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Sample records for oleic palmitic stearic

  1. Apolipoprotein E isoforms 3/3 and 3/4 differentially interact with circulating stearic, palmitic, and oleic fatty acids and lipid levels in Alaskan Natives.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Tapia, Lyssia; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Ebbesson, Sven O E; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Tejero, M Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Lifestyle changes in Alaskan Natives have been related to the increase of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in the last decades. Variation of the apolipoprotein E (Apo E) genotype may contribute to the diverse response to diet in lipid metabolism and influence the association between fatty acids in plasma and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the interaction between Apo E isoforms and plasma fatty acids, influencing phenotypes related to metabolic diseases in Alaskan Natives. A sample of 427 adult Siberian Yupik Alaskan Natives was included. Fasting glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo A1, and Apo B plasma concentrations were measured using reference methods. Concentrations of 13 fatty acids in fasting plasma were analyzed by gas chromatography, and Apo E variants were identified. Analyses of covariance were conducted to identify Apo E isoform and fatty acid main effects and multiplicative interactions. The means for body mass index and age were 26 ± 5.2 and 47 ± 1.5, respectively. Significant main effects were observed for variation in Apo E and different fatty acids influencing Apo B levels, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Significant interactions were found between Apo E isoform and selected fatty acids influencing total cholesterol, triglycerides, and Apo B concentrations. In summary, Apo E3/3 and 3/4 isoforms had significant interactions with circulating levels of stearic, palmitic, oleic fatty acids, and phenotypes of lipid metabolism in Alaskan Natives.

  2. Stearic acids at sn-1, 3 positions of TAG are more efficient at limiting fat deposition than palmitic and oleic acids in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Gouk, Shiou-Wah; Cheng, Sit-Foon; Ong, Augustine Soon-Hock; Chuah, Cheng-Hock

    2014-04-14

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of long-acyl chain SFA, namely palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0), at sn-1, 3 positions of TAG on obesity. Throughout the 15 weeks of the experimental period, C57BL/6 mice were fed diets fortified with cocoa butter, sal stearin (SAL), palm mid fraction (PMF) and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOS). The sn-1, 3 positions were varied by 16:0, 18:0 and 18:1, whilst the sn-2 position was preserved with 18:1. The HOS-enriched diet was found to lead to the highest fat deposition. This was in accordance with our previous postulation. Upon normalisation of total fat deposited with food intake to obtain the fat:feed ratio, interestingly, mice fed the SAL-enriched diet exhibited significantly lower visceral fat/feed and total fat/feed compared with those fed the PMF-enriched diet, despite their similarity in SFA-unsaturated fatty acid-SFA profile. That long-chain SFA at sn-1, 3 positions concomitantly with an unsaturated FA at the sn-2 position exert an obesity-reducing effect was further validated. The present study is the first of its kind to demonstrate that SFA of different chain lengths at sn-1, 3 positions exert profound effects on fat accretion.

  3. AMPKα, C/EBPβ, CPT1β, GPR43, PPARγ, and SCD Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Choi, S H; Park, S K; Johnson, B J; Chung, K Y; Choi, C W; Kim, K H; Kim, W Y; Smith, B

    2015-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC) and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA) were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)/Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC) or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA) with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 μg/mL insulin and 10 μg/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 μM palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001) carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1β) gene expression, but the increase in CPT1β gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases). Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001) stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPKα gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism.

  4. AMPKα, C/EBPβ, CPT1β, GPR43, PPARγ, and SCD Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Choi, S. H.; Park, S. K.; Johnson, B. J.; Chung, K. Y.; Choi, C. W.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, W. Y.; Smith, B.

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC) and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA) were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)/Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC) or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA) with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 μg/mL insulin and 10 μg/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 μM palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001) carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1β) gene expression, but the increase in CPT1β gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases). Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001) stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPKα gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism. PMID:25656188

  5. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The ester stearyl palmitate or...

  6. Lipid characterization of seed oils from high-palmitic, low-palmitoleic, and very high-stearic acid sunflower lines.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Vega, María J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael

    2005-04-01

    Information obtained in recent years regarding the enzymes involved in FA synthesis can now be applied to develop novel sunflower lines by incorporating enzymes with specific characteristics into lines with a defined background. We have generated three highly saturated mutant lines in this way and characterized their FA content. The new high-palmitic, low-palmitoleic lines CAS-18 and CAS-25, the latter on a high-oleic background, have been selected from the high-stearic mutant CAS-3 by introducing a deficient stearic acid desaturase in a high-palmitic background from the previously developed mutant lines CAS-5 and CAS-12, respectively. As such, the desaturation of palmitic acid and the synthesis of palmitoleic acid and its derivatives (asclepic and palmitolinoleic acids) were reduced in these high-palmitic lines, increasing the stearic acid content. Likewise, introducing a FA thioesterase from a high-palmitic line (e.g., CAS-5) into the high-stearic CAS-3 increased the stearic acid content from 27 to 32% in the new high-stearic line CAS-31. As previously described in high-palmitic lines, high growth temperatures did not reduce the linoleic acid content of the oil. Furthermore, the FA composition of TAG, DAG, and phospholipids was modified in these lines. Besides a high degree of saturation, the TAG from these new vegetable oils have a low content of saturated FA in the sn-2 position. The alpha asymmetric coefficient obtained also indicates that the saturated FA are asymmetrically distributed within the TAG molecules. Indeed, the disaturated TAG content rose from 31.8 to 48.2%. These values of disaturated TAG are the highest to date in a temperate oilseed.

  7. Invited review: palmitic and stearic acid metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Loften, J R; Linn, J G; Drackley, J K; Jenkins, T C; Soderholm, C G; Kertz, A F

    2014-01-01

    Energy is the most limiting nutritional component in diets for high-producing dairy cows. Palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids have unique and specific functions in lactating dairy cows beyond a ubiquitous energy source. This review delineates their metabolism and usage in lactating dairy cows from diet to milk production. Palmitic acid is the fatty acid (FA) found in the greatest quantity in milk fat. Dietary sources of C16:0 generally increase milk fat yield and are used as an energy source for milk production and replenishing body weight loss during periods of negative energy balance. Stearic acid is the most abundant FA available to the dairy cow and is used to a greater extent for milk production and energy balance than C16:0. However, C18:0 is also intimately involved in milk fat production. Quantifying the transfer of each FA from diet into milk fat is complicated by de novo synthesis of C16:0 and desaturation of C18:0 to oleic acid in the mammary gland. In addition, incorporation of both FA into milk fat appears to be limited by the cow's requirement to maintain fluidity of milk, which requires a balance between saturated and unsaturated FA. Oleic acid is the second most abundant FA in milk fat and likely the main unsaturated FA involved in regulating fluidity of milk. Because the mammary gland can desaturate C18:0 to oleic acid, C18:0 appears to have a more prominent role in milk production than C16:0. To understand metabolism and utilization of these FA in lactating dairy cows, we reviewed production and milk fat synthesis studies. Additional and longer lactation studies on feeding both FA to lactating dairy cows are required to better delineate their roles in optimizing milk production and milk FA composition and yield.

  8. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The...

  9. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The...

  11. Selective use of palmitic acid over stearic acid for synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol in lung

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, F.H.

    1986-11-01

    The incorporation of (/sup 3/H)palmitic acid and (/sup 14/C)stearic acid into phospholipids in rabbit lung tissue was studied. Under equal molar concentrations of palmitate and stearate, palmitate was incorporated to the 1- and 2-positions of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) 2-3 times more than stearate. By contrast, palmitate was 30% less than stearate in phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine. These results suggest that preferential utilization of palmitate over stearate, rather than substrate availability, determines the high content of palmitoyl at the 1- and 2-positions of PC and PG in lung.

  12. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS,...

  13. High-Stearic and High-Oleic Cottonseed Oils Produced by Hairpin RNA-Mediated Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Singh, Surinder P.; Green, Allan G.

    2002-01-01

    We have genetically modified the fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil using the recently developed technique of hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing to down-regulate the seed expression of two key fatty acid desaturase genes, ghSAD-1-encoding stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein Δ9-desaturase and ghFAD2-1-encoding oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine ω6-desaturase. Hairpin RNA-encoding gene constructs (HP) targeted against either ghSAD-1 or ghFAD2-1 were transformed into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv Coker 315). The resulting down-regulation of the ghSAD-1 gene substantially increased stearic acid from the normal levels of 2% to 3% up to as high as 40%, and silencing of the ghFAD2-1 gene resulted in greatly elevated oleic acid content, up to 77% compared with about 15% in seeds of untransformed plants. In addition, palmitic acid was significantly lowered in both high-stearic and high-oleic lines. Similar fatty acid composition phenotypes were also achieved by transformation with conventional antisense constructs targeted against the same genes, but at much lower frequencies than were achieved with the HP constructs. By intercrossing the high-stearic and high-oleic genotypes, it was possible to simultaneously down-regulate both ghSAD-1 and ghFAD2-1 to the same degree as observed in the individually silenced parental lines, demonstrating for the first time, to our knowledge, that duplex RNA-induced posttranslational gene silencing in independent genes can be stacked without any diminution in the degree of silencing. The silencing of ghSAD-1 and/or ghFAD2-1 to various degrees enables the development of cottonseed oils having novel combinations of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic contents that can be used in margarines and deep frying without hydrogenation and also potentially in high-value confectionery applications. PMID:12177486

  14. Enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from olive oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the present research is to restructure olive oil triacylglycerol (TAG) using enzymatic acidolysis reaction to produce structured lipids that is close to cocoa butter in terms of TAG structure and melting characteristics. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of refined olive oil with a mixture of palmitic-stearic acids at different substrate ratios was performed in an agitated batch reactor maintained at constant temperature and agitation speed. The reaction attained steady-state conversion in about 5 h with an overall conversion of 92.6 % for the olive oil major triacylglycerol 1-palmitoy-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO). The five major TAGs of the structured lipids produced with substrate mass ratio of 1:3 (olive oil/palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture) were close to that of the cocoa butter with melting temperature between 32.6 and 37.7 °C. The proposed kinetics model used fits the experimental data very well. PMID:25342261

  15. Enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from olive oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the present research is to restructure olive oil triacylglycerol (TAG) using enzymatic acidolysis reaction to produce structured lipids that is close to cocoa butter in terms of TAG structure and melting characteristics. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of refined olive oil with a mixture of palmitic-stearic acids at different substrate ratios was performed in an agitated batch reactor maintained at constant temperature and agitation speed. The reaction attained steady-state conversion in about 5 h with an overall conversion of 92.6 % for the olive oil major triacylglycerol 1-palmitoy-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO). The five major TAGs of the structured lipids produced with substrate mass ratio of 1:3 (olive oil/palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture) were close to that of the cocoa butter with melting temperature between 32.6 and 37.7 °C. The proposed kinetics model used fits the experimental data very well.

  16. Investigations of in vitro bioaccessibility from interesterified stearic and oleic acid-rich blends.

    PubMed

    Thilakarathna, S H; Rogers, M; Lan, Y; Huynh, S; Marangoni, A G; Robinson, L E; Wright, A J

    2016-04-01

    Interesterification was previously found to impact stearic acid absorption in a randomized cross-over study, when human volunteers consumed a 70 : 30 wt% high-oleic sunflower and canola stearin blend (NIE) compared to the same blend which had undergone either chemical (CIE) or enzymatic (EIE) interesterification. In this research, in vitro lipid digestion, bioaccessibility, and changes in undigested lipid composition and melting behavior of these same test fats were investigated using the dynamic, multi-compartmental TIM-1 digestion model and compared with the previous human study. Overall, TIM-1 bioaccessibility was higher with interesterification (p < 0.05). Oleic acid bioaccessibility was higher than stearic acid bioaccessibility for NIE, and vice versa for the interesterified blends (p < 0.05). Stearic acid was more concentrated in the undigested triacylglycerols (TAG) from NIE, corresponding to a relatively higher melting temperature of the undigested lipids. The results confirm the impact of TAG composition, fatty acid position and/or physical properties on lipid digestion. TIM-1 bioaccessibility was linearly correlated (R(2) = 0.8640) with postprandial serum TAG concentration in the human study. Therefore, the in vitro digestion model offered predictive insights related to the impacts of lipid interesterificaton on absorption.

  17. Incorporation of Palmitic Acid or Stearic Acid into Soybean Oils Using Enzymatic Interesterification.

    PubMed

    Teh, Soek Sin; Voon, Phooi Tee; Hock Ong, Augustine Soon; Choo, Yuen May

    2016-09-01

    Incorporations of nature fatty acids which were palmitic acid and stearic acid into the end positions of soybean oils were done using sn-1,3 specific immobilised lipase from Rhizomucor miehei at different ratios in order to produce symmetrical triglycerides without changing the fatty acids at sn-2 position. The optimum ratio for the process was 25:75 w/w. There were 19.2% increase of SFA for P25 and 16% increase for S25 at the sn-1,3 positions. The research findings indicated that the structured lipids produced from enzymatic interesterification possessed a higher oxidative stability than soybean oil. The newly formed structured lipids (SUS type) could be good sources for various applications in food industry.

  18. Incorporation of Palmitic Acid or Stearic Acid into Soybean Oils Using Enzymatic Interesterification.

    PubMed

    Teh, Soek Sin; Voon, Phooi Tee; Hock Ong, Augustine Soon; Choo, Yuen May

    2016-09-01

    Incorporations of nature fatty acids which were palmitic acid and stearic acid into the end positions of soybean oils were done using sn-1,3 specific immobilised lipase from Rhizomucor miehei at different ratios in order to produce symmetrical triglycerides without changing the fatty acids at sn-2 position. The optimum ratio for the process was 25:75 w/w. There were 19.2% increase of SFA for P25 and 16% increase for S25 at the sn-1,3 positions. The research findings indicated that the structured lipids produced from enzymatic interesterification possessed a higher oxidative stability than soybean oil. The newly formed structured lipids (SUS type) could be good sources for various applications in food industry. PMID:27477075

  19. Effect of solvents on the fractionation of high oleic-high stearic sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Bootello, Miguel A; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2015-04-01

    Solvent fractionation of high oleic-high stearic (HOHS) sunflower oil was studied to determine the best solvent to use (hexane or acetone) in terms of the operational parameters and properties of the final stearins. Acetone fractionation on two types of HOHS sunflower oils (N17 and N20) was carried out at temperatures from 5 to 10 °C using micelles with different oil/solvent ratios. Acetone was more suitable than hexane as a solvent for HSHO sunflower oil fractionation because it allowed the oil to be fractionated at higher temperatures and at lower supercooling degrees. Likewise, a sunflower soft stearin obtained by dry fractionation of HOHS sunflower oil was also used to produce high-melting point stearins by acetone or hexane fractionation. The fractionation of these stearins could be performed at higher temperatures and gave higher yields. The combination of dry and solvent fractionation to obtain tailor-made stearins is discussed.

  20. Structure and friction of stearic acid and oleic acid films adsorbed on iron oxide surfaces in squalane.

    PubMed

    Doig, Michael; Warrens, Chris P; Camp, Philip J

    2014-01-14

    The structure and friction of fatty acid surfactant films adsorbed on iron oxide surfaces lubricated by squalane are examined using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. The structures of stearic acid and oleic acid films under static and shear conditions, and at various surface coverages, are described in detail, and the effects of unsaturation in the tail group are highlighted. At high surface coverage, the measured properties of stearic acid and oleic acid films are seen to be very similar. At low and intermediate surface coverages, the presence of a double bond, as in oleic acid, is seen to give rise to less penetration of lubricant in to the surfactant film and less layering of the lubricant near to the film. The kinetic friction coefficient is measured as a function of shear rate within the hydrodynamic (high shear rate) lubrication regime. Lubricant penetration and layering are observed to be correlated with friction coefficient. The friction coefficient with oleic acid depends only weakly on surface coverage, while stearic acid admits more lubricant penetration, and its friction coefficient increases significantly with decreasing surface coverage. Connections between film structure and friction are discussed.

  1. Ozonolysis of Mixed Oleic-Acid/Stearic-Acid Particles: Reaction Kinetics and Chemical Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. T.; Katrib, Y.; Biskos, G.; Buseck, P. R.; Davidovits, P.; Jayne, J. T.; Mochida, M.; Wise, M. E.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric particles directly and indirectly affect global climate and have a primary role in regional issues of air pollution, visibility, and human health. Atmospheric particles have a variety of shapes, dimensions, and chemical compositions, and these physicochemical properties evolve (i.e., "age") during transport of the particles through the atmosphere, in part because of the chemical reactions of particle-phase organic molecules with gas-phase atmospheric oxidants. As a global average, hydroxyl radical (OH) and ozone (O3) are responsible quantitatively for most oxidant aging of atmospheric particles. The reactions of the hydroxyl radical occur in the surface region of a particle because of the nearly diffusion-limited bimolecular rate constant of OH with a variety of organic molecules. Ozone, on the other hand, is a selective agent for the unsaturated bonds of organic molecules and may diffuse a considerable distance into particles prior to reaction. The reaction of oleic acid with ozone has recently emerged as a model system to better understand the atmospheric chemical oxidation processes affecting organic particles. The ozonolysis of mixed oleic-acid/stearic-acid (OL/SA) aerosol particles from 0/100 to 100/0 weight percent composition is studied. The magnitude of the divergence of the particle beam inside an aerosol mass spectrometer shows that, in the concentration range 100/0 to 60/40, the mixed OL/SA particles are liquid prior to reaction. Upon ozonolysis, particles with SA composition greater than 25% change shape, indicating that they have solidified. Transmission electron micrographs show that SA(s) forms needles. For SA compositions greater than 10%, the reaction kinetics exhibit an initial fast decay of OL for low O3 exposure with no further loss of OL at higher O3 exposures. For compositions from 50/50 to 10/90, the residual OL concentration remains at 28+/-2% of its initial value. The initial reactive uptake coefficient for O3, as determined by

  2. Development of a Controlled Release of Salicylic Acid Loaded Stearic Acid-Oleic Acid Nanoparticles in Cream for Topical Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J. O.; Misran, M.; Lee, P. F.; Tan, L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are colloidal carrier systems that have extensively been investigated for controlled drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, a cost effective stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles (SONs) with high loading of salicylic acid, was prepared by melt emulsification method combined with ultrasonication technique. The physicochemical properties, thermal analysis and encapsulation efficiency of SONs were studied. TEM micrographs revealed that incorporation of oleic acid induces the formation of elongated spherical particles. This observation is in agreement with particle size analysis which also showed that the mean particle size of SONs varied with the amount of OA in the mixture but with no effect on their zeta potential values. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the SONs prepared in this method have lower crystallinity as compared to pure stearic acid. Different amount of oleic acid incorporated gave different degree of perturbation to the crystalline matrix of SONs and hence resulted in lower degrees of crystallinity, thereby improving their encapsulation efficiencies. The optimized SON was further incorporated in cream and its in vitro release study showed a gradual release for 24 hours, denoting the incorporation of salicylic acid in solid matrix of SON and prolonging the in vitro release. PMID:24578624

  3. Development of a controlled release of salicylic acid loaded stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles in cream for topical delivery.

    PubMed

    Woo, J O; Misran, M; Lee, P F; Tan, L P

    2014-01-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are colloidal carrier systems that have extensively been investigated for controlled drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, a cost effective stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles (SONs) with high loading of salicylic acid, was prepared by melt emulsification method combined with ultrasonication technique. The physicochemical properties, thermal analysis and encapsulation efficiency of SONs were studied. TEM micrographs revealed that incorporation of oleic acid induces the formation of elongated spherical particles. This observation is in agreement with particle size analysis which also showed that the mean particle size of SONs varied with the amount of OA in the mixture but with no effect on their zeta potential values. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the SONs prepared in this method have lower crystallinity as compared to pure stearic acid. Different amount of oleic acid incorporated gave different degree of perturbation to the crystalline matrix of SONs and hence resulted in lower degrees of crystallinity, thereby improving their encapsulation efficiencies. The optimized SON was further incorporated in cream and its in vitro release study showed a gradual release for 24 hours, denoting the incorporation of salicylic acid in solid matrix of SON and prolonging the in vitro release.

  4. Improving the physical and moisture barrier properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum biodegradable film with stearic and palmitic acids.

    PubMed

    Seyedi, Samira; Koocheki, Arash; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Zahedi, Younes

    2015-01-01

    Stearic and palmitic fatty acids (10%, 20% and 30%, W/W gum) were used to improve the barrier properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum (LPSG) film. The impact of the incorporation of fatty acids into the film matrix was studied by investigating the physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of the films. Addition of stearic and palmitic fatty acids to LPSG films reduced their water vapor permeability (WVP), moisture content, water solubility and water adsorption. Increasing fatty acid concentration from 10% to 30%, reduced the elongation at break (EB). Lower values of tensile strength (TS) and elastic modulus (EM) were obtained in the presence of higher fatty acids concentrations. Incorporation of fatty acids led to production of opaque films and the opacity increased as function of fatty acids concentration. Results showed that moisture content, water solubility and WVP decreased as the chain length of fatty acid increased. Therefore, LPSG-fatty acids composite film could be used for packaging in which a low affinity toward water is needed.

  5. Role of hepatocyte S6K1 in palmitic acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipotoxicity, insulin resistance and in oleic acid-induced protection.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Virginia; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Muntané, Jordi; Kozma, Sara C; Valverde, Ángela M

    2015-06-01

    The excess of saturated free fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, that induces lipotoxicity in hepatocytes, has been implicated in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease also associated with insulin resistance. By contrast, oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, attenuates the effects of palmitic acid. We evaluated whether palmitic acid is directly associated with both insulin resistance and lipoapoptosis in mouse and human hepatocytes and the impact of oleic acid in the molecular mechanisms that mediate both processes. In human and mouse hepatocytes palmitic acid at a lipotoxic concentration triggered early activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related kinases, induced the apoptotic transcription factor CHOP, activated caspase 3 and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells. These effects concurred with decreased IR/IRS1/Akt insulin pathway. Oleic acid suppressed the toxic effects of palmitic acid on ER stress activation, lipoapoptosis and insulin resistance. Besides, oleic acid suppressed palmitic acid-induced activation of S6K1. This protection was mimicked by pharmacological or genetic inhibition of S6K1 in hepatocytes. In conclusion, this is the first study highlighting the activation of S6K1 by palmitic acid as a common and novel mechanism by which its inhibition by oleic acid prevents ER stress, lipoapoptosis and insulin resistance in hepatocytes.

  6. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  7. Impact of stearic acid and oleic acid on hemostatic factors in the context of controlled diets consumed by healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, S K; Tracy, R P; Baer, D J

    2014-09-01

    The effects of stearic acid (STA) on cardiovascular disease risk beyond lipid and lipoprotein risk factors, including hemostasis, are unclear, particularly when compared with unsaturated fatty acids. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of STA with those of oleic acid (OL) on markers of hemostasis. In a randomized crossover study, 50 men consumed six controlled diets for 5 weeks each (39% energy from fat, 15% energy from protein, 46% energy from carbohydrate (CHO)). Fat (8% energy) was replaced across diets by: STA, OL, CHO (control), trans fatty acids (TFAs), TFA/STA and 12:0-16:0 saturated fatty acids. Factor VIIc, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and plasmin alpha-2-antiplasmin complex concentrations were not different between OL and STA (P>0.05). Compared with control, OL increased factor VIIc and PAI-1 (P≤0.05), whereas there were no differences with STA (P>0.05). STA and OL similarly affect markers of hemostasis in healthy men, within the context of a highly controlled diet.

  8. Compared with stearic acid, palmitic acid increased the yield of milk fat and improved feed efficiency across production level of cows.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2014-02-01

    The effects of dietary palmitic and stearic acids on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components, and feed efficiency of dairy cows were evaluated in an experiment with a crossover arrangement of treatments with a covariate period. Cows with a wide range of milk production (38 to 65 kg/d) were used to determine if response to fat supplementation varied according to production level. Thirty-two Holstein cows (143 ± 61 d in milk) were assigned randomly to a treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with palmitic acid (PA; 97.9% C16:0) or stearic acid (SA; 97.4% C18:0). Treatment periods were 21 d and cows were fed a nonfat supplemented diet for 14 d immediately before the first treatment period. The final 4d of each period were used for sample and data collection. Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as the covariate. No interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the production response variables measured. Compared with SA, the PA treatment increased milk fat concentration (3.66 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.68 vs. 1.59 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (47.5 vs. 45.6 kg/d). Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, milk protein yield, body weight, or body condition score. Milk protein concentration was lower for PA compared with SA treatment (3.24 vs. 3.29%). The PA treatment increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk yield/dry matter intake) compared with SA (1.48 vs. 1.40). The increase in milk fat yield by PA was entirely accounted for by a 24% increase in 16-carbon fatty acid output into milk. Yields of de novo (3.2%) and preformed fatty acids (2.9%) were only slightly decreased by PA relative to SA. The PA treatment increased plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (96.3 vs. 88.2 μEq/L) and glucose (56.6 vs. 55.7 mg/dL) compared with SA, but insulin and

  9. Impact of stearic acid and oleic acid on hemostatic factors in the context of controlled diets consumed by healthy men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests that stearic acid (STE) differentially affects lipoprotein risk factors compared with other saturated fatty acids (SFA). When compared to cholesterol-raising SFA, STE lowers LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and has a neutral effect on HDL-C, thus lowering the ratio of total cholesterol to H...

  10. Metabolism in humans of cis-12,trans-15-octadecadienoic acid relative to palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Emken, E.A.; Rohwedder, W.K.; Adlof, R.O.; Rakoff, H.; Gulley, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    Mixtures of triglycerides containing deuterium-labeled hexadecanoic acid (16:0), octadecanoic acid (18:0), cis-9-octadecenoic acid (9c-18:1), cis-9,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid (9c, 12c-18:2) and cis-12,trans-15-octadecadienoic acid (12c,15t-18:2) were fed to two young-adult males. Plasma lipid classes were isolated from samples collected periodically over 48 hr. Incorporation and turnover of the deuterium-labeled fats in plasma lipids were followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the methyl ester derivatives. Absorption of the deuterated fats was followed by GC-MS analysis of chylomicron triglycerides isolated by ultracentrifugation. Results were the following: (i) endogenous fat contributed about 40% of the total fat incorporated into chylomicron triglycerides; (ii) elongation, desaturation and chain-shortened products from the deuterated fats were not detected; (iii) the polyunsaturated isomer 12c,15t-18:2 was metabolically more similar to saturated and 9c-18:1 fatty acids than to 9c,12c-18:2; (iv) relative incorporation of 9c,12c-18:2 into phospholipids did not increase proportionally with an increase of 9c,12c-18:2 in the mixture of deuterated fats fed; (v) absorption of 16:0, 18:0, 9c-18:1, 9c,12c-18:2 and 12c,15t-18:2 were similar; and (vi) data for the 1- and 2-acyl positions of phosphatidylcholine and for cholesteryl ester fractions reflected the known high specificity of phosphatidylcholine acyltransferase and lecithin:cholesteryl acyltransferase for 9c,12c-18:2. These results illustrate that incorporation of dietary fatty acids into human plasma lipid classes is selectively controlled and that incorporation of dietary 9c,12c-18:2 is limited.

  11. Dietary palmitic and oleic acids exert similar effects on serum cholesterol and lipoprotein profiles in normocholesterolemic men and women.

    PubMed

    Ng, T K; Hayes, K C; DeWitt, G F; Jegathesan, M; Satgunasingam, N; Ong, A S; Tan, D

    1992-08-01

    To compare the effects of dietary palmitic acid (16:0) vs oleic acid (18:1) on serum lipids, lipoproteins, and plasma eicosanoids, 33 normocholesterolemic subjects (20 males, 13 females; ages 22-41 years) were challenged with a coconut oil-rich diet for 4 weeks. Subsequently they were assigned to either a palm olein-rich or olive oil-rich diet followed by a dietary crossover during two consecutive 6-week periods. Each test oil served as the sole cooking oil and contributed 23% of dietary energy or two-thirds of the total daily fat intake. Dietary myristic acid (14:0) and lauric acid (12:0) from coconut oil significantly raised all the serum lipid and lipoprotein parameters measured. Subsequent one-to-one exchange of 7% energy between 16:0 (palm olein diet) and 18:1 (olive oil diet) resulted in identical serum total cholesterol (192, 193 mg/dl), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (130, 131 mg/dl), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (41, 42 mg/dl), and triglyceride (TG) (108, 106 mg/dl) concentrations. Effects attributed to gender included higher HDL in females and higher TG in males associated with the tendency for higher LDL and LDL/HDL ratios in men. However, both sexes were equally responsive to changes in dietary fat saturation. The results indicate that in healthy, normocholesterolemic humans, dietary 16:0 can be exchanged for 18:1 within the range of these fatty acids normally present in typical diets without affecting the serum lipoprotein cholesterol concentration or distribution. In addition, replacement of 12:0 + 14:0 by 16:0 + 18:1, but especially 16:0 or some component of palm olein, appeared to have a beneficial impact on an important index of thrombogenesis, i.e., the thromboxane/prostacyclin ratio in plasma.

  12. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of palm mid fraction oil with palmitic and stearic Fatty Acid mixture for production of cocoa butter equivalent.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2013-10-01

    Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) was prepared by enzymatic acidolysis reaction of substrate consisting of refined palm mid fraction oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture. The reactions were performed in a batch reactor at a temperature of 60 °C in an orbital shaker operated at 160 RPM. Different mass ratios of substrates were explored, and the composition of the five major triacylglycerols (TAGs) of the structured lipids was identified and quantified using cocoa butter certified reference material IRMM-801. The reaction resulted in production of cocoa butter equivalent with the TAGs' composition (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol 30.7%, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-rac-glycerol 40.1%, 1-palmitoy-2,3- dioleoyl glycerol 9.0%, 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol 14.5 %, and 1-stearoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol 5.7%) and with onset melting temperature of 31.6 °C and peak temperature of 40.4 °C which are close to those of cocoa butter. The proposed kinetics model for the acidolysis reaction presented the experimental data very well. The results of this research showed that palm mid fraction oil TAGs could be restructured to produce value added product such as CBE.

  13. Manganese accumulation in membrane fractions of primary astrocytes is associated with decreased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake, and is exacerbated by oleic acid and palmitate.

    PubMed

    Fordahl, Steve C; Erikson, Keith M

    2014-05-01

    Manganese (Mn) exposure interferes with GABA uptake; however, the effects of Mn on GABA transport proteins (GATs) have not been identified. We sought to characterize how Mn impairs GAT function in primary rat astrocytes. Astrocytes exposed to Mn (500 μM) had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake despite no change in membrane or cytosolic GAT3 protein levels. Co-treatment with 100 μM oleic or palmitic acids (both known to be elevated in Mn neurotoxicity), exacerbated the Mn-induced decline in (3)H-GABA uptake. Mn accumulation in the membrane fraction of astrocytes was enhanced with fatty acid administration, and was negatively correlated with (3)H-GABA uptake. Furthermore, control cells exposed to Mn only during the experimental uptake had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake, and the addition of GABA (50 μM) blunted cytosolic Mn accumulation. These data indicate that reduced GAT function in astrocytes is influenced by Mn and fatty acids accumulating at or interacting with the plasma membrane.

  14. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  15. Identification of a RAPD marker for palmitic-acid concentration in the seed oil of spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera).

    PubMed

    Tanhuanpää, P K; Vilkki, J P; Vilkki, H J

    1995-08-01

    F2 progeny (105 individuals) from the cross Jo4002 x Sv3402 were used to identify DNA markers associated with palmitic-acid content in spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera). QTL mapping and ANOVA analysis of 140 markers exposed one linkage group with a locus controlling palmitic-acid content (LOD score 27), and one RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) marker, OPB-11a, closely linked (1.4 cM) to this locus. Palmitic-acid content in the 62 F2 plants with the visible allele of marker OPB-11a was 8.45 ±3.15%, while that in the 24 plants without it was 4.59 ±0.97%. As oleic-acid concentration is affected by a locus on the same linkage group as the palmitic-acid locus, this locus probably controls the chain elongation from palmitic acid to oleic acid (through stearic acid). Marker OPB-11a may be used in future breeding programs of spring turnip rape to simplify and hasten the selection for palmitic-acid content.

  16. Effect of Delta 9–Stearoyl-ACP-Desaturase-C mutants in a high oleic background on soybean seed oil composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil typically contains 2-4% stearic acid. Oil with at least 20% stearic acid is desirable because of its baking properties and health profile. This study identifies two new sources of high stearic acid and evaluates the interaction of high stearic and oleic acid al...

  17. Influence of two different alcohols in the esterification of fatty acids over layered zinc stearate/palmitate.

    PubMed

    de Paiva, Eduardo José Mendes; Corazza, Marcos Lúcio; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Wärnå, Johan; Murzin, Dmitry Yu; Wypych, Fernando; Salmi, Tapio

    2015-10-01

    In this work, esterification of fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and stearic acid) with a commercial zinc carboxylate (a layered compound formed by simultaneous intercalation of stearate and palmitate anions) was performed. Kinetic modeling using a quasi-homogeneous approach successfully fitted experimental data at different molar ratio of fatty acids/alcohols (1-butanol and 1-hexanol) and temperature. An apparent first-order reaction related to all reactants was found and activation energy of 66 kJ/mol was reported. The catalyst showed to be unique, as it can be easily recovered like a heterogeneous catalysts behaving like ionic liquids. In addition, this catalyst demonstrated a peculiar behavior, because higher reactivity was observed with the increase in the alcohols chain length compared to the authors' previous work using ethanol.

  18. Dietary stearic acid leads to a reduction of visceral adipose tissue in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ming-Che; Zhao, Xiangmin; Siegal, Gene P; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    Stearic acid (C18:0) is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil), or oleic acid (corn oil) enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death) and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2) and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes.

  19. Effect of dietary triacylglycerol structure on lipoprotein metabolism: a comparison of the effects of dioleoylpalmitoylglycerol in which palmitate is esterified to the 2- or 1(3)-position of the glycerol.

    PubMed

    Pufal, D A; Quinlan, P T; Salter, A M

    1995-08-24

    The effect on lipoprotein metabolism of diets enriched in different isomers of dioleoylpalmitoylglycerol was studied. One diet contained fat in which palmitate was esterified to the two outer positions of the glycerol (OOP) and the other in which it was esterified to the middle carbon (OPO). The lipid composition of chylomicrons was similar in rats fed either fat blend. However, triacylglycerol (TAG) in chylomicrons from OPO fed animals was relatively enriched in palmitic acid, at the expense of stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. Silver phase HPLC and 2-positional analysis clearly demonstrated that the identity of the fatty acid in the 2-position was similar in both dietary and chylomicron TAG. No significant differences could be seen in the in vitro hydrolysis of chylomicron TAG from animals fed the two fats labelled with [14C]palmitate. As expected, following hydrolysis, palmitate was released as free fatty acid from chylomicrons isolated from OOP-fed animals but within 2-monoacylglycerol from those fed OPO. The enrichment of chylomicrons with palmitate in animals fed O[14C]PO resulted in increased delivery of [14C]palmitate to the liver. In a further series of experiments Golden Syrian hamsters were fed diets containing the fat blends and either 0.005% or 0.12% (w/w) cholesterol, for 28 days. No differences in fasting plasma lipoprotein concentrations were seen in response to the dietary fats. We conclude that, while these isometric triacylglycerols had transient effects on chylomicron metabolism, no significant longer term effect on plasma concentrations of endogenous lipoproteins could be found. PMID:7654779

  20. Biochemistry of high stearic sunflower, a new source of saturated fats.

    PubMed

    Salas, Joaquín J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Harwood, John L; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Aznar-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Ruíz-López, Noemí; Serrano-Vega, María J; Graham, Ian A; Mullen, Robert T; Garcés, Rafael

    2014-07-01

    Fats based on stearic acid could be a healthier alternative to existing oils especially hydrogenated fractions of oils or palm, but only a few non-tropical species produce oils with these characteristics. In this regard, newly developed high stearic oil seed crops could be a future source of fats and hard stocks rich in stearic and oleic fatty acids. These oil crops have been obtained either by breeding and mutagenesis or by suppression of desaturases using RNA interference. The present review depicts the molecular and biochemical bases for the accumulation of stearic acid in sunflower. Moreover, aspects limiting the accumulation of stearate in the seeds of this species are reviewed. This included data obtained from the characterization of genes and enzymes related to fatty acid biosynthesis and triacylglycerol assembly. Future improvements and uses of these oils are also discussed. PMID:24858414

  1. Biochemistry of high stearic sunflower, a new source of saturated fats.

    PubMed

    Salas, Joaquín J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Harwood, John L; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Aznar-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Ruíz-López, Noemí; Serrano-Vega, María J; Graham, Ian A; Mullen, Robert T; Garcés, Rafael

    2014-07-01

    Fats based on stearic acid could be a healthier alternative to existing oils especially hydrogenated fractions of oils or palm, but only a few non-tropical species produce oils with these characteristics. In this regard, newly developed high stearic oil seed crops could be a future source of fats and hard stocks rich in stearic and oleic fatty acids. These oil crops have been obtained either by breeding and mutagenesis or by suppression of desaturases using RNA interference. The present review depicts the molecular and biochemical bases for the accumulation of stearic acid in sunflower. Moreover, aspects limiting the accumulation of stearate in the seeds of this species are reviewed. This included data obtained from the characterization of genes and enzymes related to fatty acid biosynthesis and triacylglycerol assembly. Future improvements and uses of these oils are also discussed.

  2. Intramuscular paliperidone palmitate.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sheridan M; Scott, Lesley J; Keating, Gillian M

    2010-03-01

    Intramuscular paliperidone palmitate is a long-acting, atypical antipsychotic that is indicated in the US for the acute and maintenance therapy of adult patients with schizophrenia. Paliperidone is the major active metabolite of risperidone. The noninferiority of flexible doses of intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-156 mg to flexible doses of intramuscular long-acting risperidone 25-50 mg was not established in an initial 53-week study. However, these data were utilized to optimize the intramuscular paliperidone palmitate dosage regimen. In four randomized, double-blind studies, intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-234 mg was generally effective in the treatment of adult patients with acute schizophrenia, inducing significantly greater improvements from baseline in the mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score than placebo (primary endpoint). In general, intramuscular paliperidone palmitate recipients achieved significantly better outcomes than placebo recipients with regard to the PANSS subscale, PANSS factor, Personal and Social Performance scale and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale scores. As maintenance therapy, intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-156 mg was significantly more effective than placebo in delaying the time to the first relapse of schizophrenia symptoms in adult patients, according to the results of a randomized, double-blind study. The beneficial effects of intramuscular paliperidone palmitate therapy on the PANSS total score were sustained in a 52-week noncomparative extension phase of the maintenance therapy study. Intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-234 mg was generally well tolerated in adult patients with schizophrenia.

  3. Oleic acid biosynthesis in cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    VanDusen, W.J.; Jaworski, J.G.

    1986-05-01

    The biosynthesis of fatty acids in cyanobacteria is very similar to the well characterized system found in green plants. However, the initial desaturation of stearic acid in cyanobacteria appears to represent a significant departure from plant systems in which stearoyl-ACP is the exclusive substrate for desaturation. In Anabaena variabilis, the substrate appears to be monoglucosyldiacylglycerol, a lipid not found in plants. The authors examined five different cyanobacteria to determine if the pathway in A. variabilis was generally present in other cyanobacteria. The cyanobacteria studied were A. variabilis, Chlorogloeopsis sp., Schizothrix calcicola, Anacystis marina, and Anacystis nidulans. Each were grown in liquid culture, harvested, and examined for stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity or incubated with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. None of the cyanobacteria contained any stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity in whole homogenates or 105,000g supernatants. All were capable of incorporating /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ into monoglucosyldiacylglycerol and results from incubations of 20 min, 1 hr, 1 hr + 10 hr chase were consistent with monoglucosyldiacylglycerol serving as precursor for monogalctosyldiacylglycerol. Thus, initial evidence is consistent with oleic acid biosynthesis occurring by desaturation of stearoyl-monoglucosyldiacylglycerol in all cyanobacteria.

  4. Degradation of oleic acid in anaerobic filters: the effect of inoculum acclimatization and biomass recirculation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A; Mota, M; Alves, M

    2001-01-01

    The degradation of oleic acid in anaerobic filters was studied and the effect of an acclimated inoculum and biomass recirculation was evaluated. Three anaerobic filters (R1, R2, and R3) were operated in parallel. The anaerobic filters R1 and R2 were inoculated with nonacclimated biomass, whereas the anaerobic filter R3 was inoculated with acclimated biomass. In the anaerobic filters R2 and R3, biomass settling and recirculation were applied. The use of an acclimated inoculum and biomass recirculation (R3) was beneficial in terms of removal efficiency, which was 4 to 8% higher than in the anaerobic filters R1 and R2 when oleate was the sole carbon source fed to the reactors at an applied organic load of 12.5 kg of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m3 x d, even with an oleate to calcium and magnesium ion molar concentration ratio of 6.8. Biomass recirculation significantly reduced the biomass washout and the toxic effect on the acetogenic and methanogenic populations. The use of an acclimated inoculum was beneficial in terms of methane yield, which was 50% greater than that observed for the reactors inoculated with nonacclimated inoculum for the highest applied organic loading rate (12.5 kg COD/m3 x d). At the end of the operation, the biomass was encapsulated by a whitish matter, which was well detected by microscopic examination. When this sludge was incubated in batch vials at 37 degrees C where no substrate was added, methane production from the adsorbed organic matter was evidenced, attaining a maximum value (at standard temperature and pressure) of 39.7 mL/g volatile solids x d for the biomass taken from R1. With stirring (150 r/min), the methane production rate was 13.8 times higher than under static conditions. When oleate was added to this sludge, methane production was delayed, suggesting that adsorbed matter can be an intermediate of oleate degradation such as stearic, palmitic, myristic, or other saturated acids.

  5. Effects of stearic acid on the injection molding of alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, T.Y.; Lin, S.T.

    1995-10-01

    This research investigated the influence of stearic acid on the injection molding of alumina, by varying the concentration of stearic acid. The interaction between stearic acid and alumina was identified using transmission infrared spectroscopy, indicating stearic acid preferentially adsorbed onto the alumina powder surface. In addition to slightly modifying the intrinsic binder viscosity, stearic acid adsorbed onto the powder surface changed the flow behavior of the mixtures from dilatant flow to pseudoplastic flow at low temperatures. As a result, inhomogeneous distribution of binder in the injection-molded parts was minimized with increased stearic acid concentration. However, the possibility of forming bubbles in the mixtures arising from vaporization of stearic acid was enhanced. Additionally, the binder burnout temperature range was broadened with the increase of stearic acid concentration.

  6. Intestinal absorption of retinol and retinyl palmitate in the rat. Effects of tetrahydrolipstatin

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, E.; Borgstroem, B. )

    1990-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the intestinal absorption of retinol and retinyl palmitate in thoracic duct and bile duct fistulated rats and to investigate the effect of a simultaneously administered lipase inhibitor, tetrahydrolipstatin (THL). Absorption was determined as lymphatic recovery over a 24-hr period, including an initial 12-hr continuous intraduodenal infusion of either (11,12-3H)retinol or (11,12-3H)retinyl palmitate given in emulsified glyceryl trioleate or in mixed micellar solution of monoolein and oleic acid. From micellar dispersion, labeled retinol and retinyl palmitate were recovered in the lymph to 50-60% and both to the same extent. Administered in emulsified form, labeled retinol from fed retinyl palmitate was recovered to 47%, but retinol from fed retinol to only 18%. THL (10(-4) M) in the infusate had no significant effect on the recovery of 14C-labeled oleic acid. The recovery of label from emulsified glyceryl tri(1-14C)oleate was significantly decreased at this concentration of THL (76.5% vs 19.6% recovery). When administered in emulsified form, retinol absorption was not significantly affected by THL at 10(-4) M, while retinyl palmitate absorption was very significantly decreased (5.0% compared to 47.8%). In the presence of THL, retinol absorption from retinyl palmitate in micellar solution was decreased (from 58% to 17%). Most of the retinol in the lymph extracts (72.2 to 91.3) was present as retinyl ester, regardless of the chemical and physical form of administration. Furthermore, THL did not induce any change in this pattern.

  7. Mutations in SACPD-C result in a range of elevated stearic acid concentration in soybean seed.

    PubMed

    Carrero-Colón, Militza; Abshire, Nathan; Sweeney, Daniel; Gaskin, Erik; Hudson, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Soybean oil has a wide variety of uses, and stearic acid, which is a relatively minor component of soybean oil is increasingly desired for both industrial and food applications. New soybean mutants containing high levels of the saturated fatty acid stearate in seeds were recently identified from a chemically mutagenized population. Six mutants ranged in stearate content from 6-14% stearic acid, which is 1.5 to 3 times the levels contained in wild-type seed of the Williams 82 cultivar. Candidate gene sequencing revealed that all of these lines carried amino acid substitutions in the gene encoding the delta-9-stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein desaturase enzyme (SACPD-C) required for the conversion of stearic acid to oleic acid. Five of these missense mutations were in highly conserved residues clustered around the predicted di-iron center of the SACPD-C enzyme. Co-segregation analysis demonstrated a positive association of the elevated stearate trait with the SACPD-C mutation for three populations. These missense mutations may provide additional alleles that may be used in the development of new soybean cultivars with increased levels of stearic acid.

  8. Mutations in SACPD-C Result in a Range of Elevated Stearic Acid Concentration in Soybean Seed

    PubMed Central

    Carrero-Colón, Militza; Abshire, Nathan; Sweeney, Daniel; Gaskin, Erik; Hudson, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Soybean oil has a wide variety of uses, and stearic acid, which is a relatively minor component of soybean oil is increasingly desired for both industrial and food applications. New soybean mutants containing high levels of the saturated fatty acid stearate in seeds were recently identified from a chemically mutagenized population. Six mutants ranged in stearate content from 6–14% stearic acid, which is 1.5 to 3 times the levels contained in wild-type seed of the Williams 82 cultivar. Candidate gene sequencing revealed that all of these lines carried amino acid substitutions in the gene encoding the delta-9-stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein desaturase enzyme (SACPD-C) required for the conversion of stearic acid to oleic acid. Five of these missense mutations were in highly conserved residues clustered around the predicted di-iron center of the SACPD-C enzyme. Co-segregation analysis demonstrated a positive association of the elevated stearate trait with the SACPD-C mutation for three populations. These missense mutations may provide additional alleles that may be used in the development of new soybean cultivars with increased levels of stearic acid. PMID:24846334

  9. Near infrared spectroscopy of stearic acid adsorbed on montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Lu, Longfei; Cai, Jingong; Frost, Ray L

    2010-03-01

    The adsorption of stearic acid on both sodium montmorillonites and calcium montmorillonites has been studied by near infrared spectroscopy complimented with infrared spectroscopy. Upon adsorption of stearic acid on Ca-Mt additional near infrared bands are observed at 8236 cm(-1) and is assigned to an interaction of stearic acid with the water of hydration. Upon adsorption of the stearic acid on Na-Mt, the NIR bands are now observed at 5671, 5778, 5848 and 5912 cm(-1) and are assigned to the overtone and combination bands of the CH fundamentals. Additional bands at 4177, 4250, 4324, 4337, 4689 and 4809 cm(-1) are attributed to CH combination bands resulting from the adsorption of the stearic acid. Stearic acid is used as a model molecule for adsorption studies. The application of near infrared spectroscopy to the study of this adsorption proved most useful. PMID:20071218

  10. Mutations in a delta9-Stearoyl-ACP-Desaturase Gene Are Associated with Enhanced Stearic Acid Levels in Soybean Seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.; Shanklin, J.; Burton, J. W.; Upchurch, R. G.; Whittle, E.; Dewey, R. E.

    2008-11-01

    Stearic acid (18:0) is typically a minor component of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil, accounting for only 2 to 4% of the total fatty acid content. Increasing stearic acid levels of soybean oil would lead to enhanced oxidative stability, potentially reducing the need for hydrogenation, a process leading to the formation of undesirable trans fatty acids. Although mutagenesis strategies have been successful in developing soybean germplasm with elevated 18:0 levels in the seed oil, the specific gene mutations responsible for this phenotype were not known. We report a newly identified soybean gene, designated SACPD-C, that encodes a unique isoform of {Delta}{sup 9}-stearoyl-ACP-desaturase, the enzyme responsible for converting stearic acid to oleic acid (18:1). High levels of SACPD-C transcript were only detected in developing seed tissue, suggesting that the encoded desaturase functions to enhance oleic acid biosynthetic capacity as the immature seed is actively engaged in triacylglycerol production and storage. The participation of SACPD-C in storage triacylglycerol synthesis is further supported by the observation of mutations in this gene in two independent sources of elevated 18:0 soybean germplasm, A6 (30% 18:0) and FAM94-41 (9% 18:0). A molecular marker diagnostic for the FAM94-41 SACPD-C gene mutation strictly associates with the elevated 18:0 phenotype in a segregating population, and could thus serve as a useful tool in the development of cultivars with oils possessing enhanced oxidative stability.

  11. 21 CFR 182.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 182.3149 Section 182.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3149 Ascorbyl palmitate. (a) Product....

  12. Palmitic Acid and Health: Introduction.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Moreno, Luis; Shamir, Raanan

    2016-09-01

    Interest in the dietary role and metabolic effect of saturated fatty acids has been recently renewed on the basis of epidemiologic observations and economical approach to health and well-being. Saturated fats may favorably increase blood HDL-Cholesterol levels without significant changes of the total cholesterol/HDL-Cholesterol ratio. Also, the negative effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular diseases risk has recently been challenged. Palmitic acid, among all, may have special structural and functional roles in utero and in infancy, and indeed is it is being delivered in a unique form in human milk. Future research should include objective cost-benefit analyses when disentangling the role of saturated fats in dietary recommendations.

  13. Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

  14. Measurements of Oleic Acid among Individual kernels Harvested from Test Plots of Purified Runner and Spanish High Oleic Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Normal oleic peanuts are often found within commercial lots of high oleic peanuts when sampling among individual kernels. Kernels not meeting high oleic threshold could be true contamination with normal oleic peanuts introduced via poor handling, or they could be immature and not fully expressing th...

  15. Measurements of Oleic Acid among Individual Kernels Harvested from Test Plots of Purified Runner and Spanish High Oleic Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Normal oleic peanuts are often found within commercial lots of high oleic peanuts when sampling among individual kernels. Kernels not meeting high oleic threshold could be true contamination with normal oleic peanuts introduced via poor handling, or they could be immature and not fully expressing th...

  16. Dietary interesterified fat enriched with palmitic acid induces atherosclerosis by impairing macrophage cholesterol efflux and eliciting inflammation.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Milessa Silva; Lavrador, Maria Silvia Ferrari; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Cintra, Dennys Esper; Ferreira, Fabiana Dias; Nunes, Valeria Sutti; Castilho, Gabriela; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Paula Bombo, Renata; Catanozi, Sergio; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Passarelli, Marisa; Nakandakare, Edna Regina; Lottenberg, Ana Maria

    2016-06-01

    Interesterified fats are currently being used to replace trans fatty acids. However, their impact on biological pathways involved in the atherosclerosis development was not investigated. Weaning male LDLr-KO mice were fed for 16weeks on a high-fat diet (40% energy as fat) containing polyunsaturated (PUFA), TRANS, palmitic (PALM), palmitic interesterified (PALM INTER), stearic (STEAR) or stearic interesterified (STEAR INTER). Plasma lipids, lipoprotein profile, arterial lesion area, macrophage infiltration, collagen content and inflammatory response modulation were determined. Macrophage cholesterol efflux and the arterial expression of cholesterol uptake and efflux receptors were also performed. The interesterification process did not alter plasma lipid concentrations. Although PALM INTER did not increase plasma cholesterol concentration as much as TRANS, the cholesterol enrichment in the LDL particle was similar in both groups. Moreover, PALM INTER induced the highest IL-1β, MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion from peritoneal macrophages as compared to others. This inflammatory response elicited by PALM INTER was confirmed in arterial wall, as compared to PALM. These deleterious effects of PALM INTER culminate in higher atherosclerotic lesion, macrophage infiltration and collagen content than PALM, STEAR, STEAR INTER and PUFA. These events can partially be attributed to a macrophage cholesterol accumulation, promoted by apoAI and HDL2-mediated cholesterol efflux impairment and increased Olr-1 and decreased Abca1 and Nr1h3 expressions in the arterial wall. Interesterified fats containing palmitic acid induce atherosclerosis development by promoting cholesterol accumulation in LDL particles and macrophagic cells, activating the inflammatory process in LDLr-KO mice.

  17. Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and QSAR studies of stearic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Tahlan, S; Kumar, P; Narasimhan, B

    2014-02-01

    A series of Schiff bases (1-17) and esters (18-28) of stearic acid was synthesized and characterized by physicochemical as well as spectral means. The synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity by tube dilution method. The antimicrobial screening results indicated that the compounds having electron releasing groups on benzylidene nucleus were found to be more active against bacterial strains and compounds having electron withdrawing groups on benzylidene nucleus were found to be more active against fungal strains. QSAR studies demonstrated that electronic parameters dipole moment (µ) and total energy (Te) were the most important descriptors in describing the antimicrobial activity of synthesized stearic acid derivatives.

  18. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

  19. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

  20. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

  1. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed...

  2. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 582.3149 Section 582.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  4. 21 CFR 182.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ascorbyl palmitate. 182.3149 Section 182.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  5. 21 CFR 182.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 182.3149 Section 182.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 582.3149 Section 582.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  7. 21 CFR 182.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 182.3149 Section 182.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 582.3149 Section 582.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  9. 21 CFR 182.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 182.3149 Section 182.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  10. 21 CFR 582.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 582.3149 Section 582.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 582.3149 Section 582.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5936 - Vitamin A palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin A palmitate. 582.5936 Section 582.5936 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5936 Vitamin A palmitate. (a) Product. Vitamin A palmitate. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.5936 - Vitamin A palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin A palmitate. 582.5936 Section 582.5936 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5936 Vitamin A palmitate. (a) Product. Vitamin A palmitate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.5936 - Vitamin A palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A palmitate. 582.5936 Section 582.5936 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5936 Vitamin A palmitate. (a) Product. Vitamin A palmitate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5936 - Vitamin A palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin A palmitate. 582.5936 Section 582.5936 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5936 Vitamin A palmitate. (a) Product. Vitamin A palmitate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.5936 - Vitamin A palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin A palmitate. 582.5936 Section 582.5936 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5936 Vitamin A palmitate. (a) Product. Vitamin A palmitate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. Functionality of maize, wheat, teff and cassava starches with stearic acid and xanthan gum.

    PubMed

    Maphalla, Thabelang Gladys; Emmambux, Mohammad Naushad

    2016-01-20

    Consumer concerns to synthetic chemicals have led to strong preference for 'clean' label starches. Lipid and hydrocolloids are food friendly chemicals. This study determines the effects of stearic acid and xanthan gum alone and in combination on the functionality of maize, wheat, teff and cassava starches. An increase in viscosity was observed for all starches with stearic acid and xanthan gum compared to the controls with cassava having the least increase. A further increase in viscosity was observed for the cereal starches with combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum. Stearic acid reduced retrogradation, resulting in soft textured pastes. Combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum reduced the formation of type IIb amylose-lipid complexes, syneresis, and hysteresis in cereal starches compared to stearic acid alone. A combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum produce higher viscosity non-gelling starches and xanthan gum addition increases physical stability to freezing and better structural recovery after shear.

  18. Functionality of maize, wheat, teff and cassava starches with stearic acid and xanthan gum.

    PubMed

    Maphalla, Thabelang Gladys; Emmambux, Mohammad Naushad

    2016-01-20

    Consumer concerns to synthetic chemicals have led to strong preference for 'clean' label starches. Lipid and hydrocolloids are food friendly chemicals. This study determines the effects of stearic acid and xanthan gum alone and in combination on the functionality of maize, wheat, teff and cassava starches. An increase in viscosity was observed for all starches with stearic acid and xanthan gum compared to the controls with cassava having the least increase. A further increase in viscosity was observed for the cereal starches with combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum. Stearic acid reduced retrogradation, resulting in soft textured pastes. Combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum reduced the formation of type IIb amylose-lipid complexes, syneresis, and hysteresis in cereal starches compared to stearic acid alone. A combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum produce higher viscosity non-gelling starches and xanthan gum addition increases physical stability to freezing and better structural recovery after shear. PMID:26572436

  19. Development of the Oleic Acid/Linoleic Acid Ratio in High-Oleic Valencia Market Type Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major fatty acids in peanuts are oleic acid (O), a monounsaturated omega-9, and linoleic acid (L), a polyunsaturated omega-6. Peanuts containing these two fatty acids in a ratio (O/L) above 9 are known as high oleic (HO). Normal oleic (NO) peanuts are those with an O/L ratio less than 9. HO pean...

  20. Requirement of Phosphoinositides Containing Stearic Acid To Control Cell Polarity.

    PubMed

    Doignon, François; Laquel, Patricia; Testet, Eric; Tuphile, Karine; Fouillen, Laetitia; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques

    2016-03-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIPs) are present in very small amounts but are essential for cell signaling, morphogenesis, and polarity. By mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that some PIPs with stearic acyl chains were strongly disturbed in a psi1Δ Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain deficient in the specific incorporation of a stearoyl chain at the sn-1 position of phosphatidylinositol. The absence of PIPs containing stearic acid induced disturbances in intracellular trafficking, although the total amount of PIPs was not diminished. Changes in PIPs also induced alterations in the budding pattern and defects in actin cytoskeleton organization (cables and patches). Moreover, when the PSI1 gene was impaired, a high proportion of cells with bipolar cortical actin patches that occurred concomitantly with the bipolar localization of Cdc42p was specifically found among diploid cells. This bipolar cortical actin phenotype, never previously described, was also detected in a bud9Δ/bud9Δ strain. Very interestingly, overexpression of PSI1 reversed this phenotype.

  1. Changes in Oleic Acid Content of Transgenic Soybeans by Antisense RNA Mediated Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiang-dong; Zhang, Yuan-yu; Yang, Jing; Qi, Guang-xun; Guo, Dong-quan; Xing, Guo-jie; Yao, Yao; Xu, Wen-jing; Li, Hai-yun; Li, Qi-yun; Dong, Ying-shan

    2014-01-01

    The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1), which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71%) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3%) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts. PMID:25197629

  2. Changes in oleic Acid content of transgenic soybeans by antisense RNA mediated posttranscriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Yuan-Yu; Yang, Jing; Qi, Guang-Xun; Guo, Dong-Quan; Xing, Guo-Jie; Yao, Yao; Xu, Wen-Jing; Li, Hai-Yun; Li, Qi-Yun; Dong, Ying-Shan

    2014-01-01

    The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1), which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71%) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3%) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts.

  3. Identification and expression of a stearoyl-ACP desaturase gene responsible for oleic acid accumulation in Xanthoceras sorbifolia seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Qiuqi; Li, Rufang; Xia, Xinli; Qin, Xiaowei; Guo, Huihong

    2015-02-01

    Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge is an oilseed tree that grows well on barren lands in dry climate. Its seeds contain a large amount of oil rich in oleic acid (18:1(Δ9)) and linoleic acid (18:2(Δ9, 12)). However, the molecular regulation of oil biosynthesis in X. sorbifolia seeds is poorly understood. Stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD, EC 1.14.99.6) is a plastid-localized soluble desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of stearic acid (18:0) to oleic acid, which plays a key role in determining the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, a full-length cDNA of XsSAD was isolated from developing X. sorbifolia embryos. The XsSAD open reading frame had 1194-bp, encoding a polypeptide of 397 amino acids. XsSAD expression in Escherichia coli cells resulted in increased 18:1(Δ9) level, confirming the biological activity of the enzyme encoded by XsSAD. XsSAD expression in Arabidopsis ssi2 mutants partially restored the morphological phenotype and effectively increased the 18:1(Δ9) level. The levels of other unsaturated fatty acids synthesized with 18:1(Δ9) as the substrate also increased to some degree. XsSAD in X. sorbifolia had a much higher expression in embryos than in leaves and petals. XsSAD expression also correlated well with the oleic acid, unsaturated fatty acid, and total fatty acid levels in developing embryos. These data suggested that XsSAD determined the synthesis of oleic acid and contributed to the accumulation of unsaturated fatty acid and total oil in X. sorbifolia seeds. A preliminary tobacco rattle virus-based virus-induced gene silencing system established in X. sorbifolia can also be helpful for further analyzing the functions of XsSAD and other oil synthesis-related genes in woody plants.

  4. Preparation of five 3-MCPD fatty acid esters and the effects of their chemical structures on acute oral toxicity in Swiss mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid esters of 3-monochloro-1, 2-propanediol (3-MCPDEs), including 1-stearic, 1-oleic, 1-linoleic, 1-linoleic-2-palmitic and 1-palmitic-2-linoleic acid esters, were synthetized and examined for their acute oral toxicities in Swiss mice. 3-MCPDEs were obtained through the reaction of 3-MCPD and...

  5. Utilization of Stearic acid Extracted from Olive Pomace for Production of Triazoles, Thiadiazoles and Thiadiazines Derivatives of Potential Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Hanaa Mohamad; Basuny, Amany M; Arafat, Shaker M

    2015-01-01

    Olive Pomace was firstly dried, then pomace olive oil was extracted, and the obtained oil was hydrolyzed to produce glycerol and mixture of fatty acids. Fatty acids mixture was separated, this mixture was then cooled, where the all saturated fatty acids were solidified, and then they were filtered off. These saturated fatty acids were identified by GC mass after esterification, and were identified as stearic, palmitic and myristic acids. Stearic acid was extracted using supercritical CO2 extractor. The stearic acid was confirmed by means of GC mass after its esterification, and it was used as starting material for preparation of a variety of heterocyclic compounds, which were then tested for their antimicrobial activities. Thus the long-chain fatty acid hydrazide (2) was prepared from the corresponding long-chain fatty ester with hydrazine hydrate. Reacting 2 with phenyl isothiocyanate afforded the corresponding thiosemicarbazide 4. The later 4 underwent intramolecular cyclization in basic medium, and gave the s-triazole derivative 5, which was methylated and afforded 3-heptadecanyl-5-(methylthio)-4-phenyl-4H-1,3,4-triazole (7), which was then treated with hydrazine hydrate and afforded the corresponding 1-(5-heptadecanyl-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl) hydrazine (8).On the other hand, thiosemicarbazide 4 underwent intramolecular cyclization in acid medium and afforded the corresponding thiadiazole derivative 6.Treatment of thiosemicarbazide 4 with ethyl chloro(arylhydrazono) acetate derivatives 9a-b, furnished a single product 13 (Scheme 6). Similarly, when the thiosemicarbazide 4 was treated with the phenylcarbamoylarylhydrazonyl chloride 10a-c, it afforded (3-Aryl-N-5-(phenylcarbamoyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)octadecanehydrazide 15a-c (Scheme 7). Also the reaction of thiosemicarbazide 4 with 2-oxo-N-arylpropanehydrazonoyl chlorides 11a-c and N-phenylbenzohydrazonoyl chloride 11d gave the corresponding thiadiazole derivatives 16a-d as shown in Scheme 8. A

  6. Comparative Study of Stearic Acid/Iron-Oxide Binary and Stearic Acid/Iron-Oxide/Titanium-Oxide Ternary for Use as Energy Storage Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andiarto, Rizky; Khalish Nuryadin, Muhammad; Saleh, Rosari

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a series of stearic acid/Fe3O4, and stearic acid/Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites for thermal energy storage (TES) system were synthesized through a two-step process. Fe3O4 nanoparticles and Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites were first prepared using sol-gel methods and then both samples were mixed into stearic acid by dispersion technique at three different weight % ratio to stearic acid: 5%, 10% and 15% to obtain stearic acid/Fe3O4, and stearic acid/Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites. Morphologies and structural properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), while thermal properties of the sample were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fhermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD patterns demonstrate, that stearic acid/Fe3O4 contained characteristic peaks of Fe3O4 and stearic acid structures, while peaks corresponded to anatase TiO2 structures appear in stearic acid/ Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposites. From the DSC measurements, it is found that the maximum latent heat was found at samples with weight ratio of 5%. Moreover, the enhancement up to 20% of latent heat in solidifying as well as melting processes was observed. TGA measurements show high degradation temperature in the range of 246 - 251°C. The TGA results also shows that the residual mass of the sample matches the composition of Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/TiO2 which is added to the stearic acid.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1702 - Sheanut oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... parkii and is composed principally of triglycerides containing an oleic acid moiety at the 2-position and saturated fatty acids, usually stearic or palmitic acids, at the 1- and 3-positions. (b) The ingredient... percent, (4) Free fatty acids not more than 0.1 percent as oleic acid, (5) Peroxide value not more than...

