by increased ROS generation, and the stimulation of autophagy by rapamycin (Rap) remarkably suppressed palmitic acid-induced ROS generation and apoptosis. Taken together, these in vitro findings suggest that PA-induced autophagy in podocytes is mediated by ROS production and that autophagy plays a protective role against PA-induced podocyte apoptosis.

  16. Acylation of keratinocyte transglutaminase by palmitic and myristic acids in the membrane anchorage region

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarty, R.; Rice, R.H.

    1989-01-05

    The membrane-bound form of keratinocyte transglutaminase was found to be labeled by addition of (/sup 3/H) acetic, (/sup 3/H)myristic, or (/sup 3/H)palmitic acids to the culture medium of human epidermal cells. Acid methanolysis and high performance liquid chromatography analysis of palmitate-labeled transglutaminase yielded only methyl palmitate. In contrast, analysis of the myristate-labeled protein yielded approximately 40% methyl myristate and 60% methyl palmitate. Incorporation of neither label was significantly affected by cycloheximide inhibition of protein synthesis. The importance of the fatty acid moiety for membrane anchorage was demonstrated in three ways. First, the enzyme was solubilized from the particulate fraction of cell extracts by treatment with neutral 1 M hydroxylamine, which was sufficient to release the fatty acid label. Second, solubilization of active enzyme from the particulate fraction upon mild trypsin treatment resulted in a reduction in size by approximately 10 kDa and removal of the fatty acid radiolabels. Third, the small fraction of soluble transglutaminase in cell extracts was found almost completely to lack fatty acid labeling. Keratinocyte transglutaminase translated from poly(A+) RNA in a reticulocyte cell-free system was indistinguishable in size from the native enzyme, suggesting anchorage requires only minor post-translational processing. Thus, the data are highly compatible with membrane anchorage by means of fatty acid acylation within 10 kDa of the NH/sub 2/ or COOH terminus.

  17. Preparation of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles from amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Fanta, George F; Kenar, James A; Felker, Frederick C; Byars, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-30

    Starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate helical inclusion complexes by first converting sodium palmitate within the amylose helix to silver palmitate by an ion-exchange reaction with silver nitrate, and then reducing the complexed silver palmitate salt with NaBH(4). This process yielded stable aqueous solutions that could be dried and then re-dispersed in water for end-use applications. Reaction products were characterized by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), UV-VIS spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, TEM, SEM and light microscopy. Addition of acid to reduce the pH of aqueous starch-AgNP solutions produced an increase in viscosity, and nearly quantitative precipitation of starch-AgNP was observed at low pH. Smaller AgNP and higher conversions of silver nitrate to water-soluble starch-AgNP were obtained in this process, as compared with a process carried out under similar conditions using a commercial soluble starch as a stabilizer.

  18. In vitro inhibition of human neutrophil elastase by oleic acid albumin formulations from derivatized cotton wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J Vincent; Howley, Phyllis; Cohen, I Kelman

    2004-10-13

    Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is elevated in chronic wounds. Oleic acid albumin formulations that inhibit HNE may be applicable to treatment modalities for chronic wounds. Oleic acid/albumin formulations with mole ratios of 100:1, 50:1, and 25:1 (oleic acid to albumin) were prepared and found to have dose response inhibition properties against HNE. The IC50 values for inhibition of HNE with oleic acid/albumin formulations were 0.029-0.049 microM. Oleic acid/albumin (BSA) formulations were bound to positively and negatively charged cotton wound dressings and assessed for elastase inhibition using a fiber bound formulation in an assay designed to mimic HNE inhibition in the wound. Cotton derivatized with both carboxylate and amine functional groups were combined with oleic acid/albumin formulations at a maximum loading of 0.030 mg oleic acid + 0.14 mg BSA/mg fiber. The IC50 values for inhibition of HNE with oleic acid/albumin formulations bound to derivatized cotton were 0.26-0.42 microM. Release of the oleic acid/albumin formulation from the fiber was measured by measuring oleic acid levels with quantitative GC analysis. Approximately, 35-50% of the fiber bound formulation was released into solution within the first 15 min of incubation. Albumin was found to enhance the rate of elastase hydrolysis of the substrate within a concentration range of 0.3-50 g/L. The acceleration of HNE substrate hydrolysis by albumin required increased concentration of inhibitor in the formulation to obtain complete inhibition of HNE. Oleic acid formulations prepared with albumin enable transport, solubility and promote dose response inhibition of HNE from derivatized cotton fibers under aqueous conditions mimicking the chronic wound.

  19. Phase transfer of oleic acid stabilized rod-shaped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Rachel J.; Elder, Theresa; Sowinksi, Olivia; Fostvedt, Jade I.; Hoefelmeyer, James D.

    2016-06-01

    Three methods were evaluated for phase transfer of oleic acid stabilized TiO2 nanorods from non-polar phase to an aqueous phase. Three alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (C6, C8, C12) surfactants were tested and compared with an amphiphilic polymer as interdigitation agents. Ligand substitutions with catechol derivatives with polar functional groups para to the -enediol were evaluated as well. The molecular surfactants were ineffective compared to the amphiphilic polymer in the interdigitation phase transfer approach. Ligand substitution with catechols proceeded efficiently with phase transfer. The ligand substitution reactions were accompanied by gas evolution, which was found to result from decarboxylation of oleic acid in alkaline aqueous conditions.

  20. Deletions of the SACPD-C locus elevate seed stearic acid levels but also result in fatty acid and morphological alterations in nitrogen fixing nodules

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Soybean (Glycine max) seeds are the primary source of edible oil in the United States. Despite its widespread utility, soybean oil is oxidatively unstable. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent chemical hydrogenation, a process which also generates trans fats. An alternative to chemical hydrogenation is genetic modification of seed oil through identification and introgression of mutant alleles. One target for improvement is the elevation of a saturated fat with no negative cardiovascular impacts, stearic acid, which typically constitutes a minute portion of seed oil (~3%). Results We examined radiation induced soybean mutants with moderately increased stearic acid (10-15% of seed oil, ~3-5 X the levels in wild-type soybean seeds) via comparative whole genome hybridization and genetic analysis. The deletion of one SACPD isoform encoding gene (SACPD-C) was perfectly correlated with moderate elevation of seed stearic acid content. However, SACPD-C deletion lines were also found to have altered nodule fatty acid composition and grossly altered morphology. Despite these defects, overall nodule accumulation and nitrogen fixation were unaffected, at least under laboratory conditions. Conclusions Although no yield penalty has been reported for moderate elevated seed stearic acid content in soybean seeds, our results demonstrate that genetic alteration of seed traits can have unforeseen pleiotropic consequences. We have identified a role for fatty acid biosynthesis, and SACPD activity in particular, in the establishment and maintenance of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. PMID:24886084

  1. Deletions of the SACPD-C locus elevate seed stearic acid levels but also result in fatty acid and morphological alterations in nitrogen fixing nodules.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Jason D; Stacey, Minviluz G; Cui, Yaya; Berg, Howard R; Stacey, Gary

    2014-05-27

    Soybean (Glycine max) seeds are the primary source of edible oil in the United States. Despite its widespread utility, soybean oil is oxidatively unstable. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent chemical hydrogenation, a process which also generates trans fats. An alternative to chemical hydrogenation is genetic modification of seed oil through identification and introgression of mutant alleles. One target for improvement is the elevation of a saturated fat with no negative cardiovascular impacts, stearic acid, which typically constitutes a minute portion of seed oil (~3%). We examined radiation induced soybean mutants with moderately increased stearic acid (10-15% of seed oil, ~3-5 X the levels in wild-type soybean seeds) via comparative whole genome hybridization and genetic analysis. The deletion of one SACPD isoform encoding gene (SACPD-C) was perfectly correlated with moderate elevation of seed stearic acid content. However, SACPD-C deletion lines were also found to have altered nodule fatty acid composition and grossly altered morphology. Despite these defects, overall nodule accumulation and nitrogen fixation were unaffected, at least under laboratory conditions. Although no yield penalty has been reported for moderate elevated seed stearic acid content in soybean seeds, our results demonstrate that genetic alteration of seed traits can have unforeseen pleiotropic consequences. We have identified a role for fatty acid biosynthesis, and SACPD activity in particular, in the establishment and maintenance of symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

  2. Identify and validate a quantitative trait locus underlying stearic acid on chromosome 14 in a soybean landrace using recombinant inbred lines and resident heterozygous lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stearic acid (ST) is one of the saturated fatty acids (FAs) in soybean oil and great efforts have been made to elevate ST content through plant breeding. Improving ST content will be helpful to reduce the health risk of coronary heart diseases and breast, colon and prostate cancer. In this study, re...

  3. Stearic acid and high molecular weight PEO as matrix for the highly water soluble metoprolol tartrate in continuous twin-screw melt granulation.

    PubMed

    Monteyne, Tinne; Adriaensens, Peter; Brouckaert, Davinia; Remon, Jean-Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-10-15

    Granules with release-sustaining properties were developed by twin screw hot melt granulation (HMG) using a combination of stearic acid (SA) and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide (PEO) as matrix for a highly water soluble model drug, metoprolol tartrate (MPT). Earlier studies demonstrated that mixing molten SA and PEO resulted in hydrogen bond formation between hydroxyl groups of fatty acid molecules and ether groups in PEO chains. These molecular interactions might be beneficial in order to elevate the sustained release effect of drugs from a SA/PEO matrix. This study aims to investigate the continuous twin screw melt granulation technique to study the impact of a SA/PEO matrix on the dissolution rate of a highly water soluble drug (MPT). Decreasing the SA/PEO ratio improved the release-sustaining properties of the matrix. The solid state of the granules was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) in order to understand the dissolution behavior. The results revealed a preferential interaction of the MPT molecules with stearic acid impeding the PEO to form hydrogen bonds with the stearic acid chains. However, this allowed the PEO chains to recrystallize inside the stearic acid matrix after granulation, hence, elevating the release-sustaining characteristics of the formulation.

  4. Reduction of immunosuppression in UV-irradiated mice by dietary retinyl palmitate plus canthaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Gensler, H L

    1989-01-01

    The ability of dietary retinyl palmitate, canthaxanthin or the combination of both, to prevent induction of immunosuppression by UVB irradiation was tested by passive transfer of splenocytes. The basal diet was the American Institute of Nutrition diet 76A, containing 4 IU retinyl palmitate/g diet. Groups of 55 mice were fed this basal diet alone, or supplemented with 120 IU retinyl palmitate/g diet, 1% canthaxanthin or the combination of both. After 18 weeks of these diets, UVB radiation treatments began. The UVB radiation source was a bank of six unfiltered Westinghouse FS40 lamps which delivered an average dose of 4.6 J/m2/s over the wavelength range of 280-340 nm. After 27.5 weeks of UV treatments, and approximately 1.14 X 10(6) J/m2, spleens were removed from mice and used as sources of splenocytes for passive transfer into naive recipients. These recipients were then challenged with an immunogenic, syngeneic UV-induced tumor (UV20). Approximately twice as many tumor challenges grew in recipients of splenocytes from UV-irradiated (19/20), as compared with unirradiated (11/20) donors fed the basal diet. Transfer of splenocytes from UV-irradiated donors fed the basal diet admixed with 1% canthaxanthin, 120 IU retinyl palmitate/g diet or the combination, resulted in 16/20, 13/20 and 10/20 growing tumors, respectively. These values were insignificantly (P = 0.25), marginally (P = 0.054) or significantly (P less than 0.02) different from the positive control value, respectively. Thus, dietary supplementation with retinyl palmitate plus canthaxanthin prevented the transfer of UV-induced immunosuppression with splenocytes from UV-irradiated mice.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of gentamicin palmitate against high concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kittinger, Clemens; Marth, Egon; Windhager, Reinhard; Weinberg, Annelie M; Zarfel, Gernot; Baumert, Rita; Felisch, Susanne; Kuehn, Klaus-Dieter

    2011-06-01

    The reduction of implant related infections plays a pivotal role in orthopaedic surgery as an increasing number of people require implants (up to 200,000 per year in the United States (source: Joint Implant Surgery & Research Foundation 2010)). The aim of the current study is to prevent and thus decrease the number of bacterial infections. Both pre and post operative systemic antibiotic treatment and gentamicin containing bone cements (polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA) are commonly used strategies to overcome infections. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of gentamicin sulfate loaded bone cement was compared with titan discs coated with a new form of gentamicin, gentamicin palmitate. Adherence prevention, killing rates and killing kinetics were compared in an in vitro model, using Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), which together with Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) represents 60% of bacteria found responsible for hip implant infections (An and Friedman, 1996, J Hosp Infect 33(2):93-108). In our experiments gentamicin, which was applied as gentamicin palmitate on the surface of the implants, showed a high efficacy in eliminating bacteria. In contrast to gentamicin sulfate containing bone cements, gentamicin palmitate is released over a shorter period of time thus not inducing antibiotic resistance. Another benefit for clinical application is that it achieves high local levels of active ingredient which fight early infections and minimize toxic side effects. Furthermore, the short term hydrophobic effect of gentamicin palmitate can successfully impede biofilm formation. Thus, the use of self-adhesive antibiotic fatty acid complexes like gentamicin palmitate represents a new option for the anti-infective coating of cementless titan implants.

  6. Tetramethylpyrazine protects palmitate-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Zhao, Xiao-long; Zhu, Yan-hui; Li, Xiao-mu; Xu, Qiong; Lin, Huan-dong; Wang, Ming-wei

    2011-04-25

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), one of the active ingredients isolated from a Chinese herbal prescription, possesses protective effects against oxidative stress caused by high glucose in endothelial cells. In this study, the role of TMP in preventing muscle cells from palmitate-induced oxidative damage was investigated and the possible mechanisms of action elucidated. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured in C2C12 myotubes, a palmitate-induced oxidative stress cell model, with or without TMP. Both mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and oxygen consumption were assessed in conjunction with quantification of mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial biogenesis-related factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 α (PGC1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III as an index of mitochondrial function was evaluated by immunoblotting, and glucose transport into the C2C12 myotube examined by analyzing 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose uptake. TMP significantly alleviated palmitate-induced mitochondrial ROS production, mitigated mitochondrial dysfunction and increased D-loop mRNA expression as compared with the control. This was accompanied by a marked reversal of palmitate-induced down-regulation in the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis-related factors (PGC1α, NRF1 and Tfam) and decreased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. As a result, cell respiration, as reflected by the elevated expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III and oxygen consumption, was enhanced. TMP is capable of protecting C2C12 myotubes against palmitate-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, and improving glucose uptake in muscle cells partially through the up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Palmitic and linoleic acids induce ER stress and apoptosis in hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Hepatic inflammation and degeneration induced by lipid depositions may be the major cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study, we tried to investigate the effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on hepatoma cell apoptosis. Methods H4IIE liver cells were treated with palmitic acid, linoleic acid, or both with or without the calcium-specific chelator BAPTA-AM after which the expression of proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, apoptosis, caspase-3 levels, and calcium flux were measured. Results Palmitic or linoleic acid (250 μM) induced H4IIE cell apoptosis, which required calcium flux but not caspase-3. Apoptosis was not observed when cells were co-treated with linoleic acid (125 μM) and palmitic acid (250 μM). Importantly, the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into cytoplasm during cell apoptosis was specifically detected only when linoleic acid (125 μM), but not palmitic acid (250 μM), was added to the cells. Depletion of intracellular calcium flux by the calcium-specific chelator, BAPTA-AM, abolished linoleic acid-induced apoptosis. Moreover, in the presence of BAPTA-AM, expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR)-associated genes, CHOP, GRP78, and GRP94, was induced by linoleic acid, but not palmitic acid. Conclusions The results suggest that linoleic acid promotes cell apoptosis through the release of cytochrome C, only if the intracellular calcium flux is unperturbed and intact. These results confirm that ER stress contributes to fatty acid-induced liver cell apoptosis. PMID:22221411

  8. Calcium Uptake via Mitochondrial Uniporter Contributes to Palmitic Acid-induced Apoptosis in Mouse Podocytes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zeting; Cao, Aili; Liu, Hua; Guo, Henjiang; Zang, Yingjun; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yunman; Wang, Hao; Yin, Peihao; Peng, Wen

    2017-02-09

    Podocytes are component cells of the glomerular filtration barrier, and their loss by apoptosis is the main cause of proteinuria that leads to diabetic nephropathy (DN). Therefore, insights into podocyte apoptosis mechanism would allow a better understanding of DN pathogenesis and thus help develop adequate therapeutic strategies. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of palmitic acid-inhibited cell death in mouse podocytes, and found that palmitic acid increased cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Palmitic acid induces apoptosis in podocytes through up-regulation of cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) , mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cytochrome c release and depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) , The intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N, N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), partially prevented this up-regulation whereas 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibitor; dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor (RyR) inhibitor; and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostibene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), an anion exchange inhibitor, had no effect. Interestingly, ruthenium red and Ru360, both inhibitors of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), blocked palmitic acid-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) elevation, cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol, and apoptosis. siRNA to MCU markedly reduced curcumin-induced apoptosis. These data indicate that Ca(2+) uptake via mitochondrial uniporter contributes to palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in mouse podocytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Subcutaneous adipocytes promote melanoma cell growth by activating the Akt signaling pathway: role of palmitic acid.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Hiu Yee; Fu, Xiuqiong; Liu, Bin; Chao, Xiaojuan; Chan, Chi Leung; Cao, Huihui; Su, Tao; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Fong, Wang Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2014-10-31

    Tumorigenesis involves constant communication between tumor cells and neighboring normal cells such as adipocytes. The canonical function of adipocytes is to store triglyceride and release fatty acids for other tissues. This study was aimed to find out if adipocytes promoted melanoma cell growth and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Here we isolated adipocytes from inguinal adipose tissue in mice and co-cultured with melanoma cells. We found that the co-cultured melanoma had higher lipid accumulation compared with mono-cultured melanoma. In addition, fluorescently labeled fatty acid BODIPY® FLC16 signal was detected in melanoma co-cultured with the adipocytes that had been loaded with the fluorescent dye, suggesting that the adipocytes provide fatty acids to melanoma cells. Compared with mono-cultured melanoma, co-cultured melanoma cells had a higher proliferation and phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) expression. Overexpression of Akt mutants in melanoma cells reduced the co-culture-enhanced proliferation. A lipidomic study showed that the co-cultured melanoma had an elevated palmitic acid level. Interestingly, we found that palmitic acid stimulated melanoma cell proliferation, changed the cell cycle distribution, and increased phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) and PI3K but not phospho-PTEN (phosphophosphatase and tensin homolog) expressions. More importantly, the palmitic acid-stimulated proliferation was further enhanced in the Akt-overexpressed melanoma cells and was reduced by LY294002 or knockdown of endogenous Akt or overexpression of Akt mutants. We also found that palmitic acid-pretreated B16F10 cells were grown to a significantly larger tumor in mice compared with control cells. Taken together, we suggest that adipocytes may serve as an exogenous source of palmitic acid that promotes melanoma cell growth by activating Akt.

  10. GDF11 does not improve the palmitate induced insulin resistance in C2C12.

    PubMed

    Jing, Y-Y; Li, D; Wu, F; Gong, L-L; Li, R

    2017-04-01

    GDF11 (Growth Differentiation factor 11) has been reported to rejuvenate skeletal muscle, heart and brain in aged mice, and the aged skeletal muscle is closely related to insulin resistance. We wondered whether GDF11 has an effect on skeletal muscle insulin resistance. High fat diet induced obese mice with insulin resistance were established in vivo. Palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes was established in vitro. The mRNA expression of GDF11, GLUT4, IRS-1 (insulin receptor substrate-1) and PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1) were tested by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The protein level of GDF11 and PGC-1α were detected by Western blot. The glucose uptake was measured by 2NBDG uptake assay. In high fat diet induced obese mice, both serum level of GDF11 and the expression of GDF11 in skeletal muscle decreased. Similarly, the expression of GDF11 also reduced in palmitate-treated C2C12 myotubes. In vitro, the glucose uptake and the expression of GLUT4, IRS-1 and PGC-1α significantly decreased after palmitate intervention, but GDF11 treatment did not reverse the reduction of glucose uptake and the expression of GLUT4, IRS-1 and PGC-1α in C2C12 myotubes. We firstly confirmed that the expression of GDF11 decreased both in the skeletal muscle of obese mice and palmitate-treated myotubes, but supplementation GDF11 does not ameliorate the palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes.

  11. Lipidomic evidence that lowering the typical dietary palmitate to oleate ratio in humans decreases the leukocyte production of proinflammatory cytokines and muscle expression of redox-sensitive genes.

    PubMed

    Kien, C Lawrence; Bunn, Janice Y; Fukagawa, Naomi K; Anathy, Vikas; Matthews, Dwight E; Crain, Karen I; Ebenstein, David B; Tarleton, Emily K; Pratley, Richard E; Poynter, Matthew E

    2015-12-01

    We recently reported that lowering the high, habitual palmitic acid (PA) intake in ovulating women improved insulin sensitivity and both inflammatory and oxidative stress. In vitro studies indicate that PA can activate both cell membrane toll-like receptor-4 and the intracellular nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor protein (NLRP3). To gain further insight into the relevance to human metabolic disease of dietary PA, we studied healthy, lean and obese adults enrolled in a randomized, crossover trial comparing 3-week, high-PA (HPA) and low-PA/high-oleic-acid (HOA) diets. After each diet, both hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivities were measured, and we assessed cytokine concentrations in plasma and in supernatants derived from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as well as proinflammatory gene expression in skeletal muscle. Insulin sensitivity was unaffected by diet. Plasma concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α was higher during the HPA diet. Lowering the habitually high PA intake by feeding the HOA diet resulted in lower secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α by PBMCs, as well as lower relative mRNA expression of cJun and NLRP3 in muscle. Principal components analysis of 156 total variables coupled to analysis of covariance indicated that the mechanistic pathway for the differential dietary effects on PBMCs involved changes in the PA/OA ratio of tissue lipids. Our results indicate that lowering the dietary and tissue lipid PA/OA ratio resulted in lower leukocyte production of proinflammatory cytokines and muscle expression of redox-sensitive genes, but the relevance to diabetes risk is uncertain.

