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Sample records for oleos vegetais um

  1. Investigation on the wound healing activity of oleo-resin from Copaifera langsdorffi in rats.

    PubMed

    Paiva, L A F; de Alencar Cunha, K M; Santos, F A; Gramosa, N V; Silveira, E R; Rao, V S N

    2002-12-01

    The wound healing activity of oleo-resin from Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Leguminaceae) bark was evaluated in rats on experimental wounds. The oleo-resin was tested by monitoring wound contraction in excised wounds and by measuring tensile strength in healing incision wounds. The topical application of oleo-resin at a concentration of 4% accelerated wound contraction in open wounds. The mean values of wound contraction in oleo-resin treated rats on day 9 was 84.05% +/- 2.37% as against 51.29% +/- 9.54% seen in controls and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). No significant differences in the rates of wound contraction were observed on days 12, 15, 18 and 21. Also, the tensile strength in healing incised wounds was found to be significantly higher in the group of animals treated with 4% oleo-resin on day 5 but not on days 7 and 12 (controls: 35.95 +/- 7.44 g/cm; oleo-resin: 71.48 +/- 5.77 g/cm; p < 0.05). These results indicate the beneficial effect of C. langsdorffii oleo-resin on wound healing and justify its traditional use for the treatment of wounds.

  2. Antibacterial activities of some constituents from oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora mukul.

    PubMed

    Saeed, M Asif; Sabir, A W

    2004-03-01

    The essential oil, chloroform extract and seven sesquiterpenoids compounds newly isolated from the oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora mukul showed a wide range of inhibiting activity against both Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. PMID:15030926

  3. 9 CFR 322.5 - Uninspected tallow, stearin, oleo oil, etc., not to be exported unless certified as prescribed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uninspected tallow, stearin, oleo oil, etc., not to be exported unless certified as prescribed. 322.5 Section 322.5 Animals and Animal... Uninspected tallow, stearin, oleo oil, etc., not to be exported unless certified as prescribed. No...

  4. 9 CFR 322.5 - Uninspected tallow, stearin, oleo oil, etc., not to be exported unless certified as prescribed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uninspected tallow, stearin, oleo oil, etc., not to be exported unless certified as prescribed. 322.5 Section 322.5 Animals and Animal... Uninspected tallow, stearin, oleo oil, etc., not to be exported unless certified as prescribed. No...

  5. Biochemical changes of Culex pipiens larvae treated with oil and oleo-resin extracts of Myrrh Commiphora molmol.

    PubMed

    Massoud, A M; Labib, I M; Rady, M

    2001-08-01

    The mosquitocidal plant extracts of the Myrrh, Commiphora molmol namely; oil and oleo-resin, were proved to demonstrate larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens larvae. Oleo-resin was found to induce significant higher toxic action than oil. Solvent (cremophore EL) did not perform any toxic activity. The Impact of both oleo-resin and oil extracts on the protein profile of the treated larvae was evaluated in order to explain their mode of action. Electrophoretic analysis of total proteins, lipoproteins and glycoproteins revealed inhibitory action of the used plant extracts on the protein contents. Larvicidal activity of the oleo-resin and oil was explained as to be related to the loss of certain enzymes inhibited by these extracts which affect the metabolic processes. PMID:11478451

  6. Irritant potential of some constituents from oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora myrrha.

    PubMed

    Saeed, M Asif; Sabir, A W

    2004-01-01

    The irritant potentials of essential oil and seven sesquiterpenoids compounds newly isolated from the oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora myrrha were investigated by open mouse ear assay. The essential oil, curzerenone, furanodiene-6-one and furanoeudesma-1,3-diene showed potent and persistent irritant effects while others possess least irritant potentials. PMID:14693226

  7. Irritant potential of some constituents from oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora myrrha.

    PubMed

    Saeed, M Asif; Sabir, A W

    2004-01-01

    The irritant potentials of essential oil and seven sesquiterpenoids compounds newly isolated from the oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora myrrha were investigated by open mouse ear assay. The essential oil, curzerenone, furanodiene-6-one and furanoeudesma-1,3-diene showed potent and persistent irritant effects while others possess least irritant potentials.

  8. Pharmacology and Phytochemistry of Oleo-Gum Resin of Commiphora wightii (Guggulu).

    PubMed

    Sarup, Prerna; Bala, Suman; Kamboj, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Guggulu is an oleo-gum resin which exudes out as a result of injury from the bark of Commiphora wightii (Arnott) Bhandari [syn.  Commiphora mukul (Hook. Ex Stocks) Engl; Balsamodendron mukul (Hook. Ex Stocks); Family, Burseraceae]. It has been used in the Ayurveda since time immemorial for the treatment of variety of disorders such as inflammation, gout, rheumatism, obesity, and disorders of lipids metabolism. It is a mixture of phytoconstituents like volatile oil which contains terpenoidal constituents such as monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, and triterpenoids; steroids; flavonoids; guggultetrols; lignans; sugars; and amino acids. This review is an effort to compile all the information available on all of its chemical constituents which are responsible for its therapeutic potential. The wild occurrence of this species is restricted mainly to the dry regions of Rajasthan and Gujarat States of India, and the bordering regions of Pakistan. Oleo-gum resin, guggulu, tapped from the stems of this species, is consumed in high volumes by the Indian herbal industries. There has been a decline in its wild population over the last several decades, as a result of habitat loss and degradation, coupled with unregulated harvesting and tapping of oleo-gum resin. This species is consequently assessed as Critically Endangered and enlisted in the IUCN red list of threatened species. PMID:26587309

  9. Pharmacology and Phytochemistry of Oleo-Gum Resin of Commiphora wightii (Guggulu)

    PubMed Central

    Sarup, Prerna; Bala, Suman; Kamboj, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Guggulu is an oleo-gum resin which exudes out as a result of injury from the bark of Commiphora wightii (Arnott) Bhandari [syn.  Commiphora mukul (Hook. Ex Stocks) Engl; Balsamodendron mukul (Hook. Ex Stocks); Family, Burseraceae]. It has been used in the Ayurveda since time immemorial for the treatment of variety of disorders such as inflammation, gout, rheumatism, obesity, and disorders of lipids metabolism. It is a mixture of phytoconstituents like volatile oil which contains terpenoidal constituents such as monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, and triterpenoids; steroids; flavonoids; guggultetrols; lignans; sugars; and amino acids. This review is an effort to compile all the information available on all of its chemical constituents which are responsible for its therapeutic potential. The wild occurrence of this species is restricted mainly to the dry regions of Rajasthan and Gujarat States of India, and the bordering regions of Pakistan. Oleo-gum resin, guggulu, tapped from the stems of this species, is consumed in high volumes by the Indian herbal industries. There has been a decline in its wild population over the last several decades, as a result of habitat loss and degradation, coupled with unregulated harvesting and tapping of oleo-gum resin. This species is consequently assessed as Critically Endangered and enlisted in the IUCN red list of threatened species. PMID:26587309

  10. Ursane and tirucallane-type triterpenes of Boswellia rivae oleo-gum resin.

    PubMed

    Manguro, Lawrence Onyango Arot; Wagai, Samuel Otieno

    2016-09-01

    Two new ursane-type triterpenes characterized as 3-oxo-24-acetoxy-11α-hydroxy-urs-12-ene (1) and methyl 3α-acetoxy-11α-methoxy-urs-12-en-24-oate (2), together with known compounds 3-11, were isolated from Boswellia rivae oleo-gum resin exudate. Their structural elucidation was accomplished using physical, chemical, and spectroscopic methods. The compounds exhibited weak to moderate antibacterial activities against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27049028

  11. Diuretic activity of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum extract in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul-Majid, Amin Malik-Shah; Atif, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity. PMID:25362605

  12. Identification of sesquiterpene coumarins of oleo-gum resin of Ferula assa-foetida L. from the Yasuj region.

    PubMed

    Asghari, J; Atabaki, V; Baher, E; Mazaheritehrani, M

    2016-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the oleo-gum resin of Ferula assa-foetida L. from Yasuj region led to the identification of five sesquiterpene coumarins namely, conferone (1), badrakemin (2), feslol (3), isosamarcandin (4) and samarcandin (5). The compounds were characterised by detailed 1D ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D NMR (HMBC, HSQC and NOESY) experiments. Among these compounds, conferone (1) and isosamarcandin (4) are being newly reported in F. assa-foetida L.

  13. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  14. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Garima; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Chopra, Harish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  15. Antinociceptive effect of Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, S.M.; Dashti-R, M.H.; Morshedi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ferula assa-foetida L. is distributed throughout central Asia and Mediterranean area and grows wildly in Iran and Afghanistan. Asafoetida is an oleo-gum-resin that is the exudates of the roots of Ferula assa-foetida and some other Ferula species. In Iranian traditional medicine, asafoetida is considered to be sedative, analgesic, carminative, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihelmintic, emmenagogue and expectorant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of asafoetida in mice. The analgesic activity of asafoetida (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) was compared with that of sodium diclofenac (30 mg/kg) or morphine sulfate (8 mg/kg) by using hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing tests. In hot plate test, the percentage of maximum possible effect (%MPE) against the thermal stimulus at 15 min post treatment time point for all doses of asafoetida was significantly greater than the control group. The number of writhes in all three doses of asafoetida was significantly less than the control group. GraphPad Prism 5 software was used to analyze the behavioral responses. Data were analyzed using repeated measure one-way ANOVA and P<0.05 was considered as the significant level. According to our findings, asafoetida exhibited a significant antinociceptive effect on chronic and acute pain in mice. These effects probably involve central opioid pathways and peripheral anti-inflammatory action. PMID:25657791

  16. Fuzzy diagnostic system for oleo-pneumatic drive mechanism of high-voltage circuit breakers.

    PubMed

    Nicolau, Viorel

    2013-01-01

    Many oil-based high-voltage circuit breakers are still in use in national power networks of developing countries, like those in Eastern Europe. Changing these breakers with new more reliable ones is not an easy task, due to their implementing costs. The acting device, called oleo-pneumatic mechanism (MOP), presents the highest fault rate from all components of circuit breaker. Therefore, online predictive diagnosis and early detection of the MOP fault tendencies are very important for their good functioning state. In this paper, fuzzy logic approach is used for the diagnosis of MOP-type drive mechanisms. Expert rules are generated to estimate the MOP functioning state, and a fuzzy system is proposed for predictive diagnosis. The fuzzy inputs give information about the number of starts and time of functioning per hour, in terms of short-term components, and their mean values. Several fuzzy systems were generated, using different sets of membership functions and rule bases, and their output performances are studied. Simulation results are presented based on an input data set, which contains hourly records of operating points for a time horizon of five years. The fuzzy systems work well, making an early detection of the MOP fault tendencies.

  17. Antileishmanial activity of Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin against Leishmania major: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bafghi, Ali Fatahi; Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Hejazian, Seyed Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Ayurveda, asafetida is introduced as a valuable remedy for flatulence, hysteria, nervous disorders, whooping cough, pneumonia and bronchitis in children and also considered as an aphrodisiac agent. Presently, Leishmaniasis is common in most countries of the world and is a serious health problem in the world. Some plant medicines and natural products have a new candidate for treatment of leishmaniasis. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin (asafetida) on mortality and morbidity Leishmania major in vitro. Materials and Methods: Mostigotes were isolated from mice spleens and then transformed to promastigotes in Novy-Nicolle-Mac Neal (NNN medium supplemented with penicillin (100 U/ml), streptomycin (100 μg/ml) and 20% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS) at 25°C. A fixed initial density of the parasites was transferred to screw-capped vials containing 5 ml of RPMI1640 media to which different concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 μg asafetida were added and each concentration was done in triplicates. Each run also included control. The mortality of parasitoids was measured by the slide and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Results: After 72 h, asafetida inhibited growth of parasites in all doses in stationary and logarithmic phases. The ELISA measurement suggested that the viability of parasites significantly decreased after 48h (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results show that asafetida could prevent from growth and viability of parasites and this oleo gum resin can be useful for treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:25624696

  18. Anticonvulsant Effect of Ferula Assa-Foetida Oleo Gum Resin on Chemical and Amygdala-Kindled Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Rezvani, Mohamad Ebrahim; Vahidi, Ali Reza; Esmaili, Mansur

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Iranian traditional medicine, Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin (asafoetida) have been used as anti-convulsant agents. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-convulsant effect of asafoetida on chemical and amygdala -kindled rats. Materials and Methods: In chemical model, rats received orally asafoetida at dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg 90 minutes prior to Pentylenetetrazol injection in dose of 35 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) and control group received normal saline. Convulsive behavior was recorded for 30 minutes. For amygdala kindle model, bipolar stimulating and monopolar recording electrodes were implanted stereotaxically. After kindling, the effect of asafoetida (50 and 100mg/kg) on after discharge duration, duration of stage 5 seizure and latency to the onset of bilateral forelimb clonuses was measured. Results: Pretreatment animals with asafoetida significantly reduced the mean seizure stage during the 20 kindling injection of Pentylenetetrazol. Seizure parameters in amigdala kindle model improved in treatment animals at both dose 50 and 100 mg/kg. The number of stimulations in stage 3, 4, and 5 in asafoetida-treated rats at both doses significantly increased. Conclusions: These results showed that asafoetida could prevent seizure in both chemical and electrical kindling model and this effect may partially be related to the terpenoids compounds. PMID:25210675

  19. Composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils of four commercial grades of Omani luban, the oleo-gum resin of Boswellia sacra FLUECK.

    PubMed

    Al-Saidi, Salim; Rameshkumar, K B; Hisham, Abdulkhader; Sivakumar, Nallusamy; Al-Kindy, Salma

    2012-03-01

    The essential oil compositions of four botanically certified and commercially available samples of Omani lubans (oleo-gum resins of Boswellia sacra Flueck.), locally known as Hoojri, Najdi, Shathari, and Shaabi in Jibali Arabic, obtained from plants growing in four different geographic locations of the Dhofar region of Oman, were analyzed by GC-FID, GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR spectroscopy. The market price of these four grades of lubans differed considerably, according to their color, clump size, and texture. However, this study revealed that Hoojri, the first grade luban, and Shaabi, the fourth grade luban, which greatly differed in their price, closely resembled each other in their essential oil composition, yield, and physicochemical characteristics, except the color and texture. The composition, yield, and specific rotation of the oils of Najdi and Shathari, the second and the third grade lubans, respectively, were different from those of Hoojri and Shaabi, but they both had high limonene contents. Najdi oil was different from the other three oils in terms of its high myrcene content. α-Pinene was the principal component in all the oils and can be considered as a chemotaxonomical marker that confirms the botanical and geographical source of the resins. All the oils showed pronounced activity against a panel of bacteria, and the trend in their bioactivity and their mode of action are discussed. PMID:22422529

  20. Isoledene from Mesua ferrea oleo-gum resin induces apoptosis in HCT 116 cells through ROS-mediated modulation of multiple proteins in the apoptotic pathways: A mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Shafaei, Armaghan; Jafari, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Mohamed, Shazmin Kithur; Ezzat, Mohammed Oday; Abdul Majid, Aman Shah; Oon, Chern Ein; Petersen, Sven H; Kono, Koji; Abdul Majid, Amin Malik Shah

    2016-08-22

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common human malignant tumors worldwide. Arising from the transformation of epithelial cells in the colon and/or rectum into malignant cells, the foundation of CRC pathogenesis lies in the progressive accumulation of mutations in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, such as KRAS and APC. Resistance to apoptosis is one of the key mechanisms in the development of CRC as it is for any other kind of cancer. Natural products have been shown to induce the expression of apoptosis regulators that are blocked in cancer cells. In the present study, a series of in vitro assays were employed to study the apoptosis-inducing attributes of Isoledene rich sub-fraction (IR-SF) collected from the oleo-gum resin of M. ferrea. Data obtained, showed that IR-SF inhibited cell proliferation and induced typical apoptotic changes in the overall morphology of all the CRC cell lines tested. Fluorescent staining assays revealed characteristic nuclear condensation, and marked decrease in mitochondrial outer membrane potential in the treated cells. In addition, an increment in the levels of ROS, caspase-8, -9 and -3 was observed. Proteomic analysis revealed that IR-SF up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, i.e., Bid, Bim and cytochrome c. Cytochrome c in turn activated caspases cascade resulting in the induction of apoptosis. Moreover, IR-SF significantly down-regulated Bcl-2, Bcl-w, survivin, xIAP and HSPs pro-survival proteins and induced DNA fragmentation and G0/G1-phase arrest in HCT 116 cells. Chemical characterization of IR-SF by GC-MS and HPLC methods identified Isoledene as one of the major compounds. Altogether, results of the present study demonstrate that IR-SF may induce apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma cells through activation of ROS-mediated apoptotic pathways. PMID:27268964

  1. Um Infixation and Prefixation in Toba Batak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Megan J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the behavior of the morpheme, um, in Toba Batak and Tagalog, which alternates as a prefix or an infix, arguing that the variation is conditioned by constraints on consonant clusters. Three patterns of variation that occur with um are described, noting that the stages involved in changing from infixed to prefixed positions over time are…

  2. "Uh" and "Um" Revisited: Are They Interjections for Signaling Delay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers "uh" and "um" are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of "uh" and "um" and of silent…

  3. Ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscopy for brain imaging at 6 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um resolution (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Akkin, Taner; Magnain, Caroline V.; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Cramer, Avilash; Wang, Ruopeng; Sakadžic, Sava; Boas, David A.

    2016-03-01

    Neuroanatomical pathways form the basis for functional activity of brain circuits. In the past, we developed a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography with serial scanning to achieve large-scale brain imaging. The system was able to visualize 3D fiber tracts of ~20 um in diameter. To investigate the neuroanatomical pathways at finer scales, we have now built a polarization-maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscope (PS-OCM) at 1300 nm. The PS-OCM has an axial resolution of 3.5 um in tissue. The detection setup consists of two spectrometers, acquiring spectral interference on orthogonal polarization channels. With a single measurement, the setup generates four contrasts: reflectivity, cross-polarization, retardance and optic axis orientation. To investigate the capability of PS-OCM at different resolutions, we used three microscope objectives that yield lateral resolutions of 6.0 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um. Blocks of formalin fixed mouse brain and human brain were scanned. The cross-polarization and retardance images clearly depict the neuronal fiber structures, which are comparable with that generated by the maximum projection of volumetric reflectivity data. The optic axis orientation quantifies the in-plane fiber orientation. With the lateral resolution of 1.3 um, the retardance contrast is weak in white matter due to the shallow depth of focus. Overall, the ultra-high resolution PS-OCM provides a new tool to reveal neuroanatomical maps in the brain at cellular resolution.

  4. Uh and um revisited: are they interjections for signaling delay?

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-11-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers uh and um are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of uh and um and of silent pauses (delays) immediately following them in six media interviews of Hillary Clinton. Our evidence indicates that uh and um cannot serve as signals of upcoming delay, let alone signal it differentially: In most cases, both uh and um were not followed by a silent pause, that is, there was no delay at all; the silent pauses that did occur after um were too short to be counted as major delays; finally, the distributions of durations of silent pauses after uh and um were almost entirely overlapping and could therefore not have served as reliable predictors for a listener. The discrepancies between Clark and Fox Tree's findings and ours are largely a consequence of the fact that their LL analyses reflect the perceptions of professional coders, whereas our data were analyzed by means of acoustic measurements with the PRAAT software (www.praat.org). A comparison of our findings with those of O'Connell, Kowal, and Ageneau (2005) did not corroborate the hypothesis of Clark and Fox Tree that uh and um are interjections: Fillers occurred typically in initial, interjections in medial positions; fillers did not constitute an integral turn by themselves, whereas interjections did; fillers never initiated cited speech, whereas interjections did; and fillers did not signal emotion, whereas interjections did. Clark and Fox Tree's analyses were embedded within a theory of ideal delivery that we find inappropriate for the explication of these phenomena.

  5. Uh and um revisited: are they interjections for signaling delay?

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-11-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers uh and um are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of uh and um and of silent pauses (delays) immediately following them in six media interviews of Hillary Clinton. Our evidence indicates that uh and um cannot serve as signals of upcoming delay, let alone signal it differentially: In most cases, both uh and um were not followed by a silent pause, that is, there was no delay at all; the silent pauses that did occur after um were too short to be counted as major delays; finally, the distributions of durations of silent pauses after uh and um were almost entirely overlapping and could therefore not have served as reliable predictors for a listener. The discrepancies between Clark and Fox Tree's findings and ours are largely a consequence of the fact that their LL analyses reflect the perceptions of professional coders, whereas our data were analyzed by means of acoustic measurements with the PRAAT software (www.praat.org). A comparison of our findings with those of O'Connell, Kowal, and Ageneau (2005) did not corroborate the hypothesis of Clark and Fox Tree that uh and um are interjections: Fillers occurred typically in initial, interjections in medial positions; fillers did not constitute an integral turn by themselves, whereas interjections did; fillers never initiated cited speech, whereas interjections did; and fillers did not signal emotion, whereas interjections did. Clark and Fox Tree's analyses were embedded within a theory of ideal delivery that we find inappropriate for the explication of these phenomena. PMID:16341914

  6. Universal Monitor (UM) for OTEC compact heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1981-09-01

    Universal Monitor (UM), is a device-independent concept to measure, with precision, the initiation and progression of fouling in any given OTEC Compact Heat Exchanger model with or without the application of countermeasures. Design description and supporting analyses for the Universal Monitor for OTEC Compact Heat Exchangers are presented.

  7. Paleozoic vertical movements in Um Bogma area, southwestern Sinai

    SciTech Connect

    Beyth, M.

    1981-01-01

    The Wadi Khaboba-Gebel Nukhul high, in the Um Bogma area of southwestern Sinai, underwent a small-scale uplift-subsidence cycle during the Paleozoic. The trend of this structure is close to and almost parallel with the Suez rift, indicating that the young rift is related to older structures.

  8. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  9. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates, including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.

  10. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates,more » including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.« less

  11. Nerves and psychosomatic illness: the case of Um Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Krieger, L

    1989-01-01

    Belief in the unity of mind and body among poor working class women in metropolitan Cairo is exemplified by the "state of being upset." The Egyptian women of this study use physical symptoms that they believe derive from emotional causes to negotiate and give meaning to relationships with neighbors, friends, and relatives; to jockey for power; to fill emotional needs; to manage presentation of self; and to weave the political fabric of interpersonal life. A detailed case study of Um Ramadan, a woman whose misuse by her husband made her nerfiza, illustrates the relationship between emotional upset and physical illness and the use of psychosomatic illness to gain sympathy and exact revenge. The expression of Um Ramadan's symptoms is further analyzed in terms of the underlying cultural constraints placed on Muslim women and the tensions inherent in local gender role relations.

  12. Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Track Forecast Errors using GDAPS (UM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Chang, K.; Byun, K.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    After the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began issuing official five-day tropical cyclone (TC) forecasts in 2003, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) started issuing official five-day forecasts of TCs in May 2012 after 2 year of beta test. Forming a selective consensus (SCON) by proper removal of a likely erroneous track forecast is hypothesized to be more accurate than the non-selective consensus (NCON) of all model tracks that are used for the five-day forecasts. Conceptual models describing large track error mechanisms, which are related to known tropical cyclone motion processes being misrepresented in the dynamical models, are applied to forecasts during the 2012 western North Pacific typhoon season by the Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System (GDAPS (UM N512 L70)) which is KMA's main operational model. GDAPS (UM) is one of consensus members used in making KMA's five-day forecasts and thus analysis of its track error tendencies would be useful for forming a SCON forecast. All 72-h track errors greater than 320 km are examined on the basis of the approach developed by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b). Tropical-influenced error sources caused 37% (47 times / 126 erroneous forecasts) of the GDAPS (UM) large track forecast errors primarily because an incorrect beta effect-related process depicted by the model contributed to the erroneous forecasts. Midlatitude-influenced error sources accounted for 63% (79 times / 126 error cases) in the GDAPS (UM) erroneous forecasts mainly due to an incorrect forecast of the midlatitude system evolutions. It is proposed that KMA will be able to issue more reliable TC track information if a likely model track error is recognized by optimum use of conceptual models by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b) and a selective consensus track is then the basis for an improved warning.

  13. STAR CLUSTER COMPLEXES AND THE HOST GALAXY IN THREE H II GALAXIES: Mrk 36, UM 408, AND UM 461

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, P.; Telles, E.; Nigoche-Netro, A.

    2011-11-15

    We present a stellar population study of three H II galaxies (Mrk 36, UM 408, and UM 461) based on the analysis of new ground-based high-resolution near-infrared J, H, and K{sub p} broadband and Br{gamma} narrowband images obtained with Gemini/NIRI. We identify and determine the relative ages and masses of the elementary star clusters and/or star cluster complexes of the starburst regions in each of these galaxies by comparing the colors with evolutionary synthesis models that include the contribution of stellar continuum, nebular continuum, and emission lines. We found that the current star cluster formation efficiency in our sample of low-luminosity H II galaxies is {approx}10%. Therefore, most of the recent star formation is not in massive clusters. Our findings seem to indicate that the star formation mode in our sample of galaxies is clumpy, and that these complexes are formed by a few massive star clusters with masses {approx}>10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The age distribution of these star cluster complexes shows that the current burst started recently and likely simultaneously over short timescales in their host galaxies, triggered by some internal mechanism. Finally, the fraction of the total cluster mass with respect to the low surface brightness (or host galaxy) mass, considering our complete range in ages, is less than 1%.

  14. Resultados do desenvolvimento de um propulsor à plasma no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, I. S.; Ferreira, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    Uma das partes mais importantes de um satélite é o controle de atitude do mesmo. E se tratando de um satélite científico, a atenção para este sistema deve ser redobrada. Uma possibilidade atraente para executar esta tarefa é a propulsão elétrica. Aqui, mostraremos resultados obtidos pelo propulsor à plasma PHALL-01, desenvolvido na Universidade de Brasília entre 2000 e 2003. Este é derivado do propulsor russo SPT-100 (Stationary Plasma Thruster), mas com o emprego inovador de um arranjo de imãs permanentes como fonte do campo magnético, este último o agente da aceleração do plasma. Esta alteração foi motivada pelo objetivo de que o mesmo operasse com o mínimo de potência elétrica. A partir da formulação teórica do mecanismo de aceleração, tendo como base as equações da magnetohidrodinâmica, pode-se obter vínculos sob os quais o propulsor pudesse ser construído. O mais forte destes é o que dita a topologia do campo magnético. Sendo assim, foram realizadas simulações computacionais, que definiram a geometria do propulsor. Após construído, este foi diagnosticado usando-se sondas de Langmuir e analisadores de energia. Como resultados, obtivemos a distribuição espacial da temperatura, densidade e potencial do plasma, bem como a distribuição angular do feixe produzido pelo mesmo em vários regimes de operação. O espectro de energia do feixe de plasma também foi medido, indicando íons de até 560eV. Combinando estes resultados, calculou-se o empuxo do propulsor: 84mN; e o impulso específico: 1083s. Estes demonstram que o mesmo estará qualificado, num futuro próximo, para o emprego no controle de atitude de satélites científicos, ou até mesmo como parte do conjunto propulsor primário, responsáveis pela transferência de órbitas.

  15. Recovery Act: Novel Kerf-Free PV Wafering that provides a low-cost approach to generate wafers from 150um to 50um in thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, Theodore E.

    2013-05-06

    The technical paper summarizes the project work conducted in the development of Kerf-Free silicon wafering equipment for silicon solar wafering. This new PolyMax technology uses a two step process of implantation and cleaving to exfoliate 50um to 120um wafers with thicknesses ranging from 50um to 120um from a 125mm or 156mm pseudo-squared silicon ingot. No kerf is generated using this method of wafering. This method of wafering contrasts with the current method of making silicon solar wafers using the industry standard wire saw equipment. The report summarizes the activity conducted by Silicon Genesis Corporation in working to develop this technology further and to define the roadmap specifications for the first commercial proto-type equipment for high volume solar wafer manufacturing using the PolyMax technology.

  16. Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, Orner Building, First U.M. Church Rectory, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, Orner Building, First U.M. Church Rectory, & First U.M. Church-context - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  17. 31.5um imaging observations of AGN using SOFIA/FORCAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Lindsay; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Packham, Christopher C.; Los Piratas Team

    2016-01-01

    The unified model of active galactic nuclei (AGN) requires a toroidal region of optically and geometrically thick dust obscuring a central engine, accounting for various observed spectral features. Our aim is to investigate the overall torus properties to obtain analytical results for its physical parameters. We present 31.5um photometric observations of 12 nearby Seyfert galaxies from the 2.5m SOFIA telescope using the FORCAST camera. We used Clumpy torus models and a Bayesian approach to fit the IR (1.2-31.5um) nuclear SEDs and high angular resolution mid-IR (8-13um) spectroscopy. We found that the turnover of the torus emission does not occur at wavelengths <31.5um, which we interpret as a lower-limit for the peak torus emission. Including the 31.5um nuclear flux 1) reduces the dispersion of Clumpy torus models at wavelengths >30um, which better constrains the model parameters, 2) generally decreases the radial extent of the torus. We find torus radii ranging from ~1 - 8.5pc, with an average radius of 2.6pc, which is consistent with interferometric and high-spatial resolution observations.

  18. Spectroscopy of JVI Himalia for detection and characterization of the 3 um water band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Karsten

    2013-10-01

    We aim at securely detecting and characterizing the presence of the 3um band for the first time in the reflectance spectrum of a Jovian irregular satellite. Features in the 3um band can unambiguously reveal water ice or past aqueous alteration of the surface material that lead to bound water molecules and hydroxyl groups in minerals. Water ice and hydrated minerals are ubiquitous in the Jovian system and have been found on Europa, Ganymede, Callisto and the inner regular satellite JV Amalthea. In contrast to these neighboring satellites and to two irregular satellites that have been studied at Saturn and Neptune, a detection of water (previously or currently present) on a Jovian irregular satellite has not yet been succeeded due to constraints of ground-based observatories. No dedicated spacecraft mission to the Jovian system has allowed to study them close-up. Their very low albedos and small diameters only allow ground-based spectroscopy up to 2.5um for very few objects. The strong telluric absorption band of the atmosphere between 2.55-2.85um and the increasing IR-background beyond 2.85um makes ground-based spectroscopy for these very faint objects impossible. SOFIA has the unique capability to overcome these limits. Flitecam provides enough sensitivity to conduct spectroscopic investigations between 2.6-3.5um of the largest object of the Jovian irregular satellite population, JVI Himalia. Supplementary high quality spectral data from 0.65-2.55um has already been acquired by Schindler and Reddy using SpeX on NASA IRTF. Three indicators strongly suggest the presence of the 3um band: A shallow absorption feature around 1.1um attributed to magnetite, a weak feature around 0.7 um attributed to phyllosillicates and an average heliocentric distance of 5.2AU where water ice is thought to be stable throughout the history of the Solar System. The results of this study will greatly contribute to understand the origin and history of these objects.

  19. Protective Effects of Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) in Myocardial Ischaemia and Reperfusion Injury in VIVO.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Cordaro, Marika; Crupi, Rosalia; Siracusa, Rosalba; Campolo, Michela; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Fusco, Roberta; Pugliatti, Pietro; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death, occurs after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries. Restore blood flow is the first intervention help against heart attack. However, reperfusion of the arteries leads to ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). The fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous compound widely present in living organisms, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study evaluated the effect of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) treatment on the inflammatory process associated with myocardial I/R. Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. PEA-um, was administered (10 mg/kg) 15 min after ischemia and 1 h after reperfusion. In this study, we demonstrated that PEA-um treatment reduces myocardial tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, P-selectin) expression, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) production, nitrotyrosine and PAR formation, nuclear factor kB expression, and apoptosis (Fas-L, Bcl-2) activation. In addition to study whether the protective effect of PEA-um on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury is also related to the activation of PPAR-α, in a separate set of experiments it has been performed myocardial I/R in PPARα mice. Genetic ablation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α in PPAR-αKO mice exacerbated Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury when compared with PPAR-αWT mice. PEA-um induced cardioprotection in PPAR-α wild-type mice, but the same effect cannot be observed in PPAR-αKO mice. Our results have clearly shown a modulation of the inflammatory process, associated with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, following administration of PEA-um. PMID:26844976

  20. Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, retaining wall at First U.M. Churchdetail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, retaining wall at First U.M. Church-detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 1.1-2.4um spectra of 7 young M and L dwarfs (Manjavacas+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjavacas, E.; Bonnefoy, M.; Schlieder, J. E.; Allard, F.; Rojo, P.; Goldman, B.; Chauvin, G.; Homeier, D.; Lodieu, N.; Henning, T.

    2014-02-01

    Our targets were observed with the Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) ath the UT3 telescope. The instrument was operated in low-resolution mode with the 0.3" slit at central wavelengths 1.25um, 1.65um, and 2.2um. This setup provides spectra with resolving powers of ~1700, 1600, and 1500 from 1.1-1.4um (J band), 1.42-1.82um (H band), and 1.82-2.5um (K band). (2 data files).

  2. Isolation of UmRrm75, a gene involved in dimorphism and virulence of Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Baeza-Montañez, Lourdes; García-Pedrajas, María D; Tapia-Moreno, Alejandro; Gold, Scott; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2012-05-20

    Ustilago maydis displays dimorphic growth, alternating between a saprophytic haploid yeast form and a filamentous dikaryon, generated by mating of haploid cells and which is an obligate parasite. Induction of the dimorphic transition of haploid strains in vitro by change in ambient pH has been used to understand the mechanisms governing this differentiation process. In this study we used suppression subtractive hybridization to generate a cDNA library of U. maydis genes up-regulated in the filamentous form induced in vitro at acid pH. Expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR showed that the induction of two unigenes identified in this library coincided with the establishment of filamentous growth in the acid pH medium. This expression pattern suggested that they were specifically associated to hyphal development rather than merely acid pH-induced genes. One of these genes, UmRrm75, encodes a protein containing three RNA recognition motifs and glycine-rich repeats and was selected for further study. The UmRrm75 gene contains 4 introns, and produces a splicing variant by a 3'-alternative splicing site within the third exon. Mutants deleted for UmRrm75 showed a slower growth rate than wild type strains in liquid and solid media, and their colonies showed a donut-like morphology on solid medium. Interestingly, although ΔUmRrm75 strains were not affected in filamentous growth induced by acid pH and oleic acid, they exhibited reduced mating, post-mating filamentous growth and virulence. Our data suggest that UmRrm75 is probably involved in cell growth, morphogenesis, and pathogenicity in U. maydis.

  3. The merging dwarf galaxy UM 448: chemodynamics of the ionized gas from VLT integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Barlow, M. J.; Walsh, J. R.; Westmoquette, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Using Very Large Telescope/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph optical integral field unit observations, we present a detailed study of UM 448, a nearby blue compact galaxy (BCG) previously reported to have an anomalously high N/O abundance ratio. New Technology Telescope/Superb-Seeing Imager images reveal a morphology suggestive of a merger of two systems of contrasting colour, whilst our Hα emission maps resolve UM 448 into three separate regions that do not coincide with the stellar continuum peaks. UM 448 exhibits complex emission line profiles, with most lines consisting of a narrow [full width at half-maximum (FWHM) ≲ 100 km s-1], central component, an underlying broad component (FWHM ˜ 150-300 km s-1) and a third, narrow blueshifted component. Radial velocity maps of all three components show signs of solid body rotation across UM 448, with a projected rotation axis that correlates with the continuum morphology of the galaxy. A spatially resolved, chemodynamical analysis, based on the [O iii] λλ4363, 4959, [N ii] λ6584, [S ii] λλ6716, 6731 and [Ne iii] λ3868 line maps, is presented. Whilst the eastern tail of UM 448 has electron temperatures (Te) that are typical of BCGs, we find a region within the main body of the galaxy where the narrow and broad [O iii] λ4363 line components trace temperatures differing by 5000 K and oxygen abundances differing by 0.4 dex. We measure spatially resolved and integrated ionic and elemental abundances for O, N, S and Ne throughout UM 448, and find that they do not agree, possibly due the flux weighting of Te from the integrated spectrum. This has significant implications for abundances derived from long-slit and integrated spectra of star-forming galaxies in the nearby and distant universe. A region of enhanced N/O ratio is indeed found, extended over a ˜0.6 kpc2 region within the main body of the galaxy. Contrary to previous studies, however, we do not find evidence for a large Wolf-Rayet (WR

  4. Observations of the new gravitational lens system UM 673 = Q 0142-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdej, J.; Magain, P.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Kayer, R.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kuhr, H.; Refsdal, S.