  8. A new low linolenic acid allele of GmFAD3A gene in soybean PE1690

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relative fatty acid content of soybean oil is about 12 % palmitic acid, 4 % stearic acid, 23 % oleic acid, 54 % linoleic acid, and 8 % linolenic acid. To improve oxidative stability and quality of oil, breeding programs have mainly focused on reducing saturated fatty acids, increasing oleic acid, an...

  9. Transfer of oleic acid between albumin and phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J A; Cistola, D P

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by 13C NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted [1-13C]oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles (vesicles or albumin with oleic acid) and acceptor particles (fatty acid-free albumin or vesicles), the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with greater than or equal to 80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was greater than or equal to 90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin; at pH 5.4, less than or equal to 10% of the oleic acid was bound to albumin and greater than 90% was associated with vesicles. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The 13C NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data. PMID:3455761

  10. Transfer of Oleic Acid between Albumin and Phospholipid Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, James A.; Cistola, David P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by 13C NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted [1-13C]oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles (vesicles or albumin with oleic acid) and acceptor particles (fatty acid-free albumin or vesicles), the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with >= 80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was >= 90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin; at pH 5.4, <= 10% of the oleic acid was bound to albumin and >90% was associated with vesicles. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The 13C NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data.

  11. Binding of [3H]palmitate to BSA.

    PubMed

    Elmadhoun, B M; Wang, G Q; Templeton, J F; Burczynski, F J

    1998-10-01

    Determination of the BSA-palmitate high-affinity binding constant (Ka) traditionally relied on the heptane-water partitioning technique. We used this technique to calculate Ka for the BSA-[3H]palmitate complex, to determine if Ka was independent of protein concentration, and to determine if the unbound [3H]palmitate concentration is constant at different BSA concentrations using constant BSA-to-palmitate molar ratios (range 1:1 to 1:4). After extensive extraction of non-[3H]palmitate radiolabeled substances, the heptane-to-buffer partition ratio, in the absence of BSA, was 702 +/- 19 (mean +/- SD, n = 6). This value was much lower than the predicted value of 1,376 and was highly dependent on which phase (organic or aqueous) initially contained the [3H]palmitic acid. The data were consistent with the notion of self-association of [3H]palmitate in the aqueous phase. Ka for the BSA-[3H]palmitate complex was determined to be similar (2.2 +/- 0.1) x 10(8) M-1 (mean +/- SD, P > 0.05) at all BSA concentrations studied. At each BSA-to-palmitate molar ratio, the equilibrium unbound ligand concentration was constant only at low BSA concentrations (<10 microM) and at low BSA-to-palmitate molar ratios (i.e., 1:1 and 1:2). At higher BSA concentrations and molar ratios, the unbound ligand concentration increased with an increase in protein concentration. Hepatocyte uptake using the manufacturer-supplied radiolabeled product was significantly higher than with the purified product, suggesting that a non-[3H]palmitate radiolabel is also a substrate for the uptake process.

  12. Adsorption of oleic acid at sillimanite/water interface.

    PubMed

    Kumar, T V Vijaya; Prabhakar, S; Raju, G Bhaskar

    2002-03-15

    The interaction of oleic acid at sillimanite-water interface was studied by adsorption, FT-IR, and zeta potential measurements. The isoelectric point (IEP) of sillimanite obtained at pH 8.0 was found to shift in the presence of oleic acid. This shift in IEP was attributed to chemisorption of oleic acid on sillimanite. Adsorption experiments were conducted at pH 8.0, where the sillimanite surface is neutral. The adsorption isotherm exhibited a plateau around 5 micromol/m2 that correspond to a monolayer formation. Adsorption of oleic acid on sillimanite, alumina, and aluminum hydroxide was studied by FT-IR. Chemisorption of oleic acid on the above substrates was confirmed by FT-IR studies. Hydroxylation of mineral surface was found to be essential for the adsorption of oleic acid molecules. These surface hydroxyl sites were observed to facilitate deprotonation of oleic acid and its subsequent adsorption. Thus protons from oleic acid react with surface hydroxyl groups and form water molecules. Based on the experimental results, the mechanism of oleic acid adsorption on mineral substrate was proposed. Free energy of adsorption was estimated using the Stern-Graham equation for a sillimanite-oleate system. PMID:16290466

  13. 21 CFR 520.390c - Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. 520.390c Section 520.390c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.390c Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension....

  14. Requirement of Phosphoinositides Containing Stearic Acid To Control Cell Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Laquel, Patricia; Testet, Eric; Tuphile, Karine; Fouillen, Laetitia; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIPs) are present in very small amounts but are essential for cell signaling, morphogenesis, and polarity. By mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that some PIPs with stearic acyl chains were strongly disturbed in a psi1Δ Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain deficient in the specific incorporation of a stearoyl chain at the sn-1 position of phosphatidylinositol. The absence of PIPs containing stearic acid induced disturbances in intracellular trafficking, although the total amount of PIPs was not diminished. Changes in PIPs also induced alterations in the budding pattern and defects in actin cytoskeleton organization (cables and patches). Moreover, when the PSI1 gene was impaired, a high proportion of cells with bipolar cortical actin patches that occurred concomitantly with the bipolar localization of Cdc42p was specifically found among diploid cells. This bipolar cortical actin phenotype, never previously described, was also detected in a bud9Δ/bud9Δ strain. Very interestingly, overexpression of PSI1 reversed this phenotype. PMID:26711260

  15. Transfer of oleic acid between albumin and phospholipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.A.; Cistola, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by TC NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted (1- TC)oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles, the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with greater than or equal to80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was greater than or equal to90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The TC NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data.

  16. Oleic acid content is responsible for the reduction in blood pressure induced by olive oil.

    PubMed

    Terés, S; Barceló-Coblijn, G; Benet, M; Alvarez, R; Bressani, R; Halver, J E; Escribá, P V

    2008-09-16

    Numerous studies have shown that high olive oil intake reduces blood pressure (BP). These positive effects of olive oil have frequently been ascribed to its minor components, such as alpha-tocopherol, polyphenols, and other phenolic compounds that are not present in other oils. However, in this study we demonstrate that the hypotensive effect of olive oil is caused by its high oleic acid (OA) content (approximately 70-80%). We propose that olive oil intake increases OA levels in membranes, which regulates membrane lipid structure (H(II) phase propensity) in such a way as to control G protein-mediated signaling, causing a reduction in BP. This effect is in part caused by its regulatory action on G protein-associated cascades that regulate adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. In turn, the OA analogues, elaidic and stearic acids, had no hypotensive activity, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that link membrane lipid structure and BP regulation are very specific. Similarly, soybean oil (with low OA content) did not reduce BP. This study demonstrates that olive oil induces its hypotensive effects through the action of OA.

  17. The biohydrogenation of α-linoleic acid and oleic acid by rumen micro-organisms

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, P. F.; Dawson, R. M. C.

    1966-01-01

    1. α-[U-14C]Linolenic acid was incubated with the rumen contents of sheep and the metabolic products were characterized by thin-layer chromatography, gas–liquid chromatography and absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and infrared. 2. A tentative scheme for the biohydrogenation route to stearic acid is presented. The main pathway is through diconjugated cis–cis–cis-octadecatrienoic acid, non-conjugated trans–cis (cis–trans)-octadecadienoic acid and trans-octadecenoic acid, but other pathways are apparent. 3. Washed rumen micro-organisms possessed only a limited capacity to hydrogenate α-linolenic acid and oleic acid but the rate was greatly stimulated by a factor(s) present in the supernatant rumen liquor. 4. Pure cultures of Clostridium perfringens, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and a coliform organism isolated from sheep faeces possessed negligible ability to hydrogenate unsaturated fatty acids compared with a mixed population of rumen micro-organisms. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens slowly converted linoleic acid into octadecenoic acid. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:4287407

  18. Maturity Effects on Contamination of High-Oleic Peanut Lots with Normal-Oleic Seeds of a Large Seeded Virginia Type Peanut Variety.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need to segregate high- and normal-oleic peanut seeds has lead to investigations into potential sources of mixing. Previous work in our lab examined the development of in two lines of virginia type seeds, Bailey (normal-oleic) and Spain (high-oleic) for changes in the oleic to linoleic ratios (...

  19. A comparative study of stearic and lignoceric acid oxidation by human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Singh, H; Poulos, A

    1986-10-01

    Sensitive assays were developed for long chain and very long chain fatty acid oxidation in human skin fibroblast homogenates. Stearic and lignoceric acids were degraded by the fibroblasts by the beta-oxidation pathway. The cofactor requirements for stearic and lignoceric acid beta-oxidation were very similar but not identical. For example, appreciable lignoceric acid oxidation could be demonstrated only in the presence of alpha-cyclodextrin and was inhibited by Triton X-100. In Zellweger's syndrome, stearic acid beta-oxidation was partially reduced whereas lignoceric acid beta-oxidation was reduced dramatically (less than 12% activity compared to the controls). The results presented suggest that stearic acid beta-oxidation occurs in mitochondria as well as in peroxisomes, but lignoceric acid oxidation occurs entirely in the peroxisomes. We suggest that the beta-oxidation systems for stearic acid and lignoceric acid may be different.

  20. Perinatal rat lung retinol (vitamin A) and retinyl palmitate.

    PubMed

    Zachman, R D; Kakkad, B; Chytil, F

    1984-12-01

    The potential role for retinol (vitamin A alcohol) in the differentiation of the developing lung prompted this study in the perinatal rat. High performance liquid chromatography was used to separate, detect, and quantitate retinol and retinyl palmitate in lipid extracts of tissue and serum. Fetal and maternal blood showed the presence of retinol, whereas no retinyl palmitate was detected. On the other hand, fetal and postnatal lungs contained retinyl palmitate as well as retinol. Considerable changes in the content of lung retinyl palmitate were found during lung development. Fetal lungs (17-21 days of gestation) contained 2.3 +/- 0.36 micrograms/g wet weight (mean +/- SD) of retinyl palmitate and 0.14 +/- 0.05 micrograms/g of retinol. Lungs of pups (1-10 days old) contained much less retinyl palmitate, 0.63 +/- 0.20 micrograms/g, whereas the amount of retinol was the same as in fetal lungs. The surprisingly high content of retinyl palmitate in fetal lung and its depletion after birth may be functionally related to retinol action in the developing lung. PMID:6522144

  1. Ionic Grease Lubricants: Protic [Triethanolamine][Oleic Acid] and Aprotic [Choline][Oleic Acid].

    PubMed

    Mu, Liwen; Shi, Yijun; Ji, Tuo; Chen, Long; Yuan, Ruixia; Wang, Huaiyuan; Zhu, Jiahua

    2016-02-01

    Ionic liquid lubricants or lubricant additives have been studied intensively over past decades. However, ionic grease serving as lubricant has rarely been investigated so far. In this work, novel protic [triethanolamine][oleic acid] and aprotic [choline][oleic acid] ionic greases are successfully synthesized. These ionic greases can be directly used as lubricants without adding thickeners or other additives. Their distinct thermal and rheological properties are investigated and are well-correlated to their tribological properties. It is revealed that aprotic ionic grease shows superior temperature- and pressure-tolerant lubrication properties over those of protic ionic grease. The lubrication mechanism is studied, and it reveals that strong physical adsorption of ionic grease onto friction surface plays a dominating role for promoted lubrication instead of tribo-chemical film formation.

  2. Shear rigidity of spread stearic acid monolayers on water

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, B.M.; Ketterson, J.B.; Miyano, K.; Kueny, A.

    1981-09-15

    The effect of Al/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and Mg/sup 2 +/ ions and of pH on the two-dimensional shear modulus of stearic acid spread on a water substrate was determined. A large shear modulus was displayed by the films when the subphase contained Al/sup 3 +/ and Fe/sup 3 +/ ions at the self-buffered pH. With Fe/sup 2 +/ dissolved in the subphase, the film displayed a viscous relaxation when strained but no residual stress was observed. No effect was observed with the Ca/sup 2 +/ or Mg/sup 2 +/. Reducing the pH value in the subphase with the trivalent ions caused the shear modulus to disappear. The observations are interpreted in terms of hydrogen bonding.

  3. Shear rigidity of spread stearic acid monolayers on water

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, B.M.; Ketterson, J.B.; Miyano, K.; Kueny, A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of Al/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and Mg/sup 2 +/ ions and of pH on the two-dimensional shear modulus of stearic acid spread on a water substrate was determined. A large shear modulus was displayed by the films when the subphase contained Al/sup 3 +/ and Fe/sup 3 +/ ions at the self buffered pH. With Fe/sup 3 +/ dissolved in the subphase, the film displayed a viscous relaxation when strained but no residual stress was observed. No effect was observed with the Ca/sup 2 +/ or Mg/sup 2 +/. Reducing the pH value in the subphase with the trivalent ions caused the shear modulus to disappear. The observations are interpreted in terms of hydrogen bonding.

  4. [Palm oil derivatives with different concentration of palmitic acid and antioxidants. Effects upon plasmatic lipids and platelet aggregation].

    PubMed

    Scorza, T; Martucci, A; Torrealba de Ron, A T

    1999-03-01

    It was evaluated the effect of diet rich with cholesterol (0.1%) and different concentration of palmitic acid (16:0) and antioxidants (vitamin C, alpha tocopherol and retinol) upon plasmatic lipids and platelet aggregability in rabbits. The animals were distributed in three groups: I. Standard chow meal (Rp Conejarina) + cholesterol (chol) 0.1%; II. Standard chow meal + chol 0.1% + semipurified palm oil 10% (16:0 = 39.8%, oleic acid 48.7%, linoleic acid 11.4%, retinol 7.3 ug/dL, alpha tocopherol 157.6 ug/dL; III. Standard chow meal + chol 0.1% + crude palm oil 10% (16:0 = 45.3%, oleic acid 46.3%, linoleic acid 7.9%, retinol 96.4 ug/dL, alpha tocopherol 322.8 ug/dL). Monthly determination of plasmatic lipids were done (Enzymatic methods) and at ten months platelet aggregability with ADP, plasmatic vitamin C, retinol and, alpha tocopherol determination were done. Total plasmatic cholesterol (TC) and LDLc increased significantly in the three groups of animals. Significant differences between groups were not found. Platelet aggregability was lower in the animals fed with palmitic acid rich diet (groups II and III) (P = 0.002 and 0.001). Retinol, alpha tocopherol plasmatic concentrations revealed no significant differences. Vitamin C in the groups I was lower than groups II and III (P < 0.05 < 0.02). In this study hypercholesterolemic rabbits fed with rich diets (crude and semipurified) had lower platelet aggregability without changes in plasmatic lipids concentrations.

  5. Palmitate uptake by hepatocyte monolayers. Effect of albumin binding.

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, A B; Shurmantine, W O; Luxon, B A; Forker, E L

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of 14C-palmitate by rat liver cell monolayers is depressed by binding of the fatty acid to albumin. When the uptake flux is divided by the concentration of free palmitate in the bathing medium, however, the resulting clearance is approximately 14 times greater in the presence of albumin than in its absence. These findings are not accounted for by the different diffusion rates of free and bound palmitate across an unstirred fluid layer, nor attributable to nonequilibrium binding. Instead we argue that the most plausible explanation is accelerated dissociation of albumin-palmitate complexes mediated by the cell surface--an interpretation that also explains the uptake kinetics of other albumin-bound organic anions by perfused rat liver. Images PMID:3949983

  6. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C.; Ford, Jeffery J.; Lee, John C.; Adamo, Martin L.

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects.

  7. Increased palmitate intake: higher acylcarnitine concentrations without impaired progression of β-oxidation1[S

    PubMed Central

    Kien, C. Lawrence; Matthews, Dwight E.; Poynter, Matthew E.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Fukagawa, Naomi K.; Crain, Karen I.; Ebenstein, David B.; Tarleton, Emily K.; Stevens, Robert D.; Koves, Timothy R.; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is associated with higher blood concentrations of medium-chain acylcarnitines (MCACs), and we hypothesized that PA may inhibit progression of FA β-oxidation. Using a cross-over design, 17 adults were fed high PA (HPA) and low PA/high oleic acid (HOA) diets, each for 3 weeks. The [1-13C]PA and [13-13C]PA tracers were administered with food in random order with each diet, and we assessed PA oxidation (PA OX) and serum AC concentration to determine whether a higher PA intake promoted incomplete PA OX. Dietary PA was completely oxidized during the HOA diet, but only about 40% was oxidized during the HPA diet. The [13-13C]PA/[1-13C]PA ratio of PA OX had an approximate value of 1.0 for either diet, but the ratio of the serum concentrations of MCACs to long-chain ACs (LCACs) was significantly higher during the HPA diet. Thus, direct measurement of PA OX did not confirm that the HPA diet caused incomplete PA OX, despite the modest, but statistically significant, increase in the ratio of MCACs to LCACs in blood. PMID:26156077

  8. Increased palmitate intake: higher acylcarnitine concentrations without impaired progression of β-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kien, C Lawrence; Matthews, Dwight E; Poynter, Matthew E; Bunn, Janice Y; Fukagawa, Naomi K; Crain, Karen I; Ebenstein, David B; Tarleton, Emily K; Stevens, Robert D; Koves, Timothy R; Muoio, Deborah M

    2015-09-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is associated with higher blood concentrations of medium-chain acylcarnitines (MCACs), and we hypothesized that PA may inhibit progression of FA β-oxidation. Using a cross-over design, 17 adults were fed high PA (HPA) and low PA/high oleic acid (HOA) diets, each for 3 weeks. The [1-(13)C]PA and [13-(13)C]PA tracers were administered with food in random order with each diet, and we assessed PA oxidation (PA OX) and serum AC concentration to determine whether a higher PA intake promoted incomplete PA OX. Dietary PA was completely oxidized during the HOA diet, but only about 40% was oxidized during the HPA diet. The [13-(13)C]PA/[1-(13)C]PA ratio of PA OX had an approximate value of 1.0 for either diet, but the ratio of the serum concentrations of MCACs to long-chain ACs (LCACs) was significantly higher during the HPA diet. Thus, direct measurement of PA OX did not confirm that the HPA diet caused incomplete PA OX, despite the modest, but statistically significant, increase in the ratio of MCACs to LCACs in blood.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Noha M.; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M.; Algandaby, Mardi M.; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  10. Dietary intake of palmitate and oleate has broad impact on systemic and tissue lipid profiles in humans123

    PubMed Central

    Kien, C Lawrence; Bunn, Janice Y; Stevens, Robert; Bain, James; Ikayeva, Olga; Crain, Karen; Koves, Timothy R; Muoio, Deborah M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence has suggested that diets with a high ratio of palmitic acid (PA) to oleic acid (OA) increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: To gain additional insights into the relative effect of dietary fatty acids and their metabolism on CVD risk, we sought to identify a metabolomic signature that tracks with diet-induced changes in blood lipid concentrations and whole-body fat oxidation. Design: We applied comprehensive metabolomic profiling tools to biological specimens collected from 18 healthy adults enrolled in a crossover trial that compared a 3-wk high–palmitic acid (HPA) with a low–palmitic acid and high–oleic acid (HOA) diet. Results: A principal components analysis of the data set including 329 variables measured in 15 subjects in the fasted state identified one factor, the principal components analysis factor in the fasted state (PCF1-Fasted), which was heavily weighted by the PA:OA ratio of serum and muscle lipids, that was affected by diet (P < 0.0001; HPA greater than HOA). One other factor, the additional principal components analysis factor in the fasted state (PCF2-Fasted), reflected a wide range of acylcarnitines and was affected by diet in women only (P = 0.0198; HPA greater than HOA). HOA lowered the ratio of serum low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein (LDL:HDL) in men and women, and adjustment for the PCF1-Fasted abolished the effect. In women only, adjustment for the PCF2-Fasted eliminated the HOA-diet effect on serum total- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The respiratory exchange ratio in the fasted state was lower with the HPA diet (P = 0.04), and the diet effect was eliminated after adjustment for the PCF1-Fasted. The messenger RNA expression of the cholesterol regulatory gene insulin-induced gene-1 was higher with the HOA diet (P = 0.008). Conclusions: These results suggest that replacing dietary PA with OA reduces the blood LDL concentration and whole-body fat oxidation by

  11. Palmitate differentially regulates the polarization of differentiating and differentiated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Fangming; Diao, Li; Qi, Peter; Catapano, Michael; Jeschke, Marc G

    2016-01-01

    The tissue accumulation of M1 macrophages in patients with metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus has been well-documented. Interestingly, it is an accumulation of M2 macrophages that is observed in the adipose, liver and lung tissues, as well as in the circulation, of patients who have had major traumas such as a burn injury or sepsis; however, the trigger for the M2 polarization observed in these patients has not yet been identified. In the current study, we explored the effects of chronic palmitate and high glucose treatment on macrophage differentiation and function in murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages. We found that chronic treatment with palmitate decreased phagocytosis and HLA-DR expression in addition to inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Chronic palmitate treatment of bone marrows also led to M2 polarization, which correlated with the activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ signalling pathway. Furthermore, we found that chronic palmitate treatment increased the expression of multiple endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, including binding immunoglobulin protein. Preconditioning with the universal ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate attenuated ER stress signalling and neutralized the effect of palmitate, inducing a pro-inflammatory phenotype. We confirmed these results in differentiating human macrophages, showing an anti-inflammatory response to chronic palmitate exposure. Though alone it did not promote M2 polarization, hyperglycaemia exacerbated the effects of palmitate. These findings suggest that the dominant accumulation of M2 in adipose tissue and liver in patients with critical illness may be a result of hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia, both components of the hypermetabolism observed in critically ill patients.

  12. Wollastonite hybridizing stearic acid as thermal energy storage material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dawei; Yang, Huaming

    2014-11-01

    This paper reported on the preparation of a novel stearic acid (SA)/wollastonite (W) composite as a form-stable phase change material (PCM) for thermal energy-storage (TES) by vacuum impregnation, and especially investigated the effect of the size grade of W on the thermal properties of the SA/W composite. Samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser particle-size analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Natural W (Wr) was classified into four size grades by wet screening. The results indicate that no chemical reaction took place between SA and W, and the SA load in the SA/W composite increased with an increase in the length/diameter (L/D) ratio of the W. The SA/W composite with a W L/D ratio of 22.5 exhibited latent heats of melting and freezing of 58.64 J/g and 56.95 J/g, respectively, which was higher than those of the composite incorporating natural W. We believe that the as-prepared form-stable PCM composite could provide a potential means of TES for the concentrated solar power.

  13. Surface properties of superfine alumina trihydrate after surface modification with stearic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gui-hua; Zhou, Bo-hao; Li, Yun-feng; Qi, Tian-gui; Li, Xiao-bin

    2015-05-01

    The surface properties of superfine alumina trihydrate (ATH) after surface modification were studied by measuring the contact angle, active ratio, oil adsorption, total organic carbon, adsorption ratio, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum. The contact angle increased initially and then slowly decreased with an increase of the amount of stearic acid. However, the surface free energy decreased initially and then increased. Surface modification with stearic acid or sodium stearate can benefit from elevating temperature. The base surface tension component and the free energy of Lewis acid-base both declined sharply following the surface modification. Excess stearic acid was physically adsorbed in the form of multilayer adsorption, and an interaction between oxygen on the ATH surface and hydroxyl in stearic acid was subsequently determined. Our results further indicated that the contact angle and adsorption ratio can be used as control indicators for surface modification compared with active ratio, oil adsorption and total organic carbon.

  14. Growth modulating effects of chlorinated oleic acid in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, A T; Lystad, E; Jebens, E; Skramstad, J; Frøyen, P

    1998-07-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids represent a major fraction of extractable, organically bound chlorine in fish. After dietary intake such fatty acids may be transferred from the mother to the foetus through the placenta, and via breast milk to the child. In the present work we have studied the effect of chlorinated oleic acid on the growth of three widely differing types of cells in culture. Chlorinated oleic acid inhibited growth of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HMVEC), Immortilized Human Kidney Epithelial (IHKE) cells, and human Hepatoma cells (HepG2). The order of potency was: HMVEC > IHKE > HepG2. Vitamin E counteracted the inhibitory effect of chlorinated oleic acid on HepG2 cells, but did not significantly affect the fatty acid effect on HMVEC or IHKE. Defatted serum albumin stimulated the growth of HMVEC and IHKE. With HMVEC there was no major interaction between the effect of albumin and chlorinated oleic acid on cell growth. In contrast, with IHKE albumin at low concentration abolished the growth inhibiting effect of chlorinated oleic acid and appreciably counteracted growth inhibition by the fatty acid of HepG2. We conclude that the growth modulation by chlorinated oleic acid and its interaction with vitamin E and albumin are cell specific.

  15. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on engineering material surfaces with stearic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Bingwu; Qu, Mengnan; Zhang, Junyan; He, Deyan

    2008-01-01

    Via a simple wet chemical etching followed by stearic acid modification, the presence of synergistic binary structures at micro- and nanometer scales and stearic acid bestows superhydrophobic property on steel and aluminum alloy surfaces. The as-prepared surfaces show superhydrophobic not only for pure water but also for corrosive liquids such as acid, basic and salt solutions. The stable superhydrophobicity of steel and aluminum alloy surfaces will extend their applications as engineering materials.

  16. Growth-modulating effects of dichloro myristic and dichloro stearic acid in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, A T; Lystad, E; Jebens, E; Skramstad, J; Frøyen, P

    1999-10-01

    Chloro-containing fatty acids are a major fraction of extractable, organically bound chlorine in fish. It has been suggested that dichloro stearic acid (9,10-dichlorooctadecanoic acid) (C18) is metabolized to dichloro myristic acid (5,6-dichlorotetradecanoic acid) (C14) which accumulates in tissues. Hence, the biological effects of the C18 dichloro fatty acid could be due to formation of the C14 dichloro fatty acid. In this study we have compared the effects of dichloro stearic and dichloro myristic acid on growth of three widely differing cell lines. Both fatty acids inhibited cell growth; however, dichloro myristic acid had a weaker growth inhibitory effect than dichloro stearic acid. Dichloro myristic acid had a biphasic effect (i.e. growth was stimulated at low concentrations, followed by inhibition at higher concentrations) on the growth of human hepatoma cells and immortalized human kidney epithelial cells, but no such effect on human microvascular endothelial cells. The order of potency for growth inhibition by dichloro myristic acid was consistently human hepatoma cells>immortalized human kidney epithelial cells >human microvascular endothelial cells, whereas the relative potency of dichloro stearic acid was variable. Albumin alone stimulated cell growth and had a stronger protective effect against growth inhibition by dichloro myristic acid than against that of dichloro stearic acid. It seems unlikely that a major part of the effect of dichloro stearic acid on cell growth is caused by conversion to dichloro myristic acid.

  17. Improvement of efficiency in the enzymatic synthesis of lactulose palmitate.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Claudia; Illanes, Andres; Wilson, Lorena

    2015-04-15

    Sugar esters are considered as surfactants due to its amphiphilic balance that can lower the surface tension in oil/water mixtures. Enzymatic syntheses of these compounds are interesting both from economic and environmental considerations. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of four solvents, temperature, substrate molar ratio, biocatalyst source, and immobilization methodology on the yield and specific productivity of lactulose palmitate monoester synthesis. Lipases from Pseudomonas stutzeri (PsL) and Alcaligenes sp. (AsL), immobilized in porous silica functionalized with octyl groups (adsorption immobilization, OS) and with glyoxyl-octyl groups (both adsorption and covalent immobilization, OGS), were used. The highest lactulose palmitate yields were obtained at 47 °C in acetone, for all biocatalysts, while the best lactulose:palmitic acid molar ratio differed according to the immobilization methodology, being 1:1 for AsL-OGS biocatalyst (20.7 ± 3%) and 1:3 for the others (30-50%).

  18. Possible Involvement of Palmitate in Pathogenesis of Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Shikama, Yosuke; Kudo, Yasusei; Ishimaru, Naozumi; Funaki, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity and higher concentrations of free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma. Among FFAs, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), such as palmitate, have been suggested to promote inflammatory responses. Although many epidemiological studies have shown a link between periodontitis and T2D, little is known about the clinical significance of SFAs in periodontitis. In this study, we showed that gingival fibroblasts have cell-surface expression of CD36, which is also known as FAT/fatty acid translocase. Moreover, CD36 expression was increased in gingival fibroblasts of high-fat diet-induced T2D model mice, compared with gingival fibroblasts of mice fed a normal diet. DNA microarray analysis revealed that palmitate increased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). Consistent with these results, we confirmed that palmitate-induced interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and CXCL1 secretion in HGF, using a cytokine array and ELISA. SFAs, but not an unsaturated fatty acid, oleate, induced IL-8 production. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is one of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly suppressed palmitate-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production. Treatment of HGF with a CD36 inhibitor also inhibited palmitate-induced pro-inflammatory responses. Finally, we demonstrated that Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) lipopolysaccharide and heat-killed P.g. augmented palmitate-induced chemokine secretion in HGF. These results suggest a potential link between SFAs in plasma and the pathogenesis of periodontitis.

  19. Identification of the molecular genetic basis of the low palmitic acid seed oil trait in soybean mutant line RG3 and association analysis of molecular markers with elevated seed stearic acid and reduced seed palmitic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid composition of vegetable oil is becoming increasingly critical for the ultimate functionality and utilization in foods and industrial products. Partial chemical hydrogenation of soybean oil increases oxidative stability and shelf life but also results in the introduction of trans fats...

  20. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Koichi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Rikimaru; Obata, Toru

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  1. Defective (U-14 C) palmitic acid oxidation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.E.; Norris, B.J.; Brooke, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Compared with normal skeletal muscle, muscle from patients with Duchenne dystrophy had decreased (U-14 C) palmitic acid oxidation. (1-14 C) palmitic acid oxidation was normal. These results may indicate a defect in intramitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

  2. Oleic acid-embedded nanoliposome as a selective tumoricidal agent.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sujin; Lee, Sangah; Lee, Hyejin; Yoon, Jaejin; Lee, E K

    2016-10-01

    HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cell), a molecular complex of human α-lactalbumin and oleic acid, is known to have selective cytotoxic activity against certain types of tumors. This cytotoxicity is known to stem from water-insoluble oleic acid. In this study, we manufactured an alternative complex using liposome as an oleic acid delivery vesicle. We named this nanolipoplex LIMLET (LIposome Made LEthal to Tumor cell). The LIMLET vesicle contained approximately 90,200 oleic acid molecules inserted into its lipophilic phospholipid bilayer and had a nominal mean diameter of 127nm. Using a WST-1 assay, its cytotoxicity against two cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer) and A549 (human lung cancer), were tested. The results were compared with that of a normal cell line, Vero (from monkey kidney). We found that (1) LIMLET showed distinctive cytotoxicity against A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas bare liposomes (containing no oleic acid) had no toxicity, even at high concentrations, and (2) LIMLET demonstrated selective, concentration-dependent toxicity against the cancer cells: the LD50 values of MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells were 1.3 and 2.2nM LIMLET, respectively, whereas the LD50 of Vero was 5.7nM. The strength of the tumoricidal effect appeared to stem from the number of oleic acid molecules present. Our result suggests that LIMLET, like HAMLET, is an interesting nanolipoplex that can potentially be developed into tumor treatments. PMID:27424089

  3. Oleic acid-embedded nanoliposome as a selective tumoricidal agent.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sujin; Lee, Sangah; Lee, Hyejin; Yoon, Jaejin; Lee, E K

    2016-10-01

    HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cell), a molecular complex of human α-lactalbumin and oleic acid, is known to have selective cytotoxic activity against certain types of tumors. This cytotoxicity is known to stem from water-insoluble oleic acid. In this study, we manufactured an alternative complex using liposome as an oleic acid delivery vesicle. We named this nanolipoplex LIMLET (LIposome Made LEthal to Tumor cell). The LIMLET vesicle contained approximately 90,200 oleic acid molecules inserted into its lipophilic phospholipid bilayer and had a nominal mean diameter of 127nm. Using a WST-1 assay, its cytotoxicity against two cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer) and A549 (human lung cancer), were tested. The results were compared with that of a normal cell line, Vero (from monkey kidney). We found that (1) LIMLET showed distinctive cytotoxicity against A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas bare liposomes (containing no oleic acid) had no toxicity, even at high concentrations, and (2) LIMLET demonstrated selective, concentration-dependent toxicity against the cancer cells: the LD50 values of MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells were 1.3 and 2.2nM LIMLET, respectively, whereas the LD50 of Vero was 5.7nM. The strength of the tumoricidal effect appeared to stem from the number of oleic acid molecules present. Our result suggests that LIMLET, like HAMLET, is an interesting nanolipoplex that can potentially be developed into tumor treatments.

  4. 21 CFR 520.390c - Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. 520.390c Section 520.390c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... associated with canine distemper that are caused by organisms susceptible to chloramphenicol. (3)...

  5. 21 CFR 520.390c - Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. 520.390c Section 520.390c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... associated with canine distemper that are caused by organisms susceptible to chloramphenicol. (3)...

  6. 21 CFR 520.390c - Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. 520.390c Section 520.390c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... associated with canine distemper that are caused by organisms susceptible to chloramphenicol. (3)...

  7. 21 CFR 520.390c - Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. 520.390c Section 520.390c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... associated with canine distemper that are caused by organisms susceptible to chloramphenicol. (3)...

  8. Biosysthesis of Corn Starch Palmitate by Lipase Novozym 435

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Jia-Ying; Wang, Yan; Liu, Tie; Lin, Kai; Chang, Le; Xia, Chun-Gu

    2012-01-01

    Esterification of starch was carried out to expand the usefulness of starch for a myriad of industrial applications. Lipase B from Candida antarctica, immobilized on macroporous acrylic resin (Novozym 435), was used for starch esterification in two reaction systems: micro-solvent system and solvent-free system. The esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid in the solvent-free system and micro-solvent system gave a degree of substitution (DS) of 1.04 and 0.0072 respectively. Esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid was confirmed by UV spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. The results of emulsifying property analysis showed that the starch palmitate with higher DS contributes to the higher emulsifying property (67.6%) and emulsion stability (79.6%) than the native starch (5.3% and 3.9%). Modified starch obtained by esterification that possesses emulsifying properties and has long chain fatty acids, like palmitic acid, has been widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications industries. PMID:22837690

  9. A simple screening test for fatty acid oxidation defects using whole-blood palmitate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Seargeant, L E; Balachandra, K; Mallory, C; Dilling, L A; Greenberg, C R

    1999-08-01

    We report that measurement of whole-blood palmitate oxidation is a rapid and inexpensive screening test for fatty acid oxidation defects. The assay has been adapted from published assays using cultured fibroblasts or isolated white blood cells. Micro whole-blood samples are incubated with tritiated palmitic acid as substrate. The tritiated water produced is proportional to the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of palmitic acid. Patients with confirmed beta-oxidation defects show low whole-blood palmitate oxidation.

  10. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c mediates increase of postprandial stearic acid, a potential target for improving insulin resistance, in hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xia; Liu, Liyan; Na, Lixin; Lu, Huimin; Li, Songtao; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2013-02-01

    Elevated serum free fatty acids (FFAs) levels play an important role in the development of insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. We investigated the dynamic changes and the underlying regulatory mechanism of postprandial FFA profile in hyperlipidemia (HLP) and their relation with insulin sensitivity in both humans and mice. We found that serum stearic acid (SA) is the only fatty acid that is increased dramatically in the postprandial state. The elevation of SA is due to increased insulin-stimulated de novo synthesis mediated by sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c)/acetyl-CoA carboxylase/fatty acid synthase/elongation of long-chain fatty acid family member 6 (ELOVL6) and the elongation of palmitic acid (PA) catalyzed by ELOVL6. Downregulation of SREBP-1c or ELOVL6 by small interfering RNA can reduce SA synthesis in liver and serum SA level, followed by amelioration of IR in HLP mice. However, inhibition of SREBP-1c is more effective in improving IR than suppression of ELOVL6, which resulted in accumulation of PA. In summary, increased postprandial SA is caused by the insulin-stimulated SREBP-1c pathway and elongation of PA in HLP. Reduction of postprandial SA is a good candidate for improving IR, and SREBP-1c is potentially a better target to prevent IR and diabetes by decreasing SA.

  11. Preparation of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles from amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate complexes by first converting sodium palmitate to silver palmitate by reaction with silver nitrate and then reducing the silver ion to metallic silver. This process produced water solutions that could be dried and the...

  12. Effect of amylopectin on the rheological properties of aqueous dispersions of starch-sodium palmitate complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous dispersions of normal and high-amylose corn starch were steam jet cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of sodium palmitate to form amylose inclusion complexes. Partial conversion of complexed sodium palmitate to palmitic acid by addition of acetic acid led to the formation of gels. Bl...

  13. Solution structure of barley lipid transfer protein complexed with palmitate. Two different binding modes of palmitate in the homologous maize and barley nonspecific lipid transfer proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lerche, M. H.; Poulsen, F. M.

    1998-01-01

    The structure of a nonspecific lipid transfer protein from barley (ns-LTPbarley) in complex with palmitate has been determined by NMR spectroscopy. The structure has been compared to the structure of ns-LTPbarley in the absence of palmitate, to the structure of ns-LTPbarley in complex with palmitoyl coenzyme A, to the structure of ns-LTPmaize in its free form, and to the maize protein complexed with palmitate. Binding of palmitate only affects the structure of ns-LTPbarley moderately in contrast to the binding of palmitoyl coenzyme A, which leads to a considerable expansion of the protein. The modes of binding palmitate to the maize and barley protein are different. Although in neither case there are major conformational changes in the protein, the orientation of the palmitate in the two proteins is exactly opposite. PMID:9865943

  14. Protease inhibition by oleic acid transfer from chronic wound dressings to albumin.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J Vincent; Howley, Phyllis; Davis, Rachel; Mashchak, Andrew; Goheen, Steven C

    2007-08-01

    High elastase and cathepsin G activities have been observed in chronic wounds to inhibit healing through degradation of growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix proteins. Oleic acid is a non-toxic elastase inhibitor. Cotton wound dressing material was characterized as a transfer carrier for affinity uptake of oleic acid by albumin under conditions mimicking chronic wounds. The mechanism of oleic acid uptake from cotton and binding by albumin was examined with both intact dressings and cotton fiber-designed chromatography. Raman spectra of the albumin-oleic acid complexes under liquid equilibrium conditions revealed fully saturated albumin-oleic acid complexes with a 1:1 weight ratio of albumin:oleic acid. Liquid-solid equilibrium conditions revealed oleic acid transfer from cotton to albumin at 27 mole equivalents of oleic acid per mole albumin. Comparing oleic acid formulated wound dressings for dose dependent ability to lower elastase activity, we found cotton gauze>hydrogel>hydrocolloid. In contrast, the cationic serine protease cathepsin G was inhibited by oleic acid within a narrow range of oleic acid-cotton formulations. 2% albumin was sufficient to transfer quantities of oleic acid necessary to achieve a significant elastase-lowering effect. Oleic acid bound to cotton wound dressings may have promise in the selective lowering of cationic serine protease activity useful in topical application for chronic inflammatory pathogenesis.

  15. α-Lactalbumin:Oleic Acid Complex Spontaneously Delivers Oleic Acid to Artificial and Erythrocyte Membranes.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hanzhen; Strømland, Øyvind; Halskau, Øyvind

    2015-09-25

    Human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) is a tumoricidal complex consisting of human α-lactalbumin and multiple oleic acids (OAs). OA has been shown to play a key role in the activity of HAMLET and its related complexes, generally known as protein-fatty acid (PFA) complexes. In contrast to what is known about the fate of the protein component of such complexes, information about what happens to OA during their action is still lacking. We monitored the membrane, OA and protein components of bovine α-lactalbumin complexed with OA (BLAOA; a HAMLET-like substance) and how they associate with each other. Using ultracentrifugation, we found that the OA and lipid components follow each other closely. We then firmly identify a transfer of OA from BLAOA to both artificial and erythrocyte membranes, indicating that natural cells respond similarly to BLAOA treatment as artificial membranes. Uncomplexed OA is unable to similarly affect membranes at the conditions tested, even at elevated concentrations. Thus, BLAOA can spontaneously transfer OA to a lipid membrane. After the interaction with the membrane, the protein is likely to have lost most or all of its OA. We suggest a mechanism for passive import of mainly uncomplexed protein into cells, using existing models for OA's effect on membranes. Our results are consistent with a membrane destabilization mediated predominantly by OA insertion being a significant contribution to PFA cytotoxicity.

  16. Type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases of Brassica napus preferentially incorporate oleic acid into triacylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose; Denolf, Peter; Van Audenhove, Katrien; De Bodt, Stefanie; Engelen, Steven; Fahy, Deirdre; Wallis, James G.; Browse, John

    2015-01-01

    DGAT1 enzymes (acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyse the formation of triacylglycerols (TAGs), the most abundant lipids in vegetable oils. Thorough understanding of the enzymology of oil accumulation is critical to the goal of modifying oilseeds for improved vegetable oil production. Four isoforms of BnDGAT1, the final and rate-limiting step in triacylglycerol synthesis, were characterized from Brassica napus, one of the world’s most important oilseed crops. Transcriptional profiling of developing B. napus seeds indicated two genes, BnDGAT1-1 and BnDGAT1-2, with high expression and two, BnDGAT1-3 and BnDGAT1-4, with low expression. The activities of each BnDGAT1 isozyme were characterized following expression in a strain of yeast deficient in TAG synthesis. TAG from B. napus seeds contain only 10% palmitic acid (16:0) at the sn-3 position, so it was surprising that all four BnDGAT1 isozymes exhibited strong (4- to 7-fold) specificity for 16:0 over oleic acid (18:1) as the acyl-CoA substrate. However, the ratio of 18:1-CoA to 16:0-CoA in B. napus seeds during the peak period of TAG synthesis is 3:1. When substrate selectivity assays were conducted with 18:1-CoA and 16:0-CoA in a 3:1 ratio, the four isozymes incorporated 18:1 in amounts 2- to 5-fold higher than 16:0. This strong sensitivity of the BnDGAT1 isozymes to the relative concentrations of acyl-CoA substrates substantially explains the observed fatty acid composition of B. napus seed oil. Understanding these enzymes that are critical for triacylglycerol synthesis will facilitate genetic and biotechnological manipulations to improve this oilseed crop. PMID:26195728

  17. Type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases of Brassica napus preferentially incorporate oleic acid into triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose; Denolf, Peter; Van Audenhove, Katrien; De Bodt, Stefanie; Engelen, Steven; Fahy, Deirdre; Wallis, James G; Browse, John

    2015-10-01

    DGAT1 enzymes (acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyse the formation of triacylglycerols (TAGs), the most abundant lipids in vegetable oils. Thorough understanding of the enzymology of oil accumulation is critical to the goal of modifying oilseeds for improved vegetable oil production. Four isoforms of BnDGAT1, the final and rate-limiting step in triacylglycerol synthesis, were characterized from Brassica napus, one of the world's most important oilseed crops. Transcriptional profiling of developing B. napus seeds indicated two genes, BnDGAT1-1 and BnDGAT1-2, with high expression and two, BnDGAT1-3 and BnDGAT1-4, with low expression. The activities of each BnDGAT1 isozyme were characterized following expression in a strain of yeast deficient in TAG synthesis. TAG from B. napus seeds contain only 10% palmitic acid (16:0) at the sn-3 position, so it was surprising that all four BnDGAT1 isozymes exhibited strong (4- to 7-fold) specificity for 16:0 over oleic acid (18:1) as the acyl-CoA substrate. However, the ratio of 18:1-CoA to 16:0-CoA in B. napus seeds during the peak period of TAG synthesis is 3:1. When substrate selectivity assays were conducted with 18:1-CoA and 16:0-CoA in a 3:1 ratio, the four isozymes incorporated 18:1 in amounts 2- to 5-fold higher than 16:0. This strong sensitivity of the BnDGAT1 isozymes to the relative concentrations of acyl-CoA substrates substantially explains the observed fatty acid composition of B. napus seed oil. Understanding these enzymes that are critical for triacylglycerol synthesis will facilitate genetic and biotechnological manipulations to improve this oilseed crop.

  18. Mononuclear phagocyte accumulates a stearic acid derivative during differentiation into macrophages. Effects of stearic acid on macrophage differentiation and Mycobacterium tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Restrepo, Sergio Fabián; Caro, Ana Cecilia; Peláez-Jaramillo, Carlos Alberto; Rojas, Mauricio

    2016-05-01

    The fatty acid composition of monocytes changes substantially during differentiation into macrophages, increasing the proportion of saturated fatty acids. These changes prompted us to investigate whether fatty acid accumulation in the extracellular milieu could affect the differentiation of bystander mononuclear phagocytes. An esterified fatty acid derivative, stearate, was the only fatty acid that significantly increased in macrophage supernatants, and there were higher levels when cells differentiated in the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv or purified protein derivative (PPD). Exogenous stearic acid enhanced the expression of HLA-DR and CD64; there was also accumulation of IL-12, TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-1 α and β and a reduction in MCP-1 and the bacterial load. These results suggested that during differentiation, a derivative of stearic acid, which promotes the process as well as the effector mechanisms of phagocytes against the mycobacterium, accumulates in the cell supernatants.

  19. Oleic Acid: Natural variation and potential enhancement in oilseed crops.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega 9 fatty acid (MUFA, C18:1) which can be found in various plant lipids and animal fats. Unlike omega 3 (a-linolenic acid, C18:3) and omega 6 (linoleic acid, C18:2) fatty acids which are essential because they cannot be synthesized by humans and must be obtained f...

  20. Synthesis, antidepressant and antimicrobial activities of some novel stearic acid analogues.

    PubMed

    Jubie, Selvaraj; Ramesh, Patil Nilesh; Dhanabal, Palanichamy; Kalirajan, Rajagopal; Muruganantham, Nithyanantham; Antony, Anthoniswamy Shanish

    2012-08-01

    Stearic acid, a saturated fatty acid was isolated from the microalga Spirulina platensis. Some novel stearic acid analogues having 1,3,4-oxadiazole, 1,2,4-triazole and 1,2,4-triazolo-[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole are synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR and mass spectral analysis. All the synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity by using cup plate method. The synthesized compounds have been further screened for their antidepressant activity in swiss albino mice by forced swim test (FST), midbrain dopamine has been estimated and quantified. All the compounds showed good antimicrobial activity and compound 6 showed significant antidepressant activity.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in the presence of an alkaline...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1702 - Sheanut oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acid moiety at the 2-position and saturated fatty acids, usually stearic or palmitic acids, at the 1...) Unsaponifiable matter not to exceed 1.5 percent, (4) Free fatty acids not more than 0.1 percent as oleic acid,...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1702 - Sheanut oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... acid moiety at the 2-position and saturated fatty acids, usually stearic or palmitic acids, at the 1...) Unsaponifiable matter not to exceed 1.5 percent, (4) Free fatty acids not more than 0.1 percent as oleic acid,...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1702 - Sheanut oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acid moiety at the 2-position and saturated fatty acids, usually stearic or palmitic acids, at the 1...) Unsaponifiable matter not to exceed 1.5 percent, (4) Free fatty acids not more than 0.1 percent as oleic acid,...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1702 - Sheanut oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... acid moiety at the 2-position and saturated fatty acids, usually stearic or palmitic acids, at the 1...) Unsaponifiable matter not to exceed 1.5 percent, (4) Free fatty acids not more than 0.1 percent as oleic acid,...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  10. Process strategies to maximize lipid accumulations of novel yeast in acid and base treated hydrolyzates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleaginous yeasts can accumulate up to 70% of cell biomass as lipids, predominantly as triacylglycerols. Yeast lipid fatty acid profiles have been reported to be similar to that of vegetable oils and consist primarily of oleic, palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids. This capability provides the oppo...

  11. Comparative lipid production on hydrolyzates of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass using Oleaginous yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleaginous yeasts can accumulate up to 70% of cell biomass as lipid, predominantly as triacylglycerides. Yeast lipid fatty acid profiles have been reported to be similar to that of vegetable oils and consist primarily of oleic, palmitic, stearic and linoleic acids. This capability provides the opp...

  12. Identification of quantitative trait loci(QTL) controlling important fatty acids in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids play important role in controlling oil quality of peanut. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80%, there are several minor fatty acids accounting for about 20% in peanut oil, such as palmitic acid (PA, C16:0), stearic (S...

  13. NMR analysis of oils from pine nuts ( Pinus sibirica) and seeds of common pine ( Pinus silvestris L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakovskii, E. D.; Tychinskaya, L. Yu.; Gaidukevich, O. A.; Klyuev, A. Yu.; Kulakova, A. N.; Petlitskaya, N. M.; Rykove, S. V.

    2007-07-01

    We studied the fatty-acid composition of oils from pine nuts and seeds of common pine using PMR and 13C NMR and gas chromatography. We found that the main components of the glycerides are palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, γ-linolenic, pinolenic, and cis-9-eicosenoic acids. The oils contain about 2% sn-1,2-diacylglycerides in addition to triglycerides.

  14. Property control of sophorolipids: influence of fatty acid substrate and blending

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sophorolipids (SLs) were synthesized by fed-batch fermentation of Candida bombicola on glucose and either palmitic acid (SL-p), stearic acid (SL-s), oleic acid (SL-o) or linoleic acid (SL-l) and the structural distribution accurately determined by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectr...

  15. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  16. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  17. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  18. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  19. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  20. Retinol and retinyl palmitate in foetal lung mice: sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Olga; Gonçalves, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the lung retinoids content to study the possible difference between male and female mice during prenatal development and to comprehend if the vitamin A metabolism is similar in both genders. The study occurred between developmental days E15 and E19, and the retinol and retinyl palmitate lung contents were determined by HPLC analysis. We established two main groups: the control, consisting of foetuses obtained from pregnant females without any manipulation, and vitamin A, composed of foetuses from pregnant females submitted to vitamin A administration on developmental day E14. Each of these groups was subdivided by gender, establishing the four final groups. In the lung of control group, retinol was undetected in both genders and retinyl palmitate levels exhibited a sexual dimorphism. In the vitamin A group, we detected retinol and retinyl palmitate in both genders, and we observed a more evident sexual dimorphism for both retinoids. Our study also indicates that, from developmental day E15 to E19, there is an increase in the retinoids content in foetal lung and a gender difference in the retinoids metabolism. In conclusion, there is a sexual dimorphism in the lung retinoids content and in its metabolism during mice development. PMID:23365730

  1. Stearic acid based oleogels: a study on the molecular, thermal and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Sagiri, S S; Singh, Vinay K; Pal, K; Banerjee, I; Basak, Piyali

    2015-03-01

    Stearic acid and its derivatives have been used as gelators in food and pharmaceutical gel formulations. However, the mechanism pertaining to the stearic acid based gelation has not been deciphered yet. Keeping that in mind, we investigated the role of stearic acid on physic-chemical properties of oleogel. For this purpose, two different oil (sesame oil and soy bean oil) formulations/oleogels were prepared. In depth analysis of gel kinetics, gel microstructure, molecular interactions, thermal and mechanical behaviors of the oleogels were done. The properties of the oleogels were dependent on the type of the vegetable oil used and the concentration of the stearic acid. Avrami analysis of DSC thermograms indicated that heterogeneous nucleation was coupled with the one-dimensional growth of gelator fibers as the key phenomenon in the formation of oleogels. Viscoelastic and pseudoplastic nature of the oleogels was analyzed in-depth by fitting the stress relaxation data in modified Peleg's model and rheological studies, respectively. Textural studies have revealed that the coexistence of hydrogen bond dissipation and formation of new bonds is possible under stress conditions in the physical oleogels.

  2. Analytical method for studying terahertz vibrations in a stearic acid single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanno, Takenori; Arnold, Stevanus; Asari, Junya; Yodokawa, Shinichi; Kurabayashi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    The anisotropy of terahertz absorption was investigated for a B-form single crystal of stearic acid. A polarized terahertz spectrometer was used to obtain absorption spectra over the range of 1-5 THz. Seven vibrational modes were observed; four exhibited significant angular dependence. Additionally, we demonstrated a simple approach for estimating the angle of the dipole moment for each vibrational mode.

  3. Effects of chemical and enzymatic modifications on starch-stearic acid complex formation.

    PubMed

    Arijaje, Emily Oluwaseun; Wang, Ya-Jane; Shinn, Sara; Shah, Utkarsh; Proctor, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Debranched unacetylated and acetylated potato starches with two degrees of substitution, 0.041 (low) and 0.078 (high), combined with or without β-amylase hydrolysis were prepared to form soluble and insoluble complexes with stearic acid. The effects of modifications on the complexation, thermal properties, and X-ray patterns of soluble and insoluble complexes were investigated. Acetylation decreased the recovery of insoluble complexes but increased that of soluble complexes. Low acetylated, β-amylase-treated starch had a significantly increased amount of complexed stearic acid (123.1 mg/g) for insoluble complexes; high acetylated, β-amylase-treated starch had the highest complexed stearic acid (61.2 mg/g) for the soluble complexes. The melting temperature of the complexes decreased with acetylation. All β-amylase-treated acetylated complexes displayed the V-type diffraction pattern with peaks at 2θ = 7.4°, 12.9°, and 20°. These results suggest that starch can be modified by acetylation, debranching, and/or β-amylase to produce significant quantities of soluble starch-stearic acid complexes.

  4. Improvement of Liver Cell Therapy in Rats by Dietary Stearic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Goradel, Nasser Hashemi; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali; Darabi, Masoud; Roshangar, Leila; Asadi, Maryam; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Nouri, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stearic acid is known as a potent anti-inflammatory lipid. This fatty acid has profound and diverse effects on liver metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of stearic acid on markers of hepatocyte transplantation in rats with acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver damage. Methods: Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 10-day treatment. Stearic acid was administered to the rats with APAP-induced liver damage. The isolated liver cells were infused intraperitoneally into rats. Blood samples were obtained to evaluate the changes in the serum liver enzymes, including activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the level of serum albumin. To assess the engraftment of infused hepatocytes, rats were euthanized, and the liver DNA was used for PCR using sex-determining region Y (SRY) primers. Results: The levels of AST, ALT and ALP in the serum of rats with APAP-induced liver injury were significantly increased and returned to the levels in control group by day six. The APAP-induced decrease in albumin was significantly improved in rats through cell therapy, when compared with that in the APAP-alone treated rats. SRY PCR analysis showed the presence of the transplanted cells in the liver of transplanted rats. Conclusion: Stearic acid-rich diet in combination with cell therapy accelerates the recovering of hepatic dysfunction in a rat model of liver injury. PMID:27090202

  5. Role of fatty acid binding protein on hepatic palmitate uptake.

    PubMed

    Burczynski, F J; Zhang, M N; Pavletic, P; Wang, G Q

    1997-12-01

    Expression of hepatic fatty acid binding protein (FABP) mRNA is regulated by growth hormone. In the absence of growth hormone, there is a 60% reduction in FABP mRNA levels (S.A. Berry, J.-B Yoon, U. List, and S. Seelig. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 12:638-642. 1995). Previous work in our laboratory focused on the role of extracellular binding proteins in the hepatic uptake of long chain fatty acids. In the present study we were interested to determine the role of FABP in the transmembrane flux of long chain fatty acids. Using hepatocyte monolayers from control (n = 9) and hypophysectomized (n = 6) rats, we investigated the uptake of [3H]palmitate in the presence and absence of albumin. In the absence of albumin, total hepatocyte [3H]palmitate clearance rates from control (17.2 +/- 1.5 microL.mg-1 protein.s-1; mean +/- SEM; n = 9) and hypophysectomized (15.5 +/- 2.1 microL.mg-1 protein.s-1; n = 6) animals were similar (p > 0.05). In the presence of 2 microM albumin the total [3H]palmitate clearance rate from control hepatocytes (1.63 +/- 0.11 microL.mg-1 protein.s-1; n = 9) was significantly larger (40%) than from hepatocytes obtained from hypophysectomized (0.97 +/- 0.15 microL.mg-1 protein.s-1; n = 6; p < 0.01) animals. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis revealed that plasma membrane FABP levels from control and hypophysectomized animals were similar. However, there was a 49% decrease in the cytosolic FABP levels of hepatocytes isolated from hypophysectomized as compared with control animals. The decreased cytosolic FABB levels paralleled the decrease in palmitate uptake. We conclude that in the absence of extracellular binding proteins the rate-limiting step in the overall uptake of long chain fatty acids is diffusion to the cell surface. However, in the presence of albumin, the rate of palmitate uptake is determined primarily by cytosolic FABP levels.

  6. Comparative Proteomic Study of Fatty Acid-treated Myoblasts Reveals Role of Cox-2 in Palmitate-induced Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiulan; Xu, Shimeng; Wei, Shasha; Deng, Yaqin; Li, Yiran; Yang, Fuquan; Liu, Pingsheng

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated studies demonstrate that saturated fatty acids (FAs) such as palmitic acid (PA) inhibit insulin signaling in skeletal muscle cells and monounsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid (OA) reverse the effect of PA on insulin signaling. The detailed molecular mechanism of these opposite effects remains elusive. Here we provide a comparative proteomic study of skeletal myoblast cell line C2C12 that were untreated or treated with PA, and PA plus OA. A total of 3437 proteins were quantified using SILAC in this study and 29 proteins fall into the pattern that OA reverses PA effect. Expression of some these proteins were verified using qRT-PCR and Western blot. The most significant change was cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). In addition to whole cell comparative proteomic study, we also compared lipid droplet (LD)-associated proteins and identified that Cox-2 was one of three major altered proteins under the FA treatment. This finding was then confirmed using immunofluorescence. Finally, Cox-2 selective inhibitor, celecoxib protected cells from PA-reduced insulin signaling Akt phosphorylation. Together, these results not only provide a dataset of protein expression change in FA treatment but also suggest that Cox-2 and lipid droplets (LDs) are potential players in PA- and OA-mediated cellular processes. PMID:26899878

  7. Characterization of stearidonic acid soybean oil enriched with palmitic acid produced by solvent-free enzymatic interesterification.

    PubMed

    Teichert, Sarah A; Akoh, Casimir C

    2011-09-14

    Stearidonic acid soybean oil (SDASO) is a plant source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs). Solvent-free enzymatic interesterification was used to produce structured lipids (SLs) in a 1 L stir-batch reactor with a 1:2 substrate mole ratio of SDASO to tripalmitin, at 65 °C for 18 h. Two SLs were synthesized using immobilized lipases, Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM. Free fatty acids (FFAs) were removed by short-path distillation. SLs were characterized by analyzing FFA and FA (total and positional) contents, iodine and saponification values, melting and crystallization profiles, tocopherols, and oxidative stability. The SLs contained 8.15 and 8.38% total stearidonic acid and 60.84 and 60.63% palmitic acid at the sn-2 position for Novozym 435 SL and Lipozyme TL IM SL, respectively. The SLs were less oxidatively stable than SDASO due to a decrease in tocopherol content after purification of the SLs. The saponification values of the SLs were slightly higher than that of the SDASO. The melting profiles of the SLs were similar, but crystallization profiles differed. The triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species of the SLs were similar to each other, with tripalmitin being the major TAG. SDASO's major TAG species comprised stearidonic and oleic acids or stearidonic, α-linolenic, and γ-linolenic acids. PMID:21830790

  8. High-oleic peanuts are not different from normal peanuts in allergenic properties.

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Maleki, Soheila; Champagne, Elaine T; Buhr, Kenneth L; Gorbet, Daniel W

    2002-02-13

    High-oleic peanuts are known for a high content of oleic fatty acid. However, it is not known whether high-oleic peanuts are different from normal chemistry peanuts in levels of allergenicity and end-product adducts (i.e., products cross-linked with proteins). For this purpose, four different peanut cultivars (Florunner, Georgia Green, NC 9, and NC 2) were evaluated and compared with high-oleic peanuts (SunOleic 97R). Adducts such as AGE/CML from Maillard reactions and MDA/HNE from lipid oxidation were determined, respectively, in ELISA, using polyclonal antibodies. Allergenicity was determined based on IgE binding and T-cell proliferation. Results showed that raw high-oleic peanuts were not different from normal peanuts in adduct levels. After roasting, CML and HNE levels remained unchanged, but an increased and similar amounts of AGE adducts were found in all peanuts. MDA also increased but not in high-oleic peanuts. This suggests that high-oleic peanuts are more stable to lipid oxidation than others during heating. Despite this, high-oleic peanuts did not differ from normal peanuts in IgE binding and T-cell proliferation. It was concluded that a high content of oleic fatty acid has no effect on peanut allergenicity and that high-oleic peanuts do not give a higher or lower risk of allergy than normal peanuts.

  9. Variation of unsaturated fatty acids in soybean sprout of high oleic acid accessions.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Krishna Hari; Jung, Ki-Hwal; Chae, Jong-Hyun; Shannon, J Grover; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Oleic acid and oleic acid rich foods may have beneficial health effects in humans. Soybeans with high oleic acid (around 80% in seed oil) have been developed. Soybean sprouts are an important vegetable in Korea, Japan and China. The objective of this study was to investigate the variation of unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids, in sprouts from soybeans with normal and high oleic acid concentration. Twelve soybean accessions with six high oleic acid lines, three parents of high oleic acid lines, and three checks with normal and high oleic acid concentration were used in this study. The unsaturated fatty acid concentration in sprouts from each genotype was similar to the concentration in the ungerminated seed. The oleic acid concentration in the sprouts of high oleic acid lines (up to 80%) was still high (>70%) compared to the ungerminated seed. Thus, high oleic soybean varieties developed for sprout production could add valuable health benefits to sprouts and the individuals who consume this vegetable.