  12. High-oleic Virginia peanuts in the Southwestern US: A summary of data supporting the release of 'VENUS'

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'VENUS' is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. 'VENUS' is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for and proposed for release in t...

  13. The rising star of high-oleic Virginia peanuts: A summary of data supporting the release of 'VENUS'

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'VENUS' is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. 'VENUS' is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for and proposed for release in the Southwestern US. 'VENUS' (experimental designati...

  14. Non-destructive determination of high oleic acid content in single soybean seeds by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean with increased oleic acid is desirable to improve oxidative stability and functionality of soybean seed oil. Recently, soybean genotypes with high oleic acid (= 70%) were developed by conventional breeding and molecular genetic selection of mutant fatty acid desaturase alleles. Determination...

  15. Genotyping-by-Sequencing-Based Investigation of the Genetic Architecture Responsible for a ∼Sevenfold Increase in Soybean Seed Stearic Acid.

    PubMed

    Heim, Crystal B; Gillman, Jason D

    2017-01-05

    Soybean oil is highly unsaturated but oxidatively unstable, rendering it nonideal for food applications. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent partial chemical hydrogenation, which produces trans fats as an unavoidable consequence. Dietary intake of trans fats and most saturated fats are conclusively linked to negative impacts on cholesterol levels and cardiovascular health. Two major soybean oil breeding targets are: (1) to reduce or eliminate the need for chemical hydrogenation, and (2) to replace the functional properties of partially hydrogenated soybean oil. One potential solution is the elevation of seed stearic acid, a saturated fat which has no negative impacts on cardiovascular health, from 3 to 4% in typical cultivars to > 20% of the seed oil. We performed QTL analysis of a population developed by crossing two mutant lines, one with a missense mutation affecting a stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein desaturase gene resulting in ∼11% seed stearic acid crossed to another mutant, A6, which has 24-28% seed stearic acid. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)-based QTL mapping identified 21 minor and major effect QTL for six seed oil related traits and plant height. The inheritance of a large genomic deletion affecting chromosome 14 is the basis for largest effect QTL, resulting in ∼18% seed stearic acid. This deletion contains SACPD-C and another gene(s); loss of both genes boosts seed stearic acid levels to ≥ 18%. Unfortunately, this genomic deletion has been shown in previous studies to be inextricably correlated with reduced seed yield. Our results will help inform and guide ongoing breeding efforts to improve soybean oil oxidative stability.

  16. Genotyping-by-Sequencing-Based Investigation of the Genetic Architecture Responsible for a ∼Sevenfold Increase in Soybean Seed Stearic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Crystal B.; Gillman, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Soybean oil is highly unsaturated but oxidatively unstable, rendering it nonideal for food applications. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent partial chemical hydrogenation, which produces trans fats as an unavoidable consequence. Dietary intake of trans fats and most saturated fats are conclusively linked to negative impacts on cholesterol levels and cardiovascular health. Two major soybean oil breeding targets are: (1) to reduce or eliminate the need for chemical hydrogenation, and (2) to replace the functional properties of partially hydrogenated soybean oil. One potential solution is the elevation of seed stearic acid, a saturated fat which has no negative impacts on cardiovascular health, from 3 to 4% in typical cultivars to > 20% of the seed oil. We performed QTL analysis of a population developed by crossing two mutant lines, one with a missense mutation affecting a stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein desaturase gene resulting in ∼11% seed stearic acid crossed to another mutant, A6, which has 24–28% seed stearic acid. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)-based QTL mapping identified 21 minor and major effect QTL for six seed oil related traits and plant height. The inheritance of a large genomic deletion affecting chromosome 14 is the basis for largest effect QTL, resulting in ∼18% seed stearic acid. This deletion contains SACPD-C and another gene(s); loss of both genes boosts seed stearic acid levels to ≥ 18%. Unfortunately, this genomic deletion has been shown in previous studies to be inextricably correlated with reduced seed yield. Our results will help inform and guide ongoing breeding efforts to improve soybean oil oxidative stability. PMID:27866151

  17. Microstructure and Ion Exchange in Stearic Acid Langmuir-Blodgett Films Studied by Fourier Transform Infrared-Attenuated Total Reflection Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun; Zhao, Bing; Lu, Yiqing; Liang, Yingqiu

    2001-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectra have been recorded of 11-layer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of stearic acid deposited at various surface pressures (0.1, 15, and 35 mN/m), and the molecular orientation angles were evaluated quantitatively, which supplied insight into the molecular order with the alkyl chains tightly packed like crystal in the LB films deposited at the zero and higher surface pressures. These experimental results indicate that, in the Langmuir film as the precursor of LB films, stearic acid molecules self-aggregate to form two-dimensional crystalline domains already even at the zero surface pressure, which results in the inhomogeneity of monolayer. The analysis of dependence of nu(C=O) intensity on the surface pressure, surface density, and subphase temperature leads to the conclusion that the defects in LB films originate from the Langmuir film and be conserved upon deposition. Annealing below 50 degrees C and cooling could improve the monolayer homogeneity, and thus a defect-free or low-defect LB films can be deposited. Furthermore, ion exchange conducted in the LB films, on the other hand, confirms the existence of structure defects in LB films of stearic acid. The polar plane microstructure, lateral transport along the polar planes and the coordination types of stearic acid/cation system may be the rate-limiting process. The results have implication on the possible uses of stearic acid LB films as ion-exchange materials or sensors. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Synthesis of deuterated [D32 ]oleic acid and its phospholipid derivative [D64 ]dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Tamim A; Luks, Emily; Moraes, Greta; Yepuri, Nageshwar R; Holden, Peter J; James, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Oleic acid and its phospholipid derivatives are fundamental to the structure and function of cellular membranes. As a result, there has been increasing interest in the availability of their deuterated forms for many nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, mass spectroscopy and neutron scattering studies. Here, we present for the first time a straightforward, large-scale (gram quantities) synthesis of highly deuterated [D32 ]oleic acid by using multiple, yet simple and high yielding reactions. The precursors for the synthesis of [D32 ]oleic acid are [D14 ]azelaic acid and [D17 ]nonanoic acid, which were obtained by complete deuteration (>98% D) of their (1) H forms by using metal catalysed hydrothermal H/D exchange reactions. The oleic acid was produced with ca. 94% D isotopic purity and with no contamination by the trans-isomer (elaidic acid). The subsequent synthesis of [D64 ]dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine from [D32 ]oleic acid is also described.

  19. Cyclic fatty acid monomer formation in domestic frying of frozen foods in sunflower oil and high oleic acid sunflower oil without oil replenishment.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Bastida, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    2006-10-01

    During the frying process, oxidation, hydrolysis, polymerization, isomerization, and cyclization occur. Polymers and Cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM) are potentially toxic, and the latter are detected at relatively low levels (0.01-0.7%) in used frying oils. Twenty fryings of different frozen foods were carried out over 10 consecutive days in sunflower oil (SO) and in high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSO). Fatty acid methyl ester derivates were hydrogenated with platinum oxide catalyst under hydrogen. Ethyl palmitate was added as an internal standard before hydrogenation. The CFAM obtained were isolated, concentrated and quantified by HPLC using a reverse-phase column followed by gas chromatography. Linear adjustments between total and individual CFAM content and the number of frying operations performed with both oils were established by analysis of variance. The comparison between linear equation adjustments of both oils was performed by a two-way analysis of covariance. After 20 fryings 15.4 +/- 0.06 g polar content/100 g oil, 7.15 +/- 0.08 g polymers/ oil, 11.52 +/- 0.08 g polymers/100g oil and 855 +/- 8.9 mg CFAM/kg oil were detected in SO. A 10 mg/100 mg oil of altered fatty acid content correspond to 700 mg/kg CFAM, while 25% polar material and 10% polymer content would correspond to about 850-1,000 mg CFAM/kg oil. Data suggest that frying with SO produces in each new frying 9 mg CFAM/kg more than frying with HOSO (p < 0.001). After frying cyclopentyl structures were more than twice as abundant as cyclohexyl fatty acids in both oils. Bicyclic compound formation was significantly higher in SO (p < 0.001). Because digestion and absorption of polar material, polymers and CFAM occur, data clearly show the advantageousness and advisability of frying with HOSO rather than SO.

  20. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter J. H.; MacKay, Dylan. S.; Senanayake, Vijitha K.; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J. A.; Connelly, Philip W.; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; West, Sheila G.; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Hantgan, Roy R.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets; 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p=0.0005 and p=0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p=0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p=0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p=0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. PMID:25528432

  1. The role of genomics and biotechnology in achieving global food security for high-oleic vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    Health related concerns for dietary 'trans-fat' in the U.S. have mediated a significant decline in the use of hydrogenated vegetable oils in edible applications. Oils having a natural abundance of oleic acid provide many functional properties that are derived from partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated oils. However, the long term agronomic production capacity of existing high-oleic oil crops to replace hydrogenated oil ingredients is not sustainable. Although improvements are expected in processing technology, genetic modification of seed composition offers the most promising tactic to increase the overall supply of high-oleic commodity oils. Genetic enhancement of oleic acid concentration has been demonstrated experimentally in nearly every oilseed. Private companies have launched production of genetically enhanced oleic acid cultivars such as: Nexera™ Omega-9 canola and Omega-9 sunflower oils. The E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company plans commercial production of Plenish™ high-oleic soybeans in 2012. The Monsanto Co. plans commercial production of Vistive-Gold™ low-saturated high-oleic soybeans possibly as early as 2013. These 'new' high-oleic oilseeds must not only exhibit superior oil quality but also sequentially improved yield potential. Genetic maps that help breeders identify, locate and track useful genes will facilitate accomplishment of that goal. However, a reference sequence map in soybean is the only available chromosome scale assembly of an oilseed genome. Knowledge of genome structure enables technological advances that help increase soybean yielding ability, improve crop protection against biotic stresses, and reveal alleles for genes that mediate expression of quality traits. Led by soybean, genetically enhanced high-oleic vegetable oils that now are becoming commercially available may capture greater than 40% of the domestic consumption of vegetable oil in the U.S. by 2020. This innovation in oilseed technology is a positive step toward

  2. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2015-02-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding.

  3. High-throughput and functional SNP detection assays for oleic and linolenic acids in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean is a primary source of vegetable oil, accounting for 53% of the total vegetable oil consumption in the USA in 2013. Soybean oil with high oleic acid and low linolenic acid content is desired, because it not only improves the oxidative stability of the oil, but also reduces the amount of unde...

  4. Synthesis and physical properties of new coco-oleic dimer and trimer plus estolide branched esters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estolides are a class of esters based on vegetable oils that are formed when the carboxylic acid functionality of one fatty acid reacts at the site of unsaturation of another fatty acid to form an ester linkage. The objective of this preliminary study was to separate coco-oleic estolide into two com...

  5. Analysis and properties of the decarboxylation products of oleic acid by catalytic triruthenium dodecacarbonyl

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, ruthenium-catalyzed isomerization-decarboxylation of fatty acids to give alkene mixtures was reported. When the substrate was oleic acid, the reaction yielded a mixture consisting of heptadecene isomers. In this work, we report the compositional analysis of the mixture obtained by triruthe...

  6. Fuel properties of heptadecene isomers prepared via tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of oleic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heptadecene isomers were prepared via tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of oleic acid using catalytic triruthenium dodecacarbonyl [Ru3(CO)12]. Chromatographic and spectroscopic characterization of the isolated heptadecene mixture indicated that it consisted of 96% internal trans isomers and 4% ar...

  7. Dietary palatinose and oleic acid ameliorate disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism in Zucker fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazusa; Arai, Hidekazu; Mizuno, Akira; Fukaya, Makiko; Sato, Tadatoshi; Koganei, Megumi; Sasaki, Hajime; Yamamoto, Hironori; Taketani, Yutaka; Doi, Toshio; Takeda, Eiji

    2007-08-01

    Excessive dietary intake of carbohydrates and fats has been linked to the development of obesity. However, the mechanism by which these dietary factors interact to bring about metabolic changes has not been elucidated. We examined the combined effects of different types of dietary carbohydrates and fats on the etiology of obesity and its complications in the Zucker fatty (fa/fa) rat, a model of obesity. Specifically, these rats were fed an isocaloric diet containing various combinations of carbohydrates [palatinose (P), an insulin-sparing sucrose analogue, and sucrose (S)] and fatty acids [oleic acid (O) and linoleic acid (L)]. After 8 wk, palatinose feeding (PO and PL) led to significant reductions in visceral fat mass, adipocyte cell size, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia compared with sucrose feeding (SO and SL); pancreatic islet hypertrophy was also prevented by palatinose feeding. Linoleic-acid-fed rats (PL and SL) exhibited reduced insulin-immunoreactive staining of the pancreatic islets, enhanced macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue, and an elevated plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentration when compared with oleic-acid-fed rats (PO and SO). Furthermore, sucrose and linoleic acid synergistically increased the expression of genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis [sterol regulatory-element binding protein (SREBP)-1c and SREBP-2]. In conclusion, a diet containing palatinose and oleic acid may prevent diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. The combination of palatinose and oleic acid holds promise for a new approach to preventing and treating obesity and its complications.

  8. NuMex-02- A High oleic Valencia peanut with partial resistance to Sclerotinia blight

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    NuMex-02 is a high oleic Valencia peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., subsp. fastigiata var. fastigiata) cultivar developed by the New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station, Clovis, New Mexico. NuMex-02 originated from a cross made between NM Valencia A and OLin. Pedigree selection was practiced based on...

  9. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellent Activity of Isolated Oleic Acid, Eicosyl Ester from Thalictrum javanicum

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Abinaya; Senguttuvan, Jamuna; Paulsamy, S.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of Thalictrum javanicum and to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by PASS software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (filarial vector). Insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. The chitinase activity of isolated compound was assessed by using purified β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (chitinase). Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assay (radioimmuno assay) was made using the same larval stage of A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus. The results were compared with the crude methanol extract of the whole plant. The isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester was found to be the most effective larvicide against A. aegypti (LC50/24 h -8.51 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50/24 h - 12.5 ppm) than the crude methanol extract (LC50/24 h - 257.03 ppm and LC50/24 h - 281.83 ppm, respectively). The impact of oleic acid, eicosyl ester on reducing the activity of chitinase and ecdysone 20-monooxygenase was most prominent in both the target species, A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus than the control. The results therefore suggest that the compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicum may be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal property. PMID:27168688

  10. Treatment with oleic acid reduces IgE binding to peanut and cashew allergens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oleic acid (OA) is known to bind and change the bioactivities of proteins, such as a-lactalbumin and ß-lactoglobulin in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine if OA binds to allergens from a peanut extract or cashew allergen and changes their allergenic properties. Peanut extract or c...

  11. Dietary oleic acid regulates hepatic lipogenesis through a liver X receptor-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Ducheix, Simon; Montagner, Alexandra; Polizzi, Arnaud; Lasserre, Frédéric; Régnier, Marion; Marmugi, Alice; Benhamed, Fadila; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Mselli-Lakhal, Laila; Loiseau, Nicolas; Martin, Pascal G; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc; Ferrier, Laurent; Postic, Catherine; Guillou, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Olive oil consumption is beneficial for health as it is associated with a decreased prevalence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Oleic acid is, by far, the most abundant component of olive oil. Since it can be made through de novo synthesis in animals, it is not an essential fatty acid. While it has become clear that dietary oleic acid regulates many biological processes, the signaling pathway involved in these regulations remains poorly defined. In this work we tested the impact of an oleic acid-rich diet on hepatic gene expression. We were particularly interested in addressing the contribution of Liver X Receptors (LXR) in the control of genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, an essential process in whole body energy homeostasis. We used wild-type mice and transgenic mice deficient for both α and β Liver X Receptor isoforms (LXR-/-) fed a control or an oleate enriched diet. We observed that hepatic-lipid accumulation was enhanced as well as the expression of lipogenic genes in the liver of wild-type mice fed the oleate enriched diet. In contrast, none of these changes occurred in the liver of LXR-/- mice. Strikingly, oleate-rich diet reduced cholesterolemia in wild-type mice and induced signs of liver inflammation and damage in LXR-/- mice but not in wild-type mice. This work suggests that dietary oleic acid reduces cholesterolemia while promoting LXR-dependent hepatic lipogenesis without detrimental effects to the liver.

  12. Ice core profiles of saturated fatty acids (C12:0-C30:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) from southern Alaska since 1734 AD: A link to climate change in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Ambarish; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Seki, Osamu; Matoba, Sumio; Shiraiwa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    An ice core drilled at Aurora Peak in southeast Alaska was analyzed for homologous series of straight chain fatty acids (C12:0-C30:0) including unsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) using gas chromatography (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Molecular distributions of fatty acids are characterized by even carbon number predominance with a peak at palmitic acid (C16:0, av. 20.3 ± SD. 29.8 ng/g-ice) followed by oleic acid (C18:1, 19.6 ± 38.6 ng/g-ice) and myristic acid (C14:0, 15.3 ± 21.9 ng/g-ice). The historical trends of short-chain fatty acids, together with correlation analysis with inorganic ions and organic tracers suggest that short-chain fatty acids (except for C12:0 and C15:0) were mainly derived from sea surface micro layers through bubble bursting mechanism and transported over the glacier through the atmosphere. This atmospheric transport process is suggested to be linked with Kamchatka ice core δD record from Northeast Asia and Greenland Temperature Anomaly (GTA). In contrast, long-chain fatty acids (C20:0-C30:0) are originated from terrestrial higher plants, soil organic matter and dusts, which are also linked with GTA. Hence, this study suggests that Alaskan fatty acids are strongly influenced by Pacific Decadal Oscillation/North Pacific Gyre Oscillation and/or extra tropical North Pacific surface climate and Arctic oscillation. We also found that decadal scale variability of C18:1/C18:0 ratios in the Aurora Peak ice core correlate with the Kamchatka ice core δD, which reflects climate oscillations in the North Pacific. This study suggests that photochemical aging of organic aerosols could be controlled by climate periodicity.

  13. Size-dependent chemical ageing of oleic acid aerosol under dry and humidified conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kindi, Suad S.; Pope, Francis D.; Beddows, David C.; Bloss, William J.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2016-12-01

    A chemical reaction chamber system has been developed for the processing of oleic acid aerosol particles with ozone under two relative humidity conditions: dry and humidified to 65 %. The apparatus consists of an aerosol flow tube, in which the ozonolysis occurs, coupled to a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) which measure the evolving particle size and composition. Under both relative humidity conditions, ozonolysis results in a significant decrease in particle size and mass which is consistent with the formation of volatile products that partition from the particle to the gas phase. Mass spectra derived from the ATOFMS reveal the presence of the typically observed reaction products: azelaic acid, nonanal, oxononanoic acid and nonanoic acid, as well as a range of higher molecular weight products deriving from the reactions of reaction intermediates with oleic acid and its oxidation products. These include octanoic acid and 9- and 10-oxooctadecanoic acid, as well as products of considerably higher molecular weight. Quantitative evaluation of product yields with the ATOFMS shows a marked dependence upon both particle size association (from 0.3 to 2.1 µm diameter) and relative humidity. Under both relative humidity conditions, the percentage residual of oleic acid increases with increasing particle size and the main lower molecular weight products are nonanal and oxononanoic acid. Under dry conditions, the percentage of higher molecular weight products increases with increasing particle size due to the poorer internal mixing of the larger particles. Under humidified conditions, the percentage of unreacted oleic acid is greater, except in the smallest particle fraction, with little formation of high molecular weight products relative to the dry particles. It is postulated that water reacts with reactive intermediates, competing with the processes which produce high molecular weight products. Whilst the

  14. A modified PCR protocol for consistent amplification of fatty acid desaturase (FAD) alleles in marker-assisted backcross breeding for high oleic trait in peanut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High oleic acid, such as is found in olive oil, is desirable for the healthy cholesterol-lowering benefits. The oxidative stability of the oil with high oleic acid also gives longer “shelve life” for peanut products. These benefits drive the breeding effort toward developing high oleic peanuts worl...

  15. Preparation and characterization of a new lipid nano-emulsion containing two cosurfactants, sodium palmitate for droplet size reduction and sucrose palmitate for stability enhancement.

    PubMed

    Takegami, Shigehiko; Kitamura, Keisuke; Kawada, Hiroto; Matsumoto, Yu; Kitade, Tatsuya; Ishida, Hiroharu; Nagata, Chieyo

    2008-08-01

    A new lipid nano-emulsion (LNE) was prepared from soybean oil and phosphatidylcholine (PC) employing two cosurfactants, sodium palmitate (PA) for reduced droplet size and sucrose palmitate (SP) for stability enhancement. The mean droplet size of LNEs prepared at a PA/PC (w/w) ratio of larger than 1/10 was found to be ca. 50 nm by dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy. However, during the 12-month storage, the PA/PC (1/10)-LNE showed an increase in mean droplet size and broadening of the droplet size distribution due to coalescence of the LNE particles. In a saline solution, the coalescence proceeded very rapidly, i.e., the mean droplet size increased to more than 150 nm within 0.5 h. To suppress the coalescence of LNE particles, four sucrose fatty acid esters of different chain lengths were examined as candidate cosurfactants. The results showed that PA/SP/PC (1/4/10)-LNE could maintain a mean droplet size around 50 nm for 12 months. In a saline solution, the mean droplet size could be maintained within 100 nm even after 24 h. Slight formation of flocculation in the LNEs depending on the storage period was suggested by measurement of the 31P nuclear magnetic resonance line width of the LNEs.