    1988-06-01

    The authors have recently initiated a high resolution direct imaging survey of a selected sample of highly luminous quasars (HLQs). The observations are carried out with the 2.2 m telescope at ESO, and with the VLA at the NRAO, New Mexico. Following the first observing run at ESO, the authors have reported the discovery of a new gravitational lens system for the HLQ UM 673 = Q 0142-100. Additional observations supporting this interpretation are discussed here. Application of gravitational optometry to this system is given: a value of M0 = 2.4×1011M_sun; is derived for the mass of the lensing galaxy located between UM 673 A and B and a most likely estimate of Δt = 7 weeks is found for the expected delay between the arrival times of a similar variability event in the two lensed images of the quasar (H0 = 75 km s-1Mpc-1, q0 = 0).

  5. Fermentation optimization for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions and medium for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01 were investigated by using orthogonal design and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angel laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID). Results showed that the optimal temperature, initial pH, rotation speed, medium capacity (ratio of medium volume to the volume of flask bottle) and inoculums volume for the mycelium growth were 15 °C, pH 6.0, 150 rpm, 2/5 (v/v), and 3% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of C. sinensis fungus UM01 were determined as polysaccharide fractions with the molecular weight above 10 kDa. The optimal fermentation medium was determined as a composition of glucose 30.0 g/L, sucrose 30.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, CaCl2 0.5 g/L, yeast extract 3.0 g/L, and MgCl2 0.1g/L according to the maximum amount of the bioactive polysaccharides (486.16±19.60 mg/L) measured by HPSEC-MALLS/RID. Results are helpful to establish an efficient and controllable fermentation process for the industrial production of bioactive polysaccharides from C. sinensis UM01, and beneficial to develop a unique health and functional product in future. PMID:25936285

  6. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2003-08-01

    A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

  7. Design of a ROIC with 15um pitch for MWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qinghua; Jiang, Dazhao; Chen, Honglei; Zhang, Qiwen; Ding, Ruijun

    2015-10-01

    A 640×512 readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with 15um pixel pitch for middle-wave infrared focal plane arrays (MWIR FPAs) is designed in this paper. The 15um pixel pitch presents several challenges to the ROIC design, such as achieving the required charge storage capacity to preserve the high SNR and reading or processing the pixel signals correctly to achieve the required frame rate. A novel structure that four neighboring pixels share one integration capacitor is presented as a feasible approach to getting a large charge capacity in the limited pixel area. Meanwhile, the pixel circuit chooses the direct injection (DI) which occupies the small layout area as the input stage for MW and contains two sample and hold modules to further increase the charge capacity. Moreover,the peripheral analog signal chain circuit, which is composed of a PMOS source follower, a column amplifier and the complementary output stage, is designed to transfer the signals from unit cell with less voltage loss,lower power consumption, lower noise and higher linearity. More importantly, in our design, only half chain circuit are required therefore the corresponding power consumption will be reduced greatly. In order to accommodate this design, two kinds of pixel signal readout sequences are compared. By adopting the 0.18um 1P6M mixed signal CMOS process, the circuit architecture can make the effective charge capacity of 13Me- per pixel with 1.38V final output range. The 4×4 circuit layout will be fulfilled as a whole and in this way the effective integration capacitor can be increased. According to the simulation results, this circuit works well under 3.3V power supply and achieves 10MHZ readout rate and less than 0.1% nonlinearity.

  8. The UM-Dearborn Observatory: Variable-object Research from an Urban Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyne, Elisabeth; Clarkson, William I.; Rasmussen, Eric J; Bord, Donald J.; Dage, Kristen; Matzke, David; Swift, Carrie

    2014-06-01

    Since its construction in 2007, the UM-Dearborn Observatory has provided a valuable educational tool both for students at UM-Dearborn and our neighbor-institution the Henry Ford Community College, and for the public at-large. We have recently (Jan 2014) added a systematic long-term research program with our 0.4m main telescope, to photometrically monitor a number of bright variable objects, including X-ray binaries and chemically-peculiar metal-poor stars over long timescales. We ultimately envision assembling a photometric database of (at least) four-color photometry over years-decades (i.e., many hundreds of orbital timescales for close binaries), with the preponderance of datapoints taken by undergraduates. To conduct this program, we have had to overcome a number of site challenges, the solutions of which will be useful to many programs using small telescopes at urban sites. The 0.4m telescope lies on a shared building within UM-Dearborn's main Fairlane campus - i.e., is about 20 meters above sea level, near several sources of water vapor (including an active steam vent less than 15 meters away), experiences significant mechanical vibrations from other building functions, and lies about 6 miles from central Detroit, well within the Detroit-Ann Arbor conurbation. Observing conditions are thus highly variable, with 5 arcsecond seeing typical and significant transparency variations observed even during a clear night. Nevertheless, we are now able to make scientifically useful observations in a semi-automatic way, to which our chosen scientific niche is well-suited. We present here our solutions to these challenges, along with initial results from our ongoing monitoring program.

  9. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  10. Traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum par plaque vissée

    PubMed Central

    Hammou, Nassreddine; Abid, Hatim; Shimi, Mohammed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures du calcanéum sont peu fréquentes mais le plus souvent graves. Le traitement chirurgical par plaque vissée est ardemment défendu. L'objectif de notre travail rétrospectif est d’évaluer les résultats du traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum à travers une série de 12 patients opérée aux service d'orthopédie du CHU Hassan II de Fès sur une durée de 3 ans, et les comparer aux données de la littérature. L’âge moyen dans notre série était de 34 ans, le geste opératoire était réalisé au 7ème jour. Tous nos patient ont bénéficie d'une réduction à foyer ouvert avec une ostéosynthèse par plaques vissées. Le recul moyen était de 12 mois et les résultats fonctionnels ont été évaluer selon le score de Kitaoka. PMID:26161214

  11. Uh and um in children with autism spectrum disorders or language impairment.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Kyle; Olson, Lindsay; Hill, Alison Presmanes; Lunsford, Rebecca; Heeman, Peter A; van Santen, Jan P H

    2016-08-01

    Atypical pragmatic language is often present in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with delays or deficits in structural language. This study investigated the use of the "fillers" uh and um by children ages 4-8 during the autism diagnostic observation schedule. Fillers reflect speakers' difficulties with planning and delivering speech, but they also serve communicative purposes, such as negotiating control of the floor or conveying uncertainty. We hypothesized that children with ASD would use different patterns of fillers compared to peers with typical development or with specific language impairment (SLI), reflecting differences in social ability and communicative intent. Regression analyses revealed that children in the ASD group were much less likely to use um than children in the other two groups. Filler use is an easy-to-quantify feature of behavior that, in concert with other observations, may help to distinguish ASD from SLI. Autism Res 2016, 9: 854-865. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26800246

  12. Uh and um in children with autism spectrum disorders or language impairment.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Kyle; Olson, Lindsay; Hill, Alison Presmanes; Lunsford, Rebecca; Heeman, Peter A; van Santen, Jan P H

    2016-08-01

    Atypical pragmatic language is often present in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with delays or deficits in structural language. This study investigated the use of the "fillers" uh and um by children ages 4-8 during the autism diagnostic observation schedule. Fillers reflect speakers' difficulties with planning and delivering speech, but they also serve communicative purposes, such as negotiating control of the floor or conveying uncertainty. We hypothesized that children with ASD would use different patterns of fillers compared to peers with typical development or with specific language impairment (SLI), reflecting differences in social ability and communicative intent. Regression analyses revealed that children in the ASD group were much less likely to use um than children in the other two groups. Filler use is an easy-to-quantify feature of behavior that, in concert with other observations, may help to distinguish ASD from SLI. Autism Res 2016, 9: 854-865. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Clinical Performance and Management Outcomes with the DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test in a Prospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Plasseraud, Kristen Meldi; Tsai, Tony; Shildkrot, Yevgeniy; Middlebrook, Brooke; Maetzold, Derek; Wilkinson, Jeff; Stone, John; Johnson, Clare; Oelschlager, Kristen; Aaberg, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma management is challenging due to its metastatic propensity. DecisionDx-UM is a prospectively validated molecular test that interrogates primary tumor biology to provide objective information about metastatic potential that can be used in determining appropriate patient care. To evaluate the continued clinical validity and utility of DecisionDx-UM, beginning March 2010, 70 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, IRB-approved study to document patient management differences and clinical outcomes associated with low-risk Class 1 and high-risk Class 2 results indicated by DecisionDx-UM testing. Thirty-seven patients in the prospective study were Class 1 and 33 were Class 2. Class 1 patients had 100% 3-year metastasis-free survival compared to 63% for Class 2 (log rank test p = 0.003) with 27.3 median follow-up months in this interim analysis. Class 2 patients received significantly higher-intensity monitoring and more oncology/clinical trial referrals compared to Class 1 patients (Fisher's exact test p = 2.1 × 10−13 and p = 0.04, resp.). The results of this study provide additional, prospective evidence in an independent cohort of patients that Class 1 and Class 2 patients are managed according to the differential metastatic risk indicated by DecisionDx-UM. The trial is registered with Clinical Application of DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Assay Results (NCT02376920). PMID:27446211

  14. "Uh," "Um," and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Christina A.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Filler disfluencies--"uh" and "um"--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an "optimal outcome" (OO), as well as in peers with typical…

  15. Correlated magnetic resonance imaging and ultramicroscopy (MR-UM) is a tool kit to assess the dynamics of glioma angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Breckwoldt, Michael O; Bode, Julia; Kurz, Felix T; Hoffmann, Angelika; Ochs, Katharina; Ott, Martina; Deumelandt, Katrin; Krüwel, Thomas; Schwarz, Daniel; Fischer, Manuel; Helluy, Xavier; Milford, David; Kirschbaum, Klara; Solecki, Gergely; Chiblak, Sara; Abdollahi, Amir; Winkler, Frank; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Tews, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis is a pivotal therapeutic target in glioblastoma. Tumor monitoring requires imaging methods to assess treatment effects and disease progression. Until now mapping of the tumor vasculature has been difficult. We have developed a combined magnetic resonance and optical toolkit to study neoangiogenesis in glioma models. We use in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlative ultramicroscopy (UM) of ex vivo cleared whole brains to track neovascularization. T2* imaging allows the identification of single vessels in glioma development and the quantification of neovessels over time. Pharmacological VEGF inhibition leads to partial vascular normalization with decreased vessel caliber, density, and permeability. To further resolve the tumor microvasculature, we performed correlated UM of fluorescently labeled microvessels in cleared brains. UM resolved typical features of neoangiogenesis and tumor cell invasion with a spatial resolution of ~5 µm. MR-UM can be used as a platform for three-dimensional mapping and high-resolution quantification of tumor angiogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11712.001 PMID:26830460

  16. Microwave-Assisted Extraction, Chemical Structures, and Chain Conformation of Polysaccharides from a Novel Cordyceps Sinensis Fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wang, Lan-Ying; Wu, Ding-Tao; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a well-known tonic food with broad medicinal properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and characterize chemical structures and chain conformation of polysaccharides from a novel C. sinensis fungus UM01. Ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify the polysaccharides. The chemical structure of purified polysaccharide was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with refractive index detector and multiangle laser light scattering were conducted to analyze the molecular weight (Mw ) and chain conformation of purified polysaccharide. Based on the orthogonal design L9 , optimal MAE conditions could be obtained through 1300 W of microwave power, with a 5-min irradiation time at a solid to water ratio of 1:60, generating the highest extraction yield of 6.20%. Subsequently, the polysaccharide UM01-S1 was purified. The UM01-S1 is a glucan-type polysaccharide with a (1→4)-β-d-glucosyl backbone and branching points located at O-3 of Glcp with a terminal-d-Glcp. The Mw , radius of gyration (Rg ) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) of UM01-S1 were determined as 5.442 × 10(6)  Da, 21.8 and 20.2 nm, respectively. Using the polymer solution theory, the exponent (ν) value of the power law function was calculated as 0.38, and the shape factor (ρ = Rg /Rh ) was 1.079, indicating that UM01-S1 has a sphere-like conformation with a branched structure in an aqueous solution. These results provide fundamental information for the future application of polysaccharides from cultured C. sinensis in health and functional food area. PMID:27514485

  17. Ford/BASF/UM Activities in Support of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Veenstra, Mike; Purewal, Justin; Xu, Chunchuan; Yang, Jun; Blaser, Rachel; Sudik, Andrea; Siegel, Don; Ming, Yang; Liu, Dong'an; Chi, Hang; Gaab, Manuela; Arnold, Lena; Muller, Ulrich

    2015-06-30

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically on the development of low-cost, on-board hydrogen storage technologies capable of achieving high energy densities and fast kinetics for hydrogen uptake and release. As present-day technologies -- which rely on physical storage methods such as compressed hydrogen -- are incapable of attaining established Department of Energy (DOE) targets, development of materials-based approaches for storing hydrogen have garnered increasing attention. Material-based storage technologies have potential to store hydrogen beyond twice the density of liquid hydrogen. To hasten development of these ‘hydride’ materials, the DOE previously established three centers of excellence for materials storage R&D associated with the key classes of materials: metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen, and adsorbents. While these centers made progress in identifying new storage materials, the challenges associated with the engineering of the system around a candidate storage material are in need of further advancement. In 2009 the DOE established the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence with the objective of developing innovative engineering concepts for materials-based hydrogen storage systems. As a partner in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence, the Ford-UM-BASF team conducted a multi-faceted research program that addresses key engineering challenges associated with the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems. First, we developed a novel framework that allowed for a material-based hydrogen storage system to be modeled and operated within a virtual fuel cell vehicle. This effort resulted in the ability to assess dynamic operating parameters and interactions between the storage system and fuel cell power plant, including the evaluation of performance throughout various drive cycles. Second, we engaged in cost modeling of various incarnations of the storage systems. This analysis

  18. Estimation of broadband emissivity (8-12 um) from ASTER data by using RM-NN.

    PubMed

    Mao, K B; Ma, Y; Shen, X Y; Li, B P; Li, C Y; Li, Z L

    2012-08-27

    Land surface window emissivity is a key parameter for estimating the longwave radiative budget. The combined radiative transfer model (RM) with neural network (NN) algorithm is utilized to directly estimate the window (8-12 um) emissivity from the brightness temperature of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with 90 m spatial resolution. Although the estimation accuracy is very high when the broadband emissivity is estimated from AST05 (ASTER Standard Data Product) by using regression method, the accuracy of AST05 is about ± 0.015 for 86 spectra which is determined by the atmosphere correction for ASTER 1B data. The MODTRAN 4 is used to simulate the process of radiance transfer, and the broadband emissivity is directly estimated from the brightness temperature of ASTER 1B data at satellite. The comparison analysis indicates that the RM-NN is more competent to estimate broadband emissivity than other method when the brightness temperatures of band 11, 12, 13, 14 are made as input nodes of dynamic neural network. The estimation average accuracy is about 0.009, and the estimation results are not sensitive to instrument noise. The RM-NN is applied to extract broadband emissivity from an image of ASTER 1B data in China, and the comparison against a classification based multiple bands with 15 m spatial resolution shows that the estimation results from RM-NN are very good.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A dust model for bet Pic from 0.58 to 870um (Ballering+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballering, N. P.; Su, K. Y. L.; Rieke, G. H.; Gaspar, A.

    2016-08-01

    β Pic was imaged with the HST/STIS CCD in coronagraphic (50CORON) mode under program GO-12551 (PI: Apai), and the results of these observations were published in Apai et al. (2015ApJ...800..136A). The instrument bandpass is set by the response of the CCD and centered at 0.58um. We searched the HST archive and found previously unpublished observations of β Pic with the WFC3 instrument in the IR channel (filter F110W at ~1.16um) from program GO-11150 (PI: Graham). The Spitzer/MIPS observations of β Pic were taken under the Spitzer Guaranteed Time Observing Program 90 (PI: M. Werner). The data at all three bands (24, 70, and 160um) are published here for the first time. Two sets of 24um observations were obtained. The first set was obtained on 2004 March 20, the second set of data was obtained on 2004 April 11. Two sets of 70um observations were obtained. The first set was obtained on 2004 April 12. The second set was obtained on 2005 April 4. Herschel/PACS 70um scan map observations of β Pic (PI G. Olofsson, observation IDs 1342186612 and 1342186613) were published by Vandenbussche et al. (2010A&A...518L.133V). We used the ALMA 870um continuum image previously published by Dent et al. (2014Sci...343.1490D). (1 data file).

  20. UM 625 REVISITED: MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF A SEYFERT 1 GALAXY WITH A LOW-MASS BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Ning; Dong Xiaobo; Yang Huan; Wang Junxian; Ho, Luis C. E-mail: xbdong@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-06-10

    UM 625, previously identified as a narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN), actually exhibits broad H{alpha} and H{beta} lines whose width and luminosity indicate a low black hole (BH) mass of 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. We present a detailed multiwavelength study of the nuclear and host galaxy properties of UM 625. Analysis of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations suggests that this system contains a heavily absorbed and intrinsically X-ray weak ({alpha}{sub ox} = -1.72) nucleus. Although not strong enough to qualify as radio loud, UM 625 does belong to a minority of low-mass AGNs detected in the radio. The broadband spectral energy distribution constrains the bolometric luminosity to L{sub bol} Almost-Equal-To (0.5-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} and L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} Almost-Equal-To 0.02-0.15. A comprehensive analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Hubble Space Telescope images shows that UM 625 is a nearly face-on S0 galaxy with a prominent, relatively blue pseudobulge (Sersic index n = 1.60) that accounts for {approx}60% of the total light in the R band. The extended disk is featureless, but the central {approx}150-400 pc contains a conspicuous semi-ring of bright, blue star-forming knots, whose integrated ultraviolet luminosity suggests a star formation rate of {approx}0.3 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The mass of the central BH roughly agrees with the value predicted from its bulge velocity dispersion but is significantly lower than that expected from its bulge luminosity.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA 870um obs. of HerMES galaxies (Bussmann+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Riechers, D.; Fialkov, A.; Scudder, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Cowley, W. I.; Bock, J.; Calanog, J.; Chapman, S. C.; Cooray, A.; de Bernardis, F.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Gavazzi, R.; Hopwood, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Loeb, A.; Oliver, S. J.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, D.; Smith, A. J.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2016-02-01

    ALMA 870um data were obtained during Cycle 0 from 2012 June to December (Program 2011.0.00539.S; PI: D. Riechers). Optical imaging observations (ugriz) using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph-South (GMOS-S) were conducted in queue mode during the 2013B semester as part of program GS-2013B-Q-77 (PI: R. S. Bussmann). (3 data files).

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: [NII]205um emission in local luminous IR galaxies (Zhao+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Lu, N.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Lord, S. D.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Evans, A.; Howell, J.; Petric, A. O.; van der Werf, P. P.; Sanders, D. B.

    2016-05-01

    The primary sample studied in this paper is from the Herschel open time project Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (OT1nlu1; PI: N. Lu). The observations were conducted with the Herschel SPIRE/FTS in its point source spectroscopy mode and high spectral resolution configuration, yielding a spectral resolution of 0.04/cm (or 1.2GHz) over the spectral coverage of 194-672um. (1 data file).

  3. Project UM-HAUL: A self-unloading reusable lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The establishment of a lunar base is technologically and financially challenging. Given the necessary resources and political support, it can be done. In addition to the geopolitical obstacles, however, there are logistical problems involved in establishing such bases that can only be overcome with the acquisition of a significant transportation and communications network in the Earth-Moon spatial region. Considering the significant number of payloads that will be required in this process, the mass-specific cost of launching these payloads, and the added risk and cost of human presence in space, it is clearly desirable to automate major parts of such an operation. One very costly and time-consuming factor in this picture is the delivery of payloads to the Moon. Foreseeable payloads would include atmospheric modules, inflatable habitat kits, energy and oxygen plant elements, ground vehicles, laboratory modules, crew supplies, etc. The duration of high-risk human presence on the Moon could be greatly reduced if all such payloads were delivered to the prospective base site in advance of crew arrival. In this view, the idea of a 'Self-Unloading Reusable Lunar Lander' (SURLL) arises naturally. The general scenario depicts the lander being brought to low lunar orbit (LLO) from Earth atop a generic Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). From LLO, the lander shuttles payloads down to the lunar surface, where, by means of some resident, detachable unloading device, it deploys the payloads and returns to orbit. The general goal is for the system to perform with maximum payload capability, automation, and reliability, while also minimizing environmental hazards, servicing needs, and mission costs. Our response to this demand is UM-HAUL, or the UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander. The complete study includes a system description, along with a preliminary cost analysis and a design status assessment.

  4. The response of chemistry and climate to the 11-year solar cycle in UM-UKCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarz, Ewa; Telford, Paul; Maycock, Amanda; Abraham, Luke; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John

    2014-05-01

    It is now generally agreed that the UV variability associated with the 11-year solar cycle leads to changes in ozone and temperature in the upper stratosphere. In addition, a range of observational and modelling studies suggest that such changes are the starting point for a chain of processes (including feedbacks) resulting in circulation changes in many areas of the atmosphere. However, precise details of the interactions between chemistry and meteorology induced by solar variability remain under question. In our study, we use a version of the UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model with consistent spectrally-resolved solar variability. While the solar cycle in heating rates has been applied with the method used in HadGEM2-ES, fine spectrally-resolved solar variability has been uniquely incorporated into the Fast-JX photolysis scheme. We perform two 50-year-long perpetual year solar maximum and solar minimum integrations and complement them with a three member ensemble of a transient 1960-2010 integration in which boundary conditions correspond by and large to the CCMI Ref-C1 scenario. We show how the inferred solar signals vary between the individual experiments. This indicates high natural variability and the resulting contamination of the solar signal with contributions from other processes as well as the existence of possible non-linearities between the solar cycle and other atmospheric forcings. Therefore, we highlight that long data series are needed to ensure correct attribution of the modelled and observed anomalies. In addition, we present results from two perpetual year experiments in which the solar cycle was applied exclusively in either short-wave heating or photolysis. We find large non-linearities in the modelled anomalies as compared to the realistic integration with both modulations included. This highlights the subtle nature of the dynamical response to the solar cycle forcing and indicates the need for interactive chemistry with a detailed photolysis

  5. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  6. Genome Anatomy of Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis UM 256, a Multidrug Resistant Strain Isolated from Skin Scraping.

    PubMed

    Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng; Kuan, Chee Sian

    2016-01-01

    Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is a rare human pathogen that causes infection in human skin and nail. P. unguis-hominis has received little attention, and thus, the basic biology and pathogenicity of this fungus is not fully understood. In this study, we performed in-depth analysis of the P. unguis-hominis UM 256 genome that was isolated from the skin scraping of a dermatitis patient. The isolate was identified to species level using a comprehensive multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pyrenochaeta. The assembled UM 256 genome has a size of 35.5 Mb and encodes 12,545 putative genes, and 0.34% of the assembled genome is predicted transposable elements. Its genomic features propose that the fungus is a heterothallic fungus that encodes a wide array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, peptidases, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes. Antifungal drug resistance genes including MDR, CDR, and ERG11/CYP51 were identified in P. unguis-hominis UM 256, which may confer resistance to this fungus. The genome analysis of P. unguis-hominis provides an insight into molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyles, understanding the unrevealed biology of antifungal resistance in this fungus. PMID:27626635

  7. Design, fabrication and testing of 17um pitch 640x480 uncooled infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Chi, Jiguang; Qian, Liangshan; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIRFPA) detectors are widely used in industrial thermography cameras, night vision goggles, thermal weapon sights, as well as automotive night vision systems. To meet the market requirement for smaller pixel pitch and higher resolution, we have developed a 17um pitch 640x480 UIRFPA detector. The detector is based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) microbolometer technology, the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is designed and manufactured with 0.35um standard CMOS technology on 8 inch wafer, the microbolometer is fabricated monolithically on the ROIC using an unique surface micromachining process developed inside the company, the fabricated detector is vacuum packaged with hermetic metal package and tested. In this paper we present the design, fabrication and testing of the 17um 640x480 detector. The design trade-off of the detector ROIC and pixel micro-bridge structure will be discussed, by comparison the calculation and simulation to the testing results. The novel surface micromachining process using silicon sacrificial layer will be presented, which is more compatible with the CMOS process than the traditional process with polyimide sacrificial layer, and resulted in good processing stability and high fabrication yield. The performance of the detector is tested, with temperature equivalent temperature difference (NETD) less than 60mK at F/1 aperture, operability better than 99.5%. The results demonstrate that the detector can meet the requirements of most thermography and night vision applications.

  8. Genome Anatomy of Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis UM 256, a Multidrug Resistant Strain Isolated from Skin Scraping

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2016-01-01

    Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is a rare human pathogen that causes infection in human skin and nail. P. unguis-hominis has received little attention, and thus, the basic biology and pathogenicity of this fungus is not fully understood. In this study, we performed in-depth analysis of the P. unguis-hominis UM 256 genome that was isolated from the skin scraping of a dermatitis patient. The isolate was identified to species level using a comprehensive multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pyrenochaeta. The assembled UM 256 genome has a size of 35.5 Mb and encodes 12,545 putative genes, and 0.34% of the assembled genome is predicted transposable elements. Its genomic features propose that the fungus is a heterothallic fungus that encodes a wide array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, peptidases, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes. Antifungal drug resistance genes including MDR, CDR, and ERG11/CYP51 were identified in P. unguis-hominis UM 256, which may confer resistance to this fungus. The genome analysis of P. unguis-hominis provides an insight into molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyles, understanding the unrevealed biology of antifungal resistance in this fungus. PMID:27626635

  9. UM-SCC-104: a new human papillomavirus-16 containing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Alice L.; Davis, Samantha J.; Owen, John H.; Graham, Martin P.; Czerwinski, Michael J.; Park, Jung Je; Walline, Heather; Stoerker, Jay; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Chepeha, Douglas; Bradford, Carol R.; Carey, Thomas E.; Prince, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines exist. We established UM-SCC-104, a new HPV(+) HNSCC cell linefrom a recurrent oral cavity tumor, and characterized it for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC). METHODS Tumor cells were tested for biomarker expression by immunohistology and the presence of HPV was assessed by several methods. RESULTS UM-SCC-104 has a unique genotype, contains HPV-16 and expresses E6/E7. Inoculation of (Aldehyde Dehydrogenase) ALDH(+) and ALDH(−) cells in an immunocompromised mouse resulted in tumor growth from the ALDH(+) cells after 6 weeks that recapitulated the histology of the primary, while ALDH(−) cells did not produce tumors. CONCLUSIONS UM-SCC-104, a new HPV-16, CSC-containing HNSCC cell line will aid in studying recurrent HPV(+) tumors. The aggressive nature of this tumor is consistent with high uniform expression of EGFR and a functionally significant proportion of ALDH(+) CSC. PMID:22162267

  10. User's manual (UM) for the enhanced logistics intratheater support tool (ELIST) database utility segment version 8.1.0.0 for solaris 7.

    SciTech Connect

    Dritz, K.

    2002-03-06

    This document is the User's Manual (UM) for the Enhanced Logistics Intratheater Support Tool (ELIST) Database Utility Segment. It tells how to use its features to administer ELIST database user accounts.

  11. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  12. Microwave window breakdown experiments and simulations on the UM/L-3 relativistic magnetron.

    PubMed

    Hoff, B W; Mardahl, P J; Gilgenbach, R M; Haworth, M D; French, D M; Lau, Y Y; Franzi, M

    2009-09-01

    Experiments have been performed on the UM/L-3 (6-vane, L-band) relativistic magnetron to test a new microwave window configuration designed to limit vacuum side breakdown. In the baseline case, acrylic microwave windows were mounted between three of the waveguide coupling cavities in the anode block vacuum housing and the output waveguides. Each of the six 3 cm deep coupling cavities is separated from its corresponding anode cavity by a 1.75 cm wide aperture. In the baseline case, vacuum side window breakdown was observed to initiate at single waveguide output powers close to 20 MW. In the new window configuration, three Air Force Research Laboratory-designed, vacuum-rated directional coupler waveguide segments were mounted between the coupling cavities and the microwave windows. The inclusion of the vacuum side power couplers moved the microwave windows an additional 30 cm away from the anode apertures. Additionally, the Lucite microwave windows were replaced with polycarbonate windows and the microwave window mounts were redesigned to better maintain waveguide continuity in the region around the microwave windows. No vacuum side window breakdown was observed in the new window configuration at single waveguide output powers of 120+MW (a factor of 3 increase in measured microwave pulse duration and factor of 3 increase in measured peak power over the baseline case). Simulations were performed to investigate likely causes for the window breakdown in the original configuration. Results from these simulations have shown that in the original configuration, at typical operating voltage and magnetic field ranges, electrons emitted from the anode block microwave apertures strike the windows with a mean kinetic energy of 33 keV with a standard deviation of 14 keV. Calculations performed using electron impact angle and energy data predict a first generation secondary electron yield of 65% of the primary electron population. The effects of the primary aperture electron

  13. NE VIII lambda 774 and time variable associated absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa; Lyons, R.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption system of the z(sub e) = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at z(sub a) = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from z(sub e) strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 10(exp 18)/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 10(exp 20)/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link z(sub a) approximately equal to z(sub e) systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the

  14. The U. S. Geological Survey, Digital Spectral Library: Version 1 (0.2 to 3.0um)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Gallagher, Andrea J.; King, Trude V.V.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a digital reflectance spectral library, with management and spectral analysis software. The library includes 498 spectra of 444 samples (some samples include a series of grain sizes) measured from approximately 0.2 to 3.0 um . The spectral resolution (Full Width Half Maximum) of the reflectance data is <= 4 nm in the visible (0.2-0.8 um) and <= 10 nm in the NIR (0.8-2.35 um). All spectra were corrected to absolute reflectance using an NIST Halon standard. Library management software lets users search on parameters (e.g. chemical formulae, chemical analyses, purity of samples, mineral groups, etc.) as well as spectral features. Minerals from borate, carbonate, chloride, element, halide, hydroxide, nitrate, oxide, phosphate, sulfate, sulfide, sulfosalt, and the silicate (cyclosilicate, inosilicate, nesosilicate, phyllosilicate, sorosilicate, and tectosilicate) classes are represented. X-Ray and chemical analyses are tabulated for many of the entries, and all samples have been evaluated for spectral purity. The library also contains end and intermediate members for the olivine, garnet, scapolite, montmorillonite, muscovite, jarosite, and alunite solid-solution series. We have included representative spectra of H2O ice, kerogen, ammonium-bearing minerals, rare-earth oxides, desert varnish coatings, kaolinite crystallinity series, kaolinite-smectite series, zeolite series, and an extensive evaporite series. Because of the importance of vegetation to climate-change studies we have include 17 spectra of tree leaves, bushes, and grasses. The library and software are available as a series of U.S.G.S. Open File reports. PC user software is available to convert the binary data to ascii files (a separate U.S.G.S. open file report). Additionally, a binary data files are on line at the U.S.G.S. in Denver for anonymous ftp to users on the Internet. The library search software enables a user to search on documentation parameters as well as spectral features. The

  15. Um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Há uma enorme carência de materiais didático-pedagógicos em astronomia para professores do ensino médio, sobretudo materiais que explorem também aspectos humanísticos. A origem do Universo é um bom exemplo desta constatação central. Embora tal origem teve explicações culturais diversas, os professores não têm informações sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes visões de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abordá-las devidamente. Conseqüentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas visões de Universo: espontâneas, autóctones e científicas. Desenvolvemos práticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoção de um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio, no qual as culturas humanística e científica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pública de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores à abordagem proposta e os resultados alcançados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produção de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de práticas didático-pedagógicas específicas (e.g., encenação de mitos; dança primordial guarani; "criação" de constelações e interpretações pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestões concretas para a efetiva realização de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questões cosmogônicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e históricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  16. ON THE COMPACT H II GALAXY UM 408 AS SEEN BY GMOS-IFU: PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, Patricio; Telles, Eduardo; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo E-mail: etelles@on.br E-mail: rcarrasco@gemini.edu E-mail: gtt@inaoep.mx

    2009-06-15

    We present Integral Field Unit GMOS-IFU data of the compact H II galaxy UM 408, obtained at the Gemini South telescope, in order to derive the spatial distribution of emission lines and line ratios, kinematics, plasma parameters, and oxygen abundances as well the integrated properties over an area of 3''x4.''4 equivalent with {approx}750 pc x 1100 pc located in the central part of the galaxy. The starburst in this area is resolved into two giant regions of about 1.''5 and 1'' ({approx}375 and {approx}250 pc) diameter, respectively and separated 1.5-2'' ({approx}500 pc). The extinction distribution concentrate its highest values close but not coincident with the maxima of H{alpha} emission around each one of the detected regions. This indicates that the dust has been displaced from the exciting clusters by the action of their stellar winds. The ages of these two regions, estimated using H{beta} equivalent widths, suggest that they are coeval events of {approx}5 Myr with stellar masses of {approx}10{sup 4} M {sub sun}. We have also used [O III]/H{beta} and [S II]/H{alpha} ratio maps to explore the excitation mechanisms in this galaxy. Comparing the data points with theoretical diagnostic models, we found that all of them are consistent with excitation by photoionization by massive stars. The H{alpha} emission line was used to measure the radial velocity and velocity dispersion. The heliocentric radial velocity shows an apparent systemic motion where the east part of the galaxy is blueshifted, while the west part is redshifted, with a relative motion of {approx}10 km s{sup -1}. The velocity dispersion map shows supersonic values typical for extragalactic H II regions. We derived an integrated oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.87 summing over all spaxels in our field of view. An average value of 12+log(O/H) = 7.77 and a difference of {delta}(O/H) = 0.47 between the minimum and maximum values (7.58 {+-} 0.06-8.05 {+-} 0.04) were found, considering all data points

  17. The short form of the recombinant CAL-A-type lipase UM03410 from the smut fungus Ustilago maydis exhibits an inherent trans-fatty acid selectivity.

    PubMed

    Brundiek, Henrike; Saß, Stefan; Evitt, Andrew; Kourist, Robert; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2012-04-01

    The Ustilago maydis lipase UM03410 belongs to the mostly unexplored Candida antarctica lipase (CAL-A) subfamily. The two lipases with [corrected] the highest identity are a lipase from Sporisorium reilianum and the prototypic CAL-A. In contrast to the other CAL-A-type lipases, this hypothetical U. maydis lipase is annotated to possess a prolonged N-terminus of unknown function. Here, we show for the first time the recombinant expression of two versions of lipase UM03410: the full-length form (lipUMf) and an Nterminally truncated form (lipUMs). For comparison to the prototype, the expression of recombinant CAL-A in E. coli was investigated. Although both forms of lipase UM03410 could be expressed functionally in E. coli, the N-terminally truncated form (lipUMs) demonstrated significantly higher activities towards p-nitrophenyl esters. The functional expression of the N-terminally truncated lipase was further optimized by the appropriate choice of the E. coli strain, lowering the cultivation temperature to 20 °C and enrichment of the cultivation medium with glucose. Primary characteristics of the recombinant lipase are its pH optimum in the range of 6.5-7.0 and its temperature optimum at 55 °C. As is typical for lipases, lipUM03410 shows preference for long chain fatty acid esters with myristic acid ester (C14:0 ester) being the most preferred one.More importantly, lipUMs exhibits an inherent preference for C18:1Δ9 trans and C18:1Δ11 trans-fatty acid esters similar to CAL-A. Therefore, the short form of this U. maydis lipase is the only other currently known lipase with a distinct trans-fatty acid selectivity.