  10. Regional pulmonary distribution of iodine-125-labeled oleic acid. Its relationship to the pattern of oleic acid edema and pulmonary blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, R.D.; Tsai, J.; Hedlund, L.W.; Sullivan, D.C.; Lischko, M.M.; Harris, C.C.; Effmann, E.L.; Putman, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    Oleic acid infusion in dogs produces a patchy, predominantly peripheral lesion on CT scans. This study correlates the pattern of oleic acid injury with the distribution of infused oleic acid and pulmonary blood flow. Radiolabeled oleic acid (I-125, 0.05 ml/kg) and radiolabeled 15-micron microspheres (Co-57) were infused into the right atria of 11 dogs. Oleic acid was given after the microspheres in six dogs and before microspheres in five dogs. Ten minutes after infusion, the lungs were removed. Four transverse slices (0.5 cm thick) of the lower lobes were taken from each dog and cubed. Samples were grouped into three regions of the transverse slice: outer, middle, and inner concentric rings. In both groups, I-125 (oleic acid) activity was greater in the outer than the middle and inner concentric layers (P less than 0.001). When Cobalt-57 microspheres were given before oleic acid, Cobalt-57 activity was marginally lower in the outer layer compared with the middle and inner layers. However, when oleic acid was given first, microsphere activity in the outer layer was significantly lower (P less than 0.001) than the middle layer. Thus, oleic acid was preferentially distributed to the peripheral regions of the lung, similar to the regions of injury on CT. This distribution did not correspond to the pattern of pulmonary blood flow as indicated by the microspheres. Immediately after oleic acid infusion, pulmonary blood flow to the periphery was reduced, reflecting a response to the predominantly peripheral injury by oleic acid.

  11. Occurrence of the wax cetyl palmitate in stomachs of the corallivorous butterfly fish Chaetodon trifascialis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Shian-Shien; Ciereszko, Leon S.

    1985-04-01

    Various organs of the butterfly fish Chaetodon trifascialis, which has been reported to feed exclusively on coral polyps, were analyzed for their content of lipid and of the wax cetyl palmitate which has been found to occur in various corals. Cetyl palmitate was isolated from stomachs containing food. The total lipids accounted for 12% of dry weight of stomachs and contents, with cetyl palmitate making up 30% of total lipids. Two stomachs contained a total of 315 mg of cetyl palmitate. No significant amounts of the wax were found in heads, ovaries, swim bladders and intestines of the fish, indicating an exogenous source of the cetyl palmitate present in the stomach. This finding supports the view that the butterfly fish feeds on corals, which contain cetyl palmitate. The butterfly fish does not appear to store wax.

  12. Palmitate induces ER calcium depletion and apoptosis in mouse podocytes subsequent to mitochondrial oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, S; Nam, S M; Kim, J-H; Das, R; Choi, S-K; Nguyen, T T; Quan, X; Choi, S J; Chung, C H; Lee, E Y; Lee, I-K; Wiederkehr, A; Wollheim, C B; Cha, S-K; Park, K-S

    2015-01-01

    Pathologic alterations in podocytes lead to failure of an essential component of the glomerular filtration barrier and proteinuria in chronic kidney diseases. Elevated levels of saturated free fatty acid (FFA) are harmful to various tissues, implemented in the progression of diabetes and its complications such as proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of palmitate cytotoxicity in cultured mouse podocytes. Incubation with palmitate dose-dependently increased cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential, impaired ATP synthesis and elicited apoptotic cell death. Palmitate not only evoked mitochondrial fragmentation but also caused marked dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Consistently, palmitate upregulated ER stress proteins, oligomerized stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in the subplasmalemmal ER membrane, abolished the cyclopiazonic acid-induced cytosolic Ca2+ increase due to depletion of luminal ER Ca2+. Palmitate-induced ER Ca2+ depletion and cytotoxicity were blocked by a selective inhibitor of the fatty-acid transporter FAT/CD36. Loss of the ER Ca2+ pool induced by palmitate was reverted by the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor edelfosine. Palmitate-dependent activation of PLC was further demonstrated by following cytosolic translocation of the pleckstrin homology domain of PLC in palmitate-treated podocytes. An inhibitor of diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase, which elevates cytosolic DAG, strongly promoted ER Ca2+ depletion by low-dose palmitate. GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, partially prevented palmitate-induced ER Ca2+ loss. Remarkably, the mitochondrial antioxidant mitoTEMPO inhibited palmitate-induced PLC activation, ER Ca2+ depletion and cytotoxicity. Palmitate elicited cytoskeletal changes in podocytes and increased albumin permeability, which was also blocked by mitoTEMPO. These data suggest that oxidative stress caused by saturated FFA leads to

  13. Kinetics studies on triacontanyl palmitate: a urease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Abbasi, Muhammad Athar; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin

    2007-07-10

    The mechanism of inhibition of jack bean and Bacillus pasteurii ureases was investigated by triacontanyl palmitate (1) which is a long-chain fatty ester and has been isolated from Symplocos racemosa Roxb. Lineweaver-Burk, Dixon plots, and their secondary replots showed that 1 is a non-competitive inhibitor of these enzymes. K(i) values were found to be 60.03 +/- 1.72 and 88.23 +/- 0.31 microM against jack bean and B. pasteurii ureases, respectively.

  14. Palmitate induces insulin resistance without significant intracellular triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-young; Cho, Hyang-Ki; Kwon, Young Hye

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies showed that increased release of free fatty acids from adipocytes leads to insulin resistance and triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the liver, which may progress into hepatic steatohepatitis. We and other investigators have previously reported that palmitate induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated toxicity in several tissues. This work investigated whether palmitate could induce insulin resistance and steatosis in HepG2 cells. We treated cells with either saturated fatty acid (palmitate) or unsaturated fatty acid (oleate), and observed that palmitate significantly activated c-jun N-terminal kinase and inactivated protein kinase B. Both 4-phenylbutyric acid and glycerol significantly activated protein kinase B, confirming the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in palmitate-mediated insulin resistance. Oleate, but not palmitate, significantly induced intracellular TG deposition and activated sterol regulatory element binding protein-1. Instead, diacylglycerol level and protein kinase C epsilon activity were significantly increased by palmitate, suggesting the possible role of diacylglycerol in palmitate-mediated lipotoxicity. Therefore, the present study clearly showed that palmitate impairs insulin resistance, but does not induce significant TG accumulation in HepG2 cells. PMID:20006364

  15. Synthesis, characterisation and antioxidant features of procyanidin B4 and malvidin-3-glucoside stearic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Luis; Fernandes, Virgínia C; Araújo, Paula; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2015-05-01

    The acylation of procyanidin B4 with a saturated fatty acid chloride containing 18 carbon atoms was studied in order to obtain procyanidin B4 3-O-di-stearic acid conjugate. This compound was structurally characterised by mass spectrometry and 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Derivatization of malvidin-3-glucoside using stearoyl chloride in acetonitrile was also performed yielding mono-, di- and tri-stearic ester derivatives. The novel derivatives obtained revealed significant antioxidant activity, although lower than the respective precursors. However, the chemical modification of anthocyanins and procyanidins (water soluble pigments) to more lipophilic compounds has the advantage of increased bioavailability in biological matrices, and to potentiate their application in food matrices and cosmetic products.

  16. Preparation and characterization of glycyrrhetinic acid-modified stearic acid-grafted chitosan micelles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Sun, Yong; Wang, Jiangjun; Yan, Guowen; Cui, Zhaoyuan; Yin, Hongli; Wei, Haitian

    2015-01-01

    Stearic acid-grafted chitosan (CS-SA) and glycyrrhetinic acid-conjugated stearic acid-grafted chitosan (GA-CS-SA) were synthesized and were further used for the preparation of micelles. The substitution degree (SD) of SA and GA on CS was measured. The physicochemical properties of CS-SA and GA-CS-SA micelles such as critical micelle concentration (CMC), aggregation number of hydrophobic micro-domain (AN), particle size, zeta potential, and morphology were also determined. The CMC of GA-CS-SA was about 17.49 μg/mL, which was relatively low. Its AN was 2.09. The GA-CS-SA micelles showed spherical shape with mean diameter of 121.1 nm and had positive charge, which suggested that GA-CS-SA could be a good carrier of cancer drug.

  17. Droplet freezing experiments in stearic acid-water emulsions, role of the droplet-medium interface

    SciTech Connect

    Cordiez, J.P.; Grange, G.; Mutaftschiev, B.

    1982-02-01

    Droplets of stearic acid emulsions in water, stabilized with cationic or anionic emulsifiers, undergoing freezing-melting cycles with constant temperature scanning rate, freeze as monocrystals and independently from one another, even when visible clustering takes place. The study of the nucleation kinetics by differential scanning calorimetry shows that nucleation threshold (critical undercooling) depends on the nature of the emulsifier, adsorbed at the droplet-medium interface. 30 references.

  18. Characterization of stearic acid adsorption on Ni(111) surface by experimental and first-principles study approach

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, S. H.; Yu, T.; Liu, D. P.; Wang, W. X.; Wang, Y. P.; Han, X. F.

    2011-04-01

    Long-chain alkanoic acids usually form close-packed monolayer films with alkyl chains highly oriented on substrates. Previous studies have reported the adsorption of stearic acid on gold, aluminum, copper, silver, and aluminum oxide. However, there are no reports of stearic acid adsorption on magnetic metals. In this work, the characterization of stearic acid adsorbed on Ni(111) surface has been studied experimentally and with first-principles calculation. The results suggest that the stearic acid is chemically adsorbed on the Ni(111) surface via a bidentate interaction with a distance of about 1.8 A. Besides this, we have also obtained results for the charge transfer and magnetic proximity effect.

  19. Dielectric studies of amylose, amylopectin and amylose-stearic acid complexes.

    PubMed

    Pethrick, Richard A; Song, Ma

    2013-02-15

    The effect of structure creation and moisture content on the dielectric properties of amylose, amylopectin and amylose-stearic acid complexes is presented. Three dielectric features have been identified in these systems. At low temperature, a dipole relaxation process is observed which is assigned to the reorientation of the CH(2)OH group. At ambient temperatures, a thermally activated relaxation is assigned to liberation-local chain motion. In certain systems at high temperatures, a Maxwell Wagner Sillars process is observed associated with the heterogeneous nature of media and is ascribed to the gel structure in the amylose-stearic acid complex. The low temperature relaxation is sensitive to the moisture content, the water molecules being bound to the CH(2)OH groups and the activation energy being reduced as the water content is increased. Comparison of the relaxation observed in amylose and amylopectin indicates that chain branching increases the activation energy and inhibits the local reorientation motion of the chain backbone. The relative magnitude of the relaxation processes and their activation energies are discussed in term of the structure of the polymer backbone, the nature of the complex formed with stearic acid and the extent to which order is created by thermal treatment. This paper gives insight into the changes in amylose mobility accompanying the formation of the various complexes.

  20. Improvement of β-TCP/PLLA biodegradable material by surface modification with stearic acid.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fengcang; Chen, Sai; Liu, Ping; Geng, Fang; Li, Wei; Liu, Xinkuan; He, Daihua; Pan, Deng

    2016-05-01

    Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) is a biodegradable polymer and used widely. Incorporation of beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) into PLLA can enhance its osteoinductive properties. But the interfacial layer between β-TCP particles with PLLA matrix is easy to be destroyed due to inferior interfacial compatibility of the organic/inorganic material. In this work, a method of β-TCP surface modification with stearic acid was investigated to improve the β-TCP/PLLA biomaterial. The effects of surface modification on the β-TCP were investigated by FTIR, XPS, TGA and CA. It was found that the stearic acid reacted with β-TCP and oxhydryl was formed during the surface modification. Hydrophilicity of untreated or modified β-TCP/PLLA composite was increased by the addition of 10 wt.% β-TCP, but it decreased as the addition amount increased from 10 wt.% to 20 wt.%. Two models were suggested to describe the effect of β-TCP concentration on CA of the composites. Mechanical properties of β-TCP/PLLA composites were tested by bending and tensile tests. Fractures of the composites after mechanical test were observed by SEM. It was found that surface modification with stearic acid improved bending and tensile strengths of the β-TCP/PLLA composites obviously. The SEM results indicated that surface modification decreased the probability of interface debonding between fillers and matrix under load.

  1. CO2-Controllable Foaming and Emulsification Properties of the Stearic Acid Soap Systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenlong; Gu, Hongyao; Zhu, Xionglu; Zhong, Yingping; Jiang, Liwen; Xu, Mengxin; Song, Aixin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-06-01

    Fatty acids, as a typical example of stearic acid, are a kind of cheap surfactant and have important applications. The challenging problem of industrial applications is their solubility. Herein, three organic amines-ethanolamine (EA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA)-were used as counterions to increase the solubility of stearic acid, and the phase behaviors were investigated systematically. The phase diagrams were delineated at 25 and 50 °C, respectively. The phase-transition temperature was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements, and the microstructures were vesicles and planar sheets observed by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) observations. The apparent viscosity of the samples was determined by rheological characterizations. The values, rcmc, for the three systems were less than 30 mN·m(-1). Typical samples of bilayers used as foaming agents and emulsifiers were investigated for the foaming and emulsification assays. CO2 was introduced to change the solubility of stearic acid, inducing the transition of their surface activity and further achieving the goal of defoaming and demulsification.

  2. [THE EXCESS OF PALMITIC FATTY ACID IN FOOD AS MAIN CAUSE OF LIPOIDOSIS OF INSULIN-DEPENDENT CELLS: SKELETAL MYOCYTES, CARDIO-MYOCYTES, PERIPORTAL HEPATOCYTES, KUPFFER MACROPHAGES AND B-CELLS OF PANCREAS].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N

    2016-02-01

    In phylogenesis, becoming of biologicalfunctions and biological reactions proceeds with the purpose ofpermanent increasing of "kinetic perfection ". The main role belongs to factors ofphysical, chemical and biological kinetics, their evaluation using systemic approach technique under permanent effect of natural selection. The late-in-phylogenesis insulin, proceeded with, in development of biological function of locomotion, specialization of insulin-dependent cells: skeletal myocytes, syncytium of cardiomyocytes, subcutaneous adipocytes, periportal hepatocytes, Kupffer's macrophages and β-cells of islets of pancreas. The insulin initiated formation of new, late in phylogenesis, large pool of fatty cells-subcutaneous adipocytes that increased kinetic parameters of biological function of locomotion. In realization of biological function of locomotion only adipocytes absorb exogenous mono unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the form of triglycerides in composition of oleic and palmitic lipoproteins of very low density using apoE/B-100 endocytosis. The rest of insulin-dependent cells absorb fatty acids in the form of unesterified fatty acids from associates with albumin and under effect of CD36 of translocase offatty acids. The insulin in all insulin-depended cells inhibits biological reaction of lipolysis enhancing contributing into development of lipoidosis. The insulin expresses transfer offatty acids in the form of unsaturated fatty acids from adipocytes into matrix of mitochondria. The insulin supplies insulin-dependent cells with substrates for acquiring energy subject to that in pool of unsaturated fatty acids in adipocytes prevails hydrophobic palmitic unsaturated fatiy acid that slowly passes into matrix through external membrane ofmitochondria; oxidases of mitochondria so slowly implement its β-oxidation that content of exogenous palmitic unsaturatedfatty acid can't be higher than phylogenetic, physiological level - 15% of all amount offatty acids

  3. [Fatty acids profile characterization of white maize hybrids grown in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Alezones, Jesús; Avila, Manuel; Chassaigne, Alberto; Barrientos, Venancio

    2010-12-01

    In Venezuela, white corn is the most important crop regarding production, harvest area and consumption. One of its main by-products is corn oil, whose positive effect on health caused by the high content of unsaturated fatty acids has been widely recognized. In order to characterize the fatty acids profile of twelve white grained maize hybrids extensively grown in Venezuela, and the effect that divergent localities has on this profile, three semi commercial scale trials where established in Portuguesa, Yaracuy and Guárico states. Proportions of the main fatty acids in the raw oil of the different grain samples were determined using gas chromatography. Significant differences (p < 0,01) between hybrids were found for arachidic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, gadoleic and linoleic acids; non significant differences were found for linolenic acid. Significant differences between localities were found for all the fatty acids evaluated. High and significant correlations between fatty acids content were found; the most important relations were: linoleic-oleic (Rho = -0,98**), arachidic-palmitic (Rho = -0,61**), linoleic-stearic (Rho = -0,61**) and oleic-stearic (Rho = 0,58**). Corn produced in Venezuela presents lower levels of linoleic and higher levels of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids than the levels found in temperate corn. These differences involve significant changes in the nutritional properties of Venezuelan corn oil that should be considered in the development of new cultivars and industrial processes for oil production.

  4. Enhanced phagocytosis of group A streptococci M type 6 by oleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Speert, D.P.; Quie, P.G.; Wannamaker, L.W.

    1981-04-01

    M protein, located on the surface fimbriae of group A streptococci, is antiphagocytic by unknown means. It is known that oleic acid kills group A streptococci and distorts the fimbriae. The effect of oleic acid on phagocytosis of group A streptococci was examined. Phagocytosis of a strain possessing M protein (M+) and its M- variant was assessed by uptake of radiolabeled bacteria and by chemiluminescence. The M- but not the M+ streptococci were well phagocytized and induced chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed and heat-killed streptococci (both M+ and M-) were readily phagocytized and induced sustained chemiluminescence. M+ streptococci killed by ultraviolet irradiation were inefficiently phagocytized and did not induce chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed M+ streptococci absorbed type-specific antibody. An extract of M protein reduced the bactericidal capacity of oleic acid. It is proposed that oleic acid may bind to and alter the M protein of group A streptococci and thereby enhance phagocytosis.

  5. An investigation of the likely role of (O-acyl) ω-hydroxy fatty acids in meibomian lipid films using (O-oleyl) ω-hydroxy palmitic acid as a model.

    PubMed

    Schuett, Burkhardt S; Millar, Thomas J

    2013-10-01

    (O-acyl) ω-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFAs) are a recently found group of polar lipids in meibum. Since these lipids can potentially serve as a surfactant in the tear film lipid layer, the surface properties of a molecule of this lipid class was investigated and compared with a structurally related wax ester and a fatty acid. (O-oleyl) ω-hydroxy palmitic acid was synthesized and used as the model OAHFA. It was spread either alone or mixed with human meibum on an artificial tear buffer in a Langmuir trough, and pressure-area isocycle profiles were recorded at different temperatures and compared with those of palmityl oleate and oleic acid. These measurements were accompanied by fluorescence microscopy of meibum mixed films during pressure-area isocycles. The pressure area curves indicated that pure films of the model OAHFA are as surface active as oleic acid films, cover a much larger surface area than either palmityl oleate or oleic acid and show a distinct biphasic pressure-area isocycle profile. The OAHFAs appeared to remain on the aqueous surface and show only a minor re-arrangement into multi-layered structures during repetitive pressure area isocycles. All these properties can be explained by OAHFAs binding weakly to the aqueous surface via an ester group and strongly via a carboxyl group. By contrast, the pressure area profiles of palmityl oleate films indicate that they form multi-layers and oleic acid presumably forms micelles and desorbs into the subphase. When mixed with meibum, similar features as for pure films were observed. In addition, meibum-OAHFA films appeared very homogeneous; a feature not seen with other mixtures. In conclusion these data support the notion that the tested OAHFA is a very potent surfactant which is important in spreading and stabilising meibomian lipid films.

  6. Oleic acid increases intestinal absorption of the BCRP/ABCG2 substrate, mitoxantrone, in mice.

    PubMed

    Aspenström-Fagerlund, Bitte; Tallkvist, Jonas; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar; Glynn, Anders W

    2015-09-01

    The efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) decrease intestinal absorption of many food toxicants. Oleic acid increases absorption of the specific BCRP substrate mitoxantrone (MXR), and also BCRP gene expression in human intestinal Caco-2 cells, suggesting that oleic acid affect the BCRP function. Here, we investigated the effect of oleic acid on intestinal absorption of MXR in mice. Mice were orally dosed with 2.4g oleic acid/kg b.w. and 1mg MXR/kg b.w., and sacrificed 30, 60, 90 or 120min after exposure, or were exposed to 0.6, 2.4 or 4.8g oleic acid/kg b.w. and 1mg MXR/kg b.w., and sacrificed 90min after exposure. Mice were also treated with Ko143 together with MXR and sacrificed after 60min, as a positive control of BCRP-mediated effects on MXR absorption. Absorption of MXR increased after exposure to oleic acid at all doses, and also after exposure to Ko143. Intestinal BCRP gene expression tended to increase 120min after oleic acid exposure. Our results in mice demonstrate that oleic acid decreases BCRP-mediated efflux, causing increased intestinal MXR absorption in mice. These findings may have implications in humans, concomitantly exposed to oleic acid and food contaminants that, similarly as MXR, are substrates of BCRP.

  7. Use of oleic acid to reduce the population of the bacterial flora of poultry skin.

    PubMed

    Hinton, A; Ingram, K D

    2000-09-01

    The effect of oleic acid on native bacterial flora of poultry skin was examined. Skin from commercial broiler carcasses was washed once or twice in solutions of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10% (wt/vol) oleic acid and rinsed in peptone water. Aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, and enterococci in the rinsates were enumerated. Significantly fewer aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, and enterococci were recovered from rinsates of skin washed in oleic acid than from control samples. Additionally, fewer bacteria were recovered from rinsates of skin washed in higher concentrations of oleic acid than from skin washed in lower concentrations of the fatty acid. In most cases, there was no significant difference in the number of bacteria recovered from rinsates of skin washed once or twice in solutions of oleic acid. Washing skin samples twice in 10% solutions of oleic acid significantly reduced the number of aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, and enterococci that remained attached to the skin. Campylobacter sp., Enterococcus faecalis, and Listeria monocytogenes isolates possessed the least resistance to the antibacterial activity of oleic acid in vitro, while Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed higher resistance. Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Salmonella Typhimurium had the greatest resistance to the antibacterial activity of oleic acid. Findings indicate that oleic acid reduces the number of bacteria on the skin of processed broilers and that the fatty acid is bactericidal to several spoilage and pathogenic bacteria associated with poultry.

  8. New alleles of FATB-1A to reduce palmitic acid levels in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wild-type soybeans, palmitic acid typically constitutes 10% of the total seed oil. Palmitic acid is a saturated fat linked to increased cholesterol levels, and reducing levels of saturated fats in soybean oil has been a breeding target. To identify novel and useful variation that could help in re...

  9. Molecular mapping of the mutant fap4(A24) allele for elevated palmitate concentration in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max L. Merr.] oil with an elevated palmitate concentration is useful for some food and industrial applications. The objective of this study was to map the genetic location of the fap4(A24) allele that controls an increase in palmitate concentration and to identify molecular marker...

  10. Isolation and identification of kahweol palmitate and cafestol palmitate as active constituents of green coffee beans that enhance glutathione S-transferase activity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Lam, L K; Sparnins, V L; Wattenberg, L W

    1982-04-01

    Glutathione (GSH) S-transferase is a major detoxification enzyme system that catalyzes the binding of a variety of electrophiles, including reactive forms of chemical carcinogens, to GSH. Green coffee beans fed in the diet induced increased GSH S-transferase activity in the mucosa of the small intestine and in the liver of mice. A potent compound that induces increased GSH S-transferase activity was isolated from green coffee beans and identified as kahweol palmitate. The corresponding free alcohol, kahweol, and its synthetic monoacetate are also potent inducers of the activity of GSH S-transferase. A similar diterpene ester, cafestol palmitate, isolated from green coffee beans was active but less so than was kahweol palmitate. Likewise, the corresponding alcohol, cafestol, and its monoacetate showed moderate potency as inducers of increased GSH S-transferase activity. Kahweol palmitate and cafestol palmitate were extracted from green coffee beans into petroleum ether. The petroleum ether extract was fractionated by preparative normal-phase and reverse-phase liquid chromatographies successively. Final purification with silver nitrate-impregnated thin-layer chromatography yielded the pure palmitates of cafestol and kahweol. The structures were determined by examination of the spectroscopic data of the esters and their parent alcohols and by derivative comparison. PMID:7059995

  11. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  12. Oleic acid coated magnetic nano-particles: Synthesis and characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Biswajit Goyal, P. S.

    2015-06-24

    Magnetic nano particles of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} coated with oleic acid were synthesized using wet chemical route, which involved co-precipitation of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions. The nano particles were characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, TGA and VSM. X-ray diffraction studies showed that nano particles consist of single phase Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} having inverse spinel structure. The particle size obtained from width of Bragg peak is about 12.6 nm. TEM analysis showed that sizes of nano particles are in range of 6 to 17 nm with a dominant population at 12 - 14 nm. FTIR and TGA analysis showed that -COOH group of oleic acid is bound to the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles and one has to heat the sample to 278° C to remove the attached molecule from the surface. Further it was seen that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles exhibit super paramagnetism with a magnetization of about 53 emu/ gm.

  13. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  14. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  15. Beta-palmitate - a natural component of human milk in supplemental milk formulas.

    PubMed

    Havlicekova, Zuzana; Jesenak, Milos; Banovcin, Peter; Kuchta, Milan

    2016-03-17

    The composition and function of human milk is unique and gives a basis for the development of modern artificial milk formulas that can provide an appropriate substitute for non-breastfed infants. Although human milk is not fully substitutable, modern milk formulas are attempting to mimic human milk and partially substitute its complex biological positive effects on infants. Besides the immunomodulatory factors from human milk, research has been focused on the composition and structure of human milk fat with a high content of β-palmitic acid (sn-2 palmitic acid, β-palmitate). According to the available studies, increasing the content of β-palmitate added to milk formulas promotes several beneficial physiological functions. β-palmitate positively influences fatty acid metabolism, increases calcium absorption, improves bone matrix quality and the stool consistency, and has a positive effect on the development of the intestinal microbiome.

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents palmitate-induced activation of proteolytic systems in C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Woodworth-Hobbs, Myra E; Hudson, Matthew B; Rahnert, Jill A; Zheng, Bin; Franch, Harold A; Price, S Russ

    2014-08-01

    Saturated fatty acids like palmitate contribute to muscle atrophy in a number of conditions (e.g., type II diabetes) by altering insulin signaling. Akt is a key modulator of protein balance that inhibits the FoxO transcription factors (e.g., FoxO3) which selectively induce the expression of atrophy-inducing genes (atrogenes) in the ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome systems. Conversely, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have beneficial effects on insulin signaling and may preserve muscle mass. In an earlier report, the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) protected myotubes from palmitate-induced atrophy; the mechanisms underlying the alterations in protein metabolism were not identified. This study investigated whether DHA prevents a palmitate-induced increase in proteolysis by restoring Akt/FoxO signaling. Palmitate increased the rate of protein degradation, while cotreatment with DHA prevented the response. Palmitate reduced the activation state of Akt and increased nuclear FoxO3 protein while decreasing its cytosolic level. Palmitate also increased the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of two FoxO3 atrogene targets, the E3 ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1/MAFbx and the autophagy mediator Bnip3. DHA attenuated the effects of palmitate on Akt activation, FoxO3 localization and atrogene mRNAs. DHA, alone or in combination with palmitate and decreased the ratio of LC3B-II:LC3B-I protein as well as the rate of autophagosome formation, as indicated by reduced LC3B-II protein in the presence of 10 mmol/L methylamine, suggesting an independent effect of DHA on the macroautophagy pathway. These data indicate that palmitate induces myotube atrophy, at least in part, by activating multiple proteolytic systems and that DHA counters the catabolic effects of palmitate by restoring Akt/FoxO signaling. PMID:24835079

  17. SN2-Palmitate Reduces Fatty Acid Excretion in Chinese Formula-fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Lifshitz, Yael; Cohen, Tzafra; Malard, Patrice; Xu, Chungdi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Palmitic acid (PA) comprises 17% to 25% of human milk fatty acids, of which 70% to 75% are esterified to the SN2 position of the triglyceride (SN2-palmitate). In vegetable oils, which are commonly used in infant formulas, palmitate is primarily esterified to other positions, resulting in reduced calcium and fat absorption and hard stools. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of SN2-palmitate on nutrient excretion. Methods: In total, 171 Chinese infants were included (within 14 days of birth) in this multicenter study. Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive either SN2-palmitate formula (INFAT, n = 57) or control formula (n = 57). The formulas (Biostime, China) differed only in their SN2 PA proportions. Stool was collected at 6 postnatal weeks. Results: The stool dry weight and fat content of the SN2-palmitate group were lower compared with the control group (dry weight 4.25 g vs 7.28 g, P < 0.05; fat 0.8 g vs 1.2 g, P < 0.05). The lipid component was also significantly lower for the SN2-palmitate group (0.79 g vs 1.19 g, P < 0.05). PA, representing ∼50% of the saponified fatty acids, was significantly lower in the SN2-palmitate group compared with the control group (0.3 g vs 0.7 g, P < 0.01). Breast-fed infants had a significantly lower stool dry weight, fat content, and saponified fat excretion compared with formula-fed infants (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Similar to breast milk, the SN2-palmitate infant formula primarily reduced calcium-saponified fat excretion. The results of this study further emphasize the nutritional importance of SN2-palmitate structured fat for infants. PMID:26334255

  18. Antibacterial electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/ascorbyl palmitate nanofibrous materials.

    PubMed

    Paneva, Dilyana; Manolova, Nevena; Argirova, Mariana; Rashkov, Iliya

    2011-09-15

    The one-step incorporation of ascorbyl palmitate (AP), a widely used derivative of vitamin C, into nanofibrous mats of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) by electrospinning was demonstrated. The incorporation of AP was attested by IR spectroscopy; the AP content was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); and the surface composition of the mats: by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The possibility for deposition of silver nanoparticles onto PCL/AP mats using the ability of AP to reduce silver ions was demonstrated. The silver content was determined by TGA, and the silver nanoparticles were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanoparticles were composed of elemental silver, as verified by XPS analyses. The UV-vis spectrophotometric analyses, study on quenching of the free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and microbiological tests against the pathogenic microorganism Staphylococcus aureus showed that AP preserved its stability and its antioxidant and antibacterial activity when incorporated in the nanofibrous mats. PMID:21726615

  19. Preparation of co-spray dried cushioning agent containing stearic acid for protecting pellet coatings when compressed.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Xu, De Sheng; Li, Min; Liu, Li; Heng, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the applicability of stearic acid as a co-adjuvant in cushioning agent formulated to prevent coat damage when compressing coated pellets. The co-processed and physical blended fillers were prepared by spray drying and physically blending, respectively, with filler ingredients consisting of stearic acid, microcrystalline cellulose, fully gelatinized starch, and corn starch. Pellets containing drug were produced by coating onto non-pariels a drug layer of metformin followed by a sustained-release layer. Drug release from tablets composed of co-processed or physical blended fillers (0, 1, 5, and 10% stearic acid levels) and coated drug containing pellets were analyzed using similarity factor F2. Under the same force and the stearic acid level, co-processed fillers produced pellet containing tablets which showed higher F2 or t50 values and tensile strengths as well as lower yield pressures as compared with tablets containing physical blended fillers. It was shown that the destructive degree of pellet coating was significantly reduced after being co-processed by homogenization and the incorporation of stearic acid in the cushioning agents, as shown by the improved F2 and t50 values. In addition, disintegrate times of tablets containing co-processed agents decreased despite the hydrophobic stearic acid. In conclusion, the inclusion of stearic acid in co-processed cushioning agents was effective at protecting compacted coated pellets from compression-induced damage without compromising disintegratability. The findings could serve as a step towards resolving the technical challenges of balancing the drug release profiles, tablet tensile strength, and disintegration time of compacting coated pellets into multi-particulate-sustained release tablets.

  20. The complex tale of the high oleic acid trait in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition of oil extracted from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed is an important quality trait. In particular, a high ratio of oleic (C18:1) relative to linoleic (C18:2) fatty acid (O/L = 10) results in a longer shelf life. Previous reports suggest that the high oleic (~80%) trait wa...

  1. Mapping of a QTL for oleic acid concentration in spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera).

    PubMed

    Tanhuanpää, P K; Vilkki, J P; Vilkki, H J

    1996-06-01

    Bulk segregant analysis was used to search for RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers linked to gene(s) affecting oleic acid concentration in an F2 population from the Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera cross Jo4002 x a high oleic acid individual from line Jo4072. Eight primers (=8 markers) out of 104 discriminated the 'high' and 'low' bulks consisting of extreme individuals from the oleic acid distribution. These markers were analysed throughout the entire F2 population, and their association with oleic acid was studied using both interval mapping and ANOVA analysis. Six of the markers mapped to one linkage group. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) affecting oleic acid concentration was found to reside within this linkage group with a LOD score >15. The most suitable marker for oleic acid content is OPH-17, a codominant marker close (<4cM) to the QTL. The mean seed oleic acid content in the F2 individuals carrying the larger allele of this marker was 80.14±9.76%; in individuals with the smaller allele, 54.53±6.83%; in the heterozygotes, 65.47±8.15%. To increase reproducibility, the RAPD marker was converted into a SCAR (sequence characterized amplied region) marker with specific primers. Marker OPH-17 can be used to select spring turnip rape individuals with the desired oleic acid content.

  2. Effect of oleic acid on the allergenic properties of peanut and cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid is the major fatty acid in peanuts and cashews. There is limited information about its effect on peanut and cashew allergens during heating. The objective was to determine if heat treatment with oleic acid changes the allergenic properties of these nut proteins. Peanut and cashew protein...

  3. Synthesis and physical properties of new coco-oleic estolide branched esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oils derived from vegetable oils tend to not meet the standards for industrial lubricants because of unacceptable low temperature properties, pour point (PP), and/or cloud point (CP). However, a catalytic amount of perchloric acid with oleic and coconut (coco) fatty acids produced a coco-oleic estol...

  4. Refractive Index and Density Measurements of Peanut Oil for Determining Oleic and Linoleic Acid Contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seed are approximately 50% oil of which > 80% is either oleic or linoleic acid. The oleic/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio largely influences oxidative stability and hence peanut shelf life. Traditional peanut seed have O/L ratios near 1.5-2.0; however, many new cultivars are “high oleic” with O/L...

  5. Density and Refractive Index Measurements of Peanut Oil to Determine Oleic and Linoleic Acid Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seed are approximately 50% oil of which > 80% is either oleic or linoleic acid. The oleic/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio largely influences oxidative stability and hence peanut shelf life. Traditional peanut seed have O/L ratios near 2.5; however, many new cultivars are “high oleic” with O/L rat...

  6. Synthesis and low temperature characterization of iso-oleic ester derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new iso-oleic ester derivatives (i.e., isopropyl esters (IOA-iPrE), n-butyl esters (IOA-n-BuE), and 2-ethylhexyl esters (IOA-2-EHE)) were synthesized from iso-oleic acid (IOA) using a standard esterification method. These esterified alcohols were chosen because of their bulky and branched-cha...

  7. Spontaneous transfer of stearic acids between human serum albumin and PEG:2000-grafted DPPC membranes.

    PubMed

    Pantusa, Manuela; Stirpe, Andrea; Sportelli, Luigi; Bartucci, Rosa

    2010-05-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is used to study the transfer of stearic acids between human serum albumin (HSA) and sterically stabilized liposomes (SSL) composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and of submicellar content of poly(ethylene glycol:2000)-dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PEG:2000-DPPE). Protein/lipid dispersions are considered in which spin-labelled stearic acids at the 16th carbon atom along the acyl chain (16-SASL) are inserted either in the protein or in the SSL. Two component ESR spectra with different rotational mobility are obtained over a broad range of temperature and membrane composition. Indeed, superimposed to an anisotropic protein-signal, appears a more isotropic lipid-signal. Since in the samples only one matrix (protein or membranes) is spin-labelled, the other component accounts for the transfer of 16-SASL between albumin and membranes. The two components have been resolved and quantified by spectral subtractions, and the fraction, f (p) (16-SASL), of spin labels bound non-covalently to the protein has been used to monitor the transfer. It is found that it depends on the type of donor and acceptor matrix, on the physical state of the membranes and on the grafting density of the polymer-lipids. Indeed, it is favoured from SSL to HSA and the fraction of stearic acids transferred increases with temperature in both directions of transfer. Moreover, in the presence of polymer-lipids, the transfer from HSA to SSL is slightly attenuated, especially in the brush regime of the polymer-chains. Instead, the transfer from SSL to HSA is favoured by the polymer-lipids much more in the mushroom than in the brush regime. PMID:19350232

  8. Delivery of siRNA Using Cationic Liposomes Incorporating Stearic Acid-modified Octa-Arginine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongsheng; Li, Yuhuan; Qi, Yuhang; Chen, Yongzhen; Yang, Xuewei; Li, Yujing; Liu, Songcai; Lee, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Cationic liposomes incorporating stearic acid-modified octa-arginine (StA-R8) were evaluated for survivin small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery. StA-R8 was synthesized and incorporated into liposomes. The composition of liposomes was optimized. Physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and gene silencing activity of the liposomes complexed to survivin siRNA were investigated. The results showed that StA-R8-containing liposomes had reduced cytotoxicity and improved delivery efficiency of siRNA into cancer cells compared with StA-R8 by itself.

  9. Mechanism of iron inhibition by stearic acid Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, W.; Shan, Y.; Guo, D.; Lu, T.; Xi, S.

    1995-01-01

    Many organic compounds can be adsorbed onto the interface of a metal and solution to form a thin film that inhibits the corrosion process according to a blocking and/or negative catalytic effect. Using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, stearic acid (SA) monolayers were deposited onto the surface of an iron (Fe) electrode to study the inhibition effect and the mechanism of SA in a neutral medium. Molecular orientation and the number of deposited monolayers of SA were shown to have marked effects on inhibition of Fe corrosion. The inhibition mechanism depended mainly on blocking.

  10. Delivery of siRNA Using Cationic Liposomes Incorporating Stearic Acid-modified Octa-Arginine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongsheng; Li, Yuhuan; Qi, Yuhang; Chen, Yongzhen; Yang, Xuewei; Li, Yujing; Liu, Songcai; Lee, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Cationic liposomes incorporating stearic acid-modified octa-arginine (StA-R8) were evaluated for survivin small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery. StA-R8 was synthesized and incorporated into liposomes. The composition of liposomes was optimized. Physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and gene silencing activity of the liposomes complexed to survivin siRNA were investigated. The results showed that StA-R8-containing liposomes had reduced cytotoxicity and improved delivery efficiency of siRNA into cancer cells compared with StA-R8 by itself. PMID:27354583

  11. Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of dietary triacylglycerols does not affect insulin secretion or glucose homeostasis in healthy men and women

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, A; Teng, K-T; Berry, S E; Sanders, T A B

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: Dietary triacylglycerols containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose. Subjects/Methods: We used a cross-over designed feeding trial in 53 healthy Asian men and women (20–50 years) to test this hypothesis by exchanging 20% energy of palm olein (PO; control) with randomly interesterified PO (IPO) or high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS). After a 2-week run-in period on PO, participants were fed PO, IPO and HOS for 6 week consecutively in randomly allocated sequences. Fasting (midpoint and endpoint) and postprandial blood at the endpoint following a test meal (3.54 MJ, 14 g protein, 85 g carbohydrate and 50 g fat as PO) were collected for the measurement of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, lipids and apolipoproteins; pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were postprandial changes in C-peptide and plasma glucose. Results: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.3 mmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) 0.1, 0.5; P<0.001) lower on HOS than on PO or IPO as predicted, indicating good compliance to the dietary intervention. There were no significant differences (P=0.58) between diets among the 10 male and 31 female completers in the incremental area under the curve (0–2 h) for C-peptide in nmol.120 min/l: GM (95% CI) were PO 220 (196, 245), IPO 212 (190, 235) and HOS 224 (204, 244). Plasma glucose was 8% lower at 2 h on IPO vs PO and HOS (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position does not adversely impair insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25052227

  12. TG containing stearic acid, synthesized from coconut oil, exhibit lipidemic effects in rats similar to those of cocoa butter.

    PubMed

    Rao, Reena; Lokesh, Belur R

    2003-09-01

    Lipase-catalyzed interesterification was used to prepare structured TG from coconut oil TG by partially replacing some of the atherogenic saturated FA with stearic acid, which is known to have a neutral effect on lipid levels in the body. The level of stearic acid was increased from 4% in the native coconut oil to 40% in the structured lipids, with most of the stearic acid being incorporated into the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of TG. When structured lipids were fed to rats at a 10% level for a period of 60 d, a 15% decrease in total cholesterol and a 23% decrease in LDL cholesterol levels in the serum were observed when compared to those fed coconut oil. Similarly, the total and free cholesterol levels in the livers of the rats fed structured lipids were lowered by 31 and 36%, respectively, when compared to those fed coconut oil. The TG levels in the serum and in the liver showed decreases of 14 and 30%, respectively, in animals fed structured lipids. Rats fed cocoa butter and structured lipids having a similar amount of stearic acid had similar lipid levels in the serum and liver. These studies indicated that the atherogenic potential of coconut oil lipids can be reduced significantly by enriching them with stearic acid. This also changed the physical properties of coconut oil closer to those of cocoa butter as determined by DSC.

  13. Effects of stearic acid and gamma irradiation, alone and in combination, on pasting properties of high amylose maize starch.

    PubMed

    Ocloo, Fidelis C K; Minnaar, Amanda; Emmambux, Naushad M

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stearic acid and gamma irradiation on pasting properties of high amylose maize starch (HAMS) were studied. Stearic acid (0%, 1.5%, and 5%) was added to HAMS, and then irradiated at 0, 30, and 60 kGy before pasting. Stearic acid increased the paste viscosity of un-irradiated HAMS from 420 mPas to 557 and 652 mPas for 1.5% and 5% stearic acid, respectively. This observation related well with the formation of type II amylose-lipid complexes, with melting temperatures of about 100-120 °C. Gamma irradiation (30 and 6 0kGy) reduced pasting viscosity of HAMS. Pasting of gamma irradiated HAMS resulted in the formation of type I amylose-lipid complexes, with melting temperatures and enthalpies ranging from 82 to 102 °C and 0.22 to 1.85 J/g, respectively. Stearic acid addition followed by irradiation creates means of producing different types of amylose-lipid complexes from HAMS for industrial utilization.

  14. Investigation of the Interaction of Naringin Palmitate with Bovine Serum Albumin: Spectroscopic Analysis and Molecular Docking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Li, Lin; Xu, Zhenbo; Liang, Zhili; Su, Jianyu; Huang, Jianrong; Li, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine serum albumin (BSA) contains high affinity binding sites for several endogenous and exogenous compounds and has been used to replace human serum albumin (HSA), as these two compounds share a similar structure. Naringin palmitate is a modified product of naringin that is produced by an acylation reaction with palmitic acid, which is considered to be an effective substance for enhancing naringin lipophilicity. In this study, the interaction of naringin palmitate with BSA was characterised by spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings The goal of this study was to investigate the interactions between naringin palmitate and BSA under physiological conditions, and differences in naringin and naringin palmitate affinities for BSA were further compared and analysed. The formation of naringin palmitate-BSA was revealed by fluorescence quenching, and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) was found to decrease with increasing temperature, suggesting that a static quenching mechanism was involved. The changes in enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) for the interaction were detected at −4.11±0.18 kJ·mol−1 and −76.59±0.32 J·mol−1·K−1, respectively, which indicated that the naringin palmitate-BSA interaction occurred mainly through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond formation. The negative free energy change (ΔG) values of naringin palmitate at different temperatures suggested a spontaneous interaction. Circular dichroism studies revealed that the α-helical content of BSA decreased after interacting with naringin palmitate. Displacement studies suggested that naringin palmitate was partially bound to site I (subdomain IIA) of the BSA, which was also substantiated by the molecular docking studies. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, naringin palmitate was transported by BSA and was easily removed afterwards. As a consequence, an extension of naringin applications for use in food, cosmetic and medicinal

  15. Comparison of plasma lipids and vitamin E in young and middle-aged subjects on potato crisps fried in palmolein and highly oleic sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, N; Truswell, A S; McNeil, Y

    1997-01-01

    We previously found no difference in healthy young adults' plasma cholesterols between palmolein and olive oil as the major dietary lipid, although the former is high in palmitic acid (16:0) but the latter in oleic acid (18:1 cis). In the experiment reported here we compared the effects of palmolein against another monounsaturated oil, highly oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), on plasma cholesterol in both young and middle-aged healthy adults. The test oils were provided as frying oil of potato crisps (150 g/day in men; 100 g/day in women) against low-fat background diets in free-living motivated volunteers. The design was a randomised double-blind 4-week/3-week crossover trial. Compliance was monitored with continuous dietary diaries and by measuring (fasting) plasma lipid fatty-acid pattern. Plasma lipids and vitamin-E compounds were measured at the start and twice at the end of each test period. In combined young plus older subjects (n = 42) mean plasma total and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) values were both 7% (significantly) lower on HOSO than on palmolein, but because high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was also 5% lower, the LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was only 3% lower on HOSO than on palmolein. The difference between the present results with HOSO and previous results with olive oil both compared against palmolein suggest that olive oil is associated with higher plasma cholesterols than other monounsaturated oils. In both the young and older subgroup, LDL-c was lower on HOSO but because HDL-c moved down too in the young subgroup, the LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was lower on HOSO only in the older subjects. Palmolein has an unusual pattern of E vitamins, with a high content of tocotrienols, notably the gamma-isomer. Unlike alpha-tocopherol however, there was no sign of these tocotrienols in subjects' plasmas. PMID:9286464

  16. Anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of methyl palmitate

    SciTech Connect

    El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2011-08-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) has been shown earlier to inhibit Kupffer cells and rat peritoneal macrophages. To evaluate the potential of MP to inhibit the activation of other macrophages, RAW cells (macrophages of alveolar origin) were treated with varying concentrations of MP (0.25, 0.5, 1 mM). Assessment of cytotoxicity using MTT assay revealed that 0.25 and 0.5 mM are not toxic to RAW cells. MP was able to inhibit the phagocytic function of RAW cells. Treatment of cells with MP 24 hours prior to LPS stimulation significantly decreased nitric oxide release and altered the pattern of cytokines release; there was a significant decrease in TNF-{alpha} and a significant increase in IL-10 compared to the controls. However, there is a non-significant change in IL-6 level. Furthermore, phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) protein was significantly decreased in RAW cells treated with 0.5 mM MP after LPS stimulation. Based upon the in-vitro results, it was examined whether MP treatment will be effective in preventing bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in-vivo. Bleomycin given by itself caused destruction of the lung architecture characterized by pulmonary fibrosis with collapse of air alveoli and emphysematous. Bleomycin induced a significant increase in hydroxyproline level and activated NF-{kappa}B, p65 expression in the lung. MP co-treatment significantly ameliorated bleomycin effects. These results suggest that MP has a potential of inhibiting macrophages in general. The present study demonstrated for the first time that MP has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect that could be through NF-kB inhibition. Thus MP like molecule could be a promising anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drug. - Research Highlights: >Methyl palmitate is a universal macrophage inhibitor. >It could be a promising nucleus of anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drugs. >The underlying mechanism of these effects could be through NF-kB inhibition.

  17. Efficient gene delivery system mediated by cis-aconitate-modified chitosan-g-stearic acid micelles.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jing-Jing; Du, Yong-Zhong; Yuan, Hong; You, Jian; Hu, Fu-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Cis-aconitate-modified chitosan-g-stearic acid (CA-CSO-SA) micelles were synthesized in this study to improve the gene transfection efficiency of chitosan-g-stearic acid (CSO-SA). The CA-CSO-SA micelles had a similar size, critical micelle concentration, and morphology, but their zeta potential and cytotoxicity were reduced compared with CSO-SA micelles. After modification with cis-aconitate, the CA-CSO-SA micelles could also compact plasmid DNA (pDNA) to form nanocomplexes. However, the DNA binding ability of CA-CSO-SA was slightly reduced compared with that of CSO-SA. The transfection efficiency mediated by CA-CSO-SA/pDNA against HEK-293 cells reached up to 37%, and was much higher than that of CSO-SA/pDNA (16%). Although the cis-aconitate modification reduced cellular uptake kinetics in the initial stages, the total amount of cellular uptake tended to be the same after 24 hours of incubation. An endocytosis inhibition experiment showed that the internalization mechanism of CA-CSO-SA/pDNA in HEK-293 cells was mainly via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, as well as caveolae-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Observation of intracellular trafficking indicated that the CSO-SA/pDNA complexes were trapped in endolysosomes, but CA-CSO-SA/pDNA was more widely distributed in the cytosol. This study suggests that modification with cis-aconitate improves the transfection efficiency of CSO-SA/pDNA.

  18. Low-temperature phase transformation studies in the stearic acid: C form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, F. F.; Freire, P. T. C.; de Menezes, A. S.; Pinheiro, G. S.; Cardoso, L. P.; Alcantara, P.; Moreira, S. G. C.; Melo, F. E. A.; Mendes Filho, J.; Saraiva, G. D.

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the temperature-dependent measurements in the C form of stearic acid. Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry measurements were performed at low temperatures. The polarized Raman spectra were measured for temperatures ranging from 8 to 300 K over the spectral range of 30-3000 cm-1. The spectral changes observed in both the lattice vibrational modes and the internal vibrational modes regions of the Raman spectrum, allowed to identify a phase transition undergone by the stearic acid crystal occurring between 210 and 170 K and a change in the structure continues to be observed down to 8 K. The anharmonicity of some vibrational modes and the possible space groups presented by the crystal at low temperatures were also discussed. Low-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements were performed from 290 to 80 K and the results showed slight changes in the lattice parameters at ∼200 K. Furthermore, the evidence of the phase transformation was provided by the differential scanning calorimetry measurements, which identified an enthalpic anomaly at about 160 K.

  19. New surface viscometer of high sensitivity. Part 3. Stearic acid at the oil/water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, F.C.; Goupil, D.W.

    1980-06-01

    Work with the knife-in-wall surface shear viscometer is continued using the oil/water interface. The viscometer is useful for studies at liquid/liquid interfaces and also is a valuable tool in investigating the interfacial structure of adsorbed films. When used in conjunction with interfacial tension measurements, it can greatly elucidate the physical condition of an interface. Stearic acid adsorbed from cyclohexane to the cyclohexane/aqueous NaCl interface responds rheologically in dramatic fashion when changes are made in the pH of the aqueous phase of the temperature of the system. Starting at an interfacial viscosity of 5 X 10/sup -4/ surface poise at pH 5.5, etao/w increases to greater than 10/sup -1/ surface poise at the point of maximum surface concentration (pH 9.0). Increasing the pH beyond 9.0 causes the stearic acid to dissolve into the aqueous phase and drastically reduces the interfacial viscosity. The interfacial tension reflects the changes in the interface. At pH 9.0, the interface experiences a phase change as the temperature is raised from T = 21.5 C to T = 21.9 C. 31 references.

  20. Low-temperature phase transformation studies in the stearic acid: C form.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, F F; Freire, P T C; de Menezes, A S; Pinheiro, G S; Cardoso, L P; Alcantara, P; Moreira, S G C; Melo, F E A; Mendes Filho, J; Saraiva, G D

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the temperature-dependent measurements in the C form of stearic acid. Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry measurements were performed at low temperatures. The polarized Raman spectra were measured for temperatures ranging from 8 to 300 K over the spectral range of 30-3000 cm(-1). The spectral changes observed in both the lattice vibrational modes and the internal vibrational modes regions of the Raman spectrum, allowed to identify a phase transition undergone by the stearic acid crystal occurring between 210 and 170 K and a change in the structure continues to be observed down to 8 K. The anharmonicity of some vibrational modes and the possible space groups presented by the crystal at low temperatures were also discussed. Low-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements were performed from 290 to 80 K and the results showed slight changes in the lattice parameters at ∼200 K. Furthermore, the evidence of the phase transformation was provided by the differential scanning calorimetry measurements, which identified an enthalpic anomaly at about 160 K.

  1. Growth and Dissolution of Calcite in the Presence of Adsorbed Stearic Acid.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Maria; Segura, Juan José; Erickson, Blake W; Fantner, Georg; Stellacci, Francesco; Voïtchovsky, Kislon

    2015-07-14

    The interaction of organic molecules with the surface of calcite plays a central role in many geochemical, petrochemical, and industrial processes and in biomineralization. Adsorbed organics, typically fatty acids, can interfere with the evolution of calcite when immersed in aqueous solutions. Here we use atomic force microscopy in liquid to explore in real-time the evolution of the (1014) surface of calcite covered with various densities of stearic acid and exposed to different saline solutions. Our results show that the stearic acid molecules tend to act as "pinning points" on the calcite's surface and slow down the crystal's restructuring kinetics. Depending on the amount of material adsorbed, the organic molecules can form monolayers or bilayer islands that become embedded into the growing crystal. The growth process can also displaces the organic molecules and actively concentrate them into stacked multilayers. Our results provide molecular-level insights into the interplay between the adsorbed fatty acid molecules and the evolving calcite crystal, highlighting mechanisms that could have important implications for several biochemical and geochemical processes and for the oil industry.

  2. A simple sonochemical method for fabricating poly(methyl methacrylate)/stearic acid phase change energy storage nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guxia; Xu, Weibing; Hou, Qian; Guo, Shengwei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, stearic acid suitable for thermal energy storage applications was nanoencapsulated in a poly(methyl methacrylate) shell. The nanocapsules were prepared using a simple ultrasonically initiated in situ polymerization method. The morphology and particle size of the poly(methyl methacrylate)/stearic acid phase change energy storage nanocapsules (PMS-PCESNs) were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The latent heat storage capacities of stearic acid and the PMS-PCESNs were determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The chemical composition of the nanocapsules was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. All of the results show that the PMS-PCESNs were synthesized successfully and that the latent heat storage capacity and encapsulation efficiency were 155.6 J/g and 83.0%, respectively, and the diameter of each nanocapsule was 80-90 nm.

  3. Stearic acid coating on circulating fluidized bed combustion fly ashes and its effect on the mechanical performance of polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Nina; Zhang, Ping; Song, Lixian; Kang, Ming; Lu, Zhongyuan; Zheng, Rong

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this work was to test circulating fluidized bed combustion fly ashes (CFAs) for its potential to be utilized in polymer composites manufacturing to improve its toughness. CFAs was coated by stearic acid and used in the composite of polypropylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/high density polyethylene (PP/EVA/HDPE) by molding process method. The resulting coated and uncoated CFAs were fully characterized by particle size analyzer, contact angles, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The stearic acid coated onto the surface of CFAs particles in the physical and chemical ways, and the total clad ratio reached 2.05% by measuring TGA/DTA curve. The percentage of CFAs particles focused to a narrow range 2-4 μm and the median mean size was 3.2 μm more than uncoated CFAs. The properties of hydrophobic and dispersive of CFAs particles improved and original activity was reserved after stearic acid coating. The stearic acid was verified as a coupling agent by how much effect it had on the mechanical properties. It showed the elongation at break of PP/EVA/HDPE reinforced with 15 wt% coated CFAs (c-CFAs) was 80.20% and higher than that of the uncoated. The stearic acid treatment of CFAs is a very promising approach to improve the mechanical strength due to the incorporation of stearic acid on the CFAs surface, and hence, further enhances the potential for recycling CFAs as a suitable filler material in polymer composites.

  4. Paliperidone Palmitate-induced Urinary Incontinence: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Karslıoǧlu, Ersin Hatice; Özalp, Elvan; Çayköylü, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, although rarely reported, is one of the most important adverse effects of antipsychotic medication. It can be an embarrassing, distressing, and potentially treatment-limiting. Several antipsychotics, including both typical and atypical varieties, are known to induce urinary incontinence. Many antipsychotic drugs target the neural pathways controlling continence by binding to receptors of some neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, and adrenaline. Pharmacological management of incontinence should be considered if there is a risk of cessation of the antipsychotic therapy or any decline in patients’ compliance. Amitriptyline, desmopressin, ephedrine, and anticholinergics such as oxybutynin and trihexyphenidyl are the most frequently used agents to treat incontinence. We think that the frequency of incontinence is higher than reported in the literature, and that follow-up routines should include a form of standardized screening for all possible adverse effects, including incontinence, of any given antipsychotic. In this article, we report a case of urinary incontinence as an adverse effect of paliperidone palmitate use during maintenance therapy in a patient with schizophrenia. PMID:26792046

  5. Retinol and retinyl palmitate in fetal mice liver: sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Olga; Gonçalves, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We determined retinoids liver content in male and female mice fetuses to study a possible sex difference during prenatal development, and to ascertain if vitamin A metabolism is similar in both sexes. The study was performed between developmental days E15-E19, and the fetuses were collected from two main groups: control (no manipulation) and vitamin A (administration of vitamin A on developmental day E14). Each group was subdivided by sex and retinoids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The control group did not have any retinol in the liver of both sexes. Fetuses from the vitamin A group began to accumulate retinol on day E16, until E19 and sexual dimorphism was exhibited. Retinyl palmitate content in the control group showed sexual dimorphism on some developmental days, and in the vitamin A group these differences were more significant. In conclusion, our study showed sexual dimorphism in the retinoids liver content during mice development and evidences a sex difference in vitamin A metabolism, with different capacities to store and metabolize retinoids. PMID:23945125

  6. Paliperidone Palmitate Treatment in Outpatient Care Setting: A Naturalistic Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Rosaria; Cameli, Michela; Bolondi, Marisa; Landi, Giulia; Moretti, Valentina; Piemonte, Chiara; Pollutri, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate paliperidone palmitate (PP) effectiveness, safety and adherence to treatment. Methods We collected data of all patients (n = 50) affected by Schizophrenia Disorders, treated with PP for a 3 month minimum period in the outpatient setting of Mental Health Department in Modena, from 01/01/2014 to 31/01/2015. We evaluated reasons and modality for PP implementation, improvement in symptom and functioning scales, adverse effects, discontinuations and relapses. We statistically correlated socio-demographic and clinical variables of our sample with PP therapeutic variables. Results We registered an improvement in all scales, with a superior percentage in PANSS positive subscale. The mean PP dose in some patients was lower than official indications, although our sample was clinically severe. Illness relapses affected 60% and dropout 18% of patients. PP was well tolerated and in just a few cases adverse events required treatment interruption. The risk factors for discontinuation were represented by “lack of therapeutic compliance” (HR = 4.11, p < 0.0001) and “inefficacy” (HR = 1.67, p < 0.0001). Conclusions With limitations of observational design, this research highlights that PP was well tolerated and effective in improving both psychotic symptoms and functioning, but moderately effective in preventing relapse, probably due to clinical severity of our patients associated with extremely cautious and flexible PP prescriptions.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation of oleic acid/oleate bilayers: an atomistic model for a ufasome membrane.

    PubMed

    Han, Sanghwa

    2013-01-01

    When oleic acid and oleate coexist in comparable amounts they form unilamellar vesicles called ufasomes in aqueous phase. Intrinsic pH sensitivity of ufasomes makes it an attractive vehicle for drug delivery. Physical properties of ufasomes have been studied by using spectroscopic techniques but an atomistic model for a ufasome has not been proposed. In this study molecular dynamics simulation was performed on oleic acid/oleate bilayers with the oleate concentration varying from 40 to 70 mol%. All the bilayers reached an equilibrium and stayed stable during a 40 ns simulation. Area per lipid increased with mol% of oleate probably due to charge repulsion between anionic oleate molecules. Oleate was pulled out toward the aqueous phase so that the carboxyl groups of oleic acid and oleate were separated by 0.392 nm in the bilayer of oleic acid/oleate 1:1. Water concentration at the depth of carboxyl group of oleate was five times as high as that of oleic acid. Number of hydrogen bonds between oleic acid and oleate was small in contrast to a proposal that it is an important factor for the bilayer stability. However there was an extensive array of hydrogen bonds between the lipids and water molecules. Acyl chain order was within a normal range for a lipid bilayer but lateral diffusion was an order of magnitude faster in oleic acid/oleate bilayer than in dioleoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer. Cholesterol increased the bilayer thickness and order parameter and decreased the rate of lateral diffusion.

  8. Bilayer Structure and Lipid Dynamics in a Model Stratum Corneum with Oleic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopes, Matthew I.; Noro, Massimo G.; Longo, Marjorie L.; Faller, Roland

    2011-03-31

    The stratum corneum is the uppermost layer of the skin and acts as a barrier to keep out contaminants and retain moisture. Understanding the molecular structure and behavior of this layer will provide guidance for optimizing its biological function. In this study we use a model mixture comprised of equimolar portions of ceramide NS (24:0), lignoceric acid, and cholesterol to model the effect of the addition of small amounts of oleic acid to the bilayer at 300 and 340 K. Five systems at each temperature have been simulated with concentrations between 0 and 0.1 mol % oleic acid. Our major finding is that subdiffusive behavior over the 200 ns time scale is evident in systems at 340 K, with cholesterol diffusion being enhanced with increased oleic acid. Importantly, cholesterol and other species diffuse faster when radial densities indicate nearest neighbors include more cholesterol. We also find that, with the addition of oleic acid, the bilayer midplane and interfacial densities are reduced and there is a 3% decrease in total thickness occurring mostly near the hydrophilic interface at 300 K with reduced overall density at 340 K. Increased interdigitation occurs independent of oleic acid with a temperature increase. Slight ordering of the long non-hydroxy fatty acid of the ceramide occurs near the hydrophilic interface as a function of the oleic acid concentration, but no significant impact on hydrogen bonding is seen in the chosen oleic acid concentrations.

  9. Biological and Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil and Palmitic Acid: Effects on Health.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Annamaria; Imperlini, Esther; Nigro, Ersilia; Montagnese, Concetta; Daniele, Aurora; Orrù, Stefania; Buono, Pasqualina

    2015-09-18

    A growing body of evidence highlights the close association between nutrition and human health. Fat is an essential macronutrient, and vegetable oils, such as palm oil, are widely used in the food industry and highly represented in the human diet. Palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid, is the principal constituent of refined palm oil. In the last few decades, controversial studies have reported potential unhealthy effects of palm oil due to the high palmitic acid content. In this review we provide a concise and comprehensive update on the functional role of palm oil and palmitic acid in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The atherogenic potential of palmitic acid and its stereospecific position in triacylglycerols are also discussed.

  10. 78 FR 73200 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Paliperidone Palmitate Extended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Paliperidone Palmitate Extended-Release Injectable Suspension; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is...

  11. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Role of Oleic Acid-Triggered Lung Injury and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano Felippe; Silva, Adriana Ribeiro; Burth, Patrícia; Castro-Faria, Mauro Velho; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire

    2015-01-01

    Lung injury especially acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be triggered by diverse stimuli, including fatty acids and microbes. ARDS affects thousands of people worldwide each year, presenting high mortality rate and having an economic impact. One of the hallmarks of lung injury is edema formation with alveoli flooding. Animal models are used to study lung injury. Oleic acid-induced lung injury is a widely used model resembling the human disease. The oleic acid has been linked to metabolic and inflammatory diseases; here we focus on lung injury. Firstly, we briefly discuss ARDS and secondly we address the mechanisms by which oleic acid triggers lung injury and inflammation. PMID:26640323

  12. Amplified spontaneous emission from the exciplex state of a conjugated polymer "PFO" in oleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idriss, Hajo; Taha, Kamal K.; Aldaghri, O.; Alhathlool, R.; AlSalhi, M. S.; Ibnaouf, K. H.

    2016-09-01

    The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) characteristics of a conjugated polymer poly (9, 9-dioctylfluorenyl-2, 7-diyl) (PFO) in oleic acid have been studied under different concentrations and temperatures. Here, the ASE spectra of PFO in oleic acid have been obtained using a transverse cavity configuration where the conjugated PFO was pumped by laser pulses from the third harmonic of Nd: YAG laser (355 nm). The PFO in oleic acid produces ASE from an exciplex state - a new molecular species. The obtained results were compared with the PFO in benzene. Such ASE spectra from the exciplex state have not been observed for the PFO in benzene.