  16. Palm oil and palmitic acid: a review on cardiovascular effects and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Elena; Fanelli, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    We reviewed the scientific literature on the evidence of the relationship between palm oil and adverse effects on human health. Few studies have investigated the effects of palm oil per se, and the main reason why it has been associated with negative health effects is the relatively high content of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), particularly palmitic acid, which in turn have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and some tumours. However, more recent investigations on the topic seem to have reconsidered the negative role of the dietary SFAs as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and show that not only the type of fat, but also that the triglyceride structure plays a role in cholesterolaemia. As regards to a role in cancer, specific studies on dietary palmitic acid or palm oil and the risk of cancer development are scanty, and the evidence is not convincing.

  17. Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid reverse the inhibitory effect of insulin production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α both in vitro and in vivo systems

    PubMed Central

    Vassiliou, Evros K; Gonzalez, Andres; Garcia, Carlos; Tadros, James H; Chakraborty, Goutam; Toney, Jeffrey H

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation is a key player in pathogenesis. The inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a well known inflammatory protein, and has been a therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Crohn's Disease. Obesity is a well known risk factor for developing non-insulin dependent diabetes melitus. Adipose tissue has been shown to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which has the ability to reduce insulin secretion and induce insulin resistance. Based on these observations, we sought to investigate the impact of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid in the presence of TNF-α in terms of insulin production, the molecular mechanisms involved and the in vivo effect of a diet high in oleic acid on a mouse model of type II diabetes, KKAy. Methods The rat pancreatic beta cell line INS-1 was used as a cell biological model since it exhibits glucose dependent insulin secretion. Insulin production assessment was carried out using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and cAMP quantification with competitive ELISA. Viability of TNF-α and oleic acid treated cells was evaluated using flow cytometry. PPAR-γ translocation was assessed using a PPRE based ELISA system. In vivo studies were carried out on adult male KKAy mice and glucose levels were measured with a glucometer. Results Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid were able to enhance insulin production in INS-1. TNF-α inhibited insulin production but pre-treatment with oleic acid reversed this inhibitory effect. The viability status of INS-1 cells treated with TNF-α and oleic acid was not affected. Translocation of the peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor transcription factor to the nucleus was elevated in oleic acid treated cells. Finally, type II diabetic mice that were administered a high oleic acid diet derived from peanut oil, had decreased glucose levels compared to animals administered a high fat diet with no oleic acid. Conclusion

  18. Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid reverse the inhibitory effect of insulin production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha both in vitro and in vivo systems.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, Evros K; Gonzalez, Andres; Garcia, Carlos; Tadros, James H; Chakraborty, Goutam; Toney, Jeffrey H

    2009-06-26

    Chronic inflammation is a key player in pathogenesis. The inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a well known inflammatory protein, and has been a therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Crohn's Disease. Obesity is a well known risk factor for developing non-insulin dependent diabetes melitus. Adipose tissue has been shown to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which has the ability to reduce insulin secretion and induce insulin resistance. Based on these observations, we sought to investigate the impact of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid in the presence of TNF-alpha in terms of insulin production, the molecular mechanisms involved and the in vivo effect of a diet high in oleic acid on a mouse model of type II diabetes, KKAy. The rat pancreatic beta cell line INS-1 was used as a cell biological model since it exhibits glucose dependent insulin secretion. Insulin production assessment was carried out using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and cAMP quantification with competitive ELISA. Viability of TNF-alpha and oleic acid treated cells was evaluated using flow cytometry. PPAR-gamma translocation was assessed using a PPRE based ELISA system. In vivo studies were carried out on adult male KKAy mice and glucose levels were measured with a glucometer. Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid were able to enhance insulin production in INS-1. TNF-alpha inhibited insulin production but pre-treatment with oleic acid reversed this inhibitory effect. The viability status of INS-1 cells treated with TNF-alpha and oleic acid was not affected. Translocation of the peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor transcription factor to the nucleus was elevated in oleic acid treated cells. Finally, type II diabetic mice that were administered a high oleic acid diet derived from peanut oil, had decreased glucose levels compared to animals administered a high fat diet with no oleic acid. Oleic acid was found to

  19. High fat-diet and saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibits IGF-1 function in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nazli, S A; Loeser, R F; Chubinskaya, S; Willey, J S; Yammani, R R

    2017-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes matrix synthesis and cell survival in cartilage. Chondrocytes from aged and osteoarthritic cartilage have a reduced response to IGF-1. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of free fatty acids (FFA) present in a high-fat diet on IGF-1 function in cartilage and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. C57BL/6 male mice were maintained on either a high-fat (60% kcal from fat) or a low-fat (10% kcal from fat) diet for 4 months. Mice were then sacrificed; femoral head cartilage caps were collected and treated with IGF-1 to measure proteoglycan (PG) synthesis. Cultured human chondrocytes were treated with 500 μM FFA palmitate or oleate, followed by stimulation with (100 ng/ml) IGF-1 overnight to measure CHOP (a protein marker for ER stress) and PG synthesis. Human chondrocytes were pre-treated with palmitate or 1 mM 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA) or 1 μM C-Jun N terminal Kinase (JNK) inhibitor, and IGF-1 function (PG synthesis and signaling) was measured. Cartilage explants from mice on the high fat-diet showed reduced IGF-1 mediated PG synthesis compared to a low-fat group. Treatment of human chondrocytes with palmitate induced expression of CHOP, activated JNK and inhibited IGF-1 function. PBA, a small molecule chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress rescued IGF-1 function and a JNK inhibitor rescued IGF-1 signaling. Palmitate-induced ER stress inhibited IGF-1 function in chondrocytes/cartilage via activating the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase JNK. This is the first study to demonstrate that ER stress is metabolic factor that regulates IGF-1 function in chondrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Moisturizing potentials of ascorbyl palmitate and calcium ascorbate in various topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Gönüllü, U; Yener, G; Uner, M; Incegül, T

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to use two of Vitamin C derivatives, lipophilic ascorbyl palmitate and hydrophilic calcium ascorbate to determine their skin-hydrating effects for the first time. For this purpose, anhydrous cream, gel and w/o emulsion were prepared and applied to the volunteers' inner forearms. A commercial topical preparation containing a known moisturizer, Vitamin E, was also chosen and used for comparison. Moisture contents of the skin were measured by using corneometer.

  1. Heterozygous caveolin-3 mice show increased susceptibility to palmitate-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Talukder, M A Hassan; Preda, Marilena; Ryzhova, Larisa; Prudovsky, Igor; Pinz, Ilka M

    2016-03-01

    Insulin resistance and diabetes are comorbidities of obesity and affect one in 10 adults in the United States. Despite the high prevalence, the mechanisms of cardiac insulin resistance in obesity are still unclear. We test the hypothesis that the insulin receptor localizes to caveolae and is regulated through binding to caveolin-3 (CAV3). We further test whether haploinsufficiency forCAV3 increases the susceptibility to high-fat-induced insulin resistance. We used in vivo and in vitro studies to determine the effect of palmitate exposure on global insulin resistance, contractile performance of the heart in vivo, glucose uptake in the heart, and on cellular signaling downstream of theIR We show that haploinsufficiency forCAV3 increases susceptibility to palmitate-induced global insulin resistance and causes cardiomyopathy. On the basis of fluorescence energy transfer (FRET) experiments, we show thatCAV3 andIRdirectly interact in cardiomyocytes. Palmitate impairs insulin signaling by a decrease in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt that corresponds to an 87% decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake inHL-1 cardiomyocytes. Despite loss of Akt phosphorylation and lower glucose uptake, palmitate increased insulin-independent serine phosphorylation ofIRS-1 by 35%. In addition, we found lipid induced downregulation ofCD36, the fatty acid transporter associated with caveolae. This may explain the problem the diabetic heart is facing with the simultaneous impairment of glucose uptake and lipid transport. Thus, these findings suggest that loss ofCAV3 interferes with downstream insulin signaling and lipid uptake, implicatingCAV3 as a regulator of theIRand regulator of lipid uptake in the heart. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  2. LRP1 Protein Deficiency Exacerbates Palmitate-induced Steatosis and Toxicity in Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Allyson N; Basford, Joshua E; Jaeschke, Anja; Hui, David Y

    2016-08-05

    LRP1 (LDL receptor-related protein-1) is a ubiquitous receptor with both cell signaling and ligand endocytosis properties. In the liver, LRP1 serves as a chylomicron remnant receptor and also participates in the transport of extracellular cathepsin D to the lysosome for prosaposin activation. The current study showed that in comparison with wild type mice, hepatocyte-specific LRP1 knock-out (hLrp1(-/-)) mice were more susceptible to fasting-induced lipid accumulation in the liver. Primary hepatocytes isolated from hLrp1(-/-) mice also accumulated more intracellular lipids and experienced higher levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress after palmitate treatment compared with similarly treated hLrp1(+/+) hepatocytes. Palmitate-treated hLrp1(-/-) hepatocytes displayed similar LC3-II levels, but the levels of p62 were elevated in comparison with palmitate-treated hLrp1(+/+) hepatocytes, suggesting that the elevated lipid accumulation in LRP1-defective hepatocytes was not due to defects in autophagosome formation but was due to impairment of lipophagic lipid hydrolysis in the lysosome. Additional studies showed increased palmitate-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial and lysosomal permeability, and cell death in hLrp1(-/-) hepatocytes. Importantly, the elevated cell death and ER stress observed in hLrp1(-/-) hepatocytes were abrogated by E64D treatment, whereas inhibiting ER stress diminished cell death but not lysosomal permeabilization. Taken together, these results documented that LRP1 deficiency in hepatocytes promotes lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity through lysosomal-mitochondrial permeabilization and ER stress that ultimately result in cell death. Hence, LRP1 dysfunction may be a major risk factor in fatty liver disease progression. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism influences postprandial retinyl palmitate but not triglyceride concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Boerwinkle, E. ); Brown, S.; Patsch, W. ); Sharrett, A.R. ); Heiss, G. )

    1994-02-01

    To quantify the effect of the apolipoprotein (apo) E polymorphism on the magnitude of postprandial lipemia, the authors have defined its role in determining the response to a single high-fat meal in a large sample of (N = 474) individuals taking part in the biethnic Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. The profile of postprandial response in plasma was monitored over 8 h by triglyceride, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL)-triglyceride, apo B-48/apo B-100 ratio, and retinyl palmitate concentrations, and the apo E polymorphism was determined by DNA amplification and digestion. The frequency of the apo E alleles and their effects on fasting lipid levels in this sample with vitamin A was significantly different among apo E genotypes, with delayed clearance in individuals with an [var epsilon]2 allele, compared with [var epsilon]3/3 and [var epsilon]3/4 individuals. In the sample of 397 Caucasians, average retinyl palmitate response was 1,489 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]2/3 individuals, compared with 1,037 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]3/3 individuals and 1,108 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]3/4 individuals. The apo E polymorphism accounted for 7.1% of the interindividual variation in postprandial retinyl palmitate response, a contribution proportionally greater than its well-known effect on fasting LDL-cholesterol. However, despite this effect on postprandial retinyl palmitate, the profile of postprandial triglyceride response was not significantly different among apo E genotypes. The profile of postprandial response was consistent between the sample of Caucasians and a smaller sample of black subjects. While these data indicate that the removal of remnant particles from circulation is delayed in subjects with the [var epsilon]2/3 genotype, there is no reported evidence that the [var epsilon]2 allele predisposes to coronary artery disease (CAD). 82 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. A Case of Ileus in a Patient with Schizophrenia Under Paliperidone Palmitate Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kabadayı, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is a side effect of antipsychotic drugs that have high affinity for muscarinic cholinergic receptors. In addition, ileus is an important side effect of antipsychotic treatment, with potentially morbid and mortal consequences if early detection fails. In this report, a colonic ileus case is described in a patient with schizophrenia under the treatment of paliperidone palmitate. Consequently, complete physical examination and close screening of side effects are recommended when antipsychotics are prescribed. PMID:27909459

  5. A Case of Ileus in a Patient with Schizophrenia Under Paliperidone Palmitate Treatment.

    PubMed

    Can, Serdar Süleyman; Kabadayı, Esra

    2016-11-01

    Constipation is a side effect of antipsychotic drugs that have high affinity for muscarinic cholinergic receptors. In addition, ileus is an important side effect of antipsychotic treatment, with potentially morbid and mortal consequences if early detection fails. In this report, a colonic ileus case is described in a patient with schizophrenia under the treatment of paliperidone palmitate. Consequently, complete physical examination and close screening of side effects are recommended when antipsychotics are prescribed.

  6. Efficient dermal delivery of retinyl palmitate: Progressive polarimetry and Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the structure and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Bae; Lee, Dong Ryeol; Choi, Nak Cho; Jang, Jihui; Park, Chun Ho; Yoon, Moung Seok; Lee, Miyoung; Won, Kyoungae; Hwang, Jae Sung; Kim, B Moon

    2015-10-12

    Over the past decades, there has been a growing interest in dermal drug delivery. Although various novel delivery devices and methods have been developed, dermal delivery is still challenging because of problems such as poor drug permeation, instability of vesicles and drug leakage from vesicles induced by fusion of vesicles. To solve the vesicle instability problems in current dermal delivery systems, we developed materials comprised of liquid crystals as a new delivery vehicle of retinyl palmitate and report the characterization of the liquid crystals using a Mueller matrix polarimetry. The stability of the liquid-crystal materials was evaluated using the polarimeter as a novel evaluation tool along with other conventional methods. The dermal delivery of retinyl palmitate was investigated through the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the permeation of retinyl palmitate was enhanced by up to 106% compared to that using an ordinary emulsion with retinyl palmitate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Paliperidone Palmitate Long-Acting Injectable Given Intramuscularly in the Deltoid Versus the Gluteal Muscle: Are They Therapeutically Equivalent?

    PubMed

    Yin, John; Collier, Abby C; Barr, Alasdair M; Honer, William G; Procyshyn, Ric M

    2015-08-01

    Paliperidone palmitate long-acting injectable is a second-generation antipsychotic indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia. According to the product monograph, the monthly maintenance dose of paliperidone palmitate can be given in either the deltoid or gluteal muscle. Unfortunately, many clinicians may misinterpret these directions to mean that these intramuscular sites are interchangeable, and thus therapeutically equivalent. Currently, the literature on this topic is sparse, but the published pharmacokinetic studies and Food and Drug Administration submission data on paliperidone palmitate show discrepancies in the elimination half-life, peak plasma concentration, and absorption rate that are dependent on the site of injection. The degree of shifts in pharmacokinetic parameters suggests that paliperidone palmitate injections via the deltoid and gluteal muscle are not bioequivalent and therefore are not therapeutically equivalent. Thus, using the same maintenance dosing regimen at both sites or switching between sites of injection may result in unforeseen consequences in patient outcomes.

  8. Pharmacologic enhancement of rat skin flap survival with topical oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Oscar K; Gabr, Essam; Steward, Earl; Chen, Heidi; Kobayashi, Mark R; Calvert, Jay W; Sundine, Michael J; Kotchounian, Taline; Dhar, Sanjay; Evans, Gregory R D

    2004-06-01

    This study was instituted to investigate in a rat model the effect of topical coadministration of the penetration enhancer oleic acid (10% by volume) and RIMSO-50 (medical grade dimethyl sulfoxide, 50% by volume) on rat skin flap survival. A rectangular abdominal skin flap (2.5 x 3 cm) was surgically elevated over the left abdomen in 40 nude rats. The vein of the flap's neurovascular pedicle was occluded by placement of a microvascular clip, and the flap was resutured with 4-0 Prolene to its adjacent skin. At the end of 8 hours, the distal edge of the flap was reincised to gain access to the clips and the clips were removed. After resuturing of the flap's distal edge to its adjacent skin, the 40 flaps were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 (control) flaps were treated with 5 g of saline, group 2 (dimethyl sulfoxide) flaps were treated with 2.7 g of dimethyl sulfoxide (50% by volume), group 3 flaps (oleic acid) were topically treated with 0.45 g of oleic acid (10% by volume), and group 4 (dimethyl sulfoxide plus oleic acid) flaps were treated with a mixture of 0.45 g of oleic acid (10% by volume) and 2.7 g of dimethyl sulfoxide (50% by volume) diluted in saline. Each flap was topically treated with 5 ml of drug-soaked gauze for 1 hour immediately after clip removal to attenuate reperfusion injury. Thereafter, drug was applied topically once daily for 4 more days. Digital photographs of each flap were then taken on day 6 and the flaps were then harvested. The percentage of skin survival in each flap was determined by computerized morphometry and planimetry. The mean surviving area of group 3 (oleic acid-treated flaps) was 23.60 +/- 4.19 percent and was statistically higher than that in group 1 (control, saline-treated flaps) at 7.20 +/- 2.56 percent. The mean surviving area of group 2 (dimethyl sulfoxide-treated flaps) at 18.00 +/- 5.23 percent and group 4 (oleic acid- and dimethyl sulfoxide-treated flaps) at 9.90 +/- 3.44 percent did not achieve

  9. A systematic review of high-oleic vegetable oil substitutions for other fats and oils on cardiovascular disease risk factors: implications for novel high-oleic soybean oils.

    PubMed

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Larson, Brian T

    2015-11-01

    High-oleic acid soybean oil (H-OSBO) is a trait-enhanced vegetable oil containing >70% oleic acid. Developed as an alternative for trans-FA (TFA)-containing vegetable oils, H-OSBO is predicted to replace large amounts of soybean oil in the US diet. However, there is little evidence concerning the effects of H-OSBO on coronary heart disease (CHD)(6) risk factors and CHD risk. We examined and quantified the effects of substituting high-oleic acid (HO) oils for fats and oils rich in saturated FAs (SFAs), TFAs, or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) on blood lipids in controlled clinical trials. Searches of online databases through June 2014 were used to select studies that defined subject characteristics; described control and intervention diets; substituted HO oils compositionally similar to H-OSBO (i.e., ≥70% oleic acid) for equivalent amounts of oils high in SFAs, TFAs, or n-6 PUFAs for ≥3 wk; and reported changes in blood lipids. Studies that replaced saturated fats or oils with HO oils showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) (P < 0.05; mean percentage of change: -8.0%, -10.9%, -7.9%, respectively), whereas most showed no changes in HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), the ratio of TC to HDL cholesterol (TC:HDL cholesterol), and apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1). Replacing TFA-containing oil sources with HO oils showed significant reductions in TC, LDL cholesterol, apoB, TGs, TC:HDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol and apoA-1 (mean percentage of change: -5.7%, -9.2%, -7.3%, -11.7%, -12.1%, 5.6%, 3.7%, respectively; P < 0.05). In most studies that replaced oils high in n-6 PUFAs with equivalent amounts of HO oils, TC, LDL cholesterol, TGs, HDL cholesterol, apoA-1, and TC:HDL cholesterol did not change. These findings suggest that replacing fats and oils high in SFAs or TFAs with either H-OSBO or oils high in n-6 PUFAs would have favorable and comparable effects on plasma lipid risk factors and

  10. Nucleotides released from palmitate-challenged muscle cells through pannexin-3 attract monocytes.

    PubMed

    Pillon, Nicolas J; Li, Yujin E; Fink, Lisbeth N; Brozinick, Joseph T; Nikolayev, Alexander; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Bilan, Philip J; Klip, Amira

    2014-11-01

    Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation in metabolically relevant tissues contributes to insulin resistance. We recently reported monocyte/macrophage infiltration in mouse and human skeletal muscles. However, the molecular triggers of this infiltration are unknown, and the role of muscle cells in this context is poorly understood. Animal studies are not amenable to the specific investigation of this vectorial cellular communication. Using cell cultures, we investigated the crosstalk between myotubes and monocytes exposed to physiological levels of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Media from L6 myotubes treated with palmitate-but not palmitoleate-induced THP1 monocyte migration across transwells. Palmitate activated the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway in myotubes and elevated cytokine expression, but the monocyte chemoattracting agent was not a polypeptide. Instead, nucleotide degradation eliminated the chemoattracting properties of the myotube-conditioned media. Moreover, palmitate-induced expression and activity of pannexin-3 channels in myotubes were mediated by TLR4-NF-κB, and TLR4-NF-κB inhibition or pannexin-3 knockdown prevented monocyte chemoattraction. In mice, the expression of pannexin channels increased in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in response to high-fat feeding. These findings identify pannexins as new targets of saturated fatty acid-induced inflammation in myotubes, and point to nucleotides as possible mediators of immune cell chemoattraction toward muscle in the context of obesity.

  11. Antitumor activity of Corynebacterium parvum and retinyl palmitate used in combination on the Lewis lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pavelic, Z P; Dave, S; Bialkowski, S; Priore, R L; Greco, W R

    1980-12-01

    The effects of Corynebacterium parvum and retinyl palmitate given at various levels, schedules, and routes of administration on primary Lewis lung carcinoma and its metastases have been evaluated in C57BL/6J mice given s.c. inoculations of 5 X 10(5) tumor cells. Single i.v., but not i.p., s.c., or i.m., administration of C. parvum (0.35 mg/mouse given on Days 0, 1, or 3) reduced growth of tumor and prolonged survival time. Retinyl palmitate (3000 IU/mouse/day) given alone i.p. either before, after, or both before and after tumor inoculation showed no effect on tumor growth, survival of mice, or lung metastases. The combination of retinyl palmitate i.p. (6 daily injections of 1500 IU/mouse after tumor implantation) and C. parvum (0.175 mg/mouse) given i.v. resulted in an increase in life span over control of 146% and appeared to be therapeutically synergistic. This combination produced 90-day cures in about 20% of the treated animals, all of which were found to be tumor free. Two nonparametric statistical procedures, the Kruskal-Wallis and the Dunn test, were used to assess the effects of treatments on survival time and tumor growth and may be generally applicable to animal tumor studies. They provide multiple comparisons of different treatments and allow the inclusion of long-term survivors into the analysis.