  18. Geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic metasediments of Malhaq and Um Zariq formations, Kid metamorphic complex, Sinai, Egypt: Implications for source-area weathering, provenance, recycling, and depositional tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bialy, Mohammed Zaky

    2013-08-01

    The Um Zariq and Malhaq formations occupy roughly the northern half of the Kid metamorphic complex of SE Sinai, in the NE part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Um Zariq Formation metasediments are relicts of an old sedimentary sequence (Cryogenian; 813 ± 6 Ma), whereas the Malhaq Formation records several phases of Ediacaran sedimentation and volcanic activity (615-607 Ma). The Um Zariq Formation is mainly represented by well-bedded metapelitic schists, while the Malhaq Formation comprises a series of structureless to schistose felsic to intermediate metavolcanics interbedded with mica-rich phyllites and schists. The Um Zariq metasediments are depleted in SiO2, CaO and K2O and enriched in TiO2, Al2O3 and K2O relative to those of the Malhaq Formation. Aside from the relatively low Ni and Cr concentrations, compatible transition elements of these metasediments are comparable to average crustal contents. Except for marked Sr depletion, LILEs are around average continental crust values. Pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies and enrichment of Um Zariq samples in Th, U, Zr, Ti and Y relative to Malhaq ones are the main features of HFSEs. The REE patterns of all samples are parallel to sub-parallel LREE-enriched, with distinct negative Eu anomalies and weakly fractionated HREE segments. The source rocks of the Malhaq Formation metasediments underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering, whereas those of the Um Zariq Formation have suffered severe chemical weathering. These metasediments are predominately derived from felsic to intermediate igneous sources, with a particular slight addition from recycled sedimentary source to the Malhaq Formation metasediments. They are collectively geochemically immature and have suffered minor sedimentary recycling, with the experience of the Malhaq Formation metasediments from higher degree of sorting and reworking. The Malhaq and Um Zariq metasediments were originally deposited in a continental arc setting, most probably back

  19. Quantitation of deposition, clearance and routes of elimination of 3 um insoluble particles in the sheep lung

    SciTech Connect

    Langenback, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    This study is the first to completely determine the number of particles deposited in the lung, the number of particles cleared over a period of a hundred days and the pathways by which the particles exit the lungs. The study uses long lived radioactively (/sup 57/Co) tagged 3 um insoluble polystyrene particles to follow clearance in a sheep animal model. Particle clearance was characterized by 4 phases. Periodic sacrifice and autopsy showed no particle accumulation in regional lymph nodes draining the lung and no particle accumulation in the liver, spleen or kidneys. Urine and blood samples throughout clearance were devoid of particles, but fecal excretion of particles matched lung elimination of particles and mirrored clearance closely. Thus the avenues of long-term clearance of a 3 um polystrene particle has been established from the alveolar portion of the lung: virtually all particles cleared in 101 days were removed by transport from the alveoli to the mucociliary escalator, either as free particles and/or associated with macrophages and subsequently swallowed and excreted. Particles remaining in the lungs after 101 days continued to be cleared from the lungs via the mucociliary escalator with a t/sub 1/2/ = 38 days. This suggests that particles leave a sequestered state, re-enter the airways and are cleared.

  20. Um satélite brasileiro para observação do diâmetro solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Benevides Soares, P.; Teixeira, R.; Kuhn, J.

    2003-08-01

    Propomos uma missão espacial para medir a forma e o diâmetro solar com o objetivo de ajudar a determinar o potencial gravitacional do Sol e a sua rotação com precisão, testar modelos teóricos de variação de energia e pela primeira vez medir os modos g de oscilação. As observações serão obtidas através do instrumento denominado APT (Astrometric and Photometric Telescope) descrito por Kuhn(1983). A sensibilidade do instrumento é de 0,2 mas em 27 dias para as observações do diâmetro solar feitas a cada minuto. Esta é uma missão de três anos de duração e pode complementar as medidas que serão feitas pelo satélite PICARD (a ser lançado em 2007). Outros parâmetros físicos podem ser obtidos com as mesmas imagens o que certamente interessará à comunidade de física solar. Um primeiro contato foi realizado com a agência espacial brasileira que pretende lançar um satélite científico a cada dois anos.

  1. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the chromate resistance determinant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasmid pUM505.

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes, C; Ohtake, H; Chu, L; Misra, T K; Silver, S

    1990-01-01

    The chromate resistance determinant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasmid pUM505 was cloned into broad-host-range vector pSUP104. The hybrid plasmid containing an 11.1-kilobase insert conferred chromate resistance and reduced uptake of chromate in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Resistance to chromate was not expressed in Escherichia coli. Contiguous 1.6- and 6.3-kilobase HindIII fragments from this plasmid hybridized to pUM505 but not to P. aeruginosa chromosomal DNA and only weakly to chromate resistance plasmids pLHB1 and pMG6. Further subcloning produced a plasmid with an insert of 2,145 base pairs, which was sequenced. Analysis of deletions revealed that a single open reading frame was sufficient to determine chromate resistance. This open reading frame encodes a highly hydrophobic polypeptide, ChrA, of 416 amino acid residues that appeared to be expressed in E. coli under control of the T7 promoter. No significant homology was found between ChrA and proteins in the amino acid sequence libraries, but 29% amino acid identity was found with the ChrA amino acid sequence for another chromate resistance determinant sequenced in this laboratory from an Alcaligenes eutrophus plasmid (A. Nies, D. Nies, and S. Silver, submitted for publication). Images FIG. 3 FIG. 5 PMID:2152903

  2. Um estudo espectrofotométrico da variável cataclísmica V3885 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. M. A.; Diaz, M. P.

    2003-08-01

    Variáveis Cataclísmicas são sistemas binários cerrados compostos de uma anã vermelha que transfere matéria para uma anã branca, em sistemas não magnéticos ocorre a formação de um disco de acresção em torno da anã branca. V3885 Sgr é uma variável cataclísmica classificada como sendo do tipo nova-like. É apresentado um estudo espectrofotométrico de V3885 Sgr de alta resolução temporal feito na região do visível. A região observada é centrada em Ha e abrange também a linha de HeI 6678. O primeiro resultado obtido neste estudo é a determinação do período orbital a partir de medidas da velocidade radial da linha de Ha como sendo 0,20716071(22) dias, resolvendo inconsistências quanto a esse valor na literatura e definindo uma efeméride a longo prazo para o sistema. Com este período e as medidas de velocidade radial do perfil de linha de Ha foi construído um diagrama de massas, através do qual restringimos as massas das componentes estelares do sistema e limitamos a inclinação orbital do sistema. Foram construídos diagramas de Greenstein para as linhas de Ha e HeI, onde os espectros médios em cada intervalo de fase são representados lado a lado em escala de cinza, indicando a existência de uma emissão intensa proveniente da parte posterior do disco. A partir da tomografia Doppler obtivemos perfis de emissividade radial para o disco tanto para a linha de Ha como para HeI. Os resultados obtidos são comparados com os de outros sistemas estudados com a mesma técnica. Serão apresentados também resultados da tomografia de flickering para o sistema.

  3. Mental health problems of undocumented migrants (UMs) in the Netherlands: a qualitative exploration of help-seeking behaviour and experiences with primary care

    PubMed Central

    Teunissen, Erik; Sherally, Jamilah; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; Dowrick, Chris; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; van Weel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore health-seeking behaviour and experiences of undocumented migrants (UMs) in general practice in relation to mental health problems. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Participants 15 UMs in the Netherlands, varying in age, gender, country of origin and education; inclusion until theoretical saturation was reached. Setting 4 cities in the Netherlands. Results UMs consider mental health problems to be directly related to their precarious living conditions. For support, they refer to friends and religion first, the general practitioner (GP) is their last resort. Barriers for seeking help include taboo on mental health problems, lack of knowledge of and trust in GPs competencies regarding mental health and general barriers in accessing healthcare as an UM (lack of knowledge of the right to access healthcare, fear of prosecution, financial constraints and practical difficulties). Once access has been gained, satisfaction with care is high. This is primarily due to the attitude of the GPs and the effectiveness of the treatment. Reasons for dissatisfaction with GP care are an experienced lack of time, lack of personal attention and absence of physical examination. Expectations of the GP vary, medication for mental health problems is not necessarily seen as a good practice. Conclusions UMs often see their precarious living conditions as an important determinant of their mental health; they do not easily seek help for mental health problems and various barriers hamper access to healthcare for them. Rather than for medication, UMs are looking for encouragement and support from their GP. We recommend that barriers experienced in seeking professional care are tackled at an institutional level as well as at the level of GP. PMID:25416057

  4. The challenge and scientific application of the CO2 4.3 um atmospheric limb emission of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Piccialli, A.; Giuranna, M.; Funke, B.; López-Puertas, M.; Jurado-Navarro, A. A.; García-Comas, M.; González-Galindo, F.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Jiménez-Monferrer, S.

    2015-10-01

    The atmospheric fluorescent emissions of CO2 at 4.3- um have been observed in the daytime upper atmosphere of Mars from a limb geometry by the instruments OMEGA and PFS on board Mars Express [1, 8]. Initial analysis using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) models show that the emissions are well understood [7, 3, 6]. Yet they have not been exploited to derive important thermospheric parameters, like CO2 densities and temperatures. Our major goals are to improve current NLTE models with a joint study of OMEGA and PFS data, and to build an ambitious state-of-the-art NLTE retreival scheme for Mars. Recent progress has been made in these directions on Mars, Venus and Earth. We will present a summary of these efforts and the difficulties and expectatives for its application to the Mars Express data

  5. Attitudes of Psychiatric Nurses about the Request for Euthanasia on the Basis of Unbearable Mental Suffering(UMS)

    PubMed Central

    Wampers, Martien; De Lepeleire, Jan; Correll, Christophe U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When psychiatric patients express a wish for euthanasia, this should first and foremost be interpreted as a cry for help. Due to their close day-to-day relationship, psychiatric nurses may play an important and central role in responding to such requests. However, little is known about nurses’ attitudes towards euthanasia motivated by unbearable mental suffering. Objectives The aim of this study was to provide insight into the attitudes and actions taken by psychiatric nurses when confronted with a patient’s euthanasia request based on unbearable mental suffering (UMS). Method A questionnaire was sent to 11 psychiatric hospitals in the Flemish part of Belgium. Results The overall response rate was 70% (N = 627). Psychiatric nurses were frequently confronted with a request for euthanasia, either directly (N = 329, 53%) or through a colleague (N = 427, 69%). A majority (N = 536, 84%) did not object to euthanasia in a psychiatrically ill population with UMS. Confounding factors were the psychiatric diagnosis and the type of ward where the nurses were working. Most participants acknowledged a lack of knowledge and skills to adequately address the euthanasia request (N = 434, 71%). Nearly unanimously (N = 618, 99%), study participants indicated that dealing with euthanasia requests and other end-of-life issues should be part of the formal training of nurses. Conclusion The results highlight the need for ethically sound and comprehensive provision of care. Psychiatric nurses play an important role in dealing with the complex issue of requests for euthanasia. There is also a need for education, training and clear guidelines on the level of health care organizations. PMID:26700007

  6. Integration of geophysical and geological data for delimitation of mineralized zones in Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaafar, Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    An integrated approach for geophysical, geological and mineralogical data was followed for Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, in order to delineate its mineralized zones. The albitized granites are well-defined on the Th- and U-channel images, by their anomalous shapes, reaching 150 ppm and 90 ppm respectively, beside low K content. Interpretations of the aeromagnetic maps delineated four regional structural trends oriented due NNW, NW, ENE and E-W directions. They are identified as strike-slip faults, which coincide well with field observations, where NW-trending faults cut and displace right laterally ENE-trending older ones. The interaction between these two strike-slip fault systems confining the albite granite is easily identified on the regional data presenting longer wavelength anomalies, implying deep-seated structures. They could represent potential pathways for migration of enriched mineralized fluids. Geochemically, albite granites of peraluminous characteristics that had suffered extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking, resulted into development of (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th, Sn) and albite-enriched and greisenized granite body of about 600 m thick, and more than 3 km in strike length. The albite granite is characterized by sharp increase in average rare metal content: Zr (830 ppm), Hf (51 ppm), Nb (340 ppm), Ta (44 ppm), and U (90 ppm). Thorite, uranothorite, uraninite and zircon are the main uranium-bearing minerals of magmatic origin within the enclosing granite. However, with respect to Zr, Nb, and Ta, the albitized granite can be categorized as rare metal granite. The integration of airborne geophysical (magnetic and γ-ray spectrometric), geological, geochemical and mineralogical data succeeded in assigning the albite granite of Um Naggat pluton as a mineralized zone. This zone is characterized by its high thorium and uranium of hydrothermal origin as indicated by its low Th/U ratio, with rare metals mineralization controlled by two

  7. Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

  8. Geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic metasediments of Malhaq and Um Zariq formations, Kid Metamorphic Complex, Sinai, Egypt: implications for source-area weathering, provenance, recycling, and depositional tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bialy, Mohammed Z.

    2013-04-01

    The Kid Metamorphic Complex of SE Sinai represents a thick volcano-sedimentary succession that underwent polyphase deformation and greenschist to upper amphibolite facies metamorphism in the NE part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). The Malhaq and Um Zariq Formations, the target of this study, occupy roughly the northern half of this complex. The Malhaq Formation records several phases of Ediacaran sedimentation and volcanic activity (615-607 Ma), whereas Um Zariq Formation metasediments are relicts of an older sedimentary sequence (Cryogenian; 813±6 Ma). The Malhaq Formation comprises a series of dark gray structureless to schistose felsic to intermediate metavolcanics interbedded and intercalated with fine- to medium-grained foliated mica-rich phyllites and schists, while the Um Zariq Formation is a dominantly metasedimentary sequence, mainly represented by well-bedded metapelitic schists. Malhaq metasediments are enriched in SiO2, CaO and K2O and depleted in TiO2, Al2O3 and K2O relative to those of Um Zariq Formation. Aside from the relatively low Ni and Cr concentrations, compatible transition elements of these metasediments are comparable to average crustal contents. Except for marked Sr depletion, LILEs are around average continental crust values. Pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies in all samples, and general enrichment of Um Zariq samples in Th, U, Zr, Ti and Y relative to Malhaq ones are the main features of HFSEs. The REE patterns of all samples are parallel to sub-parallel LREE-enriched, with distinct negative Eu anomalies and weakly fractionated HREE segments. Geochemical investigations have revealed that the source rocks of Malhaq Formation metasediments underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering, whereas those of Um Zariq Formation have suffered severe chemical weathering. These metasediments are predominately derived from felsic to intermediate igneous sources, with a particular slight addition from recycled sedimentary source to the Malhaq

  9. Evaluation of high-resolution MetUM and AMPS forecasts of near-surface meteorological variables over Larsen C ice shelf and northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Andrew; Kirchgaessner, Amelie; King, John; Weeks, Mark; Gadian, Alan; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Steffen, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution weather forecasts are an important tool for understanding the detailed patterns of surface melt on the Larsen C ice shelf (LCIS), Antarctic Peninsula. We investigate the skill of UK Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) and Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) forecasts with horizontal grid spacing of 4-5 km for a 1 month period during January-February 2011 by comparing near-surface model output to automatic weather station measurements at 5 sites on the LCIS and 3 on the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Forecasts for the range 12-24 h showed a fairly homogeneous performance over the LCIS. The 2 m temperature simulated by AMPS has a correlation with observations of 0.5-0.6 and a systematic cold bias of around -1 degrees centigrade. By comparison, the MetUM had a higher correlation and was less negatively biased. The simulated surface pressure has a correlation of 0.99 and small biases in both models. AMPS yielded better results than the MetUM for 10 m wind speed, being able to capture particularly well synoptically-driven high wind speeds which the MetUM systematically underestimated. Both models struggle to simulate the 10 m wind direction when the wind conditions are highly variable. The simulation of specific humidity by both models was poor. Both models showed a general reduction in performance over the northern Antarctic Peninsula compared to the LCIS. Extending the analysis to consider the 12-36 h forecast range demonstrated a relatively weak dependence of model skill to the length of the forecast. The study focuses particularly on the representation of foehn wind events, which are an important contributor to surface melt over the LCIS, by examining additional ~1 km scale forecasts using the MetUM.

  10. The dependence of land-atmosphere interactions on atmospheric parametrizations in the JULES/UM modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Helen; Best, Martin

    2015-04-01

    It has been understood for a while now that atmospheric behaviour is affected by land surface processes, modelling this relationship however still presents challenges. Most numerical weather prediction (NWP) models couple an atmospheric model to a land surface model in order to forecast the weather and/or climate. The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) demonstrated that soil moisture variability has considerable control over atmospheric behaviour, particularly impacting on precipitation and temperature variability. The study also suggested that differences in coupling strengths between models may be due to differences in atmospheric parametrizations. There have since been other studies which support this claim but it is not yet clear which parameters control the land-atmosphere coupling strength or indeed what it should be. In this study we investigate whether certain atmospheric parameters hold more control than others over model sensitivity to land surface changes. We focus on the interaction of the JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) land surface model with the Met Office Unified Model (UM) that is used for operational NWP and climate prediction. For computational efficiency we ran the UM at a single site using a single column model (SCM) rather than running a global model simulation. A site in the Sahel region of West Africa was chosen as this is an area that was identified by GLACE as being especially responsive to changes in soil moisture. JULES was run several times with various different initial soil moisture profiles to create an ensemble of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes that could be used to force a set of different SCM runs in order to simulate a range of different atmospheric conditions. Various atmospheric parameters in the SCM were then perturbed to create additional sets of SCM runs with different sensitivities to soil moisture changes. By analysing the difference in spread between the standard configuration and the

  11. Calcareous benthonic foraminifera across the Cretaceous/Paleocene transition of Gebel Um El-Ghanayem, Kharga Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orabi, Orabi H.; Khalil, Hamza M.

    2014-08-01

    The studies of benthic calcareous foraminifera of the Maastrichtian-early Paleocene Dakhla Formation in Gebel Um El-Ghanayem (Western Desert, Egypt), improve reconstruction of depositional environments of these successions. In total, 68 taxa of benthic foraminifera were identified in the studied succession. The late Maastrichtian assemblages (Zone CF3) are dominated by calcareous foraminifera with tapered tests, this tapered taxon Loxostomum applinae, Lox. tegulatum various dentalinid taxa, and Buliminella cushmani dominate in CF3 Biozone. We thus interpret these faunas as being dominated by infaunal morphogroups, suggesting a moderately eutrophic environment. Danian assemblages are characterized by abundant epifaunal trochospiral species, such as Cibicidoides abudurbensis, Cibicidoides farafraensis, and Gyroidinoides girardanus. The infaunal morphogroups make up 25-47% of fauna in the Danian, in contrast to 62-76% in the Upper Maastrichtian. This dominance of the Danian benthic foraminiferal assemblages by epifaunal or mixed epifaunal/infaunal morphogroups suggests that the food supply to the benthos was less abundant than in the latest Cretaceous. The Cretaceous/Paleocene boundary (K/Pg) is within the upper unit of the Lower Kharga Member and marked by a hiatus in at least the top of CF3 Zone of the Upper Maastrichtian to the Lower Paleocene (base Plc Zone).

  12. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris).

    PubMed

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  13. THE TYPES OF PALAEARCTIC HIPPORHININI (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cyclominae) CONSERVED AT THE MUSÉUM NATIONAL D'HISTOIRE NATURELLE, PARIS.

    PubMed

    Meregalli, Massimo; Perrin, Hélène

    2015-11-30

    The Palaearctic species of Curculionidae: Cyclominae: Hipporhinini conserved at the Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris were critically revised in order to recognise the type specimens, select lectotypes or, where necessary, designate neotypes. Out of 135 species whose types were presumably preserved in the MNHN, original type specimens of 116 could be found. The holotypes of 21 species were available, either because originally designated as such, or because the species was unequivocally based on a single specimen; a paratype of another taxon, whose holotype is preserved in another collection, was also examined. The lectotypes of 93 species were designated, and a syntype of another species was also seen. Neotypes of 10 more species were designated, thus leading to a total number of species whose type is conserved at the MNHN to 126. Type specimens of five more species described by French authors, not present in the MNHN but conserved in other museums, were found as well and were included in the paper, with the further designation of three lectotypes. All types treated herein were labelled and photographed.

  14. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris).

    PubMed

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form.

  15. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris)

    PubMed Central

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  16. The UmGcn5 gene encoding histone acetyltransferase from Ustilago maydis is involved in dimorphism and virulence.

    PubMed

    González-Prieto, Juan Manuel; Rosas-Quijano, Raymundo; Domínguez, Angel; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2014-10-01

    We isolated a gene encoding a histone acetyltransferase from Ustilago maydis (DC.) Cda., which is orthologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GCN5 gene. The gene was isolated from genomic clones identified by their specific hybridization to a gene fragment obtained by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This gene (Umgcn5; um05168) contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1421bp that encodes a putative protein of 473 amino acids with a Mr. of 52.6kDa. The protein exhibits a high degree of homology with histone acetyltransferases from different organisms. Null a2b2 ΔUmgcn5 mutants were constructed by substitution of the region encoding the catalytic site with a hygromycin B resistance cassette. Null a1b1 ΔUmgcn5 mutants were isolated from genetic crosses of a2b2 ΔUmgcn5 and a1b1 wild-type strains in maize. Mutants displayed a slight reduction in growth rate under different conditions, and were more sensitive than the wild type to stress conditions, but more important, they grew as long mycelial cells, and formed fuzz-like colonies under all conditions where wild-type strains grew in the yeast-like morphology and formed smooth colonies. This phenotype was not reverted by cAMP addition. Mutants were not virulent to maize plants, and were unable to form teliospores. These phenotypic alterations of the mutants were reverted by their transformation with the wild-type gene.

  17. Um supressor de fundo térmico para a câmara infravermelha CamIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, F.; Laporte, R.

    2003-08-01

    O ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels na câmara infravermelha do NexGal (CamIV) que operamos no OPD/LNA contém contribuições provenientes do sistema de coleta de fluxo propriamente dito - sendo esta a parte que interessa para as medidas astronômicas - e contribuições da obstrução central, sistema de suporte do espelho secundário e região exterior à pupila de entrada do telescópio. Estas últimas contribuições são devi-das à emissão de corpo negro à temperatura ambiente e aumentam exponencialmente para comprimentos de onda maiores que 2 micra (banda K, no infravermelho próximo). Embora a resultante pode ser quantificada e subtraída dos sinais relevantes, sua variância se adiciona à variância do sinal, e pode ser facilmente a contribuição domi-nante para a incerteza final das medidas, tornando ineficiente o processo de extração de informação e degradando a sensibilidade da câmara. A maneira clássica de resolver esse problema em sistemas ópticos que operam no infravermelho, onde os efeitos da emissão térmica do ambiente são importantes, é restringir o ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels individuais exclusivamente aos raios provenientes do sistema óptico. Para tanto, projeta-se uma imagem real, bastante reduzida, da pupila de entrada do sistema óptico num anteparo que transmita para o sistema de imageamento só o que interessa, bloqueando as contribuições das bordas externas à pupila de entrada, obstrução central do telescópio e sistema de suporte. Como a projeção é realizada em ambiente criogênico, a contribuição térmica espúria é efetivamente eliminada. Nós optamos por um sistema do tipo Offner para implementar na prática esta função. Trata-se de um sistema baseado em espelhos esféricos, bastante compacto e ajustado por construção. A opção por espelhos do mesmo material que o sistema de suporte (Alumínio) minimiza a dilatação diferencial, crítica nesse tipo de aplicação. Apresentamos as solu

  18. Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

  19. BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.

    2003-08-01

    Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

  20. Drop Hammer Tests with Three Oleo Strut Models and Three Different Shock Strut Oils at Low Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranz, M

    1954-01-01

    Drop hammer tests with different shock strut models and shock strut oils were performed at temperatures ranging to -40 C. The various shock strut models do not differ essentially regarding their springing and damping properties at low temperatures; however, the influence of the different shock strut oils on the springing properties at low temperatures varies greatly.

  1. Effect of Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin on spermatic parameters and testicular histopathology in male wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Yadegari, Maryam; Porentezari, Majid; Mirjalili, Aghdas; Hasanpor, Ashraf; Dashti, R. Mohammad Hossein; Anvari, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Ayurveda and traditional medicines of different countries such as Iran, America and Brazil, asafoetida has been used as an aphrodisiac agent. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of asafoetida on spermatic and testicular parameters in treated rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 male Wistar rats divided equally to five groups (one control and four test groups receiving 25, 50,100 and 200 mg/kg asafoetida respectively). After 6 weeks, a small part of the cauda epididymis of each rat was dissected, and the spermatic parameters were evaluated for at least 200 spermatozoa of each animal. Testis of all rats was harvested for pathologic examination. The testosterone concentration of serum was also determined. Data were statistically assessed by one-way ANOVA and value of P < 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: This study indicated that the asafoetida significantly increased the number and viability of sperms (P < 0.05). Histological study showed that spermatogenesis process and numbers of Leydig cells were increased with increasing the dose, but the Leydig cells become vacuolated. Johnsen score in experimental groups was increased compared to control although this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Asafoetida showed a positive effect on spermatic parameters although the histopathological effects on the testis were observed, particularly at high doses. PMID:26604552

  2. Multi-response optimization in the development of oleo-hydrophobic cotton fabric using Taguchi based grey relational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Naseer; Kamal, Shahid; Raza, Zulfiqar Ali; Hussain, Tanveer; Anwar, Faiza

    2016-03-01

    Present study under takes multi-response optimization of water and oil repellent finishing of bleached cotton fabric under Taguchi based grey relational analysis. We considered three input variables, viz. concentrations of the finish (Oleophobol CP-C) and cross linking agent (Knittex FEL), and curing temperature. The responses included: water and oil contact angles, air permeability, crease recovery angle, stiffness, and tear and tensile strengths of the finished fabric. The experiments were conducted under L9 orthogonal array in Taguchi design. The grey relational analysis was also included to set the quality characteristics as reference sequence and to decide the optimal parameter combinations. Additionally, the analysis of variance was employed to determine the most significant factor. The results demonstrate great improvement in the desired quality parameters of the developed fabric. The optimization approach reported in this study could be effectively used to reduce expensive trial and error experimentation for new product development and process optimization involving multiple responses. The product optimized in this study was characterized by using advanced analytical techniques, and has potential applications in rainwear and other outdoor apparel.

  3. Orally co-administrated oleo-gum resin of Commiphora myrrha decreases the bioavailability of cyclosporine A in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Jenoobi, F I; Alam, M A; Al-Mohizea, A M; Ahad, A; Raish, M

    2015-08-01

    Cyclosporine A is a narrow therapeutic indexed immunosuppressant used after organ transplantation. Several herbs have been reported to alter its pharmacokinetics. Myrrh, dried oleogum resin obtained from Commiphora myrrha (Burseraceae) has been used for many common ailments. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of myrrh on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine A. The rats of the control group received 60 mg/kg, p.o. cyclosporine A, and blood samples were collected at predetermined time intervals. Rats of the test group were treated with an aqueous suspension of myrrh (380 mg/kg p.o.) for eight days and on 8th day a single dose of cyclosporine A was administered to the treated group after 1 h of myrrh administration. Blood samples were drawn at predetermined time points and the drug was analyzed in whole blood by using H-Class UPLC-TQD. Pharmacokinetic profiles of control and test group were compared. Statistically significant differences were observed between the pharmacokinetic parameters of control and treated groups. In the myrrh treated group, the AUC(0-t) and C(max) of cyclosporine A was decreased by about 45% and 48%, respectively. The time to reach maximum concentration (T(max)) remained almost unchanged in both groups. Results indicated that the bioavailability of cyclosporine A was reduced by about 45% when co-administered with myrrh. This observation suggests that concurrent consumption of myrrh and cyclosporine A should be avoided. To confirm the clinical relevance of these findings, P-gp and CYP3A based molecular investigations can be performed along with a well-planned clinical study.

  4. Structural evolution and Cenozoic tectonostratigraphy of the Cairo-Suez district, north Eastern Desert of Egypt: Field-structural data from Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagag, Wael

    2016-06-01

    Detailed field mapping reveals that continental rifting is strongly deforming the Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area and the entire Cairo-Suez district, in north Eastern Desert of Egypt. Rift-related structures are predominantly represented by E to WNW, NNW and NW oriented faults. The E to WNW oriented faults are small and build up the Gebel Qattamiya en echelon fault belt, whereas the faults trending NNW and NW establish a pervasive horst and graben structural style involving some rhomb-shape horsts as Gebel Qattamiya (GQRH), Gebel Um Reheiat (GURRH) and south Gebel Um Reheiat (SGURRH). Rock units of the Eocene succession and Oligocene sediments are well exposed and highly controlled by rift-related structures. Rifting was developed through two rift-phases; initial and major ones. The initial phase (a newly recognized phase in this contribution) has been occurred in Late Eocene (Priabonian), while the main phase was prevailing during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene time and is characterized by hydrothermal veins and basaltic eruptions. Continental transtension in the Cairo-Suez district, including the study area, was probably synchronous with a major tectonic stage (Pyrenean-Atlasic movement) of continental collision between African-Arabian and Eurasian plates in Late Eocene-Oligocene time. Field investigation suggests that the transfer of displacement (slip) from the Gulf of Suez proto-rift into the E-W oriented faults ''relays'' is an important mechanism, which helps to explain the current structural framework and tectonic evolution of the Cairo-Suez district. Reactivation of such faults with right-lateral divergent wrenching with NE-SW oriented extension deformed the Cairo-Suez district with several E-W oriented en echelon fault belts (e.g. Gebel Qattamiya fault belt in the study area). Thus the Cairo-Suez district represents an accommodation or transfer zone in northeastern Egypt, intercepting the ''far-field stresses'' from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, the Red

  5. Imagens do céu ontem e hoje - um multimídia interativo de astronomia e uma nova exposição no MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, C. A.; Lima, F. P.; Requeijo, F.; Vieira, G. G.; Alves, F.; Valente, M. E. A.; de Almeida, R.; de Garcia, G. C.; Quixadá, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    "Imagens do Céu Ontem e Hoje" é o título de uma nova exposição que está sendo inaugurada no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MCT), que inclui experimentos interativos, maquetes, réplicas e 8 terminais de computador com um multimídia interativo sobre Astronomia para consulta dos visitantes. O multimídia apresenta um conteúdo bastante extenso, que engloba quase todos os temas em Astronomia, consistindo numa fonte de divulgação e pesquisa para um público que vai das crianças até estudantes universitários. O conteúdo está distribuído em mais de 500 páginas de texto divididas em 4 módulos: "O Universo", "Espectroscopia", "Telescópios" e "Observando o Céu". Cada módulo é subdividido em 5 seções, em média, cada uma iniciada por uma animação que ilustra os temas a serem abordados na seção. Ao final da animação, uma lista de temas é apresentada sob o título "Saiba Mais". Para exemplificar, o módulo "O Universo" contém as seguintes seções: "O Universo visto pelo homem", "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", "Indo além do Sistema Solar", "Nossa Galáxia, a Via-Láctea" e "Indo mais além, a imensidão do Universo". A seção "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", por sua vez, tem os seguintes temas: "A origem do Sistema Solar", "O Sol", "Os planetas", "Satélites, asteróides, cometas e outros bichos..." e "O Sistema Solar em números". Cada texto é repleto de imagens, quadros, desenhos, esquemas, etc, além de passatempos ao final de cada seção, incluindo jogos interativos, quadrinhos e curiosidades, que auxiliam o aprendizado de forma divertida. Apresentamos neste trabalho as idéias gerais que permearam a produção da exposição, e uma viagem pelo multimídia para exemplificar sua estrutura e conteúdo. O multimídia será posteriormente disponibilizado para o público externo pela página eletrônica do MAst e/ou por intermédio de uma publicação comercial.

  6. An Enhancement of 160um-derived Star-Formation Rates in Active Galaxies to z = 3.2 with the ZFOURGE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Michael; Spitler, L.

    2016-08-01

    ZFOURGE is a new imaging survey, which employs unique near-infrared medium- band filters designed to probe galaxy properties over the last 12 billion years. By supplementing the high-quality ZFOURGE galaxy catalogues with data in radio, X- ray, and infrared wavebands, we have studied the complex interplay between AGNs and their host galaxies to a time when the Universe was only 10-15% of its present age. I will report on our study to compare the 160-um derived star-formation rates in active and non-active galaxies and show that AGN hosts, over all redshifts, tend to exhibit an elevated average star-formation activity compared to their non-active counterparts.

  7. Um Projeto de Intervenção nos Espaços de Exposições do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Amaral, L. H.; de Araújo, C. F., Jr.; Matsuura, O. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-08-01

    Cada vez mais a humanidade, em sua imensa maioria, está alheia às próprias conquistas. A insatisfação com esta realidade tem levado muitos pesquisadores, instituições, empresas e governos a procurar formas alternativas de acompanhar e transmitir todo este acervo científico cultural à sociedade, buscando a melhoria da qualidade da divulgação científica e contribuindo para o processo de cultura e alfabetização científica. Não há tempo nem espaço nos limitados planos curriculares do ensino médio e mesmo nos programas de ensino que propiciem a cultura científica e o acompanhamento do vertiginoso progresso científico e tecnológico atual. Neste sentido, a educação formal escolar precisa ser complementada ou acrescida de uma educação informal, extra-escolar, que possa oferecer à sociedade o que a escola não pode oferecer. A interação do público com museus, feiras de ciências, planetários, exposições científicas e/ou culturais é de grande importância para a aquisição e difusão de conhecimentos relacionados ao mundo científico. Reconhecidamente como um modelo de alfabetização científica esses ambientes promovem uma interação social capaz de propiciar de forma efetiva uma melhor relação ensino-aprendizagem com o público. Partindo desta realidade a Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul e a Escola Municipal de Astronomia (EMA) vêm desenvolvendo um projeto de intervenção no espaço em torno do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera com o objetivo de se implantar um ambiente de aprendizagem motivador e desafiador que promova a popularização de conteúdos relacionados à astronomia, astrofísica e cosmologia. Busca-se, também, a aproximação e interação do público com exposições que estão sendo implementadas no planetário. Considerando que se trata de um projeto de mestrado em fase inicial o objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar a concepção básica e os critérios que estão sendo utilizados do ponto de vista pedag

  8. Otimização de procedimento de manobra para indução de reentrada de um satélite retornável

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, W.; Suarez, M.

    2003-08-01

    Veículos espaciais que retornam à Terra passam por regimes de velocidade e condições de vôo distintos. Estas diferenças dificultam sua concepção aerodinâmica e o planejamento de seu retorno. A partir de uma proposta de um veículo orbital retornável (satélite SARA, em desenvolvimento no IAE/CTA) para realização de experimentos científicos e tecnológicos em ambiente de baixa gravidade, surge a necessidade de realizarem-se estudos considerando-se os aspectos relativos à sua aerodinâmica. Após o lançamento, o veículo deve permanecer em órbita pelo tempo necessário para a condução de experimentos, sendo depois direcionado à Terra e recuperado em solo. A concepção aerodinâmica é de importância para o vôo em suas diversas fases e deve considerar aspectos relativos à estabilização Aerodinâmica e ao arrasto atmosférico, sendo este último de importância crucial na análise do aquecimento a ser enfrentado. A manobra de retorno inclui considerações sobre as condições atmosféricas e dinâmica de reentrada, devendo ser calculada de forma mais precisa possível. O trabalho proposto avalia estudos da dinâmica de vôo de um satélite recuperável considerando aspectos relativos à determinação orbital com GPS, técnica utilizada com sucesso na CONAE, e seu comportamento aerodinâmico em vôo balístico de retorno, com ênfase em sua fase de reentrada atmosférica. Busca-se otimizar a manobra de reentrada de tal forma que a utilização do sistema GPS garanta minimizar a área de impacto com o solo.