  13. Metabolism of palmitate in perfused rat liver. Isolation of subcellular fractions containing triacylglycerol.

    PubMed Central

    Kondrup, J

    1979-01-01

    1. The metabolism of [1-14C]palmitate in rat liver was studied in a single-pass perfusion system at concentrations of 0.2 or 1 mM. 2. After the perfusion the liver was homogenized and the floating fat was isolated. The incorporation of [1-14C]palmitate into triacylglycerol in this pool increased 9-fold when the palmitate concentration in the medium was increased from 0.2 to 1 mM. In time studies with 1 mM-[1-14C]palmitate 75% of the total accumulation of triacylglycerol occurred in this pool. Our results support the concept that the floating-fat fraction contains the storage pool of triacylglycerol, i.e. the cytoplasmic lipid droplets. 3. In a particulate preparation consisting mainly of mitochondria and microsomal fraction the incorporation of [1-14C]palmitate into triacylglycerol was proportional to the fatty acid concentration. Triacylglycerol in the perfusate medium and in the particulate fraction was in isotopic equilibrium, which indicates that the particulate fraction contained the precursor pool for secreted triacylglycerol, i.e. the pool in endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. 4. The oxidation to labelled water-soluble products and to CO2 was increased 14-fold by the 5-fold increase in palmitate concentration. PMID:534520

  14. Eradication of Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Liposomal Oleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Ming; Chen, Chao-Hsuan; Pornpattananangkul, Dissaya; Zhang, Li; Chan, Michael; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Zhang, Liangfang

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) represents a major threat to a broad range of healthcare and community associated infections. This bacterium has rapidly evolved resistance to multiple drugs throughout its antibiotic history and thus it is imperative to develop novel antimicrobial strategies to enrich the currently shrinking therapeutic options against S. aureus. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity and therapeutic efficacy of oleic acid (OA) in a liposomal formulation as an innate bactericide against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In vitro studies showed that these OA-loaded liposomes (LipoOA) could rapidly fuse into the bacterial membranes, thereby significantly improving the potency of OA to kill MRSA compared with the use of free OA. Further in vivo tests demonstrated that LipoOA were highly effective in curing skin infections caused by MRSA bacteria and preserving the integrity of the infected skin using a mouse skin model. Moreover, a preliminary skin toxicity study proved high biocompatibility of LipoOA to normal skin tissues. These findings suggest that LipoOA hold great potential to become a new, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent for the treatment of MRSA infections. PMID:20880576

  15. Orexin A attenuates palmitic acid-induced hypothalamic cell death.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Cayla M; Nixon, Joshua P; Butterick, Tammy A

    2016-09-01

    Palmitic acid (PA), an abundant dietary saturated fatty acid, contributes to obesity and hypothalamic dysregulation in part through increase in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and neuroinflammation. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of PA exposure contributes to the onset of neuronal apoptosis. Additionally, high fat diets lead to changes in hypothalamic gene expression profiles including suppression of the anti-apoptotic protein B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and upregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein B cell lymphoma 2 associated X protein (Bax). Orexin A (OXA), a hypothalamic peptide important in obesity resistance, also contributes to neuroprotection. Prior studies have demonstrated that OXA attenuates oxidative stress induced cell death. We hypothesized that OXA would be neuroprotective against PA induced cell death. To test this, we treated an immortalized hypothalamic cell line (designated mHypoA-1/2) with OXA and PA. We demonstrate that OXA attenuates PA-induced hypothalamic cell death via reduced caspase-3/7 apoptosis, stabilization of Bcl-2 gene expression, and reduced Bax/Bcl-2 gene expression ratio. We also found that OXA inhibits ROS production after PA exposure. Finally, we show that PA exposure in mHypoA-1/2 cells significantly reduces basal respiration, maximum respiration, ATP production, and reserve capacity. However, OXA treatment reverses PA-induced changes in intracellular metabolism, increasing basal respiration, maximum respiration, ATP production, and reserve capacity. Collectively, these results support that OXA protects against PA-induced hypothalamic dysregulation, and may represent one mechanism through which OXA can ameliorate effects of obesogenic diet on brain health. PMID:27449757

  16. Scale selection in columnar jointing: Insights from experiments on cooling stearic acid and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Amalie; Raufaste, Christophe; Misztal, Marek; Celestini, Franck; Guidi, Maria; Ellegaard, Clive; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    Many natural fracture systems are characterized by a single length scale, which is the distance between neighboring fractures. Examples are mud cracks and columnar jointing. In columnar jointing the origin of this scale has been a long-standing issue. Here we present a comprehensive study of columnar jointing based on experiments on cooling stearic acids, numerical simulations using both discrete and finite element methods and basic analytical calculations. We show that the diameter of columnar joints is a nontrivial function of the material properties and the cooling conditions of the system. We determine the shape of this function analytically and show that it is in agreement with the experiments and the numerical simulations.

  17. Milk production responses to dietary stearic acid vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-03-01

    Effects of stearic acid supplementation on feed intake and metabolic and production responses of dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (32.2 to 64.4 kg/d) were evaluated in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (142±55 d in milk) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to treatment sequence. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with stearic acid (SA; 98% C18:0) or control (soyhulls). The diets were based on corn silage and alfalfa and contained 24.5% forage neutral detergent fiber, 25.1% starch, and 17.3% crude protein. Treatment periods were 21 d with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Compared with the control, SA increased dry matter intake (DMI; 26.1 vs. 25.2 kg/d) and milk yield (40.2 vs. 38.5 kg/d). Stearic acid had no effect on the concentration of milk components but increased yields of fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d), protein (1.19 vs. 1.14 kg/d), and lactose (1.96 vs. 1.87 kg/d). The SA treatment increased 3.5% fat-corrected milk (3.5% FCM; 40.5 vs. 38.6 kg/d) but did not affect feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI, 1.55 vs. 1.53), body weight, or body condition score compared with the control. Linear interactions between treatment and level of milk yield during the covariate period were detected for DMI and yields of milk, fat, protein, lactose, and 3.5% FCM; responses to SA were positively related to milk yield of cows. The SA treatment increased crude protein digestibility (67.4 vs. 65.5%), tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility (43.6 vs. 42.3%), decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (56.6 vs. 76.1%), and did not affect organic matter digestibility. Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was only 13.3% for total FA and 8.2% for C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1. Low estimated digestibility of the SA supplement was at least partly responsible for the low FA yield response

  18. UVB irradiation and distribution of arachidonic acid (20:4) and stearic acid (18:0) in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Punnonen, K; Jansén, C T

    1989-04-01

    Human keratinocytes (NCTC 2544) in culture were labeled with either 14C-arachidonic acid or 14C-stearic acid and then exposed to UVB irradiation (9 or 90 mJ/cm2). Exposure of the keratinocytes to UVB irradiation resulted in considerable rearrangement of the membrane fatty acids. Following UVB irradiation the percentage amounts of 14C-arachidonic acid and 14C-stearic acid were significantly decreased in phospholipids, in phosphatidylethanolamine and in phosphatidylcholine. The liberation of stearic acid from phospholipids was accompanied by accumulation of radiolabel into the culture medium, but in 14C-arachidonic acid-labeled cells the amount of radiolabel in the culture medium was not changed following UVB irradiation despite liberation of arachidonic acid from phospholipids. It seems evident that, following UVB irradiation, the rate of reincorporation of liberated 14C-arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, is higher and thus different from that of a saturated fatty acid, 14C-stearic acid. The present study suggests that exposure of keratinocytes to UVB irradiation is followed by liberation of both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and also considerable reacylation of the unsaturated fatty acids.

  19. Structure and properties of moisture-resistant konjac glucomannan films coated with shellac/stearic acid coating.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xueqin; Pang, Jie; Zhang, Changfeng; Yu, Chengcheng; Chen, Han; Xie, Bingqing

    2015-03-15

    A series of moisture-resistant konjac glucomannan films were prepared by coating shellac/stearic acid emulsion on deacetylated konjac glucomannan films (dKGM). The effect of stearic acid content on structure and properties of the coated films were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), water vapor permeability (WVP), water uptake, water contact angle, and tensile testing. The results revealed that shellac in the coating adhered intimately to the surface of dKGM film, and provided a substrate for the dispersion of stearic acid which played an important role in enhancement of the moisture barrier properties and mechanical properties of the coated films. The WVP of the coated films decreased from 2.63×10(-11) to 0.37×10(-11)g/(msPa) and the water contact angle increased from 68° to 101.2° when stearic acid content increased from 0wt% to 40wt%, showing the potential applications in food preservation.

  20. Mutations in SACPD-C result in a range of elevated stearic acid concentration in soybean seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil has a wide variety of uses, and stearic acid, which is a relatively minor component of soybean oil is increasingly desired for both industrial and food applications. New soybean mutants containing high levels of the saturated fatty acid stearate in seeds were recently identified from a c...

  1. Fuel properties of heptadecene isomers prepared via tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of oleic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heptadecene isomers were prepared via tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of oleic acid using catalytic triruthenium dodecacarbonyl [Ru3(CO)12]. Chromatographic and spectroscopic characterization of the isolated heptadecene mixture indicated that it consisted of 96% internal isomers and 4% aromatic...

  2. Trimetazidine prevents palmitate-induced mitochondrial fission and dysfunction in cultured cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kuzmicic, Jovan; Parra, Valentina; Verdejo, Hugo E; López-Crisosto, Camila; Chiong, Mario; García, Lorena; Jensen, Michael D; Bernlohr, David A; Castro, Pablo F; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    Metabolic and cardiovascular disease patients have increased plasma levels of lipids and, specifically, of palmitate, which can be toxic for several tissues. Trimetazidine (TMZ), a partial inhibitor of lipid oxidation, has been proposed as a metabolic modulator for several cardiovascular pathologies. However, its mechanism of action is controversial. Given the fact that TMZ is able to alter mitochondrial metabolism, we evaluated the protective role of TMZ on mitochondrial morphology and function in an in vitro model of lipotoxicity induced by palmitate. We treated cultured rat cardiomyocytes with BSA-conjugated palmitate (25 nM free), TMZ (0.1-100 μM), or a combination of both. We evaluated mitochondrial morphology and lipid accumulation by confocal fluorescence microscopy, parameters of mitochondrial metabolism (mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption rate [OCR], and ATP levels), and ceramide production by mass spectrometry and indirect immunofluorescence. Palmitate promoted mitochondrial fission evidenced by a decrease in mitochondrial volume (50%) and an increase in the number of mitochondria per cell (80%), whereas TMZ increased mitochondrial volume (39%), and decreased mitochondrial number (56%), suggesting mitochondrial fusion. Palmitate also decreased mitochondrial metabolism (ATP levels and OCR), while TMZ potentiated all the metabolic parameters assessed. Moreover, pretreatment with TMZ protected the cardiomyocytes from palmitate-induced mitochondrial fission and dysfunction. TMZ also increased lipid accumulation in cardiomyocytes, and prevented palmitate-induced ceramide production. Our data show that TMZ protects cardiomyocytes by changing intracellular lipid management. Thus, the beneficial effects of TMZ on patients with different cardiovascular pathologies can be related to modulation of the mitochondrial morphology and function.

  3. Hypoxia Potentiates Palmitate-induced Pro-inflammatory Activation of Primary Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Ryan G; Boß, Marcel; Zezina, Ekaterina; Weigert, Andreas; Dehne, Nathalie; Fleming, Ingrid; Brüne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) contribute to chronic low-grade inflammation and obesity-induced insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that adipose tissue hypoxia promotes an inflammatory phenotype in ATMs. However, our understanding of how hypoxia modulates the response of ATMs to free fatty acids within obese adipose tissue is limited. We examined the effects of hypoxia (1% O2) on the pro-inflammatory responses of human monocyte-derived macrophages to the saturated fatty acid palmitate. Compared with normoxia, hypoxia significantly increased palmitate-induced mRNA expression and protein secretion of IL-6 and IL-1β. Although palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and nuclear factor κB pathway activation were not enhanced by hypoxia, hypoxia increased the activation of JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in palmitate-treated cells. Inhibition of JNK blocked the hypoxic induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, whereas knockdown of hypoxia-induced transcription factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α alone or in combination failed to reduce IL-6 and only modestly reduced IL-1β gene expression in palmitate-treated hypoxic macrophages. Enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and JNK activity under hypoxia were prevented by inhibiting reactive oxygen species generation. In addition, silencing of dual-specificity phosphatase 16 increased normoxic levels of IL-6 and IL-1β and reduced the hypoxic potentiation in palmitate-treated macrophages. The secretome of hypoxic palmitate-treated macrophages promoted IL-6 and macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 expression in primary human adipocytes, which was sensitive to macrophage JNK inhibition. Our results reveal that the coexistence of hypoxia along with free fatty acids exacerbates macrophage-mediated inflammation. PMID:26578520

  4. Palmitate has proapoptotic and proinflammatory effects on articular cartilage and synergizes with interleukin-1

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Garcia, Oscar; Rogers, Nicole H; Smith, Roy G; Lotz, Martin K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis (OA) that is associated with a state of low-grade inflammation, and increased circulating adipokines and free fatty acids (FFA). The aim of this study was to analyze effects of saturated (palmitate) and monounsaturated (oleate) free fatty acids (FFA) on articular chondrocytes and cartilage. Methods Human articular chondrocytes and fibroblast-like synoviocytes obtained from young healthy donors, and OA chondrocytes from patients undergoing total knee replacement were treated with palmitate or oleate alone or with interleukin 1-β (IL-1β). Cell viability, caspase activation, and gene expression of proinflammatory factors, extracellular matrix proteins, and extracellular proteases were studied. In addition, chondrocyte viability, interleukin-6 (IL-6) production and matrix damage were assessed in bovine and human articular cartilage explants cultured with FFA with or without IL-1β. Results Palmitate, but not oleate, induced caspase activation and cell death in IL-1β-stimulated normal chondrocytes, and upregulated il6 and cox2 expression in chondrocytes and fibroblast-like synoviocytes through toll-like receptor-4 signaling. In cartilage explants, palmitate induced chondrocyte death, IL-6 release and extracellular matrix degradation. Palmitate synergized with IL-1β in stimulating proapoptotic and proinflammatory cellular responses. Pharmacological inhibition of caspases or TLR-4 signaling reduced palmitate and IL-1β-induced cartilage damage. Conclusions Palmitate acts as a pro-inflammatory and catabolic factor that, in synergy with IL-1β, induces chondrocyte apoptosis and articular cartilage breakdown. Collectively, our data suggest that elevated levels of saturated FFA often found in obesity may contribute to OA pathogenesis. PMID:24591481

  5. Trimetazidine prevents palmitate-induced mitochondrial fission and dysfunction in cultured cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kuzmicic, Jovan; Parra, Valentina; Verdejo, Hugo E; López-Crisosto, Camila; Chiong, Mario; García, Lorena; Jensen, Michael D; Bernlohr, David A; Castro, Pablo F; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    Metabolic and cardiovascular disease patients have increased plasma levels of lipids and, specifically, of palmitate, which can be toxic for several tissues. Trimetazidine (TMZ), a partial inhibitor of lipid oxidation, has been proposed as a metabolic modulator for several cardiovascular pathologies. However, its mechanism of action is controversial. Given the fact that TMZ is able to alter mitochondrial metabolism, we evaluated the protective role of TMZ on mitochondrial morphology and function in an in vitro model of lipotoxicity induced by palmitate. We treated cultured rat cardiomyocytes with BSA-conjugated palmitate (25 nM free), TMZ (0.1-100 μM), or a combination of both. We evaluated mitochondrial morphology and lipid accumulation by confocal fluorescence microscopy, parameters of mitochondrial metabolism (mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption rate [OCR], and ATP levels), and ceramide production by mass spectrometry and indirect immunofluorescence. Palmitate promoted mitochondrial fission evidenced by a decrease in mitochondrial volume (50%) and an increase in the number of mitochondria per cell (80%), whereas TMZ increased mitochondrial volume (39%), and decreased mitochondrial number (56%), suggesting mitochondrial fusion. Palmitate also decreased mitochondrial metabolism (ATP levels and OCR), while TMZ potentiated all the metabolic parameters assessed. Moreover, pretreatment with TMZ protected the cardiomyocytes from palmitate-induced mitochondrial fission and dysfunction. TMZ also increased lipid accumulation in cardiomyocytes, and prevented palmitate-induced ceramide production. Our data show that TMZ protects cardiomyocytes by changing intracellular lipid management. Thus, the beneficial effects of TMZ on patients with different cardiovascular pathologies can be related to modulation of the mitochondrial morphology and function. PMID:25091560

  6. Model Systems of Precursor Cellular Membranes: Long-Chain Alcohols Stabilize Spontaneously Formed Oleic Acid Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Rendón, Adela; Carton, David Gil; Sot, Jesús; García-Pacios, Marcos; Montes, Ruth; Valle, Mikel; Arrondo, José-Luis R.; Goñi, Felix M.; Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa

    2012-01-01

    Oleic acid vesicles have been used as model systems to study the properties of membranes that could be the evolutionary precursors of more complex, stable, and impermeable phospholipid biomembranes. Pure fatty acid vesicles in general show high sensitivity to ionic strength and pH variation, but there is growing evidence that this lack of stability can be counterbalanced through mixtures with other amphiphilic or surfactant compounds. Here, we present a systematic experimental analysis of the oleic acid system and explore the spontaneous formation of vesicles under different conditions, as well as the effects that alcohols and alkanes may have in the process. Our results support the hypothesis that alcohols (in particular 10- to 14-C-atom alcohols) contribute to the stability of oleic acid vesicles under a wider range of experimental conditions. Moreover, studies of mixed oleic-acid-alkane and oleic-acid-alcohol systems using infrared spectroscopy and Langmuir trough measurements indicate that precisely those alcohols that increased vesicle stability also decreased the mobility of oleic acid polar headgroups, as well as the area/molecule of lipid. PMID:22339864

  7. Determination of the fatty acid composition of saponified vegetable oils using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ayorinde, F O; Garvin, K; Saeed, K

    2000-01-01

    A method using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) for the determination of the fatty acid composition of vegetable oils is described and illustrated with the analysis of palm kernel oil, palm oil, olive oil, canola oil, soybean oil, vernonia oil, and castor oil. Solutions of the saponified oils, mixed with the matrix, meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin, provided reproducible MALDI-TOF spectra in which the ions were dominated by sodiated sodium carboxylates [RCOONa + Na]+. Thus, palm kernel oil was found to contain capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and stearic acid. Palm oil had a fatty acid profile including palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic. The relative percentages of the fatty acids in olive oil were palmitoleic (1.2 +/- 0.5), palmitic (10.9 +/- 0.8), linoleic (0.6 +/- 0.1), linoleic (16.5 +/- 0.8), and oleic (70.5 +/- 1.2). For soybean oil, the relative percentages were: palmitoleic (0.4 +/- 0.4), palmitic (6.0 +/- 1.3), linolenic (14.5 +/- 1.8), linoleic (50.1 +/- 4.0), oleic (26.1 +/- 1.2), and stearic (2.2 +/- 0.7). This method was also applied to the analysis of two commercial soap formulations. The first soap gave a fatty acid profile that included: lauric (19.4% +/- 0.8), myristic (9.6% +/- 0.5), palmitoleic (1.9% +/- 0.3), palmitic (16.3% +/- 0.9), linoleic (5.6% +/- 0.4), oleic (37.1% +/- 0.8), and stearic (10.1% +/- 0.7) and that of the second soap was: lauric (9.3% +/- 0.3), myristic (3.8% +/- 0.5), palmitoleic (3.1% +/- 0.8), palmitic (19.4% +/- 0.8), linoleic (4.9% +/- 0.7), oleic (49.5% +/- 1.1), and stearic (10.0% +/- 0.9). The MALDI-TOFMS method described in this communication is simpler and less time-consuming than the established transesterification method that is coupled with analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The new method could be used routinely to determine the qualitative fatty acid composition of vegetable oils

  8. High levels of stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid and low levels of linoleic acid in serum cholesterol ester are associated with high insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Kurotani, Kayo; Sato, Masao; Ejima, Yuko; Nanri, Akiko; Yi, Siyan; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Akter, Shamima; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Kimura, Yasumi; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2012-09-01

    The association of fatty acid composition with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes has been reported in Western populations, but there is limited evidence of this association among the Japanese, whose populace consume large amounts of fish. To test the hypothesis that high palmitic, palmitoleic, and dihomo-γ-linolenic acids and low levels of linoleic and n-3 fatty acids are associated with higher insulin resistance among the Japanese, the authors investigated the relationship between serum fatty acid composition and serum C-peptide concentrations in 437 Japanese employees aged 21 to 67 years who participated in a workplace health examination. Serum cholesterol ester and phospholipid fatty acid compositions were measured by gas-liquid chromatography. Desaturase activity was estimated by fatty acid product-to-precursor ratios. A multiple regression was used to assess the association between fatty acid and C-peptide concentrations. C-peptide concentrations were associated inversely with linoleic acid levels in cholesterol ester and phospholipid (P for trend = .01 and .02, respectively) and positively with stearic and palmitoleic acids in cholesterol ester (P for trend =.02 and .006, respectively) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid in cholesterol ester and phospholipid (P for trend < .0001 for both). C-peptide concentrations were not associated with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. C-peptide concentrations significantly increased as δ-9-desaturase (16:1 n-7/16:0) and δ-6-desaturase (18:3 n-6/18:2 n-6) increased (P for trend = .01 and .03, respectively) and δ-5-desaturase (20:4 n-6/20:3 n-6) decreased (P for trend = .004). In conclusion, a fatty acid pattern with high levels of serum stearic, palmitoleic, or dihomo-γ-linolenic acids; δ-9-desaturase (16:1 n-7/16:0) or δ-6-desaturase (18:3 n-6/18:2 n-6) activities; and low levels of serum linoleic acid or δ-5-desaturase (20:4 n-6/20:3 n-6) activity might be associated with higher insulin resistance in Japanese adults.

  9. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yi Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ► Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ► The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ► Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated

  10. Bordetella parapertussis PagP Mediates the Addition of Two Palmitates to the Lipopolysaccharide Lipid A

    PubMed Central

    Hittle, L. E.; Jones, J. W.; Hajjar, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica PagP (PagPBB) is a lipid A palmitoyl transferase that is required for resistance to antibody-dependent complement-mediated killing in a murine model of infection. B. parapertussis contains a putative pagP homolog (encoding B. parapertussis PagP [PagPBPa]), but its role in the biosynthesis of lipid A, the membrane anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has not been investigated. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that wild-type B. parapertussis lipid A consists of a heterogeneous mixture of lipid A structures, with penta- and hexa-acylated structures containing one and two palmitates, respectively. Through mutational analysis, we demonstrate that PagPBPa is required for the modification of lipid A with palmitate. While PagPBB transfers a single palmitate to the lipid A C-3′ position, PagPBPa transfers palmitates to the lipid A C-2 and C-3′ positions. The addition of two palmitate acyl chains is unique to B. parapertussis. Mutation of pagPBPa resulted in a mutant strain with increased sensitivity to antimicrobial peptide killing and decreased endotoxicity, as evidenced by reduced proinflammatory responses via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to the hypoacylated LPS. Therefore, PagP-mediated modification of lipid A regulates outer membrane function and may be a means to modify interactions between the bacterium and its human host during infection. PMID:25422302

  11. Vitamin A is rapidly degraded in retinyl palmitate-fortified soybean oil stored under household conditions.

    PubMed

    Pignitter, Marc; Dumhart, Bettina; Gartner, Stephanie; Jirsa, Franz; Steiger, Georg; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-07-30

    Oil fortification with retinyl palmitate is intended to lower the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Although the stability of vitamin A in vegetable oil has been shown to depend on environmental factors, very little information is known about the stability of vitamin A in preoxidized vegetable oils. The present study investigated the stability of retinyl palmitate in mildly oxidized (peroxide value < 2 mequiv O2/kg) and highly oxidized (peroxide value > 10 mequiv O2/kg) soybean oil stored under domestic and retail conditions. Soybean oil was filled in transparent bottles, which were exposed to cold fluorescent light at 22 or 32 °C for 56 days. Periodic oil sampling increased the headspace, thereby mimicking consumer handling. Loss of retinyl palmitate in soybean oil by a maximum of 84.8 ± 5.76% was accompanied by a decrease of vitamin E by 53.3 ± 0.87% and by an increase of the peroxide value from 1.20 ± 0.004 to 24.3 ± 0.02 mequiv O2/kg. Fortification of highly oxidized oil with 31.6 IU/g retinyl palmitate led to a doubling of the average decrease of retinol per day compared to fortification of mildly oxidized oil. In conclusion, oil fortification programs need to consider the oxidative status of the oil used for retinyl palmitate fortification. PMID:25003735

  12. Bordetella parapertussis PagP mediates the addition of two palmitates to the lipopolysaccharide lipid A.

    PubMed

    Hittle, L E; Jones, J W; Hajjar, A M; Ernst, R K; Preston, A

    2015-02-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica PagP (PagPBB) is a lipid A palmitoyl transferase that is required for resistance to antibody-dependent complement-mediated killing in a murine model of infection. B. parapertussis contains a putative pagP homolog (encoding B. parapertussis PagP [PagPBPa]), but its role in the biosynthesis of lipid A, the membrane anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has not been investigated. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that wild-type B. parapertussis lipid A consists of a heterogeneous mixture of lipid A structures, with penta- and hexa-acylated structures containing one and two palmitates, respectively. Through mutational analysis, we demonstrate that PagPBPa is required for the modification of lipid A with palmitate. While PagPBB transfers a single palmitate to the lipid A C-3' position, PagPBPa transfers palmitates to the lipid A C-2 and C-3' positions. The addition of two palmitate acyl chains is unique to B. parapertussis. Mutation of pagPBPa resulted in a mutant strain with increased sensitivity to antimicrobial peptide killing and decreased endotoxicity, as evidenced by reduced proinflammatory responses via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to the hypoacylated LPS. Therefore, PagP-mediated modification of lipid A regulates outer membrane function and may be a means to modify interactions between the bacterium and its human host during infection. PMID:25422302

  13. Short Term Palmitate Supply Impairs Intestinal Insulin Signaling via Ceramide Production.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thi Thu Trang; Postal, Bárbara Graziela; Demignot, Sylvie; Ribeiro, Agnès; Osinski, Céline; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Leturque, Armelle; Rousset, Monique; Ferré, Pascal; Hajduch, Eric; Carrière, Véronique

    2016-07-29

    The worldwide prevalence of metabolic diseases is increasing, and there are global recommendations to limit consumption of certain nutrients, especially saturated lipids. Insulin resistance, a common trait occurring in obesity and type 2 diabetes, is associated with intestinal lipoprotein overproduction. However, the mechanisms by which the intestine develops insulin resistance in response to lipid overload remain unknown. Here, we show that insulin inhibits triglyceride secretion and intestinal microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression in vivo in healthy mice force-fed monounsaturated fatty acid-rich olive oil but not in mice force-fed saturated fatty acid-rich palm oil. Moreover, when mouse intestine and human Caco-2/TC7 enterocytes were treated with the saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, the insulin-signaling pathway was impaired. We show that palmitic acid or palm oil increases ceramide production in intestinal cells and that treatment with a ceramide analogue partially reproduces the effects of palmitic acid on insulin signaling. In Caco-2/TC7 enterocytes, ceramide effects on insulin-dependent AKT phosphorylation are mediated by protein kinase C but not by protein phosphatase 2A. Finally, inhibiting de novo ceramide synthesis improves the response of palmitic acid-treated Caco-2/TC7 enterocytes to insulin. These results demonstrate that a palmitic acid-ceramide pathway accounts for impaired intestinal insulin sensitivity, which occurs within several hours following initial lipid exposure. PMID:27255710

  14. Contribution of mitochondria and peroxisomes to palmitate oxidation in rat and bovine tissues.

    PubMed

    Piot, C; Veerkamp, J H; Bauchart, D; Hocquette, J F

    1998-10-01

    Total and peroxisomal palmitate oxidation capacities and mitochondrial enzyme activities were compared in tissues from growing rats, preruminant calves and 15-month-old bulls. Total palmitate oxidation rates were 1.9-5.2-fold higher in rat than in bovine tissues and 1.7-fold higher in the heart and muscles from calves than from growing bulls. The peroxisomal contribution to palmitate oxidation was similar between rats and bovines (i.e. calves and bulls) in liver (35-51%), heart (26%) but not in muscles (14 +/- 3% in rats vs 33 +/- 4.5% in bovines, P < 0.05). Mitochondrial enzyme activities were 1.8-4.8-fold higher in rat than in bovine tissues but the citrate synthase to cytochrome-c oxidase ratio was the highest in the liver (17-38), intermediate in the heart and muscles from calves and rats (6-10) and the lowest in heart and muscles from bulls (2-3, P < 0.05). In all tissues and animal groups, palmitate oxidation rates were similar per unit cytochrome-c oxidase activity, but not always per unit citrate synthase activity. Therefore, differences in mitochondrial contents (as between rats and bovines) or in mitochondrial characteristics (as between liver and muscles) relate to the differences in palmitate oxidation capacity.

  15. The Effects of plasticizers and palmitic acid toward the properties of the carrageenan Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heru Wibowo, Atmanto; Listiyawati, Oktaviana; Purnawan, Candra

    2016-02-01

    Varied plasticizers and palmitic acid additive have been added in the carrageenan film. The film was made by mixing of the carrageenan and plasticizers (glycerol, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol) with composition of 92:3, 90:6, 87:9, 84:12, 81:15(%w/w) and in the presence of palmitic acid as additive with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% of total weight. Casting method was used for the film molding and drying at 60oC with the oven for 12 hours. To investigate the effects of plasticizers and additive, some mechanical tests on film were performed. The test result concludes that plasticizers in the film decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation break of the carrageenan film. The additive of palmitic acid decreased the tensile strength of the carrageenan film and also decreased the-the water absorbance of the film. The highest tensile strength of films made was with the formulation of carrageenan: PEG with composition of 92:3 (% w/w). The highest elongation break of the film was for carrageenan:PVA with the composition of 81: 15 (%w/w) and carrageenan:palmitic acid:PEG with the composition of 92: 3: 1 (%w/w). The lowest water absorption of the film was achieved for carrageenan:PVA:palmitic acid with the composition of 87: 3: 5 (%w/w).

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Long-Chain Fatty Acids on Biogas Production and the Protective Effect of Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Dasa, Kris Triwulan; Westman, Supansa Y.; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Niklasson, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of lipid-containing wastes for biogas production is often hampered by the inhibitory effect of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). In this study, the inhibitory effects of LCFAs (palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid) on biogas production as well as the protective effect of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) against LCFAs were examined in thermophilic batch digesters. The results showed that palmitic and oleic acid with concentrations of 3.0 and 4.5 g/L resulted in >50% inhibition on the biogas production, while stearic acid had an even stronger inhibitory effect. The encased cells in the MBR system were able to perform better in the presence of LCFAs. This system exhibited a significantly lower percentage of inhibition than the free cell system, not reaching over 50% at any LCFA concentration tested. PMID:27699172

  17. Inhibitory Effect of Long-Chain Fatty Acids on Biogas Production and the Protective Effect of Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Dasa, Kris Triwulan; Westman, Supansa Y.; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Niklasson, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of lipid-containing wastes for biogas production is often hampered by the inhibitory effect of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). In this study, the inhibitory effects of LCFAs (palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid) on biogas production as well as the protective effect of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) against LCFAs were examined in thermophilic batch digesters. The results showed that palmitic and oleic acid with concentrations of 3.0 and 4.5 g/L resulted in >50% inhibition on the biogas production, while stearic acid had an even stronger inhibitory effect. The encased cells in the MBR system were able to perform better in the presence of LCFAs. This system exhibited a significantly lower percentage of inhibition than the free cell system, not reaching over 50% at any LCFA concentration tested.

  18. A complex of equine lysozyme and oleic acid with bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Emily A; Wilhelm, Kristina R; Schleucher, Jürgen; Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A; Hakansson, Anders P

    2013-01-01

    HAMLET and ELOA are complexes consisting of oleic acid and two homologous, yet functionally different, proteins with cytotoxic activities against mammalian cells, with HAMLET showing higher tumor cells specificity, possibly due to the difference in propensity for oleic acid binding, as HAMLET binds 5-8 oleic acid molecules per protein molecule and ELOA binds 11-48 oleic acids. HAMLET has been shown to possess bactericidal activity against a number of bacterial species, particularly those with a respiratory tropism, with Streptococcus pneumoniae displaying the greatest degree of sensitivity. We show here that ELOA also displays bactericidal activity against pneumococci, which at lower concentrations shows mechanistic similarities to HAMLET's bactericidal activity. ELOA binds to S. pneumoniae and causes perturbations of the plasma membrane, including depolarization and subsequent rupture, and activates an influx of calcium into the cells. Selective inhibition of calcium channels and sodium/calcium exchange activity significantly diminished ELOA's bactericidal activity, similar to what we have observed with HAMLET. Finally, ELOA-induced death was also accompanied by DNA fragmentation into high molecular weight fragments - an apoptosis-like morphological phenotype that is seen during HAMLET-induced death. Thus, in contrast to different mechanisms of eukaryote cell death induced by ELOA and HAMLET, these complexes are characterized by rather similar activities towards bacteria. Although the majority of these events could be mimicked using oleic acid alone, the concentrations of oleic acid required were significantly higher than those present in the ELOA complex, and for some assays, the results were not identical between oleic acid alone and the ELOA complex. This indicates that the lipid, as a common denominator in both complexes, is an important component for the complexes' bactericidal activities, while the proteins are required both to solubilize and/or present the

  19. Ozonolysis of oleic acid adsorbed to polar and nonpolar aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Elias P; Garland, Eva R; Baer, Tomas

    2008-10-16

    Single-particle kinetic studies of the reaction between oleic acid and O 3 have been conducted on two different types of core particles: polystyrene latex (PSL) and silica. Oleic acid was found to adsorb to both particle types in multilayer islands that resulted in an adsorbed layer of a total volume estimated to be less than one monolayer. The rate of the surface reaction between surface-adsorbed oleic acid and O 3 has been shown for the first time to be influenced by the composition of the aerosol substrate in a mixed organic/inorganic particle. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism was applied to the observed dependence of the pseudo-first-order rate constant with [O 3], and the resulting fit parameters for the ozone partition coefficient ( K O 3 ) and maximum first order rate constant ( k 1,max ) suggest that the reaction proceeded faster on the less polar PSL core at lower [O 3] due to the increased residence time of O 3 on the PSL surface, but the reaction was ultimately more efficient on the silica surface at high [O 3]. Values for the uptake coefficient, gamma oleic , for reaction of oleic acid on PSL spheres decrease from 2.5 x 10 (-5) to 1 x 10 (-5) with increasing [O 3] from 4 to 25 ppm and overlap at high [O 3] with the estimated values for gamma oleic on silica, which decrease from 1.6 x 10 (-5) to 1.3 x 10 (-5). The relationship between gamma oleic and the more common expression for gamma O 3 is discussed.

  20. Mitochondrial transporters involved in oleic acid utilization and glutamate metabolism in yeast.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Pamela J; Adamson, Amy L; Ghrist, Angela C; Rowe, Lindsay; Scott, Lori R; Sherman, Matthew P; Stites, Nicole C; Sun, Yue; Tawiah-Boateng, Mary Anne; Tibbetts, Anne S; Wadington, Megan C; West, Aaron C

    2005-10-01

    Utilization of fatty acids such as oleic acid as sole carbon source by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires coordinated function of peroxisomes, where the fatty acids are degraded, and the mitochondria, where oxidation is completed. We identified two mitochondrial oxodicarboxylate transporters, Odc1p and Odc2p, as important in efficient utilization of oleic acid in yeast [Tibbetts et al., Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 406 (2002) 96-104]. Yet, the growth phenotype of odc1delta odc2delta strains indicated that additional transporter(s) were also involved. Here, we identify two putative transporter genes, YMC1 and YMC2, as able to suppress the odc1delta odc2delta growth phenotype. The mRNA levels for both are elevated in the presence of glycerol or oleic acid, as compared to glucose. Ymc1p and Ymc2p are localized to the mitochondria in oleic acid-grown cells. Deletion of all four transporters (quad mutant) prevents growth on oleic acid as sole carbon source, while growth on acetate is retained. It is known that the glutamate-sensitive retrograde signaling pathway is important for upregulation of peroxisomal function in response to oleic acid and the oxodicarboxylate alpha-ketoglutarate is transported out of the mitochondria for synthesis of glutamate. So, citric acid cycle function and glutamate synthesis were examined in transporter mutants. The quad mutant has significantly decreased citrate synthase activity and whole cell alpha-ketoglutarate levels, while isocitrate dehydrogenase activity is unaffected and glutamate dehydrogenase activity is increased 10-fold. Strains carrying only two or three transporter deletions exhibit intermediate affects. 13C NMR metabolic enrichment experiments confirm a defect in glutamate biosynthesis in the quad mutant and, in double and triple mutants, suggest increased cycling of the glutamate backbone in the mitochondria before export. Taken together these studies indicate that these four transporters have overlapping activity, and

  1. A novel cationic microbubble coated with stearic acid-modified polyethylenimine to enhance DNA loading and gene delivery by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiaofeng; Wang, Zhiyong; Yan, Fei; Deng, Zhiting; Ni, Fei; Wu, Junru; Shandas, Robin; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

    2013-01-01

    A novel cationic microbubble (MB) for improvement of the DNA loading capacity and the ultrasound-mediated gene delivery efficiency has been developed; it has been prepared with commercial lipids and a stearic acid modified polyethylenimine 600 (Stearic-PEI600) polymer synthesized via acylation reaction of branched PEI600 and stearic acid mediated by N, N'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI). The MBs' concentration, size distribution, stability and zeta potential (ζ-potential) were measured and the DNA loading capacity was examined as a function of the amount of Stearic-PEI600. The gene transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity were also examined using breast cancer MCF-7 cells via the reporter plasmid pCMV-Luc, encoding the firefly luciferase gene. The results showed that the Stearic-PEI600 polymer caused a significant increase in magnitude of ζ-potential of MBs. The addition of DNA into cationic MBs can shift ζ-potentials from positive to negative values. The DNA loading capacity of the MBs grew linearly from (5±0.2) ×10⁻³ pg/µm² to (20±1.8) ×10⁻³ pg/µm² when Stearic-PEI600 was increased from 5 mol% to 30 mol%. Transfection of MCF-7 cells using 5% PEI600 MBs plus ultrasound exposure yielded 5.76±2.58×10³ p/s/cm²/sr average radiance intensity, was 8.97- and 7.53-fold higher than those treated with plain MBs plus ultrasound (6.41±5.82) ×10² p/s/cm²/sr, (P<0.01) and PEI600 MBs without ultrasound (7.65±6.18) ×10² p/s/cm²/sr, (P<0.01), respectively. However, the PEI600 MBs showed slightly higher cytotoxicity than plain MBs. The cells treated with PEI600-MBs and plain MBs plus ultrasound showed 59.5±6.1% and 71.4±7.1% cell viability, respectively. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the novel cationic MBs were able to increase DNA loading capacity and gene transfection efficiency and could be potentially applied in targeted gene delivery and therapy.

  2. A Novel Cationic Microbubble Coated with Stearic Acid-Modified Polyethylenimine to Enhance DNA Loading and Gene Delivery by Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Qiaofeng; Wang, Zhiyong; Yan, Fei; Deng, Zhiting; Ni, Fei; Wu, Junru; Shandas, Robin; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

    2013-01-01

    A novel cationic microbubble (MB) for improvement of the DNA loading capacity and the ultrasound-mediated gene delivery efficiency has been developed; it has been prepared with commercial lipids and a stearic acid modified polyethylenimine 600 (Stearic-PEI600) polymer synthesized via acylation reaction of branched PEI600 and stearic acid mediated by N, N'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI). The MBs’ concentration, size distribution, stability and zeta potential (ζ-potential) were measured and the DNA loading capacity was examined as a function of the amount of Stearic-PEI600. The gene transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity were also examined using breast cancer MCF-7 cells via the reporter plasmid pCMV-Luc, encoding the firefly luciferase gene. The results showed that the Stearic-PEI600 polymer caused a significant increase in magnitude of ζ-potential of MBs. The addition of DNA into cationic MBs can shift ζ-potentials from positive to negative values. The DNA loading capacity of the MBs grew linearly from (5±0.2) ×10−3 pg/µm2 to (20±1.8) ×10−3 pg/µm2 when Stearic-PEI600 was increased from 5 mol% to 30 mol%. Transfection of MCF-7 cells using 5% PEI600 MBs plus ultrasound exposure yielded 5.76±2.58×103 p/s/cm2/sr average radiance intensity, was 8.97- and 7.53-fold higher than those treated with plain MBs plus ultrasound (6.41±5.82) ×102 p/s/cm2/sr, (P<0.01) and PEI600 MBs without ultrasound (7.65±6.18) ×102 p/s/cm2/sr, (P<0.01), respectively. However, the PEI600 MBs showed slightly higher cytotoxicity than plain MBs. The cells treated with PEI600-MBs and plain MBs plus ultrasound showed 59.5±6.1% and 71.4±7.1% cell viability, respectively. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the novel cationic MBs were able to increase DNA loading capacity and gene transfection efficiency and could be potentially applied in targeted gene delivery and therapy. PMID:24086748

  3. The effects of clofibrate feeding on the metabolism of palmitate and erucate in isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, R Z; Osmundsen, H; Borrebaek, B; Bremer, J

    1978-07-01

    The metabolism of palmitate and erucate has been investigated in hepatocytes isolated from control rats and from rats fed 0.3% clofibrate. Clofibrate increased the oxidation of [1-14C]palmitate 1.5 to 2-fold while the esterification was decreased. At a high concentration of palmitate (1.5 mM), the total rate of fatty acid metabolism was stimulated. Clofibrate stimulated both the oxidation (3.5 to 5-fold) and the esterfication (1.7-fold) of [14-14C]erucate. Erucate undergoes chain-shortening in isolated liver cells. This chain-shortening was stimulated at least 2-fold by clofibrate feedings. The isolated mitochondrial fraction from clofibrate-fed rats showed an increased capacity for oxidation of short-chain acylcarnitines (including acetylcarnitine), while the oxidation of palmitoyl- and erucoylcarnitine showed little change. It is suggested that erucate is shortened by the recently detected beta-oxidation system of peroxisomes.

  4. Structural, electronic, thermodynamical and charge transfer properties of Chloramphenicol Palmitate using vibrational spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rashmi; Srivastava, Anubha; Sharma, Anamika; Tandon, Poonam; Baraldi, Cecilia; Gamberini, Maria Christina

    2013-01-01

    The global problem of advancing bacterial resistance to newer drugs has led to renewed interest in the use of Chloramphenicol Palmitate (C27H42Cl2N2O6) [Palmitic acid alpha ester with D-threo-(-),2-dichloro-N-(beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl)acetamide also known as Detereopal]. The characterization of the three polymorphic forms of Chloramphenicol Palmitate (CPP) was done spectroscopically by employing FT-IR and FT-Raman techniques. The equilibrium geometry, various bonding features, and harmonic wavenumbers have been investigated for most stable form A with the help of DFT calculations and a good correlation was found between experimental data and theoretical values. Electronic properties have been analyzed employing TD-DFT for both gaseous and solvent phase. The theoretical calculation of thermodynamical properties along with NBO analysis has also been performed to have a deep insight into the molecule for further applications.

  5. Oleic and docosahexaenoic acid differentially phase separate from lipid raft molecules: a comparative NMR, DSC, AFM, and detergent extraction study.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Dumaual, Alfred C; Castillo, Alicia; LoCascio, Daniel; Siddiqui, Rafat A; Stillwell, William; Wassall, Stephen R

    2004-09-01

    We have previously suggested that the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may in part function by enhancing membrane lipid phase separation into lipid rafts. Here we further tested for differences in the molecular interactions of an oleic (OA) versus DHA-containing phospholipid with sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (CHOL) utilizing (2)H NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, and detergent extractions in model bilayer membranes. (2)H NMR and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) established the phase behavior of the OA-containing 1-[(2)H(31)]palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (16:0-18:1PE-d(31))/SM (1:1) and the DHA-containing 1-[(2)H(31)]palmitoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (16:0-22:6PE-d(31))/SM (1:1) in the absence and presence of equimolar CHOL. CHOL was observed to affect the OA-containing phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) more than the DHA-containing PE, as exemplified by >2 x greater increase in order measured for the perdeuterated palmitic chain in 16:0-18:1PE-d(31)/SM (1:1) compared to 16:0-22:6PE-d(31)/SM (1:1) bilayers in the liquid crystalline phase. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments showed less lateral phase separation between 16:0-18:1PE-rich and SM/CHOL-rich raft domains in 16:0-18:1PE/SM/CHOL (1:1:1) bilayers than was observed when 16:0-22:6PE replaced 16:0-18:1PE. Differences in the molecular interaction of 16:0-18:1PE and 16:0-22:6PE with SM/CHOL were also found using biochemical detergent extractions. In the presence of equimolar SM/CHOL, 16:0-18:1PE showed decreased solubilization in comparison to 16:0-22:6PE, indicating greater phase separation with the DHA-PE. Detergent experiments were also conducted with cardiomyocytes fed radiolabeled OA or DHA. Although both OA and DHA were found to be largely detergent solubilized, the amount of OA that was found to be associated with raft-rich detergent-resistant membranes exceeded DHA by

  6. Gas chromatographic analysis of synthetic glycidol esters, mono-, di- and triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Engbersen, J A; van Stijn, F

    1976-03-01

    The gas chromatographic analysis of glycidol esters and mono-, di-,and triglycerides of palmitic-, stearic-, and oleic acid mixtures is described. The composition of the products was determined by gas chromatography on OV-17 after trimethylsilylation. Base-line separations between 1- and 2-monoglycerides and between 1,2- and 1,3-diglycerides were obtained. Isomerisation of the trimethylsilyl ethers of monoglycerides was not observed, contrary to published work.

  7. 21 CFR 357.210 - Cholecystokinetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a melting point of 41 to 43.5 °C, an iodine value of 65 to 69, and a fatty acid composition as follows: Fatty acid Percent composition Myristic acid 0.1 Palmitic acid 10.0 Palmitoleic acid 0.1 Stearic acid 13.5 Oleic acid 72.0 Linoleic acid 3.8 Linolenic acid 0.1 Arachidic acid 0.5 Behenic acid 0.2...

  8. 21 CFR 357.210 - Cholecystokinetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a melting point of 41 to 43.5 °C, an iodine value of 65 to 69, and a fatty acid composition as follows: Fatty acid Percent composition Myristic acid 0.1 Palmitic acid 10.0 Palmitoleic acid 0.1 Stearic acid 13.5 Oleic acid 72.0 Linoleic acid 3.8 Linolenic acid 0.1 Arachidic acid 0.5 Behenic acid 0.2...

  9. 21 CFR 357.210 - Cholecystokinetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a melting point of 41 to 43.5 °C, an iodine value of 65 to 69, and a fatty acid composition as follows: Fatty acid Percent composition Myristic acid 0.1 Palmitic acid 10.0 Palmitoleic acid 0.1 Stearic acid 13.5 Oleic acid 72.0 Linoleic acid 3.8 Linolenic acid 0.1 Arachidic acid 0.5 Behenic acid 0.2...

  10. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  11. Effects of chemical and enzymatic modifications on starch-oleic acid complex formation.

    PubMed

    Arijaje, Emily Oluwaseun; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2015-04-29

    The solubility of starch-inclusion complexes affects the digestibility and bioavailability of the included molecules. Acetylation with two degrees of substitution, 0.041 (low) and 0.091 (high), combined without or with a β-amylase treatment was employed to improve the yield and solubility of the inclusion complex between debranched potato starch and oleic acid. Both soluble and insoluble complexes were recovered and analyzed for their degree of acetylation, complexation yields, molecular size distributions, X-ray diffraction patterns, and thermal properties. Acetylation significantly increased the amount of recovered soluble complexes as well as the complexed oleic acid in both soluble and insoluble complexes. High-acetylated debranched-only starch complexed the highest amount of oleic acid (38.0 mg/g) in the soluble complexes; low-acetylated starch with or without the β-amylase treatment resulted in the highest complexed oleic acid in the insoluble complexes (37.6-42.9 mg/g). All acetylated starches displayed the V-type X-ray pattern, and the melting temperature generally decreased with acetylation. The results indicate that starch acetylation with or without the β-amylase treatment can improve the formation and solubility of the starch-oleic acid complex. PMID:25877005

  12. Differential Regulation of ABCA1 and Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux By Elaidic and Oleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Fei; Ford, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acid consumption is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. This increased risk has been attributed to decreased levels of HDL cholesterol and increased levels of LDL cholesterol. However, the mechanism by which trans fatty acid modulates cholesterol transit remains poorly defined. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-mediated macrophage cholesterol efflux is the rate-limiting step initiating apolipoprotein A-I lipidation. In this study, elaidic acid, the most abundant trans fatty acid in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, was shown to stabilize macrophage ABCA1 protein levels in comparison to that of its cis fatty acid isomer, oleic acid. The mechanism responsible for the disparate effects of oleic and elaidic acid on ABCA1 levels was through accelerated ABCA1 protein degradation in cells treated with oleic acid. In contrast, no apparent differences were observed in ABCA1 mRNA levels, and only minor changes were observed in Liver X receptor/Retinoic X receptor promoter activity in cells treated with elaidic and oleic acid. Efflux of both tracers and cholesterol mass revealed that elaidic acid slightly increased ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux, while oleic acid led to decreased ABCA1-mediated efflux. In conclusion, these studies sho that cis and trans structural differences in eighteen carbon n-9 monoenoic fatty acids variably impact cholesterol efflux through disparate effects on ABCA1 protein degradation. PMID:23800855

  13. Physico-chemical properties and performance of high oleic and palm-based shortenings.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Muhamad Roddy; Lin, Siew Wai; Yoo, Cheah Kien; Idris, Nor Aini; Sahri, Miskandar Mat

    2008-01-01

    Solid fat from fractionation of palm-based products was converted into cake shortening at different processing conditions. High oleic palm stearin with an oleic content of 48.2 % was obtained from fractionation of high oleic palm oil which was produced locally. Palm product was blended with different soft oils at pre-determined ratio and further fractionated to obtain the solid fractions. These fractions were then converted into cake shortenings named as high oleic, N1 and N2 blends. The physico-chemical properties of the experimental shortenings were compared with those of control shortenings in terms of fatty acid composition (FAC), iodine value (IV), slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC) and polymorphic forms. Unlike the imported commercial shortenings as reported by other studies and the control, experimental shortenings were trans-free. The SMP and SFC of experimental samples, except for the N2 sample, fell within the ranges of commercial and control shortenings. The IV was higher than those of domestic shortenings but lower when compared to imported and control shortenings. They were also observed to be beta tending even though a mixture of beta and beta' was observed in the samples after 3 months of storage. The shortenings were also used in the making of pound cake and sensory evaluation showed the good performance of high oleic sample as compared to the other shortenings.

  14. Topical application of docosanol- or stearic acid-containing creams reduces severity of phenol burn wounds in mice.

    PubMed

    Khalil, M H; Marcelletti, J F; Katz, L R; Katz, D H; Pope, L E

    2000-08-01

    Because of their reported antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities, cream formulations containing n-docosanol (docosanol) or stearic acid were tested for effects on chemically-induced burns in mice. In this model, injury was induced by painting the abdomens of mice with a chloroform solution of phenol. This was followed by the topical application of test substances 0.5, 3, and 6 h later. Progression of the wounds was assessed by a single evaluator after 8 h, using a numerical score of gross morphology. Docosanol- and stearic acid-containing creams substantially and reproducibly lessened the severity and progression of skin lesions compared to untreated sites with a 76% and 57% reduction in mean lesion scores, respectively. Untreated wounds appeared red and ulcerated; docosanol cream-treated wounds showed only slight erythema.

  15. Structure of the magnetite-oleic acid-decalin magnetic fluid from small-angle neutron scattering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagornyi, A. V.; Petrenko, V. I.; Bulavin, L. A.; Avdeev, M. V.; Almásy, L.; Rosta, L.; Aksenov, V. L.

    2014-01-01

    Structural parameters of the magnetite-oleic acid-decalin magnetic fluid at various excesses of oleic acid (up to 25 vol %) have been determined using small-angle neutron scattering. Based on the comparison of the behavior of oleic acid in the magnetic fluid and in the pure solvent (decalin), it has been concluded that the interaction between the molecules of free (unadsorbed) surfactant changes in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles. However, the system remains stable and does not form aggregates of magnetic particles or free oleic acid. These results are compared with the previously presented data for similar benzene-based magnetic fluids.

  16. Relation between phase diagram, crystallization, and optical properties of cyanine dye/stearic acid mixed monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Duschl, C.; Kemper, D.; Frey, W.; Meller, P.; Ringsdorf, H.; Knoll, W. Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching )

    1989-06-01

    The phase behavior of cyanine dye monolayers mixed with stearic acid as cosurfactant was investigated at various mole fractions, x, by recording pressure-area isotherms at the water-air interface. The resulting pressure-composition phase diagram shows a eutectic behavior with mixed crystal formation. In the miscibility gap ranging from x {approx} 0.3 to x {approx} 0.95 above the eutectic pressure {pi}{sub e} = 40 mN{center dot}m{sup {minus}1} the two coexisting crystal modifications are characterized (among other techniques) by fluorescence microscopy and, after transfer to a suitable substrate, by electron diffraction. The dye-rich (x = 0.95) crystals show all the characteristic features of the brick-stone arrangement proposed for the molecular packing of the dye chromophores in J aggregates. The x = 0.3 phase boundary with a distinctly different crystal habit is stabilized by the areal match between the chromophore headgroups and the densely packed hydrocarbon chains. These thermodynamic and structural data are discussed in relation to the optical properties of the J-band aggregates.

  17. Superhydrophobic surfaces on diverse metals based on ultrafast sequential deposition of silver and stearic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Junfei; Shi, Qingwen; Chen, Yiwei; Wang, Fajun; Xue, Mingshan; Li, Wen

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of NaF, silver (Ag) was galvanically deposited onto aluminum (Al) substrate quickly (typically 10 s) from dilute aqueous AgNO3 solution. Subsequent immersion into ethanolic solution of stearic acid (SA, for 30 s) rendered Al superhydrophobic. The deposition and morphological evolution of Ag were investigated in detail. It was found that NaF was indispensable to initiate the Ag galvanic deposition by dissolving the barrier oxide layer. Moreover, as reaction time prolonging, surface morphology and surface wettability varied synchronously. This strategy to fabricate superhydrophobic surface (coded as SHS) was also applicable to many other metals, such as Fe, Co and Mo with oxide passivation layer (NaF was needed) or Mg, Zn, Sn, Pb, and Cu with no apparent oxide passivation layer (NaF was not needed). In summary, the strategy to fabricate SHS based on Ag deposition and SA modification was quite impressive for its time-saving benefits and wide substrate applicability.

  18. Silymarin-Loaded Nanoparticles Based on Stearic Acid-Modified Bletilla striata Polysaccharide for Hepatic Targeting.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanni; He, Shaolong; Ma, Xueqin; Hong, Tongtong; Li, Zhifang; Park, Kinam; Wang, Wenping

    2016-01-01

    Silymarin has been widely used as a hepatoprotective drug in the treatment of various liver diseases, yet its effectiveness is affected by its poor water solubility and low bioavailability after oral administration, and there is a need for the development of intravenous products, especially for liver-targeting purposes. In this study, silymarin was encapsulated in self-assembled nanoparticles of Bletilla striata polysaccharide (BSP) conjugates modified with stearic acid and the physicochemical properties of the obtained nanoparticles were characterized. The silymarin-loaded micelles appeared as spherical particles with a mean diameter of 200 nm under TEM. The encapsulation of drug molecules was confirmed by DSC thermograms and XRD diffractograms, respectively. The nanoparticles exhibited a sustained-release profile for nearly 1 week with no obvious initial burst. Compared to drug solutions, the drug-loaded nanoparticles showed a lower viability and higher uptake intensity on HepG2 cell lines. After intravenous administration of nanoparticle formulation for 30 min to mice, the liver became the most significant organ enriched with the fluorescent probe. These results suggest that BSP derivative nanoparticles possess hepatic targeting capability and are promising nanocarriers for delivering silymarin to the liver.

  19. Effective antitumor gene therapy delivered by polyethylenimine-conjugated stearic acid-g-chitosan oligosaccharide micelles.

    PubMed

    Hu, F-Q; Chen, W-W; Zhao, M-D; Yuan, H; Du, Y-Z

    2013-06-01

    Non-viral vesicle composing of low-molecular weight polyethylenimine-conjugated stearic acid-g-chitosan oligosaccharide (CSOSA-g-PEI) was synthesized for gene delivery and therapy. The synthesized CSOSA-g-PEI had good ion-buffer capabilities and DNA-binding capacity, which could form positively charged nano-sized particles (100-150 nm) with plasmid DNA; in vitro gene transfection tests demonstrated that CSOSA-g-PEI presented much lower cytotoxicity and corresponding transfection efficiency in comparison with Lipofectamine 2000 in both human cancer cells (Hela and MCF-7). The gene transfection of CSOSA-g-PEI/pDNA could be further enhanced in the presence of serum or by adding arginine during incubation of CSOSA-g-PEI micelles with plasmid DNA. The biodistribution experiments demonstrated CSOSA-g-PEI conjugate highly localized in the tumor tissue and indicated a persistently increased accumulation. In vivo antitumor activity results showed that CSOSA-g-PEI/plasmid pigment epithelium-derived factor formulation could effectively suppress the tumor growth (above 60% tumor inhibition) without systematic toxicity against animal body after intravenous injection.

  20. A novel stearic acid-modified hirudin peptidomimetic with improved pharmacokinetic properties and anticoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuguo; Yu, Zheng; Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yan; Han, Guozhu; Li, Xian; Dong, Mingxin; Yu, Shuo; Wang, Yu; Hu, Jie; Guo, Huiqin; Cheng, Yuanguo; Lv, Li; Dai, Qiuyun

    2015-01-01

    A novel hirudin isoform 3 mimetic peptide, named peptide S2, has been prepared by introduction of a stearic acid modification. Peptide S2 exhibited superior inhibitory activity to hirulog-1 (Bivariludin) and showed significantly higher anticoagulant potency in vivo. Peptide S2 elevated the thrombin time, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time of rat and human plasma more efficiently than hirulog-1 and the unmodified form of peptide S2 (peptide 1). Furthermore, peptide S2 inhibited arterial thrombosis and inferior vena cava in rat model 8 h after administration, and was 10-fold more potent than hirulog-1 300 min after administration of 0.1 μmol/kg peptide. The enhanced antithrombotic activity could be attributed to its long half-life (T1/2 = 212.2 ± 58.4 min), which was 13.1 and 14.7-fold longer than those of hirulog-1 (T1/2 = 15.1 ± 1.3 min) and peptide 1 (T1/2 = 13.5 ± 2.6 min), respectively. Further enzymatic degradation and binding assay with human serum albumin (HSA) demonstrated that the longer duration time should be originated from the slowing of trypsin or thrombin-mediated degradation, as well as its binding to HSA. The improved pharmacokinetic properties observed for peptide S2 has made it a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of thrombi-related diseases.

  1. Solid lipid nanoparticles modified with stearic acid-octaarginine for oral administration of insulin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Zhang, Yin-Long; Zhou, Jian-Ping; Lv, Hui-Xia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and characterize solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) modified with stearic acid-octaarginine (SA-R₈) as carriers for oral administration of insulin (SA-R₈-Ins-SLNs). The SLNs were prepared by spontaneous emulsion solvent diffusion methods. The mean particle size, zeta potential, drug loading, and encapsulation efficiency of the SA-R₈-Ins-SLNs were 162 nm, 29.87 mV, 3.19%, and 76.54%, respectively. The zeta potential of the SLNs changed dramatically, from -32.13 mV to 29.87 mV, by binding the positively charged SA-R₈. Morphological studies of SA-R₈-Ins-SLNs using transmission electron microscopy showed that they were spherical. In vitro, a degradation experiment by enzymes showed that SLNs and SA-R₈ could partially protect insulin from proteolysis. Compared to the insulin solution, the SA-R₈-Ins-SLNs increased the Caco-2 cell's internalization by up to 18.44 times. In the in vivo studies, a significant hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats over controls was obtained, with a SA-R₈-Ins-SLN pharmacological availability value of 13.86 ± 0.79. These results demonstrate that SA-R₈-modified SLNs promote the oral absorption of insulin.

  2. Thermal Characterization of Lauric-Stearic Acid/Expanded Graphite Eutectic Mixture as Phase Change Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hua; Zhang, Peng; Meng, Zhaonan; Li, Ming

    2015-04-01

    The eutectic mixture of lauric acid (LA) and stearic acid (SA) is a desirable phase change material (PCM) due to the constant melting temperature and large latent heat. However, its poor thermal conductivity has hampered its broad utilization. In the present study, pure LA, SA and the mixtures with various mass fractions of LA-SA were used as the basic PCMs, and 10 wt% expanded graphite (EG) was added to enhance the thermal conductivities. The phase change behaviors, microstructural analysis, thermal conductivities and thermal stabilities of the mixtures of PCMs were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), transient plane source (TPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The results show that the LA-SA binary mixture of mixture ratio of 76.3 wt%: 23.7 wt% forms an eutectic mixture, which melts at 38.99 °C and has a latent heat of 159.94 J/g. The melted fatty acids are well absorbed by the porous network of EG and they have a good thermal stability. Furthermore, poor thermal conductivities can be well enhanced by the addition of EG.

  3. Thermal Characterization of Lauric-Stearic Acid/Expanded Graphite Eutectic Mixture as Phase Change Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hua; Zhang, Peng; Meng, Zhaonan; Li, Ming

    2015-04-01

    The eutectic mixture of lauric acid (LA) and stearic acid (SA) is a desirable phase change material (PCM) due to the constant melting temperature and large latent heat. However, its poor thermal conductivity has hampered its broad utilization. In the present study, pure LA, SA and the mixtures with various mass fractions of LA-SA were used as the basic PCMs, and 10 wt% expanded graphite (EG) was added to enhance the thermal conductivities. The phase change behaviors, microstructural analysis, thermal conductivities and thermal stabilities of the mixtures of PCMs were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), transient plane source (TPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The results show that the LA-SA binary mixture of mixture ratio of 76.3 wt%: 23.7 wt% forms an eutectic mixture, which melts at 38.99 °C and has a latent heat of 159.94 J/g. The melted fatty acids are well absorbed by the porous network of EG and they have a good thermal stability. Furthermore, poor thermal conductivities can be well enhanced by the addition of EG. PMID:26353580

  4. Solubilities of stearic acid, stearyl alcohol, and arachidyl alcohol in supercritical carbon dioxide at 35[degree]C

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, Yoshio; Koga, Yoshio; Maruyama, Hironori; Arai, Yasuhiko . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    The solubilities of stearic acid (octadecanoic acid), stearyl alcohol (1-octadecanol), and arachidyl alcohol (1-eicosanol) in supercritical carbon dioxide were measured by using a flow-type apparatus at 35 C up to 23.7 MPa. The solubilities of those substances and other fatty acids and higher alcohols in supercritical carbon dioxide at 35 C were correlated by a solution model based on the regular solution model coupled with the Flory-Huggins theory.