  12. Localization of fatty acids with selective chain length by imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Richter, Katrin; Nygren, Håkan; Malmberg, Per; Hagenhoff, Birgit

    2007-07-01

    Localization of fatty acids in biological tissues was made by using TOF-SIMS (time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry). Two cell-types with a specific fatty acid distribution are shown. In rat cerebellum, different distribution patterns of stearic acid (C18:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), and oleic acid (C18:1) were found. Stearic acid signals were observed accumulated in Purkinje cells with high intensities inside the cell, but not in the nucleus region. The signals colocalized with high intensity signals of the phosphocholine head group, indicating origin from phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin. In mouse intestine, high palmitic acid signals were found in the secretory crypt cells together with high levels of phosphorylinositol colocalized in the crypt region. Palmitic acid was also seen in the intestinal lumen that contains high amounts of mucine, which is known to be produced in the crypt cells. Linoleic acid signals (C18:2) were low in the crypt region and high in the villus region. Oleic acid signals were seen in the villi and stearic acid signals were ubiquitous with no specific localization in the intestine. We conclude that the results obtained by using imaging TOF-SIMS are consistent with known brain and intestine biochemistry and that the localization of fatty acids is specific in differentiated cells.

  13. Chronic effects of palmitate overload on nutrient-induced insulin secretion and autocrine signalling in pancreatic MIN6 beta cells.

    PubMed

    Watson, Maria L; Macrae, Katherine; Marley, Anna E; Hundal, Harinder S

    2011-01-01

    Sustained exposure of pancreatic β cells to an increase in saturated fatty acids induces pleiotropic effects on β-cell function, including a reduction in stimulus-induced insulin secretion. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic over supply of palmitate upon glucose- and amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS and AASIS, respectively) and autocrine-dependent insulin signalling with particular focus on the importance of ceramide, ERK and CaMKII signalling. GSIS and AASIS were both stimulated by >7-fold resulting in autocrine-dependent activation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt). Insulin release was dependent upon nutrient-induced activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) as their pharmacological inhibition suppressed GSIS/AASIS significantly. Chronic (48 h, 0.4 mM) palmitate treatment blunted glucose/AA-induced activation of CaMKII and ERK and caused a concomitant reduction (~75%) in GSIS/AASIS and autocrine-dependent activation of PKB. This inhibition could not be attributed to enhanced mitochondrial fatty acid uptake/oxidation or ceramide synthesis, which were unaffected by palmitate. In contrast, diacylglycerol synthesis was elevated suggesting increased palmitate esterification rather than oxidation may contribute to impaired stimulus-secretion coupling. Consistent with this, 2-bromopalmitate, a non-oxidisable palmitate analogue, inhibited GSIS as effectively as palmitate. Our results exclude changes in ceramide content or mitochondrial fatty acid handling as factors initiating palmitate-induced defects in insulin release from MIN6 β cells, but suggest that reduced CaMKII and ERK activation associated with palmitate overload may contribute to impaired stimulus-induced insulin secretion.

  14. Chronic Effects of Palmitate Overload on Nutrient-Induced Insulin Secretion and Autocrine Signalling in Pancreatic MIN6 Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Maria L.; Macrae, Katherine; Marley, Anna E.; Hundal, Harinder S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Sustained exposure of pancreatic β cells to an increase in saturated fatty acids induces pleiotropic effects on β-cell function, including a reduction in stimulus-induced insulin secretion. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic over supply of palmitate upon glucose- and amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS and AASIS, respectively) and autocrine-dependent insulin signalling with particular focus on the importance of ceramide, ERK and CaMKII signalling. Principal Findings GSIS and AASIS were both stimulated by >7-fold resulting in autocrine-dependent activation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt). Insulin release was dependent upon nutrient-induced activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) as their pharmacological inhibition suppressed GSIS/AASIS significantly. Chronic (48 h, 0.4 mM) palmitate treatment blunted glucose/AA-induced activation of CaMKII and ERK and caused a concomitant reduction (∼75%) in GSIS/AASIS and autocrine-dependent activation of PKB. This inhibition could not be attributed to enhanced mitochondrial fatty acid uptake/oxidation or ceramide synthesis, which were unaffected by palmitate. In contrast, diacylglycerol synthesis was elevated suggesting increased palmitate esterification rather than oxidation may contribute to impaired stimulus-secretion coupling. Consistent with this, 2-bromopalmitate, a non-oxidisable palmitate analogue, inhibited GSIS as effectively as palmitate. Conclusions Our results exclude changes in ceramide content or mitochondrial fatty acid handling as factors initiating palmitate-induced defects in insulin release from MIN6 β cells, but suggest that reduced CaMKII and ERK activation associated with palmitate overload may contribute to impaired stimulus-induced insulin secretion. PMID:21998735

  15. Pharmacological properties of beta-amyrin palmitate, a novel centrally acting compound, isolated from Lobelia inflata leaves.

    PubMed

    Subarnas, A; Tadano, T; Oshima, Y; Kisara, K; Ohizumi, Y

    1993-06-01

    Effects of beta-amyrin palmitate isolated from the leaves of Lobelia inflata were studied on the central nervous system of mice and were compared with those of antidepressant drugs, mianserin and imipramine. In the forced swimming test, beta-amyrin palmitate, like mianserin and imipramine, reduced the duration of immobility of mice significantly in a dose-dependent manner (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1). beta-Amyrin palmitate (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) or mianserin (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) elicited a dose-related reduction in locomotor activity of mice and antagonized locomotor stimulation induced by methamphetamine. In contrast, imipramine (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) increased locomotor activity and potentiated methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity. beta-Amyrin palmitate showed no effect on reserpine-induced hypothermia, whilst mianserin (10 mg kg-1) and imipramine (10 and 20 mg kg-1) antagonized the reserpine-induced effect. Unlike imipramine, beta-amyrin palmitate and mianserin did not affect haloperidol-induced catalepsy, tetrabenazine-induced ptosis and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. beta-Amyrin palmitate and imipramine had no effects on the head-twitch response induced by 5-hydroxytryptophan, whereas mianserin (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) decreased it in a dose-dependent manner. A potentiating effect of beta-amyrin palmitate (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) on narcosis induced by sodium pentobarbitone was stronger than that of imipramine (10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1) but weaker than that of mianserin (2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg-1). These results suggest that beta-amyrin palmitate has similar properties in some respects to mianserin and might possess a sedative action.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Effect of stearic acid-grafted starch compatibilizer on properties of linear low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch blown film.

    PubMed

    Khanoonkon, Nattaporn; Yoksan, Rangrong; Ogale, Amod A

    2016-02-10

    The present work aims to investigate the effect of stearic acid-grafted starch (ST-SA) on the rheological, thermal, optical, dynamic mechanical thermal, and tensile properties of linear low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch (LLDPE/TPS) blends, as well as on their water vapor and oxygen barrier properties. Blends consisting of LLDPE and TPS in a weight ratio of 60:40 and ST-SA at different concentrations, i.e. 1, 3 and 5%, were prepared using a twin-screw extruder. The obtained resins were subsequently converted into films via blown film extrusion. Incorporation of ST-SA resulted in a decreased degree of shear thinning, reduced ambient temperature elasticity, and improved tensile strength, secant modulus, extensibility, and UV absorption, as well as diminished water vapor and oxygen permeabilities of the LLDPE/TPS blend. These effects are attributed to the enhanced interfacial adhesion between LLDPE and TPS phases through the compatibilizing effect induced by ST-SA, and the good dispersion of the TPS phase in the LLDPE matrix. The results confirmed that ST-SA could potentially be used as a compatibilizer for the LLDPE/TPS blend system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chitosan-Stearic Acid Based Polymeric Micelles for the Effective Delivery of Tamoxifen: Cytotoxic and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Thotakura, Nagarani; Dadarwal, Mukesh; Kumar, Pramod; Sharma, Gajanand; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Bhushan, Shashi; Raza, Kaisar; Katare, Om Prakash

    2017-04-01

    Chitosan is a widely employed polysaccharide with positive zeta-potential and better tissue/cell adhesion. Its hydrophilicity, high viscosity, and insolubility at physiological pH are major hurdles in proper utilization of this macromolecule. Therefore, it was conjugated with biocompatible stearic acid and the conjugate was employed to develop polymeric micelles for delivery of tamoxifen to breast cancer cells. The conjugate was characterized by FT-IR and NMR, and the nanocarrier was characterized for micromeritics, surface charge, drug loading, and morphological attributes. The efficacy was evaluated by in vitro MTT studies, safety by erythrocyte compatibility, and biodistribution by in vivo pharmacokinetic studies. Despite better drug loading and sustained drug release, cytotoxicity on MCF-7 breast cancer cells was substantially enhanced and the pharmacokinetic profile was significantly modified. The AUC was enhanced manifolds along with reduced clearance. The findings are unique and provide an alternative to the conventional lipid-based nanocarriers for better dose delivery, tissue adhesion, and desired pharmacokinetic modulation.

  18. Effects of ultrasound treatment on lipid self-association and properties of methylcellulose/stearic acid blending films.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tian; Huang, Ran; Sui, Siyao; Lian, Zixuan; Sun, Xiuxiu; Wan, Ajun; Li, Huili

    2015-10-20

    The effects of ultrasound treatment (UT) on the properties of methylcellulose (MC)/stearic acid (SA) blending films were studied. Film-forming emulsions were prepared with different UT conditions and characterized with respect to viscosity. The lipid aggregation and distribution in the blending dispersions were studied by the micrographs of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The micrographs of both surface and cross-section of the films were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (E), water vapor permeability (WVP) and contact angles of the resulting films were determined as well. The intensification of the UT condition led to a decrease of viscosity of the MC-SA blending emulsions, a more homogeneous lipid distribution and a denser internal microstructure of the resulting films. UT exposure affected the mechanical, moisture barrier and surface hydrophobic properties. The optimal values of both TS and E was obtained from the sample treated for 10min and 180W power, while the sample treated for 10min and 270W presented the lowest value of WVP. However, an excessive exposure of UT led to a decrease of the mechanical and moisture barrier performance. By observing and analyzing the SEM graphs and the contact angles of the film surfaces, it was found that UT within the appropriate bounds had a notably positive effect on improving the surface hydrophobic property of the MC-SA blending films. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of rice starch-ι-carrageenan biodegradable edible film. Effect of stearic acid on the film properties.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Rahul; Saberi, Bahareh; Pristijono, Penta; Golding, John; Stathopoulos, Costas; Scarlett, Christopher; Bowyer, Michael; Vuong, Quan

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop rice starch (RS), ι-carrageenan (ι-car) based film. Different formulations of RS (1-4%, w/w), ι-car (0.5-2%, w/w) was blended with stearic acid (SA; 0.3-0.9%, w/w) and glycerol (1%, w/w) as a plasticizer. The effect of film ingredients on the thickness, water vapour permeability (WVP), film solubility (FS), moisture content (MC), colour, film opacity (FO), tensile strength (TS), elongation-at-break (EAB) of film was examined. Interactions and miscibility of partaking components was studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Hydrocolloid suspension solution of mix polysaccharides imparted a significant impact (p<0.05) on the important attributes of resulting edible film. TS and EAB of film were improved significantly (p<0.05) when ι-car was increased in the film matrix. Formulation F1 comprising 2% ι-car, 2% RS, 0.3% SA, Gly 30% w/w and 0.2% surfactant (tween(®)20) provided film with good physical, mechanical and barrier properties. FT-IR and XRD results reveal that molecular interactions between RS-ι-car have a great impact on the film properties confining the compatibility and miscibility of mixed polysaccharide. Results of the study offers new biodegradable formulation for application on fruit and vegetables.

  20. Characterising the phase behaviour of stearic acid and its triethanolamine soap and acid-soap by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pudney, Paul D A; Mutch, Kevin J; Zhu, Shiping

    2009-07-07

    The behaviour of stearic acid neutralised by triethanolamine to form soap and its acid-soap has been examined by infrared spectroscopy. It was found that not only could the neutralisation behaviour be characterised, but the thermotropic behaviour could also be followed. The neutralisation confirmed the formation of a fixed stoichiometeric ratio, 2 : 1, acid-soap. When following the thermotropic behaviour the break up of the acid-soap could be followed along with various disordering and melting transitions of the alkyl chain tail. This allowed all the thermal transitions that have been observed to be characterised in terms of the type of molecular rearrangement that was occurring and also the transition temperature at which they occurred. This allowed the binary phase diagram to be plotted and understood for this system. This is the first time IR has been used to measure a whole phase diagram of this type. The nature of the acid-soap complex itself was also characterised, with very short hydrogen bonds being present as well as a free, non-hydrogen bonded, hydroxyl group.

  1. Preparation of porous monolayer film by immersing the stearic acid Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer on mica in salt solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Li, Y. L.; Zhao, H. L.; Liang, H.; Liu, B.; Pan, S.

    2012-11-01

    Porous materials have drawn attention from scientists in many fields such as life sciences, catalysis and photonics since they can be used to induce some materials growth as expected. Especially, porous Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film is an ideal material with controlled thickness and flat surface. In this paper, stearic acid (SA), which has been extensively explored in LB film technique, is chosen as the template material with known parameters to prepare the LB film, and then the porous SA monolayer film is obtained by means of etching in salt solution. The main etching mechanism is suggested that the cations in the solution block the electrostatic interaction between the polar carboxyl group of SA and the electronegative mica surface. The influencing factors (such as concentration of salt solution, valence of cation and surface pressure) of the porous SA film are systematically studied in this work. The novel method proposed in this paper makes it convenient to prepare porous monolayer film for designed material growth or cell culture.

  2. Better latent heat and specific heat of stearic acid with magnetite/graphene nanocomposite addition for thermal storage application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andiarto, R.; Nuryadin, M. K.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.

    2017-04-01

    In our previous study, the addition of Magnetite (Fe3O4) into Stearic acid (Sa) as an organic phase change material (PCM) shows an enhancement in the latent heat for thermal energy storage applications. The latent heat of the PCM can also be increased by adding graphene material. Therefore, in this research, the thermal properties of Sa have been studied by the sonication method for several different concentrations of Fe3O4/Graphene nanocomposite additions. The structural properties of all of the samples were observed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD). Melting-solidifying behavior and specific heat value were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal degradation process of all samples was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Based on the DSC results, the presence of Fe3O4/Graphene in the Sa enhances the latent heat up to 20%. The specific heat value of the mixture was also found to be increased as the concentration of Fe3O4/Graphene to Sa increased. The TGA results show a lowered thermal degradation process of the Sa by the addition of the Fe3O4/Graphene which indicates a higher thermal stability of the mixture. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the addition of Fe3O4/Graphene to Sa improves both the sensible heat and the latent heat of the mixture which are very important for thermal energy storage applications

  3. Investigation of cutaneous penetration properties of stearic acid loaded to dendritic core-multi-shell (CMS) nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Lohan, S B; Icken, N; Teutloff, C; Saeidpour, S; Bittl, R; Lademann, J; Fleige, E; Haag, R; Haag, S F; Meinke, M C

    2016-03-30

    Dendritic core-multi shell (CMS) particles are polymer based systems consisting of a dendritic polar polyglycerol polymer core surrounded by a two-layer shell of nonpolar C18 alkyl chains and hydrophilic polyethylene glycol. Belonging to nanotransport systems (NTS) they allow the transport and storage of molecules with different chemical characters. Their amphipihilic character CMS-NTS permits good solubility in aqueous and organic solutions. We showed by multifrequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy that spin-labeled 5-doxyl stearic acid (5DSA) can be loaded into the CMS-NTS. Furthermore, the release of 5DSA from the carrier into the stratum corneum of porcine skin was monitored ex vivo by EPR spectroscopy. Additionally, the penetration of the CMS-NTS into the skin was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy using indocarbocyanine (ICC) covalently bound to the nanocarrier. Thereby, no transport into the viable skin was observed, whereas the CMS-NTS had penetrated into the hair follicles down to a depth of 340 μm ± 82 μm. Thus, it could be shown that the combined application of fluorescence microscopy and multi-frequency EPR spectroscopy can be an efficient tool for investigating the loading of spin labeled drugs to nanocarrier systems, drug release and penetration into the skin as well as the localization of the NTS in the skin.

  4. Solvent-free acid-catalyzed ring-opening of epoxidized oleochemicals using stearates/stearic acid, and its applications.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Byung-Jun Kollbe; Kraft, Stefan; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2012-03-07

    Toxic solvent and strong acid catalysts causing environmental issues have been mainly used for ring-opening of epoxidized oleochemicals. Here, we demonstrated that magnesium stearate (Mg-stearate) was a high efficient catalyst for solvent-free ring-opening of epoxidized methyl oleate, a model compound of midchain epoxide. Mg-stearate resulted in the highest yield (95%) and conversion rate (99%) toward midchain alkoxyesters under the same conditions (160 °C, 12 h) superior to other fatty acid derivatives such as a Lewis acid (lithium and sodium stearate) and Brønsted acid (stearic acid). Based on this chemical study, we synthesized biogrease and thermoplastic using epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) and Mg-stearate via one-pot, solvent-free, and purification-free process. Mg-stearate played a significant role as a reactant for epoxide ring-opening and as a thickener when excess loading rate was used; viscosity increased from 1800 to 4500 Pa·s at 25 °C when ESO:Mg-stearate increased from 1:1 equiv to 1:2, then behaved like thermoplastics (T(g) = -27 °C, T(m) = 90 °C) with 1:4.

  5. Increased incorporation of /sup 14/C-palmitate into tissue lipids by isolated heart myocytes in endotoxic shock

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The incorporation of /sup 14/C-palmitate into various classes of tissue lipids by isolated adult dog heart myocytes was studied in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of myocardial dysfunction during endotoxic shock. The results showed that the incorporation of /sup 14/C-palmitate into phospholipids was increased by 85.3% and 108.8% at 0.5 hours and two hours, respectively, following endotoxin (0.5 mg Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide B per kg body weight) administration. Incorporation of radioactive palmitate into triglycerides was increased by 50.9% and 107.2% at 0.5 and two hours, respectively, postendotoxin. Incorporation of /sup 14/C-palmitate into diglycerides was stimulated by 51.9% and 64.5% at 0.5 and two hours, respectively, after endotoxin injection. The incorporation of /sup 14/C-palmitate into tissue-free fatty acids and unaltered at 0.5 hours but it was increased by 211.7% at two hours postendotoxin. These data demonstrated that myocardial membrane lipid profile was greatly altered by increased incorporation of /sup 14/C-palmitate into phospholipids and neutral lipids after endotoxin administration. An alteration in myocardial lipid profile, as reported in this study, may contribute to the development of myocardial dysfunction during shock.

  6. CD36 is upregulated in mice with periodontitis and metabolic syndrome and involved in macrophage gene upregulation by palmitate.

    PubMed

    Lu, Z; Li, Y; Brinson, C W; Kirkwood, K L; Lopes-Virella, M F; Huang, Y

    2017-03-01

    We reported that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MetS) exacerbates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated periodontitis and palmitate, the major saturated fatty acid in the HFD, amplified LPS-stimulated gene expression in vitro. As CD36 is a major receptor for fatty acids, we investigated periodontal CD36 expression in mice with periodontitis and MetS, and the role of CD36 in inflammatory gene expression in macrophages stimulated by palmitate. MetS and periodontitis were induced in mice by HFD and periodontal injection of LPS, respectively. The periodontal CD36 expression and its relationship with alveolar bone loss were studied using immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and correlation analysis. The role of CD36 in upregulation of inflammatory mediators by LPS and palmitate in macrophages was assessed using pharmacological inhibitor and small interfering RNA. Periodontal CD36 expression was higher in mice with both MetS and periodontitis than that in mice with periodontitis or MetS alone and was correlated with osteoclastogenesis and alveolar bone loss. In vitro studies showed that CD36 expression in macrophages was upregulated by LPS and palmitate, and targeting CD36 attenuated palmitate-enhanced gene expression. CD36 expression is upregulated in mice with periodontitis and MetS and involved in gene expression in macrophages stimulated by palmitate and LPS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Presence of Cysteine in the Cytoplasmic Domain of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Glycoprotein is Required for Palmitate Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, John K.; Adams, Gregg A.; Gallione, Carol J.

    1984-04-01

    The transmembrane glycoprotein (G protein) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is known to contain 1-2 mol of covalently linked fatty acid (palmitate) per mol of protein. G protein is oriented in cellular membranes such that the carboxyl-terminal 29 amino acids protrude into the cytoplasm. We have obtained expression in eukaryotic cells of mutagenized cDNA clones that encode VSV G proteins lacking portions of this cytoplasmic domain. Labeling of these truncated proteins with [3H]palmitate indicated that the palmitate might be linked to an amino acid residue within the first 14 residues on the carboxyl-terminal side of the transmembrane domain. Using oligonucleotide directed mutagenesis, we changed the single codon specifying cysteine in this domain to a codon specifying serine. Expression of this mutant gene results in synthesis of a G protein lacking palmitate. We suggest that linkage of palmitate to G protein is through the cysteine in the cytoplasmic domain and that such a linkage may occur in many viral and cellular glycoproteins. The G protein lacking palmitate is glycosylated and is transported normally to the cell surface.