  9. The genus Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle of Paris, with six new species

    PubMed Central

    Nieto Nafría, Juan-Manuel; Mier Durante, Milagros-Pilar; Remaudière, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Specimens were studied of 65 samples of the genus Aphidura (Aphididae, Aphidinae, Macrosiphini) from the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris). The possible synonymies of three pairs of species are discussed. New aphid host plant relationships are reported for Aphidura bozhkoae, Aphidura delmasi, Aphidura ornata, Aphidura pannonica and Aphidura picta; this last species is recorded for first time from Afghanistan. The record of Aphidura pujoli from Pakistan is refuted. The fundatrices, oviparous females and males of Aphidura delmasi are described. Six new species are established: Aphidura gallica sp. n. and Aphidura amphorosiphon sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) from France and Iran, respectively, Aphidura pakistanensis sp. n., Aphidura graeca sp. n. and Aphidura urmiensis sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Dianthus, Gypsophila and Spergula (Caryophyllaceae) from Pakistan, Greece and Iran, respectively, and Aphidura iranensis sp. n. from specimens caught on Prunus sp. from Iran. Modifications are made to the keys by Blackman and Eastop to aphids living on Dianthus, Gypsophyla, Silene, Spergula and Prinsepia and Prunus (Rosaceae). An identification key to apterous viviparous females of species of Aphidura is also provided. PMID:23950674

  10. Project UM-HAUL (UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander): The design of a reusable lunar lander with an independent cargo unloader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Project UM-Haul is the preliminary design of a reusable lunar transportation vehicle that travels between a lunar parking orbit and the lunar surface. This vehicle is an indispensible link in the overall task of establishing a lunar base as defined by the NASA Space Exploration Initiative. The response to this need consists of two independent vehicles: a lander and an unloader. The system can navigate and unload itself with a minimum amount of human intervention. The design addresses structural analysis, propulsion, power, controls, communications, payload handling and orbital operations. The Lander has the capacity to decend from low lunar orbit (LLO) to the lunar surface carrying a 7000 kg payload, plus the unloader, plus propellant for ascent to LLO. The Lander employs the Unloader by way of a motorized ramp. The Unloader is a terrain vehicle capable of carrying cargoes of 8,500 kg mass and employs a lift system to lower payloads to the ground. The system can perform ten missions before requiring major servicing.

  11. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  12. Ho-Nee-Um Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harriet; And Others

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the elementary grades. It employes the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. Major…

  13. Análise sobre o Conhecimento de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo sobre Termos e Fenômenos Astronômicos do Cotidiano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    Embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as orientações complementares a esses Parâmetros (PCN+) apontem a importância de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar os conhecimentos básicos em astronomia dos alunos de EM da escola estadual Batista Renzi, bem como investigar os meios através dos quais estes conhecimentos foram adquiridos. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado a 310 alunos distribuídos entre as três séries do EM dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influência gravitacional da Lua e do Sol como responsáveis pelo fenômeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distância e 34,2% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. Em contrapartida, 67,1% compreendiam a sucessão entre dia e noite, 73,9% identificaram o Sol como estrela e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alunos de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre outras coisas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no EM não tem contribuído para uma maior compreensão dos fenômenos e conceitos.

  14. Percepção astronómica de um grupo de alunos do ensino médio de uma escola da rede estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveria, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    Sendo a Astronomia uma das cièncias mais antigas da humanidade, e considerando sua importáncia histórica e cultural, é de extrema releváncia que tópicos relacionados a ela sejam tratados nas escolas. Embora os Parámetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as Orientaçiacute;es Complementares aos Parámetros (PCN+) apontem a importáncia de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à Astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano e sejam alvos da curiosidade natural dos jovens. Da observação dessa curiosidade em alunos de uma escola pública paulista, na cidade de Suzano, surgiu o interesse em investigar os conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia dos alunos do Ensino Médio desta escola, constituindo-se este como principal objetivo desta pesquisa. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado inicialmente a 34 alunos do primeiro ano e, posteriormente, a mais 310, distribuídos entre as très séries do Ensino Médio dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que 73,9% dos estudantes identificaram o Sol como sendo uma estrela, 67,1% mostraram compreender a sucessão entre dia e noite e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Em contrapartida, apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estaçíes do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influència gravitacional simultánea da Lua e do Sol como responsável pelo fenòmeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distáncia e 34,2% reconheceram as estrelas cadentes como meteoros, evidenciando-se assim o pequeno discernimento dos estudantes quanto aos fenòmenos e termos astronòmicos do cotidiano. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alun! os de diferentes s

  15. UM 425: a new gravitational lens candidate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meylan, G.; Djorgovski, S.

    1988-12-01

    Since the first theoretical discussions more than 50 years ago on the phenomenon of light rays bent by intervening mass in the universe (Eddington 1920, Einstein 1936, Zwicky 1937 a, b), gravitational lensing has steadily grown to become one of the most active fields of research in extragalactic astronomy today. There are numerous theoretical investigations (Refsdal 1964, 1966, Turner et al. 1984, Blandford and Narayan 1986, Blandford and Kochanek 1987a, b), but the observations of good gravitationallens candidates are still rare. It is only during the last decade that a few quasar systems have been found in reasonable agreement with the gravitational lensing interpretation, viz., 0957 + 561 (Walsh et al. 1979), 1115 + 080 (Weymann et al. 1980), 2016 + 112 (Lawrence et al. 1983), 2237 + 030 (Huchra et al. 1985), 0142-100 (Surdej et al. 1987), and 1413+ 117 (Magain et al. 1988). In other possible cases, e.g., 2345+007 ryveedman et al. 1982), and 1635+267 (Djorgovski and Spinrad 1984), there has so far been no detection of lensing galaxies, and thus they should possibly be considered as genuine pairs of interacting quasars, similar to the probable binary quasar PKS 1145-071 (Djorgovski et al. 1987). Recently, so-called giant luminous arcs have been observed in a few clusters of galaxies. They are interpreted as segments of Einstein rings, created because of an almost perfect alignment of the lensing cluster potential weil with the lensed background object (Soucail et al. 1988, Lynds and Petrosian 1988). Blandford and Kochanek (1987) provide the most comprehensive and updated review on these subjects.

  16. Determinação da massa de júpiter a partir das órbitas de seus satélites: um experimento didático

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlickmann, M. S.; Saito, R. K.; Becker, D. A.; Rezende, M. F., Jr.; Cid Fernandes, R.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o roteiro piloto de uma prática observacional em astronomia, junto com os primeiros resultados obtidos nesta fase de implementacão. O projeto, que será executado em duas etapas, visa introduzir noções de Astronomia a alunos do Ensino Médio e iniciantes nos cursos de Física. O experimento consiste em medir as órbitas dos satélites Galileanos e, a partir da análise dos dados coletados, verificar a validade da Lei das órbitas de Kepler, determinando a massa do planeta Júpiter. Em uma primeira etapa, as observações serão feitas utilizando um telescópio Meade LX200 10" e câmera CCD para obter uma seqüência de imagens do planeta, que possibilitará medir o movimento de seus satélites. A segunda etapa terá início a partir do funcionamento do telescópio em modo robótico, com a possibilidade de observações via internet por instituições de ensino. Para o desenvolvimento deste experimento foram inicialmente coletadas várias imagens de Júpiter obtidas com os instrumentos citados acima. Estas imagens serviram como base para confecção dos roteiros para a experiência no nível médio e superior. Os roteiros serão inicialmente apresentados em uma home-page. Nela também se buscará uma contextualização histórica da experiência bem como o estabelecimento de relações com professores e alunos, propostas metodológicas e a disponibilização dos programas computacionais necessários para a utilização "on-line" pelos usuários. O projeto conta com apoio da Fundação VITAE.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... obtained from Allium sativum, a genus of the lily family. Its derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic oil meets the specifications of...

  18. Commiphora molmol extracts as plant molluscicide against Lymnaea natalensis.

    PubMed

    Massoud, Ahmad M; El-Shazly, Atef M; Nagaty, Ibrahim Maged; Morsy, Tosson A

    2007-08-01

    Two extracts from the herbal plant, Commiphora molmol showed a high molluscicidal effect against Lymnaea natalensis. The oil extract was more potent than the oleo-resin. A concentration of 10 ppm of the oil extract killed 100% of L. natalensis after 5th day, but the oleo-resin extract killed 100% of them at a concentration 20 ppm after 5th day. PMID:17985579

  19. Active control landing gear for ground loads alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    An active landing gear has been created by connecting the hydraulic piston in an oleo strut to a hydraulic supply. A controller modulates the pressure in the oleo to achieve the desired dynamic characteristics. Tests on ground rigs (documented by a film) have demonstrated the successful alleviation of induced structural ground loads and the next step will be a flight test using a fighter aircraft.

  20. Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  1. Comparative research on medicine application with 0.53-um, 1.06-um, and 1.32-um Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yahua; Li, Zhenjia; Zhu, Changhong; Huang, Yizhong

    1996-09-01

    Because of its high power and excellent optical features, laser has almost been applied to everywhere of medical research and clinic. Over the past several years, laser medical has achieved a rapid progress, and laser medical instruments has developed promptly, each new wavelength can be successfully applied in diagnostic and treatment of diseases. Among the medical lasers, Nd:YAG solid-state laser systems have proven useful in surgical use operate, such as neurosurgery, gastroenterology, cardioangiology, urology, gynecology, dermatology and ENT. As with other solid-state lasers, the Nd:YAG laser can be made to emit various wavelengths by means of suitable resonator configurations and some newest solid-state laser technology, pumped by the Krypton lamp, the Nd:YAG laser at room temperature exhibits transition at 1.06 micrometer Nd:YAG, using nonlinear crystal and Q-switch to double its frequency can attain 0.53 micrometer green beam. In our laser systems, the efficiency at 1.06 micrometer is more than 3 percent, an efficiency of 0.5 percent at 1.32 micrometer and 0.53 micrometer can be attained. For a power of 100w at 1.06 micrometer, 15w at 1.32 micrometer and 0.53 micrometer can therefore be produced. All of three kinds Nd:YAG laser hold these characteristics: high output power; optical fiber transition that can be cooperated with endoscope. The paper mainly discusses laser operating characteristics and clinic applications of three kinds wavelengths at 0.53 micrometer 1.06 micrometer and 1.32 micrometer Nd:YAG laser systems.

  2. The Shadow of a Gnomon Along a Year: Routine Observations and Teaching of Apparent Motion of the Sun and the Four Seasons. (Spanish Title: La Sombra de un Gnomon lo Largo de un Año: Observaciones de Rutina y la Enseñanza del Movimiento Aparente del Sol y Las Cuatro Estaciones.) A Sombra de um Gnômon ao Longo de um Ano: Observações Rotineiras e o Ensino do Movimento Aparente do Sol E das Quatro Estações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogello, Anderson Giovani; Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; de Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2013-12-01

    , al solsticio de junio, al equinoccio de septiembre y al solsticio de diciembre. Además, se dictaron clases teóricas en la sala de aula. Estos métodos buscaron construir conceptos en torno al movimiento aparente del Sol y la sucesión de las estaciones. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados de las actividades se aplicó una evaluación cuyos datos demuestran la existencia de un aprendizaje deseado por los estudiantes en cuanto a: el reconocimiento de los puntos cardinales, la descripción del movimiento solar aparente y la aparición de las estaciones y su alternancia a partir de observaciones astronómicas visuales sin instrumentos. Muitas concepções alternativas são reconhecidas entre os diversos grupos de estudantes, em especial nos da educação básica. Dentre elas, o movimento aparente do Sol, por mais quotidiano que seja, proporciona variadas interpretações. Deste modo, observar e registrar o movimento dos astros na abóboda celeste é uma tarefa necessária ao ensino de Astronomia. O trabalho que ora se apresenta propõe a apresentação dos resultados da observação do movimento aparente do Sol por intermédio da marcação da sombra de um gnômon vertical por alunos de uma turma do sexto ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola do campo do Paraná. O projeto em si ocorreu em quatro etapas, em datas próximas do equinócio de março, do solstício de junho, do equinócio de setembro e do solstício de dezembro. Além disso, foram desenvolvidas aulas teóricas em sala de aula. Tais métodos buscaram construir conceitos em torno da movimentação aparente do Sol e da alternância das estações do ano. Diante dos resultados provenientes das atividades desenvolvidas foi aplicada uma avaliação e os dados demonstraram um aprendizado desejado dos alunos quanto: ao reconhecimento dos pontos cardeais; à descrição do movimento solar aparente e a ocorrência das estações do ano e sua alternância a partir de observações astronômicas a olho nu.

  3. Astronomy in High School: Using a Mini-Planetarium to Understand Details of the Apparent Movement of Stars. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Escuela Secundaria: Comprendiendo los Detalles del Movimiento Aparente de Las Estrellas con un Miniplanetario.) Astronomia no Ensino Médio: Compreendendo Detalhes do Movimento Aparente das Estrelas com um Miniplanetário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Leão, Demetrius

    2013-07-01

    en la comprensión de estas cuestiones y demostraron un gran interés por esta metodología. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar parte dos resultados obtidos com a intervenção feita como projeto da dissertação de mestrado do autor, que consistiu no desenvolvimento de um conjunto de aulas de Astronomia, com alunos do 1º Ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola da rede privada do Distrito Federal (Brasília, Brasil), empregando como recurso principal um material didático chamado miniplanetário (MP). Utilizando como pressuposto teórico norteador dessas aulas as ideias de contextualização e dialogicidade de Paulo Freire, foi proposta aos estudantes a montagem e utilização desse recurso em uma sessão de planetário. Durante o projeto, enfatizaram-se assuntos como a trajetória aparente das estrelas para o céu de Brasília, a localização dos pontos cardeais a partir da constelação do Cruzeiro do Sul, as cores das estrelas e as estrelas vistas de uma determinada localidade. Apurou-se que os alunos apresentaram melhoria na compreensão desses assuntos, bem como demonstraram expressiva empolgação com essa metodologia desenvolvida.

  4. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  5. A Winter Walk at Ho-Nee-Um.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harriet; And Others

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the lower primary grades. It employs the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. The…

  6. Predictive process control for sub-0.2-um lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavecz, Terrence E.; Blanquies, Rene M.

    2000-06-01

    An advanced control system providing modeling and predictive data simulation for pass-fail criteria of overlay production control has been used in 0.18 micrometer Design Rule production facilities for over a year. During this period overlay was measured on both product wafers and during periodic process qualification tests. The resulting raw data is modeled using exposure tool specific and layer-focused models. Modeled results, measured process statistics and tool signatures are combined in a real-time simulation to calculate the true overlay distribution over the entire wafer and lot. All results and raw data are automatically gathered and stored in a database for on-going analysis. In this manner, tool, product technology and process performance data are gathered for every overlay process-step. The data provides valuable insights into not only tool stability but also the process- step characteristic errors that contribute to the overlay spectrum of distortions. Data gathered in this manner is very stable and can be used to predict a feed-forward correction for all correctable coefficients. The technique must take into consideration algorithm modeled coefficient variations resulting from: (1) Reticle pattern-to-alignment mark design errors. (2) Process film variations. (3) Tool-to-tool static matching. (4) Tool-to-tool dynamic matching errors which are match-residual, process or time induced. This extensive database has resulted in a method of conducting Predictive Process Control (PPC) for overlay lithography within an advanced semiconductor line. Using PPC the wafer production facility experiences: (1) Improved Yield: Lots are always exposed with optimum setup. Optimized setups reduce rework levels and therefore wafer handling. (2) Capacity Improvement: Elimination of rework tacitly improves capacity in the facility. WIP is also simplified because lots do not have to wait for a dedicated exposure tool to become available. (3) Dynamic MatchingTM: Matching of multiple exposure tools is continuously monitored by the use of the feedback loop. Tool precision can be monitored as well as the setup systematic offsets. In this manner, the need to remove an exposure tool from production for match-maintenance can be predicted and scheduled. Residual matching errors can also be removed from the production cycle. The benefits of full production lot modeling and the contributors to production errors are presented. Process and Tool interactions as well as control- factor coefficient stability indicate the level of control to be well beyond manual methods. Calculations show that these contributors are predictable, stable and are a necessary tool for competitive sub-0.2 micron production. An analysis of the overlay error sources within two facilities results in consistent facility process response and a well-defined error budget derivation. From this analysis, the control added to semiconductor overlay is shown capable of extending mix-and- match exposure tool operations in production down to 0.12 micrometer design rules.

  7. Grant UM1CA182883 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. High-sensitivity (25-um pitch) microbolometer FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Daniel F.; Ray, Michael; Wyles, Richard; Asbrock, James F.; Lum, Nancy A.; Kennedy, Adam; Wyles, Jessica; Hewitt, C.; Graham, Glen E.; Horikiri, Tad; Anderson, John S.; Bradley, Daryl; Chin, Richard; Kostrzewa, Thomas

    2001-11-01

    RIO has achieved a significant technical breakthrough in uncooled FPAs by reducing the pixel size by a factor of two while maintaining state-of-the-art sensitivity. Raytheon has produced high-quality 320 by 240 micro bolometer FPAs with 25 micrometers pitch pixels. The 320 by 240 FPAs have a sensitivity that is comparable to micro bolometer FPAs with 50 micrometers pixels. The average NETD value for these FPAs is about 35 mK with an f/1 aperture and operating at 30 Hz frame rates. Good pixel operability and excellent image quality have been demonstrated. Pixel operability is greater than 99 percent on some FPAs, and uncorrected responsivity nonuniformity is less than 4 percent. The micro bolometer detectors also have a relatively fast thermal time constant of approximately 10 msec. This state-of-the-art performance has been achieved as a result of an advanced micromachining fabrication process. The process allows maximization of both the thermal isolation and the optical fill-factor. The reduction in pixel size offers several potential benefits for IR systems. For a given system resolution requirement, the 225 micrometers pixels allow a factor of two reduction in both the focal length and aperture size of the sensor optics. The pixel size reduction facilitates a significant FPA cost reduction since the number of die printed on a wafer can be increased. The pixel size reduction has enabled the development of a large-format 640 by 512 FPA array applicable to wide-field-of-view, long range surveillance and targeting missions, and a 160 by 128 array where applications for miniaturization and temperature invariance are required as well as low cost and low power.

  9. Thermal levitation of 10 um size particles in low vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Long Fung Frankie; Kowalski, Nicholas; Parker, Colin; Chin, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    We report on experimental methods for trapping 10 micron-sized ice, glass, ceramic and polyethylene particles with thermophoresis in medium vacuum, at pressures between 5 Torr and 25 Torr. Under appropriate conditions particles can launch and levitate robustly for up to an hour. We describe the experimental setup used to produce the temperature gradient necessary for the levitation, as well as our procedure for generating and introducing ice into the experimental setup. In addition to analyzing the conditions necessary for levitation, and the dependence of levitation on the experimental parameters, we report on the behavior of particles during levitation and ejection, including position and stability, under different pressures and temperatures. We also note a significant discrepancy between theory and data, suggesting the presence of other levitating forces.

  10. Grant UM1CA167462 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Discussions about the Nature of Science in a Course on the History of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Discusiones sobre la Naturaleza de la Ciencia en un Curso sobre Historia de la Astronomía.) Discussões sobre a Natureza da Ciência em um Curso sobre a História da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires de Andrade, Victória Flório; L'Astorina, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    There are an increasing number of researches in science education that affirm the importance of discussions on the "nature of science" in basic education level as well as in teacher training. The history of science applied to education is a way to contextualize epistemological discussions, allowing both the understanding of scientific content and learning about science concepts. We present some reasonably consensual definitions on the nature of science that have been widely discussed by the academic community. We show also some episodes in the history of astronomy which can lead to discussions involving some aspects of the nature of science, and how they can do it. Hay un número creciente de investigaciones en la enseñanza de las ciencias que afirman la importancia de debates sobre la "naturaleza de la ciencia" en la educación básica y formación del profesorado. La historia de la ciencia aplicada a la educación es una manera de contextualizar los debates de la epistemología, lo que permite tanto la comprensión de los contenidos científicos como el aprendizaje de conceptos científicos. En esto trabajo, presentamos algunas definiciones bastante consensuales sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia que han sido ampliamente discutidas por la comunidad académica y mostramos cómo algunos episodios en la historia de la astronomía pueden llevar a discusiones sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la ciencia. Há um número crescente de pesquisas na área de ensino de ciências que afirmam a importância de discussões sobre a "natureza da ciência" na educação básica e na formação de professores. A história da ciência aplicada ao ensino é uma maneira de contextualizar discussões epistemológicas, permitindo tanto a compreensão de conteúdos científicos quanto o aprendizado de noções sobre as ciências. Neste trabalho apresentamos algumas definições razoavelmente consensuais sobre a natureza da ciência que foram amplamente discutidas pela

  12. Astronomy Teaching and Teachers Continuing Education: the Interdisciplinarity during a Total Lunar Eclipse. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza de la Astronomía y la Formación Continua de Profesores: la Interdisciplinariedad Durante un Eclipse Total de Luna.) Educação EM Astronomia E Formação Continuada de Professores: a Interdisciplinaridade Durante um Eclipse Lunar TOTAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes how 67 teachers from 23 cities, could awaken, in students, the scientific interest, using a natural astronomical phenomenon: a total lunar eclipse. Before and after of eclipse, meetings for continuing education were characterized by interdisciplinarity of astronomy and the importance of these observations. Working groups were formed by teachers and students, who organized the survey data, mobilizing the people in their cities. The results point ways about how to provide the scientific culture and the motivation to learn science in students, using approaches between the following communities: scientific, amateur and school. En este artículo se describe cómo 67 profesores de 23 ciudades, despertó el interés científico en los estudiantes mediante un fenómeno astronómico: un eclipse total de Luna. Antes y después del eclipse, reuniones para la formación continua se centraron en la interdisciplinariedad de la astronomía, y la importancia de las observaciones de este tipo de fenómeno. Profesores y estudiantes formaron grupos de trabajo para investigar datos durante el eclipse, con el participación de la comunidad en sus ciudades. Los resultados apuntan a las opciones que conducen a la cultura científica y la motivación para aprender la ciencia, utilizando las relaciones de los siguientes grupos: científicos, aficionados y la escuela. Este texto relata como 67 professores, provenientes de 23 cidades, puderam despertar, nos alunos, o interesse científico utilizando um fenômeno natural astronômico: um eclipse lunar total. O evento foi precedido e procedido por encontros de formação continuada, onde se caracterizou a interdisciplinaridade da astronomia e a importância das observações de fenômenos como estes. Grupos de trabalho foram formados por professores e alunos, que se organizaram para o levantamento conjunto de dados durante o fenômeno, além do envolvimento da comunidade em suas respectivas cidades. Os resultados apontam

  13. Solar Physics Topics in High School: Analysis of a Course with Practical Activities at Dietrich Schiel Observatory. (Spanish Title: Temas de Física Solar Para Estudiantes de Escuelas Secundarias: un Análisis de un Curso con Enfoque Práctico en el Observatorio Dietrich Schiel.) Tópicos de Física Solar no Ensino Médio: Análise de um Curso com Atividades Práticas no Observatório Dietrich Schiel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbo Aroca, Silvia; Donizete Colombo, Pedro, Jr.; Celestino Silva, Cibelle

    2012-12-01

    algunos estudiantes sabían que un espectro puede estar formado por un prisma o red de difracción, la mayor parte de ellos desconocía la naturaleza de las líneas espectrales. A lo largo del curso, esta cuestión fue trabajada con un enfoque práctico mediante la observación del espectro solar y de las lámparas durante clases expositivas/dialogadas. Los resultados obtenidos en el curso mustran la importancia de los centros de ciencia como un apoyo en la educación formal. En este caso en particular, la Sala Solar del Observatorio Dietrich Schiel se destaca como un entorno favorable para la enseñanza de la física moderna en la escuela secundaria. Este trabalho analisa resultados obtidos em um curso sobre física solar para alunos do ensino médio promovido pelo Observatório Dietrich Schiel da USP. O curso foi elaborado pelos autores com a intenção de investigar concepções sobre o Sol, ensinar tópicos de física moderna relacionados ao Sol e conhecimentos gerais sobre o astro rei. A metodologia de coleta de dados consistiu em gravação em áudio e vídeo das aulas e das entrevistas semi-estruturadas, e respostas a questionários escritos. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos participantes concebeu o Sol como constituído por fogo e as manchas solares como buracos na superfície solar. Embora alguns alunos soubessem que um espectro pode ser formado por um prisma ou rede de difração, a maior parte deles desconhecia a natureza das linhas espectrais. Ao longo do curso, este tema foi trabalhado com uma abordagem prática com observação do espectro solar e de lâmpadas e em aulas expositivo-dialogadas. Os resultados obtidos no curso apontam para a importância dos centros de ciências como parceiros da educação formal. Neste caso específico, a Sala Solar do Observatório Dietrich Schiel é um ambiente propício para o ensino de física moderna no ensino médio.

  14. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  15. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  19. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  20. Astronomical Perception of the Secondary School's Students in São Paulo's State School in Suzano City. (Spanish Title: Percepción Astronómica de Alumnos de la Enseñanza Media de la Red Estatal de San Pablo en la Ciudad de Suzano.) Percepção Astronômica de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo da Cidade de Suzano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França de Oliveira, Edilene; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Amaral, Luis Henrique

    2007-12-01

    año y 20,6% tenían la idea de cuales son los objetos celestes más cercanos de la Tierra. En contraposición, 67,6% clasificaron correctamente el Sol como una estrella; 55,9% relacionaron el Big Bang al origen del Universo; solamente 20,6% identificaron un año-luz como unidad de distancia y 32,4% reconocieron una estrella fugaz como meteoro. El presente análisis fue expandido para otros grupos de la Enseñanza Media, no solamente del período nocturno, sino también diurno de la misma escuela. En esta primera fase se nota el pequeño conocimiento de los alumnos sobre eventos astronómicos y principalmente la gran confusión sobre el significado correcto de los términos astronómicos populares. Embora a Astronomia seja uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e muitos dos conceitos astronômicos serem populares, observa-se que uma parcela significativa dos estudantes encontra-se à margem dessas informações. O presente trabalho visa analisar o nível de conhecimento básico dos alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual da cidade de Suzano quanto aos fenômenos astronômicos que os rodeiam. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulário constando de questões de múltipla escolha, aplicado no primeiro ano noturno da Escola Estadual Batista Renzi. Num espaço amostral de 34 alunos constatou-se que apenas 29,4% compreendiam a sucessão dos dias; 20,6% explicaram corretamente as estações do ano e 20,6% tinham idéia de quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra. Em contraposição, 67,6% classificaram corretamente o Sol como estrela; 55,9% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo; apenas 20,6% identificaram um ano-luz como unidade de distância e 32,4% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. A presente análise foi expandida para mais 310 alunos de outras classes de Ensino Médio, não somente do período noturno, mas também diurno da mesma escola. Nesta primeira fase nota-se o pequeno discernimento dos alunos sobre eventos astronômicos e

  1. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    percepción limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandió debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relación con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemáticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, así como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para después trabajarlas en Astronomía. Por último, llegamos a la conclusión de que el proceso desarrollado consistió en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los años posteriores de la formación de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública estadual de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contínuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observação do entorno, dentre ele, o céu, analisando as mudanças ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variações de temperaturas, chuvas, duração do dia, variações do tamanho das sombras e mudanças nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de análise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no início e ao término da implementação da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepção limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em função das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere à Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemáticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensíveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras são formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, concluímos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formação desses alunos.

  2. Comparing the use of 4.6 um lasers versus 10.6 um lasers for mitigating damage site growth on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Cooke, D; Guss, G M; Draggoo, V G; Wegner, P J

    2010-10-21

    The advantage of using mid-infrared (IR) 4.6 {micro}m lasers, versus far-infrared 10.6 {micro}m lasers, for mitigating damage growth on fused silica is investigated. In contrast to fused silica's high absorption at 10.6 {micro}m, silica absorption at 4.6 {micro}m is two orders of magnitude less. The much reduced absorption at 4.6 {micro}m enables deep heat penetration into fused silica when it is heated using the mid-IR laser, which in turn leads to more effective mitigation of damage sites with deep cracks. The advantage of using mid-IR versus far-IR laser for damage growth mitigation under non-evaporative condition is quantified by defining a figure of merit (FOM) that relates the crack healing depth to laser power required. Based on our FOM, we show that for damage cracks up to at least 500 {micro}m in depth, mitigation using a 4.6 {micro}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation using a 10.6 {micro}m far-IR laser.

  3. Properties of Interstellar Medium In Infrared-bright QSOs Probed by [O i] 63 um and [C ii] 158 um Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Yan, Lin; Tsai, Chao-Wei

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the host galaxies of nine QSOs at 0.1 < z < 0.2 with black hole masses of 3× {10}7 {M}ȯ to 3× {10}9 {M}ȯ based on the far-IR spectroscopy taken with Herschel Space Observatory. We detect the [O i] 63 μm ([C ii] 158 μm) emission in 6 (8) out of 8 (9) sources. Our QSO sample has far-infrared luminosities ({L}{{FIR}}) ˜ several times {10}11{L}ȯ . The observed line-to-{L}{{FIR}} ratios ({L}[{{O}{{I}}]63μ {{m}}}/{L}{{FIR}} and {L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}{{FIR}}) are in the ranges of 2.6 × 10‑4 to 10‑2 and 2.8 × 10‑4 to 2 × 10‑3, respectively (including upper limits). These ratios are comparable to the values found in local ULIRGs, but higher than the average value published so far for z\\gt 1 IR-bright QSOs. One target, W0752+19, shows an additional broad velocity component (˜720 km s‑1) and exceptionally strong [O i] 63 μm emission with {L}[{{O}{{I}}]63μ {{m}}}/{L}{{FIR}} of 10‑2, an order of magnitude higher than the average value found among local (U)LIRGs. Combining with the analyses of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical spectra, we conclude that the [O i] 63 μm emission in these QSOs is unlikely excited by shocks. We infer that the broad [O i] 63 μm emission in W0752+19 could arise from the warm and dense ISM in the narrow-line region of the central active galactic nucleus. Another possible explanation is the existence of a dense gas outflow with {n}{{H}}˜ {10}4 cm‑3, where the corresponding broad [C ii] emission is suppressed. Based on the far-IR [O i] and [C ii] line ratios, we estimate constraints on the ISM density and UV radiation field intensity of {n}{{H}}≲ {10}3.3 cm‑3 and {10}3\\lt {G}0≲ {10}4.2, respectively. These values are consistent with those found in local Seyfert 1 ULIRGs. In contrast, the gas with broad velocity width in W0752+19 has {n}{{H}}≳ {10}4.3 cm‑3 and {G}0\\gt {10}4. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  4. Educacao Fisica Escolar: A Construcao de um Conceito (School Physical Education: The Construction of a Concept).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colpas, Ricardo Ducatti

    2000-01-01

    Seeks to understand school physical education praxis in light of the human development theories of Lev Vygotsky. Develops a methodology of teaching and a conception of learning that enables students to recognize physical education as a school discipline connected to a dynamic curriculum. (BT)

  5. Lack of dentin acid resistance following 9.3 um CO2 laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Charles Q.; Fried, Daniel; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that laser irradiation of dental enamel by specific carbon dioxide laser conditions can inhibit subsequent acid dissolution of the dental enamel surface. The purpose of this study was to determine whether similar carbon dioxide laser conditions would have a protective effect on dentin. Blocks of human dentin roots (3x3 mm2) were irradiated at 9.3 µm wavelength with a 15-18 µs pulse duration laser and fluences of 0.50-1.50 J/cm2. A motion controller system was used to ensure uniform irradiation of the entire dentin surface. Surface acid dissolution profiles following irradiation were acquired for the five study groups, control group (Non-irradiated) and four laser-treated groups. Dissolution profiles of low fluence groups (0.50 and 0.75 J/cm2) exhibited similar profiles to the control group. Dissolution profiles of higher fluence groups (1.0 and 1.5 J/cm2) showed an increased dissolution rate over the control group, but these differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). This study demonstrated that the application of carbon dioxide laser irradiation significantly alters the surface of dentin but did not decrease the acid dissolution rate.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ISO FIRBACK Source Catalog at 170um (Dole+, 2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dole, H.; Gispert, R.; Lagache, G.; Puget, J.-L.; Bouchet, F. R.; Cesarsky, C.; Ciliegi, P.; Clements, D. L.; Dennefeld, M.; Desert, F.-X.; Elbaz, B.; Franceschini, A.; Guiderdon, B.; Harwit, M.; Lemke, D.; Moorwood, A. F. M.; Oliver, S.; Reach, W. T.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Stickel, M.

    2001-05-01

    The FIRBACK (Far Infrared BACKground) survey is one of the deepest imaging surveys carried out at 170μm with ISOPHOT onboard ISO, and is aimed at the study of the structure of the Cosmic Far Infrared Background. This paper provides the analysis of resolved sources. After a validated process of data reduction and calibration, we perform intensive simulations to optimize the source extraction, measure the confusion noise (σc=45mJy), and give the photometric and astrometric accuracies. 196 galaxies with flux S>3σc are detected in the area of 3.89 square degrees. Counts of sources with flux S>4σc present a steep slope of 3.3+/-0.6 on a differential ``logN-logS'' plot between 180 and 500mJy. As a consequence, the confusion level is high and will impact dramatically on future IR deep surveys. This strong evolution, compared with a slope of 2.5 from Euclidian geometry, is in line with models implying a strongly evolving Luminous Infrared Galaxy population. The resolved sources account for less than 10% of the Cosmic Infrared Background at 170μm, which is expected to be resolved into sources in the 1 to 10mJy range. (6 data files).

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chamaeleon I 870um sources (Belloche+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Schuller, F.; Parise, B.; Andre, P.; Hatchell, J.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Bontemps, S.; Weiss, A.; Menten; K. M.; Muders, D.

    2011-01-01

    Table 2 lists the sources extracted with GAUSSCLUMPS from the filtered 870 micron continuum emission map of Chamaeleon I obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. These sources are listed in the order in which they were found by GAUSSCLUMPS, i.e. roughly in order of decreasing peak flux density. The 870 micron dust continuum emission map of the Chamaeleon I molecular cloud is available in FITS format. The data were obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. They were calibrated, reduced, co-added, gridded, smoothed to an effective angular resolution of 21.2" (FWHM), and written in FITS format with the BoA software. The flux density unit is Jy/21.2"-beam. The coordinates are equatorial (J2000) and the offsets are in RADIO projection. (6 data files).

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chamaeleon III 870um sources maps (Belloche+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Parise, B.; Schuller, F.; Andre, P.; Bontemps, S.; Menten, K. M.

    2011-06-01

    The 870 micron dust continuum emission map of the Chamaeleon III molecular cloud displayed in Fig. 2 is available at CDS in FITS format. The data were obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. They were calibrated, reduced, co-added, gridded, smoothed to an effective angular resolution of 21.2" (FWHM), and written in FITS format with the BoA software. The flux density unit is Jy/21.2"-beam. The coordinates are equatorial (J2000) and the offsets are in RADIO projection. (1 data file).