  5. Capsaicin attenuates palmitate-induced expression of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 and interleukin 8 by increasing palmitate oxidation and reducing c-Jun activation in THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell) cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-E; Kim, Tae Ho; Yi, Sang-A; Hwang, Yun Cheong; Hwang, Won Sun; Choe, Sun Jung; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Kang, Yup; Lee, Kwan-Woo

    2011-06-01

    Capsaicin, a spicy component of hot peppers, has been shown to improve inflammatory disease and obesity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the anti-inflammatory activity of capsaicin can be used to improve free fatty acid (FFA)-induced inflammation by reducing gene expression of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP-1) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) in THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell) macrophages. To investigate whether capsaicin ameliorates palmitate-induced MIP-1 and IL-8 gene expressions, we treated THP-1 cells with palmitate in the presence or absence of capsaicin and measured MIP-1 and IL-8 by real-time polymerase chain reaction. To elucidate the mechanism by which capsaicin effects on palmitate-induced MIP-1 and IL-8 gene expressions, we performed immunoblotting with stress kinase-related antibodies and measured palmitate oxidation and palmitate oxidation-related gene expression. Palmitate and stearate but not the unsaturated FFA oleate significantly increased MIP-1 and IL-8 expressions in THP-1 macrophages. Treatment with capsaicin or FFA oxidation stimulators inhibited palmitate-induced MIP-1 and IL-8 expressions in THP-1 macrophages. Capsaicin increased the gene expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and the β-oxidation of palmitate. Furthermore, capsaicin significantly reduced palmitate-stimulated activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, c-Jun, and p38. Our data suggest that the attenuation of palmitate-induced MIP-1 and IL-8 gene expressions by capsaicin is associated with reduced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, c-Jun, and p38 and preserved β-oxidation activity.

  6. Fatty acid profiles in relation to triglyceride level in the liver of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Mohamed, Tharwat; Goto, Akiko; Oikawa, Shin; Kurosawa, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    To elucidate possible relationships between triglyceride (TG) levels and fatty acid composition in bovine liver, hepatic TG and seven individual fatty acids were measured in 23 Holstein dairy cows, of them 6 are healthy. Liver TG level was greater than 3 % in 12 cows which were ruled fatty liver. Palmitic and oleic acid proportions were significantly higher in fatty liver cows than in the healthy cows, while stearic acid was lower in fatty liver cows. With increased liver TG, stearic acid proportions decreased dramatically. Results indicate that hepatic lipidosis markedly alters the proportions of the various fatty acids in the liver of dairy cows.

  7. Effects of spray-drying on w/o/w multiple emulsions prepared from a stearic acid matrix.

    PubMed

    Mlalila, Nichrous; Swai, Hulda; Kalombo, Lonji; Hilonga, Askwar

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of spray-drying on w/o/w double emulsions of methyltestosterone (MT) loaded in a stearic acid matrix. MT-loaded nanoparticles were formulated by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion technique using 50, 75, and 100 mg of stearic acid, 2% and 3% w/v polyvinyl alcohol, 5% w/v lactose, and 0.2% w/v chitosan. The emulsions were immediately spray-dried based on an optimized model of inlet temperature and pump rate, and characterized for optimized responses with regard to particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential, for both emulsion and powder samples. Dynamic light scattering analysis shown that the nanoparticles increased in size with increasing concentrations of polyvinyl alcohol and stearic acid. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the MT-loaded nanoparticles were spherical in shape, had a smooth surface, and were in an amorphous state, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. These MT-loaded nanoparticles are a promising candidate carrier for the delivery of MT; however, further studies are needed in order to establish the stability of the system and the cargo release profile under normal conditions of use. PMID:25489238

  8. Effect of production variables on the physicochemical characteristics of celecoxib-loaded stearic and alginic acids-based microparticles.

    PubMed

    Shunmugaperumal, Tamilvanan; Sharma, Deepak; Thakur, Ashutosh; Vinaykumar

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of the current investigation were (1) to prepare the microparticles based on stearic and alginic acids from an aqueous system by hot (melt) dispersion method, (2) to achieve a higher drug entrapment efficiency and process yield (%) by changing the production variables such as stirring speed, concentration of stabilizer in aqueous dispersion medium, volume of aqueous dispersion medium, and stirring time, and (3) to see whether or not a retardation in drug release profile was attained from the celecoxib-loaded stearic and alginic acids-based microparticles compared to that of the celecoxib alone. The addition of alginic acid into stearic acid produced spherical-shaped particles with an almost smooth surface. Higher drug entrapment efficiency and process yield (%) values were obtained when the microparticles were prepared at 1000 r/min using 0.1% w/v polyvinyl alcohol in 100 mL aqueous dispersion medium and 30 min stirring time. The in vitro dissolution study in 900 mL of 2% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) solution at 75 r/min, however, showed only around 10% retardation in drug release from microparticles compared to the drug release from pure celecoxib alone. This indicated that the gel-like network formed by the alginic acid around the microparticles could not prevent the drug leakage from the microparticles.

  9. Stearic acid induces proinflammatory cytokine production partly through activation of lactate-HIF1α pathway in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Miao, Hongming; Chen, Liang; Hao, Lijun; Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Yujuan; Ruan, Zhihua; Liang, Houjie

    2015-01-01

    The biomechanics stress and chronic inflammation in obesity are causally linked to osteoarthritis. However, the metabolic factors mediating obesity-related osteoarthritis are still obscure. Here we scanned and identified at least two elevated metabolites (stearic acid and lactate) from the plasma of diet-induced obese mice. We found that stearic acid potentiated LDH-a-dependent production of lactate, which further stabilized HIF1α protein and increased VEGF and proinflammatory cytokine expression in primary mouse chondrocytes. Treatment with LDH-a and HIF1α inhibitors notably attenuated stearic acid-or high fat diet-stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, positive correlation of plasma lactate, cartilage HIF1α and cytokine levels with the body mass index was observed in subjects with osteoarthritis. In conclusion, saturated free fatty acid induced proinflammatory cytokine production partly through activation of a novel lactate-HIF1α pathway in chondrocytes. Our findings hold promise of developing novel clinical strategies for the management of obesity-related diseases such as osteoarthritis.

  10. Effects of spray-drying on w/o/w multiple emulsions prepared from a stearic acid matrix

    PubMed Central

    Mlalila, Nichrous; Swai, Hulda; Kalombo, Lonji; Hilonga, Askwar

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of spray-drying on w/o/w double emulsions of methyltestosterone (MT) loaded in a stearic acid matrix. MT-loaded nanoparticles were formulated by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion technique using 50, 75, and 100 mg of stearic acid, 2% and 3% w/v polyvinyl alcohol, 5% w/v lactose, and 0.2% w/v chitosan. The emulsions were immediately spray-dried based on an optimized model of inlet temperature and pump rate, and characterized for optimized responses with regard to particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential, for both emulsion and powder samples. Dynamic light scattering analysis shown that the nanoparticles increased in size with increasing concentrations of polyvinyl alcohol and stearic acid. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the MT-loaded nanoparticles were spherical in shape, had a smooth surface, and were in an amorphous state, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. These MT-loaded nanoparticles are a promising candidate carrier for the delivery of MT; however, further studies are needed in order to establish the stability of the system and the cargo release profile under normal conditions of use. PMID:25489238

  11. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with a bilayer of oleic acid for magnetic hyperthermia and MRI applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Paula I. P.; Laia, César A. T.; Carvalho, Alexandra; Pereira, Laura C. J.; Coutinho, Joana T.; Ferreira, Isabel M. M.; Novo, Carlos M. M.; Borges, João Paulo

    2016-10-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4, IONPs) are promising candidates for several biomedical applications such as magnetic hyperthermia and as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their colloidal stability in physiological conditions hinders their application requiring the use of biocompatible surfactant agents. The present investigation focuses on obtaining highly stable IONPs, stabilized by the presence of an oleic acid bilayer. Critical aspects such as oleic acid concentration and pH were optimized to ensure maximum stability. NPs composed of an iron oxide core with an average diameter of 9 nm measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) form agglomerates with an hydrodynamic diameter of around 170 nm when dispersed in water in the presence of an oleic acid bilayer, remaining stable (zeta potential of -120 mV). Magnetic hyperthermia and the relaxivities measurements show high efficiency at neutral pH which enables their use for both magnetic hyperthermia and MRI.

  12. Sensitivity of scintigraphy for detection of pulmonary capillary albumin leak in canine oleic acid ARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Sugerman, H.J.; Strash, A.M.; Hirsch, J.I.; Glauser, F.L.; Shirazi, K.K.; Sharp, D.E.; Greenfield, L.J.

    1981-07-01

    Computerized gamma scintigraphy was shown in this study to be a sensitive technique for the detection and kinetic analysis of a pulmonary capillary protein leak. A rising lung:heart radioactivity of slope of injury was found at each dose of intravenous oleic acid in dogs from 0.01 to 0.20 ml/kg (p less than 0.01). This slope of injury was proportional to the dose of oleic acid (r . +0.97; p less than 0.004) and was more sensitive than changes in arterial oxygen tension, standard chest radiography, bloodless wet:dry lung weight, or alveolar epithelial membrane permeability. Only standard light microscopy and right lymphatic duct flow were able to document the leakage of protein detected by gamma scintigraphy at 0.01 ml/kg oleic acid.

  13. GLP1 protects cardiomyocytes from palmitate-induced apoptosis via Akt/GSK3b/b-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Ying, Ying; Zhu, Huazhang; Liang, Zhen; Ma, Xiaosong; Li, Shiwei

    2015-12-01

    Activation of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes by saturated palmitic acids contributes to cardiac dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Beta-catenin (b-catenin) is a transcriptional regulator of several genes involved in survival/anti-apoptosis. However, its role in palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains unclear. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) has been shown to exhibit potential cardioprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the role of b-catenin signalling in palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effects of GLP1 on palmitate-stressed cardiomyocytes. Exposure of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to palmitate increased the fatty acid transporter CD36-mediated intracellular lipid accumulation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, decreased accumulation and nuclear translocation of active b-catenin, and reduced expression of b-catenin target protein survivin and BCL2. These detrimental effects of palmitate were significantly attenuated by GLP1 co-treatment. However, the anti-apoptotic effects of GLP1 were markedly abolished when b-catenin was silenced with a specific short hairpin RNA. Furthermore, analysis of the upstream molecules and mechanisms responsible for GLP1-associated cardiac protection revealed that GLP1 restored the decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase-3b (GSK3b) in palmitate-stimulated cardiomyocytes. In contrast, inhibition of Akt with an Akt-specific inhibitor MK2206 or blockade of GLP1 receptor (GLP1R) with a competitive antagonist exendin-(9-39) significantly abrogated the GLP1-mediated activation of GSK3b/b-catenin signalling, leading to increased apoptosis in palmitate-stressed cardiomyocytes. Collectively, our results demonstrated for the first time that the attenuated b-catenin signalling may contribute to palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, while GLP1 can protect cardiomyocytes from palmitate-induced apoptosis through

  14. GLP1 protects cardiomyocytes from palmitate-induced apoptosis via Akt/GSK3b/b-catenin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Ying; Zhu, Huazhang; Liang, Zhen; Ma, Xiaosong; Li, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    Activation of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes by saturated palmitic acids contributes to cardiac dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Beta-catenin (b-catenin) is a transcriptional regulator of several genes involved in survival/anti-apoptosis. However, its role in palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains unclear. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) has been shown to exhibit potential cardioprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the role of b-catenin signalling in palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effects of GLP1 on palmitate-stressed cardiomyocytes. Exposure of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to palmitate increased the fatty acid transporter CD36-mediated intracellular lipid accumulation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, decreased accumulation and nuclear translocation of active b-catenin, and reduced expression of b-catenin target protein survivin and BCL2. These detrimental effects of palmitate were significantly attenuated by GLP1 co-treatment. However, the anti-apoptotic effects of GLP1 were markedly abolished when b-catenin was silenced with a specific short hairpin RNA. Furthermore, analysis of the upstream molecules and mechanisms responsible for GLP1-associated cardiac protection revealed that GLP1 restored the decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase-3b (GSK3b) in palmitate-stimulated cardiomyocytes. In contrast, inhibition of Akt with an Akt-specific inhibitor MK2206 or blockade of GLP1 receptor (GLP1R) with a competitive antagonist exendin-(9–39) significantly abrogated the GLP1-mediated activation of GSK3b/b-catenin signalling, leading to increased apoptosis in palmitate-stressed cardiomyocytes. Collectively, our results demonstrated for the first time that the attenuated b-catenin signalling may contribute to palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, while GLP1 can protect cardiomyocytes from palmitate-induced apoptosis through

  15. Preparation of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles from amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Fanta, George F; Kenar, James A; Felker, Frederick C; Byars, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-30

    Starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate helical inclusion complexes by first converting sodium palmitate within the amylose helix to silver palmitate by an ion-exchange reaction with silver nitrate, and then reducing the complexed silver palmitate salt with NaBH(4). This process yielded stable aqueous solutions that could be dried and then re-dispersed in water for end-use applications. Reaction products were characterized by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), UV-VIS spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, TEM, SEM and light microscopy. Addition of acid to reduce the pH of aqueous starch-AgNP solutions produced an increase in viscosity, and nearly quantitative precipitation of starch-AgNP was observed at low pH. Smaller AgNP and higher conversions of silver nitrate to water-soluble starch-AgNP were obtained in this process, as compared with a process carried out under similar conditions using a commercial soluble starch as a stabilizer. PMID:23218293

  16. Acylation of keratinocyte transglutaminase by palmitic and myristic acids in the membrane anchorage region

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarty, R.; Rice, R.H.

    1989-01-05

    The membrane-bound form of keratinocyte transglutaminase was found to be labeled by addition of (/sup 3/H) acetic, (/sup 3/H)myristic, or (/sup 3/H)palmitic acids to the culture medium of human epidermal cells. Acid methanolysis and high performance liquid chromatography analysis of palmitate-labeled transglutaminase yielded only methyl palmitate. In contrast, analysis of the myristate-labeled protein yielded approximately 40% methyl myristate and 60% methyl palmitate. Incorporation of neither label was significantly affected by cycloheximide inhibition of protein synthesis. The importance of the fatty acid moiety for membrane anchorage was demonstrated in three ways. First, the enzyme was solubilized from the particulate fraction of cell extracts by treatment with neutral 1 M hydroxylamine, which was sufficient to release the fatty acid label. Second, solubilization of active enzyme from the particulate fraction upon mild trypsin treatment resulted in a reduction in size by approximately 10 kDa and removal of the fatty acid radiolabels. Third, the small fraction of soluble transglutaminase in cell extracts was found almost completely to lack fatty acid labeling. Keratinocyte transglutaminase translated from poly(A+) RNA in a reticulocyte cell-free system was indistinguishable in size from the native enzyme, suggesting anchorage requires only minor post-translational processing. Thus, the data are highly compatible with membrane anchorage by means of fatty acid acylation within 10 kDa of the NH/sub 2/ or COOH terminus.

  17. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Dispersions of Amylose-Sodium Palmitate Complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wide range of materials with applications as thickeners and as dispersants for lipids can be formed from aqueous dispersions of amylose helical inclusion complexes with sodium palmitate. This work examines the range of rheological properties that can be obtained by preparing materials under a var...

  18. Inhibition of palmitate-induced GADD34 expression augments apoptosis in mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6).

    PubMed

    Fransson, Liselotte; Sjöholm, Ake; Ortsäter, Henrik

    2014-07-01

    Saturated fatty acids like palmitate induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pancreatic beta-cells, an event linked to apoptotic loss of β-cells in type 2 diabetes. Sustained activation of the ER stress response leads to expression of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34), a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 1. In the present study, we have used small interfering RNA in order to knockdown GADD34 expression in insulin-producing MIN6 cells prior to induction of ER stress by palmitate and evaluated its consequences on RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER-localized eIF2alpha kinase (PERK) signalling and apoptosis. Salubrinal, a specific inhibitor of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) dephosphorylation, was used as a comparison. Salubrinal treatment augmented palmitate-induced ER stress and increased GADD34 levels. Both GADD34 knockdown and salubrinal treatment potentiated the cytotoxic effects of palmitate as evidenced by increased DNA fragmentation and activation of caspase 3, with the fundamental difference that the former did not involve enhanced levels of GADD34. The data from this study suggest that sustained activation of PERK signalling and eIF2α phosphorylation sensitizes insulin-producing MIN6 cells to lipoapoptosis independently of GADD34 expression levels. PMID:24633916

  19. Retinyl Palmitate Supplementation Modulates T-bet and Interferon Gamma Gene Expression in Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh Honarvar, Niyaz; Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Abdolahi, Mina; Abedi, Elahe; Bitarafan, Sama; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Feridoun; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Chahardoli, Reza; Zareei, Mahnaz; Salehi, Eisa; Geranmehr, Maziyar; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin A derivatives such as retinoic acid may improve the impaired balance of CD4+ T cells in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. This study is a double-blind randomized trial to evaluate the effect of vitamin A (as form of retinyl palmitate) supplementation on multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Thirty-nine patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to two groups. Both groups were followed for 6 months. The experimental group received 25,000 IU of retinyl palmitate daily, while the control group received a placebo. Before and after the study, the expression of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and T-bet genes was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients by RT-PCR. The results showed that after 6 months of supplementation, expression of IFN-γ and T-bet was significantly decreased. These data suggest that retinyl palmitate supplementation can modulate the impaired balance of Th1 and Th2 cells and vitamin A products that may be involved in the therapeutic mechanism of vitamin A in MS patients. This study provides information regarding the decreased gene expression of IFN-γ and T-bet in MS by retinyl palmitate supplementation. PMID:27122150

  20. Palmitate Antagonizes Wnt/Beta-catenin Signaling in 3T3-L1 Pre-adipocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long chain saturated free fatty acids such as palmitate (PA) produce insulin resistance, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptosis in mature adipocytes and pre-adipocytes. In pre-adipocytes, saturated free fatty acids also promote adipogenic induction in the presence of adipogenic hormones. Wnt/be...

  1. Glycolysis inhibition by palmitate in renal cells cultured in a two-chamber system.

    PubMed

    Bolon, C; Gauthier, C; Simonnet, H

    1997-11-01

    A major shortcoming of renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) in culture is the gradual modification of their energy metabolism from the oxidative type to the glycolytic type. To test the possible reduction of glycolysis by naturally occurring long-chain fatty acids, RPTC were cultured in a two-chamber system, with albumin-bound palmitate (0.4 mM) added to the basolateral chamber after confluency. Twenty-four hours of contact with palmitate decreased glycolysis by 38% provided that carnitine was present; lactate production was decreased by 38%, and the decrease in glycolysis resulted from a similar decrease of basolateral and apical net uptake of glucose. In contrast to the previously described effect of the nonphysiological oxidative substrate heptanoate, palmitate promoted a long-term decrease in lactate production and sustained excellent cellular growth. After 4 days of contact, decreased glycolysis was maintained even in the absence of carnitine and resulted from a decrease of basolateral uptake only, suggestive of long-term regulation different from the earlier effects. Thus, although cultured RPTC lost their oxidative phenotype, they exhibited a type of regulation (Randle effect) that is found in the oxidative-type but not in the glycolytic-type tissues, therefore unmasking a regulative capacity barely detectable in fresh RPTC. Low PO2 (50 mmHg in the apical chamber) could be a major cause of elevated glycolysis and could hinder the effects of palmitate. PMID:9374661

  2. Phase transfer of oleic acid stabilized rod-shaped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Rachel J.; Elder, Theresa; Sowinksi, Olivia; Fostvedt, Jade I.; Hoefelmeyer, James D.

    2016-06-01

    Three methods were evaluated for phase transfer of oleic acid stabilized TiO2 nanorods from non-polar phase to an aqueous phase. Three alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (C6, C8, C12) surfactants were tested and compared with an amphiphilic polymer as interdigitation agents. Ligand substitutions with catechol derivatives with polar functional groups para to the -enediol were evaluated as well. The molecular surfactants were ineffective compared to the amphiphilic polymer in the interdigitation phase transfer approach. Ligand substitution with catechols proceeded efficiently with phase transfer. The ligand substitution reactions were accompanied by gas evolution, which was found to result from decarboxylation of oleic acid in alkaline aqueous conditions.

  3. Opposite Cross-Talk by Oleate and Palmitate on Insulin Signaling in Hepatocytes through Macrophage Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Virginia; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Guijas, Carlos; Balsinde, Jesús; Valverde, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low grade inflammation in adipose tissue during obesity is associated with an impairment of the insulin signaling cascade. In this study, we have evaluated the impact of palmitate or oleate overload of macrophage/Kupffer cells in triggering stress-mediated signaling pathways, in lipoapoptosis, and in the cross-talk with insulin signaling in hepatocytes. RAW 264.7 macrophages or Kupffer cells were stimulated with oleate or palmitate, and levels of M1/M2 polarization markers and the lipidomic profile of eicosanoids were analyzed. Whereas proinflammatory cytokines and total eicosanoids were elevated in macrophages/Kupffer cells stimulated with palmitate, enhanced arginase 1 and lower leukotriene B4 (LTB4) levels were detected in macrophages stimulated with oleate. When hepatocytes were pretreated with conditioned medium (CM) from RAW 264.7 or Kupffer cells loaded with palmitate (CM-P), phosphorylation of stress kinases and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling was increased, insulin signaling was impaired, and lipoapoptosis was detected. Conversely, enhanced insulin receptor-mediated signaling and reduced levels of the phosphatases protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were found in hepatocytes treated with CM from macrophages stimulated with oleate (CM-O). Supplementation of CM-O with LTB4 suppressed insulin sensitization and increased PTP1B and PTEN. Furthermore, LTB4 decreased insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in hepatocytes, activated the NFκB pathway, and up-regulated PTP1B and PTEN, these effects being mediated by LTB4 receptor BTL1. In conclusion, oleate and palmitate elicit an opposite cross-talk between macrophages/Kupffer cells and hepatocytes. Whereas CM-P interferes at the early steps of insulin signaling, CM-O increases insulin sensitization, possibly by reducing LTB4. PMID:25792746

  4. Ligand-directed stearic acid grafted chitosan micelles to increase therapeutic efficacy in hepatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; Yuan, Sheng-Xian; Zhao, Ling-Hao; Wang, Chao; Ni, Jun-Sheng; Wang, Zhen-Guang; Lin, Chuan; Wu, Meng-Chao; Zhou, Wei-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Targeted delivery system would be an interesting platform to enhance the therapeutic effect and to reduce the side effects of anticancer drugs. In this study, we have developed lactobionic acid (LA)-modified chitosan-stearic acid (CS-SA) (CSS-LA) to deliver doxorubicin (DOX) to hepatic cancer cells. The average particle size of CSS-LA/DOX was ∼100 nm with a high entrapment efficiency of >95%. Drug release studies showed that DOX release from pH-sensitive micelles is significantly faster at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.4. The LA conjugated micelles showed enhanced cellular uptake in HepG2 and BEL-7402 liver cancer cells than free drug and unconjugated micelles. Consistently, CSS-LA/DOX showed enhanced cell cytotoxicity in these two cell lines. Annexin-V/FITC and PI based apoptosis assay showed that the number of living cells greatly reduced in this group with marked presence of necrotic and apoptotic cells. LA-conjugated carrier induced typical chromatic condensation of cells; membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies began to appear. In vivo, CSS-LA/DOX showed an excellent tumor regression profile with no toxic side effects. The active targeting moiety, long circulation profile, and EPR effect contributed to its superior anticancer effect in HepG2 based tumor. Our results showed that polymeric micelles conjugated with LA increased the therapeutic availability of DOX in the liver cancer cell based solid tumor without any toxic side effects. The active targeting ligand conjugated nanoparticulate system could be a promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of hepatic cancers.

  5. Effect of stearic acid on enalapril stability and dissolution from multiparticulate solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Talita A; Serpa, Raphael C; de Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Nasser, Letícia N; de Freitas, Luis Alexandre P; Taveira, Stephania F; Diniz, Danielle G A; Lima, Eliana M; Marreto, Ricardo N

    2013-09-01

    Enalapril maleate (EM) is a widely used anti-hypertensive drug which is unstable when mixed with excipients. Enalaprilate and diketopiperazine (DPK) are the main degradation products of enalapril. The in situ preparation of enalapril sodium salt (NaE) has been used to improve drug stability in dosage forms; however, gas release and product rejection ensue when the chemical reaction for obtaining the sodium salt is not completely finished before packaging. This study evaluated the effect of stearic acid (SA) on enalapril stability in microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) pellets containing EM or NaE. MCC pellets containing SA were prepared by the extrusion-spheronization technique and characterized. Enalapril stability and dissolution were then evaluated. DPK and enalaprilate formation were reduced by the addition of SA in pellets containing EM. The overall enalapril degradation in these formulations was lower when compared with pellets containing EM or even NaE prepared without SA. The immediate-release characteristic was maintained by the addition of 5% crospovidone to all the formulations tested. The incorporation of SA into NaE pellets resulted in unexpected enalapril degradation, caused by the interaction of these compounds, as suggested by a thermal analysis of the SA-NaE binary mixture. The findings presented here showed that formulations containing SA could substitute the formation of NaE, since they provide better enalapril stability in solid dosage forms. In addition, it is suggested that the stabilization effects would be observed for other N-carboxyalkyl dipeptide analogs with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, since these new entities share the same degradation pathway of enalapril.

  6. Effect of stearic acid on enalapril stability and dissolution from multiparticulate solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Talita A; Serpa, Raphael C; de Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Nasser, Letícia N; de Freitas, Luis Alexandre P; Taveira, Stephania F; Diniz, Danielle G A; Lima, Eliana M; Marreto, Ricardo N

    2013-09-01

    Enalapril maleate (EM) is a widely used anti-hypertensive drug which is unstable when mixed with excipients. Enalaprilate and diketopiperazine (DPK) are the main degradation products of enalapril. The in situ preparation of enalapril sodium salt (NaE) has been used to improve drug stability in dosage forms; however, gas release and product rejection ensue when the chemical reaction for obtaining the sodium salt is not completely finished before packaging. This study evaluated the effect of stearic acid (SA) on enalapril stability in microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) pellets containing EM or NaE. MCC pellets containing SA were prepared by the extrusion-spheronization technique and characterized. Enalapril stability and dissolution were then evaluated. DPK and enalaprilate formation were reduced by the addition of SA in pellets containing EM. The overall enalapril degradation in these formulations was lower when compared with pellets containing EM or even NaE prepared without SA. The immediate-release characteristic was maintained by the addition of 5% crospovidone to all the formulations tested. The incorporation of SA into NaE pellets resulted in unexpected enalapril degradation, caused by the interaction of these compounds, as suggested by a thermal analysis of the SA-NaE binary mixture. The findings presented here showed that formulations containing SA could substitute the formation of NaE, since they provide better enalapril stability in solid dosage forms. In addition, it is suggested that the stabilization effects would be observed for other N-carboxyalkyl dipeptide analogs with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, since these new entities share the same degradation pathway of enalapril. PMID:23897034

  7. Phase diagram of mixed monolayers of stearic acid and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine. Effect of the acid ionization.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Franco Vega; Maggio, Bruno; Wilke, Natalia

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study the phase diagram of mixed monolayers composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and stearic acid (SA) at different ionic strength and bulk pH of the aqueous subphase. In this way, the effect of ionization of SA on the interaction and thus on phase separation with the DMPC matrix can be analyzed. To this purpose, we first determined the ionization state of pure SA monolayers as a function of the bulk subphase pH. The SA monolayers are nearly fully ionized at pH 10 and essentially neutral at pH 4 and the mixture of DMPC and SA was studied at those two pHs. We found that the DMPC-enriched phase admits more SA if the SA monolayer is in a liquid-expanded state, which is highly related to the acid ionization state, and thus to the bulk pH and ionic strength. At pH 4 the molecules hardly mix while at pH 10 the mixed monolayer with DMPC can admit between 30 and 100% of SA (depending on the lateral pressure) before phase separation is established. The addition of calcium ions to the subphase has a condensing effect on SA monolayers at all pHs and the solubility of SA in the DMPC matrix does not depend on the bulk pH in these conditions. The observed phase diagrams are independent on the manner in which the state of the mixed film is reached and may thus be considered states of apparent equilibrium.

  8. A novel stearic acid-modified hirudin peptidomimetic with improved pharmacokinetic properties and anticoagulant activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhuguo; Yu, Zheng; Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yan; Han, Guozhu; Li, Xian; Dong, Mingxin; Yu, Shuo; Wang, Yu; Hu, Jie; Guo, Huiqin; Cheng, Yuanguo; Lv, Li; Dai, Qiuyun

    2015-01-01

    A novel hirudin isoform 3 mimetic peptide, named peptide S2, has been prepared by introduction of a stearic acid modification. Peptide S2 exhibited superior inhibitory activity to hirulog-1 (Bivariludin) and showed significantly higher anticoagulant potency in vivo. Peptide S2 elevated the thrombin time, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time of rat and human plasma more efficiently than hirulog-1 and the unmodified form of peptide S2 (peptide 1). Furthermore, peptide S2 inhibited arterial thrombosis and inferior vena cava in rat model 8 h after administration, and was 10-fold more potent than hirulog-1 300 min after administration of 0.1 μmol/kg peptide. The enhanced antithrombotic activity could be attributed to its long half-life (T1/2 = 212.2 ± 58.4 min), which was 13.1 and 14.7-fold longer than those of hirulog-1 (T1/2 = 15.1 ± 1.3 min) and peptide 1 (T1/2 = 13.5 ± 2.6 min), respectively. Further enzymatic degradation and binding assay with human serum albumin (HSA) demonstrated that the longer duration time should be originated from the slowing of trypsin or thrombin–mediated degradation, as well as its binding to HSA. The improved pharmacokinetic properties observed for peptide S2 has made it a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of thrombi-related diseases. PMID:26400022

  9. Chemical surface modification of calcium carbonate particles with stearic acid using different treating methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhi; Daly, Michael; Clémence, Lopez; Geever, Luke M.; Major, Ian; Higginbotham, Clement L.; Devine, Declan M.

    2016-08-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is often treated with stearic acid (SA) to decrease its polarity. However, the method of application of the SA treatments has a strong influence on CaCO3 thermoplastic composite's interfacial structure and distribution. Several of papers describe the promising effects of SA surface treatment, but few compare the treatment process and its effect on the properties of the final thermoplastic composite. In the current study, we assessed a new SA treatment method, namely, complex treatment for polymer composite fabrication with HDPE. Subsequently, a comparative study was performed between the "complex" process and the other existing methods. The composites were assessed using different experiments included scanning electron microscopy (SEM), void content, density, wettability, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile tests. It was observed that the "complex" surface treatment yielded composites with a significantly lower voids content and higher density compared to other surface treatments. This indicates that after the "complex" treatment process, the CaCO3 particles and HDPE matrix are more tightly packed than other methods. DSC and wettability results suggest that the "wet" and "complex" treated CaCO3 composites had a significantly higher heat of fusion and moisture resistance compared to the "dry" treated CaCO3 composites. Furthermore, "wet" and "complex" treated CaCO3 composites have a significantly higher tensile strength than the composites containing untreated and "dry" treated CaCO3. This is mainly because the "wet" and "complex" treatment processes have increased adsorption density of stearate, which enhances the interfacial interaction between matrix and filler. These results confirm that the chemical adsorption of the surfactant ions at the solid-liquid interface is higher than at other interface. From this study, it was concluded that the utilization of the "complex" method minimised the negative effects of void

  10. The rising star of high-oleic Virginia peanuts: A summary of data supporting the release of 'VENUS'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'VENUS' is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. 'VENUS' is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for and proposed for release in the Southwestern US. 'VENUS' (experimental designati...

  11. High-oleic Virginia peanuts in the Southwestern US: A summary of data supporting the release of 'VENUS'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'VENUS' is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. 'VENUS' is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for and proposed for release in t...

  12. Effect of acute nitrogen dioxide exposure on the composition of fatty acid associated with phospholipids in alveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Noguchi, T.; Kikuno, M.; Kubota, K.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo exposure of rats to 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) for 12 h caused changes in fatty acids composition of alveolar lavage phospholipids. Among the fatty acid species, the relative ratio of palmitic acid, myristic acid and palmitoleic acid increased significantly. While the relative ratio of stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid decreased significantly. Both the increase in the incorporation of palmitic acid in phosphatidylcholine which would be released into the alveoli and the increase in the release of phosphatidylcholine into the alveoli may account for the changes in the fatty acid composition of the present findings.

  13. Binding site multiplicity with fatty acid ligands: implications for the regulation of PKR kinase autophosphorylation with palmitate.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liang; Cho, Hyun Ju; Chan, Christina; Feig, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Saturated long chain-free fatty acids (FFAs), especially palmitate, have been implicated in apoptosis by inhibiting the activity of PKR (double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase). We recently found evidence that palmitate interacts directly with the kinase domain of PKR, subsequently inhibiting the autophosphorylation of PKR. To investigate the interactions of palmitate with PKR and its effects on PKR autophosphorylation, we performed extensive unbiased MD simulations combined with biochemical and biophysical experiments. The simulations predict multiple putative binding sites of palmitate on both the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated PKR with similar binding affinities. Ligand-protein interactions involving a large variety of different binding modes challenge the conventional view of highly specific, single binding sites. Key interactions of palmitate involve the αC-helix of PKR, especially near residue R307. Experimental mutation of R307 was found to affect palmitate binding and reduce its inhibitory effect. Based on this study a new allosteric mechanism is proposed where palmitate binding to the αC-helix prevents the inactive-to-active transition of PKR and subsequently reduces its ability to autophosphorylate.

  14. Fuel properties of heptadecene isomers prepared via tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of oleic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heptadecene isomers were prepared via tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of oleic acid using catalytic triruthenium dodecacarbonyl [Ru3(CO)12]. Chromatographic and spectroscopic characterization of the isolated heptadecene mixture indicated that it consisted of 96% internal trans isomers and 4% ar...

  15. Treatment with oleic acid reduces IgE binding to peanut and cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid (OA) is known to bind and change the bioactivities of proteins, such as a-lactalbumin and ß-lactoglobulin in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine if OA binds to allergens from a peanut extract or cashew allergen and changes their allergenic properties. Peanut extract or c...

  16. Film-forming properties of blends of high-oleic sunflower oil with polyalkyl glycol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic film thicknesses of oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (PAG), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO), and their 50/50 (wt.) blends were investigated. The viscosity and density of the blends were found to be predictable from the corresponding neat oil properties us...

  17. Analysis and properties of the decarboxylation products of oleic acid by catalytic triruthenium dodecacarbonyl

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, ruthenium-catalyzed isomerization-decarboxylation of fatty acids to give alkene mixtures was reported. When the substrate was oleic acid, the reaction yielded a mixture consisting of heptadecene isomers. In this work, we report the compositional analysis of the mixture obtained by triruthe...

  18. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellent Activity of Isolated Oleic Acid, Eicosyl Ester from Thalictrum javanicum

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Abinaya; Senguttuvan, Jamuna; Paulsamy, S.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of Thalictrum javanicum and to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by PASS software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (filarial vector). Insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. The chitinase activity of isolated compound was assessed by using purified β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (chitinase). Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assay (radioimmuno assay) was made using the same larval stage of A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus. The results were compared with the crude methanol extract of the whole plant. The isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester was found to be the most effective larvicide against A. aegypti (LC50/24 h -8.51 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50/24 h - 12.5 ppm) than the crude methanol extract (LC50/24 h - 257.03 ppm and LC50/24 h - 281.83 ppm, respectively). The impact of oleic acid, eicosyl ester on reducing the activity of chitinase and ecdysone 20-monooxygenase was most prominent in both the target species, A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus than the control. The results therefore suggest that the compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicum may be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal property. PMID:27168688

  19. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellent Activity of Isolated Oleic Acid, Eicosyl Ester from Thalictrum javanicum.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Abinaya; Senguttuvan, Jamuna; Paulsamy, S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of Thalictrum javanicum and to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by PASS software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (filarial vector). Insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. The chitinase activity of isolated compound was assessed by using purified β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (chitinase). Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assay (radioimmuno assay) was made using the same larval stage of A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus. The results were compared with the crude methanol extract of the whole plant. The isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester was found to be the most effective larvicide against A. aegypti (LC50/24 h -8.51 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50/24 h - 12.5 ppm) than the crude methanol extract (LC50/24 h - 257.03 ppm and LC50/24 h - 281.83 ppm, respectively). The impact of oleic acid, eicosyl ester on reducing the activity of chitinase and ecdysone 20-monooxygenase was most prominent in both the target species, A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus than the control. The results therefore suggest that the compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicum may be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal property.

  20. Interconnection of nanoparticles within 2D superlattices of PbS/oleic acid thin films.

    PubMed

    Simon, Paul; Bahrig, Lydia; Baburin, Igor A; Formanek, Petr; Röder, Falk; Sickmann, Jan; Hickey, Stephen G; Eychmüller, Alexander; Lichte, Hannes; Kniep, Rüdiger; Rosseeva, Elena

    2014-05-21

    Make it connected! 2D close-packed layers of inorganic nanoparticles are interconnected by organic fibrils of oleic acid as clearly visualized by electron holography. These fibrils can be mineralised by PbS to transform an organic-inorganic framework to a completely interconnected inorganic semiconducting 2D array.

  1. High-throughput and functional SNP detection assays for oleic and linolenic acids in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a primary source of vegetable oil, accounting for 53% of the total vegetable oil consumption in the USA in 2013. Soybean oil with high oleic acid and low linolenic acid content is desired, because it not only improves the oxidative stability of the oil, but also reduces the amount of unde...

  2. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellent Activity of Isolated Oleic Acid, Eicosyl Ester from Thalictrum javanicum.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Abinaya; Senguttuvan, Jamuna; Paulsamy, S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of Thalictrum javanicum and to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by PASS software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (filarial vector). Insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. The chitinase activity of isolated compound was assessed by using purified β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (chitinase). Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assay (radioimmuno assay) was made using the same larval stage of A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus. The results were compared with the crude methanol extract of the whole plant. The isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester was found to be the most effective larvicide against A. aegypti (LC50/24 h -8.51 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50/24 h - 12.5 ppm) than the crude methanol extract (LC50/24 h - 257.03 ppm and LC50/24 h - 281.83 ppm, respectively). The impact of oleic acid, eicosyl ester on reducing the activity of chitinase and ecdysone 20-monooxygenase was most prominent in both the target species, A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus than the control. The results therefore suggest that the compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicum may be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal property. PMID:27168688

  3. Synthesis and physical properties of new coco-oleic dimer and trimer plus estolide branched esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estolides are a class of esters based on vegetable oils that are formed when the carboxylic acid functionality of one fatty acid reacts at the site of unsaturation of another fatty acid to form an ester linkage. The objective of this preliminary study was to separate coco-oleic estolide into two com...

  4. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2015-02-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding.

  5. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter J. H.; MacKay, Dylan. S.; Senanayake, Vijitha K.; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J. A.; Connelly, Philip W.; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; West, Sheila G.; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Hantgan, Roy R.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets; 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p=0.0005 and p=0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p=0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p=0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p=0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. PMID:25528432

  6. The role of genomics and biotechnology in achieving global food security for high-oleic vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    Health related concerns for dietary 'trans-fat' in the U.S. have mediated a significant decline in the use of hydrogenated vegetable oils in edible applications. Oils having a natural abundance of oleic acid provide many functional properties that are derived from partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated oils. However, the long term agronomic production capacity of existing high-oleic oil crops to replace hydrogenated oil ingredients is not sustainable. Although improvements are expected in processing technology, genetic modification of seed composition offers the most promising tactic to increase the overall supply of high-oleic commodity oils. Genetic enhancement of oleic acid concentration has been demonstrated experimentally in nearly every oilseed. Private companies have launched production of genetically enhanced oleic acid cultivars such as: Nexera™ Omega-9 canola and Omega-9 sunflower oils. The E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company plans commercial production of Plenish™ high-oleic soybeans in 2012. The Monsanto Co. plans commercial production of Vistive-Gold™ low-saturated high-oleic soybeans possibly as early as 2013. These 'new' high-oleic oilseeds must not only exhibit superior oil quality but also sequentially improved yield potential. Genetic maps that help breeders identify, locate and track useful genes will facilitate accomplishment of that goal. However, a reference sequence map in soybean is the only available chromosome scale assembly of an oilseed genome. Knowledge of genome structure enables technological advances that help increase soybean yielding ability, improve crop protection against biotic stresses, and reveal alleles for genes that mediate expression of quality traits. Led by soybean, genetically enhanced high-oleic vegetable oils that now are becoming commercially available may capture greater than 40% of the domestic consumption of vegetable oil in the U.S. by 2020. This innovation in oilseed technology is a positive step toward

  7. Overexpression of DYRK1A inhibits choline acetyltransferase induction by oleic acid in cellular models of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Maruan; Fillat, Cristina; Medina, José M; Velasco, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Histological brain studies of individuals with DS have revealed an aberrant formation of the cerebral cortex. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that oleic acid acts as a neurotrophic factor and induces neuronal differentiation. In order to characterize the effects of oleic acid in a cellular model of DS, immortalized cell lines derived from the cortex of trisomy Ts16 (CTb) and normal mice (CNh) were incubated in the absence or presence of oleic acid. Oleic acid increased choline acetyltransferase expression (ChAT), a marker of cholinergic differentiation in CNh cells. However, in trisomic cells (CTb line) oleic acid failed to increase ChAT expression. These results suggest that the overdose of specific genes in trisomic lines delays differentiation in the presence of oleic acid by inhibiting acetylcholine production mediated by ChAT. The dual-specificity tyrosine (Y) phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) gene is located on human chromosome 21 and encodes a proline-directed protein kinase. It has been proposed that DYRK1A plays a prominent role in several biological functions, leading to mental retardation in DS patients. Here we explored the potential role of DYRK1A in the modulation of ChAT expression in trisomic cells and in the signaling pathways of oleic acid. Down-regulation of DYRK1A by siRNA in trisomic CTb cells rescued ChAT expression up to levels similar to those of normal cells in the presence of oleic acid. In agreement with these results, oleic acid was unable to increase ChAT expression in neuronal cultures of transgenic mice overexpressing DYRK1A. In summary, our results highlight the role played by DYRK1A in brain development through the control of ChAT expression. In addition, the overexpression of DYRK1A in DS models prevented the neurotrophic effect of oleic acid, a fact that may account for mental retardation in DS patients. PMID:23124096

  8. Ice core profiles of saturated fatty acids (C12:0-C30:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) from southern Alaska since 1734 AD: A link to climate change in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Ambarish; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Seki, Osamu; Matoba, Sumio; Shiraiwa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    An ice core drilled at Aurora Peak in southeast Alaska was analyzed for homologous series of straight chain fatty acids (C12:0-C30:0) including unsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) using gas chromatography (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Molecular distributions of fatty acids are characterized by even carbon number predominance with a peak at palmitic acid (C16:0, av. 20.3 ± SD. 29.8 ng/g-ice) followed by oleic acid (C18:1, 19.6 ± 38.6 ng/g-ice) and myristic acid (C14:0, 15.3 ± 21.9 ng/g-ice). The historical trends of short-chain fatty acids, together with correlation analysis with inorganic ions and organic tracers suggest that short-chain fatty acids (except for C12:0 and C15:0) were mainly derived from sea surface micro layers through bubble bursting mechanism and transported over the glacier through the atmosphere. This atmospheric transport process is suggested to be linked with Kamchatka ice core δD record from Northeast Asia and Greenland Temperature Anomaly (GTA). In contrast, long-chain fatty acids (C20:0-C30:0) are originated from terrestrial higher plants, soil organic matter and dusts, which are also linked with GTA. Hence, this study suggests that Alaskan fatty acids are strongly influenced by Pacific Decadal Oscillation/North Pacific Gyre Oscillation and/or extra tropical North Pacific surface climate and Arctic oscillation. We also found that decadal scale variability of C18:1/C18:0 ratios in the Aurora Peak ice core correlate with the Kamchatka ice core δD, which reflects climate oscillations in the North Pacific. This study suggests that photochemical aging of organic aerosols could be controlled by climate periodicity.

  9. Particle size conditions water repellency in sand samples hydrophobized with stearic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Peñaloza, F. A.; Jordán, A.; Bellinfante, N.; Bárcenas-Moreno, G.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Granged, A. J. P.; Gil, J.; Zavala, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    The main objective of this research is to study the effects of particle size and soil moisture on water repellency (WR) from hydrophobized sand samples. Quartz sand samples were collected from the top 15 cm of sandy soils, homogenised and divided in different sieve fractions: 0.5 - 2 mm (coarse sand), 0.25 - 0.5 mm (medium sand), and 0.05 - 0.25 mm (fine sand). WR was artificially induced in sand samples using different concentrations of stearic acid (SA; 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 g kg-1). Sand samples were placed in Petri plates and moistened with distilled water until 10% water content in weight. After a period of 30 min, soil WR was determined using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test. A set of sub-samples was placed in an oven (50 oC) during the experimental period, and the rest was left air-drying at standard laboratory conditions. Water repellent soil samples were used as control, and the same treatments were applied. WR was determined every 24 h. No changes in WR were observed after 6 days of treatment. As expected, air-dried fine sand samples showed WR increasing with SA concentration and decreasing with soil moisture. In contrast, oven-dried samples remained wettable at SA concentrations below 5 g kg-1. Fine sand oven-dried samples showed extreme WR after just one day of treatment, but air-dried samples did not show extreme repellency until three days after treatment. SA concentrations above 5 g kg-1 always induced extreme WR. Medium sand air-dried samples showed hydrophilic properties when moist and low SA concentration (£1 g kg-1), but strong to extreme WR was induced by higher SA concentrations. In the case of oven-dried samples, medium sand showed severe to extreme WR regardless of soil moisture. Coarse sand showed the longest WDPTs, independently of soil moisture content or SA concentration. This behaviour may be caused by super-hydrophobicity. Also, it is suggested that movements of sand particles during wetting, contribute to expose new

  10. A modified PCR protocol for consistent amplification of fatty acid desaturase (FAD) alleles in marker-assisted backcross breeding for high oleic trait in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic acid, such as is found in olive oil, is desirable for the healthy cholesterol-lowering benefits. The oxidative stability of the oil with high oleic acid also gives longer “shelve life” for peanut products. These benefits drive the breeding effort toward developing high oleic peanuts worl...

  11. Effect of Span 60 on the Microstructure, Crystallization Kinetics, and Mechanical Properties of Stearic Acid Oleogels: An In-Depth Analysis.

    PubMed

    Uvanesh, K; Sagiri, S S; Senthilguru, K; Pramanik, K; Banerjee, I; Anis, Arfat; Al-Zahrani, S M; Pal, Kunal

    2016-02-01

    Modulation of crystallization of stearic acid and its derivatives is important for tuning the properties of stearate oleogels. The present study delineates the crystallization of stearic acid in stearate oleogels in the presence of Span 60. Microarchitecture analysis revealed that stearic acid crystals in the oleogels changed its shape from plate-like structure to a branched architecture in the presence of Span 60. Consequently, a significant variation in the mobility of the solute molecules inside the oleogel (Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching studies, FRAP analysis) was observed. Thermal analysis (gelation kinetics and DSC) revealed shortening of nucleation induction time and secondary crystallization with an increase in the Span 60 concentration. Furthermore, isosolid diagram suggested better physical stability of the formulations at higher proportions of Span 60. XRD analysis indicated that there was a decrease in the crystal size and the crystallinity of the stearic acid crystals with an increase in Span 60 concentration in the Span 60 containing oleogels. However, crystal growth orientation was unidirectional and found unaltered with Span 60 concentration (Avarmi analysis using DSC data). The mechanical study indicated a composition-dependent variation in the viscoelastic properties (instantaneous [τ1 ], intermediate [τ2 ], and delayed [τ3 ] relaxation times) of the formulations. In conclusion, Span 60 can be used to alter the kinetics of the crystallization, crystal habit and crystal structure of stearic acid. This study provides a number of clues that could be used further for developing oleogel based formulation.

  12. A systematic review of high-oleic vegetable oil substitutions for other fats and oils on cardiovascular disease risk factors: implications for novel high-oleic soybean oils.

    PubMed

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Larson, Brian T

    2015-11-01

    High-oleic acid soybean oil (H-OSBO) is a trait-enhanced vegetable oil containing >70% oleic acid. Developed as an alternative for trans-FA (TFA)-containing vegetable oils, H-OSBO is predicted to replace large amounts of soybean oil in the US diet. However, there is little evidence concerning the effects of H-OSBO on coronary heart disease (CHD)(6) risk factors and CHD risk. We examined and quantified the effects of substituting high-oleic acid (HO) oils for fats and oils rich in saturated FAs (SFAs), TFAs, or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) on blood lipids in controlled clinical trials. Searches of online databases through June 2014 were used to select studies that defined subject characteristics; described control and intervention diets; substituted HO oils compositionally similar to H-OSBO (i.e., ≥70% oleic acid) for equivalent amounts of oils high in SFAs, TFAs, or n-6 PUFAs for ≥3 wk; and reported changes in blood lipids. Studies that replaced saturated fats or oils with HO oils showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) (P < 0.05; mean percentage of change: -8.0%, -10.9%, -7.9%, respectively), whereas most showed no changes in HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), the ratio of TC to HDL cholesterol (TC:HDL cholesterol), and apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1). Replacing TFA-containing oil sources with HO oils showed significant reductions in TC, LDL cholesterol, apoB, TGs, TC:HDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol and apoA-1 (mean percentage of change: -5.7%, -9.2%, -7.3%, -11.7%, -12.1%, 5.6%, 3.7%, respectively; P < 0.05). In most studies that replaced oils high in n-6 PUFAs with equivalent amounts of HO oils, TC, LDL cholesterol, TGs, HDL cholesterol, apoA-1, and TC:HDL cholesterol did not change. These findings suggest that replacing fats and oils high in SFAs or TFAs with either H-OSBO or oils high in n-6 PUFAs would have favorable and comparable effects on plasma lipid risk factors and

  13. Effect of oleic acid ligand on photophysical, photoconductive and magnetic properties of monodisperse SnO2 quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sirshendu; Das, Kajari; Chakrabarti, Kaushik; De, S K

    2013-03-14

    Oleic acid capped monodisperse SnO(2) quantum dots (QDs) of size 2.7 nm were synthesized by thermal decomposition and oxidation of Sn(II)(oleate) complex in high boiling nonpolar solvent octadecene using oleic acid as a capping agent and N-methylmorpholine N-oxide as an oxidizing agent. FTIR, DSC and TGA were employed to understand the growth of the oleic acid capped SnO(2) QDs through the decomposition of metal fatty acid complex. The surface defect-related luminescence properties of the QDs were demonstrated using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy. The oleic acid capping on the QD surface modifies the electronic structure of SnO(2) and generates blue emission. Moreover the surface capping on the QDs diminishes the photocatalytic activity of bare SnO(2) QDs due to absence of surface oxygen and adsorbed hydroxyl group on the surface of the capped QDs. The capping by the long chain ligand oleic acid makes the SnO(2) QDs less conducting. Ligand exchange of the long chain oleic acid (2.5 nm) by the short chain n-butylamine (0.6 nm) increases the current density of SnO(2) around 43 times due to the reduction of the interparticle distance. Ferromagnetic behaviour of oleic acid capped QDs may be ascribed to the defects in the host due to the alteration of the electronic structure owing to the capping. PMID:23258710

  14. Heterozygous caveolin-3 mice show increased susceptibility to palmitate-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Talukder, M A Hassan; Preda, Marilena; Ryzhova, Larisa; Prudovsky, Igor; Pinz, Ilka M

    2016-03-01

    Insulin resistance and diabetes are comorbidities of obesity and affect one in 10 adults in the United States. Despite the high prevalence, the mechanisms of cardiac insulin resistance in obesity are still unclear. We test the hypothesis that the insulin receptor localizes to caveolae and is regulated through binding to caveolin-3 (CAV3). We further test whether haploinsufficiency forCAV3 increases the susceptibility to high-fat-induced insulin resistance. We used in vivo and in vitro studies to determine the effect of palmitate exposure on global insulin resistance, contractile performance of the heart in vivo, glucose uptake in the heart, and on cellular signaling downstream of theIR We show that haploinsufficiency forCAV3 increases susceptibility to palmitate-induced global insulin resistance and causes cardiomyopathy. On the basis of fluorescence energy transfer (FRET) experiments, we show thatCAV3 andIRdirectly interact in cardiomyocytes. Palmitate impairs insulin signaling by a decrease in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt that corresponds to an 87% decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake inHL-1 cardiomyocytes. Despite loss of Akt phosphorylation and lower glucose uptake, palmitate increased insulin-independent serine phosphorylation ofIRS-1 by 35%. In addition, we found lipid induced downregulation ofCD36, the fatty acid transporter associated with caveolae. This may explain the problem the diabetic heart is facing with the simultaneous impairment of glucose uptake and lipid transport. Thus, these findings suggest that loss ofCAV3 interferes with downstream insulin signaling and lipid uptake, implicatingCAV3 as a regulator of theIRand regulator of lipid uptake in the heart. PMID:27033451

  15. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism influences postprandial retinyl palmitate but not triglyceride concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Boerwinkle, E. ); Brown, S.; Patsch, W. ); Sharrett, A.R. ); Heiss, G. )

    1994-02-01

    To quantify the effect of the apolipoprotein (apo) E polymorphism on the magnitude of postprandial lipemia, the authors have defined its role in determining the response to a single high-fat meal in a large sample of (N = 474) individuals taking part in the biethnic Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. The profile of postprandial response in plasma was monitored over 8 h by triglyceride, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL)-triglyceride, apo B-48/apo B-100 ratio, and retinyl palmitate concentrations, and the apo E polymorphism was determined by DNA amplification and digestion. The frequency of the apo E alleles and their effects on fasting lipid levels in this sample with vitamin A was significantly different among apo E genotypes, with delayed clearance in individuals with an [var epsilon]2 allele, compared with [var epsilon]3/3 and [var epsilon]3/4 individuals. In the sample of 397 Caucasians, average retinyl palmitate response was 1,489 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]2/3 individuals, compared with 1,037 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]3/3 individuals and 1,108 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]3/4 individuals. The apo E polymorphism accounted for 7.1% of the interindividual variation in postprandial retinyl palmitate response, a contribution proportionally greater than its well-known effect on fasting LDL-cholesterol. However, despite this effect on postprandial retinyl palmitate, the profile of postprandial triglyceride response was not significantly different among apo E genotypes. The profile of postprandial response was consistent between the sample of Caucasians and a smaller sample of black subjects. While these data indicate that the removal of remnant particles from circulation is delayed in subjects with the [var epsilon]2/3 genotype, there is no reported evidence that the [var epsilon]2 allele predisposes to coronary artery disease (CAD). 82 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Efficient dermal delivery of retinyl palmitate: Progressive polarimetry and Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the structure and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Bae; Lee, Dong Ryeol; Choi, Nak Cho; Jang, Jihui; Park, Chun Ho; Yoon, Moung Seok; Lee, Miyoung; Won, Kyoungae; Hwang, Jae Sung; Kim, B Moon

    2015-10-12

    Over the past decades, there has been a growing interest in dermal drug delivery. Although various novel delivery devices and methods have been developed, dermal delivery is still challenging because of problems such as poor drug permeation, instability of vesicles and drug leakage from vesicles induced by fusion of vesicles. To solve the vesicle instability problems in current dermal delivery systems, we developed materials comprised of liquid crystals as a new delivery vehicle of retinyl palmitate and report the characterization of the liquid crystals using a Mueller matrix polarimetry. The stability of the liquid-crystal materials was evaluated using the polarimeter as a novel evaluation tool along with other conventional methods. The dermal delivery of retinyl palmitate was investigated through the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the permeation of retinyl palmitate was enhanced by up to 106% compared to that using an ordinary emulsion with retinyl palmitate. PMID:26165622

  17. Antioxidative effects of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate on thermal oxidation of canola oil.

    PubMed

    Onal, Baran; Ergin, Gürol

    2002-12-01

    Canola oil, with and without added alpha-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate, was used to deep-fat frying potatoes once per day for 10 day or once per week for 10 weeks. Changes in chemical and physical properties were monitored. Refractive index, free fatty acids and absorbance at 232 and 270 nm increased with frying time. Smoke point, 'L' color index, iodine value and the C18:2/C16:0 ratio in the oil decreased with the frying time. According to smoke point, which shows the time of the oil should be discarded, canola oil without antioxidant (control) can be used safely 8 times daily or 7 times weekly. For canola oil with antioxidant (oil + alpha-tocopherol + ascorbyl palmitate), the smoke point did not decrease below 170 degrees C in both daily and weekly fryings. This showed that canola oil with antioxidant could be used safely at least 10 times for both frying intervals. In both daily and weekly fryings, the addition of 200 ppm alpha-tocopherol and 200 ppm ascorbyl palmitate increased the oxidative stability of canola oil.

  18. Acetoclastic methanogenesis is likely the dominant biochemical pathway of palmitate degradation in the presence of sulfate.

    PubMed

    Lv, Lei; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Wang, Li-Ying; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong; Yang, Shi-Zhong

    2015-09-01

    Long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are important intermediates in the anaerobic degradation of n-alkanes. In order to find out the biochemical processes involved in the degradation of LCFAs, palmitate (a typical LCFA) was used as a substrate, and low-temperature oilfield production fluids were used as a source of microorganisms to establish two anaerobic systems, one with addition of sulfate as exogenous electron acceptor (SP), another without exogenous electron acceptor (MP) and both incubated at room temperature. After more than 2 years of incubation, about 48 and 57.4% of the palmitate were degraded in samples of MP and SP, respectively. Methane production reached 1408 and 1064 μmol for MP and SP, respectively. Clone libraries of archaeal 16S rRNA genes showed that the predominant archaea in the sulfate-amended cultures (SP) was Methanosaeta whereas Methanocalculus dominated the culture without addition of exogenous sulfate (MP). This observation shows that palmitate could be biodegraded into methane through β-oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenesis in the presence of with or without sulfate. The high occurrence of Methanosaeta in the sulfate-amended system indicates that acetoclastic methanogenesis was not inhibited/little affected by the addition of sulfate. Acetoclastic methanogenesis might be the predominant biochemchimcal pathway of methane generation in enrichment cultures amended with sulfate. These results shed light on alternative methanogenic pathways in the presence of sulfate.

  19. Pharmacological properties of beta-amyrin palmitate, a novel centrally acting compound, isolated from Lobelia inflata leaves.

    PubMed

    Subarnas, A; Tadano, T; Oshima, Y; Kisara, K; Ohizumi, Y

    1993-06-01

    Effects of beta-amyrin palmitate isolated from the leaves of Lobelia inflata were studied on the central nervous system of mice and were compared with those of antidepressant drugs, mianserin and imipramine. In the forced swimming test, beta-amyrin palmitate, like mianserin and imipramine, reduced the duration of immobility of mice significantly in a dose-dependent manner (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1). beta-Amyrin palmitate (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) or mianserin (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) elicited a dose-related reduction in locomotor activity of mice and antagonized locomotor stimulation induced by methamphetamine. In contrast, imipramine (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) increased locomotor activity and potentiated methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity. beta-Amyrin palmitate showed no effect on reserpine-induced hypothermia, whilst mianserin (10 mg kg-1) and imipramine (10 and 20 mg kg-1) antagonized the reserpine-induced effect. Unlike imipramine, beta-amyrin palmitate and mianserin did not affect haloperidol-induced catalepsy, tetrabenazine-induced ptosis and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. beta-Amyrin palmitate and imipramine had no effects on the head-twitch response induced by 5-hydroxytryptophan, whereas mianserin (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) decreased it in a dose-dependent manner. A potentiating effect of beta-amyrin palmitate (5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1) on narcosis induced by sodium pentobarbitone was stronger than that of imipramine (10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1) but weaker than that of mianserin (2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg-1). These results suggest that beta-amyrin palmitate has similar properties in some respects to mianserin and might possess a sedative action.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Multiple binding modes for palmitate to barley lipid transfer protein facilitated by the presence of proline 12

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lorna J; Gunsteren, Wilfred F Van; Allison, Jane R

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to characterise the binding of the fatty acid ligand palmitate in the barley lipid transfer protein 1 (LTP) internal cavity. Two different palmitate binding modes (1 and 2), with similar protein–ligand interaction energies, have been identified using a variety of simulation strategies. These strategies include applying experimental protein–ligand atom–atom distance restraints during the simulation, or protonating the palmitate ligand, or using the vacuum GROMOS 54B7 force-field parameter set for the ligand during the initial stages of the simulations. In both the binding modes identified the palmitate carboxylate head group hydrogen bonds with main chain amide groups in helix A, residues 4 to 19, of the protein. In binding mode 1 the hydrogen bonds are to Lys 11, Cys 13, and Leu 14 and in binding mode 2 to Thr 15, Tyr 16, Val 17, Ser 24 and also to the OH of Thr 15. In both cases palmitate binding exploits irregularity of the intrahelical hydrogen-bonding pattern in helix A of barley LTP due to the presence of Pro 12. Simulations of two variants of barley LTP, namely the single mutant Pro12Val and the double mutant Pro12Val Pro70Val, show that Pro 12 is required for persistent palmitate binding in the LTP cavity. Overall, the work identifies key MD simulation approaches for characterizing the details of protein–ligand interactions in complexes where NMR data provide insufficient restraints. PMID:23139016

  1. Increased incorporation of /sup 14/C-palmitate into tissue lipids by isolated heart myocytes in endotoxic shock

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The incorporation of /sup 14/C-palmitate into various classes of tissue lipids by isolated adult dog heart myocytes was studied in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of myocardial dysfunction during endotoxic shock. The results showed that the incorporation of /sup 14/C-palmitate into phospholipids was increased by 85.3% and 108.8% at 0.5 hours and two hours, respectively, following endotoxin (0.5 mg Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide B per kg body weight) administration. Incorporation of radioactive palmitate into triglycerides was increased by 50.9% and 107.2% at 0.5 and two hours, respectively, postendotoxin. Incorporation of /sup 14/C-palmitate into diglycerides was stimulated by 51.9% and 64.5% at 0.5 and two hours, respectively, after endotoxin injection. The incorporation of /sup 14/C-palmitate into tissue-free fatty acids and unaltered at 0.5 hours but it was increased by 211.7% at two hours postendotoxin. These data demonstrated that myocardial membrane lipid profile was greatly altered by increased incorporation of /sup 14/C-palmitate into phospholipids and neutral lipids after endotoxin administration. An alteration in myocardial lipid profile, as reported in this study, may contribute to the development of myocardial dysfunction during shock.

  2. Palmitate action to inhibit glycogen synthase and stimulate protein phosphatase 2A increases with risk factors for type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mott, David M.; Stone, Karen; Gessel, Mary C.; Bunt, Joy C.; Bogardus, Clifton

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that abnormal regulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is associated with Type 2 diabetes in rodent and human tissues. Results with cultured mouse myotubes support a mechanism for palmitate activation of PP2A, leading to activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3. Phosphorylation and inactivation of glycogen synthase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 could be the mechanism for long-chain fatty acid inhibition of insulin-mediated carbohydrate storage in insulin-resistant subjects. Here, we test the effects of palmitic acid on cultured muscle glycogen synthase and PP2A activities. Palmitate inhibition of glycogen synthase fractional activity is increased in subjects with high body mass index compared with subjects with lower body mass index (r = −0.43, P = 0.03). Palmitate action on PP2A varies from inhibition in subjects with decreased 2-h plasma glucose concentration to activation in subjects with increased 2-h plasma glucose concentration (r = 0.45, P < 0.03) during oral glucose tolerance tests. The results do not show an association between palmitate effects on PP2A and glycogen synthase fractional activity. We conclude that subjects at risk for Type 2 diabetes have intrinsic differences in palmitate regulation of at least two enzymes (PP2A and glycogen synthase), contributing to abnormal insulin regulation of glucose metabolism. PMID:18056794

  3. Palmitate action to inhibit glycogen synthase and stimulate protein phosphatase 2A increases with risk factors for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mott, David M; Stone, Karen; Gessel, Mary C; Bunt, Joy C; Bogardus, Clifton

    2008-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that abnormal regulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is associated with Type 2 diabetes in rodent and human tissues. Results with cultured mouse myotubes support a mechanism for palmitate activation of PP2A, leading to activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3. Phosphorylation and inactivation of glycogen synthase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 could be the mechanism for long-chain fatty acid inhibition of insulin-mediated carbohydrate storage in insulin-resistant subjects. Here, we test the effects of palmitic acid on cultured muscle glycogen synthase and PP2A activities. Palmitate inhibition of glycogen synthase fractional activity is increased in subjects with high body mass index compared with subjects with lower body mass index (r = -0.43, P = 0.03). Palmitate action on PP2A varies from inhibition in subjects with decreased 2-h plasma glucose concentration to activation in subjects with increased 2-h plasma glucose concentration (r = 0.45, P < 0.03) during oral glucose tolerance tests. The results do not show an association between palmitate effects on PP2A and glycogen synthase fractional activity. We conclude that subjects at risk for Type 2 diabetes have intrinsic differences in palmitate regulation of at least two enzymes (PP2A and glycogen synthase), contributing to abnormal insulin regulation of glucose metabolism.