  8. Molecular characterization of two high-palmitic-acid mutant loci induced by X-ray irradiation in soybean.

    PubMed

    Anai, Toyoaki; Hoshino, Tomoki; Imai, Naoko; Takagi, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Palmitic acid is the most abundant (approx. 11% of total fatty acids) saturated fatty acid in conventional soybean seed oil. Increasing the saturated acid content of soybean oil improves its oxidative stability and plasticity. We have developed three soybean mutants with high palmitic acid content by X-ray irradiation. In this study, we successfully identified the mutated sites of two of these high-palmitic-acid mutants, J10 and M22. PCR-based mutant analysis revealed that J10 has a 206,203-bp-long deletion that includes the GmKASIIA gene and 16 other predicted genes, and M22 has a 26-bp-long deletion in the sixth intron of GmKASIIB. The small deletion in M22 causes mis-splicing of GmKASIIB transcripts, which should result in nonfunctional products. In addition, we designed co-dominant marker sets for these mutant alleles and confirmed the association of genotypes and palmitic acid contents in F(2) seeds of J10 X M22. This information will be useful in breeding programs to develop novel soybean cultivars with improved palmitic acid content. However, in the third mutant, KK7, we found no polymorphism in either GmKASIIA or GmKASIIB, which suggests that several unknown genes in addition to GmKASIIA and GmKASIIB may be involved in elevating the palmitic acid content of soybean seed oil.

  9. Fatty Acid Chain Elongation in Palmitate-perfused Working Rat Heart

    PubMed Central

    Kerner, Janos; Minkler, Paul E.; Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Rat hearts were perfused with [1,2,3,4-13C4]palmitic acid (M+4), and the isotopic patterns of myocardial acylcarnitines and acyl-CoAs were analyzed using ultra-HPLC-MS/MS. The 91.2% 13C enrichment in palmitoylcarnitine shows that little endogenous (M+0) palmitate contributed to its formation. The presence of M+2 myristoylcarnitine (95.7%) and M+2 acetylcarnitine (19.4%) is evidence for β-oxidation of perfused M+4 palmitic acid. Identical enrichment data were obtained in the respective acyl-CoAs. The relative 13C enrichment in M+4 (84.7%, 69.9%) and M+6 (16.2%, 17.8%) stearoyl- and arachidylcarnitine, respectively, clearly shows that the perfused palmitate is chain-elongated. The observed enrichment of 13C in acetylcarnitine (19%), M+6 stearoylcarnitine (16.2%), and M+6 arachidylcarnitine (17.8%) suggests that the majority of two-carbon units for chain elongation are derived from β-oxidation of [1,2,3,4-13C4]palmitic acid. These data are explained by conversion of the M+2 acetyl-CoA to M+2 malonyl-CoA, which serves as the acceptor for M+4 palmitoyl-CoA in chain elongation. Indeed, the 13C enrichment in mitochondrial acetyl-CoA (18.9%) and malonyl-CoA (19.9%) are identical. No 13C enrichment was found in acylcarnitine species with carbon chain lengths between 4 and 12, arguing against the simple reversal of fatty acid β-oxidation. Furthermore, isolated, intact rat heart mitochondria 1) synthesize malonyl-CoA with simultaneous inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b and 2) catalyze the palmitoyl-CoA-dependent incorporation of 14C from [2-14C]malonyl-CoA into lipid-soluble products. In conclusion, rat heart has the capability to chain-elongate fatty acids using mitochondria-derived two-carbon chain extenders. The data suggest that the chain elongation process is localized on the outer surface of the mitochondrial outer membrane. PMID:24558043

  10. Oleic acid-grafted chitosan/graphene oxide composite coating for corrosion protection of carbon steel.

    PubMed

    Fayyad, Eman M; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Al-Maadeed, Mariam Al Ali

    2016-10-20

    An anticorrosion coating film based on the formation of nanocomposite coating is reported in this study. The composite consisted of chitosan (green matrix), oleic acid, and graphene oxide (nano filler). The nanocomposite coating was arranged on the surface of carbon steel, and the corrosion resistance was monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP). Compared to the pure chitosan (CS) coating, the corrosion resistance of oleic acid-modified chitosan/graphene oxide film (CS/GO-OA) is increased by 100 folds. Since the well-dispersed smart grafted nanolayers delayed the penetration rate of corrosive species and thus maintained long term anticorrosive stability which is correlated with hydrophobicity and permeability.

  11. Facile synthesis and shape evolution of oleic acid decorated Cu2O microcrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Cao, Xiaohai; Zhu, Bingchun; Lou, Baiyang; Ma, Xiaocun; Li, Xiao; Wang, Yuguang

    2015-11-01

    A facile synthetic method of oleic acid decorated Cu2O microcrystals has been developed by thermal decomposition of copper formate-octylamine complexes in paraffin using oleic acid as dispersing agent. This new method showed many advantages, which include free-reducing agent, enhancing antioxidant properties of Cu2O and good dispersity in paraffin, etc. The phase structure and morphology were investigated by means of XRD, SEM and TEM. It is found that the reaction time and temperature play the important roles in the crystallite morphology. With the increase of the reaction time, the Cu2O rhombic dodecahedron is gradually transformed into the spherical particle by intraparticle ripening. The shape evolution of Cu2O microcrystals can be accelerated with the increase of temperature.

  12. Tensile properties and water absorption of zein sheets plasticized with oleic and linoleic acids.

    PubMed

    Budi Santosa, F X; Padua, G W

    1999-05-01

    Corn zein has been investigated for fabrication of biodegradable packaging materials. Our objective was to investigate the effect of added plasticizers, oleic and linoleic acids, on tensile properties and water absorption of zein sheets. Moldable resins were precipitated from aqueous ethanol dispersions of zein and fatty acids and rolled into sheets of approximately 0.5 mm in thickness. To increase plasticization effects, zein-oleic acid sheets were replasticized by heating them in fatty acid baths. Plasticization resulted in flexible sheets of high clarity, low modulus, and high elongation and toughness, although low tensile strength. Water absorption of zein sheets was lowered by plasticization, attributed in part to reduced mass fraction of zein. Polymerization of linoleic acid may have sealed off pores on sheet surfaces, thus slowing water absorption.

  13. A two-stage enzymatic process for synthesis of extremely pure high oleic glycerol monooleate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qisi; Li, Tie; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Bo; Ma, Yongjun

    2011-02-08

    This paper presents a research interest concentrating on aims to establish a feasible industrial process for enzymatic production of highly pure glycerol monooleate (GMO). The synthesis of high oleic glycerol monooleate by enzymatic glycerolysis of high oleic sunflower oil, using Novozyme 435 as the biocatalyst, in a binary solvent mixture of tert-butanol and tert-pentanol (80/20, v/v), at a lab scale has been studied. A yield of 75.31% monoacylglycerol has been achieved at the first stage. A yield of 93.3% GMO was finally reached after further purification at the second stage. To evaluate the possibility of the process for industrialization, production of GMO was performed at a pilot-plant scale under the correspondingly adjusted conditions. A yield of 68.17% and 93.4% of GMO was obtained, respectively, at the end of the three stages.

  14. Enhanced comedo formation in rabbit ear skin by squalene and oleic acid peroxides.

    PubMed

    Motoyoshi, K

    1983-08-01

    The comedogenicity of UVA-irradiated and non-irradiated substances (squalene, oleic acid, tetradecane, isopropyl myristate, squalane and liquid paraffin) was evaluated by surface microscopy and histological examination after treating the ventral skin of rabbit ears with these substances. The lipid peroxide levels of these substances were also measured. Squalene itself was scarcely comedogenic but squalene peroxides were highly comedogenic. Both oleic acid and its peroxides were able to induce fairly large comedones and there was a good correlation between the lipid peroxide levels and the size of the comedones. The specimens biopsied from these comedones showed marked hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis of the epithelium in the follicular infundibulum and marked proliferation of the sebaceous glands. Although free fatty acids might play a role in the pathogenesis of acne, it is proposed that squalene and free fatty acids in sebum may be less comedogenic than their peroxides.

  15. A review of the nutritional composition, organoleptic characteristics and biological effects of the high oleic peanut.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, E J

    2014-11-01

    A growing body of literature has been published on the health benefits of peanuts, but the potential biological effects of high-oleic (HO) peanuts, along with their organoleptic characteristics have not been reviewed to date. In this paper, examination of evidence showed that HO peanuts provide a spectrum of nutrients and have improved sensory properties and technological advances, such as enhanced shelf life, beyond that of conventional peanuts. This may be attributed to their oleic to linoleic ratio (OL ratio) which is substantially (around 10 times) higher than normal peanuts. In terms of their biological effects, HO peanuts appear to be no more allergenic, and could even be less allergenic than conventional peanuts. There is also emerging evidence that HO peanuts may improve lipid profile and markers of glycemic control. Further randomized controlled human trials are now needed to build on animal and in vitro studies.

  16. Observations of a high-pressure phase creation in oleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kościesza, R.; Kulisiewicz, L.; Delgado, A.

    2010-03-01

    Oleic acid is one of the unsaturated fatty acids which frequently appears in food products such as edible fats and oils. A molecule of oleic acid possesses a double carbon bond, C=C, which is responsible for a transition to a new phase when pressure is applied. This work presents the results of optical observations of such a transition. The observations were made in two cases, the first being static p-T conditions under 60 MPa at 20°C and the other the dynamic application of the pressure up to 350 MPa. The obtained visualization reveals differences in the creation of the phase and in its further appearance. Some crystal forms may be recognized. These results tend to be of interest for food engineers due to increasing interest in high-pressure food preservation among nutritionists and medical scientists concerned with fatty acids.

  17. Oleic acid content of a meal promotes oleoylethanolamide response and reduces subsequent energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Ilario; Savarese, Maria; Ferracane, Rosalia; Sacchi, Raffaele; Vitaglione, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Animal data suggest that dietary fat composition may influence endocannabinoid (EC) response and dietary behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that fatty acid composition of a meal can influence the short-term response of ECs and subsequent energy intake in humans. Fifteen volunteers on three occasions were randomly offered a meal containing 30 g of bread and 30 mL of one of three selected oils: sunflower oil (SO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and virgin olive oil (VOO). Plasma EC concentrations and appetite ratings over 2 h and energy intake over 24 h following the experimental meal were measured. Results showed that after HOSO and VOO consumption the circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) was significantly higher than after SO consumption; a concomitantly significant reduction of energy intake was found. For the first time the oleic acid content of a meal was demonstrated to increase the post-prandial response of circulating OEA and to reduce energy intake at subsequent meals in humans.

  18. Characterization of the oleic acid/iron oxide nanoparticle interface by magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masur, S.; Zingsem, B.; Marzi, T.; Meckenstock, R.; Farle, M.

    2016-10-01

    The synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles involves surfactant molecules, which bind to the particle surface and stabilize nanoparticles against aggregation. In many cases these protecting shells also can be used for further functionalization. In this study, we investigated monodisperse single crystalline iron oxide core/shell nanoparticles (FexOy-NPs) in situ covered with an oleic acid layer which showed two electron spin resonance (ESR) signals. The nanoparticles with the ligands attached were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ferro- and paramagnetic resonance (FMR, EPR). Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the functional groups and revealed that the oleic acid (OA) is chemisorbed as a carboxylate on the iron oxide and is coordinated symmetrically to the oxide atoms. We show that the EPR signal of the OA ligand molecule can be used as a local probe to determine the temperature changes at the surface of the nanoparticle.

  19. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... amounts of stearic or oleic acid as lubricants. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with bronze... that such impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Stearic or oleic acid, not...

  20. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amounts of stearic or oleic acid as lubricants. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with bronze... that such impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Stearic or oleic acid, not...

  1. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... amounts of stearic or oleic acid as lubricants. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with bronze... that such impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Stearic or oleic acid, not...

  2. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amounts of stearic or oleic acid as lubricants. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with bronze... that such impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Stearic or oleic acid, not...

  3. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... amounts of stearic or oleic acid as lubricants. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with bronze... that such impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Stearic or oleic acid, not...

  4. Analysis of sterols and fatty acids in natural and cultured Cordyceps by one-step derivatization followed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, F Q; Feng, K; Zhao, J; Li, S P

    2009-07-12

    Ten free fatty acids namely lauric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, docosanoic acid and lignoceric acid and four free sterols including ergosterol, cholesterol, campesterol and beta-sitosterol in natural (wild) Cordyceps sinensis, Cordyceps liangshanensis and Cordyceps gunnii, as well as cultured C. sinensis and Cordyceps militaris were first determined using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatization and GC-MS analysis. The conditions such as the amount of reagent, temperature and time for TMS derivatization of analytes were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, all calibration curves showed good linearity within the tested ranges. The intra- and inter-day variations for 14 investigated compounds were less than 3.4% and 5.2%, respectively. The results showed that palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid and ergosterol are main components in natural and cultured Cordyceps which could be discriminated by hierarchical clustering analysis based on the contents of 14 investigated compounds or the 4 fatty acids, where the contents of palmitic acid and oleic acid in natural Cordyceps are significantly higher than those in the cultured ones.

  5. Ozone oxidation of oleic acid surface films decreases aerosol cloud condensation nuclei activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwier, A. N.; Sareen, N.; Lathem, T. L.; Nenes, A.; McNeill, V. F.

    2011-08-01

    Heterogeneous oxidation of aerosols composed of pure oleic acid (C18H34O2, an unsaturated fatty acid commonly found in continental and marine aerosol) by gas-phase O3 is known to increase aerosol hygroscopicity and activity as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Whether this trend is preserved when the oleic acid is internally mixed with other electrolytes is unknown and addressed in this study. We quantify the CCN activity of sodium salt aerosols (NaCl and Na2SO4) internally mixed with sodium oleate (SO) and oleic acid (OA). We find that particles containing roughly one monolayer of SO/OA show similar CCN activity to pure salt particles, whereas a tenfold increase in organic concentration slightly depresses CCN activity. O3 oxidation of these multicomponent aerosols has little effect on the critical diameter for CCN activation for unacidified particles at all conditions studied, and the activation kinetics of the CCN are similar in each case to those of pure salts. SO-containing particles which are acidified to atmospherically relevant pH before analysis in order to form oleic acid, however, show depressed CCN activity upon oxidation. This effect is more pronounced at higher organic concentrations. The behavior after oxidation is consistent with the disappearance of the organic surface film, supported by Köhler Theory Analysis (KTA). The κ-Köhler calculations show a small decrease in hygroscopicity after oxidation. The important implication of this finding is that oxidative aging may not always enhance the hygroscopicity of internally mixed inorganic-organic aerosols.

  6. Design and evaluation of Lumefantrine – Oleic acid self nanoemulsifying ionic complex for enhanced dissolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lumefantrine, an antimalarial molecule has very low and variable bioavailability owing to its extremely poor solubility in water. It is recommended to be taken with milk to enhance its solubility and bioavailability. The aim of present study was to develop a Self Nanoemulsifying Delivery system (SNEDs) of lumefantrine (LF) to achieve rapid and complete dissolution independent of food-fat and surfactant in dissolution media. Methods Solubility of LF in oil, co-solvent/co-surfactant and surfactant solution and emulsification efficiency of surfactant were analyzed to optimize the LF loaded self nanoemulsifying preconcentrate. Effect of LF-oleic acid complexation on emulsification, droplet size, zeta potential and dissolution were investigated. Effect of milk concentration and fat content on saturation solubility and dissolution of LF was investigated. Dissolution of marketed formulation and LF-SNEDs was carried out in pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. Results LF exhibited very high solubility in oleic acid owing to complexation between tertiary amine of LF and carboxyl group of oleic acid (OA). Cremophore EL and medium chain monoglyceride were selected surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. Significantly smaller droplet size (37 nm), shift in zeta potential from negative to positive value, very high drug loading in lipid based system (> 10%), no precipitation after dissolution are the major distinguish characteristics contributed by LF-OA complex in the SNED system. Saturation solubility and dissolution study in milk containing media pointed the significant increment in solubility of LF in the presence of milk-food fat. LF-SNEDs showed > 90% LF release within 30 min in pH 1.2 while marketed tablet showed almost 0% drug release. Conclusion Self nanoemulsification promoting ionic complexation between basic drug and oleic acid hold great promise in enhancing solubility of hydrophobic drugs. PMID:23531442

  7. Effect of oleic, lauric and myristic acids on phenylephrine-induced contractions of isolated rat vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Arruzazabala, M L; Pérez, Y; Ravelo, Y; Molina, V; Carbajal, D; Mas, R; Rodríguez, E

    2011-09-01

    D-004, a lipid extract of Roystonea regia fruits that contains oleic, lauric and myristic acids as major components inhibits alpha1-adrenoreceptors-mediated contractile responses in isolated rat vas deferens and prostate trips; no study has demonstrated a similar effect for oleic, lauric or myristic acids individually. Therefore, the effects of D-004 (250 microg/mL), oleic (100 microg/mL), lauric (50 microg/mL) or myristic (25 microg/mL) acids and their combined effects on phenylephrine (PHE: 10(-7)-10(-4) mol/L) induced contractions has been studied. No treatment changed the basal tone of the preparations, but all inhibited PHE-induced contractions. D-004 produced the highest inhibition, followed by lauric acid, which was more effective than myristic and oleic acids against PHE-induced contractions of control group. D-004 and the mixture of the three acids produced similar inhibitions.

  8. Biodiesel Production by Catalytic Esterification of Oleic Acid over Copper (II)-Alginate Complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuyun; Wei, Fangfang; Zhang, Yutao; Wei, Fuhua; Ma, Peihua; Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Yongting; Chen, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    A systematic study on copper (II)-alginate beads as catalysts for the synthesis of biodiesel via esterification of oleic acid and methanol is here reported for the first time. The chemical structure and morphologies of these catalysts were fully characterized by XRD, FT-IR, and SEM. The copper (II)-alginate beads showed a tubular structure with entangled reticulation. In the presence of copper (II)-alginate catalyst, the biodiesel conversion of 71.8% was achieved from oleic acid with methanol under the most mild conditions (1/10 oleic acid to methanol molar ratio, 250 mg catalyst, 70°C for 3 h), optimized by single-factor experiments. The catalyst could be easily separated from the reaction mixture and stabilized for a certain time. This material can also catalyze other esterification of fatty acids with different carbon chain lengths, as well as the pretreatment of non-edible oils with high acid value. Our findings showed that the copper (II)-alginate is a suitable catalyst for esterification and would provide more choices for industrial application in the future.

  9. Relative effects of dietary oleic- and linoleic-rich oils on plasma lipoprotein composition in rats.

    PubMed

    Ney, D M; Lasekan, J B; Kim, J

    1989-06-01

    Plasma lipoprotein composition and hepatic lipid content were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats (104 +/- 2 g) fed diets containing 12% olive oil [OO, 70% 18:1(n-9)], 12% high oleic safflower oil [SO, 70% 18:(ln-9)] or 12% high linoleic safflower oil [SL, 73% 18:2(n-6)] for periods of up to 10 wk. Fasting plasma triglycerides were significantly higher after feeding oleic-rich diets than after feeding SL for 3, 5 and 6 wk. At 6 wk VLDL triglycerides were two- to threefold higher in rats fed OO or SO than in those fed SL, but by 10 wk both plasma and VLDL triglycerides were similar. A greater proportion of HDL2 (diameter 8.0-12.1 nm), a lower proportion of HDL1 (diameter 12.2-17.0 nm) and lower HDL apo E content occurred in rats fed OO and SO than in those fed SL at both 6 and 10 wk. LDL and HDL protein and cholesterol concentrations were not different with feeding SO or SL. After 10 wk of feeding the experimental diets, rats fed OO had significantly lower HDL protein, cholesterol and apo E concentrations and significantly higher hepatic triglyceride content compared to rats fed SO or SL, P less than 0.05. These data suggest that HDL and hepatic lipid content are determined by some property of the dietary oil other than its oleic acid content.

  10. Results of fibre and toner flotation depending on oleic acid dosage.

    PubMed

    Trumic, Maja S; Trumic, Milan Z; Vujic, Bogdana; Andric, Ljubisa; Bogdanovic, Grozdanka

    2016-09-01

    The literature was reviewed with respect to deinking flotation methods with toner samples, specifically emphasizing the speciation of copy machine and laser printing, which produce an increasing quantity of paper that is difficult to recycle. Speciation here refers to the physical-chemical characteristics of the toner, which change because of the polymerization (fusion) and oxidation process, due to exposure to heat, light and oxygen (air) during the printing process. To simulate the deinking flotation, after the ideal disintegration process, samples of toner were prepared in order to provide free toner particles. Synthetic toner has iron content and the same physical-chemical features as free disintegrated printed toner particles.We report the toner (I) and fibre (Y) recovery and the brightness (B) of laboratory filter pads formed of deinked product as deinking efficiencies. The application of oleic acid as the collector in the flotation stage gives a better flotation recovery in alkaline than in acidic conditions. The highest brightness (BF = 93.66%) and flotation recoveries (I = 90, Y = 92.82%) were achieved during testing at an oleic acid concentration of 3.38·10(-6) mol l(-1), which is the lowest dose used. This makes the use of oleic acid economical and environmentally friendly.

  11. Enhancement of the oral bioavailability of cinnarizine in oleic acid in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Tokumura, T; Tsushima, Y; Tatsuishi, K; Kayano, M; Machida, Y; Nagai, T

    1987-04-01

    The present study was an attempt to develop a new dosage form of cinnarizine, which is slightly soluble in water, using lipid as a vehicle. The solubility of cinnarizine in several organic solvents was determined. It was found that cinnarizine dissolved well in oleic and linoleic acids. The bioavailability of cinnarizine from the oral administration of an oleic acid solution in a hard capsule was investigated and compared with that of a cinnarizine tablet, using beagle dogs. When cinnarizine was administered in a capsule, the bioavailability was greatly enhanced [i.e., the maximum concentration (Cmax) and AUC values were 2.9 and 4.0 times larger than those of a cinnarizine tablet, respectively]. Meanwhile, the tmax value (the time to reach Cmax) was unchanged. The absorption of cinnarizine from an oleic acid solution was considered to depend on the action of bile salts. This was supported by the results of a dissolution test using a bile salts solution as the dissolution test medium.