  9. Experimental study of biological effect by Nd:YAP laser (1.34um)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo; Lu, Liping

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the biological effect of different power, irradiation time of Nd: YAP laser (1341nm). Method: The canine skin, bronchia, stomach, bladder, uterus were irradiated with different irradiation power and time. The effect was observed by naked eyes, light microscope, and electric microscope. Result: Having positive correlation with power and irradiating time, the biological effect of Nd: YAP laser is mainly thermal coagulation effect with some gasified ablation effect. Under the condition where the diameter of faculae irradiating on canine skin was 3 mm, the thermal coagulation dose reaching deep derma was 5W 4s, 10w 1s;the thermal coagulation dose puncturing the whole layer was 5W, 6s, 10W, 4s; the thermal coagulation dose reaching whole stratum was 10W 5s, 20W 4s, 30W 2s, 40-60W 1s on stomach (Thickness 6mm), was 40W, 2s, 30W, 3s, 20W, 4s, 10W, 6s on bladder (Thickness 6mm ,irradiation underwater), was 10W, 4s on bronchia (Thickness 2 mm) and was 30W 3s, 20W 5s, 10W 6s on uterus (Thickness 6mm). Conclusion: Having positive correlation with power and irradiating time, the biological effect of Nd: YAP laser is mainly thermal coagulation effect with some gasified ablation effect. Under the condition where the diameter of faculae irradiating on canine skin was 3 mm, it is safe when the dose is 5W, and the irradiating time is less than 4s; the dose is 10W, and the irradiating time is less than 1 s. Under these conditions, the gastric area is used to coagulating and ablating. It is safe when the dose is less than 10W 5s, 20W 4s, 30W 2s. Under these condition, The bladder (thickness 6mm) is coagulated and ablated. It is safe when the dose is no more than 40W, 1s, 30W, 2s, 20W, 3s, 10W, 5s.Under the condition where bronchia (thickness 2mm) is coagulated and ablated, it is safe when the dose is less than 10W, 3s.Under the condition where uterus (thickness 6mm) is coagulated and ablated, it is safe when the dose is less than 30W, 2s, 20W, 4s, 10W, 5s.

  10. Application of 2-um wavelength holmium lasers for treatment of skin diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Ivan A.; Klimov, Igor V.; Tsvetkov, Vladimir B.; Nerobeev, Alexander I.; Sadovnikova, Lija B.; Eliseenko, Vladimir I.

    1994-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental analysis of the efficiency of application of 2 micrometers pulsed holmium laser for cosmetic and plastic surgery and dermatology is carried out. Preliminary experiments were carried out on rats. Solid state 2 micrometers pulsed laser was allowed to operate in free running mode with pulse energy up to 1.5 J and pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz. To deliver emission to the object a flexible quartz fiber without further focusing of 2.5 m in length and 400 micrometers of the core diameter was used. The effect of the different power density emission on the skin was studied. The second stage was the study of the influence of 2 micrometers emission on human skin. The results of the removal of hemangioma, papilloma, telangiectasia, nevus, nevus acantholytic, xanthelasma palpebral, verruca, chloasma, pigmental spots, tattoos, etc. are presented. Precision, simplicity, efficiency, and the high cosmetic effect of these operations is noted.

  11. Teaching Advanced Concepts in Computer Networks: VNUML-UM Virtualization Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Pereniguez-Garcia, F.; Marin-Lopez, R.; Ruiz-Martinez, P. M.; Skarmeta-Gomez, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    In the teaching of computer networks the main problem that arises is the high price and limited number of network devices the students can work with in the laboratories. Nowadays, with virtualization we can overcome this limitation. In this paper, we present a methodology that allows students to learn advanced computer network concepts through…

  12. Das Wort von der "inneren Differenzierung" geht um (The Word on "Internal Differentiation" Takes a Turn)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woltmann, Joachim

    1975-01-01

    Since "external differentiation" (grouping by ability) has created difficulties, especially in larger schools, comprehensive schools, and orientation courses, a trend toward individualized instruction has arisen. The difficulties in implementing this are discussed here. Improving the external differentiation is advocated as preferable to…

  13. A Catalog of 1.5273 um Diffuse Interstellar Bands Based on APOGEE Hot Telluric Calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyajouri, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Remy, Q.; Lallement, R.

    2016-08-01

    High resolution stellar spectroscopic surveys provide massive amounts of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) measurements. Data can be used to study the distribution of the DIB carriers and those environmental conditions that favor their formation. In parallel, recent studies have also proved that DIBs extracted from stellar spectra constitute new tools for building the 3D structure of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM). The amount of details on the structure depends directly on the quantity of available lines of sight. Therefore there is a need to construct databases of high-quality DIB measurements as large as possible. We aim at providing the community with a catalog of high-quality measurements of the 1.5273 μm DIB toward a large fraction of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) hot stars observed to correct for the telluric absorption and not used for ISM studies so far. This catalog would complement the extensive database recently extracted from the APOGEE observations and used for 3D ISM mapping. We devised a method to fit the stellar continuum of the hot calibration stars and extracted the DIB from the normalized spectrum. Severe selection criteria based on the absorption characteristics are applied to the results. In particular limiting constraints on the DIB widths and Doppler shifts are deduced from the H i 21 cm measurements, following a new technique of decomposition of the emission spectra. From ˜16,000 available hot telluric spectra we have extracted ˜6700 DIB measurements and their associated uncertainties. The statistical properties of the extracted absorptions are examined and our selection criteria are shown to provide a robust dataset. The resulting catalog contains the DIB total equivalent widths, central wavelengths and widths. We briefly illustrate its potential use for the stellar and interstellar communities.

  14. The optimization of zero-spaced microlenses for 2.2um pixel CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Hyun hee; Park, Jeong Lyeol; Choi, Jea Sung; Lee, Jeong Gun

    2007-03-01

    In CMOS image sensor, microlens arrays are generally used as light propagation carrier onto photo diode to increase collection efficiency and reduce optical cross-talk. Today, the scaling trend of CMOS technology drives reduction of the pixel size for higher integration density and resolution improvement. Microlenses are typically formed by photo resist patterning and thermal reflowing, and the space between photo resist is necessary to avoid merging of microlenses during thermal reflow process. With the shrinking sizes, microlenses become more and more difficult to manufacture without their merging. Hence, the key of light loss free microlens fabrication is still zero-space between microlenses. In this paper, we report the selection of the optimum shape of microlens by the dead space and the curvature of radius. The improvements of critical dimension and thickness uniformities of microlens are also reported.

  15. Alice's adventures in um-derland: Psycholinguistic sources of variation in disfluency production

    PubMed Central

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that three common types of disfluency (fillers, silent pauses, and repeated words) reflect variance in what strategies are available to the production system for responding to difficulty in language production. Participants' speech in a storytelling paradigm was coded for the three disfluency types. Repeats occurred most often when difficult material was already being produced and could be repeated, but fillers and silent pauses occurred most when difficult material was still being planned. Fillers were associated only with conceptual difficulties, consistent with the proposal that they reflect a communicative signal whereas silent pauses and repeats were also related to lexical and phonological difficulties. These differences are discussed in terms of different strategies available to the language production system. PMID:25339788

  16. Distribution of benthic foraminifers (>125 um) in the surface sediments of the Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Poore, Richard Z.; Foley, Kevin M.

    1999-01-01

    Census data on benthic foraminifers (>125 ?m) in surface sediment samples from 49 box cores are used to define four depth-controlled biofacies, which will aid in the paleoceanographic reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean. The shelf biofacies contains a mix of shallow-water calcareous and agglutinated species from the continental shelves of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas and reflects the variable sedimentologic and oceanic conditions of the Arctic shelves. The intermediate-depth calcareous biofacies, found between 500 and 1,100 meters water depth (mwd), contains abundant Cassidulina teretis , presumably indicating the influence of Atlantic-derived water at this depth. In water depths between 1,100 and 3,500 m, a deepwater calcareous biofacies contains abundant Oridorsalis umbonatus . Below 3,500 mwd, the deepwater mixed calcareous/agglutinated biofacies of the Canada, Makarov, and Eurasian Basins reflects a combination of low productivity, dissolution, and sediment transport. Two other benthic foraminiferal species show specific environmental preferences. Fontbotia wuellerstorfi has a depth distribution between 900 and 3,500 mwd, but maximum abundance occurs in the region of the Mendeleyev Ridge. The elevated abundance of F. wuellerstorfi may be related to increased food supply carried by a branch of Atlantic water that crosses the Lomonosov Ridge near the Russian Continental Shelf. Triloculina frigida is recognized to be a species preferring lower slope sediments commonly disturbed by turbidites and bottom currents. INTRODUCTION At present, our understanding of the Arctic Ocean lags behind our understanding of other oceans, and fundamental questions still exist about its role in and response to global climate change. The Arctic Ocean is particularly sensitive to climatic fluctuations because small changes in the amounts of sea-ice cover can alter global albedo and thermohaline circulation (Aagaard and Carmack, 1994). Numerous questions still exist regarding the nature and timing of paleoclimatic events in the Arctic Ocean. In order to attempt to answer some of these questions, baseline studies are imperative. This report discusses the distribution of benthic foraminifers in surface sediment samples from 49 box cores (figs. 1 and 2, table 1) collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). A modern data set of benthic foraminiferal distribution is necessary for interpreting the paleoclimatic and oceanographic history of the Arctic Ocean.

  17. 1.55 um aluminum gallium indium arsenide strained MQW laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chi

    At the 1.55 mum eye-safe, telecommunications operating wavelength, semiconductor diode lasers must have low threshold currents and operate at high temperatures without thermoelectric coolers. Existing diode lasers in this wavelength range based on the GaInAsP/InP materials system are very sensitive to operating temperature. To obtain high temperature, high power 1.55 mum semiconductor diode lasers, the AlGaInAs/InP materials system with strained quantum well (QW) active regions was investigated with the goal of improving temperature performance. A set of lasers with active regions consisting of different numbers of QWs (2 to 4) and different QW strains (1.2% and 1.6%) were designed taking into account the quaternary alloy bandgap of AlGaInAs, the effect of strain on the bandgap, and the quantum size effects within the QW. The active region growth temperature was optimized using photoluminescence intensity. The wafers were first processed into broad-area lasers and measured under pulsed injection. The characteristic threshold current temperature, T0, for all AlGaInAs lasers was higher (60-70 K) than for GaInAsP lasers. No strong dependence of temperature parameters on strain was observed, while properties varied significantly with the number of QWs. With more QWs, both internal efficiency and T0 increases, but internal loss increases, reducing the characteristic temperature of the differential efficiency T1. The results show that uncooled laser operation at 1.55 mum is very promising with strained AlGaInAs QWs. Ridge waveguide devices demonstrated low threshold and high output power as well as good temperature performance under continuous wave operation. Devices with different ridge heights were fabricated from one wafer and their performance was compared. It was found that current spreading was significant in these devices and a simple current density-versus-applied voltage analysis was developed to determine the spreading factor. The analysis shows that the current spreading was not effectively limited until etching went below the doped cladding layer. A recombination coefficient analysis was performed to investigate the effect of strain on Auger recombination predicted by theory. An indirect method to infer both the nonradiative recombination coefficient and the Auger recombination coefficient was initially used. The measured values of the recombination coefficients were consistent with theoretical predictions and measurements based on other material systems. The Auger recombination was lower than expected, indicating that Auger recombination is reduced in these strained QWs. To understand the carrier dynamics, impedance measurements were carried out for the first time in AlGaInAs strained QW lasers. A small-signal, sub-threshold equivalent circuit model was derived from the laser rate equations to model the measured laser impedance. Several characteristic carrier lifetimes were obtained directly from these electrical impedance measurements. From the temperature dependence of the QW escape time, it was found that hole rather than electron leakage is dominant in the AlGaInAs system due to the relatively low valence band offset. This may explain why the improvement of T0 in AlGaInAs QW 1.55 mum active regions is limited.

  18. "I May Be Crackin', But Um Fackin": Racial Humor in "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the utilization of racial humor in Christopher Paul Curtis' novel, "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963." The theoretical perspectives that inform the analysis include critical race theory and humor theory. The results of the analysis reveal that the use of humor in this book is influenced to a significant degree by race and…

  19. Isolation of UmRrm75, a gene involved in dimorphism and virulence of Ustilago maydis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ustilago maydis displays dimorphic growth, alternating between a saprophytic haploid yeast form and a filamentous dikaryon, generated by mating of haploid cells and which is an obligate parasite. Induction of the dimorphic transition of haploid strains in vitro by change in ambient pH has been used...

  20. Synchronous and asynchronous multiplexer circuits for medical imaging realized in CMOS 0.18um technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Długosz, R.; Iniewski, K.

    2007-05-01

    Multiplexers are one of the most important elements in readout front-end ASICs for multi-element detectors in medical imaging. The purpose of these ASICs is to detect signals appearing randomly in many channels and to collect the detected data in an ordered fashion (de-randomization) in order to send it to an external ADC. ASIC output stage functionality can be divided into two: pulse detection and multiplexing. The pulse detection block is responsible for detecting maximum values of signals arriving from the shaper, sending a flag signal indicating that the peak signal has been detected and storing the pulse in an analog memory until read by ADC. The multiplexer in turn is responsible for searching for active flags, controlling the channel that has detected the peak signal and performing reset functions after readout. There are several types of multiplexers proposed in this paper, which can be divided into several classes: synchronous, synchronized and asynchronous. Synchronous circuits require availability of the multiphase clock generator, which increases the power dissipation, but simultaneously provide very convenient mechanism that enables unambiguous choice of the active channel. This characteristics leads to 100% effectiveness in data processing and no data loss. Asynchronous multiplexers do not require clock generators and because of that have simpler structure, are faster and more power efficient, especially when data samples occur seldom at the ASIC's inputs. The main problem of the asynchronous solution is when data on two or more inputs occur almost at the same time, shorter than the multiplexer's reaction time. In this situation some data can be lost. In many applications loss of the order of 1% of the data is acceptable, which makes use of asynchronous multiplexers possible. For applications when the lower loss is desirable a new hierarchy mechanism has been introduced. One of proposed solutions is a synchronized binary tree structure, that uses many simple asynchronous clock generators. This circuit joins advantages of synchronous and asynchronous solutions resulting in low power dissipation, high speed of operation and 100% effectiveness.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MIPS 24um calibrators (Engelbracht+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbracht, C. W.; Blaylock, M.; Su, K. Y. L.; Rho, J.; Rieke, G. H.; Muzerolle, J.; Padgett, D. L.; Hines, D. C.; Gordon, K. D.; Fadda, D.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Kelly, D. M.; Latter, W. B.; Hinz, J. L.; Misselt, K. A.; Morrison, J. E.; Stansberry, J. A.; Shupe, D. L.; Stolovy, S.; Wheaton, W. A.; Young, E. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Wachter, S.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Frayer, D. T.; Marleau, F. R.

    2014-07-01

    The data were all obtained using the MIPS small-field photometry mode astronomical observation template (AOT). For most targets, two cycles of photometry using 3s exposures were obtained, resulting in 14 individual images at each of two telescope nod positions (excluding the short exposure that starts the data-taking sequence at each of the two telescope nod positions). Starting with the raw data downloaded from the Spitzer Science Center (SSC), these data were processed using version 3.06 of the MIPS Data Analysis Tool (DAT; Gordon et al., 2005PASP..117..503G), which performs standard processing of infrared detector array data (slope fitting, dark subtraction, linearity correction, flat fielding, and mosaicking), as well as steps specific to the array used in MIPS (droop correction and dynamic range extension using the first difference frame) -- these steps are described in more detail in the paper. (5 data files).

  2. Erbium laser with 2.69-um wavelength for use in the odontopreparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balin, Victor N.; Guk, Alexey S.; Jordanishwily, A. K.; Kropotov, Sergey P.; Maday, Dimitry Y.; Kusovkova, Tatyana A.; Serebryakov, Victor A.; Frolov, Sergey V.

    1995-04-01

    The paper presents the main results of the clinical study of the laser radiation with the wavelength 2.69 micrometers usage for the teeth caries preparation. This laser prospects for the dentistry are shown.

  3. Zum Auf und Ab des Meeresspiegels in Skandinavien: Langer Streit um Eustasie oder Isostasie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, Eugen; Seibold, Ilse

    2012-03-01

    The phenomenon of the rise of the Scandinavian shield during the Holocene and the concomitant fall in level of the Baltic Sea has been investigated for centuries. Already in medieval times, there were reports about the coastlines of the Gulf of Bothnia that are full of relevant observations. During the eighteenth century, scientists such as Celsius and Linnaeus collected observations such as these. The result was that the search for the possible explanations of this rise-and-fall phenomenon intensified. The generally favoured explanation was that there was an active sinking of sea level in the Baltic rather than an active rising of the land surface in Fennoscandia. This was because water was seen as mobile, in contrast to a „terra firma". The relevant discussion was often emotional, and here, we try to illustrate it using material from the Geologenarchiv Freiburg (von Hoff, von Buch and Goethe). No more than a few decades later, it became obvious by the theory of Ice Age that both the sea level and the land could be mobile (eustatic sea level changes—glacial isostasy). Additionally, of course, plate tectonics had some influence: Norway is situated at the western end of the Eurasian plate and is part of a passive continental margin. There are still open research problems, many of which can be addressed using modern methods of satellite-based geophysics and geodesy. Some other aspects as the permanent uplift trend of Scandinavia since the Cambrium or the rhythmic to and fro of magma in the upper mantle during the Pleistocene are mentioned.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Dimethyl sulfide laboratory um, mm & FIR spectra (Jabri+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabri, A.; Nguyen, H. V. L.; Mouhib, H.; Tchana, F. K.; Manceron, L.; Stahl, W.; Kleiner, I.

    2016-02-01

    DMS was purchased from Alfa Aesar GmbH & Co KG, Karlsruhe, Germany and used without further purification. The microwave spectrum was measured in the frequency range 2-40GHz using two Molecular Beam Fourier Transform MicroWave (MB-FTMW) spectrometers in Aachen, Germany. The millimeter spectrum was recorded in the 50-110GHz range. The FIR spectrum was measured for the first time at high resolution using the FT spectrometer and the newly built cryogenic cell at the French synchrotron SOLEIL. (3 data files).

  5. 250 um inner diameter hollow waveguide for Er:YAG laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, Michal; Jelínková, Helena; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Katsumasa; Matsuura, Yuji

    2009-02-01

    Advanced application of Er:YAG laser radiation in medical treatment requires a suitable, very precise delivery of this light to a target. In some cases (urology, cardiology, or endodontic treatments), thin waveguides are needed. Therefore a preliminary investigation was conducted with 250/360 μm inner/outer diameter hollow glass waveguides. The waveguide has inner coating made from cyclic olefin polymer and silver layers. All delivery systems were simple and consisted of lens, protector, and the waveguide. The laser source was the Er:YAG system working in a free-running regime and generating radiation at 2.94 μm wavelength. For testing, output laser energy up to 100 mJ with a repetition rate of 1 Hz was chosen. The output laser spatial profile was approximately TEM00 mode, so the structure changes behind the delivery system were readily detected. The energy delivery characteristics were also checked, and the transmission reached 77%. The maximum input fluence into the waveguide was 200 mJ/cm2, and no significant damages to waveguides were observed after the measurements.

  6. Use of shock block transmitters in the structural rehabilitation of historical buildings in Calabria and Sicily

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, Alessia; Candela, Michele; Fonti, Roberta

    2008-07-08

    Many old and historical masonry buildings, located in the Calabrian and Sicilian areas near the strait of Messina, are affected by typical pattern of cracks, which are not produced by previous earthquakes. These cracks in the masonry walls are characterized by a quasi-vertical trend with constant width. The careful examination of the crack distribution allows to clearly identify the diagnosis: the damage is caused by the sinking due to a horizontal movement of translation of the ground, which is an evident effect of creep phenomena in the soil, so-called 'solifluxion'. This paper, after showing this geological pathology, proposes an innovative strategy of intervention, which consists of the use of 'oleo-dynamic' devices, so-called shock block transmitters, providing different degrees of restraint, according to the loading conditions. In addition, in case of earthquake, an important part of the in-put seismic energy can be dissipated. The strategy of application of this system to the building consists of the subdivision of each masonry wall in two different parts, which are physically separated by the cracks. Each wall portion must be consolidated separately and the different parts of walls behave as statically independent each other, so that they can move independently during the serviceability conditions. The connection among the walls composing the whole structural organism is given by metal tie-rods equipped with 'oleo dynamic' devices, which allows, in a given range, the horizontal sliding in case of slow movement due to the phenomenon of 'solifluxion'. Contrary, in case of dynamic and fast movements, such as the ones produced by an earthquake, each 'oleo dynamic' device provides a fully restraint effect and, as a consequence, the tie-rods behave in the classical way.

  7. Synthesis of oleyl oleate wax esters in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa seed oil.

    PubMed

    Iven, Tim; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Seed oil composed of wax esters with long-chain monoenoic acyl moieties represents a high-value commodity for industry. Such plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters are biodegradable and can have excellent properties for lubrication. In addition, wax ester oil may represent a superior substrate for biodiesel production. In this study, we demonstrate that the low-input oil seed crop Camelina sativa can serve as a biotechnological platform for environmentally benign wax ester production. Two biosynthetic steps catalysed by a fatty alcohol-forming acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS) are sufficient to achieve wax ester accumulation from acyl-CoA substrates. To produce plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters, the WS from Mus musculus (MmWS) or Simmondsia chinensis (ScWS) were expressed in combination with the FAR from Mus musculus (MmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei (MaFAR) in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa. The three analysed enzyme combinations Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/Oleo3:EYFP:MmWS, Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/ScWS and MaFAR/ScWS showed differences in the wax ester molecular species profiles and overall biosynthetic performance. By expressing MaFAR/ScWS in Arabidopsis or Camelina up to 59% or 21% of the seed oil TAGs were replaced by wax esters, respectively. This combination also yielded wax ester molecular species with highest content of monounsaturated acyl moieties. Expression of the enzyme combinations in the Arabidopsis fae1 fad2 mutant background high in oleic acid resulted in wax ester accumulation enriched in oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1 > 60%), suggesting that similar values may be obtained with a Camelina high oleic acid line.

  8. Espectroscopia infravermelha para a determinacao de carbono do solo: Perspectiva de um metodo economicamente viavel e ambientalmente seguro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement among many of the world’s nations to, among other things, reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in order to reduce global warming. One potential method to do so is to sequester carbon in soils. This has had the effect of stimulating the establishment of ...

  9. In-line charge-trapping characterization of dielectrics for sub-0.5-um CMOS technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Pradip K.; Chacon, Carlos M.; Ma, Yi; Horner, Gregory

    1997-09-01

    The advent of ultra-large and giga-scale-integration (ULSI/GSI) has placed considerable emphasis on the development of new gate oxides and interlevel dielectrics capable of meeting strict performance and reliability requirements. The costs and demands associated with ULSI fabrication have in turn fueled the need for cost-effective, rapid and accurate in-line characterization techniques for evaluating dielectric quality. The use of non-contact surface photovoltage characterization techniques provides cost-effective rapid feedback on dielectric quality, reducing costs through the reutilization of control wafers and the elimination of processing time. This technology has been applied to characterize most of the relevant C-V parameters, including flatband voltage (Vfb), density of interface traps (Dit), mobile charge density (Qm), oxide thickness (Tox), oxide resistivity (pox) and total charge (Qtot) for gate and interlevel (ILO) oxides. A novel method of measuring tunneling voltage by this technique on various gate oxides is discussed. For ILO, PECVD and high density plasma dielectrics, surface voltage maps are also presented. Measurements of near-surface silicon quality are described, including minority carrier generation lifetime, and examples of their application in diagnosing manufacturing problems.

  10. IN Like Flint: How the Innovation Incubator at UM-Flint Fosters Social Entrepreneurship in a City Remaking Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Nic

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the University of Michigan-Flint's Innovation Incubator supports emerging for-profit businesses and nonprofit organizations through programming, business plan development, and ongoing mentorship. The Incubator is especially interested in supporting start-ups that address key social issues in the surrounding community,…

  11. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. 4; 1.2-35um Spectra of Six Standard Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Witteborn, Fred C.; Walker, Russell G.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Wooden, Diane H.

    1995-01-01

    We present five new absolutely calibrated continuous stellar spectra from 1.2 to 35 microns, constructed as far as possible from actual observed spectral fragments taken from the ground, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). These stars, Beta Peg, Delta Boo, Beta And, Beta Gem, and Delta Hya, augment our already created complete absolutely calibrated spectrum for a Tau. All these spectra have a common calibration pedigree. The wavelength coverage is ideal for calibration of many existing and proposed ground-based, airborne, and satellite sensors.

  12. Laser-tissue interactions (bone and cartilage) at the 2.9-um erbium:YAG wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Kirk E.; Sherk, Henry H.

    1994-09-01

    A new flexible handheld delivery system for the Erbium:YAG laser has recently been developed. We studied the ability of this system to deliver energy levels sufficient to cut human cadaveric femoral condylar bone and meniscal tissue, and evaluated the histologic effects and quality of those cuts. Furrowing cuts were made with the 2.9-micrometers Erbium:YAG laser in human cadaveric femoral condylar bone and meniscal tissue. Multiple cuts were delivered through a flexible handpiece with a focusing tip using five different energy settings ranging from 200 mj to 1000 mj at 10 Hz. The tissue samples were fixed and stained with HE and Trichrome. Microscopic analysis was completed and data is reported as direct measurements of histologic damage based on differential staining characteristics. This study shows that sufficient energy to cut cartilage and bone can be delivered through a flexible handheld device. The cut surfaces showed outstanding quality and minimal tissue damage, especially when compared to the Ho:YAG, Nd:YAG, and the CO2 lasers, none of which adequately cut bone at the present time.

  13. 1.9-um diode-laser-assisted anastomoses in reconstructive microsurgery: preliminary results in 12 patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Schoffs, Michel; Martinot, Veronique L.; Buys, Bruno; Patenotre, Philippe; Lesage, Jean C.; Dhelin, Guy

    1998-01-01

    The authors reported an original 1.9 micrometer diode laser assisted microvascular anastomosis (LAMA) in human. This technique has been applied in 12 patients during reconstructive surgery for digital replantations (n equals 2), for digital revascularizations (n equals 3) and for free flap transfers (n equals 7). Fourteen end-to-end anastomoses (10 arteries, 4 veins) were performed. LAMA were always performed on vessel which did not impede the chance of success of the surgical procedure in case of thrombosis. LAMA was performed with a 1.9 micrometer diode laser after placement of 2 equidistant stitches. The didoes spot was obtained by means of an optic fiber transmitted to the vessel wall via a pencil size hand piece. The used parameters were as followed: spot size equals 400 micrometer, power equals 70 to 220 mW, time equals 0.7 to 2 seconds, mean fluence equals 115 J/cm2. The mechanism involved is a thermal effect on the collagen of the adventitia and media leading to a phenomena which the authors have termed 'heliofusion.' This preliminary trial has permitted to define the modalities of its use in human. The technique is simple, rapid and easily learned. The equipment is not cumbersome, sterilizable and very ergonomic. LAMA does not replace sutures but is complementary, thanks to a reduction in the number of stitches used and to an access to surgical areas which are not easily accessible. This study must be completed by a larger scale study to confirm this technique and its reliability. Others uses could performed on different tissues such as biliary and urinary track, specially under laparoscopic conditions.

  14. Genetic mapping of MlUM15: an Aegilops neglecta-derived powdery mildew resistance gene in common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis DC f. sp. tritici, is a major fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cool and humid climates. Race-specific host plant resistance is a reliable, economical, and environmentally benign form of disease prevention. The identification of molecular m...

  15. Development of a 1- to 1.7-um image intensifier tube using a Generation III configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrera, Joseph P.; Lambert, Steve; Passmore, Keith T.; Phillips, David L.; Vernon, Stan M.; Glosser, Robert; Flynt, William E.; Rector, M. A.

    1993-11-01

    We present the development of a near infrared image intensifier tube based on a Generation III configuration. The photocathode driving this tube is based on a negative-electron-affinity (NEA) InGaAs design. The surface and crystalline quality of the InGaAs active layer for this device is characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-rays (EDX), and Auger spectroscopy. Room temperature and 77 K photoluminescence (PL) and transmission measurements indicate the near infrared responsivity (1.2 - 1.7 micrometers ) of the InGaAs active layer. Reflection mode measurements of the photoresponse (PR) in an ultra high vacuum environment produced white light sensitivities of 100 (mu) A/lumen and quantum efficiencies of approximately 1% for wavelengths of 1300 - 1600 nm at 300 K. Sealed image tubes were created, and early sealed tube results show low quantum efficiencies (approximately 0.1% 1550 nm) due to nonoptimized active layer thickness.

  16. Beta-adrenoceptor mediated signal transduction in congestive heart failure in cardiomyopathic (UM-X7.1) hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kaura, D; Takeda, N; Sethi, R; Wang, X; Nagano, M; Dhalla, N S

    In view of the lack of information regarding the status of beta-adrenoceptor mediated signal transduction mechanisms at severe stages of congestive heart failure, the status of beta-adrenoceptors, G-proteins and adenylyl cyclase activities was examined in 220-275 day old cardiomyopathic hamster hearts. Although no changes in the Kd values for beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors were seen, the number of beta 1-adrenoceptors, unlike that of beta 2-adrenoceptors, was markedly decreased in cardiac membranes from failing hearts. The activation of adenylyl cyclase in the failing hearts by different concentrations of isoproterenol was also attenuated in comparison to the control preparations. The basal adenylyl cyclase activity in cardiac membranes from the failing hearts was not altered; however, the stimulated enzyme activities, when measured in the presence of forskolin, NaF or Gpp(NH)p were depressed significantly. The functional activity of Gs-proteins (measured by cholera toxin stimulation of adenylyl cyclase) was depressed whereas that of Gi-proteins (measured by pertussis toxin stimulation of adenylyl cyclase) was increased in the failing hearts. Not only were the Gs- and Gi-protein contents (measured by immunoblotting) increased, the bioactivities of these proteins as determined by ADP-ribosylations in the presence of cholera toxin and pertussis toxin, respectively, were also higher in failing hearts in comparison to the control values. Northern blot analysis revealed that the signals for Gs- and Gi-protein mRNAs were augmented at this stage of heart failure. These results indicate that the loss of adrenergic support at severe stages of congestive heart failure in cardiomyopathic hamsters may involve a reduction in the number of beta 1-adrenoceptors, and an increase in Gi-protein contents as well as bioactivities in addition to an uncoupling of Gs-proteins from the catalytic site of adenylyl cyclase in cardiac membrane. PMID:8739246

  17. The relationship between English language learning strategies and gender among pre-university students: An overview of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to analyze the effects psychological gender differences on the relationship between language learning strategies and their proficiency in English language for pre-university students. Previous researchers found that the more employment of language learning strategies, the more successful the learners are and those with higher level of strategy use are female rather than male. In this study, fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  18. Cozinha: Um Lugar para a "bildung" dos Educadores (The Kitchen: A Place for the "bildung" of Educators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiano, Gilberto

    2000-01-01

    Uses a kitchen metaphor for philosophy of education, in dialogue with Augustine, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Brillat-Savarin, and others. Mixes and cooks ingredients in thinking: the centrality of the human being, corporeality, historicity, and transcendency; food as sign-symbol; eating-linguistic habits; educator-cook; space of the kitchen; sensuality,…

  19. The relationship between English language learning strategies and proficiency of pre-university students: A study case of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-07-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency in English. Fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were judged based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) Results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxy structural parameters from 3.6um images (Kim+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Gadotti, D. A.; Sheth, K.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Lee, M. G.; Madore, B. F.; Elmegreen, B.; Knapen, J. H.; Zaritsky, D.; Ho, L. C.; Comeron, S.; Holwerda, B.; Hinz, J. L.; Munoz-Mateos, J.-C.; Cisternas, M.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.; Buta, R.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Laine, J.; Menendez-Delmestre, K.; Regan, M. W.; de Swardt, B.; Gil de, Paz A.; Seibert, M.; Mizusawa, T.

    2016-03-01

    We select our samples from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397). We chose galaxies that had already been processed by the first three S4G pipelines (Pipelines 1, 2, and 3; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397) at the moment of this study (2011 November). In brief, Pipeline processes images and provides science-ready images. Pipeline 2 prepares mask images (to exclude foreground and background objects) for further analysis, and Pipeline 3 derives surface brightness profiles and total magnitudes using IRAF ellipse fits. We excluded highly inclined (b/a<0.5), significantly disturbed, very faint, or irregular galaxies. Galaxies were also discarded if their images are unsuitable for decomposition due to contamination such as a bright foreground star or significant stray light from stars in the IRAC scattering zones. Then we chose barred galaxies from all Hubble types from S0 to Sdm using the numerical Hubble types from Hyperleda (Paturel et al. 2003, cat. VII/237, VII/238). The assessment of the presence of a bar was done visually by K. Sheth, T. Kim, and B. de Swardt. Later, we also confirmed the presence of a bar by checking the mid-infrared classification (Buta et al. 2010, cat. J/ApJS/190/147; Buta et al. 2015, cat. J/ApJS/217/32). A total of 144 barred galaxies were selected that satisfy our criteria, and we list our sample in Table1 with basic information. Table2 presents the measures of structural parameters for all galaxies in the sample obtained from the 2D model fit with BUDDA (BUlge/disk Decomposition Analysis, de Souza et al., 2004ApJS..153..411D; Gadotti, 2008MNRAS.384..420G) code. (2 data files).

  1. Modeling the language learning strategies and English language proficiency of pre-university students in UMS: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.

  2. CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF PARTICLES (0.01-20.0 UM) IN AN OCCUPIED HOME, REED AND WALLACE, AAAR.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the contribution of outdoor and indoor sources to particle concentrations found in residential indoor air, an extensive monitoring effort has been undertaken in a three-story townhouse located in Reston, VA. Of particular interest was the determination of i...

  3. Spectrally Consistent Scattering, Absorption, and Polarization Properties of Atmospheric Ice Crystals at Wavelengths from 0.2 to 100 um

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ping; Bi, Lei; Baum, Bryan A.; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Kattawar, George W.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Cole, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A data library is developed containing the scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of ice particles in the spectral range from 0.2 to 100 microns. The properties are computed based on a combination of the Amsterdam discrete dipole approximation (ADDA), the T-matrix method, and the improved geometric optics method (IGOM). The electromagnetic edge effect is incorporated into the extinction and absorption efficiencies computed from the IGOM. A full set of single-scattering properties is provided by considering three-dimensional random orientations for 11 ice crystal habits: droxtals, prolate spheroids, oblate spheroids, solid and hollow columns, compact aggregates composed of eight solid columns, hexagonal plates, small spatial aggregates composed of 5 plates, large spatial aggregates composed of 10 plates, and solid and hollow bullet rosettes. The maximum dimension of each habit ranges from 2 to 10,000 microns in 189 discrete sizes. For each ice crystal habit, three surface roughness conditions (i.e., smooth, moderately roughened, and severely roughened) are considered to account for the surface texture of large particles in the IGOM applicable domain. The data library contains the extinction efficiency, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, six independent nonzero elements of the phase matrix (P11, P12, P22, P33, P43, and P44), particle projected area, and particle volume to provide the basic single-scattering properties for remote sensing applications and radiative transfer simulations involving ice clouds. Furthermore, a comparison of satellite observations and theoretical simulations for the polarization characteristics of ice clouds demonstrates that ice cloud optical models assuming severely roughened ice crystals significantly outperform their counterparts assuming smooth ice crystals.