  4. Organogels based on 12-hydroxy stearic acid as a leitmotif: Dependence of gelation properties on chemical modifications.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Markus; Noirez, Laurence; Gradzielski, Michael

    2016-03-15

    Various compounds based on the structural leitmotif of 12-hydroxy stearic acid (HSA) were studied with respect to their ability to form organogels. They were modified by ethoxylation in order to avoid the acid group of HSA, which is unwanted for many of the applications of organogels. In this paper, it is shown that the rheological performance of organogels depends strongly on the extent of ethoxylation, exhibiting an optimum at intermediate degrees of ethoxylation. Furthermore, we reveal that the ability for gelation as well as the mechanical properties are substantially reduced by the presence of stearic acid (SA) in the original reaction mixture, which is a typical contamination of HSA. This is quantified by the amount of gelator required for gelation and the elastic moduli observed for the gels. At the same time the mesoscopic structure, as probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), is almost unchanged for different degrees of ethoxylation or the addition of SA--and similarly thick fibres are observed, while the viscoelastic parameters evolve. Accordingly the elastic efficiency of the individual structural units is responsible for the observed changes in the gelation properties. These findings are relevant for the application of such low molecular weight organogelators in practical formulations, as one can optimise the rheological properties of organogelators by appropriately choosing the degree of ethoxylation.

  5. A Robust Epoxy Resins @ Stearic Acid-Mg(OH)2 Micronanosheet Superhydrophobic Omnipotent Protective Coating for Real-Life Applications.

    PubMed

    Si, Yifan; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2016-06-29

    Superhydrophobic coating has extremely high application value and practicability. However, some difficult problems such as weak mechanical strength, the need for expensive toxic reagents, and a complex preparation process are all hard to avoid, and these problems have impeded the superhydrophobic coating's real-life application for a long time. Here, we demonstrate one kind of omnipotent epoxy resins @ stearic acid-Mg(OH)2 superhydrophobic coating via a simple antideposition route and one-step superhydrophobization process. The whole preparation process is facile, and expensive toxic reagents needed. This omnipotent coating can be applied on any solid substrate with great waterproof ability, excellent mechanical stability, and chemical durability, which can be stored in a realistic environment for more than 1 month. More significantly, this superhydrophobic coating also has four protective abilities, antifouling, anticorrosion, anti-icing, and flame-retardancy, to cope with a variety of possible extreme natural environments. Therefore, this omnipotent epoxy resins @ stearic acid-Mg(OH)2 superhydrophobic coating not only satisfies real-life need but also has great application potential in many respects.

  6. Investigation into the Coating and Desensitization Effect on HNIW of Paraffin Wax/Stearic Acid Composite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Xu; Chen, Shu-Sen; Jin, Shao-Hua; Shu, Qing-Hai; Jiang, Zhen-Ming; Shang, Feng-Qin; Li, Jin-Xin

    2016-01-01

    2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW) was bonded by fluorine rubber and then desensitized by paraffin wax (PW), stearic acid (SA), and a PW/SA composite system using an aqueous suspension method. The coating and desensitization effects of the composite systems on HNIW and the influence of the addition of SA on the mechanical properties of the coated HNIW samples were studied. In addition, the PW/SA composite solution was simulated using a molecular dynamics method, and the relationship between the desensitization effect on HNIW and the properties of the composite solution was investigated. The results showed that the PW/SA composite system, of which the desensitization effect on HNIW was between those of the two desensitizers, could effectively coat HNIW and that the composite solution had the most stable and well-distributed state when using benzene as solvent with the mass ratio of PW/SA equal to 7/3 or 3/7, thus resulting in the best desensitization effect on HNIW. Moreover, the addition of stearic acid was successful in enhancing the mechanical properties of the coated HNIW samples.

  7. A Robust Epoxy Resins @ Stearic Acid-Mg(OH)2 Micronanosheet Superhydrophobic Omnipotent Protective Coating for Real-Life Applications.

    PubMed

    Si, Yifan; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2016-06-29

    Superhydrophobic coating has extremely high application value and practicability. However, some difficult problems such as weak mechanical strength, the need for expensive toxic reagents, and a complex preparation process are all hard to avoid, and these problems have impeded the superhydrophobic coating's real-life application for a long time. Here, we demonstrate one kind of omnipotent epoxy resins @ stearic acid-Mg(OH)2 superhydrophobic coating via a simple antideposition route and one-step superhydrophobization process. The whole preparation process is facile, and expensive toxic reagents needed. This omnipotent coating can be applied on any solid substrate with great waterproof ability, excellent mechanical stability, and chemical durability, which can be stored in a realistic environment for more than 1 month. More significantly, this superhydrophobic coating also has four protective abilities, antifouling, anticorrosion, anti-icing, and flame-retardancy, to cope with a variety of possible extreme natural environments. Therefore, this omnipotent epoxy resins @ stearic acid-Mg(OH)2 superhydrophobic coating not only satisfies real-life need but also has great application potential in many respects. PMID:27265834

  8. Fatty Acid Chain Elongation in Palmitate-perfused Working Rat Heart

    PubMed Central

    Kerner, Janos; Minkler, Paul E.; Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Rat hearts were perfused with [1,2,3,4-13C4]palmitic acid (M+4), and the isotopic patterns of myocardial acylcarnitines and acyl-CoAs were analyzed using ultra-HPLC-MS/MS. The 91.2% 13C enrichment in palmitoylcarnitine shows that little endogenous (M+0) palmitate contributed to its formation. The presence of M+2 myristoylcarnitine (95.7%) and M+2 acetylcarnitine (19.4%) is evidence for β-oxidation of perfused M+4 palmitic acid. Identical enrichment data were obtained in the respective acyl-CoAs. The relative 13C enrichment in M+4 (84.7%, 69.9%) and M+6 (16.2%, 17.8%) stearoyl- and arachidylcarnitine, respectively, clearly shows that the perfused palmitate is chain-elongated. The observed enrichment of 13C in acetylcarnitine (19%), M+6 stearoylcarnitine (16.2%), and M+6 arachidylcarnitine (17.8%) suggests that the majority of two-carbon units for chain elongation are derived from β-oxidation of [1,2,3,4-13C4]palmitic acid. These data are explained by conversion of the M+2 acetyl-CoA to M+2 malonyl-CoA, which serves as the acceptor for M+4 palmitoyl-CoA in chain elongation. Indeed, the 13C enrichment in mitochondrial acetyl-CoA (18.9%) and malonyl-CoA (19.9%) are identical. No 13C enrichment was found in acylcarnitine species with carbon chain lengths between 4 and 12, arguing against the simple reversal of fatty acid β-oxidation. Furthermore, isolated, intact rat heart mitochondria 1) synthesize malonyl-CoA with simultaneous inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b and 2) catalyze the palmitoyl-CoA-dependent incorporation of 14C from [2-14C]malonyl-CoA into lipid-soluble products. In conclusion, rat heart has the capability to chain-elongate fatty acids using mitochondria-derived two-carbon chain extenders. The data suggest that the chain elongation process is localized on the outer surface of the mitochondrial outer membrane. PMID:24558043

  9. Associations between hepatic metabolism of propionate and palmitate in liver slices from transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M M; Piepenbrink, M S; Overton, T R

    2015-10-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=95) were used to evaluate changes in hepatic propionate and palmitate metabolism and liver composition over time during the transition period, along with the relationships of these variables with cumulative increases in nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate during the periparturient period. Data from 3 previous experiments were used to address the study objectives, accounting for a total of 95 multiparous Holstein cows. Liver slices from biopsies on d -21, 1, and 21 relative to parturition were used to determine conversion of [1-(14)C]palmitate to CO2 and esterified products (EP) and the conversion of [1-(14)C]propionate to CO2 and glucose. Hepatic glycogen content was highest on d -21 and was 26.9 and 36.5% of prepartum values on d 1 and 21, respectively. Liver triglyceride content was lowest at d -21 and was 271 and 446% of prepartum values on d 1 and 21, respectively. We detected no difference in the capacity for the liver to oxidize [1-(14)C]palmitate to CO2 between d -21 and d 1; however, on d 21, oxidation was 84% of prepartum values. The capacity of the liver to convert [1-(14)C]palmitate to EP was 148 and 139% of prepartum values on d 1 and 21, respectively. The capacity of liver to convert [1-(14)C]propionate to CO2 was 127 and 83% of prepartum values on d 1 and 21, and the capacity of liver to convert [1-(14)C]propionate to glucose was 126 and 85% of prepartum values on d 1 and 21, respectively. Correlation relationships suggest that overall, cows with elevated prepartum liver triglyceride content had elevated triglycerides throughout the transition period along with increased [1-(14)C]palmitate oxidation and conversion to EP and a decreased propensity to convert [1-(14)C]propionate to glucose. Cows with increased [1-(14)C]propionate oxidation had increased conversion of [1-(14)C]propionate to glucose throughout the transition period. Overall, conditions that lead to impairments in fatty acid metabolism during the

  10. A two-stage enzymatic process for synthesis of extremely pure high oleic glycerol monooleate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qisi; Li, Tie; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Bo; Ma, Yongjun

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a research interest concentrating on aims to establish a feasible industrial process for enzymatic production of highly pure glycerol monooleate (GMO). The synthesis of high oleic glycerol monooleate by enzymatic glycerolysis of high oleic sunflower oil, using Novozyme 435 as the biocatalyst, in a binary solvent mixture of tert-butanol and tert-pentanol (80/20, v/v), at a lab scale has been studied. A yield of 75.31% monoacylglycerol has been achieved at the first stage. A yield of 93.3% GMO was finally reached after further purification at the second stage. To evaluate the possibility of the process for industrialization, production of GMO was performed at a pilot-plant scale under the correspondingly adjusted conditions. A yield of 68.17% and 93.4% of GMO was obtained, respectively, at the end of the three stages.

  11. Influence of high pressure on the relative permittivity of oleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kościesza, R.; Siegoczyński, R. M.

    2011-03-01

    Oleic acid (OA) is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid which undergoes a first-order phase transition when it is influenced by high pressures. The transition results in a change of molecular structure, which was investigated by means of X-ray techniques [J. Przedmojski and R.M. Siegoczyński, X-ray diffraction investigation of oleic acid under high pressure, Phase Transit. 75 (2002), pp. 373-377]. Despite a significant change in the structure, the permittivity of the acid remains barely influenced during and after the phase transition. A rise in relative permittivity has been observed due to the increasing number of molecules per volume unit within a compression cycle. However, no significant fall in the permittivity has been observed as a result of the transition which occurs in the case of edible oils. This may be caused by a strongly dimerised structure and dipole-dipole interaction in the liquid at ambient pressure.

  12. Observations of a high-pressure phase creation in oleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kościesza, R.; Kulisiewicz, L.; Delgado, A.

    2010-03-01

    Oleic acid is one of the unsaturated fatty acids which frequently appears in food products such as edible fats and oils. A molecule of oleic acid possesses a double carbon bond, C=C, which is responsible for a transition to a new phase when pressure is applied. This work presents the results of optical observations of such a transition. The observations were made in two cases, the first being static p-T conditions under 60 MPa at 20°C and the other the dynamic application of the pressure up to 350 MPa. The obtained visualization reveals differences in the creation of the phase and in its further appearance. Some crystal forms may be recognized. These results tend to be of interest for food engineers due to increasing interest in high-pressure food preservation among nutritionists and medical scientists concerned with fatty acids.

  13. Oleic acid-grafted chitosan/graphene oxide composite coating for corrosion protection of carbon steel.

    PubMed

    Fayyad, Eman M; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Al-Maadeed, Mariam Al Ali

    2016-10-20

    An anticorrosion coating film based on the formation of nanocomposite coating is reported in this study. The composite consisted of chitosan (green matrix), oleic acid, and graphene oxide (nano filler). The nanocomposite coating was arranged on the surface of carbon steel, and the corrosion resistance was monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP). Compared to the pure chitosan (CS) coating, the corrosion resistance of oleic acid-modified chitosan/graphene oxide film (CS/GO-OA) is increased by 100 folds. Since the well-dispersed smart grafted nanolayers delayed the penetration rate of corrosive species and thus maintained long term anticorrosive stability which is correlated with hydrophobicity and permeability.

  14. Oleic acid-grafted chitosan/graphene oxide composite coating for corrosion protection of carbon steel.

    PubMed

    Fayyad, Eman M; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Al-Maadeed, Mariam Al Ali

    2016-10-20

    An anticorrosion coating film based on the formation of nanocomposite coating is reported in this study. The composite consisted of chitosan (green matrix), oleic acid, and graphene oxide (nano filler). The nanocomposite coating was arranged on the surface of carbon steel, and the corrosion resistance was monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP). Compared to the pure chitosan (CS) coating, the corrosion resistance of oleic acid-modified chitosan/graphene oxide film (CS/GO-OA) is increased by 100 folds. Since the well-dispersed smart grafted nanolayers delayed the penetration rate of corrosive species and thus maintained long term anticorrosive stability which is correlated with hydrophobicity and permeability. PMID:27474635

  15. Facile synthesis and shape evolution of oleic acid decorated Cu2O microcrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Cao, Xiaohai; Zhu, Bingchun; Lou, Baiyang; Ma, Xiaocun; Li, Xiao; Wang, Yuguang

    2015-11-01

    A facile synthetic method of oleic acid decorated Cu2O microcrystals has been developed by thermal decomposition of copper formate-octylamine complexes in paraffin using oleic acid as dispersing agent. This new method showed many advantages, which include free-reducing agent, enhancing antioxidant properties of Cu2O and good dispersity in paraffin, etc. The phase structure and morphology were investigated by means of XRD, SEM and TEM. It is found that the reaction time and temperature play the important roles in the crystallite morphology. With the increase of the reaction time, the Cu2O rhombic dodecahedron is gradually transformed into the spherical particle by intraparticle ripening. The shape evolution of Cu2O microcrystals can be accelerated with the increase of temperature.

  16. Submicrometer-sized Pickering emulsions stabilized by silica nanoparticles with adsorbed oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Sadeghpour, Amin; Pirolt, Franz; Glatter, Otto

    2013-05-21

    Oil-water Pickering emulsions of about 200 nm were stabilized by nanosized hydrophilic silica after a simple surface treatment method. We have modified the aqueous silica nanoparticle dispersions by simple adsorption of oleic acid to their surfaces, improving the hydrophobicity of the particles while maintaining their charge and stability. The adsorption was monitored by small-angle X-ray scattering and electrophoretic measurements to estimate the interparticle interactions and surface charges. The effect of various parameters, such as nanoparticle concentration, amount of oleic acid, ionic strength, and pH, on the droplets' size and stability was investigated by dynamic light scattering. Furthermore, the ability of these modified silica nanoparticles to stabilize long-chain alkanes, liquid paraffin, and liquid-crystalline phases was examined.

  17. Characterization of the oleic acid/iron oxide nanoparticle interface by magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masur, S.; Zingsem, B.; Marzi, T.; Meckenstock, R.; Farle, M.

    2016-10-01

    The synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles involves surfactant molecules, which bind to the particle surface and stabilize nanoparticles against aggregation. In many cases these protecting shells also can be used for further functionalization. In this study, we investigated monodisperse single crystalline iron oxide core/shell nanoparticles (FexOy-NPs) in situ covered with an oleic acid layer which showed two electron spin resonance (ESR) signals. The nanoparticles with the ligands attached were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ferro- and paramagnetic resonance (FMR, EPR). Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the functional groups and revealed that the oleic acid (OA) is chemisorbed as a carboxylate on the iron oxide and is coordinated symmetrically to the oxide atoms. We show that the EPR signal of the OA ligand molecule can be used as a local probe to determine the temperature changes at the surface of the nanoparticle.

  18. Results of fibre and toner flotation depending on oleic acid dosage.

    PubMed

    Trumic, Maja S; Trumic, Milan Z; Vujic, Bogdana; Andric, Ljubisa; Bogdanovic, Grozdanka

    2016-09-01

    The literature was reviewed with respect to deinking flotation methods with toner samples, specifically emphasizing the speciation of copy machine and laser printing, which produce an increasing quantity of paper that is difficult to recycle. Speciation here refers to the physical-chemical characteristics of the toner, which change because of the polymerization (fusion) and oxidation process, due to exposure to heat, light and oxygen (air) during the printing process. To simulate the deinking flotation, after the ideal disintegration process, samples of toner were prepared in order to provide free toner particles. Synthetic toner has iron content and the same physical-chemical features as free disintegrated printed toner particles.We report the toner (I) and fibre (Y) recovery and the brightness (B) of laboratory filter pads formed of deinked product as deinking efficiencies. The application of oleic acid as the collector in the flotation stage gives a better flotation recovery in alkaline than in acidic conditions. The highest brightness (BF = 93.66%) and flotation recoveries (I = 90, Y = 92.82%) were achieved during testing at an oleic acid concentration of 3.38·10(-6) mol l(-1), which is the lowest dose used. This makes the use of oleic acid economical and environmentally friendly. PMID:27354017

  19. Luminescence properties of LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles encapsulated by oleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaewoo; Lee, Jun-Hyung; An, Hyejin; Lee, Jungkuk; Park, Seong-Hee; Seo, Young-Soo; Miller, William H.

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • In-situ hydrophobization of water dispersible LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles was achieved. • Oleic acid surface modification of the nanoparticles was verified by IR spectra. • Quantum yields of LaF{sub 3}:Ce and OA-LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles were evaluated. • Quantum yields of LaF{sub 3}:Ce are strongly dependent on OA surface modification. - Abstract: Cerium ions doped lanthanum fluoride (LaF{sub 3}:Ce) nanopowder as well as LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanopowder whose surfaces was modified by oleic acid (OA) were synthesized by using an in-situ hydrothermal process under the various doping concentrations. Based on the XRD spectra and TEM images, it was confirmed that the crystalline structured hexagonal LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanopowder was synthesized. Oleic acid was efficient for conversion of the water dispersible LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles to hydrophobic ones. Surface modification was verified by FTIR absorption spectrum as well as TEM images, showing no agglomeration between 5 and 10 nm scaled particles. Photoluminescence based on 5d ⟶ 4f electronic transition of cerium ions excited at λ{sub ex} ∼256 nm for both neat and OA encapsulated LaF{sub 3}:Ce nanoparticles decreases as the cerium concentration increases, while the quantum yields of OA encapsulated nanoparticles were much lower than the neat particles due to low photon transmittance of OA at the range longer than ∼350 nm.

  20. Relative effects of dietary oleic- and linoleic-rich oils on plasma lipoprotein composition in rats.

    PubMed

    Ney, D M; Lasekan, J B; Kim, J

    1989-06-01

    Plasma lipoprotein composition and hepatic lipid content were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats (104 +/- 2 g) fed diets containing 12% olive oil [OO, 70% 18:1(n-9)], 12% high oleic safflower oil [SO, 70% 18:(ln-9)] or 12% high linoleic safflower oil [SL, 73% 18:2(n-6)] for periods of up to 10 wk. Fasting plasma triglycerides were significantly higher after feeding oleic-rich diets than after feeding SL for 3, 5 and 6 wk. At 6 wk VLDL triglycerides were two- to threefold higher in rats fed OO or SO than in those fed SL, but by 10 wk both plasma and VLDL triglycerides were similar. A greater proportion of HDL2 (diameter 8.0-12.1 nm), a lower proportion of HDL1 (diameter 12.2-17.0 nm) and lower HDL apo E content occurred in rats fed OO and SO than in those fed SL at both 6 and 10 wk. LDL and HDL protein and cholesterol concentrations were not different with feeding SO or SL. After 10 wk of feeding the experimental diets, rats fed OO had significantly lower HDL protein, cholesterol and apo E concentrations and significantly higher hepatic triglyceride content compared to rats fed SO or SL, P less than 0.05. These data suggest that HDL and hepatic lipid content are determined by some property of the dietary oil other than its oleic acid content. PMID:2746370

  1. Properties of high-oleic palm oils derived by fractional crystallization.

    PubMed

    Ramli, M R; Siew, W L; Cheah, K Y

    2008-04-01

    High-oleic palm oil (HOPO) with an oleic acid content of 59.0% and an iodine value (IV) of 78.2 was crystallized in a 200-kg De Smet crystallizer with a predetermined cooling program and appropriate agitation. The slurry was then fractionated by means of dry fractionation at 4, 8, 10, 12, and 15 degrees C. The oil and the fractionated products were subjected to physical and chemical analyses, including fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol composition, solid fat content, cloud point, slip melting point, and cold stability test. Fractionation at 15 degrees C resulted in the highest olein yield but with minimal oleic acid content. Due to the enhanced unsaturation of the oil, fractionation at relatively lower crystallization temperature showed a considerable effect on fatty acid composition as well as triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol composition of liquid fractions compared to higher crystallization temperature. The olein and stearin fractionated at 4 degrees C had the best cold stability at 0 degrees C and sharper melting profile, respectively.

  2. Determination of oleic acid in sunflower seeds by infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration method.

    PubMed

    Cantarelli, Miguel A; Funes, Israel G; Marchevsky, Eduardo J; Camiña, José M

    2009-12-15

    A method for the determination of oleic acid in sunflower seeds is proposed. One hundred samples of sunflower seeds were analyzed by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIRDRS). The direct measures were realized in ground and sifted seeds. The PLS multivariate calibration model was obtained using first derivate absorbance values as response matrix, while the oleic acid concentration matrix was obtained analyzing the seed samples by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The NIRDRS-PLS model was validated externally using unknown samples of sunflower seeds. The accuracy and precision of the method was evaluated using GC as reference method. The following figures of merit (FOM) were obtained: LOD=3.4% (w/w); LOQ=11.3% (w/w); SEN=8x10(-5); SEL=0.15; analytical sensibility (gamma)=1.5 and linear range (LR)=18.1-89.2% (w/w). This method is useful for the fast determination of oleic acid in sunflower seeds and for quality control of raw materials. PMID:19836509

  3. Effect of Gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid composite films.

    PubMed

    Masamba, Kingsley; Li, Yue; Hategekimana, Joseph; Liu, Fei; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid 0-4 % composite films was investigated. Molecular weight distribution analysis was carried out to confirm gallic acid induced cross linking through change in molecular weight in fraction containing zein proteins. Results revealed that gallic acid treatment increased tensile strength from 17.9 MPa to 26.0 MPa, decreased water vapour permeability from 0.60 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)) to 0.41 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)), increased solubility from 6.3 % to 10.2 % and marginally increased elongation at break from 3.7 % to 4.2 % in zein films only. However, gallic acid treatment in zein-oleic composite films did not significantly influence mechanical and water barrier properties and in most instances irrespective of oleic acid concentration, the properties were negatively affected. Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that both gallic acid treated and untreated zein films and composite films containing 3 % oleic acid had a compact and homogeneous structure while those containing 4 % oleic acid had inhomogeneous structure. The findings have demonstrated that gallic acid treatment can significantly improve mechanical and water barrier properties especially in zein films only as opposed to when used in composite films using zein and oleic acid. PMID:27407188

  4. Effect of Gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid composite films.

    PubMed

    Masamba, Kingsley; Li, Yue; Hategekimana, Joseph; Liu, Fei; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid 0-4 % composite films was investigated. Molecular weight distribution analysis was carried out to confirm gallic acid induced cross linking through change in molecular weight in fraction containing zein proteins. Results revealed that gallic acid treatment increased tensile strength from 17.9 MPa to 26.0 MPa, decreased water vapour permeability from 0.60 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)) to 0.41 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)), increased solubility from 6.3 % to 10.2 % and marginally increased elongation at break from 3.7 % to 4.2 % in zein films only. However, gallic acid treatment in zein-oleic composite films did not significantly influence mechanical and water barrier properties and in most instances irrespective of oleic acid concentration, the properties were negatively affected. Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that both gallic acid treated and untreated zein films and composite films containing 3 % oleic acid had a compact and homogeneous structure while those containing 4 % oleic acid had inhomogeneous structure. The findings have demonstrated that gallic acid treatment can significantly improve mechanical and water barrier properties especially in zein films only as opposed to when used in composite films using zein and oleic acid.

  5. Silymarin prevents palmitate-induced lipotoxicity in HepG2 cells: involvement of maintenance of Akt kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhenyuan; Song, Ming; Lee, David Y W; Liu, Yanze; Deaciuc, Ion V; McClain, Craig J

    2007-10-01

    Whereas adipocytes have a unique capacity to store excess free fatty acids in the form of triglyceride in lipid droplets, non-adipose tissues, such as liver, have a limited capacity for storage of lipids. Saturated long-chain fatty acids, such as palmitate, are the major contributors to lipotoxicity. Silymarin is a mixture of flavonolignans, extracted from the milk thistle (Silibum marianum). Its hepatoprotective properties have been studied both in vitro and in vivo; however, its effect on palmitate-induced lipotoxicity has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate (i) whether silymarin could protect HepG2 cells from palmitate-induced cell death in an in vitro model, and (ii) possible mechanisms involved in this hepatoprotective role of silymarin. HepG2 cells were treated with palmitate in the absence or presence of silymarin and supernatants or cell lysates were collected at varying time-points. Cell death was assayed by measuring DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activity and lactate dehydrogenase release. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals. Akt kinase activity was also measured. Incubation with palmitate caused significant death in HepG2 cells. Palmitate incubation did not cause significant changes in reactive oxygen species production or intracellular glutathione content, but markedly inhibited Akt kinase activity. Pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with silymarin prevented palmitate-induced inhibition of Akt kinase activity and attenuated cell death. Our results suggest that silymarin may be an effective agent in protecting hepatocytes from saturated fatty acids-induced cell death. These data also provide a further rationale for exploration of the use of silymarin in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  6. Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) signaling affects insulin secretion by enhancing mitochondrial respiration during palmitate exposure.

    PubMed

    Kristinsson, Hjalti; Bergsten, Peter; Sargsyan, Ernest

    2015-12-01

    Fatty acids affect insulin secretion via metabolism and FFAR1-mediated signaling. Recent reports indicate that these two pathways act synergistically. Still it remains unclear how they interrelate. Taking into account the key role of mitochondria in insulin secretion, we attempted to dissect the metabolic and FFAR1-mediated effects of fatty acids on mitochondrial function. One-hour culture of MIN6 cells with palmitate significantly enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Antagonism or silencing of FFAR1 prevented the palmitate-induced rise in respiration. On the other hand, in the absence of extracellular palmitate FFAR1 agonists caused a modest increase in respiration. Using an agonist of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and PKC inhibitor we found that in the presence of the fatty acid mitochondrial respiration is regulated via Gαq protein-coupled receptor signaling. The increase in respiration in palmitate-treated cells was largely due to increased glucose utilization and oxidation. However, glucose utilization was not dependent on FFAR1 signaling. Collectively, these results indicate that mitochondrial respiration in palmitate-treated cells is enhanced via combined action of intracellular metabolism of the fatty acid and the Gαq-coupled FFAR1 signaling. Long-term palmitate exposure reduced ATP-coupling efficiency of mitochondria and deteriorated insulin secretion. The presence of the FFAR1 antagonist during culture did not improve ATP-coupling efficiency, however, it resulted in enhanced mitochondrial respiration and improved insulin secretion after culture. Taken together, our study demonstrates that during palmitate exposure, integrated actions of fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid-induced FFAR1 signaling on mitochondrial respiration underlie the synergistic action of the two pathways on insulin secretion.

  7. Vitamin A palmitate and α-lipoic acid stability in o/w emulsions for cosmetic application.

    PubMed

    Moyano, M A; Segall, A

    2011-01-01

    Skin becomes thin, dry, pale, and finely wrinkled with age. Retinoids are a large class of compounds that are important in modern therapy for dermatological treatment of wrinkled skin. Of the retinoids, retinol and vitamin A palmitate are thought to induce thickening of the epidermis and to be effective for treatment of skin diseases. Accordingly, α-lipoic acid or the reduced form, dihydrolipoate, are potent scavengers of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, and nitric oxide with anti-inflammatory properties (1). Cosmetic ingredient stability prediction relies on kinetic quantitative chemical analysis of active components at different temperatures. Vitamin A palmitate and α-lipoic acid, are known to be unstable to light or heat (2). The aims of this study were to evaluate the stability of α-lipoic acid and vitamin A palmitate in the presence of vitamin E (acetate) and other antioxidants in lipophilic/hydrophilic medium (O/W emulsions) at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0. The formulations that were investigated contained 0.12% (w/w) vitamin A palmitate, 0.4% (w/w) vitamin E acetate, and 0.5 % α-lipoic acid (formulation A), supplemented with ascorbyl palmitate, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, and vitamin C (formulation B) or with butylhydroxytoluene (BHT, formulation C) or ascorbyl palmitate (formulation D). The chemical analyses of α-lipoic acid and vitamin A palmitate were carried out by HPLC. Formulations C and D at pH 7.0 were selected as the most stable for these components. The purpose of this paper is the selection of the most stable formulations for their application in in vivo studies.

  8. Palmitate increases musclin gene expression through activation of PERK signaling pathway in C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ning; Guo, Qian; Mao, Ke; Hu, Hailong; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; He, Hongjuan; Oh, Yuri; Liu, Chuanpeng; Wu, Qiong

    2015-11-20

    Musclin is a type of muscle-secreted cytokine and its increased gene expression induces insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism underlying increased musclin gene expression is currently unclear. Excessive saturated fatty acids (SFA) can activate the secretion of several muscle-secreted cytokines as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway, thereby contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the effect of palmitate, the most abundant SFA in the plasma, on the gene expression of musclin in C2C12 myotubes. Treatment of C2C12 myotubes with palmitate or tunicamycin significantly increased the expression of musclin as well as ER stress-related genes, but treatment with oleate did not. Pre-treatment of C2C12 myotubes with 4-phenyl butyrate suppressed the expression of ER stress-related genes, simultaneously, resulting in decreased expression of the musclin gene induced by palmitate or tunicamycin. These results indicate that ER stress is related to palmitate-induced musclin gene expression. Moreover, palmitate-induced musclin gene expression was significantly inhibited in C2C12 myotubes when PERK pathway signaling was suppressed by knockdown of the PERK gene or treatment with GSK2656157, a PERK autophosphorylation inhibitor. However, there was no difference in the palmitate-induced musclin gene expression when IRE1 and ATF6 signaling pathways were suppressed by knockdown of the IRE1 and ATF6 genes. These findings suggest that palmitate increases musclin gene expression via the activation of the PERK signaling pathway in C2C12 myotubes. PMID:26449458

  9. Palmitate-induced inflammatory pathways in human adipose microvascular endothelial cells promote monocyte adhesion and impair insulin transcytosis.

    PubMed

    Pillon, Nicolas J; Azizi, Paymon M; Li, Yujin E; Liu, Jun; Wang, Changsen; Chan, Kenny L; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P; Heit, Bryan; Bilan, Philip J; Lee, Warren L; Klip, Amira

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammation and immune cell recruitment to adipose tissue, muscle and intima of atherosclerotic blood vessels. Obesity and hyperlipidemia are also associated with tissue insulin resistance and can compromise insulin delivery to muscle. The muscle/fat microvascular endothelium mediates insulin delivery and facilitates monocyte transmigration, yet its contribution to the consequences of hyperlipidemia is poorly understood. Using primary endothelial cells from human adipose tissue microvasculature (HAMEC), we investigated the effects of physiological levels of fatty acids on endothelial inflammation and function. Expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules was measured by RT-qPCR. Signaling pathways were evaluated by pharmacological manipulation and immunoblotting. Surface expression of adhesion molecules was determined by immunohistochemistry. THP1 monocyte interaction with HAMEC was measured by cell adhesion and migration across transwells. Insulin transcytosis was measured by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Palmitate, but not palmitoleate, elevated the expression of IL-6, IL-8, TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). HAMEC had markedly low fatty acid uptake and oxidation, and CD36 inhibition did not reverse the palmitate-induced expression of adhesion molecules, suggesting that inflammation did not arise from palmitate uptake/metabolism. Instead, inhibition of TLR4 to NF-κB signaling blunted palmitate-induced ICAM-1 expression. Importantly, palmitate-induced surface expression of ICAM-1 promoted monocyte binding and transmigration. Conversely, palmitate reduced insulin transcytosis, an effect reversed by TLR4 inhibition. In summary, palmitate activates inflammatory pathways in primary microvascular endothelial cells, impairing insulin transport and increasing monocyte transmigration. This behavior may contribute in vivo to reduced tissue insulin action and enhanced tissue

  10. A Controlled, Evidence-Based Trial of Paliperidone Palmitate, A Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotic, in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Nasrallah, Henry A; Gopal, Srihari; Gassmann-Mayer, Cristiana; Quiroz, Jorge A; Lim, Pilar; Eerdekens, Mariëlle; Yuen, Eric; Hough, David

    2010-01-01

    Paliperidone palmitate is a long-acting injectable antipsychotic agent. This 13-week, multicenter, randomized (1 : 1 : 1 : 1), double-blind, parallel-group study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fixed 25, 50, and 100 milligram equivalent (mg equiv.) doses of paliperidone palmitate vs placebo administered as gluteal injections on days 1 and 8, then every 4 weeks (days 36 and 64) in 518 adult patients with schizophrenia. The intent-to-treat analysis set (N=514) was 67% men and 67% White, with a mean age of 41 years. All paliperidone palmitate dose groups showed significant improvement vs placebo in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (primary efficacy measure; 25 and 50 mg equiv., p=0.02; 100 mg equiv., p<0.001), as well as Clinical Global Impression Severity scores (p⩽0.006) and PANSS negative and positive symptom Marder factor scores (p⩽0.04). The Personal and Social Performance scale showed no significant difference between treatment groups. The overall incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar between groups. Parkinsonism, the most frequently reported extrapyramidal symptom, was reported at similar rates for placebo (5%) and paliperidone palmitate (5–6% across doses). The mean body mass index and mean weight showed relatively small dose-related increases during paliperidone palmitate treatment. Investigator-evaluated injection-site pain, swelling, redness, and induration were similar across treatment groups; scores for patient-evaluated injection-site pain (visual analog scale) were similar across groups and diminished with time. All doses of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate were efficacious and generally tolerated, both locally and systemically. Paliperidone palmitate offers the potential to improve outcomes in adults with symptomatic schizophrenia. PMID:20555312

  11. Fate of the naphthenic acid, U-{sup 14}C-palmitic acid, in constructed wetlands; A microcosm study

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.; Barjaktarovic, L.; Moore, M.; Kennedy, C.; Farrell, A.P.; Bendell-Young, L.I.

    1995-12-31

    This study represents part of an overall initiative to assess the ecological viability of constructed wetlands for the treatment of oil sands wastewater. To determine the fate of naphthenic acids (C{sub n}H{sub 2n+z}O{sub 2}), the most toxic component of oil sands wastewater, in constructed wetlands, a representative naphthenic acid (NA), U-{sup 14}C-palmitic acid was added to microcosms placed within three control and three treatment wetlands. Treatment wetlands receive wastewater typical of effluent resulting from the oil sands extraction process. In each of the 6 microcosms, biotic compartments measured for {sup 14}C at t = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days were: mineralized palmitic acid (evolved {sup 14}C-CO{sub 2}), water, suspended sediments, bottom sediments, cattail, chironomid larvae, and sticklebacks (liver, muscle and skin). The fate of the {sup 14}C-palmitic acid was similar between the control versus treatment microcosms. Exceptions were greater amounts of {sup 14}C-palmitic acid detected in water and suspended sediments of treatment versus control microcosms. Of the biotic compartments, at t = 21 days, the majority of the {sup 14}C-palmitic acid was found in chironomids and fish tissues. Mineralization and partitioning of {sup 14}C-palmitic acid onto sediments also represented important fates. From the initial addition of the labelled compound, with the exception of bottom sediments, by t = 1 day {sup 14}C was detected in ail biotic compartments. {sup 14}C was detected in bottom sediments by t = 7 days. These results indicate that in addition to mineralization being an important process influencing the fate palmitic acid within the wetlands, partitioning into biotic compartments such as chironomids and fish are also important fates. Hence, when considering the use of constructed wetlands for the treatment of oil sands effluent, the adverse effects of naphthenic acids on the biota needs to be fully addressed.

  12. Analysis of sterols and fatty acids in natural and cultured Cordyceps by one-step derivatization followed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, F Q; Feng, K; Zhao, J; Li, S P

    2009-07-12

    Ten free fatty acids namely lauric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, docosanoic acid and lignoceric acid and four free sterols including ergosterol, cholesterol, campesterol and beta-sitosterol in natural (wild) Cordyceps sinensis, Cordyceps liangshanensis and Cordyceps gunnii, as well as cultured C. sinensis and Cordyceps militaris were first determined using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatization and GC-MS analysis. The conditions such as the amount of reagent, temperature and time for TMS derivatization of analytes were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, all calibration curves showed good linearity within the tested ranges. The intra- and inter-day variations for 14 investigated compounds were less than 3.4% and 5.2%, respectively. The results showed that palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid and ergosterol are main components in natural and cultured Cordyceps which could be discriminated by hierarchical clustering analysis based on the contents of 14 investigated compounds or the 4 fatty acids, where the contents of palmitic acid and oleic acid in natural Cordyceps are significantly higher than those in the cultured ones.

  13. Skin phototoxicity of cosmetic formulations containing photounstable and photostable UV-filters and vitamin A palmitate.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Lorena R; Tharmann, Julian; Maia Campos, Patricia M B G; Liebsch, Manfred

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro skin phototoxicity of cosmetic formulations containing photounstable and photostable UV-filters and vitamin A palmitate, assessed by two in vitro techniques: 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Phototoxicity Test and Human 3-D Skin Model In Vitro Phototoxicity Test. For this, four different formulations containing vitamin A palmitate and different UV-filters combinations, two of them considered photostable and two of them considered photounstable, were prepared. Solutions of each UV-filter and vitamin under study and solutions of four different combinations under study were also prepared. The phototoxicity was assessed in vitro by the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test (3T3-NRU-PT) and subsequently in a phototoxicity test on reconstructed human skin model (H3D-PT). Avobenzone presented a pronounced phototoxicity and vitamin A presented a tendency to a weak phototoxic potential. A synergistic effect of vitamin A palmitate on the phototoxicity of combinations containing avobenzone was observed. H3D-PT results did not confirm the positive 3T3-NRU-PT results. However, despite the four formulations studied did not present any acute phototoxicity potential, the combination 2 containing octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC), avobenzone (AVB) and 4-methylbenzilidene camphor (MBC) presented an indication of phototoxicity that should be better investigated in terms of the frequency of photoallergic or chronic phototoxicity in humans, once these tests are scientifically validated only to detect phototoxic potential with the aim of preventing phototoxic reactions in the general population, and positive results cannot predict the exact incidence of phototoxic reactions in humans. PMID:22906567

  14. PNPLA3 has retinyl-palmitate lipase activity in human hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Pirazzi, Carlo; Valenti, Luca; Motta, Benedetta Maria; Pingitore, Piero; Hedfalk, Kristina; Mancina, Rosellina Margherita; Burza, Maria Antonella; Indiveri, Cesare; Ferro, Yvelise; Montalcini, Tiziana; Maglio, Cristina; Dongiovanni, Paola; Fargion, Silvia; Rametta, Raffaela; Pujia, Arturo; Andersson, Linda; Ghosal, Saswati; Levin, Malin; Wiklund, Olov; Iacovino, Michelina; Borén, Jan; Romeo, Stefano

    2014-08-01

    Retinoids are micronutrients that are stored as retinyl esters in the retina and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). HSCs are key players in fibrogenesis in chronic liver diseases. The enzyme responsible for hydrolysis and release of retinyl esters from HSCs is unknown and the relationship between retinoid metabolism and liver disease remains unclear. We hypothesize that the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) protein is involved in retinol metabolism in HSCs. We tested our hypothesis both in primary human HSCs and in a human cohort of subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (N = 146). Here we show that PNPLA3 is highly expressed in human HSCs. Its expression is regulated by retinol availability and insulin, and increased PNPLA3 expression results in reduced lipid droplet content. PNPLA3 promotes extracellular release of retinol from HSCs in response to insulin. We also show that purified wild-type PNPLA3 hydrolyzes retinyl palmitate into retinol and palmitic acid. Conversely, this enzymatic activity is markedly reduced with purified PNPLA3 148M, a common mutation robustly associated with liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma development. We also find the PNPLA3 I148M genotype to be an independent (P = 0.009 in a multivariate analysis) determinant of circulating retinol-binding protein 4, a reliable proxy for retinol levels in humans. This study identifies PNPLA3 as a lipase responsible for retinyl-palmitate hydrolysis in HSCs in humans. Importantly, this indicates a potential novel link between HSCs, retinoid metabolism and PNPLA3 in determining the susceptibility to chronic liver disease. PMID:24670599

  15. Prolactin Levels After Switching to Paliperidone Palmitate in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Nagamine, Takahiko; Sato, Goro; Besho, Kazue

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the tolerability and efficacy of paliperidone palmitate and its effect on the levels of prolactin in patients with schizophrenia. Method: A prospective study was carried out in 22 Japanese middle-aged patients with schizophrenia who were switched from paliperidone-extended release or risperidone long-acting injectable to paliperidone palmitate for a minimum of 12 months. Psychotic symptoms using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, extrapyramidal symptoms using 9-item Drug-induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale, and plasma prolactin levels using fasting blood samples were assessed at Baseline, and one, three, six, and 12 months. Results: There were significant reductions in prolactin levels at one, three, and six months relative to baseline in the male subjects switched from risperidone long-acting injectable, while prolactin levels in male subjects switched from paliperidone-extended release and the female subjects switched from risperidone long-acting injectable or paliperidone-extended release were largely unchanged. No time-sequential changes were observed in total scores of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Drug-induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale, irrespective of previous antipsychotics treatment. Conclusion: Switching from paliperidone-extended release or risperidone long-acting injectable to paliperidone palmitate did not result in any observed time-sequential changes in psychotic symptoms in study subjects, and prolactin levels decreased in male subjects switched from risperidone long-acting injectable. As measurement of paliperidone concentrations is limited in routine practice, a fluctuation range of prolactin levels may be a useful marker for confirmation of safety maintenance treatment with long-acting injectables in clinical settings.

  16. Skin phototoxicity of cosmetic formulations containing photounstable and photostable UV-filters and vitamin A palmitate.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Lorena R; Tharmann, Julian; Maia Campos, Patricia M B G; Liebsch, Manfred

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro skin phototoxicity of cosmetic formulations containing photounstable and photostable UV-filters and vitamin A palmitate, assessed by two in vitro techniques: 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Phototoxicity Test and Human 3-D Skin Model In Vitro Phototoxicity Test. For this, four different formulations containing vitamin A palmitate and different UV-filters combinations, two of them considered photostable and two of them considered photounstable, were prepared. Solutions of each UV-filter and vitamin under study and solutions of four different combinations under study were also prepared. The phototoxicity was assessed in vitro by the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test (3T3-NRU-PT) and subsequently in a phototoxicity test on reconstructed human skin model (H3D-PT). Avobenzone presented a pronounced phototoxicity and vitamin A presented a tendency to a weak phototoxic potential. A synergistic effect of vitamin A palmitate on the phototoxicity of combinations containing avobenzone was observed. H3D-PT results did not confirm the positive 3T3-NRU-PT results. However, despite the four formulations studied did not present any acute phototoxicity potential, the combination 2 containing octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC), avobenzone (AVB) and 4-methylbenzilidene camphor (MBC) presented an indication of phototoxicity that should be better investigated in terms of the frequency of photoallergic or chronic phototoxicity in humans, once these tests are scientifically validated only to detect phototoxic potential with the aim of preventing phototoxic reactions in the general population, and positive results cannot predict the exact incidence of phototoxic reactions in humans.

  17. Photodegradation of Stearic Acid Adsorbed on Superhydrophilic TiO2 Surface: In Situ FT-IR and LDI Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Natalia; Fesenko, Tatiana; Zhukovsky, Maxim; Goworek, Jacek; Eremenko, Anna

    2015-12-01

    TiO2 films prepared by template-assisted sol-gel method were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning and atomic force electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Based on the hexane adsorption-desorption analysis, the films have a surface area of 390-540 m2/g with pore size distribution narrowly centered around 10 nm. Optimal component ratio and condition of heat treatment of mesoporous titania films have been found. Photocatalytic activity of the coatings was determined by the destruction of stearic acid layers, monitored using FT-IR spectroscopy and laser desorption-ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry. Under UV illumination, all the used films reach hydrophilicity with water contact angle of 0°. As the result, hydrophobic fat acid molecules undergo self-association and active desorption from the hydrophilic surface during mass-spectrometric experiment.

  18. Photodegradation of Stearic Acid Adsorbed on Superhydrophilic TiO2 Surface: In Situ FT-IR and LDI Study.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia; Fesenko, Tatiana; Zhukovsky, Maxim; Goworek, Jacek; Eremenko, Anna

    2015-12-01

    TiO2 films prepared by template-assisted sol-gel method were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning and atomic force electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Based on the hexane adsorption-desorption analysis, the films have a surface area of 390-540 m(2)/g with pore size distribution narrowly centered around 10 nm. Optimal component ratio and condition of heat treatment of mesoporous titania films have been found. Photocatalytic activity of the coatings was determined by the destruction of stearic acid layers, monitored using FT-IR spectroscopy and laser desorption-ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry. Under UV illumination, all the used films reach hydrophilicity with water contact angle of 0°. As the result, hydrophobic fat acid molecules undergo self-association and active desorption from the hydrophilic surface during mass-spectrometric experiment.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation analysis of small-angle neutron scattering by a solution of stearic acid in benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, R. A.; Kholmurodov, Kh. T.; Petrenko, V. I.; Rosta, L.; Avdeev, M. V.

    2014-01-01

    Data of small-angle neutron scattering by a diluted solution of stearic acid in deuterated benzene have been analyzed using the results of molecular dynamics simulation. The molecular dynamics simulation approach has been used to calculate the time-averaged distribution of the neutron scattering length density at the interface between the acid molecule and the solvent. It has been shown that the organization of the solvent at the interface with the acid molecule leads to a modulation of the neutron scattering length density and makes a significant contribution to the scattering. This contribution should be taken into account when interpreting the experimental small-angle neutron scattering curves for both the considered system and its analogues.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation of palmitate ester self-assembly with diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Karjiban, Roghayeh Abedi; Basri, Mahiran; Rahman, Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul; Salleh, Abu Bakar

    2012-01-01

    Palm oil-based esters (POEs) are unsaturated and non-ionic esters with a great potential to act as chemical penetration enhancers and drug carriers for transdermal drug nano-delivery. A ratio of palmitate ester and nonionic Tween80 with and without diclofenac acid was chosen from an experimentally determined phase diagram. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed for selected compositions over a period of 15 ns. Both micelles showed a prolate-like shape, while adding the drug produced a more compact micellar structure. Our results proposed that the drug could behave as a co-surfactant in our simulated model.

  1. Increased norfloxacin skin permeability for fatty alcohol propylene glycol (FAPG) ointment by optimized process of preparation: behavior of stearic acid in stratum corneum lipids.

    PubMed

    Lin, H H; Hsu, L R; Wu, P C; Tsai, Y H

    1995-11-01

    Preparation of the fatty alcohol propylene glycol (FAPG) ointment base plays an important role in controlling the physicochemical properties of ointments. These essay investigates the effects of preparative conditions such as cooling rate and stirring rate on the percutaneous absorption of norfloxacin from FAPG ointment. The influence of process-induced variation in enhancing effect of stearic acid which was incorporated into FAPG base was evaluated in vitro on rat skin. In the permeation experiment, norfloxacin penetration significantly increased with faster cooling rate. This result directly related to the increasing norfloxacin skin--vehicle partition coefficient. Histological analysis results showed no appreciable exfoliation of the stratum corneum. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results show that stearic acid enriched lipid in the stratum corneum resulting from treatment with supercooling products may result in more crystalline structure and, hence preferential partitioning of the norfloxacin into the more crystalline regions of the membrane can be observed. A much greater enhancing effect can be achieved when we use stearic acid together with norfloxacin in propylene glycol (PG); but such effect cannot be found if 5 wt% stearic acid/PG suspension is used to pretreat skin before the application of norfloxacin PG solution.

  2. Stearic acid and high molecular weight PEO as matrix for the highly water soluble metoprolol tartrate in continuous twin-screw melt granulation.

    PubMed

    Monteyne, Tinne; Adriaensens, Peter; Brouckaert, Davinia; Remon, Jean-Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-10-15

    Granules with release-sustaining properties were developed by twin screw hot melt granulation (HMG) using a combination of stearic acid (SA) and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide (PEO) as matrix for a highly water soluble model drug, metoprolol tartrate (MPT). Earlier studies demonstrated that mixing molten SA and PEO resulted in hydrogen bond formation between hydroxyl groups of fatty acid molecules and ether groups in PEO chains. These molecular interactions might be beneficial in order to elevate the sustained release effect of drugs from a SA/PEO matrix. This study aims to investigate the continuous twin screw melt granulation technique to study the impact of a SA/PEO matrix on the dissolution rate of a highly water soluble drug (MPT). Decreasing the SA/PEO ratio improved the release-sustaining properties of the matrix. The solid state of the granules was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) in order to understand the dissolution behavior. The results revealed a preferential interaction of the MPT molecules with stearic acid impeding the PEO to form hydrogen bonds with the stearic acid chains. However, this allowed the PEO chains to recrystallize inside the stearic acid matrix after granulation, hence, elevating the release-sustaining characteristics of the formulation.

  3. Deletions of the SACPD-C locus elevate seed stearic acid levels but also result in fatty acid and morphological alterations in nitrogen fixing nodules

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Soybean (Glycine max) seeds are the primary source of edible oil in the United States. Despite its widespread utility, soybean oil is oxidatively unstable. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent chemical hydrogenation, a process which also generates trans fats. An alternative to chemical hydrogenation is genetic modification of seed oil through identification and introgression of mutant alleles. One target for improvement is the elevation of a saturated fat with no negative cardiovascular impacts, stearic acid, which typically constitutes a minute portion of seed oil (~3%). Results We examined radiation induced soybean mutants with moderately increased stearic acid (10-15% of seed oil, ~3-5 X the levels in wild-type soybean seeds) via comparative whole genome hybridization and genetic analysis. The deletion of one SACPD isoform encoding gene (SACPD-C) was perfectly correlated with moderate elevation of seed stearic acid content. However, SACPD-C deletion lines were also found to have altered nodule fatty acid composition and grossly altered morphology. Despite these defects, overall nodule accumulation and nitrogen fixation were unaffected, at least under laboratory conditions. Conclusions Although no yield penalty has been reported for moderate elevated seed stearic acid content in soybean seeds, our results demonstrate that genetic alteration of seed traits can have unforeseen pleiotropic consequences. We have identified a role for fatty acid biosynthesis, and SACPD activity in particular, in the establishment and maintenance of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. PMID:24886084

  4. Identify and validate a quantitative trait locus underlying stearic acid on chromosome 14 in a soybean landrace using recombinant inbred lines and resident heterozygous lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stearic acid (ST) is one of the saturated fatty acids (FAs) in soybean oil and great efforts have been made to elevate ST content through plant breeding. Improving ST content will be helpful to reduce the health risk of coronary heart diseases and breast, colon and prostate cancer. In this study, re...

  5. Stearic acid and high molecular weight PEO as matrix for the highly water soluble metoprolol tartrate in continuous twin-screw melt granulation.

    PubMed

    Monteyne, Tinne; Adriaensens, Peter; Brouckaert, Davinia; Remon, Jean-Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-10-15

    Granules with release-sustaining properties were developed by twin screw hot melt granulation (HMG) using a combination of stearic acid (SA) and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide (PEO) as matrix for a highly water soluble model drug, metoprolol tartrate (MPT). Earlier studies demonstrated that mixing molten SA and PEO resulted in hydrogen bond formation between hydroxyl groups of fatty acid molecules and ether groups in PEO chains. These molecular interactions might be beneficial in order to elevate the sustained release effect of drugs from a SA/PEO matrix. This study aims to investigate the continuous twin screw melt granulation technique to study the impact of a SA/PEO matrix on the dissolution rate of a highly water soluble drug (MPT). Decreasing the SA/PEO ratio improved the release-sustaining properties of the matrix. The solid state of the granules was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) in order to understand the dissolution behavior. The results revealed a preferential interaction of the MPT molecules with stearic acid impeding the PEO to form hydrogen bonds with the stearic acid chains. However, this allowed the PEO chains to recrystallize inside the stearic acid matrix after granulation, hence, elevating the release-sustaining characteristics of the formulation. PMID:27452420

  6. Defining the role of DAG, mitochondrial function, and lipid deposition in palmitate-induced proinflammatory signaling and its counter-modulation by palmitoleate.

    PubMed

    Macrae, Katherine; Stretton, Clare; Lipina, Christopher; Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Baranowski, Marcin; Gorski, Jan; Marley, Anna; Hundal, Harinder S

    2013-09-01

    Chronic exposure of skeletal muscle to saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate (C16:0), enhances proinflammatory IKK-NFκB signaling by a mechanism involving the MAP kinase (Raf-MEK-ERK) pathway. Raf activation can be induced by its dissociation from the Raf-kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) by diacylglycerol (DAG)-sensitive protein kinase C (PKC). However, whether these molecules mediate the proinflammatory action of palmitate, an important precursor for DAG synthesis, is currently unknown. Here, involvement of DAG-sensitive PKCs, RKIP, and the structurally related monounsaturated fatty acid palmitoleate (C16:1) on proinflammatory signaling are investigated. Palmitate, but not palmitoleate, induced phosphorylation/activation of the MEK-ERK-IKK axis and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6, CINC-1) expression. Palmitate increased intramyocellular DAG and invoked PKC-dependent RKIP(Ser153) phosphorylation, resulting in RKIP-Raf1 dissociation and MEK-ERK signaling. These responses were mimicked by PMA, a DAG mimetic and PKC activator. However, while pharmacological inhibition of PKC suppressed PMA-induced activation of MEK-ERK-IKK signaling, activation by palmitate was upheld, suggesting that DAG-sensitive PKC and RKIP were dispensable for palmitate's proinflammatory action. Strikingly, the proinflammatory effect of palmitate was potently repressed by palmitoleate. This repression was not due to reduced palmitate uptake but linked to increased neutral lipid storage and enhanced cellular oxidative capacity brought about by palmitoleate's ability to restrain palmitate-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

  7. UPR in palmitate-treated pancreatic beta-cells is not affected by altering oxidation of the fatty acid

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of lipids are detrimental for beta-cell function and mass. One of the mechanisms of how fatty acids induce apoptosis is development of the unfolded protein response (UPR). It is still far from understood how fatty acids activate the UPR, however. Methods We examined how palmitate-induced activation of the UPR was affected by altering the metabolism of the fatty acid in insulin-secreting INS-1E and MIN6 cell lines and intact human islets. To increase oxidation, we used low glucose (5.5 mM) or AICAR; and to reduce oxidation, we used high glucose (25 mM) or etomoxir. UPR was measured after 3, 24 and 48 hours of palmitate treatment. Results Modulation of palmitate oxidation by either glucose or the pharmacological agents did not affect palmitate-induced UPR activation. Conclusion Our finding suggests that other factors than oxidation of palmitate play a role in the activation of UPR in fatty acid-treated beta-cells. PMID:21978671

  8. Effect of glucose load and of insulin on the metabolism of glucose and of palmitate in sheep

    PubMed Central

    West, C. E.; Passey, R. F.

    1967-01-01

    1. Simultaneous measurements of the entry rates of palmitate and glucose have been made in Merino sheep (wethers), starved for 24hr., by using constant infusions of [9,10-3H2]palmitate and [U-14C]glucose. 2. The infusion of glucose into the peripheral circulation of the sheep lowered the endogenous entry of both glucose and palmitate. Since palmitate is roughly metabolically representative of the free fatty acid fraction, there was no marked change in the calories available to the sheep. 3. The infusion of insulin into either the peripheral or portal circulation increased the uptake of glucose and decreased the uptake of palmitate by the tissues of the sheep. 4. The infusion of insulin into the peripheral circulation produced a depression in glucose entry after about 80min., whereas the infusion of insulin into the portal circulation produced an almost immediate depression in glucose entry. 5. The hypoglycaemia produced gave rise to an increase in free fatty acid production followed by an increase in glucose production. 6. No direct effect of insulin on the metabolism of free fatty acids has been demonstrated by the techniques used. The effect of insulin on the metabolism of free fatty acids is apparently mediated through its effect on glucose metabolism. PMID:6030300

  9. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amounts of stearic or oleic acid as lubricants. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with bronze... that such impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Stearic or oleic acid, not...

  10. Enhanced In Vitro Skin Deposition Properties of Retinyl Palmitate through Its Stabilization by Pectin.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong-Churl; Kim, Yeongseok; Kim, Hyeongmin; Ro, Jieun; Cho, Seong-Wan; Yun, Gyiae; Choi, Sung-Up; Lee, Jaehwi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of stabilization of retinyl palmitate (RP) on its skin permeation and distribution profiles. Skin permeation and distribution study were performed using Franz diffusion cells along with rat dorsal skin, and the effect of drug concentration and the addition of pectin on skin deposition profiles of RP was observed. The skin distribution of RP increased in a concentration dependent manner and the formulations containing 0.5 and 1 mg of pectin demonstrated significantly increased RP distributions in the epidermis. Furthermore, it was found that skin distribution of RP could be further improved by combined use of pectin and ascorbyl palmitate (AP), due largely to their anti-oxidative effect. These results clearly demonstrate that the skin deposition properties of RP can be improved by stabilizing RP with pectin. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that pectin could be used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations as an efficient stabilizing agent and as skin penetration modulator. PMID:24596625

  11. Enhanced In Vitro Skin Deposition Properties of Retinyl Palmitate through Its Stabilization by Pectin

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Dong-Churl; Kim, Yeongseok; Kim, Hyeongmin; Ro, Jieun; Cho, Seong-Wan; Yun, Gyiae; Choi, Sung-Up; Lee, Jaehwi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of stabilization of retinyl palmitate (RP) on its skin permeation and distribution profiles. Skin permeation and distribution study were performed using Franz diffusion cells along with rat dorsal skin, and the effect of drug concentration and the addition of pectin on skin deposition profiles of RP was observed. The skin distribution of RP increased in a concentration dependent manner and the formulations containing 0.5 and 1 mg of pectin demonstrated significantly increased RP distributions in the epidermis. Furthermore, it was found that skin distribution of RP could be further improved by combined use of pectin and ascorbyl palmitate (AP), due largely to their anti-oxidative effect. These results clearly demonstrate that the skin deposition properties of RP can be improved by stabilizing RP with pectin. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that pectin could be used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations as an efficient stabilizing agent and as skin penetration modulator. PMID:24596625

  12. Palmitate stimulates glucose transport in rat adipocytes by a mechanism involving translocation of the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, R. W.; Ladenson, J. H.; Henriksen, E. J.; Holloszy, J. O.; McDonald, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    In rat adipocytes, palmitate: a) increases basal 2-deoxyglucose transport 129 +/- 27% (p less than 0.02), b) decreases the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) in low density microsomes and increases GLUT4 in plasma membranes and c) increases the activity of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. Palmitate-stimulated glucose transport is not additive with the effect of insulin and is not inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine and sphingosine. In rat muscle, palmitate: a) does not affect basal glucose transport in either the soleus or epitrochlearis and b) inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose transport by 28% (p less than 0.005) in soleus but not in epitrochlearis muscle. These studies demonstrate a potentially important differential role for fatty acids in the regulation of glucose transport in different insulin target tissues.

  13. Physical properties of edible emulsified films based on carboxymethyl cellulose and oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Almasi, Hadi

    2011-01-01

    Glycerol and oleic acid (OA) were incorporated into carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) films by an emulsification method. Films containing different amounts of glycerol and OA were examined for mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), and moisture uptake, optical and thermal properties. Addition of OA to the CMC films significantly improved the barrier property. However, the effect of OA on the mechanical properties was lower than glycerol. By increasing of OA content, the cloudiness of the CMC films was intensified and Hunter value (b) of the films increased (by ca. 35.8%).

  14. Computational multiple steady states for enzymatic esterification of ethanol and oleic acid in an isothermal CSTR.

    PubMed

    Ho, Pang-Yen; Chuang, Guo-Syong; Chao, An-Chong; Li, Hsing-Ya

    2005-05-01

    The capacity of complex biochemical reaction networks (consisting of 11 coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations) to show multiple steady states, was investigated. The system involved esterification of ethanol and oleic acid by lipase in an isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The Deficiency One Algorithm and the Subnetwork Analysis were applied to determine the steady state multiplicity. A set of rate constants and two corresponding steady states are computed. The phenomena of bistability, hysteresis and bifurcation are discussed. Moreover, the capacity of steady state multiplicity is extended to the family of the studied reaction networks.

  15. An oleic acid-capped CdSe quantum-dot sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jing; Song, J. L.; Deng, W. Q.; Sun, X. W.; Jiang, C. Y.; Lei, W.; Huang, J. H.; Liu, R. S.

    2009-04-13

    In this letter, we report an oleic acid (OA)-capped CdSe quantum-dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) with an improved performance. The TiO{sub 2}/OA-CdSe photoanode in a two-electrode device exhibited a photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 17.5% at 400 nm. At AM1.5G irradiation with 100 mW/cm{sup 2} light intensity, the QDSSCs based on OA-capped CdSe showed a power conversion efficiency of about 1%. The function of OA was to increase QD loading, extend the absorption range and possibly suppress the surface recombination.

  16. High Beta-palmitate formula and bone strength in term infants: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Litmanovitz, Ita; Davidson, Keren; Eliakim, Alon; Regev, Rivka H; Dolfin, Tzipora; Arnon, Shmuel; Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Goren, Amit; Lifshitz, Yael; Nemet, Dan

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to compare the effect of 12-week feeding of commercially available infant formulas with different percentages of palmitic acid at sn-2 (beta-palmitate) on anthropometric measures and bone strength of term infants. It was hypothesized that feeding infants with high beta-palmitate (HBP) formula will enhance their bone speed of sound (SOS). Eighty-three infants appropriate for gestational age participated in the study; of these, 58 were formula-fed and 25 breast-fed infants, serving as a reference group. The formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive HBP formula (43 % of the palmitic acid is esterified to the middle position of the glycerol backbone, study group; n = 30) or regular formula with low-beta palmitate (LBP, 14 % of the palmitic acid is esterified to the middle position of the glycerol backbone, n = 28). Sixty-six infants completed the 12-week study. Anthropometric and quantitative ultrasound measurements of bone SOS for assessment of bone strength were performed at randomization and at 6 and 12 weeks postnatal age. At randomization, gestational age, birth weight, and bone SOS were comparable between the three groups. At 12 weeks postnatal age, the mean bone SOS of the HBP group was significantly higher than that of the LBP group (2,896 ± 133 vs. 2,825 ± 79 m/s respectively, P = 0.049) and comparable with that of the breast-fed group (2,875 ± 85 m/s). We concluded that infants consuming HBP formula had changes in bone SOS that were comparable to those of infants consuming breast milk and favorable compared to infants consuming LBP formula.