  12. Significant increase of oleic acid level in the wild species Lepidium campestre through direct gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Ivarson, Emelie; Ahlman, Annelie; Lager, Ida; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2016-10-01

    Simultaneous RNAi silencing of the FAD2 and FAE1 genes in the wild species Lepidium campestre improved the oil quality with 80 % oleic acid content compared to 11 % in wildtype. Field cress (Lepidium campestre) is a wild biennial species within the Brassicaceae family with desirable agronomic traits, thus being a good candidate for domestication into a new oilseed and catch crop. However, it has agronomic traits that need to be improved before it can become an economically viable species. One of such traits is the seed oil composition, which is not desirable either for food use or for industrial applications. In this study, we have, through metabolic engineering, altered the seed oil composition in field cress into a premium oil for food processing, industrial, or chemical industrial applications. Through seed-specific RNAi silencing of the field cress fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) and fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) genes, we have obtained transgenic lines with an oleic acid content increased from 11 % in the wildtype to over 80 %. Moreover, the oxidatively unstable linolenic acid was decreased from 40.4 to 2.6 %, and the unhealthy erucic acid was reduced from 20.3 to 0.1 %. The high oleic acid trait has been kept stable for three generations. This shows the possibility to use field cress as a platform for genetic engineering of oil compositions tailor-made for its end uses.

  13. Luminescence properties of LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles encapsulated by oleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaewoo; Lee, Jun-Hyung; An, Hyejin; Lee, Jungkuk; Park, Seong-Hee; Seo, Young-Soo; Miller, William H.

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • In-situ hydrophobization of water dispersible LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles was achieved. • Oleic acid surface modification of the nanoparticles was verified by IR spectra. • Quantum yields of LaF{sub 3}:Ce and OA-LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles were evaluated. • Quantum yields of LaF{sub 3}:Ce are strongly dependent on OA surface modification. - Abstract: Cerium ions doped lanthanum fluoride (LaF{sub 3}:Ce) nanopowder as well as LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanopowder whose surfaces was modified by oleic acid (OA) were synthesized by using an in-situ hydrothermal process under the various doping concentrations. Based on the XRD spectra and TEM images, it was confirmed that the crystalline structured hexagonal LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanopowder was synthesized. Oleic acid was efficient for conversion of the water dispersible LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles to hydrophobic ones. Surface modification was verified by FTIR absorption spectrum as well as TEM images, showing no agglomeration between 5 and 10 nm scaled particles. Photoluminescence based on 5d ⟶ 4f electronic transition of cerium ions excited at λ{sub ex} ∼256 nm for both neat and OA encapsulated LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles decreases as the cerium concentration increases, while the quantum yields of OA encapsulated nanoparticles were much lower than the neat particles due to low photon transmittance of OA at the range longer than ∼350 nm.

  14. [Effects of propofol pretreatment on endothelin in oleic acid-induced acute lung injury].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Jiménez, Claudia; Olmos-Zúñiga, Juan Raúl; Jasso-Victoria, Rogelio; Gaxiola-Gaxiola, Miguel; Baltazares-Lipp, Matilde; Sánchez-Arrozena, Lidia Saraí; Gutiérrez-González, Luis Horacio

    2012-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a pathological condition characterized by injury in the alveolar-capillary membrane that triggers local and systemic inflammation. Endothelin (ET) is a protein that regulates immune response and constricts blood vessels; when it is over-expressed, it may contribute to high blood pressure and lung injury. This work tries to determine if propofol may decrease hemodynamic, gasometric, microscopic, ET-1 plasmatic concentration, and immuno-histochemical alterations in an experimental model of oleic acid-induced acute lung injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Animals were classified into three groups (n = 6): group I was the control group; in group II, there was oleic acid-induced ALI with no treatment, and group III with propofol pre-treatment and oleic acid-induced ALI. All animals survived until the end of the study, and 100% of group II and group III developed ALI, with hemodynamic, gasometric and gravimetric alterations. However, group III showed less inflammatory infiltration and lower ET-1 expression in lung tissue. Pretreatment with propofol in a canine model of OA-induced ALI indicates that the drug has anti-inflammatory action, with a potential therapeutic role against progression of anti-inflammation and lung damage.

  15. Failure of various agents to decrease oleic acid pulmonary albumin leak.

    PubMed

    Sugerman, H J; Blocher, C R; Hirsch, J I; Strash, A M; Tatum, J L

    1983-05-01

    Computerized pulmonary gamma scintigraphy has been shown to be a sensitive technique for the measurement of albumin flux in oleic acid pulmonary microvascular injury. In this technique technetium-99m-tagged human serum albumin is administered intravenously and lung:heart radioactivity ratios are constructed. This ratio remains constant unless there is a net flux of albumin from the vascular space into the lung, when a rising ratio is seen, called the "slope of injury" or SI. Gamma scintigraphy provides a method to rapidly screen the ability of various possible therapeutic agents to reduce the flux of albumin in experimental ARDS. In this study, 0.05 ml/kg oleic acid produced a significant increase in the SI. None of the agents tested (30 mg/kg methylprednisolone, 12.5 mg/kg ibuprofen, 4 mg/kg MK-447, a superoxide radical scavenger, or 140 mg/kg calcium gluconate) were able to alter the scintigraphically measured increased albumin flux produced by 0.05 ml/kg oleic acid.

  16. Humans are more sensitive to the taste of linoleic and α-linolenic than oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Running, Cordelia A; Mattes, Richard D

    2015-03-01

    Health concerns have led to recommendations to replace saturated fats with unsaturated fats. However, addition of unsaturated fatty acids may lead to changes in the way foods are perceived in the oral cavity. This study tested the taste sensitivity to and emulsion characteristics of oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids. The hypothesis tested was that oral sensitivity to nonesterified fatty acids would increase with degree of unsaturation but that in vitro viscosities and particle sizes of these emulsions would not differ. Oral taste thresholds were obtained using the three-alternative, forced-choice, ascending method. Each participant was tested on each fat 7 times, for a total of 21 study visits, to account for learning effects. Viscosities were obtained for the blank solutions and all three emulsions. Results indicate lower oral thresholds to linoleic and α-linolenic than oleic acid. At higher shear rates, 5% oleic and linoleic acid were more viscous than other samples. More-dilute emulsions showed no significant differences in viscosity. Particle sizes of the emulsions increased very slightly with increasing unsaturation. Together, the emulsion characteristics and oral sensitivity data support a taste mechanism for nonesterified fatty acid detection.

  17. Fate of the naphthenic acid, U-{sup 14}C-palmitic acid, in constructed wetlands; A microcosm study

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.; Barjaktarovic, L.; Moore, M.; Kennedy, C.; Farrell, A.P.; Bendell-Young, L.I.

    1995-12-31

    This study represents part of an overall initiative to assess the ecological viability of constructed wetlands for the treatment of oil sands wastewater. To determine the fate of naphthenic acids (C{sub n}H{sub 2n+z}O{sub 2}), the most toxic component of oil sands wastewater, in constructed wetlands, a representative naphthenic acid (NA), U-{sup 14}C-palmitic acid was added to microcosms placed within three control and three treatment wetlands. Treatment wetlands receive wastewater typical of effluent resulting from the oil sands extraction process. In each of the 6 microcosms, biotic compartments measured for {sup 14}C at t = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days were: mineralized palmitic acid (evolved {sup 14}C-CO{sub 2}), water, suspended sediments, bottom sediments, cattail, chironomid larvae, and sticklebacks (liver, muscle and skin). The fate of the {sup 14}C-palmitic acid was similar between the control versus treatment microcosms. Exceptions were greater amounts of {sup 14}C-palmitic acid detected in water and suspended sediments of treatment versus control microcosms. Of the biotic compartments, at t = 21 days, the majority of the {sup 14}C-palmitic acid was found in chironomids and fish tissues. Mineralization and partitioning of {sup 14}C-palmitic acid onto sediments also represented important fates. From the initial addition of the labelled compound, with the exception of bottom sediments, by t = 1 day {sup 14}C was detected in ail biotic compartments. {sup 14}C was detected in bottom sediments by t = 7 days. These results indicate that in addition to mineralization being an important process influencing the fate palmitic acid within the wetlands, partitioning into biotic compartments such as chironomids and fish are also important fates. Hence, when considering the use of constructed wetlands for the treatment of oil sands effluent, the adverse effects of naphthenic acids on the biota needs to be fully addressed.

  18. Palmitate-induced inflammatory pathways in human adipose microvascular endothelial cells promote monocyte adhesion and impair insulin transcytosis.

    PubMed

    Pillon, Nicolas J; Azizi, Paymon M; Li, Yujin E; Liu, Jun; Wang, Changsen; Chan, Kenny L; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P; Heit, Bryan; Bilan, Philip J; Lee, Warren L; Klip, Amira

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammation and immune cell recruitment to adipose tissue, muscle and intima of atherosclerotic blood vessels. Obesity and hyperlipidemia are also associated with tissue insulin resistance and can compromise insulin delivery to muscle. The muscle/fat microvascular endothelium mediates insulin delivery and facilitates monocyte transmigration, yet its contribution to the consequences of hyperlipidemia is poorly understood. Using primary endothelial cells from human adipose tissue microvasculature (HAMEC), we investigated the effects of physiological levels of fatty acids on endothelial inflammation and function. Expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules was measured by RT-qPCR. Signaling pathways were evaluated by pharmacological manipulation and immunoblotting. Surface expression of adhesion molecules was determined by immunohistochemistry. THP1 monocyte interaction with HAMEC was measured by cell adhesion and migration across transwells. Insulin transcytosis was measured by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Palmitate, but not palmitoleate, elevated the expression of IL-6, IL-8, TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). HAMEC had markedly low fatty acid uptake and oxidation, and CD36 inhibition did not reverse the palmitate-induced expression of adhesion molecules, suggesting that inflammation did not arise from palmitate uptake/metabolism. Instead, inhibition of TLR4 to NF-κB signaling blunted palmitate-induced ICAM-1 expression. Importantly, palmitate-induced surface expression of ICAM-1 promoted monocyte binding and transmigration. Conversely, palmitate reduced insulin transcytosis, an effect reversed by TLR4 inhibition. In summary, palmitate activates inflammatory pathways in primary microvascular endothelial cells, impairing insulin transport and increasing monocyte transmigration. This behavior may contribute in vivo to reduced tissue insulin action and enhanced tissue

  19. Vitamin A palmitate and α-lipoic acid stability in o/w emulsions for cosmetic application.

    PubMed

    Moyano, M A; Segall, A

    2011-01-01

    Skin becomes thin, dry, pale, and finely wrinkled with age. Retinoids are a large class of compounds that are important in modern therapy for dermatological treatment of wrinkled skin. Of the retinoids, retinol and vitamin A palmitate are thought to induce thickening of the epidermis and to be effective for treatment of skin diseases. Accordingly, α-lipoic acid or the reduced form, dihydrolipoate, are potent scavengers of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, and nitric oxide with anti-inflammatory properties (1). Cosmetic ingredient stability prediction relies on kinetic quantitative chemical analysis of active components at different temperatures. Vitamin A palmitate and α-lipoic acid, are known to be unstable to light or heat (2). The aims of this study were to evaluate the stability of α-lipoic acid and vitamin A palmitate in the presence of vitamin E (acetate) and other antioxidants in lipophilic/hydrophilic medium (O/W emulsions) at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0. The formulations that were investigated contained 0.12% (w/w) vitamin A palmitate, 0.4% (w/w) vitamin E acetate, and 0.5 % α-lipoic acid (formulation A), supplemented with ascorbyl palmitate, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, and vitamin C (formulation B) or with butylhydroxytoluene (BHT, formulation C) or ascorbyl palmitate (formulation D). The chemical analyses of α-lipoic acid and vitamin A palmitate were carried out by HPLC. Formulations C and D at pH 7.0 were selected as the most stable for these components. The purpose of this paper is the selection of the most stable formulations for their application in in vivo studies.

  20. Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) signaling affects insulin secretion by enhancing mitochondrial respiration during palmitate exposure.

    PubMed

    Kristinsson, Hjalti; Bergsten, Peter; Sargsyan, Ernest

    2015-12-01

    Fatty acids affect insulin secretion via metabolism and FFAR1-mediated signaling. Recent reports indicate that these two pathways act synergistically. Still it remains unclear how they interrelate. Taking into account the key role of mitochondria in insulin secretion, we attempted to dissect the metabolic and FFAR1-mediated effects of fatty acids on mitochondrial function. One-hour culture of MIN6 cells with palmitate significantly enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Antagonism or silencing of FFAR1 prevented the palmitate-induced rise in respiration. On the other hand, in the absence of extracellular palmitate FFAR1 agonists caused a modest increase in respiration. Using an agonist of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and PKC inhibitor we found that in the presence of the fatty acid mitochondrial respiration is regulated via Gαq protein-coupled receptor signaling. The increase in respiration in palmitate-treated cells was largely due to increased glucose utilization and oxidation. However, glucose utilization was not dependent on FFAR1 signaling. Collectively, these results indicate that mitochondrial respiration in palmitate-treated cells is enhanced via combined action of intracellular metabolism of the fatty acid and the Gαq-coupled FFAR1 signaling. Long-term palmitate exposure reduced ATP-coupling efficiency of mitochondria and deteriorated insulin secretion. The presence of the FFAR1 antagonist during culture did not improve ATP-coupling efficiency, however, it resulted in enhanced mitochondrial respiration and improved insulin secretion after culture. Taken together, our study demonstrates that during palmitate exposure, integrated actions of fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid-induced FFAR1 signaling on mitochondrial respiration underlie the synergistic action of the two pathways on insulin secretion.

  1. Curcumin Improves Palmitate-Induced Insulin Resistance in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells by Maintaining Proteostasis in Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Mao; Qiu, Hong; Cao, Yingkang; Zhang, Min; Mi, Yan; Yu, Jing; Wang, Changhua

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of proteasome and autophagy will result in disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis, and thus lead to long-term and chronic ER stress and subsequent unfolded protein response (UPR), which is implicated in the occurrence and development of insulin resistance. Curcumin exerts beneficial metabolic effects in in vitro cells and in vivo animal models of diabetes and diabetic complications including cardiovascular diseases, due to its powerful anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its impacts on insulin resistance of endothelial cells and its underlying mechanism(s) remain ill-defined. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that curcumin action in ER protein quality control was related to improvement of insulin resistance in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured with saturated fatty acid palmitate. We found that palmitate treatment induced insulin resistance of HUVECs and activated both the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy. Palmitate-stimulated activation of the UPS and autophagy was attenuated by pharmacological inhibition of ER stress. In addition, curcumin supplementation mitigated palmitate-induced insulin resistance, inhibited the UPS, and activated autophagy. Furthermore, curcumin administration suppressed palmitate-induced protein aggregation and ER stress. Genetic inhibition of autophagy by silencing autophagy protein 5 (Atg5) completely restored total protein ubiquitination and protein aggregation in HUVECs treated with combined curcumin and palmitate. Atg5-knockdown also abolished the beneficial effects of curcumin on palmitate-induced ER stress, JNK/IRS-1 pathway as well as insulin signaling. Our results reveal that curcumin-activated autophagy could maintain proteostasis in ER leading to attenuation of ER stress and subsequent inhibition of JNK/IRS-1 pathway and improvement of insulin resistance. PMID:28377722

  2. Palmitate increases musclin gene expression through activation of PERK signaling pathway in C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ning; Guo, Qian; Mao, Ke; Hu, Hailong; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; He, Hongjuan; Oh, Yuri; Liu, Chuanpeng; Wu, Qiong

    2015-11-20

    Musclin is a type of muscle-secreted cytokine and its increased gene expression induces insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism underlying increased musclin gene expression is currently unclear. Excessive saturated fatty acids (SFA) can activate the secretion of several muscle-secreted cytokines as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway, thereby contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the effect of palmitate, the most abundant SFA in the plasma, on the gene expression of musclin in C2C12 myotubes. Treatment of C2C12 myotubes with palmitate or tunicamycin significantly increased the expression of musclin as well as ER stress-related genes, but treatment with oleate did not. Pre-treatment of C2C12 myotubes with 4-phenyl butyrate suppressed the expression of ER stress-related genes, simultaneously, resulting in decreased expression of the musclin gene induced by palmitate or tunicamycin. These results indicate that ER stress is related to palmitate-induced musclin gene expression. Moreover, palmitate-induced musclin gene expression was significantly inhibited in C2C12 myotubes when PERK pathway signaling was suppressed by knockdown of the PERK gene or treatment with GSK2656157, a PERK autophosphorylation inhibitor. However, there was no difference in the palmitate-induced musclin gene expression when IRE1 and ATF6 signaling pathways were suppressed by knockdown of the IRE1 and ATF6 genes. These findings suggest that palmitate increases musclin gene expression via the activation of the PERK signaling pathway in C2C12 myotubes.

  3. Effect of Gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid composite films.

    PubMed

    Masamba, Kingsley; Li, Yue; Hategekimana, Joseph; Liu, Fei; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid 0-4 % composite films was investigated. Molecular weight distribution analysis was carried out to confirm gallic acid induced cross linking through change in molecular weight in fraction containing zein proteins. Results revealed that gallic acid treatment increased tensile strength from 17.9 MPa to 26.0 MPa, decreased water vapour permeability from 0.60 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)) to 0.41 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)), increased solubility from 6.3 % to 10.2 % and marginally increased elongation at break from 3.7 % to 4.2 % in zein films only. However, gallic acid treatment in zein-oleic composite films did not significantly influence mechanical and water barrier properties and in most instances irrespective of oleic acid concentration, the properties were negatively affected. Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that both gallic acid treated and untreated zein films and composite films containing 3 % oleic acid had a compact and homogeneous structure while those containing 4 % oleic acid had inhomogeneous structure. The findings have demonstrated that gallic acid treatment can significantly improve mechanical and water barrier properties especially in zein films only as opposed to when used in composite films using zein and oleic acid.

  4. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of docetaxel-loaded stearic acid-modified Bletilla striata polysaccharide copolymer micelles

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Qingxiang; Zhang, Guangyuan; Sun, Dandan; Wang, Yue; Liu, Kun; Wang, Miao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Bingjin; Lv, Jiayin

    2017-01-01

    Bletilla striata polysaccharides (BSPs) have been used in pharmaceutical and biomedical industry, the aim of the present study was to explore a BSPs amphiphilic derivative to overcome its application limit as poorly water-soluble drug carriers due to water-soluble polymers. Stearic acid (SA) was selected as a hydrophobic block to modify B. striata polysaccharides (SA-BSPs). Docetaxel (DTX)-loaded SA-BSPs (DTX-SA-BSPs) copolymer micelles were prepared and characterized. The DTX release percentage in vitro and DTX concentration in vivo was carried out by using high performance liquid chromatography. HepG2 and HeLa cells were subjected to MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazonium bromide) assay to evaluate the cell viability. In vitro evaluation of copolymer micelles showed higher drug encapsulation and loading capacity. The release percentage of DTX from DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles and docetaxel injection was 66.93 ± 1.79% and 97.06 ± 1.56% in 2 days, respectively. The DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles exhibited a sustained release of DTX. A 50% increase in growth inhibition was observed for HepG2 cells treated with DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles as compared to those treated with docetaxel injection for 72 h. DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles presented a similar growth inhibition effect on Hela cells. Furthermore, absolute bioavailability of DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles was shown to be 1.39-fold higher than that of docetaxel injection. Therefore, SA-BSPs copolymer micelles may be used as potential biocompatible polymers for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:28334044

  5. Cardiovascular disease risk of dietary stearic acid compared with trans, other saturated, and unsaturated fatty acids: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J Edward; Zhang, Jun; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2010-01-01

    High stearic acid (STA) soybean oil is a trans-free, oxidatively stable, non-LDL-cholesterol-raising oil that can be used to replace trans fatty acids (TFAs) in solid fat applications. The objective was to assess the cardiovascular health effects of dietary STA compared with those of trans, other saturated, and unsaturated fatty acids. We reviewed epidemiologic and clinical studies that evaluated the relation between STA and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including plasma lipids and lipoproteins, hemostatic variables, and inflammatory markers. In comparison with other saturated fatty acids, STA lowered LDL cholesterol, was neutral with respect to HDL cholesterol, and directionally lowered the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol. STA tended to raise LDL cholesterol, lower HDL cholesterol, and increase the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol in comparison with unsaturated fatty acids. In 2 of 4 studies, high-STA diets increased lipoprotein(a) in comparison with diets high in saturated fatty acids. Three studies showed increased plasma fibrinogen when dietary STA exceeded 9% of energy (the current 90th percentile of intake is 3.5%). Replacing industrial TFAs with STA might increase STA intake from 3.0% (current) to approximately 4% of energy and from 4% to 5% of energy at the 90th percentile. One-to-one substitution of STA for TFAs showed a decrease or no effect on LDL cholesterol, an increase or no effect on HDL cholesterol, and a decrease in the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol. TFA intake should be reduced as much as possible because of its adverse effects on lipids and lipoproteins. The replacement of TFA with STA compared with other saturated fatty acids in foods that require solid fats beneficially affects LDL cholesterol, the primary target for CVD risk reduction; unsaturated fats are preferred for liquid fat applications. Research is needed to evaluate the effects of STA on emerging CVD risk markers such as fibrinogen and to understand the responses

  6. Preparation and properties of films cast from mixtures of poly(vinyl alcohol) and submicron particles prepared from amylose-palmitic acid inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Fanta, George F; Selling, Gordon W; Felker, Frederick C; Kenar, James A

    2015-05-05

    The use of starch in polymer composites for film production has been studied for increasing biodegradability, improving film properties and reducing cost. In this study, submicron particles were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate complexes both by rapidly cooling jet-cooked starch-palmitic acid mixtures and by acidifying solutions of starch-sodium palmitate complexes. Films were cast containing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) with up to 50% starch particles. Tensile strength decreased and Young's modulus increased with starch concentration, but percent elongations remained similar to controls regardless of preparation method or starch content. Microscopy showed particulate starch distribution in films made with rapidly cooled starch-palmitic acid particles but smooth, diffuse starch staining with acidified sodium palmitate complexes. The mild effects on tensile properties suggest that submicron starch particles prepared from amylose-palmitic acid complexes provide a useful, commercially viable approach for PVOH film modification.