  4. Phytochemical Analysis and Anti-cancer Investigation of Boswellia serrata Bioactive Constituents In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; Abd-Rabou, Ahmed A; Hassan, Amal Z; Kotob, Soheir E

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major health obstacle around the world, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) as major causes of morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, there isgrowing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products for HCC and CRC, owing to the anticancer activity of their bioactive constituents. Boswellia serrata oleo gum resin has long been used in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate a variety of health problems such as inflammatory and arthritic diseases. The current study aimed to identify and explore the in vitro anticancer effect of B. Serrata bioactive constituents on HepG2 and HCT 116 cell lines. Phytochemical analysis of volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo gum resin was carried out using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Oleo-gum-resin of B. Serrata was then successively extracted with petroleum ether (extract 1) and methanol (extract 2). Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis of the lipoidal matter was also performed. In addition, a methanol extract of B. Serrata oleo gum resin was phytochemically studied using column chromatography (CC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) to obtain four fractions (I, II, III and IV). Sephadex columns were used to isolate β-boswellic acid and identification of the pure compound was done using UV, mass spectra, 1H NMR and 13C NMR analysis. Total extracts, fractions and volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo-gum resin were subsequently applied to HCC cells (HepG2 cell line) and CRC cells (HCT 116 cell line) to assess their cytotoxic effects. GLC analysis of the lipoidal matter resulted in identification of tricosane (75.32%) as a major compound with the presence of cholesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. Twenty two fatty acids were identified of which saturated fatty acids represented 25.6% and unsaturated fatty acids 74.4% of the total saponifiable fraction. GC/MS analysis of three chromatographic fractions (I,II and III) of B. Serrata oleo gum resin revealed the

  5. Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Loyd. L.

    1960-01-01

    The film shows experimental investigations to determine the landing-energy-dissipation characteristics for several types of landing gear for manned reentry vehicles. The landing vehicles are considered in two categories: those having essentially vertical-descent paths, the parachute-supported vehicles, and those having essentially horizontal paths, the lifting vehicles. The energy-dissipation devices include crushable materials such as foamed plastics and honeycomb for internal application in couch-support systems, yielding metal elements as part of the structure of capsules or as alternates for oleos in landing-gear struts, inflatable bags, braking rockets, and shaped surfaces for water impact.

  6. Design and preparation of plant oil-based polymers and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byung-Jun Kollbe

    Renewable materials are desirable for many applications due to the finite fossil resources and environmental issues. Plant oil is one of the most promising renewable feedstocks. Plant oils and functionalized oleo-chemicals including functionalized soybean oils have become attractive sustainable chemicals for industrial applications. Especially, epoxidized oleo-chemicals such as epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) are one of the most well-known readily available inexpensive functionalized plant oils. In this study, novel polymers and nanocomposites for sustainable materials applications were designed and prepared via ring-opening of epoxide in plant oils, and their chemical and physical properties were characterized. The novel transparent elastomers derived from functionalized plant oils have a great potential as flexible electronic and biological applications with their inherent low toxicity. Especially, their rheological properties showed a potential for pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs). The dominant thermal stability and transparency were obtained via green processing: one pot, single step, fast reactions in moderate conditions, or solvent-free UV curing conditions. These oleo-based elastomers presented excellent end-use properties for PSAs application comparable to commercial PSA tapes. Based on the principal chemical studies, the roles of the each component have been identified: polymer derived from the ring-opening of epoxides as an elastomer, and dihydroxylated triglycerides as a tackifier. Their interaction was also elucidated with an element label analysis. The mechanical and rheological properties of the oleo-polymer as PSAs were able to be improved with a rosin ester tackifier. In addition, biogreases and bio-thermoplastics were developed via the environmentally benign process, which will contribute to further application on the production of new bio-based materials. Further, this study essays a novel acid functionalized iron/iron oxide nanoparticles catalyst

  7. Larvicidal activity of Commiphora molmol against Culex pipiens and Aedes caspius larvae.

    PubMed

    Massoud, A M; Labib, I M

    2000-04-01

    Myrrh (oleo-gum-resin) obtained from the stem of Commiphora molmol proved to have insecticidal activity against mosquito larvae. The oil extract of Myrrh possesses median lethal activity against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Culex pipiens at 0.016 x 10(2), 0.17 x 10(2) & 1.6 x 10(2) g/l respectively. While LC50 against 3rd instar larvae of Aedes caspius was 0.2 x 10(2) g/l. The oleo-resin extract showed toxicity against 2nd, 3rd, 4th instar larvae of C. pipiens recording the LC50 values of 0.06 x 10(2), 0.09 x 10(2) & 0.5 x 10(2) g/l respectively. While LC50 against 3rd instar larvae of A. caspius was 0.08 x 10(2) g/l. This plant extract has no marked toxic effect against the water bug Sphaerodema urinator (Dufor) and the water beetle Hydaticus leander (Rossi). Histological examinations of Myrrh treated mosquito larvae showed great pathological effect on their fat, muscles, gut and nervous tissues. PMID:10786023

  8. A Landing Gear Noise Reduction Study Based on Computational Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Lockard, David P.

    2006-01-01

    Landing gear is one of the more prominent airframe noise sources. Techniques that diminish gear noise and suppress its radiation to the ground are highly desirable. Using a hybrid computational approach, this paper investigates the noise reduction potential of devices added to a simplified main landing gear model without small scale geometric details. The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is used to predict the noise at far-field observer locations from surface pressure data provided by unsteady CFD calculations. Because of the simplified nature of the model, most of the flow unsteadiness is restricted to low frequencies. The wheels, gear boxes, and oleo appear to be the primary sources of unsteadiness at these frequencies. The addition of fairings around the gear boxes and wheels, and the attachment of a splitter plate on the downstream side of the oleo significantly reduces the noise over a wide range of frequencies, but a dramatic increase in noise is observed at one frequency. The increased flow velocities, a consequence of the more streamlined bodies, appear to generate extra unsteadiness around other parts giving rise to the additional noise. Nonetheless, the calculations demonstrate the capability of the devices to improve overall landing gear noise.

  9. [Inhibition of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth of Capsicum annu- um and the alleviation effect of nitrogen application].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Hu, Ting-xing; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hong-ling; Jiang, Xue; Zhou, Guang-liang; Chen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Effects of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth, physiological and phenological traits of Capsicum annuum, and modification of these effects by nitrogen application were investigated using a pot experiment. C. camphora leaf litter was applied at rate of 0, 25, 50 100 g per pot, resulting into four treatments, i.e., CK (the control), L25, L50, and L100. Nitrogen application was firstly performed on the 39th d of decomposition (3.0 g urea was added to each pot six times). Leaf area, plant height, basal diameter and biomass production of C. annuum were all inhibited sharply by exposure to the leaf litter, and the inhibition effect increased with the increasing leaf litter in terms of both the intensity and the stability. Treated with L25, budding number reduced by 88.7% averagely during 55th-75th d, and the rate of fructification plant decreased by 40% on the 96th d of decomposition, while neither buds nor fruits were observed when exposed to L50 and L100 at that time. Pigment contents and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) were impacted due to leaf litter addition, and malonaldehyde (MDA) was only markedly promoted by L100. Inhibition on growth and development of C. annuum caused by leaf litter decomposition could be alleviated by nitrogen application. Leaf area treated with leaf litter recovered to the control level on the 52nd d after nitrogen application, and similar results appeared on the 83rd d after nitrogen application for other growth traits. Budding and fructification status were also visibly improved.

  10. A temperature-controlled cell for X-ray study of liquid systems using a commercial DRON-UM1 diffractometer

    SciTech Connect

    Petrun`kin, S.P.; Garavina, E.V.; Trostin, V.N.

    1995-02-01

    A container (cell) and a temperature-control system have been designed enabling one to carry out x-ray diffraction study of liquid samples both at a fixed temperature and within a certain temperature range using a commercial DRON-UMl x-ray diffractometer. Special features of the cell and the materials used for it allow one to study both chemically inert and corrosive liquids.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Library of Spectra (0.5 to 2.5um) of Cool Stars (Lancon+ 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancon, A.; Wood, P. R.

    2000-07-01

    The present catalogue contains 182 low resolution optical spectra, 145 medium resolution (R~1100) near-IR spectra, and 112 merged optical+near-IR spectra that range from about 510 to 2450 nm. The observed stars are luminous cool objects: the sample includes red giants, red supergiants, oxygen rich and carbon rich long period variables (asymptotic giant branch stars), as well as a few Galactic Bulge and LMC/SMC stars. The optical data were acquired on the so-called 74 inch Telescope at Mount Stromlo Observatory. The near-IR data were acquired with the Cryogenic Array Spectrometer and Imager CASPIR on the 2.3 meter Australian National University Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. Optical and near-IR data for variable objects have been merged only when both were taken less than 15 days apart; but both spectral ranges are also provided separately. The spectra are corrected for telluric absorption. However, in regions where the transmission of the Earth atmosphere is close to zero the fluxes recovered remain highly uncertain. The flux calibration is based on a series of reference stars, for which a theoretical intrinsic energy distribution was assumed. An absolute flux calibration (to about 10% accuracy) was only achieved in exceptional cases; in the other cases, the absolute fluxes can be off their real values by an order of magnitude due to slit losses (for the programme star and/or the reference star) and to non-photometric wheather. Uncertainties in the relative values of fluxes along each spectrum are described in the paper. (8 data files).

  12. Commissioning results of MMT-POL: the 1-5um imaging polarimeter leveraged from the AO secondary of the 6.5m MMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packham, C.; Jones, T. J.; Warner, C.; Krejny, M.; Shenoy, D.; Vonderharr, T.; Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; DeWahl, K.

    2012-09-01

    MMT-POL is an adaptive optics optimized imaging polarimeter designed for use at the 6.5m MMT. By taking full advantage of the adaptive optics secondary mirror of the MMT, this polarimeter offers diffraction-limited polarimetry with very low instrumental polarization and minimal thermal background. MMT-POL permits observations as diverse as protoplanetary discs, comets, red giant winds, (super)novae and ejecta, galaxies, and AGN. We report on the initial on-sky commissioning results of the instrument including a description of the instrument.

  13. A Synchrotron-Based Facility for the in-situ Location, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of ~10 um Particles Captured in Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.; Sutton, S; Lanzirotti, A

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust mission collected dust from the coma of Comet Wild-2 on January 2nd, 2004, by direct capture into aerogel cells that flew through the dust coma at 6 km/s. Stardust collected several hundred comet particles >10 {mu}m in size. These comet samples were delivered to Earth on January 15th, 2006. We developed a facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, NY, USA) for the in-situ characterization of 10 {mu}m particles collected in aerogel. These analytical instruments allow us to perform extensive chemical, mineralogical, and size-frequency characterization of particles captured in aerogel. These analyses are conducted without any invasive extraction, minimizing the possibility of contamination or particle loss during preparation. This facility was used to determine the chemical composition, the oxidation state, the mineralogy and to provide an indication of the grain size of the Wild-2 particles before they were removed from the aerogel. This information provides a catalog of particle types, allowing a more reasoned allocation of the particles to subsequent investigators based on a relatively detailed knowledge of the chemical composition and mineralogy of each particle. These measurements allowed a comparison of the chemical and mineralogical properties of the Wild-2 particles with other types of extraterrestrial materials, including interplanetary dust particles and meteorites. The success of in-situ analysis for Wild 2 particles demonstrates that synchrotron-based facilities will be important for the analysis of particles collected in aerogel on future earth-orbiting satellites and spacecraft.

  14. Effects of resist strip processing damage on the electrical characteristics of 0.8-um a-Si antifuse circuit elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, Felix; Vines, Landon B.; Ravindhran, K. S.; Han, Yu-Pin; Echtle, Danny; Garcia, Annette; Richardson, Brian; Weling, Milind; Hickey, James; Loh, Ying-Tsong

    1994-09-01

    Field-programmable ASICs have been implemented using a variety of programmable circuit elements, including SRAM, EPROM, E2PROM, and antifuse cells. Amorphous silicon (a-Si) antifuse cells offer greater packing densities and superior performance compared to cells based on memory elements, and they can be integrated into conventional multi-layer integrated circuits with the addition of several process modules. Despite their advantages, a potential yield issue with a-Si antifuses is that their electrical characteristics can be affected by damage from manufacturing processes. In this study, it is found that the programming voltage is reduced when a solvent-based post-resist strip solution is applied to the bottom electrode layer of TiW. Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) shows that the resist strip solution increases the micro-roughness of TiW films. It is also found that the `off-'state leakage current increases when the solution is applied to the a-Si antifuse layer. The amount of the leakage current increase is related to the amount of a-Si loss due to the strip solution.

  15. "O Ensaio como Forma" ou Um Ensaio acerca da Teoria Critica da Sociedade ("The Essay as Form" or An Essay about the Critical Theory of Society).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Rosely

    2000-01-01

    Illuminates the critical theory project, with themes permeating the theoretical constructions of Frankfurt (Germany). Debates the predominance of positivism in the production of knowledge. Speculates that "the essay as form" constitutes itself as a representation of the concept of the Enlightenment. Concludes with a dialogue between Theodor Adorno…

  16. The FLARE mission: deep and wide-field 1-5um imaging and spectroscopy for the early universe: a proposal for M5 cosmic vision call

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgarella, D.; Levacher, P.; Vives, S.; Dohlen, K.; Pascal, S.

    2016-07-01

    FLARE (First Light And Reionization Explorer) is a space mission that will be submitted to ESA (M5 call). Its primary goal (~80% of lifetime) is to identify and study the universe before the end of the reionization at z > 6. A secondary objective (~20% of lifetime) is to survey star formation in the Milky Way. FLARE's strategy optimizes the science return: imaging and spectroscopic integral-field observations will be carried out simultaneously on two parallel focal planes and over very wide instantaneous fields of view. FLARE will help addressing two of ESA's Cosmic Vision themes: a) << How did the universe originate and what is it made of? » and b) « What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? >> and more specifically, << From gas and dust to stars and planets >>. FLARE will provide to the ESA community a leading position to statistically study the early universe after JWST's deep but pin-hole surveys. Moreover, the instrumental development of wide-field imaging and wide-field integral-field spectroscopy in space will be a major breakthrough after making them available on ground-based telescopes.

  17. Measurements of Diffuse Sky Emission Components in High Galactic Latitudes at 3.5 and 4.9 um Using Dirbe and WISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained from the Cosmic Background Explorer/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) at 3.5 and 4.9 μm, we present a reanalysis of diffuse sky emissions such as zodiacal light (ZL), diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic residual emission including the extragalactic background light (EBL). Our new analysis, which includes an improved estimate of ISL using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data, enabled us to find the DGL signal in a direct linear correlation between diffuse near-infrared and 100 μm emission at high Galactic latitudes (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). At 3.5 μm, the high-latitude DGL result is comparable to the low-latitude value derived from the previous DIRBE analysis. In comparison with models of the DGL spectrum assuming a size distribution of dust grains composed of amorphous silicate, graphite, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), the measured DGL values at 3.5 and 4.9 μm constrain the mass fraction of PAH particles in the total dust species to be more than ˜2%. This was consistent with the results of Spitzer/IRAC toward the lower Galactic latitude regions. The derived residual emission of 8.9 ± 3.4 nWm-2 sr-1 at 3.5 μm is marginally consistent with the level of integrated galaxy light and the EBL constraints from the γ-ray observations. The residual emission at 4.9 μm is not significantly detected due to the large uncertainty in the ZL subtraction, the same as in previous studies. Combined with our reanalysis of the DIRBE data at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, the residual emission in the near-infrared exhibits the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum.

  18. Derivation of a Large Isotopic Diffuse Sky Emission Component at 1.25 and 2.2um from the COBE/DIRBE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained with COBE/DIRBE, we reanalyzed the diffuse sky brightness at 1.25 and 2.2 μ {{m}}, which consists of zodiacal light, diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic emission including the extragalactic background light. Our new analysis including an improved estimate of the DGL and the ISL with the 2MASS data showed that deviations of the isotropic emission from isotropy were less than 10% in the entire sky at high Galactic latitude (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). We derived the DGL to 100 μm brightness ratios of ˜4.79 and ˜1.49 n W m-2 MJy-1 at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, respectively. The result of our analysis revealed a significantly large isotropic component at 1.25 and 2.2 μ {{m}} with intensities of 60.15 ± 16.14 and 27.68+/- 6.21 {{n}} {{W}} {{{m}}}-2 {{sr}}-1, respectively. This intensity is larger than the integrated galaxy light, upper limits from γ-ray observation, and potential contribution from exotic sources (i.e., Population III stars, intrahalo light, direct collapse black holes, and dark stars). We therefore conclude that the excess light may originate from the local universe: the Milky Way and/or the solar system.

  19. Heavy-ion broad-beam and microprobe studies of single-event upsets in 0.20 um SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors and circuits.

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Karl; Irwin, Timothy J.; Niu, Guofu; Fodness, Bryan; Carts, Martin A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Reed, Robert A.; Gilbert, Barry; Randall, Barbara; Prairie, Jason; Riggs, Pam; Pickel, James C.; LaBel, Kenneth; Cressler, John D.; Krithivasan, Ramkumar; Dodd, Paul Emerson; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy

    2003-09-01

    Combining broad-beam circuit level single-event upset (SEU) response with heavy ion microprobe charge collection measurements on single silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors improves understanding of the charge collection mechanisms responsible for SEU response of digital SiGe HBT technology. This new understanding of the SEU mechanisms shows that the right rectangular parallele-piped model for the sensitive volume is not applicable to this technology. A new first-order physical model is proposed and calibrated with moderate success.

  20. High Resolution Spectroscopy of H212C16O in the 1.9 to 2.56 um Spectral Range

    SciTech Connect

    Flaud, J-M; Lafferty, Walter J.; Sams, Robert L.; Sharpe, Steven W.

    2006-06-20

    Infrared spectra of H2CO covering the 1.9 ? 2.5 ?m spectral domain have been recorded at very high resolution (0.005 cm-1) using Fourier transform spectroscopy. A thorough analysis of this spectral region has led to the observation and analysis of the v1+v6, v2+v4+v6, 2v3+ v6, v3+v5, v1+v2, v2+v5, 2v2+ v6 and 3v2 bands. The line frequencies were calculated using effective (empirical) Hamiltonian models which account for the main Coriolis and vibrational interactions. Using an interactive scheme it was then possible to least-squares fit the observed energy levels to within a few thousandths of a wavenumber. The Obs. ? Calc. differences do not match the spectral precision ({approx}0.0008 cm-1), but given the congestion in the spectrum resulting from the density of the vibrational states as well as the large centrifugal distortion and Coriolis and anharmonic coupling effects, we believe that a reasonable agreement was obtained.

  1. Leo de Ball and his contributions to international astronomical projects around 1900. (German Title: Leo de Ball und seine Beiträge zu internationalen Astronomieprojekten um 1900)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habison, Peter

    From 1891 until 1916 Leo de Ball was the director of the Kuffner Observatory in Vienna. Born in Germany in 1853, he studied at Berlin and Bonn. After having received his doctorate in 1877, he became assistant at Gotha. From 1881 to 1882 he worked at the observatory in Bothkamp, where he discovered the minor planet ``Athamantis''. In 1883, he followed an invitation to the Ougrée Observatory in Belgium. Here he published some quite remarkable papers on the mass of Saturn and was also introduced to meridian circle astronomy. In 1891 he received a call to Moriz von Kuffner's observatory in Vienna. During that time the Astronomische Gesellschaft called for an extension of the ``Zonenunternehmen'' to southern declinations from -2 ° to -23°. De Ball took over the zone -5°50´ to -10°50´. This work occupied most of his time from 1892 to 1896. In 1900 Leo de Ball initiated a project for determining relative parallaxes of 252 stars in collaboration with four observatories. Although the project was only partly executed, Leo de Ball published relative parallaxes of 16 stars, observed from 1901 to 1907 with the Vienna heliometer.

  2. Confusion about a little observatory: the history of the first high school observatory (German Title: Verwirrung um eine kleine Sternwarte: Die Geschichte der ersten Chemnitzer Schulsternwarte )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfitzner, Elvira

    By means of a small watercolor, painted by a musicologist, the existence of the highschool observatory of Chemnitz was rediscovered. The small observatory was build in 1893 by means of funds and a donation: after WW I it was also used for popular education. During Nazi times, the observatory fell into neglect, and the mechanical damage made it impossible to put it back into operation after WW II The building was torn down in 1964 and forgotten.

  3. Historia Oral, Experiencias de Aprendizagem e Enraizamento Sociocultural--Um Projeto em Curso (Oral History, Learning Experiences, and Sociocultural Setting--A Project in Process).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidigal, Luis

    1995-01-01

    Examines education and childhood in Portugal. Uses oral history methods in an educational context, exploring oral statements pedagogically. Considers these statements especially suitable to maintaining aspects of collective memory and social identity, reinforcing students' national and regional identities. Suggests this is very important in…

  4. Diode-laser-pumped 1.065-um Nd:Sr5(VO4)3F laser and its intracavity frequency doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shengzhi; Wang, Qingpu; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Songtao; Zhao, Lu; Sun, Lianke; Zhang, Shaojun

    1996-12-01

    Nd:Sr5(VO4)3F, known as Nd:S-VAP, is a new material for efficient and miniature diode-pumped solid state lasers. By using a laser-diode pump operating at 809 nm, Nd:S-VAP is successfully lased at 1.065 micrometers . A slope efficiency of 43.5% and a laser threshold of only 11 mW are measured. The theoretical formulas for threshold power and slope efficiency are written and the theoretical calculations are in agreement with the experimental results. In addition, by using KTP as an intracavity-doubling crystal, the intracavity frequency of the Nd:S-VAP laser at 0.5325 micrometers is also realized. The threshold power is 13.2 mW and the TEM00 mode green laser output power is 25.6 mW at 200 mW incident pump power, corresponding to an optical efficiency of 12.8%. In addition a way to improve efficiency is discussed.

  5. Dental hard tissue modification and removal using sealed transverse excited atmospheric-pressure lasers operating at lambda=9.6 and 10.6 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Ragadio, Jerome N.; Akrivou, Maria; Featherstone, John D.; Murray, Michael W.; Dickenson, Kevin M.

    2001-04-01

    Pulsed CO2 lasers have been shown to be effective for both removal and modification of dental hard tissue for the treatment of dental caries. In this study, sealed transverse excited atmospheric pressure (TEA) laser systems optimally tuned to the highly absorbed 9.6 micrometers wavelength were investigated for application on dental hard tissue. Conventional TEA lasers produce an initial high energy spike at the beginning of the laser pulse of submicrosecond duration followed by a long tail of about 1 - 4 microsecond(s) . The pulse duration is well matched to the 1 - 2 microsecond(s) thermal relaxation time of the deposited laser energy at 9.6 micrometers and effectively heats the enamel to the temperatures required for surface modification at absorbed fluences of less than 0.5 J/cm2. Thus, the heat deposition in the tooth and the corresponding risk of pulpal necrosis from excessive heat accumulation is minimized. At higher fluences, the high peak power of the laser pulse rapidly initiates a plasma that markedly reduces the ablation rate and efficiency, severely limiting applicability for hard tissue ablation. By lengthening the laser pulse to reduce the energy distributed in the initial high energy spike, the plasma threshold can be raised sufficiently to increase the ablation rate by an order of magnitude. This results in a practical and efficient CO2 laser system for caries ablation and surface modification.

  6. Tissue welding for corneal wound suture with a CW 1.9-um diode laser: an in-vivo preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmettre, Thomas; Mordon, Serge R.; Mitchell, Valerie A.

    1996-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the interest of a 1.9 micrometer diode laser for corneal wound suture. Six adult albino rabbits were anesthetized. A 7 mm corneal incision was practiced on the right eye. For 3 animals (laser plus stitch) the incision was surgically sutured with 2 stitches of a nylon monofilament and laser impacts were performed between the stitches. For 3 animals (laser only) juxtaposed lasers impacts were realized to suture the wound. After the procedure the animals were examined daily for signs of inflammation, infection and for healing of the corneal wound. Material was obtained for histological examination 1 month after the procedure. Approximation of the edges of the would was successfully obtained in the (laser plus stitch) group. In the (laser only) group this approximation remained troublesome. After the procedure, one cornea of the (laser only) group disclosed a little leakage during 2 days. Histological examination assessed the welding of the corneal wound in the two groups provided structural modifications and some inflammatory signs. Corneal welding using a 1.9 micrometer diode laser is possible either with laser and stitch or with laser only. The approximation of the edges of the wound with additional stitches is an evident drawback. The use of additional stitches should be avoided to keep the theoretical advantages of corneal would suture using laser welding.

  7. A safe, effective, herbal antischistosomal therapy derived from myrrh.

    PubMed

    Sheir, Z; Nasr, A A; Massoud, A; Salama, O; Badra, G A; El-Shennawy, H; Hassan, N; Hammad, S M

    2001-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is a widespread helminthic disease. Treatment of schistosomiasis is based on chemotherapy with praziquantel, which is the drug of choice. Since resistance to praziquantel has been demonstrated, alternative drugs must be considered. Myrrh is an oleo-gum resin from the stem of the plant Commiphora molmol. This study was carried out on 204 patients with schistosomiasis. The drug was given at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight/day for three days, and induced a cure rate of 91.7%. Re-treatment of cases who did not respond with a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight/day for six days gave a cure rate of 76.5%, increasing the overall cure rate to 98.09%. The drug was well tolerated, and side effects were mild and transient. Twenty cases provided biopsy specimens six months after treatment and none of them showed living ova. PMID:11791960

  8. Oxygen demand during mineralization of aquatic macrophytes from an oxbow lake.

    PubMed

    Bianchini Jr, I; Cunha-Santino, M B; Peret, A M

    2008-02-01

    This study presents a kinetic model of oxygen consumption during aerobic decomposition of detritus from seven species of aquatic macrophytes: Cabomba furcata, Cyperus giganteus, Egeria najas, Eichhornia azurea, Salvinia auriculata, Oxycaryum cubense and Utricularia breviscapa. The aquatic macrophytes were collected from Oleo Lagoon situated in the Mogi-Guaçu river floodplain (SP, Brazil). Mineralization experiments were performed using the closed bottles method. Incubations made with lake water and macrophytes detritus (500 mL and 200 mg.L(-1) (DM), respectively) were maintained during 45 to 80 days at 20 degrees C under aerobic conditions and darkness. Carbon content of leachates from aquatic macrophytes detritus and dissolved oxygen concentrations were analyzed. From the results we concluded that: i) the decomposition constants differ among macrophytes; these differences being dependent primarily on molecular and elemental composition of detritus and ii) in the short term, most of the oxygen demand seems to depend upon the demineralization of the dissolved carbon fraction. PMID:18470379

  9. Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles. The film shows experimental investigations to determine the landing-energy-dissipation characteristics for several types of landing gear for manned reentry vehicles. The landing vehicles are considered in two categories: those having essentially vertical-descent paths, the parachute-supported vehicles, and those having essentially horizontal paths, the lifting vehicles. The energy-dissipation devices include crushable materials such as foamed plastics and honeycomb for internal application in couch-support systems, yielding metal elements as part of the structure of capsules or as alternates for oleos in landing-gear struts, inflatable bags, braking rockets, and shaped surfaces for water impact. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030945. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  10. Unsteady Simulation of a Landing-Gear Flow Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fei; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Malik, Mujeeb R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation of a landing-gear flow field. The geometry of the four-wheel landing gear assembly consists of several of the fine details including the oleo-strut, two diagonal struts, a door, yokes/pin and a flat-plate simulating the wing surface. The computational results, obtained by using 13.3 million grid points, are presented with an emphasis on the characteristics of the unsteadiness ensuing from different parts of the landing-gear assembly, including vortex shedding patterns and frequencies of dominant oscillations. The results show that the presence of the diagonal struts and the door significantly influence the flow field. Owing to the induced asymmetry, vortices are shed only from one of the rear wheels and not the other. Present computations also capture streamwise vortices originating from the upstream corners of the door.

  11. Analysis of Landing-Gear Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milwitzky, Benjamin; Cook, Francis E

    1953-01-01

    This report presents a theoretical study of the behavior of the conventional type of oleo-pneumatic landing gear during the process of landing impact. The basic analysis is presented in a general form and treats the motions of the landing gear prior to and subsequent to the beginning of shock-strut deflection. The applicability of the analysis to actual landing gears has been investigated for the particular case of a vertical landing gear in the absence of drag loads by comparing calculated results with experimental drop-test data for impacts with and without tire bottoming. The calculated behavior of the landing gear was found to be in good agreement with the drop-test data.

  12. Effects on rats of Commiphora myrrha extract given by different routes of administration.

    PubMed

    Omer, S A; Adam, S E; Khalid, H E

    1999-08-01

    The effect of an ethanol extract of Commiphora myrrha oleo-gum resin on hematological and pathophysiological parameters of male Wistar rats was examined. The extract was given daily for 2 w at 1000 mg/kg bw per os, 500 mg/kg bw i.m. or 250 mg/kg bw i.p. Depression, huddling together, soft feces, jaundice, ruffled hair, hepatonephropathy, hemorrhagic myositis and patchy peritonitis (at the injection site) and death were accompanied by increases in serum ALP and ALT activities, bilirubin, cholesterol and creatinine concentrations, and decreases in total protein and albumin levels, and macrocytic anemia and leucopenia. When administered at 500 mg extract/kg bw/d per os or 250 mg extract/kg bw/d i.m. for 2 w it was not lethal, and when given daily for 1 w the effect was less marked.

  13. Anti-coccidial effect of Commiphora molmol in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus L.).

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Hanadi B; Al-Mathal, Ebtesam M

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora monlmol Engler (Family: Burceraceae) known as Myrrh and the commercial extract known as Mirazid as a treatment against hepatic coccidiosis induced by the parasite Eimeria stiedae in domestic rabbits. Rabbits were infected with 1000 parasite sporulated oocysts and subjected to two treatment regimens, using crude myrrh suspension and the oleo-resin extract, mirazid, each administered at 500 mg/kg rabbit body weight. Treatments of infected rabbits resulted in significant reduction of the mean oocyst numbers in rabbit faeces by 52.38% in the crude-treated rabbits and by 90.90% mirazid-treated rabbits, compared to the untreated infected rabbits at day 21 post-infection (pi). At day 28 pi no oocysts parasite were observed in the faeces of rabbits. Both treatments resulted in significant recovery of infected rabbits from all symptoms of infection compared to the untreated infected group and healthy control groups. Histopathological examination of liver showed remarkable improvement in all histopathological parameters in G5 and G8 compared with the infected untreated G2. These included an almost complete healing of the hemorrhagic tissue and partial healing of the endothelial lining and hepatocytes encircling the central vein, the hepatocytes laminate regained their original radial shape and disappearance of fat vacuoles from the tissue and remarkable reduction in lymphocytes infiltration, decreased hyperplasia of the epithelial cells with significant decreasing of the parasite stage numbers. Results also indicate that mirazid was more effective than crude myrrh, probably due to higher content of purified active ingredients. PMID:21268535

  14. Developing superhydrophobic and oleophobic nanostructure by a facile chemical transformation of zirconium hydroxide surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Arundhati; Malik, Satya Narayan; Bahadur, D.

    2016-02-01

    Stable hydro/oleo-phobic and superhydrophobic nanopowders, useful for self-cleaning applications, are synthesized at room temperature by modifying Zr(OH)4·nH2O with a very low surface-energy molecule-1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorododecyltrichlorosilane whose long chain {sbnd (CH2)2(CF2)9CF3 moiety (PFD)} serves as surface-protrusion. The PFD-content is varied over 3.6-18.7 wt% in optimizing a hydrophilic to hydro/oleo-phobic or even to superhydrophobic transformation. Two halos in the X-ray diffraction pattern of amorphous Zr(OH)4·nH2O are accompanied by a peak at 2θ = 18.0° which grows in intensity progressively as the PFD-content increases from 5.2 to 18.7 wt%. The peak corresponds to sbnd CF2sbnd CF2sbnd crystalline order (10-20 nm) at the PFD-functionalized surface. The microstructure shows Zr(OH)4·nH2O as a cloud-like phase, bonded to plate-like sheaths (PFD moiety). The Csbnd F stretching bands at 1150 and 1210 cm-1 grow in intensity relative to that of Osbnd H stretching at 3460 cm-1 in proportion to the PFD-content. An 18.7 wt% PFD-functionalized sample exhibits a high contact angle CA = 153° for water (contact angle hysteresis = 4° and roll-off angle <4°), together with CA = 132° for glycerol, CA = 130° for diethylene glycol, and CA = 113° for n-hexadecane, supporting good superhydrophobicity and oleophobicity. Surface-energy reduction due to PFD moiety together with an optimal spacing between the surface-protrusions explains the water/organic liquid repellency.

  15. Percepção Astronômica de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de uma Escola da Rede Estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.

    2007-06-01

    Being the Astronomy one of the oldest sciences of the humanity, and considering its historical and cultural importance, it is of extreme relevance that topics related to it are taught and studied at schools. Although the National Curriculum Parameters of the Senior High School (PCN-EM) and the Complementary Orientations to the Parameters (PCN+) indicate the importance of a significant approach of concepts related to the Astronomy in the Physics classes, many students finish the Senior High School (EM) without understanding the reason of certain events of celestial origin, although these are part of their daily lives and are a subject of natural curiosity for the youngsters. From the perception of the natural curiosity of the students of a São Paulo's Public School in the city of Suzano, came up the interest to investigate the basic knowledge in Astronomy of the Senior High School students at this school, becoming this the main goal of this research. A questionnaire of multiple choices was elaborated and initially applied to 34 students of the first grade and later, to more 310 students. It was distributed among the three grades of the Senior High School in the morning and night periods. In the way, it was observed that 73.9% of the students identified the Sun as a star, 67.1% demonstrated to understand the succession between the day and the night and 52.3% related the Big Bang to the origin of the Universe. In compensation, only 34.5% related the seasons of the year to the inclination of the rotation axis of the Earth, 21.3% indicated the simultaneous gravitational influence of the Moon and the Sun as responsible for the tides phenomenon, 24.5% correctly indicated which are the closest celestial objects to the Earth, 36.1% identified the light-year as a distance measure and only 34.2% recognized the shooting stars as meteors, being evidenced the small discernment of the students about the phenomena and astronomical terms of the daily life. Besides, the answers of different grade students and periods were compared, being observed, among other things, that the third grade students present a percentile of correct answers similar to the performance of the first grade students, demonstrating that the approach of topics related to the astronomy in the Senior High School has not been contributing in a significant way to a better understanding of the phenomena and the concepts.

  16. The molecular beam epitaxy growth and characterization of zinc cadmium selenide/zinc cadmium magnesium selenide-indium phosphide quantum cascade structures for operation in the 3 - 5 um range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, William O.