  17. Reduced crying in term infants fed high beta-palmitate formula: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Beta-palmitate (sn-2 palmitate) mimics human milk fat, enabling easier digestion. Therefore, we hypothesized that infants consuming high beta-palmitate formula would have more frequent, softer stools and reduced crying compared to infants consuming low beta-palmitate formula. Methods Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive either (1) formula with high beta-palmitate (HBP, n = 21) or (2) regular formula with a standard vegetable oil mix (LBP, n = 21). A matched group of breastfed infants served as a reference (BF, n = 21). Crying and stool characteristics data were recorded by the parents for 3 days before the 6- and 12-week visits. Results We found no significant differences in the stool frequency or consistency between the two formula groups. The percentage of crying infants in the LBP group was significantly higher than that in the HBP and BF groups during the evening at 6 weeks (88.2% vs. 56.3% and 55.6%, p < 0.05) and during the afternoon at 12 weeks (91.7% vs. 50.0% and 40%, p < 0.05). The infants fed HBP had significantly shorter crying durations when compared with infants fed LBP formula (14.90 ± 3.85 vs.63.96 ± 21.76 min/day, respectively; p = 0.047). Conclusions Our study indicates that consumption of a high beta-palmitate formula affects infant crying patterns during the first weeks of life. Comparable to breastfeeding, it reduced crying duration and frequency, primarily during the afternoon and evening hours, thereby improving the well-being of formula-fed infants and their parents. Trial registration NCT00874068. Registration date March 31, 2009 PMID:24942975

  18. Endocrine control of oleic acid and glucose metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gurmaches, Joan; Cruz-Garcia, Lourdes; Gutiérrez, Joaquím; Navarro, Isabel

    2010-08-01

    The effects of insulin and IGF-I on fatty acid (FA) and glucose metabolism were examined using oleic acid or glucose as tracers in differentiated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) myotubes. Insulin and IGF-I significantly reduced the production of CO(2) from oleic acid with respect to the control values. IGF-I also significantly reduced the production of acid-soluble products (ASP) and the concentration of FA in the medium, while cellular triacylglycerols (TAG) tended to increase. Only insulin produced a significant accumulation of glycogen inside the cells in glucose distribution experiments. Incubation with catecholamines did not affect oleic acid metabolism. Cells treated with rapamycin [a target of rapamycin (TOR) inhibitor] significantly increased the oxidation of oleic acid to CO(2) and ASP, while the accumulation of TAG diminished. Rosiglitazone (a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist) and etomoxir (a CPT-1 inhibitor) produced a severe and significant reduction in the production of CO(2) and ASP. Rosiglitazone and etomoxir also produced a significant accumulation of FA outside and inside the cells, respectively. No significant effects of these drugs on glucose distribution were observed. These data indicate that insulin and IGF-I act as anabolic hormones in trout myotubes in both oleic acid and glucose metabolism, although glucose oxidation appears to be less sensitive than FA oxidation to insulin and IGF-I. The use of rapamycin, etomoxir, and rosiglitazone may help us to understand the mechanisms of regulation of lipid metabolism in fish. PMID:20484701

  19. Mapping the low palmitate fap1 mutation and validation of its effects on soybean oil and agronomic traits in three soybean populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil with reduced palmitic acid content is desirable to reduce the risks of coronary diseases and; breast, colon, and prostate cancer incidence associated with consumption of this fatty acid. The objectives of this study were: to identify the genomic location of the reduced palmitate fap1 mut...

  20. Synthesis and tissue biodistribution of [{omega}-{sup 11}C]palmitic acid. A novel PET imagining agent for cardiac fatty acid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Buckman, B.O.; VanBrocklin, H.F.; Katzenellenbogen, J.A.; Dence, C.S.; Bergmann, S.R.; Welch, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    In order to diagnose patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency with a noninvasive diagnostic technique such as positron emission tomography, they have developed a synthesis of [{omega}-{sup 11}C]palmitic acid. The radiochemical synthesis was achieved by coupling an alkylfuran Grignard reagent (7) with [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide, followed by rapid oxidative cleavage of the furan ring to the carboxylate using ruthenium tetraoxide. Tissue biodistribution studies in rags comparing [{omega}-{sup 11}C]palmitic acid and [1-{sup 11}C]palmitic acid show that the %ID/g and %ID/organ in the heart tissue after administration of [{omega}-{sup 11}C]palmitic acid is approximately 50% greater than after administration of [1-{sup 11}C]palmitic acid, due to the diminished metabolism of the [{omega}-{sup 11}C]palmitic acid. These studies show as well, low uptake in nontarget tissues (blood, lung, kidney, and muscle). PET images of a dog heart obtained after administration of [{omega}-{sup 11}C]- and [1-{sup 11}C]palmitic acid show virtually identical uptake and distribution in the myocardium. The differing cardiac washout of labeled palmitates measured by dynamic PET studies may allow diagnosis of disorders in cardiac fatty acid metabolism.

  1. Changes in breath sound power spectra during experimental oleic acid-induced lung injury in pigs.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Jukka; Nemergut, Michael E; Gavriely, Noam

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of acute lung injury on the frequency spectra of breath sounds, we made serial acoustic recordings from nondependent, midlung and dependent regions of both lungs in ten 35- to 45-kg anesthetized, intubated, and mechanically ventilated pigs during development of acute lung injury induced with intravenous oleic acid in prone or supine position. Oleic acid injections rapidly produced severe derangements in the gas exchange and mechanical properties of the lung, with an average increase in venous admixture from 16 ± 12 to 62 ± 16% (P < 0.01), and a reduction in dynamic respiratory system compliance from 25 ± 4 to 14 ± 4 ml/cmH2O (P < 0.01). A concomitant increase in sound power was seen in all lung regions (P < 0.05), predominantly in frequencies 150-800 Hz. The deterioration in gas exchange and lung mechanics correlated best with concurrent spectral changes in the nondependent lung regions. Acute lung injury increases the power of breath sounds likely secondary to redistribution of ventilation from collapsed to aerated parts of the lung and improved sound transmission in dependent, consolidated areas.

  2. Viscosity and sedimentation behaviors of the magnetorheological suspensions with oleic acid/dimer acid as surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianjian; Yan, Hua; Hu, Zhide; Ding, Ding

    2016-11-01

    This work deals with the role of polar interactions on the viscosity and sedimentation behaviors of magnetorheological suspensions with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in oil carriers. The oleic acid and dimer acid were employed to make an adjustment of the hydrophobicity of iron particles, in the interest of performing a comparative evaluation of the contributions of the surface polarity. The viscosity tests show that the adsorbed surfactant layer may impose a hindrance to the movement of iron particles in the oil medium. The polar attractions between dimer acid covered particles gave rise to a considerable increase in viscosity, indicating flocculation structure developed in the suspensions. The observed plateau-like region in the vicinity of 0.1 s-1 for MRF containing dimer acid is possibly due to the flocculation provoked by the carboxylic polar attraction, in which the structure is stable against fragmentation. Moreover, a quick recovery of the viscosity and a higher viscosity-temperature index also suggest the existence of particle-particle polar interaction in the suspensions containing dimer acid. The sedimentation measurements reveal that the steric repulsion of oleic acid plays a limited role in the stability of suspensions only if a large quantity of surfactant was used. The sedimentation results observed in the dimer acid covered particles confirm that loose and open flocculation was formed and enhanced sedimentation stability.

  3. Modified oleic cottonseeds show altered content, composition and tissue-specific distribution of triacylglycerol molecular species.

    PubMed

    Horn, Patrick J; Sturtevant, Drew; Chapman, Kent D

    2014-01-01

    Targeted increases in monounsaturated (oleic acid) fatty acid content of refined cottonseed oil could support improved human nutrition and cardiovascular health. Genetic modifications of cottonseed fatty acid composition have been accomplished using several different molecular strategies. Modification of oleic acid content in cottonseed embryos using a dominant-negative protein approach, while successful in effecting change in the desired fatty acid composition, resulted in reduced oil content and seed viability. Here these changes in fatty acid composition were associated with changes in dominant molecular species of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and their spatial distributions within embryo tissues. A combination of mass spectrometry (MS)-based lipidomics approaches, including MS imaging of seed cryo-sections, revealed that cotton embryos expressing a non-functional allele of a Brassica napus delta-12 desaturase showed altered accumulation of TAG species, especially within cotyledonary tissues. While lipid analysis of seed extracts could demonstrate detailed quantitative changes in TAG species in transgenics, the spatial contribution of metabolite compartmentation could only be visualized by MS imaging. Our results suggest tissue-specific differences in TAG biosynthetic pathways within cotton embryos, and indicate the importance of considering the location of metabolites in tissues in addition to their identification and quantification when developing a detailed view of cellular metabolism.

  4. Pronounced multiferroicity in oleic acid stabilized BiFeO3 nanocrystals at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Dabbugalla; Mandal, Swapan K; Mahato, Bipul K; Rana, Bivas; Barman, Anjan

    2013-06-01

    We report on the experimental observation of pronounced multiferroicity in BiFeO3 nanocrystals (size approximately 40 nm) at room temperature. Large scale BiFeO3 nanocrystals are synthesized using a low temperature chemical route and further stabilized with oleic acid. The nanocrystals exhibit a significant distortion in lattice parameter c compared to the bulk. Oleic acid plays an important role in reducing oxygen vacancies and Fe2+ ions at the nanocrystal surface giving rise to a high resistivity (approximately 10(10) omega-cm at 300 K) of the sample. The direct band gap of nanocrystals is measured to be approximately 4.2 eV (about 1.5 times the bulk value) suggesting a strong quantum confinement effect. The nanocrystals show a remarkably high spontaneous saturation magnetization approximately 4.39 emu/g along with a prominent ferroelectric hysteresis loop at room temperature. Particle size effect leading to the appearance of large number of uncompensated spins and suppression of modulated spin structure have resulted a strong spontaneous magnetization in such nanoscale multiferroic materials. PMID:23862453

  5. Water dispersible oleic acid-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shete, P. B.; Patil, R. M.; Tiwale, B. M.; Pawar, S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have proved their tremendous potential to be used for various biomedical applications. Oleic acid (OA) is widely used in ferrite nanoparticle synthesis because it can form a dense protective monolayer, thereby producing highly uniform and monodispersed particles. Capping agents such as oleic acid are often used because they form a protective monolayer, which is strongly bonded to the surface of nanoparticles. This is necessary for making monodisperse and highly uniform MNPs. Coating of Fe3O4 MNPs with OA makes the particles dispersible only in organic solvents and consequently limits their use for biomedical applications. Hence, in this work, the OA coated MNPs were again functionalized with chitosan (CS), in order to impart hydrophilicity on their surface. All the morphological, magnetic, colloidal and cytotoxic characteristics of the resulting core-shells were studied thoroughly. Their heating induction ability was studied to predict their possible use in hyperthermia therapy of cancer. Specific absorption rate was found to be increased than that of bare MNPs.

  6. Optimization of esterification of oleic acid and trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE)

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmud, Hamizah Ammarah; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-03

    Vegetable oil (VO) is the most potential alternative to replace mineral oil for lubricant due to better lubricating properties and great physicochemical properties. Chemical modification has to be done to overcome low temperature performance and low oxidation instability due to the presence of β-hydrogen atoms of glycerol molecule. The optimization of esterification of oleic acid and polyhydric alcohol with sulfuric acid catalyst was carried out to find the optimum conditions with the highest yield. Reeaction variables such as; molar ratio, temperature, duration and catalyst concentration. Two types of polyhydric alcohol have been used; TMP and PE. The optimum results showed oleic acid successfully converted 91.2% ester TMP and 92.7% ester PE at duration: 5 hours (Ester TMP), 6 hours (Ester PE); temperature: 150°C (ester TMP), 180°C (Ester PE); catalyst concentration: 1.5% (w/w); and mol ratio: 3.9:1 (ester TMP), 4.9:1 (ester PE). From the data obtained, mole ratio showed most influenced factors to the increasing yields of ester conversions.. The TMP/PE ester was confirmed using gas chromatography (GC-FID), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

  7. Optimization of esterification of oleic acid and trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Hamizah Ammarah; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-01

    Vegetable oil (VO) is the most potential alternative to replace mineral oil for lubricant due to better lubricating properties and great physicochemical properties. Chemical modification has to be done to overcome low temperature performance and low oxidation instability due to the presence of β-hydrogen atoms of glycerol molecule. The optimization of esterification of oleic acid and polyhydric alcohol with sulfuric acid catalyst was carried out to find the optimum conditions with the highest yield. Reeaction variables such as; molar ratio, temperature, duration and catalyst concentration. Two types of polyhydric alcohol have been used; TMP and PE. The optimum results showed oleic acid successfully converted 91.2% ester TMP and 92.7% ester PE at duration: 5 hours (Ester TMP), 6 hours (Ester PE); temperature: 150°C (ester TMP), 180°C (Ester PE); catalyst concentration: 1.5% (w/w); and mol ratio: 3.9:1 (ester TMP), 4.9:1 (ester PE). From the data obtained, mole ratio showed most influenced factors to the increasing yields of ester conversions.. The TMP/PE ester was confirmed using gas chromatography (GC-FID), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR).

  8. The investigation of the dynamics of the phase transformation in triolein and oleic acid under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tefelski, D. B.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Rostocki, A. J.; Kos, A.; Kościesza, R.; Wieja, K.

    2008-07-01

    An aim of our work is the understanding of processes happening during phase transformations under the pressure in triglycerides and unsaturated fatty acids. Particles of investigated liquids possess the double bond between carbon atoms, which causes the bended shape of the particle and makes its free rotation impossible. This property causes low temperatures of melting point and high temperatures of boiling and also investigated by us phase transformations. For study of the dynamics of phase transformation in these liquids we measured light transmission and light scattering at 90 degrees angle, temperature, permittivity and internal pressure versus time. We applied pressure using computer controlled pump with a stepping motor, which makes increase of the pressure steady. The phase transformation in oleic acid lasts several seconds, in triolein it lasts several minutes. We think that the elongated time of phase transformation is caused by a hooked shape of particles of triolein and the dynamics of that process is determined by the tangling of particles. We checked the influence of smaller particles of oleic acid on the phase transformation by investigating the mixture of these liquids.

  9. Enhanced esterification of oleic acid and methanol by deep eutectic solvent assisted Amberlyst heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying; Alam, Md Asraful; Wang, Zhongming; Wu, Jingcheng; Zhang, Yi; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-11-01

    In present study, esterification of oleic acid with methanol using deep eutectic solvent (DES) assisted Amberlyst heterogeneous catalyst was investigated to produce biodiesel. Results showed that esterification efficiency was enhanced by the DES. The combined effect of DES on Amberlyst BD20 (BD20) is better than Amberlyst 15 (A-15) due to different structure. The optimal reaction conditions were 12:1M ratio of methanol to oleic acid, 20%(wt/wt) catalyst (BD20-DES (2:8) and A-15-DES (8:2)) at 85°C for 100min with agitating at 200rpm. The mechanism involved in catalysis and their capacity to reuse were studied. We proposed, Choline chloride-glycerol (Chcl-gly) DES could enhance the Amberlyst function due to the hydrogen bond effect on both DES and water. BD20 has fewer pores than A-15, have desirable performance in decreasing the inhibition the water during esterification of high FFA content and provide better performance in reuse.

  10. Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad.

    PubMed

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Venkatesan, P; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha

    2008-11-01

    In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in whole plant petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether extract led to the separation and identification of fatty acids; oleic acid and linoleic acid were isolated and identified as mosquito larvicidal compounds. Oleic and Linoleic acids were quite potent against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. (LC50 8.80, 18.20 and LC90 35.39, 96.33 ppm), Anopheles stephensi Liston (LC50 9.79, 11.49 and LC90 37.42, 47.35 ppm), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (LC50 7.66, 27.24 and LC90 30.71, 70.38 ppm). The structure was elucidated from infrared, ultraviolet, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the reported isolated compounds from C. colocynthis.

  11. Enhanced esterification of oleic acid and methanol by deep eutectic solvent assisted Amberlyst heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying; Alam, Md Asraful; Wang, Zhongming; Wu, Jingcheng; Zhang, Yi; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-11-01

    In present study, esterification of oleic acid with methanol using deep eutectic solvent (DES) assisted Amberlyst heterogeneous catalyst was investigated to produce biodiesel. Results showed that esterification efficiency was enhanced by the DES. The combined effect of DES on Amberlyst BD20 (BD20) is better than Amberlyst 15 (A-15) due to different structure. The optimal reaction conditions were 12:1M ratio of methanol to oleic acid, 20%(wt/wt) catalyst (BD20-DES (2:8) and A-15-DES (8:2)) at 85°C for 100min with agitating at 200rpm. The mechanism involved in catalysis and their capacity to reuse were studied. We proposed, Choline chloride-glycerol (Chcl-gly) DES could enhance the Amberlyst function due to the hydrogen bond effect on both DES and water. BD20 has fewer pores than A-15, have desirable performance in decreasing the inhibition the water during esterification of high FFA content and provide better performance in reuse. PMID:27614157

  12. Preparation and characterization of biomass carbon-based solid acid catalyst for the esterification of oleic acid with methanol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiantian; Li, Zhilong; Li, Wei; Shi, Congjiao; Wang, Yun

    2013-04-01

    A solid acid catalyst, prepared by sulfonating carbonized corn straw, was proved to be an efficient and environmental benign catalyst for the esterification of oleic acid and methanol. Various synthetic parameters, such as carbonization temperature and time were systematically examined. It was found that the catalyst exhibited the highest acid density of 2.64 mmol/g by NaOH titration. A quantitative yield (98%) of ester was achieved, using the most active sulfonated catalyst at 333 K with a 7 wt.% catalyst/oleic acid ratio for 4h, at a 7:1 M ratio of methanol/oleic acid, while the commercial available Amberlyst-15 only gave 85% yield under the same reaction condition.

  13. Palmitate activates mTOR/p70S6K through AMPK inhibition and hypophosphorylation of raptor in skeletal muscle cells: Reversal by oleate is similar to metformin.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bumsup; Querfurth, Henry W

    2015-11-01

    Excessive saturated free fatty acids (SFFAs; e.g. palmitate) in blood are a pathogenic factor in diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and liver failure. In contrast, monounsaturated free fatty acids (e.g. oleate) prevent the toxic effect of SFFAs in various types of cells. The mechanism is poorly understood and involvement of the mTOR complex is untested. In the present study, we demonstrate that oleate preconditioning, as well as coincubation, completely prevented palmitate-induced markers of inflammatory signaling, insulin resistance and cytotoxicity in C2C12 myotubes. We then examined the effect of palmitate and/or oleate on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal path and whether their link is mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Palmitate decreased the phosphorylation of raptor and 4E-BP1 while increasing the phosphorylation of p70S6K. Palmitate also inhibited phosphorylation of AMPK, but did not change the phosphorylated levels of mTOR or rictor. Oleate completely prevented the palmitate-induced dysregulation of mTOR components and restored pAMPK whereas alone it produced no signaling changes. To understand this more, we show activation of AMPK by metformin also prevented palmitate-induced changes in the phosphorylations of raptor and p70S6K, confirming that the mTORC1/p70S6K signaling pathway is responsive to AMPK activity. By contrast, inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation by Compound C worsened palmitate-induced changes and correspondingly blocked the protective effect of oleate. Finally, metformin modestly attenuated palmitate-induced insulin resistance and cytotoxicity, as did oleate. Our findings indicate that palmitate activates mTORC1/p70S6K signaling by AMPK inhibition and phosphorylation of raptor. Oleate reverses these effects through a metformin-like facilitation of AMPK. PMID:26344902

  14. Regulation of intestinal IgA responses by dietary palmitic acid and its metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kunisawa, Jun; Hashimoto, Eri; Inoue, Asuka; Nagasawa, Risa; Suzuki, Yuji; Ishikawa, Izumi; Shikata, Shiori; Arita, Makoto; Aoki, Junken; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2014-08-15

    Enhancement of intestinal IgA responses is a primary strategy in the development of oral vaccine. Dietary fatty acids are known to regulate host immune responses. In this study, we show that dietary palmitic acid (PA) and its metabolites enhance intestinal IgA responses. Intestinal IgA production was increased in mice maintained on a PA-enriched diet. These mice also showed increased intestinal IgA responses against orally immunized Ag, without any effect on serum Ab responses. We found that PA directly stimulates plasma cells to produce Ab. In addition, mice receiving a PA-enriched diet had increased numbers of IgA-producing plasma cells in the large intestine; this effect was abolished when serine palmitoyltransferase was inhibited. These findings suggest that dietary PA regulates intestinal IgA responses and has the potential to be a diet-derived mucosal adjuvant. PMID:25031459

  15. The effect of cellulose molar mass on the properties of palmitate esters.

    PubMed

    Willberg-Keyriläinen, Pia; Talja, Riku; Asikainen, Sari; Harlin, Ali; Ropponen, Jarmo

    2016-10-20

    Nowadays one of the growing trends is to replace oil-based products with cellulose-based materials. Currently most cellulose esters require a huge excess of chemicals and have therefore, not been broadly used in the industry. Here, we show that decreasing the molar mass of cellulose by ozone hydrolysis provides cellulose functionalization with less chemical consumption. To reveal the differences in reactivity and chemical consumption, we showed esterification of both native cellulose and ozone treated hydrolyzed cellulose. Based on the results, the molar mass of the starting cellulose has a significant effect on the end product's degree of substitution and properties. Furthermore, molar mass controlled palmitate esters form mechanically strong, flexible and optically transparent films with excellent water barrier properties. We anticipate that molar mass controlled cellulose will provide a starting point for the greater use of cellulose based materials, in various application, such as films and composites. PMID:27474646

  16. Uptake of barbituric acid derivatives in small intestinal brush border membrane vesicles from retinyl palmitate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Tanii, H; Horie, T

    2000-08-01

    Brush border membrane was prepared from the small intestinal (jejunum) cells along the crypt-villus axis. The fluorescence spectra of 1,8-anilinonaphthalene sulfonic acid and the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene were measured in the brush border membrane vesicle suspension. The hydrophobicity of brush border membrane was found to be in the order villus tip >mid villus >lower villus. The fluidity of brush border membrane was in the order villus tip palmitate was administered to rats, the fluidity of brush border membrane was found to be higher in the retinyl palmitate-treated rats than in the control rats. However, no significant difference in the uptake of hexobarbital by brush border membrane vesicles was observed between the retinyl palmitate-administered rats and the control rats. Thus, the retinyl palmitate treatment seems unlikely to affect the passively transported ligands like barbituric acid derivatives in brush border membrane vesicles. PMID:10989945

  17. ABHD17 proteins are novel protein depalmitoylases that regulate N-Ras palmitate turnover and subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Lin, David Tse Shen; Conibear, Elizabeth

    2015-12-23

    Dynamic changes in protein S-palmitoylation are critical for regulating protein localization and signaling. Only two enzymes - the acyl-protein thioesterases APT1 and APT2 - are known to catalyze palmitate removal from cytosolic cysteine residues. It is unclear if these enzymes act constitutively on all palmitoylated proteins, or if additional depalmitoylases exist. Using a dual pulse-chase strategy comparing palmitate and protein half-lives, we found knockdown or inhibition of APT1 and APT2 blocked depalmitoylation of Huntingtin, but did not affect palmitate turnover on postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) or N-Ras. We used activity profiling to identify novel serine hydrolase targets of the APT1/2 inhibitor Palmostatin B, and discovered that a family of uncharacterized ABHD17 proteins can accelerate palmitate turnover on PSD95 and N-Ras. ABHD17 catalytic activity is required for N-Ras depalmitoylation and re-localization to internal cellular membranes. Our findings indicate that the family of depalmitoylation enzymes may be substantially broader than previously believed.

  18. Absence of isomerization of retinyl palmitate, retinol, and retinal in chlorinated and nonchlorinated solvents under gold light

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, G.M.; Olson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Purified solutions of all-trans retinyl palmitate, retinol, and retinaldehyde in chloroform, methylene chloride, or hexane were exposed to white light or gold fluorescent light or were kept in the dark, and the resulting isomer distributions were determined by LC (liquid chromatography). No significant isomerization of any of the retinoids occurred either in the dark or on exposure to gold light in any of the solvents tested. However, a large amount of the 9-cis isomer and only much smaller amounts of other cis isomers were produced when retinol or retinyl palmitate in chloroform or methylene chloride solution was exposed to white light. The isomerization pattern of retinyl palmitate in chloroform was not altered by the addition of free-radical scavengers, addition of an organic base, or substitution of deuterochloroform for chloroform as solvent. Use of other polar solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, acetone, or methanol produced isomer distributions similar to those obtained in chloroform solution. Retinol and retinyl palmitate in hexane solution, on exposure to white light, were isomerized much less extensively than in chloroform or methylene chloride and produced a significant amount of the 13-cis, as well as the 9-cis, isomer. Isomerization of retinaldehyde in chloroform or in methylene chloride solution under white light yielded 13-cis, 11-cis, 9-cis, and 7-cis isomers, in order of decreasing amount, whereas in hexane solution, only the 13-cis and 9-cis isomers were produced in significant quantity.

  19. Determination of Fatty Acid Metabolism with Dynamic 11C-Palmitate Positron Emission Tomography of Mouse Heart In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinlin; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Xinyue; Zhong, Min; Walker, Natalie N.; He, Jiang; Berr, Stuart S.; Keller, Susanna R.; Kundu, Bijoy K.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to establish a quantitative method for measuring FA metabolism with partial volume (PV) and spill-over (SP) corrections using dynamic 11C-palmitate PET images of mouse heart in vivo. Methods Twenty-minute dynamic 11C-palmitate PET scans of four 18–20 week old male C57BL/6 mice under isoflurane anesthesia were performed using a Focus 120 PET scanner. A model corrected blood input function (MCIF), by which the input function with SP and PV corrections and the metabolic rate constants (k1−k5) are simultaneously estimated from the dynamic 11C-palmitate PET images of mouse hearts in a 4-compartment tracer kinetic model, was used to determine rates of myocardial FA oxidation (MFAO), myocardial FA esterification (MFAE), myocardial FA utilization (MFAU) and myocardial FA uptake (MFAUp). Results The MFAO thus measured in C57BL/6 mice was 375.03±43.83 nmoles/min/g. This compares well with the MFAO measured in perfused working C57BL/6 mouse hearts ex vivo of about 350 nmoles/g/min and 400 nmoles/min/g. Conclusions FA metabolism was measured for the first time in mouse heart in vivo using dynamic 11C-palmitate PET in a 4-compartment tracer kinetic model. MFAO obtained with this model were validated by results previously obtained with mouse hearts ex vivo. PMID:26462138

  20. Paliperidone Palmitate Once-Monthly Injectable Treatment for Acute Exacerbations of Schizoaffective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Simonson, R. Bruce; Walling, David; Schooler, Nina; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Canuso, Carla; Alphs, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The optimal treatment for schizoaffective disorder (SCA) is not well established. In this initial 6-month open-label treatment period of a large, multiphase, relapse-prevention study, the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) injectable were evaluated in subjects with symptomatic SCA. Subjects with acute exacerbation of SCA (ie, with psychotic and either depressive and/or manic symptoms) were enrolled and treated with PP1M either as monotherapy or in combination with antidepressants or mood stabilizers (combination therapy group). After flexible-dose treatment with PP1M for 13 weeks, stabilized subjects continued into a 12-week fixed-dose PP1M treatment period. A total of 667 subjects were enrolled; 320 received monotherapy and 347 received PP1M as combination therapy; 334 subjects completed the entire 25-week treatment. Statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements from baseline were observed for all efficacy measures in psychosis (per Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), mood symptoms (per Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale—21 items), and functioning (per Personal and Social Performance Scale) from week 1 to all time points during the 25-week treatment period (P < 0.001). Similar improvements in efficacy measures were observed between subjects receiving monotherapy or combination therapy. Efficacy benefits persisted throughout the 25-week period. The most common adverse events were akathisia (11.1%), injection-site pain (10.6%), and insomnia (10.0%). Paliperidone palmitate once-monthly administered as monotherapy or in combination with mood stabilizers or antidepressants in patients with an acute exacerbation of SCA provided rapid, broad, and persistent reduction in psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms, as well as improved functioning. PMID:27322760

  1. TBC1D1 reduces palmitate oxidation by inhibiting β-HAD activity in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Maher, A C; McFarlan, J; Lally, J; Snook, L A; Bonen, A

    2014-11-01

    In skeletal muscle the Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 has been implicated in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation by an unknown mechanism. We determined whether TBC1D1 altered fatty acid utilization via changes in protein-mediated fatty acid transport and/or selected enzymes regulating mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We also determined the effects of TBC1D1 on glucose transport and oxidation. Electrotransfection of mouse soleus muscles with TBC1D1 cDNA increased TBC1D1 protein after 2 wk (P<0.05), without altering its paralog AS160. TBC1D1 overexpression decreased basal palmitate oxidation (-22%) while blunting 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR)-stimulated palmitate oxidation (-18%). There was a tendency to increase fatty acid esterification (+10 nmol·g(-1)·60 min(-1), P=0.07), which reflected the reduction in fatty acid oxidation (-12 nmol·g(-1)·60 min(-1)). Concomitantly, basal (+21%) and AICAR-stimulated glucose oxidation (+8%) were increased in TBC1D1-transfected muscles relative to their respective controls (P<0.05), independent of changes in GLUT4 and glucose transport. The reductions in TBC1D1-mediated fatty acid oxidation could not be attributed to changes in the transporter FAT/CD36, muscle mitochondrial content, CPT1 expression or the expression and phosphorylation of AS160, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, or AMPK. However, TBC1D1 overexpression reduced β-HAD enzyme activity (-18%, P<0.05). In conclusion, TBC1D1-mediated reduction of muscle fatty acid oxidation appears to occur via inhibition of β-HAD activity.

  2. Paliperidone Palmitate Once-Monthly Injectable Treatment for Acute Exacerbations of Schizoaffective Disorder.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Simonson, R Bruce; Walling, David; Schooler, Nina; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Canuso, Carla; Alphs, Larry

    2016-08-01

    The optimal treatment for schizoaffective disorder (SCA) is not well established. In this initial 6-month open-label treatment period of a large, multiphase, relapse-prevention study, the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) injectable were evaluated in subjects with symptomatic SCA. Subjects with acute exacerbation of SCA (ie, with psychotic and either depressive and/or manic symptoms) were enrolled and treated with PP1M either as monotherapy or in combination with antidepressants or mood stabilizers (combination therapy group). After flexible-dose treatment with PP1M for 13 weeks, stabilized subjects continued into a 12-week fixed-dose PP1M treatment period. A total of 667 subjects were enrolled; 320 received monotherapy and 347 received PP1M as combination therapy; 334 subjects completed the entire 25-week treatment. Statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements from baseline were observed for all efficacy measures in psychosis (per Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), mood symptoms (per Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-21 items), and functioning (per Personal and Social Performance Scale) from week 1 to all time points during the 25-week treatment period (P < 0.001). Similar improvements in efficacy measures were observed between subjects receiving monotherapy or combination therapy. Efficacy benefits persisted throughout the 25-week period. The most common adverse events were akathisia (11.1%), injection-site pain (10.6%), and insomnia (10.0%). Paliperidone palmitate once-monthly administered as monotherapy or in combination with mood stabilizers or antidepressants in patients with an acute exacerbation of SCA provided rapid, broad, and persistent reduction in psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms, as well as improved functioning. PMID:27322760

  3. Palmitic acid-labeled lipids selectively incorporated into platelet cytoskeleton during aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Packham, M.A.; Guccione, M.A.; Bryant, N.L.; Livne, A. )

    1990-07-01

    Previous experiments showed that during the early stages (20-30 seconds) of aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 2 microM) or thrombin (0.1 U/mL) of rabbit or human platelets prelabeled with (3H)palmitic acid, labeled lipid became associated with the cytoskeleton isolated after lysis with 1% Triton X-100, 5 mM EGTA (ethylene glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether))-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid. The association appeared to be related to the number of sites of contact and was independent of the release of granule contents. We have now investigated the nature of the labeled lipids by thin-layer and column chromatography and found differences between the distribution of the label in intact platelets (both stimulated and unstimulated) and the isolated cytoskeletons. In both species, and with either ADP or thrombin as aggregating agent, 70-85% of the label in both intact platelets and in the cytoskeletons was in phospholipids. The distribution of label among the phospholipids in the cytoskeletons was similar to that in intact platelets except that the percentage of label in phosphatidylcholine was significantly higher in the cytoskeletons of human platelets than in the intact platelets, and the percentage of label in phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylinositol was significantly lower in the cytoskeletons of rabbit platelets and thrombin-aggregated human platelets than in intact platelets. The cytoskeletons contained a lower percentage of label in triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and cholesterol ester than the intact platelets. Contrary to a report in the literature, we found no evidence for the incorporation of diacylglycerol and palmitic acid into the cytoskeleton.

  4. Self-assembled nanoparticles based on galactosylated O-carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-stearic acid conjugates for delivery of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hejian; Zhang, Dianrui; Li, Caiyun; Jia, Lejiao; Liu, Guangpu; Hao, Leilei; Zheng, Dandan; Shen, Jingyi; Li, Tingting; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-12-15

    A novel polymer, i.e. galactosylated O-carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-stearic acid (Gal-OCMC-g-SA) was synthesized for liver targeting delivery of doxorubicin. The chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR and elemental analysis. Gal-OCMC-g-SA could self-assemble into nanoparticles with diameter of 160 nm by probe sonication in aqueous medium and exhibited a low critical aggregation concentration of 0.047 mg/mL. The DOX-loaded Gal-OCMC-g-SA (Gal-OCMC-g-SA/DOX) self-assembled nanoparticles were almost spherical in shape with an average diameter of less than 200 nm and zeta potential of around -10 mV. In vitro release revealed that the Gal-OCMC-g-SA/DOX nanoparticles exhibited a sustained and pH-dependent drug release manner. Furthermore, the hemolysis test demonstrated the good safety of Gal-OCMC-g-SA in blood-contacting applications. These results indicated that Gal-OCMC-g-SA/DOX nanoparticles were highly potential to be applied in cancer therapy.

  5. Redox-responsive polymer-drug conjugates based on doxorubicin and chitosan oligosaccharide-g-stearic acid for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Su, Yigang; Hu, Yingwen; Du, Yongzhong; Huang, Xuan; He, Jiabei; You, Jian; Yuan, Hong; Hu, Fuqiang

    2015-04-01

    Here, a biodegradable polymer-drug conjugate of doxorubicin (DOX) conjugated with a stearic acid-grafted chitosan oligosaccharide (CSO-SA) was synthesized via disulfide linkers. The obtained polymer-drug conjugate DOX-SS-CSO-SA could self-assemble into nanosized micelles in aqueous medium with a low critical micelle concentration. The size of the micelles was 62.8 nm with a narrow size distribution. In reducing environments, the DOX-SS-CSO-SA could rapidly disassemble result from the cleavage of the disulfide linkers and release the DOX. DOX-SS-CSO-SA had high efficiency for cellular uptake and rapidly released DOX in reductive intracellular environments. In vitro antitumor activity tests showed that the DOX-SS-CSO-SA had higher cytotoxicity against DOX-resistant cells than free DOX, with reversal ability up to 34.8-fold. DOX-SS-CSO-SA altered the drug distribution in vivo, which showed selectively accumulation in tumor and reduced nonspecific accumulation in hearts. In vivo antitumor studies demonstrated that DOX-SS-CSO-SA showed efficient suppression on tumor growth and relieved the DOX-induced cardiac injury. Therefore, DOX-SS-CSO-SA is a potential drug delivery system for safe and effective cancer therapy.

  6. Effect of stearic acid-grafted starch compatibilizer on properties of linear low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch blown film.

    PubMed

    Khanoonkon, Nattaporn; Yoksan, Rangrong; Ogale, Amod A

    2016-02-10

    The present work aims to investigate the effect of stearic acid-grafted starch (ST-SA) on the rheological, thermal, optical, dynamic mechanical thermal, and tensile properties of linear low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch (LLDPE/TPS) blends, as well as on their water vapor and oxygen barrier properties. Blends consisting of LLDPE and TPS in a weight ratio of 60:40 and ST-SA at different concentrations, i.e. 1, 3 and 5%, were prepared using a twin-screw extruder. The obtained resins were subsequently converted into films via blown film extrusion. Incorporation of ST-SA resulted in a decreased degree of shear thinning, reduced ambient temperature elasticity, and improved tensile strength, secant modulus, extensibility, and UV absorption, as well as diminished water vapor and oxygen permeabilities of the LLDPE/TPS blend. These effects are attributed to the enhanced interfacial adhesion between LLDPE and TPS phases through the compatibilizing effect induced by ST-SA, and the good dispersion of the TPS phase in the LLDPE matrix. The results confirmed that ST-SA could potentially be used as a compatibilizer for the LLDPE/TPS blend system.

  7. Effects of ultrasound treatment on lipid self-association and properties of methylcellulose/stearic acid blending films.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tian; Huang, Ran; Sui, Siyao; Lian, Zixuan; Sun, Xiuxiu; Wan, Ajun; Li, Huili

    2015-10-20

    The effects of ultrasound treatment (UT) on the properties of methylcellulose (MC)/stearic acid (SA) blending films were studied. Film-forming emulsions were prepared with different UT conditions and characterized with respect to viscosity. The lipid aggregation and distribution in the blending dispersions were studied by the micrographs of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The micrographs of both surface and cross-section of the films were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (E), water vapor permeability (WVP) and contact angles of the resulting films were determined as well. The intensification of the UT condition led to a decrease of viscosity of the MC-SA blending emulsions, a more homogeneous lipid distribution and a denser internal microstructure of the resulting films. UT exposure affected the mechanical, moisture barrier and surface hydrophobic properties. The optimal values of both TS and E was obtained from the sample treated for 10min and 180W power, while the sample treated for 10min and 270W presented the lowest value of WVP. However, an excessive exposure of UT led to a decrease of the mechanical and moisture barrier performance. By observing and analyzing the SEM graphs and the contact angles of the film surfaces, it was found that UT within the appropriate bounds had a notably positive effect on improving the surface hydrophobic property of the MC-SA blending films.

  8. Investigation of cutaneous penetration properties of stearic acid loaded to dendritic core-multi-shell (CMS) nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Lohan, S B; Icken, N; Teutloff, C; Saeidpour, S; Bittl, R; Lademann, J; Fleige, E; Haag, R; Haag, S F; Meinke, M C

    2016-03-30

    Dendritic core-multi shell (CMS) particles are polymer based systems consisting of a dendritic polar polyglycerol polymer core surrounded by a two-layer shell of nonpolar C18 alkyl chains and hydrophilic polyethylene glycol. Belonging to nanotransport systems (NTS) they allow the transport and storage of molecules with different chemical characters. Their amphipihilic character CMS-NTS permits good solubility in aqueous and organic solutions. We showed by multifrequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy that spin-labeled 5-doxyl stearic acid (5DSA) can be loaded into the CMS-NTS. Furthermore, the release of 5DSA from the carrier into the stratum corneum of porcine skin was monitored ex vivo by EPR spectroscopy. Additionally, the penetration of the CMS-NTS into the skin was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy using indocarbocyanine (ICC) covalently bound to the nanocarrier. Thereby, no transport into the viable skin was observed, whereas the CMS-NTS had penetrated into the hair follicles down to a depth of 340 μm ± 82 μm. Thus, it could be shown that the combined application of fluorescence microscopy and multi-frequency EPR spectroscopy can be an efficient tool for investigating the loading of spin labeled drugs to nanocarrier systems, drug release and penetration into the skin as well as the localization of the NTS in the skin.

  9. Characterising the phase behaviour of stearic acid and its triethanolamine soap and acid-soap by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pudney, Paul D A; Mutch, Kevin J; Zhu, Shiping

    2009-07-01

    The behaviour of stearic acid neutralised by triethanolamine to form soap and its acid-soap has been examined by infrared spectroscopy. It was found that not only could the neutralisation behaviour be characterised, but the thermotropic behaviour could also be followed. The neutralisation confirmed the formation of a fixed stoichiometeric ratio, 2 : 1, acid-soap. When following the thermotropic behaviour the break up of the acid-soap could be followed along with various disordering and melting transitions of the alkyl chain tail. This allowed all the thermal transitions that have been observed to be characterised in terms of the type of molecular rearrangement that was occurring and also the transition temperature at which they occurred. This allowed the binary phase diagram to be plotted and understood for this system. This is the first time IR has been used to measure a whole phase diagram of this type. The nature of the acid-soap complex itself was also characterised, with very short hydrogen bonds being present as well as a free, non-hydrogen bonded, hydroxyl group.

  10. Investigation of cutaneous penetration properties of stearic acid loaded to dendritic core-multi-shell (CMS) nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Lohan, S B; Icken, N; Teutloff, C; Saeidpour, S; Bittl, R; Lademann, J; Fleige, E; Haag, R; Haag, S F; Meinke, M C

    2016-03-30

    Dendritic core-multi shell (CMS) particles are polymer based systems consisting of a dendritic polar polyglycerol polymer core surrounded by a two-layer shell of nonpolar C18 alkyl chains and hydrophilic polyethylene glycol. Belonging to nanotransport systems (NTS) they allow the transport and storage of molecules with different chemical characters. Their amphipihilic character CMS-NTS permits good solubility in aqueous and organic solutions. We showed by multifrequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy that spin-labeled 5-doxyl stearic acid (5DSA) can be loaded into the CMS-NTS. Furthermore, the release of 5DSA from the carrier into the stratum corneum of porcine skin was monitored ex vivo by EPR spectroscopy. Additionally, the penetration of the CMS-NTS into the skin was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy using indocarbocyanine (ICC) covalently bound to the nanocarrier. Thereby, no transport into the viable skin was observed, whereas the CMS-NTS had penetrated into the hair follicles down to a depth of 340 μm ± 82 μm. Thus, it could be shown that the combined application of fluorescence microscopy and multi-frequency EPR spectroscopy can be an efficient tool for investigating the loading of spin labeled drugs to nanocarrier systems, drug release and penetration into the skin as well as the localization of the NTS in the skin. PMID:26853315

  11. Interaction of dietary high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls and different fat sources in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Viveros, A; Ortiz, L T; Rodríguez, M L; Rebolé, A; Alzueta, C; Arija, I; Centeno, C; Brenes, A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of dietary fat sources (high-oleic-acid sunflower seeds, HOASS; palm oil, PO; and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil, HOASO) and high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls (HOAS hulls; 40 g/kg of diet) on performance, digestive organ size, fat digestibility, and fatty acid profile in abdominal fat and blood serum parameters was evaluated in chickens (from 1 to 21 d of age). Bird performance and digestive organ size were not affected by either dietary fat source or sunflower hull supplementation. Fat digestibility in birds fed diets enriched (HOASS and HOASO) in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was increased compared with those fed the PO diet. The addition of sunflower hulls did not modify fat digestibility. The fatty acids pattern of abdominal fat reflected the dietary fat profile. The greatest concentrations of C16:0 and C18:0 were found in birds fed PO diets. The C18:1n-9 content was increased in birds that received HOASS and HOASO diets compared with those fed PO diets. The greatest content of C18:2n-6 was observed in birds fed HOASS diets. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to MUFA was significantly increased in birds fed PO diets compared with those fed HOASS or HOASO diets. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets resulted in a decrease of C18:2n-6 and PUFA concentrations and PUFA:MUFA ratio in abdominal fat. Dietary fat sources and sunflower hulls modify blood triglycerides and serum lipoproteins. A decrease in triglyceride concentrations was observed in birds fed HOASS diets compared with those fed PO and HOASO diets. The greatest concentrations of serum high density, very low density (VLDL), and low density lipoproteins were found in birds receiving HOASO, PO, and HOASS diets, respectively. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets caused an increase of serum triglycerides and VLDL concentrations. The MUFA-enriched diets had lower triglyceride and VLDL concentrations than did diets rich in saturated fatty acids. However, the sunflower hull

  12. Phosphorylation of caveolin-1 on tyrosine-14 induced by ROS enhances palmitate-induced death of beta-pancreatic cells.

    PubMed

    Wehinger, Sergio; Ortiz, Rina; Díaz, María Inés; Aguirre, Adam; Valenzuela, Manuel; Llanos, Paola; Mc Master, Christopher; Leyton, Lisette; Quest, Andrew F G

    2015-05-01

    A considerable body of evidence exists implicating high levels of free saturated fatty acids in beta pancreatic cell death, although the molecular mechanisms and the signaling pathways involved have not been clearly defined. The membrane protein caveolin-1 has long been implicated in cell death, either by sensitizing to or directly inducing apoptosis and it is normally expressed in beta cells. Here, we tested whether the presence of caveolin-1 modulates free fatty acid-induced beta cell death by reexpressing this protein in MIN6 murine beta cells lacking caveolin-1. Incubation of MIN6 with palmitate, but not oleate, induced apoptotic cell death that was enhanced by the presence of caveolin-1. Moreover, palmitate induced de novo ceramide synthesis, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in MIN6 cells. ROS generation promoted caveolin-1 phosphorylation on tyrosine-14 that was abrogated by the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine or the incubation with the Src-family kinase inhibitor, PP2 (4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7(dimethylethyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine). The expression of a non-phosphorylatable caveolin-1 tyrosine-14 to phenylalanine mutant failed to enhance palmitate-induced apoptosis while for MIN6 cells expressing the phospho-mimetic tyrosine-14 to glutamic acid mutant caveolin-1 palmitate sensitivity was comparable to that observed for MIN6 cells expressing wild type caveolin-1. Thus, caveolin-1 expression promotes palmitate-induced ROS-dependent apoptosis in MIN6 cells in a manner requiring Src family kinase mediated tyrosine-14 phosphorylation. PMID:25572853

  13. Palmitate-induced changes in energy demand cause reallocation of ATP supply in rat and human skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Nisr, Raid B; Affourtit, Charles

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with obesity-related muscle insulin resistance, but the causality of this association is controversial. The notion that mitochondrial oxidative capacity may be insufficient to deal appropriately with excessive nutrient loads is for example disputed. Effective mitochondrial capacity is indirectly, but largely determined by ATP-consuming processes because skeletal muscle energy metabolism is mostly controlled by ATP demand. Probing the bioenergetics of rat and human myoblasts in real time we show here that the saturated fatty acid palmitate lowers the rate and coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation under conditions it causes insulin resistance. Stearate affects the bioenergetic parameters similarly, whereas oleate and linoleate tend to decrease the rate but not the efficiency of ATP synthesis. Importantly, we reveal that palmitate influences how oxidative ATP supply is used to fuel ATP-consuming processes. Direct measurement of newly made protein demonstrates that palmitate lowers the rate of de novo protein synthesis by more than 30%. The anticipated decrease of energy demand linked to protein synthesis is confirmed by attenuated cycloheximide-sensitivity of mitochondrial respiratory activity used to make ATP. This indirect measure of ATP turnover indicates that palmitate lowers ATP supply reserved for protein synthesis by at least 40%. This decrease is also provoked by stearate, oleate and linoleate, albeit to a lesser extent. Moreover, palmitate lowers ATP supply for sodium pump activity by 60-70% and, in human cells, decreases ATP supply for DNA/RNA synthesis by almost three-quarters. These novel fatty acid effects on energy expenditure inform the 'mitochondrial insufficiency' debate. PMID:27154056

  14. Enzymatic production of infant milk fat analogs containing palmitic acid: optimization of reactions by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Maduko, C O; Akoh, C C; Park, Y W

    2007-05-01

    Infant milk fat analogs resembling human milk fat were synthesized by an enzymatic interesterification between tripalmitin, coconut oil, safflower oil, and soybean oil in hexane. A commercially immobilized 1,3-specific lipase, Lipozyme RM IM, obtained from Rhizomucor miehei was used as a biocatalyst. The effects of substrate molar ratio, reaction time, and incubation temperature on the incorporation of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerols were investigated. A central composite design with 5 levels and 3 factors consisting of substrate ratio, reaction temperature, and incubation time was used to model and optimize the reaction conditions using response surface methodology. A quadratic model using multiple regressions was then obtained for the incorporation of palmitic acid at the sn-2 positions of glycerols as the response. The coefficient of determination (R2) value for the model was 0.845. The incorporation of palmitic acid appeared to increase with the decrease in substrate molar ratio and increase in reaction temperature, and optimum incubation time occurred at 18 h. The optimal conditions generated from the model for the targeted 40% palmitic acid incorporation at the sn-2 position were 3 mol/mol, 14.4 h, and 55 degrees C; and 2.8 mol/mol, 19.6 h, and 55 degrees C for substrate ratio (moles of total fatty acid/moles of tripalmitin), time, and temperature, respectively. Infant milk fat containing fatty acid composition and sn-2 fatty acid profile similar to human milk fat was successfully produced. The fat analogs produced under optimal conditions had total and sn-2 positional palmitic acid levels comparable to that of human milk fat. PMID:17430912

  15. Palmitate-induced changes in energy demand cause reallocation of ATP supply in rat and human skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Nisr, Raid B; Affourtit, Charles

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with obesity-related muscle insulin resistance, but the causality of this association is controversial. The notion that mitochondrial oxidative capacity may be insufficient to deal appropriately with excessive nutrient loads is for example disputed. Effective mitochondrial capacity is indirectly, but largely determined by ATP-consuming processes because skeletal muscle energy metabolism is mostly controlled by ATP demand. Probing the bioenergetics of rat and human myoblasts in real time we show here that the saturated fatty acid palmitate lowers the rate and coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation under conditions it causes insulin resistance. Stearate affects the bioenergetic parameters similarly, whereas oleate and linoleate tend to decrease the rate but not the efficiency of ATP synthesis. Importantly, we reveal that palmitate influences how oxidative ATP supply is used to fuel ATP-consuming processes. Direct measurement of newly made protein demonstrates that palmitate lowers the rate of de novo protein synthesis by more than 30%. The anticipated decrease of energy demand linked to protein synthesis is confirmed by attenuated cycloheximide-sensitivity of mitochondrial respiratory activity used to make ATP. This indirect measure of ATP turnover indicates that palmitate lowers ATP supply reserved for protein synthesis by at least 40%. This decrease is also provoked by stearate, oleate and linoleate, albeit to a lesser extent. Moreover, palmitate lowers ATP supply for sodium pump activity by 60-70% and, in human cells, decreases ATP supply for DNA/RNA synthesis by almost three-quarters. These novel fatty acid effects on energy expenditure inform the 'mitochondrial insufficiency' debate.

  16. Characterization of [3H]palmitate- and [3H]ethanolamine-labelled proteins in the multicellular parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed Central

    Wiest, P M; Tisdale, E J; Roberts, W L; Rosenberry, T L; Mahmoud, A A; Tartakoff, A M

    1988-01-01

    Biosynthetic labelling experiments with cercariae and schistosomula of the multicellular parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni were performed to determine whether [3H]palmitate or [3H]ethanolamine was incorporated into proteins. Parasites incorporated [3H]palmitate into numerous proteins, as judged by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and fluorography. The radiolabel was resistant to extraction with chloroform, but sensitive to alkaline hydrolysis, indicating the presence of an ester bond. Further investigation of the major 22 kDa [3H]palmitate-labelled species showed that the label could be recovered in a Pronase fragment which bound detergent and had an apparent molecular mass of 1200 Da as determined by gel filtration on Sephadex LH-20. Schistosomula incubated with [3H]ethanolamine for up to 24 h incorporated this precursor into several proteins; labelled Pronase fragments recovered from the three most intensely labelled proteins were hydrophilic and had a molecular mass of approx. 200 Da. Furthermore, reductive methylation of such fragments showed that the [3H]ethanolamine bears a free amino group, indicating the lack of an amide linkage. We also evaluated the effect of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Staphylococcus aureus: [3H]palmitate-labelled proteins of schistosomula and surface-iodinated proteins were resistant to hydrolysis with this enzyme. In conclusion, [3H]palmitate and [3H]ethanolamine are incorporated into distinct proteins of cercariae and schistosomula which do not bear glycophospholipid anchors. The [3H]ethanolamine-labelled proteins represent a novel variety of protein modification. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:3178767

  17. Observation of an amorphous calcium carbonate precursor on a stearic acid monolayer formed during the biomimetic mineralization of CaCO(3).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yijian; Xiao, Junwu; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Shihe

    2009-01-20

    The Langmuir monolayer is widely regarded as a model for investigating biomineralization on biological membranes, but so far the crystallization process has been elusive. In this work, we study the crystallization process of CaCO(3) on a stearic acid monolayer at the air-water interface by in situ Brewster angle microscopy and ex situ electron microscopy. It is shown that the final CaCO(3) crystals are transformed from a particle precursor rather than directly from the solvated ions under the compressed stearic acid monolayer. SEM and TEM images reveal that the precursors are uniform spherical particles of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) with sizes smaller than 100 nm. The amorphous particles are produced in an early stage of mineralization and can be stabilized for at least 0.5 h. Subsequently, the ACC particles tend to aggregate with increasing population and are eventually transformed into the crystalline calcite phase with the elapse of time. This work is the first to clarify the crystallization process of calcium carbonate under the monolayer at the air-water interface by a direct observation of the ACC and therefore establish the roles of stearic acid in the process.

  18. Preparation of silver-cuprous oxide/stearic acid composite coating with superhydrophobicity on copper substrate and evaluation of its friction-reducing and anticorrosion abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peipei; Chen, Xinhua; Yang, Guangbin; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Pingyu

    2014-01-01

    A simple two-step solution immersion process was combined with surface-modification by stearic acid to prepare superhydrophobic coatings on copper substrates so as to reduce friction coefficient, increase wear resistance and improve the anticorrosion ability of copper. Briefly, cuprous oxide (Cu2O) crystal coating with uniform and compact tetrahedron structure was firstly created by immersing copper substrate in 2 mol L-1 NaOH solution. As-obtained Cu2O coating was then immersed in 0.33 mmol L-1 AgNO3 solution to incorporate silver nanoparticles, followed by modification with stearic acid (denoted as SA) coating to achieve hydrophobicity. The surface morphology and chemical composition of silver-cuprous oxide/stearic acid (denoted as Ag-Cu2O/SA) composite coating were investigated using a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS); and its phase structure was examined with an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Moreover, the contact angle of water on as-prepared Ag-Cu2O/SA composite coating was measured, and its friction-reducing and anticorrosion abilities were evaluated. It was found that as-prepared Ag-Cu2O/SA composite coating has a water contact angle of as high as 152.4̊ and can provide effective friction-reducing, wear protection and anticorrosion protection for copper substrate, showing great potential for surface-modification of copper.

  19. Oxidative stability of high-oleic sunflower oil in a porous starch carrier.

    PubMed

    Belingheri, Claudia; Giussani, Barbara; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Ferrillo, Antonio; Vittadini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the oxidation level of high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) plated onto porous starch as an alternative to spray drying. Encapsulated oils were subjected to accelerated oxidation by heat and light exposure, and peroxide value (PV) and conjugated dienes (CD) were measured. Bulk oil was the control. PV increased in all samples with increased light exposure, with similar values being reached by oil carried on porous starch and spray dried oil. The encapsulation processes determined a reduced effect of light on the increase of CD in the oil, as compared to bulk oil. Spray dried oil presented the highest CD in the experimental domain considered. Since similar levels of PV and lower levels of CD were shown in the HOSO carried on porous starch compared to the spray dried HOSO, plating flavour oils on porous starch could be a suitable technological alternative to spray drying, for flavour encapsulation.

  20. Filler modification for papermaking with starch/oleic acid complexes with the aid of calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiujie; Shen, Jing; Qian, Xueren

    2013-10-15

    To mitigate the negative effect of filler addition on paper strength and improve filler retention, filler modification with hydrogen bonding polymers (e.g., starch) or their composites is an interesting research topic. Differing from previous reports, the concept related to the deposition of starch/oleic acid complexes on precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) with the aid of calcium ions was demonstrated. The introduction of calcium ions resulted in effective starch deposition. As a result of filler modification, filler retention and the tensile strength of the filled paper were simultaneously improved essentially due to the aggregation of PCC particles in filler modification process as well as improved filler bondability. The concept demonstrated in this brief study may provide an alternative approach to filler bondability enhancement for improved papermaking performances.

  1. Oleic Acid Produced by a Marine Vibrio spp. Acts as an Anti-Vibrio parahaemolyticus Agent

    PubMed Central

    Leyton, Yanett; Borquez, Jorge; Darias, José; Cueto, Mercedes; Díaz-Marrero, Ana R.; Riquelme, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    It is known that some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus are responsible for gastroenteric diseases caused by the ingestion of marine organisms contaminated with these bacterial strains. Organic products that show inhibitory activity on the growth of the pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were extracted from a Vibrio native in the north of Chile. The inhibitory organic products were isolated by reverse phase chromatography and permeation by Sephadex LH20, and were characterized by spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The results showed that the prevailing active product is oleic acid, which was compared with standards by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These active products might be useful for controlling the proliferation of pathogenic clones of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:22073014

  2. Commercial double-indicator-dilution densitometer using heavy water: Evaluation in oleic-acid pulmonary edema

    SciTech Connect

    Leksell, L.G.; Schreiner, M.S.; Sylvestro, A.; Neufeld, G.R. )

    1990-04-01

    We evaluated a commercially available, double-indicator-dilution densitometric system for the estimation of pulmonary extravascular water volume in oleic acid-induced pulmonary edema. Indocyanine green and heavy water were used as the nondiffusible and diffusible tracers, respectively. Pulmonary extravascular water volume, measured with this system, was 67% of the gravimetric value (r = 0.91), which was consistent with values obtained from the radioisotope methods. The measured volume was not influenced by changes in cardiac index over a range of 1 to 4 L.min.m2. This system is less invasive than the thermal-dye technique and has potential for repeated clinical measurements of pulmonary extravascular lung water and cardiac output.

  3. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on the modification of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content including oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    An, W S; Lee, S M; Son, Y K; Kim, S E; Kim, K H; Han, J Y; Bae, H R; Park, Y

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (FA), such as oleic acid, are related to acute coronary syndrome. There is no report about the effect of omega-3 FA on oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We hypothesized that omega-3 FA can modify erythrocyte membrane FA, including oleic acid, in PD patients. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 18 patients who were treated with PD for at least 6 months were randomized to treatment for 12 weeks with omega-3 FA or placebo. Erythrocyte membrane FA content was measured by gas chromatography at baseline and after 12 weeks. The erythrocyte membrane content of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was significantly increased and saturated FA and oleic acid were significantly decreased in the omega-3 FA supplementation group after 12 weeks compared to baseline. In conclusion, erythrocyte membrane FA content, including oleic acid, was significantly modified by omega-3 FA supplementation for 12 weeks in PD patients.

  4. Morphometric analysis of oleic acid-induced permeability pulmonary edema: correlation with gravimetric lung water.

    PubMed

    Darien, B J; Saban, M R; Hart, A P; MacWilliams, P S; Clayton, M K; Kruse-Elliott, K T

    1997-07-01

    The technique used most commonly to quantitate pulmonary edema in in vivo animal models is postmortem gravimetric analysis (wet:dry) ratio. To determine whether lung water can be quantitated morphometrically, as accurately as by the commonly used gravimetric analysis, perivascular edema (cuff) area to vessel area ratio was correlated to wet:dry ratio. Anesthetized pigs were given either oleic acid (20 mg/kg/h, intravenously) or physiologic saline. At 4 h, lungs were excised and cuff:vessel and wet:dry ratio analysis was performed. The intermediate lobe was clamped across its main stem bronchus to maintain peak inspiratory inflation, excised, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at -70 degrees C until cryostat sectioning and quantification of perivascular interstitial edema (cuff) area. Gravimetric analysis (wet:dry ratio) was performed on the remaining lung. Mean cuff:vessel and wet:dry analyzes showed that lung water increased significantly (p < .01) in the oleic-acid treated group (4.9 +/- .22 and 6.78 +/- .47, respectively), compared with the saline group (.03 +/- .02 and 2.55 +/- .27, respectively). The correlation coefficient between mean cuff:vessel and wet:dry ratios was .86 (p = .0016). This study demonstrates that cuff:vessel ratio analysis can be used to identify the distribution of edema fluid versus vessel diameter, and seems to be as effective a technique as gravimetric analysis to quantitate lung water changes in acute lung injury models. Moreover cuff:vessel ratio analysis can differentiate modest changes in pulmonary edema by direct quantitation, an important end-point not provided by wet:dry analysis. Therefore, it may be a more sensitive technique when investigating therapeutic interventions in in vivo models of acute lung injury.

  5. Proteomic analysis of the palmitate-induced myotube secretome reveals involvement of the annexin A1-formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) pathway in insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Dayea; Jang, Jin-Hyeok; Ghim, Jaewang; Park, Soyeon; Song, Parkyong; Kwon, Yonghoon; Kim, Jaeyoon; Hwang, Daehee; Bae, Yoe-Sik; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Berggren, Per-Olof; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2015-04-01

    Elevated levels of the free fatty acid palmitate are found in the plasma of obese patients and induce insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle secretes myokines as extracellular signaling mediators in response to pathophysiological conditions. Here, we identified and characterized the skeletal muscle secretome in response to palmitate-induced insulin resistance. Using a quantitative proteomic approach, we identified 36 secretory proteins modulated by palmitate-induced insulin resistance. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that palmitate-induced insulin resistance induced cellular stress and modulated secretory events. We found that the decrease in the level of annexin A1, a secretory protein, depended on palmitate, and that annexin A1 and its receptor, formyl peptide receptor 2 agonist, played a protective role in the palmitate-induced insulin resistance of L6 myotubes through PKC-θ modulation. In mice fed with a high-fat diet, treatment with the formyl peptide receptor 2 agonist improved systemic insulin sensitivity. Thus, we identified myokine candidates modulated by palmitate-induced insulin resistance and found that the annexin A1- formyl peptide receptor 2 pathway mediated the insulin resistance of skeletal muscle, as well as systemic insulin sensitivity. PMID:25616869

  6. FRYING STABILITY OF PURIFIED MID-OLEIC SUNFLOWER OIL TRIACYLGLYCEROLS WITH ADDED PURE TOCOPHEROLS AND TOCOPHEROL MIXTURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effects of the addition of pure tocopherols to triacylglycerols, alpha, gamma, and delta tocopherols were added singly and in various combinations to stripped mid-oleic sunflower oil (SMOSUN). Tortilla chips were fried in the treated oils and then aged at ambient temperature to det...