  7. Daily pattern of some fatty acids in the athletic horse.

    PubMed

    Piccione, G; Assenza, A; Borruso, M; Fazio, F; Caola, G

    2009-02-01

    In the sport field, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are important for the physical performance during the aerobic exercise of short intensity and long duration. In man, rat, goat and in the sedentary horse studies on the chronometabolism showed the presence of a circadian rhythm of the plasmatic concentration of NEFA while data for the athletic horse are lacking. To define a chronogram helpful for a specific planning and the differentiation of the training programmme in the athletic horse, the circadian pattern of some fatty acids (NEFA, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) was studied in five Sella Italiana horses. These horses trained following a daily model of activity consisting of walk, trot, gallop and jump of obstacles of different heights. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein every 4 h, starting at 08:00 hours, for 2 days to assess the concentrations of total NEFA (by spectrophotometry), palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids (by gas chromatography). anova for repeated measures showed a statistical significant effect of the time of the day in NEFA, oleic and linolenic acids. The application of the periodic model showed the periodic pattern of NEFA, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. Acrophases were in the afternoon for all parameters. The results obtained showed a different trend of the circadian pattern of the studied parameters in the athletic horse than in the sedentary one because the physical activity and the post-prandial metabolism acted as zeitgebers.

  8. Skin phototoxicity of cosmetic formulations containing photounstable and photostable UV-filters and vitamin A palmitate.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Lorena R; Tharmann, Julian; Maia Campos, Patricia M B G; Liebsch, Manfred

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro skin phototoxicity of cosmetic formulations containing photounstable and photostable UV-filters and vitamin A palmitate, assessed by two in vitro techniques: 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Phototoxicity Test and Human 3-D Skin Model In Vitro Phototoxicity Test. For this, four different formulations containing vitamin A palmitate and different UV-filters combinations, two of them considered photostable and two of them considered photounstable, were prepared. Solutions of each UV-filter and vitamin under study and solutions of four different combinations under study were also prepared. The phototoxicity was assessed in vitro by the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test (3T3-NRU-PT) and subsequently in a phototoxicity test on reconstructed human skin model (H3D-PT). Avobenzone presented a pronounced phototoxicity and vitamin A presented a tendency to a weak phototoxic potential. A synergistic effect of vitamin A palmitate on the phototoxicity of combinations containing avobenzone was observed. H3D-PT results did not confirm the positive 3T3-NRU-PT results. However, despite the four formulations studied did not present any acute phototoxicity potential, the combination 2 containing octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC), avobenzone (AVB) and 4-methylbenzilidene camphor (MBC) presented an indication of phototoxicity that should be better investigated in terms of the frequency of photoallergic or chronic phototoxicity in humans, once these tests are scientifically validated only to detect phototoxic potential with the aim of preventing phototoxic reactions in the general population, and positive results cannot predict the exact incidence of phototoxic reactions in humans.

  9. Anti-Angiogenic Properties of Cafestol and Kahweol Palmitate Diterpene Esters.

    PubMed

    Moeenfard, Marzieh; Cortez, Alice; Machado, Vera; Costa, Raquel; Luís, Carla; Coelho, Pedro; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Arminda; Borges, Nuno; Santos, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Epidemiological studies support the association of coffee-specific diterpenes, with various beneficial health effects. Although anti-antiangiogenic properties of free cafestol and kahweol have been recently described, available data regarding their esterified form, in particular palmitate esters as the main diterpene esters present in coffee, are still rare. Given that angiogenesis plays an important role in many pathological conditions, including cancer growth and metastasis, this study aimed to assess and compare the potential anti-angiogenic effects of cafestol palmitate (CP) and kahweol palmitate (KP) in an in vitro angiogenesis model. According to our findings, both compounds inhibited angiogenesis steps on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs), although a more significant effect was observed for KP. Compared to control, HMVECs viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner upon incubation either with CP or KP. Concentrations of 75 and 100 μM of each compound were cytotoxic. Cell proliferation was also dramatically reduced by both diterpene esters at 50 μM, although KP had a stronger inhibitory effect. However, CP and KP did not induce apoptosis on HMVECs. Both compounds reduced cell migration, but this effect was only statistically significant after KP incubation. Inhibition of VEGFR2 expression and its downstream effector Akt, but not Erk, was also observed in CP- and KP-treated HMVECs. These findings were confirmed using ELISA assay for phosphorylated (active) VEGFR-2. Taken together, these data indicate that both CP and KP can be considered potent compounds against angiogenesis-dependent disorders. Our findings further indicate that KP exerts more potent anti-angiogenic effects than CP, in most of assays. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2748-2756, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Normal mode analyses of methyl palmitate all-trans and disordered forms in wagging progressive region.

    PubMed

    Ishioka, Tsutomu; Yan, Wenhong; Strauss, Herbert L; Snyder, Robert G

    2003-03-01

    Normal mode analyses are made for methyl palmitate molecule having all-trans or conformational disorders around the ester head group, in order to explain characteristic observed frequency shifts in the wagging progressive region between all-trans and disorder chains in triglyceride molecules. It was found that one gauche conformation at C(alpha)-C(beta) position and 90 degrees rotation of the ester head group in an alkyl chain produce frequency shifts for twisting mode as observed. For wagging modes, contamination of the disorders around the head group makes assignments change and apparent frequency shifts occur.

  11. Ascorbyl palmitate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles: characteristic and polyphenol oxidase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Ji-Soo; Kim, Kwang Yup; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to produce ascorbyl palmitate (AP)-loaded nanoparticles in order to inhibit polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in bananas. AP-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using acetic acid and citric acid (denoted as CS/AA and CS/CA nanoparticles, respectively). As the initial AP concentration increases, the particle size significantly decreases, and the zeta potential, entrapment and loading efficiency significantly increases. The PPO inhibitory activity of AP was effectively improved when AP was nano-encapsulated by chitosan compared to no encapsulation. These results suggest that chitosan nano-encapsulation can be used to enhance the PPO inhibitory activity of AP.

  12. Five Month-Persistent Extrapyramidal Symptoms following a Single Injection of Paliperidone Palmitate: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seoyoung; Woo, Jungmin

    2017-08-31

    Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are useful in the treatments for schizophrenic patients with poor adherence due to their maintaining feature of therapeutic plasma level without daily administrations. However, their long-lasting property can cause complicated problems such as a long-lasting side effect. We report a patient who experienced LAI-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs) for 5 months after a single injection. During that period, every trial to ameliorate this condition turned out to be a failure. The 3-month formulation of paliperidone palmitate is now close at hand. We have to be aware of possible long-lasting adverse events and confirm the tolerability to LAI before use.

  13. Safety and tolerability of deltoid and gluteal injections of paliperidone palmitate in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hough, David; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Gopal, Srihari; Melkote, Rama; Lim, Pilar; Herben, Virginie; Yuen, Eric; Eerdekens, Marielle

    2009-08-31

    Paliperidone palmitate is an investigational, injectable atypical antipsychotic. The safety and tolerability of initiating treatment with paliperidone palmitate via deltoid versus gluteal injections given once monthly, and of switching injection sites, in adults with stable schizophrenia were assessed. In this crossover trial, stable outpatients (N=252) were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to 3 dose groups (paliperidone palmitate 50, 75, or 100 mg eq.) and 2 treatment sequences (blinded to dose): deltoid muscle (period 1 [13 weeks]) followed by gluteal muscle (period 2 [12 weeks]) or the reverse. The intent-to-treat analysis set had 249 patients: mean age=43 (SD: 12.8) years; 57% men, 81% white, baseline mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score=56 (SD: 11.5). A total of 170 (68%) patients completed the study, with a similar proportion completing each treatment sequence. The incidence of systemic treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) was similar between the 2 injection sites across doses during period 1 (deltoid [D]: 61% to 67%; gluteus [G]: 58% to 65%), and during the last 8 weeks of the 2 study periods (DG: 32% to 45% [period 1], 29% to 42% [period 2]; GD: 31% to 40% [period 1], 30% to 41% [period 2]). During the first treatment week, median plasma paliperidone concentrations were higher with treatment initiation in the deltoid muscle compared with the gluteal muscle. At apparent steady state, there was little difference in plasma paliperidone concentrations between the deltoid and gluteus sites for a given dose. Local tolerability was slightly better with gluteal injections. Patient preference for injection sites differed between geographical regions, e.g. patients from the US preferred deltoid to gluteal sites. The most common (>or=5% overall) TEAEs were: (period 1) insomnia, anxiety, headache, and agitation; and (period 2) insomnia, psychotic disorder, weight increased, and tachycardia. Paliperidone palmitate treatment was tolerated

  14. Palmitic acid, verified by lipid profiling using secondary ion mass spectrometry, demonstrates anti-multiple myeloma activity.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yasuyuki; Ishizaki, Itsuko; Waki, Michihiko; Ide, Yoshimi; Hossen, Md Amir; Ohnishi, Kazunori; Miyayama, Takuya; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that lipid metabolic changes affect the survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), an imaging mass spectrometry technique, is used to visualize the subcellular distribution of biomolecules including lipids. We therefore applied this method to human clinical specimens to analyze the membrane fatty acid composition and determine candidate molecules for MM therapies. We isolated MM cells and normal plasma cells (PCs) from bone marrow aspirates of MM patients and healthy volunteers, respectively, and these separated cells were analyzed by TOF-SIMS. Multiple ions including fatty acids were detected and their ion counts were estimated. In MM cells, the mean intensity of palmitic acid was significantly lower than the mean intensity in PCs. In a cell death assay, palmitic acid reduced U266 cell viability dose-dependently at doses between 50 and 1000 μM. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased from 24h after palmitic acid administration. In contrast, palmitic acid had no effect on the viability of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The results of this study indicated that palmitic acid is a potential candidate for novel therapeutic agents that specifically attack MM cells.

  15. High serum palmitic acid is associated with low antiviral effects of interferon-based therapy for hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Teruki; Hiasa, Yoichi; Hirooka, Masashi; Tokumoto, Yoshio; Watanabe, Takao; Furukawa, Shinya; Ueda, Teruhisa; Yamamoto, Shin; Kumagi, Teru; Miyaoka, Hiroaki; Abe, Masanori; Matsuura, Bunzo; Onji, Morikazu

    2012-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection alters fatty acid synthesis and metabolism in association with HCV replication. The present study examined the effect of serum fatty acid composition on interferon (IFN)-based therapy. Fifty-five patients with HCV were enrolled and received IFN-based therapy. Patient characteristics, laboratory data (including fatty acids), and viral factors that could be associated with the anti-HCV effects of IFN-based therapy were evaluated. The effects of individual fatty acids on viral replication and IFN-based therapy were also examined in an in-vitro system. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the level of serum palmitic acid before treatment and HCV genotype were significant predictors for rapid virological response (RVR), early virological response (EVR), and sustained virological response (SVR). High levels of palmitic acid inhibited the anti-HCV effects of IFN-based therapy. HCV replication assays confirmed the inhibitory effects of palmitic acid on anti-HCV therapy. The concentration of serum palmitic acid is an independent predictive factor for RVR, EVR, and SVR in IFN-based antiviral therapy. These results suggest that the effect of IFN-based antiviral therapy in patients with HCV infection might be enhanced by treatment that modulates palmitic acid levels.

  16. The effect of cetyl palmitate crystallinity on physical properties of gamma-oryzanol encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Limpakdee, Surachai; Meejoo, Siwaporn; Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Junyaprasert, Varaporn; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2008-03-01

    This present study was aimed at investigating the effect of the crystallinity of cetyl palmitate based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) on the physical properties of γ-oryzanol-loaded SLNs. SLNs consisting of varying ratios of cetyl palmitate and γ-oryzanol were prepared. Their hydrodynamic diameters were in the range 210-280 nm and the zeta potentials were in the range -27 to -35 mV. The size of SLNs increased as the amount of cetyl palmitate decreased whereas no significant change of zeta potentials was found. Atomic force microscopy pictures indicated the presence of disc-like particles. The crystallinity of SLNs, determined by differential scanning calorimetry and powder x-ray diffraction, was directly dependent on the ratio of cetyl palmitate to γ-oryzanol and decreased with decreasing cetyl palmitate content in the lipid matrix. Varying this ratio in the lipid mix resulted in a shift in the melting temperature and enthalpy, although the SLN structure remained unchanged as an orthorhombic lamellar lattice. This has been attributed to a potential inhibition by γ-oryzanol during lipid crystal growth as well as a less ordered structure of the SLNs. The results revealed that the crystallinity of the SLNs was mainly dependent on the solid lipid, and that the crystallinity has an important impact on the physical characteristics of active-loaded SLNs.

  17. Comparison of Absorption and Desorption of Cryomill Process Control Agents and Their Effect on Compressive Behavior of Trimodal Aluminum Metal-Matrix-Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    B4C) powders were cryomilled in liquid nitrogen using different process control agents (PCAs) such as oleic acid , caprylic acid , and stearic acid ...composite agglomerates after 8 h cryomilling with (a) oleic acid , (b) caprylic acid , and (c, d) stearic acid ...8 List of Tables Table 1. Physical and chemical properties of stearic, oleic and caprylic acid

  18. Plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of radioactivity after single-dose administration of ((3)H)-oleic acid added to D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, in rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez, L Yohani; Menéndez, Roberto; Más, Rosa; González, Rosa M

    2006-11-01

    D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, contains a mixture of fatty acids-mainly oleic, lauric, palmitic, and myristic acids, with oleic acid being among the most abundant-that has been found to reduce the risk for prostatic hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone (T) in rats. The pharmacokinetic profile of D-004 has not been reported. The objective of this study in rats was to assess plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of total radioactivity (TR) after single-dose administration of oral D-004 radiolabeled with ((3)H)-oleic acid, as a surrogate for the pharmacokinetics of D-004. This experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Center of Natural Products, National Center for Scientific Research, Havana, Cuba. Single doses of suspensions of ((3)H)-oleic acid 0.16 μCi/mg mixed with D-004 400 mg/kg (radioactive dose/animal 7.2 μCi) were given orally to male Wistar rats weighing 150 to 200 g assigned to the treated or control group. Three rats were euthanized at each of the following times: 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 144 hours after study drug administration. After administration, the rats euthanized at the last experimental time point were housed individually in metabolism cages. Urine and feces samples were collected daily. At each time point, blood samples were drawn and plasma samples were obtained using centrifugation. After euthanization, tissue samples (liver, lungs, spleen, brain, kidneys, adipose tissue, muscle, stomach, small and large intestines, adrenal glands, heart, testes, prostate, and seminal vesicles) were quickly removed, washed, blotted, and homogenized. Plasma (100 μL), tissue aliquots (100 mg), feces (10 mg), and urine (100μL) were dissolved and TR was measured. Samples were assayed in duplicate. Results were expressed in μgEq of radio-labeled oleic acid per milliliter of plasma or urine or gram of tissue or feces. Plasma, tissue, feces, and urine samples of rats that

  19. Plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of radioactivity after single-dose administration of (3H)-oleic acid added to D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, L. Yohani; Menéndez, Roberto; Más, Rosa; González, Rosa M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of Roystonea regia, contains a mixture of fatty acids—mainly oleic, lauric, palmitic, and myristic acids, with oleic acid being among the most abundant—that has been found to reduce the risk for prostatic hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone (T) in rats. The pharmacokinetic profile of D-004 has not been reported. Objective: The objective of this study in rats was to assess plasma levels, tissue distribution, and excretion of total radioactivity (TR) after single-dose administration of oral D-004 radiolabeled with (3H)-oleic acid, as a surrogate for the pharmacokinetics of D-004. Methods: This experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Center of Natural Products, National Center for Scientific Research, Havana, Cuba. Single doses of suspensions of (3H)-oleic acid 0.16 μCi/mg mixed with D-004 400 mg/kg (radioactive dose/animal 7.2 μCi) were given orally to male Wistar rats weighing 150 to 200 g assigned to the treated or control group. Three rats were euthanized at each of the following times: 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 144 hours after study drug administration. After administration, the rats euthanized at the last experimental time point were housed individually in metabolism cages. Urine and feces samples were collected daily. At each time point, blood samples were drawn and plasma samples were obtained using centrifugation. After euthanization, tissue samples (liver, lungs, spleen, brain, kidneys, adipose tissue, muscle, stomach, small and large intestines, adrenal glands, heart, testes, prostate, and seminal vesicles) were quickly removed, washed, blotted, and homogenized. Plasma (100 μL), tissue aliquots (100 mg), feces (10 mg), and urine (100μL) were dissolved and TR was measured. Samples were assayed in duplicate. Results were expressed in μgEq of radio-labeled oleic acid per milliliter of plasma or urine or gram of tissue or feces. Plasma, tissue, feces

  20. Beta Palmitate Improves Bone Length and Quality during Catch-Up Growth in Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Maisels, Meytal; Gabet, Yankel; Shamir, Raanan; Hiram-Bab, Sahar; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Phillip, Moshe; Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in human milk, where it is heavily concentrated in the sn-2-position (termed beta palmitate, BPA) and as such is conserved in all women, regardless of their diet or ethnicity, indicating its physiological and metabolic importance. We hypothesized that BPA improves the efficiency of nutrition-induced catch up growth as compared to sn-1,3 PA, which is present in vegetable oil. Pre-pubertal male rats were subjected to a 17 days food restriction followed by re-feeding for nine days with 1,3 PA or BPA-containing diets. We measured bone length, epiphyseal growth plate height (EGP, histology), bone quality (micro-CT and 3-point bending assay), and gene expression (Affymetrix). The BPA-containing diet improved most growth parameters: humeri length and EGP height were greater in the BPA-fed animals. Further analysis of the EGP revealed that the hypertrophic zone was significantly higher in the BPA group. In addition, Affymetrix analysis revealed that the diet affected the expression of several genes in the liver and EGP. Despite the very subtle difference between the diets and the short re-feeding period, we found a small but significant improvement in most growth parameters in the BPA-fed rats. This pre-clinical study may have important implications, especially for children with growth disorders and children with special nutritional needs. PMID:28718808

  1. Effect of. cap alpha. -ketobutyrate on the metabolism of pyruvate and palmitate in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Brass, E.P.

    1986-05-01

    Alpha-ketobutyrate (..cap alpha..KB), an intermediate in the catabolism of threonine and methionine, is decarboxylated to propionyl-CoA. The authors have reported that propionate (PROP) inhibits oxidative metabolism in rate hepatocytes. Based on these observations, the present study examined the effects of ..cap alpha..KB on pyruvate and palmitate metabolism in hepatocytes isolated from fed rats. Similar to PROP, ..cap alpha..KB (10mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation and this inhibition was diminished when 10mM carnitine (CN) was added (35 +/- 6% inhibition without CN, 22 +/- 8% with CN). ..cap alpha..KB inhibited the conversion of 3-/sup 14/C-pyruvate to glucose and CO/sub 2/. Inhibition of pyruvate metabolism by ..cap alpha..KB was concentration-dependent. At equal concentrations, ..cap alpha..KB inhibited pyruvate metabolism to a greater extent than PROP. Addition of CN partially reversed the effects of PROP on pyruvate metabolism, but not those of ..cap alpha..KB despite the generation of propionylcarnitine when ..cap alpha..KB and CN were included in the incubation. These results demonstrate that accumulation of ..cap alpha..KB can impair normal hepatocyte metabolism. While some of the effects of ..cap alpha..KB can be explained on the basis of propionyl-CoA formation, ..cap alpha..KB has effects on pyruvate metabolism not explainable by this mechanism.

  2. The effect of DL-2-bromopalmitate on the utilization of palmitic acid by rat granular pneumocytes.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, H O; Pietra, G G; Wagner, M; Minda, M

    1979-02-06

    The effect of DL-2-bromopalmitate (BrPA), an analogue of palmitic acid (PA), on the utilization of this fatty acid by rat lungs was investigated by a combination of anatomic and biochemical methods. The experiments were performed in vitro on two types of preparations, isolated perfused lungs and lung slices. In the isolated lung preparation the substrate reached the lung via the capillaries, in lung slices via the alveolar epithelium. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that BrPA depressed uptake of PA by granular pneumocytes. Radioactivity recovered by tissue analysis and capture of CO2 established that PA oxidation and incorporation into phospholipids and triglycerides was depressed by BrPA. A close correlation was found between the reduction in radioactivity in phospholipids and the grain density over lamellar bodies. The study shows that BrPA reversibly interferes with the uptake and utilization of long chain fatty by granular pneumocytes. BrPA appears as a useful tool to study palmitate metabolism and surfactant production by the lung.

  3. Cumulative reduction of primary skin tumor growth in UV-irradiated mice by the combination of retinyl palmitate and canthaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Gensler, H L; Aickin, M; Peng, Y M

    1990-08-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with retinyl palmitate, canthaxanthin, or the combination of both, on photocarcinogenesis was determined in pigmented C3H/HeN mice. The basal diet was the American Institute of Nutrition Diet 76A, to which was added 120 IU of retinyl palmitate per g diet, 1% canthaxanthin, or the combination of both. Administration of the diets began 18 weeks before the first UVB radiation (280-320 nm) treatment and continued throughout the study. The UV source was a bank of 6 Westinghouse FS40 lamps which delivered to the mice a total dose of 9.9 x 10(5) J/m2, delivered over 24 weeks. These diets significantly reduced the tumor burden per mouse induced by UV irradiation, however they did not influence tumor incidence. The combination of retinyl palmitate plus canthaxanthin was more effective than either agent alone at reducing autochthonous tumor growth, a result which has not been previously reported.