    The quantum cascade (QC) laser has captured the interest of researchers for almost three decades. In the early stages, researchers were very interested in proving the QC concept1 proposed by Kazarinov and Suris in 1971. This new concept gave researchers hope that very bulky energy inefficient infra-red (IR) lasers would be replaced with ones that are very compact, tunable and portable. Since the proposal of the QC laser concept and its first demonstration by researchers at Bell Laboratories2 in 1994, this technology has progressed to the point where it is now finding commercial applications in a variety of areas such as military counter measures, free space telecommunications, infra-red imaging and chemical spectroscopy.3-5 The success of this technology can be attributed to the coming of age of the techniques of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) semiconductor growth and bandgap engineering. 6,7 Using MBE technology, the temperature of the source material can be stabilized by making use of a combination of proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers and thermocouple feedbacks. As a result, the material flux from the effusion cells can achieve stability better than (+/-) 1%. This flux stability together with a well-developed computer controlled shuttering mechanism make it possible to grow multi-quantum well (MQW) structures with excellent layer thickness precision (mono-layer scale) and interface quality. This stringent control of material flux is also a tool that is used by MBE growers to vary the material compositions for the growth of lattice matched and strain compensated QC structures. Today, MBE stands out as one of the premier methods for growing high performing QC lasers. The first successful demonstration of a QC laser2 was done using the InGaAs/InAlAs-InP material system. This demonstration was then repeated a few years later using GaAs/AlGaAs-InP.8 These III-V material systems were extensively studied to establish their material parameters. Given that material parameters are critically important in the process of modeling QC structures, it is not surprising that early success was achieved using these systems. Today, the best performing QC lasers operate in the 4--13 mum range and are produced using lattice matched InGaAs/InAlAs-InP. In order to produce short wavelength QC lasers, the well layer thicknesses in the active region of the device must be reduced in an effort to push the lasing energy states further apart. This reduction in well thicknesses results in the movement of the upper lasing state closer to the bandedge. This action increases the probability of the lost of lasing state electrons to the continuum. Therefore, in order to produce high performing short wavelength QC lasers, a large conduction band offset (CBO) is required. The CBO of lattice matched InGaAs/InAlAs-InP is 0.52 eV. In an attempt to produce high performing devices below 4 mum many researchers have resorted to the use of strain compensation9-11 . This approach has yielded very little improvement in performance due to electron scattering to the X and L intervalleys. This has lead to the exploration of wide bandgap material systems such as the antominides and nitrides. In this work the wide bandgap II-V Znx'Cd(1-x')Se/Zn xCdyMg(1-x-y)Se-InP will be explored for QC laser fabrication. To this end, QC lasers were designed for operation at 3--5 mum range. A Matlab-based program was written to calculate the energy level spacing within the active region of these devices. This simulation program was based on Schroindger's equation and the transfer matrix technique. Several calibration samples were grown to establish the doping levels and growth rate of the well and barrier materials. The growth rate was measured using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) oscillations during MBE growth. X-ray diffraction measurements were performed to determine the lattice mismatch of the II-VI bulk layers, and therefore predict whether material composition adjustments were required to attain the lattice match condition. The samples that were grown were studied using photoluminescence (PL) to determine the bandgap of the well and barrier material. This information was then used to calculate the CBO of the II-VI MQW structure. In addition, PL studies were also carried out to look for material defects and assess the quality of the well/barrier interface. These II-VI QC samples were also subjected to Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy to determine the energy levels in the grown structures. After optimizing the active regions using simulation data and FTIR results, electroluminescence (EL) structures were grown and processed into QC emitters using a combination photolithography and electron beam contact deposition. The processed structures were then biased and investigated for IR emission at temperatures ranging from 80 K to room temperature.

  17. Construção de um catálogo de aglomerados abertos para estudo da dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, I. M.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Os aglomerados abertos são objetos de grande valor para o estudo da dinâmica da Galáxia devido esses objetos terem uma faixa de idade relativamente ampla. O trabalho visa estudar a dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia principalmente através do uso desses aglomerados, uma vez que o estudo da cinemática desses objetos é fundamental para esse objetivo. Nosso grupo trabalha no sentido de construir uma base de dados de aglomerados abertos contendo coordenadas, distância, idade, movimentos próprios e velocidades radiais e já disponibiliza uma nova versão do catálogo de aglomerados abertos o qual é uma compilação de edições anteriores, principalmente Lynga (1987), Mermilliod (1995) e ESO-B (Lauberts 1982). Nossa amostra possui cerca de 1630 aglomerados, mas nem todos os parâmetros acima citados foram determinados em sua totalidade. Para determinarmos esses parâmetros, derivamos as cores intrínsecas das estrelas membro de cada aglomerado a partir de seus tipos espectrais (busca feita no SIMBAD) obtendo assim o excesso de cor individual. A distribuição dos excessos de cor foi então utilizada para derivarmos o avermelhamento médio para cada aglomerado. De maneira similar, os tipos espectrais foram usados para estimar as magnitudes absolutas, e com as magnitudes absolutas e aparentes determinamos a respectiva distribuição do módulo de distância e finalmente a distância. Para determinar as idades foram confeccionados os diagramas cor-magnitude das estrelas de cada aglomerado onde foram superpostas a Seqüência Principal de Idade Zero (ZAMS). Superpomos a ZAMS de Schmidt-Kaler e isócronas de composição solar. Essas isócronas foram usadas para determinação das idades dos aglomerados. Uma vez que não temos ainda resultados finais, apresentamos então alguns diagramas cor-magnitude os quais foram usados para determinação, principalmente, da distância e idade dos aglomerados.

  18. "Cos Um It like Put a Picture in My Mind of What I Should Write": An Exploration of How Home-School Partnership Might Support the Writing of Lower-Achieving Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This article outlines how home and school working together supported the writing of lower-achieving boys. It describes an activity in which parents and children selected artefacts at home to inspire writing in school. This model of home-school partnership permitted different levels of parental involvement and also allowed the child to take a key…

  19. Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 um) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulfate-hydrate minerals associated with sulfide-bearing mine waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom1, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Mars, J.C.; Chou, I-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate mineral species commonly associated with sulphide bearing mine wastes were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscope methods. Diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples show diagnostic absorption features related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl ions. Such spectral features enable field and remote sensing based studies of the mineral distributions. Because secondary minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of these minerals promises to have important applications to mine waste remediation studies. This report releases digital (ascii) spectra (spectral_data_files.zip) of the fifteen mineral samples to facilitate usage of the data with spectral libraries and spectral analysis software. The spectral data are provided in a two-column format listing wavelength (in micrometers) and reflectance, respectively.

  20. The controversy between Alexander Friedmann and Albert Einstein about the possibility of a non-static world (German Title: Die Kontroverse zwischen Alexander Friedmann und Albert Einstein um die Möglichkeit einer nichtstatischen Welt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Georg

    Einstein's treatment of the cosmological problem as well as his unshakeable adherence to his own static solution of the complete field equations was throughout determined by Ernst Mach's idea of relativity of inertia. Friedmann, however, like Eddington, Weyl and others did not consider Mach's principle to be a part of general relativity, and so he regarded a time dependent developing spatial geometry as being consistent with world matter at relative rest. In his final statement to the controversy, Einstein acknowledged just formal correctness of Friedmann's results. Actually his criticism was not due ``to a miscalculation'', as he was ready to admit, but was owed to a fundamental fixed idea which continued to exist and which was the cause of his disavowal of physical significance of dynamical solutions.

  1. O Imperio como Argumento: Um Contraponto entre Joaquim Nabuco e o Bispo D. Jose Mauricio da Rocha (The Empire as Argument: A Counterpoint between Joaquim Nabuco and the Bishop Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, Izabel Andrade

    1998-01-01

    Dialogs with the previous article establishing a comparative analysis between the political acceptance present in the reactionary speech of Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha and in the monarchist words of Joaquim Nabuco. (PA)

  2. Michael Mästlin's role in the polemic against the calendar reform of pope Gregor XIII. (German Title: Die Rolle Michael Mästlins in der Polemik um die Kalenderreform von Papst Gregor XIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    Because of theological resistance, the calendar reform of 1582 was introduced only in countries under catholic rule. Michael Mästlin is found among the spokesmen of opposition against this feared attempted of the pope to gain influence in the protestant church, nevertheless, Mästlin had no doubt that a calendar reform was necessary. This article retraces Mästlin's argumentation and puts it into context with contemporary discussions about a calendar reform.

  3. Overproduction of fatty acids in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Guo, Daoyi; Cheng, Yongbo; Zhu, Fayin; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2014-09-01

    The long hydrocarbon fatty acyl chain is energy rich, making it an ideal precursor for liquid transportation fuels and high-value oleo chemicals. As Saccharomyces cerevisiae has many advantages for industrial production compared to Escherichia coli. Here, we attempted to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for overproduction of fatty acids. First, disruption of the beta-oxidation pathway, elimination of the acyl-CoA synthetases, overexpression of different thioesterases and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC1, and engineering the supply of precursor acetyl-CoA. The engineered strain XL122 produced more than 120 mg/L of fatty acids. In parallel, we inactivated ADH1, the dominant gene for ethanol production, to redirect the metabolic flux to fatty acids synthesis. The engineered strain DG005 produced about 140 mg/L fatty acids. Additionally, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase was identified as a critical bottleneck of fatty acids synthesis in S. cerevisiae with a cell-free system. However, overexpression of ACC1 has little effect on fatty acids biosynthesis. As it has been reported that phosphorylation of ACC1 may influent its activity, so phosphorylation sites of ACC1 were further identified. Although the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear, our results provide rationale for future studies to target this critical step. All these efforts, particularly the discovery of the limiting step are critical for developing a "cell factory" for the overproduction of fatty acids by using type I fatty acids synthase in yeast or other fungi. PMID:24752690

  4. Preliminary study of therapeutic efficacy of a new fasciolicidal drug derived from Commiphora molmol (myrrh).

    PubMed

    Massoud, A; El Sisi, S; Salama, O; Massoud, A

    2001-08-01

    Myrrh (from the stem of the Commiphora molmol tree) is an oleo gum resin that may prove efficacious for the treatment of fascioliasis. We studied 7 patients who were passing Fasciola eggs in their stools and treated them with myrrh. The drug (a formulation consisting of 8 parts of resin and 3.5 parts of volatile oils, all extracted from myrrh) was given in a dose of 12 mg/kg per day for 6 consecutive days in the morning on an empty stomach. Patients were followed for 3 months. The therapy proved to be effective, with pronounced improvement of the general condition and amelioration of all symptoms and signs. A dramatic drop in the egg count was detected at the end of treatment. Eggs were no longer detectable in the feces 3 weeks after treatment and after a follow-up period of 3 months. High eosinophilic counts, elevated liver enzymes, and Fasciola antibody titers returned to nearly normal. No signs of toxicity or adverse effects were observed. We conclude that the formulation of myrrh is safe, well tolerated, and effective for treating fascioliasis. PMID:11508399

  5. Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Manal A; Hetta, Mona H

    2005-11-01

    This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid), as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); acid phosphatase (AP) and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden. PMID:16410968

  6. Chemical composition of the essential oil and supercritical CO2 extract of Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. and of Acorus calamus L.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Scorciapino, Andrea

    2005-10-01

    Volatile concentrates from the oleo-gum resin of Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. and from the rhizomes of Acorus calamus were isolated by supercritical extraction with carbon dioxide. The volatile oil of myrrh was obtained at 9.0 MPa and 50 degrees C and at a CO2 flow of 1.5 kg/h. Acorus calamus was extracted at 9.0 MPa and 45 degrees C and at a CO2 flow of 1.6 kg/h. In both cases, an oil devoid of cuticular waxes was obtained with a single depressurization stage. The SFE myrrh oil had a yield, Y, of 3.2%. Its main components, identified and quantified by GC/MS, were furanoeudesma-1,3-diene, 34.9%; lindestrene, 12.9%; curzerene, 8.5%; and germacrone, 5.8%. The essential oils from the same starting material by hydrodistillation, HD, (Y = 2.8%) and by steam distillation, SD, (Y = 0.4%) were quite similar to the SFE extract. The main components of the SFE oil of A. calamus (Y = 3.5%) were acorenone, 13.4%; iso-acorone, 11.6%; (Z)-sesquilavandulol, 11.0%; dehydroxy isocalamendiol, 7.7%; and beta-asarone, 5.5%. The comparison with hydrodistilled (Y = 1.8%) and steam distilled (Y = 1.0%) oils revealed large differences in the content of iso-acorone and crypto-acorone. PMID:16190653

  7. Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Lloyd J., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations have been made to determine the landing-energy-dissipation characteristics for several types of landing gear for manned reentry vehicles. The landing vehicles are considered in two categories: those having essentially vertical-descent paths, the parachute-supported vehicles, and those having essentially horizontal paths, the lifting vehicles. The energy-dissipation devices discussed are crushable materials such as foamed plastics and honeycomb for internal application in couch-support systems, yielding metal elements as part of the structure of capsules or as alternates for oleos in landing-gear struts, inflatable bags, braking rockets, and shaped surfaces for water impact. It appears feasible to readily evaluate landing-gear systems for internal or external application in hard-surface or water landings by using computational procedures and free-body landing techniques with dynamic models. The systems investigated have shown very interesting energy-dissipation characteristics over a considerable range of landing parameters. Acceptable gear can be developed along lines similar to those presented if stroke requirements and human-tolerance limits are considered.

  8. Anticipation of the landing shock phenomenon in flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard E.

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft landing may be described as a controlled crash because a runway surface is intercepted. In a simulation model the transition from aerodynamic flight to weight on wheels involves a single computational cycle during which stiff differential equations are activated; with a significant probability these initial conditions are unrealistic. This occurs because of the finite cycle time, during which large restorative forces will accompany unrealistic initial oleo compressions. This problem was recognized a few years ago at Ames Research Center during simulation studies of a supersonic transport. The mathematical model of this vehicle severely taxed computational resources, and required a large cycle time. The ground strike problem was solved by a described technique called anticipation equations. This extensively used technique has not been previously reported. The technique of anticipating a significant event is a useful tool in the general field of discrete flight simulation. For the differential equations representing a landing gear model stiffness, rate of interception and cycle time may combine to produce an unrealistic simulation of the continuum.

  9. In planta detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. commiphorae using fyuA and rpoD genes.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Jatindra Nath; Mandal, Kunal

    2013-06-01

    Guggal is tapped for extraction of medicinally important oleo-gum-resin (guggul) by inoculating the stem bark with natural gum suspension containing pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. commiphorae (Xac). The tree dies in the process. In absence of any specific medium for isolation of Xac, it is difficult to assess spread of the pathogen within the plant. A PCR based molecular detection technique usingfyuA and rpoD gene specific primers is described here. The primers amplified products only from Xac and not from host tissues or common saprophytes. The method was sensitive enough to produce positive signals for up to 4.4 bacterial cells or 2 pg target DNA per reaction mixture. However, PCR inhibitors present in plant tissues drastically reduced the limit of detection. A simple overnight incubation of surface sterilised plant tissues in nutrient medium was introduced to increase pathogen titre and to overcome this problem. This technique was successfully used to measure spread of Xac in plant tissues away from the site of inoculation. The pathogen showed preference for acropetal movement and did not spread to 7-8 cm below the site of inoculation till 15 days after inoculation. This suggests possibility to manage the disease through plant surgery. PMID:23926696

  10. Gene Cloning and Characterization of the Geobacillus thermoleovorans CCR11 Carboxylesterase CaesCCR11, a New Member of Family XV.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Luna, Graciela; Sánchez-Otero, María Guadalupe; Quintana-Castro, Rodolfo; Matus-Toledo, Rodrigo Eloir; Oliart-Ros, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    A gene encoding a carboxylesterase produced by Geobacillus thermoleovoras CCR11 was cloned in the pET-3b cloning vector, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Gene sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 750 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 250 amino acid residues (27.3 kDa) named CaesCCR11. The enzyme showed its maximum activity at 50 °C and pH 5-8, with preference for C4 substrates, confirming its esterase nature. It displayed good resistance to temperature, pH, and the presence of organic solvents and detergents, that makes this enzyme biotechnologically applicable in the industries such as fine and oleo-chemicals, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, organic synthesis, biodiesel production, detergents, and food industries. A 3D model of CaesCCR11 was predicted using the Bacillus sp. monoacyl glycerol lipase bMGL H-257 structure as template (PBD code 3RM3, 99 % residue identity with CaesCCR11). Based on its canonical α/β hydrolase fold composed of 7 β-strands and 6 α-helices, the α/β architecture of the cap domain, the GLSTG pentapeptide, and the formation of distinctive salt bridges, we are proposing CaesCCR11 as a new member of family XV of lipolytic enzymes.

  11. Ferula asafoetida: Traditional uses and pharmacological activity

    PubMed Central

    Mahendra, Poonam; Bisht, Shradha

    2012-01-01

    Ferula asafoetida is herbaceous plant of the umbelliferae family. It is oleo gum resin obtained from the rhizome and root of plant. This spice is used as a digestive aid, in food as a condiment and in pickles. It is used in modern herbalism in the treatment of hysteria, some nervous conditions, bronchitis, asthma and whooping cough. It was at one time employed in the treatment of infantile pneumonia and flatulent colic. The gum resin is antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant, laxative, and sedative. The volatile oil in the gum is eliminated through the lungs, making this an excellent treatment for asthma. The odor of asafoetida is imparted to the breath, secretions, flatus, and gastric eructations. Its properties are antispasmodic, expectorant, stimulant, emmenagogue and vermifuge. Asafoetida has also been used as a sedative. It also thins the blood and lowers blood pressure. It is widely used in India in food and as a medicine in Indian systems of medicine like ayurveda. Asafoetida has been held in great esteem among indigenous medicines, particularly in Unani system from the earliest times. PMID:23055640

  12. Chemical composition of the essential oil and supercritical CO2 extract of Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. and of Acorus calamus L.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Scorciapino, Andrea

    2005-10-01

    Volatile concentrates from the oleo-gum resin of Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. and from the rhizomes of Acorus calamus were isolated by supercritical extraction with carbon dioxide. The volatile oil of myrrh was obtained at 9.0 MPa and 50 degrees C and at a CO2 flow of 1.5 kg/h. Acorus calamus was extracted at 9.0 MPa and 45 degrees C and at a CO2 flow of 1.6 kg/h. In both cases, an oil devoid of cuticular waxes was obtained with a single depressurization stage. The SFE myrrh oil had a yield, Y, of 3.2%. Its main components, identified and quantified by GC/MS, were furanoeudesma-1,3-diene, 34.9%; lindestrene, 12.9%; curzerene, 8.5%; and germacrone, 5.8%. The essential oils from the same starting material by hydrodistillation, HD, (Y = 2.8%) and by steam distillation, SD, (Y = 0.4%) were quite similar to the SFE extract. The main components of the SFE oil of A. calamus (Y = 3.5%) were acorenone, 13.4%; iso-acorone, 11.6%; (Z)-sesquilavandulol, 11.0%; dehydroxy isocalamendiol, 7.7%; and beta-asarone, 5.5%. The comparison with hydrodistilled (Y = 1.8%) and steam distilled (Y = 1.0%) oils revealed large differences in the content of iso-acorone and crypto-acorone.

  13. Uncooled 10μm FPA development at DRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, George D.

    2016-05-01

    The benefit of 10um pitch uncooled detectors is demonstrated through the use of image emulation. The image emulation uses the theoretical image of point sources for 10um wavelength radiation, then integrates the energy from multiple sources which fall into FPA pixel areas and produces representative images. Arrays of pixel pitches of 25um, 17um, 12um, 10um, 5um, and 4um are included. These images, and movies when presented live at the conference, make evident why array pitches smaller than the wavelength of radiation are useful and being considered. While the argument for sub-wavelength pixel pitches is already made by other authors, this representation might be clearer to a larger audience. Representative images, and movies when presented live at the conference, from a DRS 1280x1024 format, 10um pitch array are shown. Details of the DRS 10um pitch UFPA family are shown.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NIR polarimetry in the Central Molecular Zone (Yoshikawa+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Nishiyama, S.; Tamura, M.; Kwon, J.; Nagata, T.

    2014-09-01

    We conducted near-infrared (NIR) polarimetric observations of the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) with the SIRPOL camera attached to the 1.4m telescope IRSF (Infrared Survey Facility). This enables simultaneous observations in the J (central wavelength λJ=1.25um), H (λH=1.63um), and Ks (λKs=2.14um) bands. The image scale of the arrays is 0.45"/pixel, yielding a field of view of 460"x460". From 2010 to 2012, we observed 35 fields toward the boundary of the CMZ (See Figures 1-3). We obtain the data of point sources at 3.6um, 4.5um, 5.8um, 8.0um (Ramirez et al. 2008, Cat. II/295), and 24um (Hinz et al. 2009, Cat. J/ApJS/181/227) from the Spitzer archive, and we merge the mid-infrared data with our data matching within radii of 1" for 3.6um, 4.5um, 5.8um, and 8.0um, and 3" for 24um. (2 data files).

  15. Isolation and characterization of genetic variability in bacteria with β-hemolytic and antifungal activity isolated from the rhizosphere of Medicago truncatula plants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salmerón, J E; Prieto-Barajas, C M; Valencia-Cantero, E; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G; Santoyo, G

    2014-07-04

    In the present study, we analyzed the frequency of hemolytic and antifungal activities in bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of Medicago truncatula plants. Of the 2000 bacterial colonies, 96 showed β-hemolytic activities (frequency, 4.8 x 10(-2)). Hemolytic isolates were analyzed for their genetic diversity by using random amplification of polymorphic DNA, yielding 88 haplotypes. The similarity coefficient of Nei and Li showed a polymorphic diversity ranging from 0.3 to 1. Additionally, 8 of the hemolytic isolates showed antifungal activity toward plant pathogens, Diaporthe phaseolorum, Colletotrichum acutatum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. The 16S ribosomal sequencing analysis showed that antagonistic bacterial isolates corresponded to Bacillus subtilis (UM15, UM33, UM42, UM49, UM52, and UM91), Bacillus pumilus (UM24), and Bacillus licheniformis (UM88). The present results revealed a higher genetic diversity among hemolytic isolates compared to that of isolates with antifungal action.

  16. 76 FR 23599 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... factor. The Respondent attempted to mislead the University of Michigan (UM) police by initially denying... eventually made an admission only after the UM police informed him that his actions in the laboratory...

  17. Boswellia serrata Preserves Intestinal Epithelial Barrier from Oxidative and Inflammatory Damage

    PubMed Central

    Catanzaro, Daniela; Rancan, Serena; Orso, Genny; Dall’Acqua, Stefano; Brun, Paola; Giron, Maria Cecilia; Carrara, Maria; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Caparrotta, Laura; Montopoli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Aminosalicylates, corticosteroids and immunosuppressants are currently the therapeutic choices in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), however, with limited remission and often serious side effects. Meanwhile complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is increasing, particularly herbal medicine. Boswellia serrata is a traditional Ayurvedic remedy with anti-inflammatory properties, of interest for its usefulness in IBDs. The mechanism of this pharmacological potential of Boswellia serrata was investigated in colonic epithelial cell monolayers exposed to H2O2 or INF-γ+TNF-α, chosen as in vitro experimental model of intestinal inflammation. The barrier function was evaluated by the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and paracellular permeability assay, and by the tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, ZO-1 and occludin) immunofluorescence. The expression of phosphorylated NF-κB and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were determined by immunoblot and cytofluorimetric assay, respectively. Boswellia serrata oleo-gum extract (BSE) and its pure derivative acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), were tested at 0.1-10 μg/ml and 0.027μg/ml, respectively. BSE and AKBA safety was demonstrated by no alteration of intestinal cell viability and barrier function and integrity biomarkers. H2O2 or INF-γ+TNF-α treatment of Caco-2 cell monolayers significantly reduced TEER, increased paracellular permeability and caused the disassembly of tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1. BSE and AKBA pretreatment significantly prevented functional and morphological alterations and also the NF-κB phosphorylation induced by the inflammatory stimuli. At the same concentrations BSE and AKBA counteracted the increase of ROS caused by H2O2 exposure. Data showed the positive correlation of the antioxidant activity with the mechanism involved in the physiologic maintenance of the integrity and function of the intestinal epithelium. This study elucidates the

  18. Boswellia serrata Preserves Intestinal Epithelial Barrier from Oxidative and Inflammatory Damage.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Daniela; Rancan, Serena; Orso, Genny; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Brun, Paola; Giron, Maria Cecilia; Carrara, Maria; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Caparrotta, Laura; Montopoli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Aminosalicylates, corticosteroids and immunosuppressants are currently the therapeutic choices in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), however, with limited remission and often serious side effects. Meanwhile complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is increasing, particularly herbal medicine. Boswellia serrata is a traditional Ayurvedic remedy with anti-inflammatory properties, of interest for its usefulness in IBDs. The mechanism of this pharmacological potential of Boswellia serrata was investigated in colonic epithelial cell monolayers exposed to H2O2 or INF-γ+TNF-α, chosen as in vitro experimental model of intestinal inflammation. The barrier function was evaluated by the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and paracellular permeability assay, and by the tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, ZO-1 and occludin) immunofluorescence. The expression of phosphorylated NF-κB and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were determined by immunoblot and cytofluorimetric assay, respectively. Boswellia serrata oleo-gum extract (BSE) and its pure derivative acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), were tested at 0.1-10 μg/ml and 0.027 μg/ml, respectively. BSE and AKBA safety was demonstrated by no alteration of intestinal cell viability and barrier function and integrity biomarkers. H2O2 or INF-γ+TNF-α treatment of Caco-2 cell monolayers significantly reduced TEER, increased paracellular permeability and caused the disassembly of tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1. BSE and AKBA pretreatment significantly prevented functional and morphological alterations and also the NF-κB phosphorylation induced by the inflammatory stimuli. At the same concentrations BSE and AKBA counteracted the increase of ROS caused by H2O2 exposure. Data showed the positive correlation of the antioxidant activity with the mechanism involved in the physiologic maintenance of the integrity and function of the intestinal epithelium. This study elucidates the

  19. Efficacy of Myrrh in the treatment of schistosomiasis (haematobium and mansoni) in Ezbet El-Bakly, Tamyia Center, El-Fayoum Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abo-Madyan, Ahmed A; Morsy, Tosson A; Motawea, Saad M

    2004-08-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a public health problem in Egypt, despite the continuous control effort. Most of the anti-schistosomal drugs have deleterious side effects or low efficacy. This necessitates a search for new safe and effective drug. A field survey was done in Ezbet El-Bakly (Tamyia Center) El-Fayoum Governorate to determine the magnitude of schistosomiasis haematobium and mansoni and to evaluate the efficacy of Mirazid (the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree, family: Burseraceae) in the treatment of both types of schistosomiasis. Among the 1019 individuals parasitologically examined, the prevalence of S. haematobium and S. mansoni were 4.2% and 2.4% respectively and the geometric mean egg count (GMEC) were 33.2 eggs/10 ml urine and 113.3 eggs/gram stools. Most of the patients with haematobiasis and mansoniasis were <15 years (56.4% & 53.8%), males (56.4% & 53.8%) & illiterates (46.2% & 46.2%). All cases were treated by Myrrh (Mirazid) as two capsules (600 mg) on an empty stomach an hour before breakfast for six consecutive days and were followed up clinically and parasitologically by urine analysis by the sedimentation and nucleopore techniques and by hatching test and by stool analysis by sedimentation and Kato-Katz techniques and by hatching test. The parasitological cure rate after three months was 97.4% and 96.2% for S. haematobium and S. mansoni cases with the marvelous clinical cure without any side-effects. Patients not completely responded to a single course of treatment showed marked reduction of egg intensity. It is concluded that Mirazid proved to be safe and very effective in treatment of S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections under field conditions. PMID:15287168

  20. Emulsions and rectal formulations containing myrrh essential oil for better patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Etman, M; Amin, M; Nada, A H; Shams-Eldin, M; Salama, O

    2011-06-01

    Myrrh has long been used for its circulatory, disinfectant, analgesic, antirheumatic, antidiabetic, and schistosomicidal properties. Myrrh essential oil (MEO) was extracted from the oleo-gum resin of Commiphora molmol and formulated into emulsions and suppositories to mask/avoid its bitter taste. Three oil-in-water emulsions (E1-E3) were formulated and taste was evaluated by 10 volunteers. Particle size distribution was measured and correlated with excipients and the method of preparation. Physical and chemical stability testing was carried out for the optimum formulation (E2). Seven suppository formulations were investigated (F1-F7). Suppocire AML (F1) and Suppocire CM (F2) were chosen as fatty bases, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1500 (F3), PEG 4000 (F4), and a PEG blend (50% PEG 6000 + 30% PEG 1500 + 20% PEG 400) (F5) were chosen as water-soluble bases. A blend of PEG 1500 and Suppocire CM was also used (F7). Camphor (5%) was added to PEG 1500 (F6). Disintegration time, release rate, DSC, fracture points, and weight uniformity were evaluated. The overall average bitterness for formulations E1, E2, and E3 was 6.44, 4.15, and 3.45, respectively. Suppositories containing Suppocire AML had the fastest disintegration time (1.5 min) with dissolution efficiency (DE) of 56.8%. F3 containing PEG 1500 had a fast disintegration time of 2.5 min and maximum DE of 93.5%. The PEG blend had satisfactory release: (DE = 90.9%). A mixed fatty and water-soluble base (F7) had a disintegration time of 5 min and low DE (33.4%). A stable MEO emulsion with acceptable taste was formulated to improve patient acceptance and compliance. F3 suppositories yielded satisfactory results, while formulations containing fatsoluble bases exhibited poor release. PMID:22466245

  1. Cytotoxicity and antiangiogenic effects of Rhus coriaria, Pistacia vera and Pistacia khinjuk oleoresin methanol extracts

    PubMed Central

    Mirian, M.; Behrooeian, M.; Ghanadian, M.; Dana, N.; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels, play an important role in some diseases such as cancer and its metastasis. Using angiogenesis inhibitors, therefore, is one of the ways for cancer treatment and prevention of metastasis. Medicinal plants have been shown to play a major role in the treatment of a variety of cancers. In this direction, cytotoxic and angiogenic effects of oleo gum resin extracts of Rhus coriaria, Pistacia vera and Pistacia khinjuk from Anacardiaceae family were studied. For IC50 values, cytotoxic effects of the plant extracts were evaluated at different concentrations (1, 10, 20, 40, 80,100 μg/ml) against human umbilical vein endothelial normal cell (HUVEC) and Y79 cell lines using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In vitro tube formation on matrigel base was used to evaluate angiogenic effects in the presence of increasing concentrations (50, 100, 250 μg/ml) of the extracts. Vascular endothelium growth factor was used as angiogenesis stimulator. Gas chromatography results showed that α-pinene and β-pinene were the major essential oils constituents of all plant extracts. According to the MTT assay results, the R. coriaria resin extract was more cytotoxic than those of P. vera and P. khinjuk extracts (IC50, 9.1 ± 1.6 vs 9.8 ± 2.1 and 12.0 ± 1.9, respectively; P<0.05). Cytotoxic effects of all extracts against Y79 cell line was significantly higher than those of HUVEC used as a normal cell line (P<0.05). Tube formation assay also showed that extract of R. coriaria resin inhibited angiogenesis more significantly than other tested extracts (P<0.05). It could be concluded that R. coriaria resin extract possess cytotoxic effect and antiangiogenesis against cancer cells and as an anticancer natural product has a good potential for future studies. PMID:26600850

  2. Investigation of liquid wax components of Egyptian jojoba seeds.

    PubMed

    El-Mallah, Mohammed Hassan; El-Shami, Safinaz Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Egyptian jojoba seeds newly cultivated in Ismailia desert in Egypt promoted us to determine its lipid components. Fatty alcohols, fatty acids, wax esters and sterols patterns were determined by capillary GLC whereas, tocopherols profile, isopropenoid alcohols and sterylglycosides were determined by HPLC. The Egyptian seeds are rich in wax esters (55 %) with fatty alcohols C20:1 and C22:1 as major components and amounted to 43.0 % and 45.6 % respectively followed by C24:1 and C18:1(9.6 % and 1.3 % respectively). The fatty acids profile showed that C20:1 is the major constituent (60 %) followed by C18:1 and C22:1 (14.5 and 11.8 % respectively) whereas C24:1 was present at low concentration amounted to 1.6 %. In addition, the Egyptian jojoba wax contained C18:2 fatty acid at a level of 8.7 %. Wax esters composition showed that the local wax had C42 and C40 esters as major components amounted to 51.1 and 30.1 % respectively. Also, it had C44 and C38 at reasonable amounts (10.0 and 6.3 % respectively). Whereas C36 and C46 were present at lower concentrations amounted to 1.4 and 1.1 respectively. The sterols analysis showed the presence of campe-, stigma-, beta-sito-, and isofuco- sterol amounting to 18.4 %, 6.9 %, 68.7 %, and 6.0 % respectively. The tocopherols pattern revealed that the local seed wax contained gamma-tocopherol as major constituent (79.2 %) followed by alpha-tocopherol (20.3 %). beta-tocopherol as well as delta-tocopherol were found as minor constituents. The isopropenoid alcohols and the sterylglycosides (free and acylated) were not detected. The wax is proposed to be used in oleo chemistry and cosmetics.

  3. Prospecting for oil.

    PubMed

    Shields, David S

    2010-01-01

    From the 1770s to the 1880s agriculturists and cooks sought to develop culinary oils from plants. Thomas Jefferson's attempts to introduce the olive into the agriculture of the United States, as a partial substitute for lard in cookery and as a cheap oleo for the consumption of slaves, met with limited success, even in the southeast, because periodic freezes and high humidity thwarted the development of groves. Southern slaves from West Africa supplied their own oil, derived from benne (Sesamum indicum). Benne oil was merely one feature of an elaborate African-American cuisine employing sesame that included benne soup, benne and greens, benne and hominy, benne candy, and benne wafers. Only the last item has survived as a feature of regional and ethnic cookery. In the first decades of the nineteenth century, planter experimentalists began the commercial scale production of benne oil, establishing it as the primary salad oil and the second favored frying medium in the southern United States. It enjoyed acceptance and moderate commercial success until the refinement of cottonseed oil in the 1870s and 1880s. Cotton seed, a waste product of the south's most vital industry, was turned into a revenue stream as David Wesson and other scientists created a salad oil and frying medium designedly tasteless and odorless, and a cooking fat, hydrogenated cottonseed oil (Cottonlene or Crisco) that could cheaply substitute for lard in baking. With the recent recovery of regional foodways, both the olive and sesame are being revived for use in the neo-southern cookery of the twenty-first century.

  4. Effects of Mirazid® and myrrh volatile oil on adult Fasciola gigantica under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Massoud, AM; Shalaby, HA; El Khateeb, RM; Mahmoud, MS; Kutkat, MA

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of Mirazid® and myrrh volatile oil on adult Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica ) under laboratory conditions. Methods The effects of oleoresin extract of myrrh (Mirazid®) and myrrh volatile oil on the surface morphology of adult F. gigantica following treatment in vitro had been determined by scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared with those observed in the fluke tegument following incubation in triclabendazole sulphoxide (TCBZ-SO), active form, (Fasinex®, Ciba-Geigy). Results Observations of the efficacy of Mirazid® oleoresin extract and myrrh volatile oil indicated that both products showed dose-dependent anthelmintic efficacy. The anterior half of the fluke was consistently more severely affected than the posterior half. The surface changes induced by Mirazid® oleoresin extract were less severe than those observed after exposure to either myrrh volatile oil or TCBZ-SO. Flukes showed swelling after these treatments, but its level and blebbing were much greater with myrrh volatile oil; in which patches of tegumental sloughing were observed in the apical cone and the posterior mid-body region of flukes. This was not observed after treatment with Mirazid® oleoresin extract. Conclusions The comparatively more disruption, observed in myrrh volatile oil exposed specimens, compared to that exposed to Mirazid® oleoresin extract might suggest that the anthelmintic activity of Mirazid® oleo resin extract was attributed to its content of volatile oil. So, increasing the concentration of myrrh volatile oil in Mirazid® might possibly help to developing its anthelmintic activity. PMID:23569864

  5. Sulphur-containing compounds in the essential oil of Ferula alliacea roots and their mass spectral fragmentation patterns.

    PubMed

    Kasaian, Jamal; Asili, Javad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2016-10-01

    Context GC-MS analysis is the best way to characterize volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Ferula (Apiaceae) is a genus of perennial herbs. Due to the occurrence of essential oils or oleoresins in the Ferula species, these plants usually possess strong aromatic scent. Terpenoid compounds were the most abundant constituents of Ferula oils, however, in some of Ferula species, the essential oils were dominated by volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Objectives Ferula alliacea Boiss. is considered one of the sources of the oleo-gum-resin asafoetida. In this study, we analyzed the hydrodistilled essential oil from its dried roots and provide new data about retention indices and mass fragmentation patterns of some volatile sulphur-containing compounds that are useful for future studies on this class of compounds. Materials and methods The roots of F. alliacea were collected during the flowering stage of plant, from Bezgh, Kashmar to Neishabour road, Khorasan-Razavi province, Iran, in June 2012. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC-MS. Results This is the first report on phytochemical analysis of F. alliacea roots. Seventy-six components, representing 99.5% of the oil, were characterized. The major components were 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (22.3%), valerianol (12.5%), hinesol (8.3%), guaiol (7.3%) and Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%). Predominant mass fragment ions of the identified sulphur-containing compounds are explained in this paper. Conclusion The volatile oil of F. alliacea mostly contains oxygenated sesquiterpenes, however, its odour was dominated by sulphur-containing compounds. The most abundant sulphur-containing compound includes Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%).