  7. Oleic acid stimulates system A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblast cells mediated by toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Lager, Susanne; Gaccioli, Francesca; Ramirez, Vanessa I; Jones, Helen N; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2013-03-01

    Obese women have an increased risk to deliver large babies. However, the mechanisms underlying fetal overgrowth in these pregnancies are not well understood. Obese pregnant women typically have elevated circulating lipid levels. We tested the hypothesis that fatty acids stimulate placental amino acid transport, mediated via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Circulating NEFA levels and placental TLR4 expression were assessed in women with varying prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). The effects of oleic acid on system A and system L amino acid transport, and on the activation of the mTOR (4EBP1, S6K1, rpS6), TLR4 (IĸB, JNK, p38 MAPK), and STAT3 signaling pathways were determined in cultured primary human trophoblast cells. Maternal circulating NEFAs (n = 33), but not placental TLR4 mRNA expression (n = 16), correlated positively with BMI (P < 0.05). Oleic acid increased trophoblast JNK and STAT3 phosphorylation (P < 0.05), whereas mTOR activity was unaffected. Furthermore, oleic acid doubled trophoblast system A activity (P < 0.05), without affecting system L activity. siRNA-mediated silencing of TLR4 expression prevented the stimulatory effect of oleic acid on system A activity. Our data suggest that maternal fatty acids can increase placental nutrient transport via TLR4, thereby potentially affecting fetal growth.

  8. Properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes from corn starch grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn starch granules have been previously investigated as fillers in polymers. In this study, much smaller particles in the form of spherulites produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose corn starch and oleic acid to form amylose inclusion complexes were graft polymerized with methyl acrylate, both ...

  9. Mid-oleic/ultra low linolenic acid soybean oil - a healthful new alternative to hydrogenated oils for frying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the frying stability of mid-oleic/ultra low linolenic acid soybean oil (MO/ULLSBO) and the storage stability of food fried in it, tortilla chips were fried in MO/ULLSBO, soybean oil (SBO), hydrogenated SBO (HSBO) and ultra low linolenic SBO (ULLSBO). Intermittent batch frying tests wer...

  10. Structure-function properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spherulites, produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose starch and oleic acid, were grafted with methyl acrylate, both before and after removal of un-complexed amylopectin. For comparison, granular high-amylose corn starch was graft polymerized in a similar manner. The amount of grafted and ungrafte...

  11. Oleic acid and linoleic acid from Tenebrio molitor larvae inhibit BACE1 activity in vitro: molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Youn, Kumju; Yun, Eun-Young; Lee, Jinhyuk; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

    2014-02-01

    In our ongoing research to find therapeutic compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) from natural resources, the inhibitory activity of the BACE1 enzyme by Tenebrio molitor larvae and its major compounds were evaluated. The T. molitor larvae extract and its fractions exhibited strong BACE1 suppression. The major components of hexane fraction possessing both high yield and strong BACE1 inhibition were determined by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. A remarkable composition of unsaturated long chain fatty acids, including oleic acid and linoleic acid, were identified. Oleic acid, in particular, noncompetitively attenuated BACE1 activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) value of 61.31 μM and Ki value of 34.3 μM. Furthermore, the fatty acids were stably interacted with BACE1 at different allosteric sites of the enzyme bound with the OH of CYS319 and the NH₃ of TYR320 for oleic acid and with the C=O group of GLN304 for linoleic acid. Here, we first revealed novel pharmacophore features of oleic acids and linoleic acid to BACE1 by in silico docking studies. The present findings would clearly suggest potential guidelines for designing novel BACE1 selective inhibitors.

  12. Frying stability of high oleic sunflower oils as affected by composition of tocopherol isomers and linoleic acid content.

    PubMed

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman

    2013-12-01

    The influence of linoleic acid content and tocopherol isomeric composition on the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil was evaluated during a 14-day restaurant style frying operation. At equal linoleic acid content, no significant difference was observed between high oleic sunflower oil containing only α-tocopherol and the sample containing a mixture of α-, γ-, and δ-isomers as measured by the amount of total polar components, oligomers, anisidine value, and free fatty acids. On the contrary, at similar tocopherol isomeric composition, high oleic sunflower oil containing lower amount of linoleic acid showed superior frying stability compared to the sample with a higher content of linoleic acid, suggesting that the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil is dictated primarily by the level of linoleic acid, with the tocopherol isomeric composition of the oil having no significant influence. In all oil samples, the loss of γ-tocopherol was higher than the corresponding loss of α-tocopherol. PMID:23870970

  13. Esterification of oleic acid in a three-phase, fixed-bed reactor packed with a cation exchange resin catalyst.

    PubMed

    Son, Sung Mo; Kimura, Hiroko; Kusakabe, Katsuki

    2011-01-01

    Esterification of oleic acid was performed in a three-phase fixed-bed reactor with a cation exchange resin catalyst (Amberlyst-15) at high temperature, which was varied from 80 to 120 °C. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yields in the fixed-bed reactor were increased with increases in the reaction temperature, methanol flow rate and bed height. Moreover, the FAME yields were higher than those obtained using a batch reactor due to an equilibrium shift toward the product that resulted from continuous evaporation of the produced water. In addition, there was no catalyst deactivation during the esterification of oleic acid. However, addition of sunflower oil to the oleic acid reduced the FAME yield obtained from simultaneous esterification and transesterification. The FAME yield was 97.5% at a reaction temperature of 100 °C in the fixed-bed with a height of 5 cm when the methanol and oleic acid feed rates were 8.6 and 9.0 mL/h, respectively.

  14. Heritability of Oleic Acid Seed Content in Soybean Oil and its Genetic Correlation with Fatty Acid and Agronomic Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid seed content is an important determinant of the nutritional value and the oxidative stability of soybean oil. Breeding for higher oleate content mandates the estimation of the heritability and the genetic correlations between oleate and fatty acid traits and between oleate and agronomic t...

  15. Phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of mixed oleic acid/sodium chloride/water aerosol particles before and after ozonolysis.

    PubMed

    Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J; Hanford, Kate L; Kwamena, Nana-Owusua A; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P

    2012-06-21

    Aerosol optical tweezers are used to probe the phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of single aerosol particles consisting of an inorganic component, sodium chloride, and a water insoluble organic component, oleic acid. Coagulation of oleic acid aerosol with an optically trapped aqueous sodium chloride droplet leads to formation of a phase-separated particle with two partially engulfed liquid phases. The dependence of the phase and morphology of the trapped particle with variation in relative humidity (RH) is investigated by cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy over the RH range <5% to >95%. The efflorescence and deliquescence behavior of the inorganic component is shown to be unaffected by the presence of the organic phase. Whereas efflorescence occurs promptly (<1 s), the deliquescence process requires both dissolution of the inorganic component and the adoption of an equilibrium morphology for the resulting two phase particle, occurring on a time-scale of <20 s. Comparative measurements of the hygroscopicity of mixed aqueous sodium chloride/oleic acid droplets with undoped aqueous sodium chloride droplets show that the oleic acid does not impact on the equilibration partitioning of water between the inorganic component and the gas phase or the time response of evaporation/condensation. The oxidative aging of the particles through reaction with ozone is shown to increase the hygroscopicity of the organic component.

  16. Genome-wide identification of palmitate-regulated immediate early genes and target genes in pancreatic beta-cells reveals a central role of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung Jin; Hwang, Seungwoo; Lee, Se-Hee; Lee, You Ri; Shin, Jiyon; Park, Kyong Soo; Cho, Young Min

    2012-06-01

    Free fatty acid-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. We conducted gene expression microarray analysis to comprehensively investigate the transcription machinery of palmitate-regulated genes in pancreatic β-cells in vitro. In particular, mouse pancreatic βTC3 cells were treated with palmitate in the presence or absence of cycloheximide (CHX), which blocks protein synthesis and thereby allows us to distinguish immediate early genes (IEGs) from their target genes. The microarray experiments identified 34 palmitate-regulated IEGs and 74 palmitate-regulated target genes. In silico promoter analysis revealed that transcription factor binding sites for NF-κB were over-represented, regulating approximately one-third of the palmitate-regulated target genes. In cells treated with CHX, nfkb1 showed an up-regulation by palmitate, suggesting that NF-κB could be an IEG. Functional enrichment analysis of 27 palmitate-regulated genes with NF-κB binding sites showed an over-representation of genes involved in immune response, inflammatory response, defense response, taxis, regulation of cell proliferation, and regulation of cell death pathways. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that palmitate stimulates NF-κB activity both in the presence and absence of CHX. In conclusion, by identifying IEGs and target genes, the present study depicted a comprehensive view of transcription machinery underlying palmitate-induced inflammation and cell proliferation/death in pancreatic β-cells and our data demonstrated the central role of NF-κB.

  17. Effect of proteins with different isoelectric points on the gene transfection efficiency mediated by stearic acid grafted chitosan oligosaccharide micelles.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jingjing; Du, Yong-Zhong; Chen, Feng-Ying; You, Jian; Yuan, Hong; Hu, Fu-Qiang

    2013-07-01

    A stearic acid-grafted chitosan oligosaccharide (CS-SA) micelle has been demonstrated as an effective gene carrier in vitro and in vivo. Although being advantageous for DNA package, protection, and excellent cellular internalization, a CS-SA based delivery system may lead to difficulties in the dissociation of polymer/DNA complexes in intracells. In this research, bovine serum albumin (BSA) with a different isoelectric point value (4.7, 6.0 and 9.3) was synthesized and incorporated into a CS-SA based gene delivery system. CS-SA/DNA binary complexes and CS-SA/BSA/DNA ternary complexes were then prepared and characterized. The binding ability of the CS-SA vector with DNA was not affected by the incorporation of BSA. However, referring to the transfection activity, the BSA of different isoelectric point value (pI) had a distinct influence on the CS-SA/BSA/DNA complexes. CS-SA/BSA(4.7)/DNA and CS-SA/BSA(6.0)/DNA complexes had better transfection efficiency than binary complexes, especially CS-SA/BSA(4.7)/DNA complexes which showed the highest transfection efficiency. On the contrary, CS-SA/BSA(9.3)/DNA complexes had undesirable performances. Interestingly, the incorporation of BSA(4.7) in CS-SA/DNA complexes significantly enhanced the dissociation of polymer/DNA complexes and improved the release of DNA intracellular without influencing their cellular uptake. The aforementioned results indicated that the acid group in protein played an important role in enhancing the transfection efficiency of CS/BSA/DNA complexes, and the study provided guidelines in the design of an efficient vector for DNA transfection.

  18. Influence of stearic acid coating of the NaCl surface on the reactivity with NO2 under humidity.

    PubMed

    Sobanska, S; Barbillat, J; Moreau, M; Nuns, N; De Waele, I; Petitprez, D; Tobon, Y; Brémard, C

    2015-04-28

    In the atmosphere, sea salt aerosols, containing mainly NaCl, can accumulate fatty acids and undergo heterogeneous chemistry with atmospheric nitrogen oxides. The effect of stearic acid (SA) coating on the reactivity of the NaCl(100) surface with NO2 under humidity was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman mapping and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to highlight processes occurring on NaCl surfaces. The vapor-deposition of SA on the NaCl surface generates heterogeneous coating with discontinuous monolayer islands. The SA molecules with all-trans conformation stick to the NaCl surface through -CO2H groups and are organized in parallel between them and nearly perpendicularly to the surface. The SA coating does not prevent the NaNO3 particle formation when the sample is exposed to NO2 under low humidity conditions. The initial abilities of the NaCl surface coated with SA to pick up NO2 from the gas phase are correlated with the fraction of bare NaCl area evidencing the spatially heterogeneous reactivity of the surface. The role of H2O in the NO2 uptake and the catalytic conversion of NaCl to NaNO3 is shown. Under humidity (RH = 50%), the H2O uptake by NaNO3 particles on the coated-NaCl surface is significantly more important than that adsorbed under analogous conditions without the presence of NaNO3 particles. This unusual water absorption initiates transitions (i) from solid NaNO3 particles to NaNO3 aqueous solution and (ii) from the SA monolayer with well-ordered all trans alkyl chains to the SA gel with completely disordered conformation. This mixed SA/NaNO3 layer on the particle surface may have significant consequences on the hygroscopic properties and reactivity of the sea salt aerosols in the atmosphere.

  19. Effect of proteins with different isoelectric points on the gene transfection efficiency mediated by stearic acid grafted chitosan oligosaccharide micelles.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jingjing; Du, Yong-Zhong; Chen, Feng-Ying; You, Jian; Yuan, Hong; Hu, Fu-Qiang

    2013-07-01

    A stearic acid-grafted chitosan oligosaccharide (CS-SA) micelle has been demonstrated as an effective gene carrier in vitro and in vivo. Although being advantageous for DNA package, protection, and excellent cellular internalization, a CS-SA based delivery system may lead to difficulties in the dissociation of polymer/DNA complexes in intracells. In this research, bovine serum albumin (BSA) with a different isoelectric point value (4.7, 6.0 and 9.3) was synthesized and incorporated into a CS-SA based gene delivery system. CS-SA/DNA binary complexes and CS-SA/BSA/DNA ternary complexes were then prepared and characterized. The binding ability of the CS-SA vector with DNA was not affected by the incorporation of BSA. However, referring to the transfection activity, the BSA of different isoelectric point value (pI) had a distinct influence on the CS-SA/BSA/DNA complexes. CS-SA/BSA(4.7)/DNA and CS-SA/BSA(6.0)/DNA complexes had better transfection efficiency than binary complexes, especially CS-SA/BSA(4.7)/DNA complexes which showed the highest transfection efficiency. On the contrary, CS-SA/BSA(9.3)/DNA complexes had undesirable performances. Interestingly, the incorporation of BSA(4.7) in CS-SA/DNA complexes significantly enhanced the dissociation of polymer/DNA complexes and improved the release of DNA intracellular without influencing their cellular uptake. The aforementioned results indicated that the acid group in protein played an important role in enhancing the transfection efficiency of CS/BSA/DNA complexes, and the study provided guidelines in the design of an efficient vector for DNA transfection. PMID:23679858

  20. The effect of supplementing layer diets with shark cartilage or chitosan on egg components and yolk lipids.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C M; Zapata, J F F; Fuentes, M F F; Freitas, E R; Craveiro, A A; Aguiar, C M

    2003-05-01

    1. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of the addition of shark cartilage (SC) or chitosan (CH) to layer diets on egg component weights, yolk lipids and hen plasma lipids. 2. Hy-Line laying hens (80) were used during a 56 d feeding trial. Treatments were: basal diet (BD), BD + 20 g/kg SC, BD + 30 g/kg SC, BD + 20 g/kg CH and BD + 30 g/kg CH. Eggs were analysed on d 14, 28, 42 and 56. 3. Egg weight and egg component weights were not affected by these treatments throughout the experimental period. 4. After 14d of experimental feeding, cholesterol levels were higher in eggs from birds given BD + 20 g/kg CH and BD + 30 g/kg CH than in those from birds given BD. 5. Furthermore, eggs from hens given BD + 20 g/kg SC or BD + 20 g/kg CH were higher in palmitic and stearic acids and lower in oleic acid than those from birds fed on BD. After 56 d feeding, however, palmitic and stearic acid contents in eggs from hens given any of the supplemented diets were lower than in those from hens given BD, and oleic acid in eggs from hens given BD + 20 g/kg SC, BD + 30 g/kg SC and BD + 30 g/kg CH was higher than in those from birds fed on BD. 6. Plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were not significantly affected by dietary treatment. 7. Shark cartilage or chitosan at up to 30 g/kg in layer diets did not affect egg component weights (yolk, white and shell) and total lipid contents. During the period from 42 to 56d of experimental feeding, diets containing up to 30 g/kg chitosan reduced egg yolk contents of cholesterol, palmitic and stearic acids and increased the content of oleic acid. PMID:12828207

  1. Fatty acid transport and utilization for the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Edmond, J; Higa, T A; Korsak, R A; Bergner, E A; Lee, W N

    1998-03-01

    To determine the transport and utilization of dietary saturated, monounsaturated, and n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the developing brain and other organs, artificially reared rat pups were fed a rat milk substitute containing the perdeuterated (each 97 atom% deuterium) fatty acids, i.e., palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic, from day 7 after birth to day 14 as previously described. Fatty acids in lipid extracts of the liver, lung, kidney, and brain were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine their content of each of the deuterated fatty acids. The uptake and metabolism of perdeuterated fatty acid lead to the appearance of three distinct groups of isotopomers: the intact perdeuterated, the newly synthesized (with recycled deuterium), and the natural unlabeled fatty acid. The quantification of these isotopomers permits the estimation of uptake and de novo synthesis of these fatty acids. Intact perdeuterated palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids from the diet were found in liver, lung, and kidney, but not in brain. By contrast, perdeuterated linoleic acid was found in all these organs. Isotopomers of fatty acid from de novo synthesis were observed in palmitic, oleic, and stearic acids in all tissues. The highest enrichment of isotopomers with recycled deuterium was found in the brain. The data indicate that, during the brain growth spurt and the prelude to myelination, the major saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in brain lipids are exclusively produced locally by de novo biosynthesis. Consequently, the n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids must be transported and delivered to the brain by highly specific mechanisms.

  2. Effects of Long-Chain Fatty Acids on Growth of Rumen Bacteria †

    PubMed Central

    Maczulak, A. E.; Dehority, B. A.; Palmquist, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of low concentrations of long-chain fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, and vaccenic) on the growth of seven species (13 strains) of rumen bacteria were investigated. Except for Bacteroides ruminicola and several strains of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, bacterial growth was not greatly affected by either palmitic or stearic acids. In contrast, growth of Selenomonas ruminantium, B. ruminicola, and one strain of B. fibrisolvens was stimulated by oleic acid, whereas the cellulolytic species were markedly inhibited by this acid. Vaccenic acid (trans Δ11 18:1) had far less inhibitory effect on the cellulolytic species than oleic acid (cis Δ9 18:1). Inclusion of powdered cellulose in the medium appeared to reverse both inhibitory and stimulatory effects of added fatty acids. However, there was little carry-over effect observed when cells were transferred from a medium with fatty acids to one without. Considerable variation in response to added fatty acids was noted among five strains of B. fibrisolvens. In general, exogenous long-chain fatty acids appear to have little, if any, energy-sparing effect on the growth of rumen bacteria. PMID:16345887

  3. Assay of vitamin A palmitate and vitamin E acetate in cosmetic creams and lotions by supercritical fluid extraction and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Scalia, S; Renda, A; Ruberto, G; Bonina, F; Menegatti, E

    1995-03-01

    The use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) as an alternative to liquid extraction was examined for the isolation of vitamin A palmitate and vitamin E acetate from cream and lotion preparations. Investigation of the factors controlling the extraction efficiency in SFE indicated that vitamin recoveries were affected mainly by the extraction pressure and by the degree of sample dispersion. The vitamins were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography after a 30-min extraction of the cosmetic product with supercritical carbon dioxide at 40 degrees C and at a pressure of 250 atm. Compared with conventional liquid extraction SFE produced slightly lower recoveries (> 91.6%) but afforded a more effective purification of the cosmetic matrices. Moreover, SFE minimized sample handling and the use of harmful solvents and provided mild extraction conditions for the analysis of the labile vitamins. Vitamin E acetate and vitamin A palmitate were assayed in commercial cream and lotion formulations using the proposed SFE technique.

  4. High glucose and palmitate increases bone morphogenic protein 4 expression in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Oak-Kee; Yoo, Soon-Jib; Son, Jang-Won; Kim, Mee-Kyoung; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Song, Ki-Ho; Cha, Bong-Yun; Jo, Hanjoong

    2016-01-01

    Here, we investigated whether hyperglycemia and/or free fatty acids (palmitate, PAL) aff ect the expression level of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), a proatherogenic marker, in endothelial cells and the potential role of BMP4 in diabetic vascular complications. To measure BMP4 expression, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to high glucose concentrations and/or PAL for 24 or 72 h, and the effects of these treatments on the expression levels of adhesion molecules and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined. BMP4 loss-of-function status was achieved via transfection of a BMP4-specific siRNA. High glucose levels increased BMP4 expression in HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. PAL potentiated such expression. The levels of adhesion molecules and ROS production increased upon treatment with high glucose and/or PAL, but this eff ect was negated when BMP4 was knocked down via siRNA. Signaling of BMP4, a proinflammatory and pro-atherogenic cytokine marker, was increased by hyperglycemia and PAL. BMP4 induced the expression of infl ammatory adhesion molecules and ROS production. Our work suggests that BMP4 plays a role in atherogenesis induced by high glucose levels and/or PAL. PMID:26937213

  5. Development and comparison of intramuscularly long-acting paliperidone palmitate nanosuspensions with different particle size.

    PubMed

    Leng, Donglei; Chen, Hongming; Li, Guangjing; Guo, Mengran; Zhu, Zhaolu; Xu, Lu; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-09-10

    The main purpose of this study was to develop and compare the pharmacokinetic behavior of two paliperidone palmitate (PP) nanosuspensions with different particle size after intramuscular (i.m.) administration. PP nanosuspensions were prepared by wet media milling method and the mean particle size of nanosuspension was controlled as 1,041 ± 6 nm (A) and 505 ± 9 nm (B), respectively. The morphology of nanosuspensions was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) confirmed the crystallinity of PP in nanosuspensions. The physical and chemical stabilities of nanosuspensions A and B were investigated by particle analyzer and HPLC after storage for 2 months at 25°C, 4°C and mechanical shaking condition. No obvious change in particle size and chemical degradation of drug were observed. Following single-dose i.m. administration to beagle dogs, the release of paliperidone lasted for nearly 1 month. The Tmax of nanosuspensions A and B was 6 (d) and 10 (d). The AUC0-t and Cmax of nanosuspensions A was 2.0-fold and 1.8-fold higher than nanosuspensions B (p<0.05). The results demonstrated that PP nanosuspensions formulation had long-acting effect. Nanosuspension A with a larger particle size performed better than nanosuspension B. As a result, it is important to design appropriate particle size of nanosuspensions for i.m. administration in order to produce larger therapeutic effect.

  6. Pectin Micro- and Nano-capsules of Retinyl Palmitate as Cosmeceutical Carriers for Stabilized Skin Transport.

    PubMed

    Ro, Jieun; Kim, Yeongseok; Kim, Hyeongmin; Park, Kyunghee; Lee, Kwon-Eun; Khadka, Prakash; Yun, Gyiae; Park, Juhyun; Chang, Suk Tai; Lee, Jonghwi; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Jaehwi

    2015-01-01

    Retinyl palmitate (RP)-loaded pectinate micro- and nano-particles (PMP and PNP) were designed for stabilization of RP that is widely used as an anti-wrinkle agent in anti-aging cosmeceuticals. PMP/PNP were prepared with an ionotropic gelation method, and anti-oxidative activity of the particles was measured with a DPPH assay. The stability of RP in the particles along with pectin gel and ethanolic solution was then evaluated. In vitro release and skin permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells. Distribution of RP in each skin tissue (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) was also determined. PMP and PNP could be prepared with mean particle size diameters of 593~843 μm (PMP) and 530 nm (i.e., 0.53 μm, PNP). Anti-oxidative activity of PNP was greater than PMP due largely to larger surface area available for PNP. The stability of RP in PMP and PNP was similar but much greater than RP in pectin bulk gels and ethanolic solution. PMP and PNP showed the abilities to constantly release RP and it could be permeated across the model artificial membrane and rat whole skin. RP was serially deposited throughout the skin layers. This study implies RP loaded PMP and PNP are expected to be advantageous for improved anti-wrinkle effects.

  7. Once-monthly paliperidone palmitate in recently diagnosed and chronic non-acute patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hargarter, L; Bergmans, P; Cherubin, P; Keim, S; Conca, A; Serrano-Blanco, A; Bitter, I; Bilanakis, N; Schreiner, A

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To explore the treatment response, tolerability and safety of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP1M) in non-acute patients switched from oral antipsychotics, stratified by time since diagnosis as recently diagnosed (≤3 years) or chronic patients (>3 years). Research design and methods: Post hoc analysis of a prospective, interventional, single-arm, multicentre, open-label, 6-month study performed in 233 recently diagnosed and 360 chronic patients. Main outcome measures: The proportion achieving treatment response (defined as ≥20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] total score from baseline to endpoint) and maintained efficacy (defined as non-inferiority in the change in PANSS total score at endpoint [Schuirmann’s test]). Results: 71.4% of recently diagnosed and 59.2% of chronic patients showed a ≥20% decrease in PANSS total score (p = 0.0028 between groups). Changes in PANSS Marder factors, PANSS subscales, and the proportion of patients with a Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP) total score of 71–100 were significantly greater in recently diagnosed compared with chronic patients. PP1M was well tolerated, presenting no unexpected safety findings. Conclusion: These data show that recently diagnosed patients treated with PP1M had a significantly higher treatment response and improved functioning, as assessed by the PSP total score, than chronic patients. PMID:27042990

  8. Pectin Micro- and Nano-capsules of Retinyl Palmitate as Cosmeceutical Carriers for Stabilized Skin Transport

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Jieun; Kim, Yeongseok; Kim, Hyeongmin; Park, Kyunghee; Lee, Kwon-Eun; Khadka, Prakash; Yun, Gyiae; Park, Juhyun; Chang, Suk Tai; Lee, Jonghwi; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Retinyl palmitate (RP)-loaded pectinate micro- and nano-particles (PMP and PNP) were designed for stabilization of RP that is widely used as an anti-wrinkle agent in anti-aging cosmeceuticals. PMP/PNP were prepared with an ionotropic gelation method, and anti-oxidative activity of the particles was measured with a DPPH assay. The stability of RP in the particles along with pectin gel and ethanolic solution was then evaluated. In vitro release and skin permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells. Distribution of RP in each skin tissue (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) was also determined. PMP and PNP could be prepared with mean particle size diameters of 593~843 μm (PMP) and 530 nm (i.e., 0.53 μm, PNP). Anti-oxidative activity of PNP was greater than PMP due largely to larger surface area available for PNP. The stability of RP in PMP and PNP was similar but much greater than RP in pectin bulk gels and ethanolic solution. PMP and PNP showed the abilities to constantly release RP and it could be permeated across the model artificial membrane and rat whole skin. RP was serially deposited throughout the skin layers. This study implies RP loaded PMP and PNP are expected to be advantageous for improved anti-wrinkle effects. PMID:25605998

  9. Concerted action of p62 and Nrf2 protects cells from palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Su; Kang, Dong Hoon; Lee, Da Hyun; Bae, Soo Han

    2015-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), frequently associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus, is caused by the accumulation of excess fatty acids within liver cells. Palmitic acid (PA), a common saturated fatty acid found in mammals, induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and elicits apoptotic cell death, known as lipotoxicity. However, protective mechanisms against PA-induced lipotoxicity have not been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of p62, an adapter protein in the autophagic process, as well as the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway, in protecting cells from PA-induced lipotoxicity. The Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is essential for the protection of cells from oxidative stress. p62 enhances its binding to Keap1 and leads to Nrf2 activation. Here, we show that PA potentiates Keap1 degradation and thereby activates the transcription of Nrf2 target genes partially through autophagy. Furthermore, this PA-mediated Keap1 degradation depends on p62. Correspondingly, a lack of p62 attenuates the PA-mediated Nrf2 activation and increases the susceptibility of cells to oxidative stress. These results indicate that p62 plays an important role in protecting cells against lipotoxicity through Keap1 degradation-mediated Nrf2 activation. PMID:26325428

  10. Role of orexin A signaling in dietary palmitic acid-activated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Cayla M; Yuan, Ce; Wisdorf, Lauren E; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M; Nixon, Joshua P; Butterick, Tammy A

    2015-10-01

    Excess dietary saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid (PA) induce peripheral and hypothalamic inflammation. Hypothalamic inflammation, mediated in part by microglial activation, contributes to metabolic dysregulation. In rodents, high fat diet-induced microglial activation results in nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), and increased central pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (OXA, hypocretin 1) is neuroprotective in brain. In cortex, OXA can also reduce inflammation and neurodegeneration through a microglial-mediated pathway. Whether hypothalamic orexin neuroprotection mechanisms depend upon microglia is unknown. To address this issue, we evaluated effects of OXA and PA on inflammatory response in immortalized murine microglial and hypothalamic neuronal cell lines. We demonstrate for the first time in microglial cells that exposure to PA increases gene expression of orexin-1 receptor but not orexin-2 receptor. Pro-inflammatory markers IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in microglial cells are increased following PA exposure, but are reduced by pretreatment with OXA. The anti-inflammatory marker arginase-1 is increased by OXA. Finally, we show hypothalamic neurons exposed to conditioned media from PA-challenged microglia have increased cell survival only when microglia were pretreated with OXA. These data support the concept that OXA may act as an immunomodulatory regulator of microglia, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing anti-inflammatory factors to promote a favorable neuronal microenvironment. PMID:26306651

  11. Enhanced thermal tolerance in a mutant of Arabidopsis deficient in palmitic acid unsaturation

    SciTech Connect

    Kunst, L.; Somerville, C. ); Browse, J. )

    1989-09-01

    A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, deficient in the activity of a chloroplast {omega}9 fatty acid desaturase, accumulates high amounts of palmitic acid (16:0), and exhibits an overall reduction in the level of unsaturation of chloroplast lipids. Under standard conditions the altered membrane lipid composition had only minor effects on growth rate of the mutant, net photosynthetic CO{sub 2} fixation, photosynthetic electron transport, or chloroplast ultrastructure. Similarly, fluorescence polarization measurements indicated that the fluidity of the membranes was not significantly different in the mutant and the wild type. However, at temperatures above 28{degree}C, the mutant grew more rapidly than the wild type suggesting that the altered fatty acid composition enhanced the thermal tolerance of the mutant. Similarly, the chloroplast membranes of the mutant were more resistant than wild type to thermal inactivation of photosynthetic electron transport. These observations lend support to previous suggestions that chloroplast membrane lipid composition may be an important component of the thermal acclimation response observed in many plant species which are photosynthetically active during periods of seasonally variable temperature extremes.

  12. 3-MCPD 1-Palmitate Induced Tubular Cell Apoptosis In Vivo via JNK/p53 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Man; Huang, Guoren; Wang, Thomas T Y; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol (3-MCPD esters) are a group of processing induced food contaminants with nephrotoxicity but the molecular mechanism(s) remains unclear. This study investigated whether and how the JNK/p53 pathway may play a role in the nephrotoxic effect of 3-MCPD esters using 3-MCPD 1-palmitate (MPE) as a probe compound in Sprague Dawley rats. Microarray analysis of the kidney from the Sprague Dawley rats treated with MPE, using Gene Ontology categories and KEGG pathways, revealed that MPE altered mRNA expressions of the genes involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (JNK and ERK), p53, and apoptotic signal transduction pathways. The changes in the mRNA expressions were confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses and were consistent with the induction of tubular cell apoptosis as determined by histopathological, TUNEL, and immunohistochemistry analyses in the kidneys of the Sprague Dawley rats. Additionally, p53 knockout attenuated the apoptosis, and the apoptosis-related protein bax expression and cleaved caspase-3 activation induced by MPE in the p53 knockout C57BL/6 mice, whereas JNK inhibitor SP600125 but not ERK inhibitor U0126 inhibited MPE-induced apoptosis, supporting the conclusion that JNK/p53 might play a critical role in the tubular cell apoptosis induced by MPE and other 3-MCPD fatty acid esters. PMID:27008853

  13. Inhibition of Receptor Interacting Protein Kinases Attenuates Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Induced by Palmitic Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingyue; Lu, Lihui; Lei, Song; Chai, Hua; Wu, Siyuan; Tang, Xiaoju; Bao, Qinxue; Chen, Li; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is known to cause cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the important pathological features of PA-induced lipotoxicity, but the mechanism by which PA induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is still unclear. Therefore, our study was to test whether necroptosis, a receptor interacting protein kinase 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3-) dependent programmed necrosis, was involved in the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We used the PA-treated primary neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NCMs) or H9c2 cells to study lipotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was induced by PA treatment, determined by upregulation of hypertrophic marker genes and cell surface area enlargement. Upon PA treatment, the expression of RIPK1 and RIPK3 was increased. Pretreatment with the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, was attenuated. Knockdown of RIPK1 or RIPK3 by siRNA suppressed the PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Moreover, a crosstalk between necroptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was observed in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of RIPK1 with Nec-1, phosphorylation level of AKT (Ser473), and mTOR (Ser2481) was significantly reduced in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, RIPKs-dependent necroptosis might be crucial in PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Activation of mTOR may mediate the effect of necroptosis in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by PA. PMID:27057269

  14. Pectin Micro- and Nano-capsules of Retinyl Palmitate as Cosmeceutical Carriers for Stabilized Skin Transport.

    PubMed

    Ro, Jieun; Kim, Yeongseok; Kim, Hyeongmin; Park, Kyunghee; Lee, Kwon-Eun; Khadka, Prakash; Yun, Gyiae; Park, Juhyun; Chang, Suk Tai; Lee, Jonghwi; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Jaehwi

    2015-01-01

    Retinyl palmitate (RP)-loaded pectinate micro- and nano-particles (PMP and PNP) were designed for stabilization of RP that is widely used as an anti-wrinkle agent in anti-aging cosmeceuticals. PMP/PNP were prepared with an ionotropic gelation method, and anti-oxidative activity of the particles was measured with a DPPH assay. The stability of RP in the particles along with pectin gel and ethanolic solution was then evaluated. In vitro release and skin permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells. Distribution of RP in each skin tissue (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) was also determined. PMP and PNP could be prepared with mean particle size diameters of 593~843 μm (PMP) and 530 nm (i.e., 0.53 μm, PNP). Anti-oxidative activity of PNP was greater than PMP due largely to larger surface area available for PNP. The stability of RP in PMP and PNP was similar but much greater than RP in pectin bulk gels and ethanolic solution. PMP and PNP showed the abilities to constantly release RP and it could be permeated across the model artificial membrane and rat whole skin. RP was serially deposited throughout the skin layers. This study implies RP loaded PMP and PNP are expected to be advantageous for improved anti-wrinkle effects. PMID:25605998

  15. Anti-oxidative activity of pectin and its stabilizing effect on retinyl palmitate.

    PubMed

    Ro, Jieun; Kim, Yeongseok; Kim, Hyeongmin; Jang, Soung Baek; Lee, Hyun Joo; Chakma, Suharto; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Jaehwi

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-oxidative activity of pectin and other polysaccharides in order to develop a cosmeceutical base having anti-oxidative effects towards retinyl palmitate (RP). The anti-oxidative stabilizing effects of pectin and other polysaccharides on RP were evaluated by DPPH assay and then the stabilizing effect of pectin on RP was examined as a function of time. Among the polysaccharides we examined, pectin exhibited a considerably higher anti-oxidative activity, with an approximately 5-fold greater DPPH radical scavenging effect compared to other polysaccharides. The DPPH radical scavenging effect of pectin increased gradually with increasing concentrations of pectin. At two different RP concentrations, 0.01 and 0.1% in ethanol, addition of pectin improved the stability of RP in a concentration dependent manner. The stabilizing effect of pectin on RP was more effective for the lower concentration of RP (0.01%, v/v). Further, degradation of RP was reduced following the addition of pectin as measured over 8 hours. From the results obtained, it can be suggested that pectin may be a promising ingredient for cosmeceutical bases designed to stabilize RP or other pharmacological agents subject to degradation by oxidation. PMID:23776395

  16. T cells cooperate with palmitic acid in induction of beta cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Cvjetićanin, Tamara; Stojanović, Ivana; Timotijević, Gordana; Stošić-Grujičić, Stanislava; Miljković, Djordje

    2009-01-01

    Background Diabetes is characterized by progressive failure of insulin producing beta cells. It is well known that both saturated fatty acids and various products of immune cells can contribute to the reduction of beta cell viability and functionality during diabetes pathogenesis. However, their joint action on beta cells has not been investigated, so far. Therefore, we explored the possibility that leukocytes and saturated fatty acids cooperate in beta cell destruction. Results Rat pancreatic islets or insulinoma cells (RIN) were co-cultivated with concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated rat lymph node cells (LNC), or they were treated with cell-free supernatants (Sn) obtained from ConA-stimulated spleen cells or from activated CD3+ cells, in the absence or presence of palmitic acid (PA). ConA-stimulated LNC or Sn and PA cooperated in inducing caspase-3-dependent RIN cell apoptosis. The observed effect of PA and Sn on RIN cell viability was mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-signaling and was achieved through auto-destructive nitric oxide (NO) production. The cooperative effect of Sn was mimicked with the combination of interleukin-1β, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin-17, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. Conclusion These results imply that stimulated T cells produce cytokines that cooperate with saturated free fatty acids in beta cell destruction during diabetes pathogenesis. PMID:19463182

  17. Metabolism of palmitic acid in the subcellular fractions of mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Sun, G Y; Horrocks, L A

    1973-03-01

    After an intracerebral injection of [(14)C]palmitic acid to C57BL/10J mice, the radioactivity in the brains decreased rapidly with time. The incorporated radioactivity was primarily in the 16:0 acyl groups of the diacyl phosphoglycerides at 1 and 3 days after injection. At longer times, increasing proportions of the radioactivity were found in cerebrosides, alkenyl groups, and other acyl groups. The specific radioactivities of the phosphoglycerides were highest in the microsomal fraction at 1 day after injection. The exchange of the diacyl glycerophosphorylcholines and diacyl glycerophosphorylethanolamines between the microsomes and the myelin required 8-14 days. When calculated on the basis of the radioactivity in the 16:0 acyl groups, the half-lives for both of these phosphoglycerides were 6-8 days in all subcellular fractions during the period from 14 to 30 days after injection. The radioactivity in the total lipids from the purified myelin fraction did not decline until more than 14 days after injection because of the reutilization of labeled 16:0 acyl groups for lipid biosynthesis. Recycling of the acyl groups explains the long half-lives reported for myelin phosphoglycerides after injection of [(14)C]acetic acid. Lipids with a relatively high specific radioactivity were lost from the myelin fraction during the purification procedure. The most likely source of these lipids is the most recently formed myelin that is not consolidated into the myelin sheath. PMID:4698268

  18. Role of orexin A signaling in dietary palmitic acid-activated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Cayla M; Yuan, Ce; Wisdorf, Lauren E; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M; Nixon, Joshua P; Butterick, Tammy A

    2015-10-01

    Excess dietary saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid (PA) induce peripheral and hypothalamic inflammation. Hypothalamic inflammation, mediated in part by microglial activation, contributes to metabolic dysregulation. In rodents, high fat diet-induced microglial activation results in nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), and increased central pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (OXA, hypocretin 1) is neuroprotective in brain. In cortex, OXA can also reduce inflammation and neurodegeneration through a microglial-mediated pathway. Whether hypothalamic orexin neuroprotection mechanisms depend upon microglia is unknown. To address this issue, we evaluated effects of OXA and PA on inflammatory response in immortalized murine microglial and hypothalamic neuronal cell lines. We demonstrate for the first time in microglial cells that exposure to PA increases gene expression of orexin-1 receptor but not orexin-2 receptor. Pro-inflammatory markers IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in microglial cells are increased following PA exposure, but are reduced by pretreatment with OXA. The anti-inflammatory marker arginase-1 is increased by OXA. Finally, we show hypothalamic neurons exposed to conditioned media from PA-challenged microglia have increased cell survival only when microglia were pretreated with OXA. These data support the concept that OXA may act as an immunomodulatory regulator of microglia, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing anti-inflammatory factors to promote a favorable neuronal microenvironment.

  19. Cellular uptake of a dexamethasone palmitate-low density lipoprotein complex by macrophages and foam cells.

    PubMed

    Tauchi, Yoshihiko; Chono, Sumio; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate the utility of a dexamethasone palmitate (DP)-low density lipoprotein (LDL) complex to transport drug into foam cells, the cellular uptake of DP-LDL complex by macrophages and foam cells was examined. The DP-LDL complex was prepared by incubation with DP and LDL, and the DP-LDL complex and murine macrophages were incubated. No cellular uptake of the DP-LDL complex by macrophages was found until 6 h after the start of incubation, but this gradually increased from 12 to 48 h. On the other hand, the cellular uptake of the oxidized DP-LDL complex was already apparent at 3 h after the start incubation, and then markedly increased until 48 h incubation along with that of the lipid emulsion (LE) containing DP (DP-LE). The cellular uptake of DP-LE by foam cells was significantly lower than that by macrophages. However, the cellular uptake of DP-LDL complex by foam cells was similar to that by macrophages. These findings suggest that the DP-LDL complex is oxidatively modified, and then incorporated into macrophages and foam cells through the scavenger receptor pathway. Since selective delivery of drugs into foam cells in the early stage of atherosclerosis is a useful protocol for antiatherosclerosis treatment, the DP-LDL complex appears to be a potentially useful drug-carrier complex for future antiatherosclerotic therapy.

  20. Nanocarrier with self-antioxidative property for stabilizing and delivering ascorbyl palmitate into skin.

    PubMed

    Janesirisakule, Sirinapa; Sinthusake, Tarit; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2013-08-01

    The concept of a nanocarrier with a self-antioxidative property to deliver and stabilize a labile drug while at the same time providing a free radical scavenging activity is demonstrated. Curcumin was grafted onto a poly(vinyl alcohol) [PV(OH)] chain, and the nanocarriers fabricated from the obtained curcumin-grafted PV(OH) polymer [CUR-PV(OH)] showed a good free radical scavenging activity. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) could be effectively loaded into the CUR-PV(OH) at 29% by weight. The CUR-PV(OH)-encapsulated AP was 77% more stable than the free (unencapsulated) AP, and 47% more stable than AP encapsulated in the control nanocarrier with no antioxidative property [cinnamoyl-grafted PV(OH); CIN-PV(OH)]. Although coencapsulation of curcumin and AP into CIN-PV(OH) showed some improvement on the AP stability, AP was more stable when encapsulated in CUR-PV(OH). Compared with the free AP, encapsulated AP within the CUR-PV(OH) nanocarriers showed not only a better penetration into pig skin dermis via hair follicle pathway followed by the release and diffusion of the AP, but also a greater AP stability after skin application. Although a proof of principle is shown for CUR-PV(OH) and AP, it is likely that other carriers of the same principal could be designed and applied to different oxidation-sensitive drugs.

  1. High glucose and palmitate increases bone morphogenic protein 4 expression in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Oak-Kee; Yoo, Soon-Jib; Son, Jang-Won; Kim, Mee-Kyoung; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Song, Ki-Ho; Cha, Bong-Yun; Jo, Hanjoong; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2016-03-01

    Here, we investigated whether hyperglycemia and/or free fatty acids (palmitate, PAL) aff ect the expression level of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), a proatherogenic marker, in endothelial cells and the potential role of BMP4 in diabetic vascular complications. To measure BMP4 expression, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to high glucose concentrations and/or PAL for 24 or 72 h, and the effects of these treatments on the expression levels of adhesion molecules and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined. BMP4 loss-of-function status was achieved via transfection of a BMP4-specific siRNA. High glucose levels increased BMP4 expression in HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. PAL potentiated such expression. The levels of adhesion molecules and ROS production increased upon treatment with high glucose and/or PAL, but this eff ect was negated when BMP4 was knocked down via siRNA. Signaling of BMP4, a proinflammatory and pro-atherogenic cytokine marker, was increased by hyperglycemia and PAL. BMP4 induced the expression of infl ammatory adhesion molecules and ROS production. Our work suggests that BMP4 plays a role in atherogenesis induced by high glucose levels and/or PAL. PMID:26937213

  2. Metabolism of palmitic acid in the subcellular fractions of mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Sun, G Y; Horrocks, L A

    1973-03-01

    After an intracerebral injection of [(14)C]palmitic acid to C57BL/10J mice, the radioactivity in the brains decreased rapidly with time. The incorporated radioactivity was primarily in the 16:0 acyl groups of the diacyl phosphoglycerides at 1 and 3 days after injection. At longer times, increasing proportions of the radioactivity were found in cerebrosides, alkenyl groups, and other acyl groups. The specific radioactivities of the phosphoglycerides were highest in the microsomal fraction at 1 day after injection. The exchange of the diacyl glycerophosphorylcholines and diacyl glycerophosphorylethanolamines between the microsomes and the myelin required 8-14 days. When calculated on the basis of the radioactivity in the 16:0 acyl groups, the half-lives for both of these phosphoglycerides were 6-8 days in all subcellular fractions during the period from 14 to 30 days after injection. The radioactivity in the total lipids from the purified myelin fraction did not decline until more than 14 days after injection because of the reutilization of labeled 16:0 acyl groups for lipid biosynthesis. Recycling of the acyl groups explains the long half-lives reported for myelin phosphoglycerides after injection of [(14)C]acetic acid. Lipids with a relatively high specific radioactivity were lost from the myelin fraction during the purification procedure. The most likely source of these lipids is the most recently formed myelin that is not consolidated into the myelin sheath.

  3. Coating of peanuts with edible whey protein film containing alpha-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate.

    PubMed

    Han, J H; Hwang, H-M; Min, S; Krochta, J M

    2008-10-01

    Physical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) coating solution incorporating ascorbic palmitate (AP) and alpha-tocopherol (tocopherol) were characterized, and the antioxidant activity of dried WPI coatings against lipid oxidation in roasted peanuts were investigated. The AP and tocopherol were mixed into a 10% (w/w) WPI solution containing 6.7% glycerol. Process 1 (P1) blended an AP and tocopherol mixture directly into the WPI solution using a high-speed homogenizer. Process 2 (P2) used ethanol as a solvent for dissolving AP and tocopherol into the WPI solution. The viscosity and turbidity of the WPI coating solution showed the Newtonian fluid behavior, and 0.25% of critical concentration of AP in WPI solution rheology. After peanuts were coated with WPI solutions, color changes of peanuts were measured during 16 wk of storage at 25 degrees C, and the oxidation of peanuts was determined by hexanal analysis using solid-phase micro-extraction samplers and GC-MS. Regardless of the presence of antioxidants in the coating layer, the formation of hexanal from the oxidation of peanut lipids was reduced by WPI coatings, which indicates WPI coatings protected the peanuts from oxygen permeation and oxidation. However, the incorporation of antioxidants in the WPI coating layer did not show a significant difference in hexanal production from that of WPI coating treatment without incorporation of antioxidants.

  4. Fluorescence, polarized fluorescence, and Brewster angle microscopy of palmitic acid and lung surfactant protein B monolayers.

    PubMed Central

    Lipp, M M; Lee, K Y; Waring, A; Zasadzinski, J A

    1997-01-01

    Fluorescence, polarized fluorescence, and Brewster angle microscopy reveal that human lung surfactant protein SP-B and its amino terminus (SP-B[1-25]) alter the phase behavior of palmitic acid monolayers by inhibiting the formation of condensed phases and creating a new fluid protein-rich phase. This fluid phase forms a network that separates condensed phase domains at coexistence and persists to high surface pressures. The network changes the monolayer collapse mechanism from heterogeneous nucleation/growth and fracturing processes to a more homogeneous process through isolating individual condensed phase domains. This results in higher surface pressures at collapse, and monolayers easier to respread on expansion, factors essential to the in vivo function of lung surfactant. The network is stabilized by a low-line tension between the coexisting phases, as confirmed by the observation of extended linear domains, or "stripe" phases, and a Gouy-Chapman analysis of protein-containing monolayers. Comparison of isotherm data and observed morphologies of monolayers containing SP-B(1-25) with those containing the full SP-B sequence show that the shortened peptide retains most of the native activity of the full-length protein, which may lead to cheaper and more effective synthetic replacement formulations. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:9168053

  5. A mutant of Arabidopsis deficient in desaturation of palmitic acid in leaf lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Kunst, L.; Somerville, C. ); Browse, J. )

    1989-07-01

    The overall fatty acid composition of leaf lipids in a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was characterized by elevated amounts of palmitic acid and a decreased amount of unsaturated 16-carbon fatty acids as a consequence of a single nuclear mutation. Quantitative analysis of the fatty acid composition of individual lipids suggested that the mutant is deficient in the activity of a chloroplast {omega}9 fatty acid desaturase which normally introduces a double bond in 16-carbon acyl chains esterified to monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGD). The mutant exhibited an increased ratio of 18- to 16-carbon fatty acids in MGD due to a change in the relative contribution of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathways of lipid biosynthesis. This appears to be a regulated response to the loss of chloroplast {omega}9 desaturase and presumably reflects a requirement for polyunsaturated fatty acids for the normal assembly of chloroplast membranes. The reduction in mass of prokaryotic MGD species involved both a reduction in synthesis of MGD by the prokaryotic pathway and increased turnover of MGD molecular species which contain 16:0.

  6. An 11-bp Insertion in Zea mays fatb Reduces the Palmitic Acid Content of Fatty Acids in Maize Grain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20–60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding. PMID:21931818

  7. Effect of artichoke extract (Cynara scolymus L.) on palmitic-1-14C acid oxidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Juzyszyn, Zygmunt; Czerny, Boguslaw; Pawlik, Andrzej; Drozdzik, Marek

    2008-05-01

    Studies on the effect of the artichoke extract (AE) on oxidation of palmitic-1-14C acid administered intravenously to rats at a dose 25 and 50 mg/kg bw demonstrated marked enhancement of both 14CO2 expiration rate and 14CO2 recovery in the expired air. The extract suppressed accumulation of palmitic-1-14C acid in serum lipids and epididymal fat pad tissue as well. The effects of the extract on 14CO2 expiration rate, 14CO2 recovery, as well as accumulation of palmitic-1-14C acid were dose dependent. Total14CO2 recovery in expired air during 60 min was elevated by 17.3% (p < 0.05) and 52.1% (p < 0.001) in rats administered the extract at a dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg, respectively. The rats supplemented with the AE at a dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg bw were characterized by 10.0% (not significant) and 19% (p < 0.05) decrease in( 14)C radioactivity of serum lipids as well as reduction of epididymal fat tissue 14C radioactivity by 8.7 and 17.5% (p < 0.05), respectively, in comparison with the control rats. Thus, the results demonstrate that the AE possess stimulatory properties with respect to oxidation of palmitic acid administered to rats, and provide new information on the mechanism of antilipemic activity of the extract associated with activation of lipid oxidation in the organism.

  8. Heterofunctional hydrophilic-hydrophobic porous silica as support for multipoint covalent immobilization of lipases: application to lactulose palmitate synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Claudia; Illanes, Andres; Wilson, Lorena

    2014-04-01

    Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of sugar esters, as lactulose palmitate, requires harsh conditions, making it necessary to immobilize the enzyme. Therefore, a study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different chemical surfaces of hierarchical meso-macroporous silica in the immobilization of two lipases from Pseudomonas stutzeri (PsL) and Alcaligenes sp. (AsL), which exhibit esterase activity. Porosity and chemical surface of silica supports, before and after functionalization and after immobilization, were characterized by gas adsorption and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. PsL and AsL were immobilized in octyl (OS), glyoxyl (GS), and octyl-glyoxyl silica (OGS). Hydrolytic activity, thermal and solvent stability, and sugar ester synthesis were evaluated with those catalysts. The best support in terms of expressed activity was OS in the case of PsL (100 IU g(-1)), while OS and OGS were the best for AsL with quite similar expressed activities (60 and 58 IU g(-1), respectively). At 60 °C in aqueous media the more stable biocatalysts were GS-PsL and OGS-AsL (half-lives of 566 and 248 h, respectively), showing the advantage of a heterofunctional support in the latter case. Lactulose palmitate synthesis was carried out in acetone medium (with 4% of equilibrium moisture) at 40 °C obtaining palmitic acid conversions higher than 20% for all biocatalysts, being the highest of those obtained with OGS-AsL and OS-PsL. Therefore, screening of different chemical surfaces on porous silica used as supports for lipase immobilization allowed obtaining active and stable biocatalyst to be employed in the novel synthesis of lactulose palmitate.

  9. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols prevent palmitate-induced renal epithelial mesenchymal transition by alleviating dipeptidyl peptidase-4-mediated insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong; Yang, Yi-Sun; Lin, Chih-Li; Peng, Chiung-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy has a significant socioeconomic impact, but its mechanism is unclear and needs to be examined. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols (HPE) inhibited high glucose-induced angiotensin II receptor-1 (AT-1), thus attenuating renal epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Recently, we reported HPE inhibited dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4, the enzyme degrades type 1 glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1)), which mediated insulin resistance signals leading to EMT. Since free fatty acids can realistically bring about insulin resistance, using the palmitate-stimulated cell model in contrast with type 2 diabetic rats, in this study we examined if insulin resistance causes renal EMT, and the preventive effect of HPE. Our findings reveal that palmitate hindered 30% of glucose uptake. Treatment with 1 mg mL(-1) of HPE and the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin completely recovered insulin sensitivity and palmitate-induced signal cascades. HPE inhibited DPP-4 activity without altering the levels of DPP-4 and the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). HPE decreased palmitate-induced phosphorylation of Ser307 of insulin receptor substrate-1 (pIRS-1 (S307)), AT-1 and vimentin, while increasing phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (pPI3K). IRS-1 knockdown revealed its essential role in mediating downstream AT-1 and EMT. In type 2 diabetic rats, it suggests that HPE concomitantly decreased the protein levels of DPP-4, AT-1, vimentin, and fibronectin, but reversed the in vivo compensation of GLP-1R. In conclusion, HPE improves insulin sensitivity by attenuating DPP-4 and the downstream signals, thus decreasing AT-1-mediated tubular-interstitial EMT. HPE could be an adjuvant to prevent diabetic nephropathy. PMID:26514092

  10. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of ethyl palmitate calibration and resolution with ethyl oleate as biomarker ethanol sub acute in urine application study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suaniti, Ni Made; Manurung, Manuntun

    2016-03-01

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry is used to separate two and more compounds and identify fragment ion specific of biomarker ethanol such as palmitic acid ethyl ester (PAEE), as one of the fatty acid ethyl esters as early detection through conyugated reaction. This study aims to calibrate ethyl palmitate and develop analysis with oleate acid. This methode can be used analysis ethanol and its chemistry biomarker in ethanol sub-acute consumption as analytical forensic toxicology. The result show that ethanol level in urine rats Wistar were 9.21 and decreased 6.59 ppm after 48 hours consumption. Calibration curve of ethyl palmitate was y = 0.2035 x + 1.0465 and R2 = 0.9886. Resolution between ethyl palmitate and oleate were >1.5 as good separation with fragment ion specific was 88 and the retention time was 18 minutes.

  11. Hydrolysis of milk triglycerides by human gastric lipase.

    PubMed

    Jaśkiewicz, J; Szafran, Z; Popiela, T; Szafran, H

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations of myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids were determined in the products of hydrolysis of lipids of cow milk incubated with human gastric juice using thin-layer chromatography for the separation of lipid fractions, and gas liquid chromatography for the determination of fatty acids. It was found that the percentage ratio of the above fatty acids in hydrolysis products was similar to that in milk triglycerides. It was concluded that triglycerides containing higher fatty acids present in milk are hydrolysed by the lipase appearing in human gastric juice, the rate of hydrolysis of the individual acids being roughly proportional to the concentration of these acids in triglyceride substrate.

  12. Lipid and fatty acid analysis of the Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus (PiGV) envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastri-Bhalla, K.; Funk, C. J.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Virus envelope was isolated from Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus, produced in early fourth-instar larvae. Both polar and neutral lipids were analyzed by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Fatty acid composition of various individual neutral and polar lipids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The major components of envelope neutral lipid were diacylglycerols. Palmitic acid and stearic acid were the major saturated fatty acids in both polar and neutral lipids. Whereas palmitoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acids in neutral lipids, oleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid in the polar lipids.

  13. Novel chemistry of abdominal defensive glands of nymphalid butterfly Agraulis vanillae.

    PubMed

    Ross, G N; Fales, H M; Lloyd, H A; Jones, T; Sokoloski, E A; Marshall-Batty, K; Blum, M S

    2001-06-01

    Abdominal defensive glands of both sexes of the Gulf fritillary butterfly, Agraulis vanillae (Linnaeus) (Nymphalidae:Heliconiinae) emit a pronounced odor when disturbed. We have identified 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; oleic, palmitic, and stearic esters of the corresponding alcohol 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol; hexadecyl acetate; 1,16-hexadecanediol diacetate; and 1,15-hexade-canediol diacetate in the glandular exudate. Since we have determined that free-flying birds or birds in a butterfly conservatory discriminate against A. vanillae as prey, we suggest that the constituents in the glands may play a defensive role against potential avian predators.

  14. The characterization and distribution of hexahydropolyprenyl esters in cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius.

    PubMed

    Stone, K J; Hemming, F W

    1968-10-01

    The total mycelial lipid of Aspergillus fumigatus was analysed and over half of its hexahydropolyprenol was shown to be esterified with fatty acids. Comparison of the fatty acid content of the prenyl esters with the sterol ester and the total lipid indicated a marked predominance of saturated fatty acids in the polyprenyl esters. The predominant acids esterified to the prenols were palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, lignoceric acid, stearic acid and palmitoleic acid. Most of the unesterified polyprenol was found in the mitochondrial fraction, but the esterified prenol was equally distributed throughout the cell fractions. This distribution was unlike that found for ergosteryl ester in the same tissue.

  15. Fatty acid composition of seeds of some species of Nepeta L.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, Turgut; Dirmenci, Tuncay; Gören, Ahmet C

    2007-05-01

    The fatty acid compositions of Nepeta viscida, N. cilicica, N. crinita, N. nuda ssp. glandulifera and N. aristata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main free fatty acids were found as linolenic acid (49.8-58.5%), linoleic acid (10.9-23.5%), oleic acid (11.5-19.2%), palmitic acid (5.2-6.8%) and stearic acid (2.0-3.7%) and, total fatty acid compositions of species were analyzed and results were found as 36.2-49.8%, 17.1-25.8%, 15.4-25.8%, 6.4-7.8%, and 2.7-4.1%, respectively.

  16. A Comparison of Retinyl Palmitate and Red Palm Oil β-Carotene as Strategies to Address Vitamin A Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Souganidis, Ellie; Laillou, Arnaud; Leyvraz, Magali; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency continues to be an international public health problem with several important health consequences including blindness and overall increased rates of morbidity and mortality. To address this widespread issue, a series of strategies have been put into place from dietary diversification to supplementation and fortification programs. Retinyl palmitate has been used successfully for decades as a supplement as well as a way to fortify numerous foods, including vegetable oil, rice, monosodium glutamate, cereal flours and sugar. Recently, there has been rising interest in using a natural source of carotenoids, β-carotene from red palm oil (RPO), for fortification. Although RPO interventions have also been shown to effectively prevent Vitamin A deficiency, there are numerous challenges in using beta-carotene from RPO as a fortification technique. β-Carotene can induce significant changes in appearance and taste of the fortified product. Moreover, costs of fortifying with beta-carotene are higher than with retinyl palmitate. Therefore, RPO should only be used as a source of Vitamin A if it is produced and used in its crude form and regularly consumed without frying. Furthermore, refined RPO should be fortified with retinyl palmitate, not β-carotene, to ensure that there is adequate Vitamin A content. PMID:23955382

  17. Conformational change in the C form of palmitic acid investigated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, F. F.; Nogueira, C. E. S.; Freire, P. T. C.; Moreira, S. G. C.; Teixeira, A. M. R.; de Menezes, A. S.; Mendes Filho, J.; Saraiva, G. D.

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acids are substances found in most living beings in nature. Here we report the effect of the low temperature in the vibrational and structural properties of the C form of palmitic acid, a fatty acid with 16 carbon atoms. The Raman spectra were obtained in the temperature interval from 300 to 18 K in the spectral range between 30 and 3100 cm- 1. The assignment of the duly observed bands was done based on the density functional theory. On cooling, the main changes observed in the lattice mode region of the Raman spectra were interpreted as a conformational modification undergone by the palmitic acid molecules in the unit cell. The X-ray diffraction measurements were obtained from 290 to 80 K showing a slight modification in the lattice parameters at about 210 K. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were recorded between 150 and 300 K and no enthalpic anomaly in the DSC thermogram was observed. These techniques provided strong evidence of the conformational change in the molecules of palmitic acid at low temperatures.

  18. A comparison of retinyl palmitate and red palm oil β-carotene as strategies to address Vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Souganidis, Ellie; Laillou, Arnaud; Leyvraz, Magali; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-08-15

    Vitamin A deficiency continues to be an international public health problem with several important health consequences including blindness and overall increased rates of morbidity and mortality. To address this widespread issue, a series of strategies have been put into place from dietary diversification to supplementation and fortification programs. Retinyl palmitate has been used successfully for decades as a supplement as well as a way to fortify numerous foods, including vegetable oil, rice, monosodium glutamate, cereal flours and sugar. Recently, there has been rising interest in using a natural source of carotenoids, β-carotene from red palm oil (RPO), for fortification. Although RPO interventions have also been shown to effectively prevent Vitamin A deficiency, there are numerous challenges in using beta-carotene from RPO as a fortification technique. β-Carotene can induce significant changes in appearance and taste of the fortified product. Moreover, costs of fortifying with beta-carotene are higher than with retinyl palmitate. Therefore, RPO should only be used as a source of Vitamin A if it is produced and used in its crude form and regularly consumed without frying. Furthermore, refined RPO should be fortified with retinyl palmitate, not β-carotene, to ensure that there is adequate Vitamin A content.

  19. A comparison of retinyl palmitate and red palm oil β-carotene as strategies to address Vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Souganidis, Ellie; Laillou, Arnaud; Leyvraz, Magali; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-08-01

    Vitamin A deficiency continues to be an international public health problem with several important health consequences including blindness and overall increased rates of morbidity and mortality. To address this widespread issue, a series of strategies have been put into place from dietary diversification to supplementation and fortification programs. Retinyl palmitate has been used successfully for decades as a supplement as well as a way to fortify numerous foods, including vegetable oil, rice, monosodium glutamate, cereal flours and sugar. Recently, there has been rising interest in using a natural source of carotenoids, β-carotene from red palm oil (RPO), for fortification. Although RPO interventions have also been shown to effectively prevent Vitamin A deficiency, there are numerous challenges in using beta-carotene from RPO as a fortification technique. β-Carotene can induce significant changes in appearance and taste of the fortified product. Moreover, costs of fortifying with beta-carotene are higher than with retinyl palmitate. Therefore, RPO should only be used as a source of Vitamin A if it is produced and used in its crude form and regularly consumed without frying. Furthermore, refined RPO should be fortified with retinyl palmitate, not β-carotene, to ensure that there is adequate Vitamin A content. PMID:23955382

  20. The effect of the enantiomers of ibuprofen and flurbiprofen on the beta-oxidation of palmitate in the rat.

    PubMed

    Zhao, B; Geisslinger, G; Hall, I; Day, R O; Williams, K M

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the enantiomers of ibuprofen (0.25 and 0.50 mmol/kg b.w.) and flurbiprofen (0.01, 0.03, and 0.06 mmol/kg b.w.) on the beta-oxidation of palmitate were investigated in the rat. The mean cumulative exhalation of 14CO2 after ip administration of [U-14C]palmitic acid was significantly reduced over 6 h by ibuprofen at the higher dose but not at the lower dose for either enantiomer. There was no difference between the enantiomers, the reduction over 6 h being 31.3 and 33.0% for (R)- and (S)-ibuprofen, respectively. There was also a significant inhibition of beta-oxidation by flurbiprofen at all 3 doses. Again, there was no stereoselectivity evident in this inhibition. Flurbiprofen was much more potent than ibuprofen in eliciting this effect, the 0.01mmol/kg dose giving a similar reduction in beta-oxidation as observed for the 0.50 mmol/kg dose of ibuprofen. The data support the hypothesis that inhibition of the in vivo beta-oxidation of palmitate by ibuprofen and flurbiprofen is primarily via a nonstereoselective noncoenzyme A-dependent mechanism.