  4. Palmitate stimulates glucose transport in rat adipocytes by a mechanism involving translocation of the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, R. W.; Ladenson, J. H.; Henriksen, E. J.; Holloszy, J. O.; McDonald, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    In rat adipocytes, palmitate: a) increases basal 2-deoxyglucose transport 129 +/- 27% (p less than 0.02), b) decreases the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) in low density microsomes and increases GLUT4 in plasma membranes and c) increases the activity of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. Palmitate-stimulated glucose transport is not additive with the effect of insulin and is not inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine and sphingosine. In rat muscle, palmitate: a) does not affect basal glucose transport in either the soleus or epitrochlearis and b) inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose transport by 28% (p less than 0.005) in soleus but not in epitrochlearis muscle. These studies demonstrate a potentially important differential role for fatty acids in the regulation of glucose transport in different insulin target tissues.

  5. Formation, stability, and pH sensitivity of free-floating, giant unilamellar vesicles using palmitic acid-cholesterol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Cottenye, Nicolas; Carbajal, Gustavo; Cui, Zhong-Kai; Ducharme, Philippe Dauphin; Mauzeroll, Janine; Lafleur, Michel

    2014-09-14

    Despite the fact that palmitic acid (PA) and cholesterol (Chol) do not form fluid bilayers once hydrated individually, giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) were formed from a mixture of palmitic acid and cholesterol, 30/70 mol/mol. These free-floating GUVs were stable over weeks, did not aggregate and were shown to be highly stable in alkaline pH compared to conventional phospholipid-based GUVs. Acidic pH-triggered payload release from the GUVs was associated with the protonation state of palmitic acid that dictated the mixing lipid properties, thus affecting the stability of the fluid lamellar phase. The successful formation of PA-Chol GUVs reveals the possibility to create monoalkylated amphiphile-based GUVs with distinct pH stability/sensitivity.

  6. Palmitate stimulates glucose transport in rat adipocytes by a mechanism involving translocation of the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, R. W.; Ladenson, J. H.; Henriksen, E. J.; Holloszy, J. O.; McDonald, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    In rat adipocytes, palmitate: a) increases basal 2-deoxyglucose transport 129 +/- 27% (p less than 0.02), b) decreases the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) in low density microsomes and increases GLUT4 in plasma membranes and c) increases the activity of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. Palmitate-stimulated glucose transport is not additive with the effect of insulin and is not inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine and sphingosine. In rat muscle, palmitate: a) does not affect basal glucose transport in either the soleus or epitrochlearis and b) inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose transport by 28% (p less than 0.005) in soleus but not in epitrochlearis muscle. These studies demonstrate a potentially important differential role for fatty acids in the regulation of glucose transport in different insulin target tissues.

  7. Genotypic variability and genotype by environment interactions in oil and fatty acids in high, intermediate, and low oleic acid peanut genotypes.

    PubMed

    Singkham, Nattawut; Jogloy, Sanun; Kesmala, Thawan; Swatsitang, Prasan; Jaisil, Prasit; Puppala, Naveen

    2010-05-26

    Variability of genotype and genotype x environment (G x E) interactions for fatty acids are important to develop high-oleic types in peanut varietal improvement programs. The objective of this study was to determine the variation in fatty acid composition among peanut genotypes and G x E interactions of fatty acids in three groups of genotypes with high, intermediate, and low-oleic acid. Twenty-one genotypes were tested in three environments consisting of two rainy seasons and one dry season. The results indicated that G x E interactions were significant for biomass, pod yield, and harvest index and also for oleic, linoleic acids, and O/L ratio. G x E interactions were less important than genotypic main effect. For oleic acid, significant interactions were found in the intermediate and low-oleic groups only. Therefore, selection for high-oleic trait in peanut breeding programs should be effective.

  8. Effect of expanded organoclay by stearic acid to curing, mechanical and swelling properties of natural rubber nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadhan, A.; Fathurrohman, M. Irfan; Falaah, A. F.; Setyawan, N.; Soegijono, B.

    2017-07-01

    The interlayer basal spacing of organoclay (OC) could be increased with stearic acid (SA) added, thus OC changed into expanded organoclay by SA (OCSA). The effect of various loadings of OCSA on the curing, mechanical and swelling properties of natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites were studied. The natural rubber/expanded organoclay (NR/OCSA) nanocomposites were prepared by melt intercalation using a laboratory open mill. The curing characteristics of NR compounds were determined using a Moving Die Rheometer (MDR). The X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared (ATR-IR) Spectroscopy and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) were used to study the dispersion of OCSA in the NR matrix. The mechanical properties of NR/OCSA nanocomposites such as tensile strength, elongation at break and hardness were determined using ISO standard and swelling of NR/OCSA nanocomposites in toluene were determined using ISO 1817. The results showed that the SA intercalated into the gallery of OC and reacted with the hydroxyl groups in OC. It was indicated with the shifting of the negative peak 1,700 to 1,723 cm-1 in the ATR-IR spectrum and increase the d-spacing of OC. The adding of various loadings of OCSA into NR could increase the torque and accelerate the curing of nanocomposites and it also could increase the mechanical and swelling properties of nanocomposites. The change in modulus at 100% elongation significantly increased with increasing the OCSA load until maximum loading at 10 phr. This trend was same with the hardness and modulus at 300% elongation. Meanwhile, the improvement of tensile strength and elongation at break was higher at 4 phr OCSA compared with the other loading. The increase of mechanical and swelling properties of NR/OCSA nanocomposites was due to intercalation/exfoliation of OCSA in NR matrix. It was revealed by appearing of the out-of-plane Si-O-(Al) stretch with peak value 1080 cm-1 in the ATR-IR spectrum and the peaks of OCSA

  9. Physicochemical properties of oleic acid-based partially fluorinated gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Umemoto, Naoki; Aburai, Kenichi; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Endo, Takeshi; Kitiyanan, Boonyarach; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    We have developed oleic acid-based partially fluorinated gemini surfactants with carboxylic acid headgroups. The fluorocarbon chain is covalently bound to the terminal carbonyl group of oleic acid via a -CH(2)CH(2)OCO- unit, and the carboxylic acid headgroups are introduced to the cis double bond of oleic acid via -OCOCH(2)CH(2)- units. The aqueous solution properties of these surfactants were studied at pH 9 in the presence of 10 mmol dm–3 NaCl by means of static surface tension, pyrene fluorescence, and dynamic light scattering measurements. The resulting surface tension data demonstrate that the partially fluorinated gemini surfactants exhibit excellent surface activity in their dilute aqueous solutions. In addition, the surfactants are suggested to form micellar aggregates 2–4 nm in diameter. We also studied the aqueous temperature-concentration phase diagrams of the partially fluorinated gemini surfactants (disodium salts) on the basis of visual observations (through a crossed polarizer), polarized optical microscopy, and small angle X-ray scattering measurements. Several phase states including micellar solution phase, hexagonal phase, bicontinuous cubic phase, and lamellar phase were observed along with the coexistence of these phases in certain regions. Assemblies with lesser positive curvature tend to be formed with increasing surfactant concentration, increasing temperature, and increasing fluorocarbon chain length. A comparison of the phase diagrams of the partially fluorinated and hydrogenated surfactant systems suggests that close molecular packing is inhibited within the assemblies of the partially fluorinated surfactants because of the limited miscibility between the fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon units. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic report focusing on the temperature-concentration phase diagrams of (partially) fluorinated gemini surfactants over a wide range of compositions and temperatures.

  10. High Beta-palmitate formula and bone strength in term infants: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Litmanovitz, Ita; Davidson, Keren; Eliakim, Alon; Regev, Rivka H; Dolfin, Tzipora; Arnon, Shmuel; Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Goren, Amit; Lifshitz, Yael; Nemet, Dan

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to compare the effect of 12-week feeding of commercially available infant formulas with different percentages of palmitic acid at sn-2 (beta-palmitate) on anthropometric measures and bone strength of term infants. It was hypothesized that feeding infants with high beta-palmitate (HBP) formula will enhance their bone speed of sound (SOS). Eighty-three infants appropriate for gestational age participated in the study; of these, 58 were formula-fed and 25 breast-fed infants, serving as a reference group. The formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive HBP formula (43 % of the palmitic acid is esterified to the middle position of the glycerol backbone, study group; n = 30) or regular formula with low-beta palmitate (LBP, 14 % of the palmitic acid is esterified to the middle position of the glycerol backbone, n = 28). Sixty-six infants completed the 12-week study. Anthropometric and quantitative ultrasound measurements of bone SOS for assessment of bone strength were performed at randomization and at 6 and 12 weeks postnatal age. At randomization, gestational age, birth weight, and bone SOS were comparable between the three groups. At 12 weeks postnatal age, the mean bone SOS of the HBP group was significantly higher than that of the LBP group (2,896 ± 133 vs. 2,825 ± 79 m/s respectively, P = 0.049) and comparable with that of the breast-fed group (2,875 ± 85 m/s). We concluded that infants consuming HBP formula had changes in bone SOS that were comparable to those of infants consuming breast milk and favorable compared to infants consuming LBP formula.

  11. Effect of high β-palmitate content in infant formula on the intestinal microbiota of term infants.

    PubMed

    Yaron, Sima; Shachar, Dina; Abramas, Lee; Riskin, Arik; Bader, David; Litmanovitz, Ita; Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Cohen, Tzafra; Levi, Liora; Lifshitz, Yael; Shamir, Raanan; Shaoul, Ron

    2013-04-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) constitutes 17% to 25% of the human milk fatty acids, and ~70% is esterified in the sn-2 position of triglycerides (β-palmitate). In the sn-2 position, PA is not hydrolyzed and thus is efficiently absorbed. The PA in palm oils, commonly used in infant formulas, is esterified in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions. In these positions, PA is hydrolyzed and forms poorly absorbed calcium complexes. The present study assessed whether high β-palmitate in infant formulas affects the intestinal flora. Thirty-six term infants were enrolled: 14 breast-fed (BF group) and 22 formula-fed infants who were randomly assigned to receive formula containing high β-palmitate (HBP group, n=14), or low β-palmitate (LBP group, n=8), where 44% and 14% of the PA was β-palmitate, respectively. The total amount of PA in the formulas was 19% and 22% in the LBP and HBP groups, respectively. Neither formula contained pre- or probiotics. Stool samples were collected at enrollment and at 6 weeks for the quantification of bacteria. At 6 weeks, the HBP and BF groups had higher Lactobacillus and bifidobacteria counts than the LBP group (P<0.01). The Lactobacillus counts at 6 weeks were not significantly different between the HBP and BF groups. Lactobacillus counts were 1.2×10¹⁰, 1.2×10¹¹, and 5.6×10¹⁰ CFU/g for LBP, HBP, and BF groups, respectively. Bifidobacteria counts were 5.1×10⁹, 1.2×10¹¹, and 3.9×10¹⁰ CFU/g for LBP, HBP, and BF groups, respectively. HBP formula beneficially affected infant gut microbiota by increasing the Lactobacillus and bifidobacteria counts in fecal stools.

  12. Lipotoxic Palmitate Impairs the Rate of β-Oxidation and Citric Acid Cycle Flux in Rat Neonatal Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Haffar, Taha; Akoumi, Ali; Bousette, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic hearts exhibit intracellular lipid accumulation. This suggests that the degree of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in these hearts is insufficient to handle the elevated lipid uptake. We previously showed that palmitate impaired the rate of FAO in primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Here we were interested in characterizing the site of FAO impairment induced by palmitate since it may shed light on the metabolic dysfunction that leads to lipid accumulation in diabetic hearts. We measured fatty acid oxidation, acetyl-CoA oxidation, and carnitine palmitoyl transferase (Cpt1b) activity. We measured both forward and reverse aconitase activity, as well as NAD+ dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity. We also measured reactive oxygen species using the 2', 7'-Dichlorofluorescin Diacetate (DCFDA) assay. Finally we used thin layer chromatography to assess diacylglycerol (DAG) levels. We found that palmitate significantly impaired mitochondrial β-oxidation as well as citric acid cycle flux, but not Cpt1b activity. Palmitate negatively affected net aconitase activity and isocitrate dehydrogenase activity. The impaired enzyme activities were not due to oxidative stress but may be due to DAG mediated PKC activation. This work demonstrates that palmitate, a highly abundant fatty acid in human diets, causes impaired β-oxidation and citric acid cycle flux in primary neonatal cardiomyocytes. This metabolic defect occurs prior to cell death suggesting that it is a cause, rather than a consequence of palmitate mediated lipotoxicity. This impaired mitochondrial metabolism can have important implications for metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Palmitate Diet-induced Loss of Cardiac Caveolin-3: A Novel Mechanism for Lipid-induced Contractile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Catherine J.; Cebova, Martina; Pinz, Ilka M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiomyopathy, and mechanisms linking the underlying risk and dietary factors are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that dietary intake of saturated fat increases the levels of sphingolipids, namely ceramide and sphingomyelin in cardiac cell membranes that disrupt caveolae, specialized membrane micro-domains and important for cellular signaling. C57BL/6 mice were fed two high-fat diets: palmitate diet (21% total fat, 47% is palmitate), and MCT diet (21% medium-chain triglycerides, no palmitate). We established that high-palmitate feeding for 12 weeks leads to 40% and 50% increases in ceramide and sphingomyelin, respectively, in cellular membranes. Concomitant with sphingolipid accumulation, we observed a 40% reduction in systolic contractile performance. To explore the relationship of increased sphingolipids with caveolins, we analyzed caveolin protein levels and intracellular localization in isolated cardiomyocytes. In normal cardiomyocytes, caveolin-1 and caveolin-3 co-localize at the plasma membrane and the T-tubule system. However, mice maintained on palmitate lost 80% of caveolin-3, mainly from the T-tubule system. Mice maintained on MCT diet had a 90% reduction in caveolin-1. These data show that caveolin isoforms are sensitive to the lipid environment. These data are further supported by similar findings in human cardiac tissue samples from non-obese, obese, non-obese cardiomyopathic, and obese cardiomyopathic patients. To further elucidate the contractile dysfunction associated with the loss of caveolin-3, we determined the localization of the ryanodine receptor and found lower expression and loss of the striated appearance of this protein. We suggest that palmitate-induced loss of caveolin-3 results in cardiac contractile dysfunction via a defect in calcium-induced calcium release. PMID:23585895

  14. alpha-Linolenic acid protects renal cells against palmitic acid lipotoxicity via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Katsoulieris, Elias; Mabley, Jon G; Samai, Mohamed; Green, Irene C; Chatterjee, Prabal K

    2009-11-25

    Unsaturated fatty acids may counteract the lipotoxicity associated with saturated fatty acids. Palmitic acid induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and caused apoptotic and necrotic cell death in the renal proximal tubular cell line, NRK-52E. We investigated whether alpha-linolenic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, protected against ER stress and cell death induced by palmitic acid or by other non-nutrient ER stress generators. Incubation of NRK-52E cells for 24h with palmitic acid produced a significant increase in apoptosis and necrosis. Palmitic acid also increased levels of three indicators of ER stress - the phosphorylated form of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78). alpha-Linolenic acid dramatically reduced cell death and levels of all three indicators of ER stress brought about by palmitic acid. Tunicamycin, which induces ER stress by glycosylation of proteins, produced similar effects to those obtained using palmitic acid; its effects were partially reversed by alpha-linolenic acid. Salubrinal (a phosphatase inhibitor) causes increased levels of the phosphorylated form of eIF2alpha - this effect was partially reversed by alpha-linolenic acid. Palmitoleate, a monosaturated fatty acid, had similar effects to those of alpha-linolenic acid. These results suggest that part of the mechanism of protection of the kidney by unsaturated fatty acids is through inhibition of ER stress, eIF2alpha phosphorylation and consequential reduction of CHOP protein expression and apoptotic renal cell death.

  15. D-isoascorbyl palmitate: lipase-catalyzed synthesis, structural characterization and process optimization using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Isoascorbic acid is a stereoisomer of L-ascorbic acid, and widely used as a food antioxidant. However, its highly hydrophilic behavior prevents its application in cosmetics or fats and oils-based foods. To overcome this problem, D-isoascorbyl palmitate was synthesized in the present study for improving the isoascorbic acid’s oil solubility with an immobilized lipase in organic media. The structural information of synthesized product was clarified using LC-ESI-MS, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR analysis, and process parameters for high yield of D-isoascorbyl palmitate were optimized by using One–factor-at-a-time experiments and response surface methodology (RSM). Results The synthesized product had the purity of 95% and its structural characteristics were confirmed as isoascorbyl palmitate by LC-ESI-MS, FT-IR, 1H, and 13C NMR analysis. Results from “one–factor-at-a-time” experiments indicated that the enzyme load, reaction temperature and D-isoascorbic-to-palmitic acid molar ratio had a significant effect on the D-isoascorbyl palmitate conversion rate. 95.32% of conversion rate was obtained by using response surface methodology (RSM) under the the optimized condition: enzyme load of 20% (w/w), reaction temperature of 53°C and D- isoascorbic-to-palmitic acid molar ratio of 1:4 when the reaction parameters were set as: acetone 20 mL, 40 g/L of molecular sieves content, 200 rpm speed for 24-h reaction time. Conclusion The findings of this study can become a reference for developing industrial processes for the preparation of isoascorbic acid ester, which might be used in food additives, cosmetic formulations and for the synthesis of other isoascorbic acid derivatives. PMID:23835418

  16. No effect of menstrual cycle phase on glycerol or palmitate kinetics during 90 min of moderate exercise.

    PubMed

    Horton, Tracy J; Miller, Emily K; Bourret, Kristen

    2006-03-01

    The systemic flux of glycerol and palmitate [a representative nonesterified free fatty acid (NEFA)] was assessed in three different phases of the menstrual cycle at rest and during moderate-intensity exercise. It was hypothesized that circulating glycerol and NEFA turnover would be greatest in the midfollicular (MF) phase of the menstrual cycle, when estrogen is elevated but progesterone low, followed by the midluteal phase (ML; high estrogen and progesterone), and lowest in the early follicular (EF) phase of the menstrual cycle (low estrogen and progesterone). Subjects included moderately active, eumenorrheic, healthy women. Testing occurred after 3 days of diet control and after an overnight fast (12-13 h). Resting and exercise (50% maximal oxygen uptake, 90 min) measurements of tracer-determined glycerol and palmitate kinetics were made. There was a significant increase in both glycerol and palmitate turnover from rest to exercise in all phases of the menstrual cycle (P<0.0001). No significant differences, however, were observed between cycle phases in the systemic flux of glycerol or palmitate, at rest or during exercise. Maximal peripheral lipolysis during exercise, as represented by glycerol rate of appearance at 90 min, equaled 8.45+/-0.96, 8.35+/-1.12, and 7.71+/-0.96 micromol.kg-1.min-1 in the EF, MF, and ML phases, respectively. Circulating free fatty acid utilization also peaked at 90 min of exercise, as indicated by the palmitate rate of disappearance (3.31+/-0.35, 3.17+/-0.39, and 3.47+/-0.26 micromol.kg-1.min-1) in the EF, MF, and ML phases, respectively. In conclusion, systemic rates of glycerol and NEFA turnover (as represented by palmitate flux) were not significantly affected by the cyclic fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone that occur throughout the normal menstrual cycle, either at rest or during 90 min of moderate exercise.

  17. Computational multiple steady states for enzymatic esterification of ethanol and oleic acid in an isothermal CSTR.

    PubMed

    Ho, Pang-Yen; Chuang, Guo-Syong; Chao, An-Chong; Li, Hsing-Ya

    2005-05-01

    The capacity of complex biochemical reaction networks (consisting of 11 coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations) to show multiple steady states, was investigated. The system involved esterification of ethanol and oleic acid by lipase in an isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The Deficiency One Algorithm and the Subnetwork Analysis were applied to determine the steady state multiplicity. A set of rate constants and two corresponding steady states are computed. The phenomena of bistability, hysteresis and bifurcation are discussed. Moreover, the capacity of steady state multiplicity is extended to the family of the studied reaction networks.

  18. Recent advances in gemini surfactants: oleic Acid-based gemini surfactants and polymerizable gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Gemini surfactants recently developed by our research group are introduced from the standpoints of their syntheses, aqueous solution properties, and potential applications. Two series of gemini surfactants are introduced in this short review, the first of which is the oleic acid-based gemini surfactants, and the second is the polymerizable gemini surfactants. These gemini surfactants have been developed not only as environmentally friendly materials (the use of gemini surfactants enables the reduction of the total consumption of surfactants in chemical products owing to their excellent adsorption and micellization capabilities at low concentrations) but also as functional organic materials.

  19. Time resolved study of hydroxyl radical oxidation of oleic acid at the air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinxing; Barraza, Kevin M.; Upton, Kathleen T.; Beauchamp, J. L.

    2017-09-01

    The ubiquity of oleic acid (OA) renders it a poster child for laboratory investigations of environmental oxidation chemistry. In the current study, mechanistic details of the oxidation of OA by hydroxyl radicals at the air-water interface are investigated using field-induced droplet ionization mass spectrometry (FIDI-MS). Products from OH oxidation of both unsaturated and saturated carbon atoms are identified, and mechanisms for both types of oxidation processes are proposed. Uptake of oxygen in the interfacial layer increases linearly with time, consistent with Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction kinetics. These results provide fundamental knowledge relating to OH initiated degradation of fatty acids in atmospheric aerosols.

  20. Physical properties of edible emulsified films based on carboxymethyl cellulose and oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Almasi, Hadi

    2011-01-01

    Glycerol and oleic acid (OA) were incorporated into carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) films by an emulsification method. Films containing different amounts of glycerol and OA were examined for mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), and moisture uptake, optical and thermal properties. Addition of OA to the CMC films significantly improved the barrier property. However, the effect of OA on the mechanical properties was lower than glycerol. By increasing of OA content, the cloudiness of the CMC films was intensified and Hunter value (b) of the films increased (by ca. 35.8%).