  6. Novel Therapeutic and Prevention Approaches for Schistosomiasis: Review

    PubMed Central

    El Ridi, Rashika A.F.; Tallima, Hatem A.-M.

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease affecting approximately 600 million people in 74 developing countries, with 800 million, mostly children at risk. To circumvent the threat of having praziquantel (PZQ) as the only drug used for treatment, several PZQ derivatives were synthesized, and drugs destined for other parasites were used with success. A plethora of plant-derived oils and extracts were found to effectively kill juvenile and adult schistosomes, yet none was progressed to pre- and clinical studies except an oleo-gum resin extracted from the stem of Commiphora molmol, myrrh, which action was challenged in several trials. We have proposed an essential fatty acid, a component of our diet and cells, the polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (ARA) as a remedy for schistosomiasis, due to its ability to activate the parasite tegument-bound neutral sphingomyelinase, with subsequent hydrolysis of the apical lipid bilayer sphingomyelin molecules, allowing access of specific antibody molecules, and eventual worm attrition. This concept was convincingly supported using larval and adult Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium worms in in vitro experiments, and in vivo studies in inbred mice and outbred hamsters. Even if ARA proves to be an entirely effective and safe therapy for schistosomiasis, it will not prevent reinfection, and accordingly, the need for developing an effective vaccine remains an urgent priority. Our studies have supported the status of S. mansoni calpain, glutathione-S-transferase, aldolase, triose phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, and 2-cys peroxiredoxin as vaccine candidates, as they are larval excreted-secreted products and, contrary to the surface membrane molecules, are entirely accessible to the host immune system effector elements. We have proposed that the use of these molecules, in conjunction with Th2 cytokines-inducing adjuvants for recruiting and activating eosinophils and basophils

  7. Diagnosis and quantification of glycerol assimilating denitrifying bacteria in an integrated fixed-film activated sludge reactor via 13C DNA stable-isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huijie; Chandran, Kartik

    2010-12-01

    Glycerol, a byproduct of biodiesel and oleo-chemical manufacturing operations, represents an attractive alternate to methanol as a carbon and electron donor for enhanced denitrification. However, unlike methanol, little is known about the diversity and activity of glycerol assimilating bacteria in activated sludge. In this study, the microbial ecology of glycerol assimilating denitrifying bacteria in a sequencing batch integrated fixed film activated sludge (SB-IFAS) reactor was investigated using (13)C-DNA stable isotope probing (SIP). During steady state SB-IFAS reactor operation, near complete nitrate removal (92.7 ± 5.8%) was achieved. Based on (13)C DNA clone libraries obtained after 360 days of SB-IFAS reactor operation, bacteria related to Comamonas spp. and Diaphorobacter spp. dominated in the suspended phase communities. (13)C assimilating members in the biofilm community were phylogenetically more diverse and were related to Comamonas spp., Bradyrhizobium spp., and Tessaracoccus spp. Possibly owing to greater substrate availability in the suspended phase, the glycerol-assimilating denitrifying populations (quantified by real-time PCR) were more abundant therein than in the biofilm phase. The biomass in the suspended phase also had a higher specific denitrification rate than the biofilm phase (p = 4.33e-4), and contributed to 69.7 ± 4.5% of the overall N-removal on a mass basis. The kinetics of glycerol based denitrification by suspended phase biomass were approximately 3 times higher than with methanol. Previously identified methanol assimilating denitrifying bacteria were not associated with glycerol assimilation, thereby suggesting limited cross-utilization of these two substrates for denitrification in the system tested.

  8. Cytotoxicity and antiangiogenic effects of Rhus coriaria, Pistacia vera and Pistacia khinjuk oleoresin methanol extracts.

    PubMed

    Mirian, M; Behrooeian, M; Ghanadian, M; Dana, N; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, H

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels, play an important role in some diseases such as cancer and its metastasis. Using angiogenesis inhibitors, therefore, is one of the ways for cancer treatment and prevention of metastasis. Medicinal plants have been shown to play a major role in the treatment of a variety of cancers. In this direction, cytotoxic and angiogenic effects of oleo gum resin extracts of Rhus coriaria, Pistacia vera and Pistacia khinjuk from Anacardiaceae family were studied. For IC50 values, cytotoxic effects of the plant extracts were evaluated at different concentrations (1, 10, 20, 40, 80,100 μg/ml) against human umbilical vein endothelial normal cell (HUVEC) and Y79 cell lines using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In vitro tube formation on matrigel base was used to evaluate angiogenic effects in the presence of increasing concentrations (50, 100, 250 μg/ml) of the extracts. Vascular endothelium growth factor was used as angiogenesis stimulator. Gas chromatography results showed that α-pinene and β-pinene were the major essential oils constituents of all plant extracts. According to the MTT assay results, the R. coriaria resin extract was more cytotoxic than those of P. vera and P. khinjuk extracts (IC50, 9.1 ± 1.6 vs 9.8 ± 2.1 and 12.0 ± 1.9, respectively; P<0.05). Cytotoxic effects of all extracts against Y79 cell line was significantly higher than those of HUVEC used as a normal cell line (P<0.05). Tube formation assay also showed that extract of R. coriaria resin inhibited angiogenesis more significantly than other tested extracts (P<0.05). It could be concluded that R. coriaria resin extract possess cytotoxic effect and antiangiogenesis against cancer cells and as an anticancer natural product has a good potential for future studies. PMID:26600850

  9. Development of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to monitor in a single run, mono- to triterpenoid compounds distribution in resinous plant materials.

    PubMed

    Jemmali, Zaineb; Chartier, Agnes; Elfakir, Claire

    2016-04-22

    A new procedure based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of mono- to triterpenoid compounds in resinous materials. Given the difference of volatility and polarity of the studied compounds some critical steps in this methodology had to be identified and investigated. The recovery of volatile compounds after sample extraction was studied. A recovery range from 30% to 100% from the more volatile monoterpene to the least one was observed. Then the mandatory derivatization step for the analysis of pentacyclic triterpenes bearing hydroxyl and carboxyl groups was optimized. Results showed that derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) in pyridine (22:13:65 v/v/v) for 2h at 30 °C was the most efficient method of derivatizing all the hydroxyl and carboxylic acid groups contained in the triterpene structures. After choosing the best injection parameters for these compounds, the selectivity of the GC column towards the separation of these terpenoids was investigated using statistical tools (principal component analysis and desirability functions). A separation with a good resolution was achieved on an HP-5ms column using a programmed temperature vaporizing injector (PTV). The method was pre-validated in terms of detection limits (LOD from 100 μg L(-1) to 200 μg L(-1) depending on the compound), linearity and repeatability using seven compounds representative of mono- and triterpenoid classes. An exhaustive characterization of various types of resins (di-, triterpenic and oleo-gum resins) was achieved. PMID:27018190

  10. An α-acetoxy-tirucallic acid isomer inhibits Akt/mTOR signaling and induces oxidative stress in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    El Gaafary, Menna; Büchele, Berthold; Syrovets, Tatiana; Agnolet, Sara; Schneider, Bernd; Schmidt, Christoph Q; Simmet, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Here we provide evidence that αATA(8,24) (3α-acetyloxy-tir-8,24-dien-21-oic acid) inhibits Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. αATA(8,24) and other tirucallic acids were isolated from the acetylated extract of the oleo gum resin of Boswellia serrata to chemical homogeneity. Compared with related tirucallic acids, αATA(8,24) was the most potent inhibitor of the proliferation of androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, in prostate cancer xenografted onto chick chorioallantoic membranes. αATA(8,24) induced loss of cell membrane asymmetry, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation in vitro and in vivo. These effects were selective for cancer cells, because αATA(8,24) exerted no overt toxic effects on peripheral blood mononuclear cells or the chick embryo. At the molecular level, αATA(8,24) inhibited the Akt1 kinase activity. Prior to all biochemical signs of cellular dysfunction, αATA(8,24) induced inhibition of the Akt downstream target mTOR as indicated by dephosphorylation of S6K1. This event was followed by decreased expression of cell cycle regulators, such as cyclin D1, cyclin E, and cyclin B1, as well as cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK2 and phosphoretinoblastoma protein, which led to inhibition of the cell-cycle progression. In agreement with the mTOR inhibition, αATA(8,24) and rapamycin increased the volume of acidic vesicular organelles. In contrast to rapamycin, αATA(8,24) destabilized lysosomal and mitochondrial membranes and induced reactive oxygen species production in cancer cells. The ability of αATA(8,24) to inhibit Akt/mTOR signaling and to induce simultaneously oxidative stress could be exploited for the development of novel antitumor therapeutics with a lower profile of toxic side effects.

  11. Assessment of Teams and Teamwork in the University of Maryland Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baughman, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Teams play an important role in the University of Maryland (UM) Libraries. Since 1998, teams and collaborative teamwork have become the way librarians address the myriad of issues affecting the needs of UM's faculty, students, and staff. There has been much change in the UM Libraries over the past nine years, and the development is ongoing.…

  12. Portal Monitor Future Development Work: Hardware Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, Michael C.

    2012-07-03

    LANL portal monitor was a modification of a previously installed (permanent) unattended monitoring system (UMS). Modifications to the UMS to make the portal were sometimes based on mistaken assumptions about exercise-specific installation and access. Philosophical approach to real-time portal differs in some areas from UMS.

  13. Utopia Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    The following excerpt allows the reader to briefly peer into an ideal school setting: For the purposes of this paper, the fictitious school will be named Utopia Middle School or U.M.S. U.M.S embodies and exemplifies the perfect school. At U.M.S., the campus administrators perform at a level of excellence that motivates, empowers and supports all…

  14. "Was für Grün in der Stadt?". Politische Aushandlungsprozesse um städtische Grün- und Freiräume am Beispiel des urbanen Gärtnerns in Schweizer Städten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klöti, Tanja; Tappert, Simone; Drilling, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Urban green space is a key subject of actual urban negotiation processes on how the city shall develop. Visions of the ideal city are reflected in the meanings currently ascribed to urban gardening. Thereby the relation between human and nature as well as between build and natural environment in the city plays a central role. Results from different Swiss cities show that allotment gardens as well as newer forms of urban gardening are oscillating between a compensatory and a complementary understanding of nature, and they equally combine the desire for pristine nature with the demand for functional green space in the city.

  15. Resolving the Youngest Episode of Zircon Rim Growth with High-Spatial Resolution SIMS: U-Pb Ages and Trace Element Analyses from <1 um Thick Metamorphic Zircon Rims from the Zanskar Shear Zone and Tso Morari UHP Complex, NW Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, M. A.; Leech, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Dating the youngest phase of metamorphic or magmatic zircon growth by in-situ techniques on sectioned zircons can be challenging when rims are only a few microns thick; in the worst case, geologically meaningless measurements result from mixing between different age and/or compositional growth domains. This is especially true for zircons from the Zanskar Shear Zone and Tso Morari UHP Complex, NW Himalaya, which contain Eocene to Miocene rims that grew over Paleozoic and Proterozoic protolith cores during peak and retrograde metamorphism. These metamorphic rims are typically only 0.5 to 3.0 microns thick and require high-spatial resolution to resolve. We used the SHRIMP-RG ion-microprobe to perform new U-Pb depth-profiling analyses on zircon surfaces (non-polished) pressed into indium metal. Zircons from a leucogranite dike from Malung Tokpo along the Zanskar Shear Zone, which have 2000-5000 ppm U rims, were selected for detailed depth-profiling to evaluate the depth-resolution by SIMS for U-Pb and trace element analyses. Due to the high U concentration, we were able to decrease the primary beam intensity (sputter rate) and the count times for U and Pb isotopes, and increase the number of cycles through the run-table (45 peak-hopping scans). As a result, each cycle yielded a 0.04 micron depth-resolved zircon age and trace element composition. The youngest 13 scans yielded a U-Pb age of 21.3 ± 0.5 Ma, representing a 0.6 micron rim with uniform U, Th, and Hf concentrations. At 1.15 microns, the primary beam sputtered into a ~600 Ma core; this older age is complicated by the fact that it reflects mixing between the bottom of the sputter volume and the Miocene ages of the pit margins and rim, because the diameter of the spot tends to increase with time. Trace element analyses on zircon surfaces from the Tso Morari UHP Complex are highly reproducible, showing enriched HREE profiles with negative Eu anomalies - a result that is difficult to reproduce by analyses of sectioned crystals.

  16. Educacao Intercultural e a Dificuldade de sua Pratica: Um Estudo da Imagem do Migrante e sua Familia em Livros Didaticos Alemaes. (Intercultural Education and the Difficulty of Its Practice: A Study of the Image of the Migrant and His Family in German Textbooks.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Wivian

    1995-01-01

    Provides a brief historical report on pedagogical efforts to improve the integration of migrants and their families into German society. Examines the way in which the migrants' social situation has been dealt with in textbooks, particularly in books on politics, history, geography, and occupational education. (PA)

  17. The University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database: improving public access.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junfeng; Ellis, Lynda B M; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2010-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database (UM-BBD, http://umbbd.msi.umn.edu/) began in 1995 and now contains information on almost 1200 compounds, over 800 enzymes, almost 1300 reactions and almost 500 microorganism entries. Besides these data, it includes a Biochemical Periodic Table (UM-BPT) and a rule-based Pathway Prediction System (UM-PPS) (http://umbbd.msi.umn.edu/predict/) that predicts plausible pathways for microbial degradation of organic compounds. Currently, the UM-PPS contains 260 biotransformation rules derived from reactions found in the UM-BBD and scientific literature. Public access to UM-BBD data is increasing. UM-BBD compound data are now contributed to PubChem and ChemSpider, the public chemical databases. A new mirror website of the UM-BBD, UM-BPT and UM-PPS is being developed at ETH Zürich to improve speed and reliability of online access from anywhere in the world.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radio and mid-IR counterpart of submm galaxies (Biggs+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, A. D.; Ivison, R. J.; Ibar, E.; Wardlow, J. L.; Dannerbauer, H.; Smail, I.; Walter, F.; Weiss, A.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; De Breuck, C.; Dickinson, M.; Knudsen, K. K.; Mainieri, V.; Menten, K.; Papovich, C.

    2011-11-01

    We present radio and infrared (3.6-24um) counterparts to submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) detected in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South with the Large APEX Bolometer Camera (LABOCA) 870um bolometer camera on the 12m Atacama Pathfinder Experiment. Using the Very Large Array at .4GHz and Spitzer, we have identified secure counterparts to 79 of the 126 SMGs [signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)>3.7, S870>4.4mJy] in the field, 62 via their radio and/or 24um emission, the remainder using a colour-flux cut on Infrared Array Camera 3.6um and 5.8um sources chosen to maximize the number of secure, coincident radio and 24um counterparts. (4 data files).

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Perseus dust optical depth and column density maps (Zari+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zari, E.; Lombardi, M.; Alves, J.; Lada, C.; Bouy, H.

    2015-11-01

    We present optical depth and temperature maps of the Perseus Molecular Cloud, created combining Planck and Herschel data. The maps were obtained using Herschel SPIRE 250um, SPIRE 350um, SPIRE 500um, and, where available, PACS 160um data. The file planckherschelfit.fits reports the results of a full SED fit (with free parameters the optical depth and the temperature), at the SPIRE 500um resolution (36-arcsec). The file planckherschelfit2-a.fits uses the temperature from planckherschelfit.fits and the flux at SPIRE 250um to infer the optical depth with a resolution of 18 arcsec. Finally, the catalogue of Class I/0 protostars reports WISE magnitudes for the sources used to estimate the Schmidt law. (3 data files).

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AKARI observations of SMC Cepheids (Ngeow+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngeow, C.-C.; Citro, D. M.; Kanbur, S. M.

    2012-07-01

    The AKARI data used in this work is based on the SMC bright point source catalogue presented in Ita et al. (2010, Cat. J/PASJ/62/273). Photometry in 3.2um (N3, 12899 sources), 4.1um (N4, 9748 sources), 7um (S7, 1838 sources), 11um (S11, 1045 sources), 15um (L15, 479 sources) and 24um (L24, 356 sources) bands provided from the AKARI catalogue. This catalogue was matched to the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment III (OGLE-III) SMC fundamental mode (FU) Cepheid catalogue from Soszynski et al. (2010, Cat. J/AcA/60/17). (1 data file).

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: DR 21 Chandra source catalogue (Rivilla+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Jimenez-Serra, I.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Sanz-Forcada, J.

    2014-11-01

    In our analysis, we used archival stellar catalogues in X-rays, optical and IR wavelengths. We also made use of the Spitzer 4.6um and 8um images (Cygnus-X Legacy Project), and the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) 850um data (Matthews et al. 2009ApJS..182..143M, Cat. J/ApJS/182/143). (1 data file).

  2. Somatic embryogenesis in immature cotyledons of Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Somatic embryogenesis was obtained from immature cotyledon explants that were cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and vitamins with 5.4 uM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.2 uM thidiazuron (TDZ) plus a 4x4 factorial combination of 0,9.8, 34.6, or 49.2 uM indole-3-butyric acid ...

  3. A Subset of Nuclear Receptors are Uniquely Expressed in Uveal Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Kenneth Edward; Carstens, Ryan; Martinez, Elisabeth D.

    2015-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is recognized as the most common intraocular malignancy and the second most common form of melanoma. Nearly 50% of UM patients develop untreatable and fatal metastases. The 48-member nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily represents a therapeutically targetable group of transcription factors known for their regulation of key cancer pathways in numerous tumor types. Here, we profiled the expression of the 48 human NRs by qRT-PCR across a melanoma cell line panel including 5 UM lines, 9 cutaneous melanoma (CM) lines, and normal primary melanocytes. NR expression patterns identified a few key features. First, in agreement with our past studies identifying RXRg as a CM-specific marker, we found that UM cells also exhibit high levels of RXRg expression, making it a universal biomarker for melanoma tumors. Second, we found that LXRb is highly expressed in both UM and CM lines, suggesting that it may be a therapeutic target in a UM metastatic setting as it has been in CM models. Third, we found that RARg, PPARd, EAR2, RXRa, and TRa expressions could subdivide UM from CM. Previous studies of UM cancers identified key mutations in three genes: GNAQ, GNA11, and BRAF. We found unique NR expression profiles associated with each of these UM mutations. We then performed NR-to-NR and NR-to-genome expression correlation analyses to find potential NR-driven transcriptional programs activated in UM and CM. Specifically, RXRg controlled gene networks were identified that may drive melanoma-specific signaling and metabolism. ERRa was identified as a UM-defining NR and genes correlated with its expression confirm the role of ERRa in metabolic control. Given the plethora of available NR agonists, antagonists, and selective receptor modulators, pharmacologic manipulation of these NRs and their transcriptional outputs may lead to a more comprehensive understanding of key UM pathways and how we can leverage them for better therapeutic alternatives. PMID:26217306

  4. Essays on Eclipses, Transits and Occultations as Teaching Tools in the Introductory Astronomy College Course. (Spanish Title: Ensayos sobre Eclipses, Tránsitos y Ocultaciones Como Herramientas de Enseñanza en el Curso Universitario Introductorio a la Astronomía.) Ensaios sobre Eclipses, Trânsitos e Ocultações Como Ferramentas de Ensino em um Curso Universitário Introdutório de Astromomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dcruz, Noella L.

    2014-07-01

    We occasionally include projects in our learner-centered introductory astronomy college course to enable non-science major students explore some astronomical concepts in more detail than otherwise. Such projects also highlight ongoing or upcoming astronomical events. We hope that students will feel more interested in astronomy through projects tied to astronomical events. In Spring 2012, we offered short essays focused on eclipses, transits and occultations to promote the rare transit of Venus that occurred on June 5th, 2012. We asked students to write two short essays from three that were offered. The essays contained descriptive and conceptual parts. They were meant to serve as teaching tools. 62% of 106 essays from 55 students earned A, B or C grades. 21% of 47 feedback survey respondents felt the essays increased their interest in astronomy. 49% of respondents felt that the essays were not educationally beneficial and should not be offered again. The most common written response to our survey indicated that students need more guidance and better preparation in writing successful essays. Since students found the conceptual parts of the essays difficult, in the future we will provide relevant activities prior to essay deadlines to help students create successful essays. Ocasionalmente, incluimos proyectos en nuestro curso de introducción a la astronomía universitario centrado en el alumno para permitir que los estudiantes de carreras no científicas exploren algunos conceptos astronómicos en más detalle que lo habitual. Estos proyectos también ponen en relevancia eventos astronómicos en curso o futuros. Esperamos que los estudiantes se sientan más interesados en la astronomía a través de proyectos vinculados a eventos astronómicos. En el período de primavera de 2012 (EUA), propusimos breves ensayos centrados en los eclipses, tránsitos y ocultaciones para promover el raro tránsito de Venus que se produjo el 5 de junio de 2012. Le pedimos a los estudiantes que escribieran dos ensayos cortos de tres que se proponían. Los ensayos contenían partes descriptivas y conceptuales. Los mismos estaban destinados a servir como herramientas de enseñanza. 62% de los 106 ensayos de 55 estudiantes obtuvo grados A, B o C. 21% de los 47 encuestados que respondieron al cuestionario posterior consideró que los ensayos aumentaron su interés por la astronomía. 49% de los encuestados consideró que los ensayos no eran educacionalmente útiles y que no deben ser propuestos de nuevo. Las respuestas escritas más comunes a nuestra encuesta indicaran que los estudiantes necesitan más orientación y una mejor preparación en la redacción de ensayos exitosos. Dado que los estudiantes encontraron las piezas conceptuales de los ensayos difíciles, en el futuro vamos a ofrecer actividades pertinentes antes de los plazos de redacción para ayudar a los estudiantes a crear ensayos de mayor calidad. Nós ocasionalmente incluímos projetos em nosso curso universitário introdutório centrado no aluno para permitir aos estudantes que pertencem às carreiras não científicas explorar alguns conceitos astronômicos em mais detalhes do que o normal. Tais projetos também enfatizam eventos astronômicos em curso ou futuros. Esperamos que os alunos se sintam mais interessados na astronomia através de projetos ligados a eventos astronômicos. No termo de Primavera de 2012 (EUA), propomos ensaios curtos focados em eclipses, trânsitos e ocultações para promover o raro trânsito de Vênus que ocorreu no dia 5 de junho de 2012. Pedimos aos alunos que escrevessem dois ensaios curtos dentre três que foram propostos. Os ensaios continham partes descritivas e conceituais. Eles foram feitos para servir como ferramentas de ensino. 62% de 106 ensaios de 55 alunos ganhou graus A, B ou C. 21% dos 47 entrevistados que responderam ao levantamento posterior sentiu que os ensaios aumentaram seu interesse na astronomia. 49% dos inquiridos consideraram que os ensaios não eram benéficos para a educação e que não devem ser propostos novamente. As respostas escritas mais comuns da nossa pesquisa indicaram que os alunos precisam de mais orientação e melhor preparação para escrever ensaios bem sucedidos. Como os alunos consideraram difíceis os aspectos conceituais dos ensaios, no futuro iremos fornecer atividades relevantes antes dos ensaios para ajudar os alunos a escrevê-los com sucesso.

  5. Automated metal-free multiple-column nanoLC for improved phosphopeptide analysis sensitivity and throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Rui; Ding, Shi-Jian; Shen, Yufeng; Camp, David G.; Livesay, Eric A.; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-03-15

    We report on the development and characterization of an automated metal-free nanoscale multiple-capillary system for reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of phosphopeptides. The system incorporates a capillary column (50 um i.d. × 30 cm, packed with 5 um C18 particles) coupled on-line to a solid phase extraction column (150 um i.d. × 4 cm, packed with 5 um C18 particles). Electrospray ionization tips are constructed on the packed capillary column to couple the reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation to a linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometer.

  6. Biological properties and molecular targets of umbelliprenin--a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Abolfazl; Iranshahy, Milad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    7-Prenyloxycoumarins are a group of secondary metabolites found mainly in plants belonging to the families Rutaceae and Apiaceae. Auraptene, umbelliprenin (UM), and 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin are some examples of prenylated coumarins. UM occurs in various edible plant species including celery, coriander, angelica, lemon, and particularly, Ferula species. Although UM was isolated more than 50 years ago, its biological activities have been studied since the last two decades. Besides anticancer activities, biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antileishmanial activities have been reported from this natural compound. The present mini-review deals with the biological activities and mechanism of actions reported for UM.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Reflectance spectra of 12 Trojans and Hildas (Marsset+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsset, M.; Vernazza, P.; Gourgeot, F.; Dumas, C.; Birlan, M.; Lamy, P.; Binzel, R. P.

    2014-07-01

    We present 17 reflectance spectra of 12 high albedo (pv>0.14) Trojans (8 objects) and Hildas (4 objects) obtained with the ESO/VLT Echelle spectrograph X-SHOOTER in the 0.3-2.2um spectral range (14 spectra) and with the NASA/IRTF spectrograph SpeX in the 0.8-2.5um spectral range (3 spectra). X-SHOOTER spectra were normalized to unity at 0.55um and SpeX spectra were normalized to unity at 2.2um . The spectra presented in this work were collected between April and December 2013. (18 data files).

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Young clumps embedded in IRDC (Traficante+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traficante, A.; Fuller, G. A.; Peretto, N.; Pineda, J. E.; Molinari, S.

    2015-06-01

    Photometric parameters for 667 starless clumps (sources identified at 160um with a counterpart at 250 and 350um) and 1056 protostellar clumps (sources identified at 160um with a counterpart at 70, 250 and 350um). Photometric parameters obtained with Hyper photometry code (2015A&A...574A.119T). The photometry is corrected for aperture and colour corrections. The parameter list is the standard Hyper output (see description below). SED fit parameters for 650 starless clumps and 1034 protostellar clumps (all clumps with good SED fitting: Chi2<10, Temperature<40K. See the paper for details) (4 data files).

  9. A Pinhole Camera for SPEAR 2

    SciTech Connect

    Safranek, James

    2002-08-23

    A new pinhole camera system has been installed on Spear 2 to measure its vertical emittance. The hard X-rays from a bending magnet source point are imaged on a phosphor screen through a 30 um x 25 um pinhole aperture. The resolution of the system for 8 keV photons is limited to 31.2 um by Fraunhoffer diffraction and is much smaller than the 340 um FWHM vertical beam size corresponding to 0.9% vertical coupling. Measurements are presented. Optimal pinhole location and hole size are discussed.

  10. Mathematik semantologisch verstehen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wille, Rudolf

    Um zu verstehen, was Mathematik ist und bedeutet, reicht es nicht aus, mathematisches Denken und Wissen vielseitig zu erwerben. Hinzukommen muss stets ein angemessenes Verständnis der jeweiligen Bedeutungen mathematischer Denkformen, die in der aktual-realen Welt wirksam werden können. Beim Mathematik-Verstehen sollte es vor allem um ein Vermitteln des Selbstverständnisses der Mathematik, um ein Reflektieren des Bezugs der Mathematik zur realen Welt und um ein Beurteilen von Sinn, Bedeutung und Zusammenhang des Mathematischen in der Welt gehen.

  11. Cataloging the Youngest Protostars in NGC2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jonathan; Brown, Arianna; Terebey, Susan; CSI2264

    2016-06-01

    Protostars are young stars in their earliest stages of development. We can determine the current stage of development of a young star depending on its relative brightness at varying wavelengths. Protostars are brightest at far-infrared wavelengths, typically peaking at 70-100um. A previous catalog of young stars in NGC 2264 is based on Spitzer data with 24um being the longest available wavelength data. Herschel data at 70um was used to improve the census of protostars. We found 11 new class 0 and 1 protostar candidates that were previously not found in the Spitzer catalog and are bright at 70um. We describe the properties of these candidates.

  12. Heterogeneity revealed by integrated genomic analysis uncovers a molecular switch in malignant uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Mark J; van Pelt, Sake I; Versluis, Mieke; Jordanova, Ekaterina S; Kroes, Wilma G M; Ruivenkamp, Claudia; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Luyten, Grégorius P M; van Hall, Thorbald; Jager, Martine J; van der Velden, Pieter A

    2015-11-10

    Gene expression profiles as well as genomic imbalances are correlated with disease progression in uveal melanoma (UM). We integrated expression and genomic profiles to obtain insight into the oncogenic mechanisms in development and progression of UM. We used tumor tissue from 64 enucleated eyes of UM patients for profiling. Mutations and genomic imbalances were quantified with digital PCR to study tumor heterogeneity and molecular pathogenesis. Gene expression analysis divided the UM panel into three classes. Class I presented tumors with a good prognosis and a distinct genomic make up that is characterized by 6p gain. The UM with a bad prognosis were subdivided into class IIa and class IIb. These classes presented similar survival risks but could be distinguished by tumor heterogeneity. Class IIa presented homogeneous tumors while class IIb tumors, on average, contained 30% of non-mutant cells. Tumor heterogeneity coincided with expression of a set of immune genes revealing an extensive immune infiltrate in class IIb tumors. Molecularly, class IIa and IIb presented the same genomic configuration and could only be distinguished by 8q copy number. Moreover, UM establish in the void of the immune privileged eye indicating that in IIb tumors the infiltrate is attracted by the UM. Combined our data show that chromosome 8q contains the locus that causes the immune phentotype of UM. UM thereby provides an unique opportunity to study immune attraction by tumors. PMID:26462151

  13. Using optical coherence tomography to assess the role of age and region in corneal epithelium and palisades of vogt

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsuan-Chieh; Tew, Teck Boon; Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Lin, Szu-Yuan; Chang, Huai-Wen; Hu, Fung-Rong; Chen, Wei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to observe the morphology and epithelial thickness (ET) of the palisades of Vogt (POV), and to evaluate the role of age and region on these structures. One hundred twelve eyes of 112 healthy subjects were enrolled and divided into 4 groups: A (0–19), B (20–39), C (40–59), and D (≥60 years old). RTvue-100 OCT was applied on the cornea and the limbus. The morphology of the subepithelial stroma underneath the epithelium of POV was classified into typical and atypical types. Maximum ET of POV was measured manually from OCT images. The positive rate of typical POV in superior, nasal, temporal, and inferior limbus was: Group A: 100%, 69.2%, 65.4%, 100%; Group B: 100%, 73.5%, 61.8%, 94.1%; Group C: 95.8%, 41.7%, 37.5%, 83.3%; Group D: 67.9%, 0%, 3.6%, 25%, showing a significant decreasing tendency with age. The maximum ET of POV in superior, nasal, temporal, and inferior limbus was: Group A: 103.5 ± 10.1 um, 89.2 ± 9.7 um, 87.9 ± 13.6 um, 104.7 ± 14.1 um; Group B: 111.4 ± 15.8 um, 85.3 ± 9.9 um, 88.2 ± 8.6 um, 112.6 ± 19.7 um; Group C: 116.4 ± 16.4 um, 82.8 ± 11.6 um, 87.0 ± 11.6 um, 120.0 ± 25.6 um; Group D: 96.3 ± 17.9 um, 73.8 ± 15.9 um, 79.2 ± 16.7 um, 87.4 ± 18.5 um. Age-dependent change was observed. In general, the maximum ET of POV in superior/inferior quadrants was thicker than the other 2 quadrants. Spectral-domain OCT is a useful tool to observe the limbal microstructure and provide invaluable information. Aging and anatomic regions had significant effects on the microstructure of these areas. PMID:27583846

  14. An α-acetoxy-tirucallic acid isomer inhibits Akt/mTOR signaling and induces oxidative stress in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    El Gaafary, Menna; Büchele, Berthold; Syrovets, Tatiana; Agnolet, Sara; Schneider, Bernd; Schmidt, Christoph Q; Simmet, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Here we provide evidence that αATA(8,24) (3α-acetyloxy-tir-8,24-dien-21-oic acid) inhibits Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. αATA(8,24) and other tirucallic acids were isolated from the acetylated extract of the oleo gum resin of Boswellia serrata to chemical homogeneity. Compared with related tirucallic acids, αATA(8,24) was the most potent inhibitor of the proliferation of androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, in prostate cancer xenografted onto chick chorioallantoic membranes. αATA(8,24) induced loss of cell membrane asymmetry, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation in vitro and in vivo. These effects were selective for cancer cells, because αATA(8,24) exerted no overt toxic effects on peripheral blood mononuclear cells or the chick embryo. At the molecular level, αATA(8,24) inhibited the Akt1 kinase activity. Prior to all biochemical signs of cellular dysfunction, αATA(8,24) induced inhibition of the Akt downstream target mTOR as indicated by dephosphorylation of S6K1. This event was followed by decreased expression of cell cycle regulators, such as cyclin D1, cyclin E, and cyclin B1, as well as cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK2 and phosphoretinoblastoma protein, which led to inhibition of the cell-cycle progression. In agreement with the mTOR inhibition, αATA(8,24) and rapamycin increased the volume of acidic vesicular organelles. In contrast to rapamycin, αATA(8,24) destabilized lysosomal and mitochondrial membranes and induced reactive oxygen species production in cancer cells. The ability of αATA(8,24) to inhibit Akt/mTOR signaling and to induce simultaneously oxidative stress could be exploited for the development of novel antitumor therapeutics with a lower profile of toxic side effects. PMID:25316122

  15. Antispasmodic effects of myrrh due to calcium antagonistic effects in inflamed rat small intestinal preparations.

    PubMed

    Vissiennon, Cica; Goos, Karl-Heinz; Goos, Ole; Nieber, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Myrrh is the oleo-gum resin of mainly Commiphora molmol and as a powdered substance, one compound in the traditional medicinal product Myrrhinil-Intest®, which has been used for the treatment of unspecific, inflammatory intestinal disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antispasmodic effect of myrrh under healthy and inflamed conditions, and to evaluate a calcium-antagonistic effect as a possible mode of action. Therefore, an ethanolic myrrh extract was tested for its effects on muscle tone and acetylcholine-induced contractions in untreated and inflamed rat ileum/jejunum preparations. Inflammation was experimentally induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (10 mM, 30 min). Additionally, the effect of the calcium channel agonist Bay K8644 in the presence of varying myrrh extract concentrations was examined. Myrrh extract (0.99 mg/mL) suppressed the acetylcholine-induced contraction down to 25.8 % in untreated and 15.2 % in inflamed preparations. Myrrh extract (0.15; 0.25 and 0.35 mg/mL) induced a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the Bay K8644 concentration-response curve in untreated and inflamed preparations with a significant EC50 shift. Schild analysis resulted in a pA2 value of 0.93 for untreated preparations. Increasing myrrh extract concentrations induced a concentration-dependent decrease of the agonistic maximum effect in untreated and inflamed preparations down to 15.8 % and 25.8 %, respectively, for the highest concentration leading to a pD2 value of 0.58. Myrrh extract reduced intestinal muscle tone and acetylcholine-induced contraction of untreated and inflamed ileum/jejunum preparations based on dual calcium antagonism characterized by a right shift of the agonistic dose-response curve and a depression of the maximum effect. The resulting reduction of intestinal motility and spasmolytic effects provide a rationale for the symptom treatment of intestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome

  16. Light microscopic study of the effect of new antischistosmal drug (myrrh extract) on the liver of mice.

    PubMed

    Massoud, Ahmed M A; el Ebiary, Faika H; Ibrahim, Suzi H

    2005-12-01

    The efficacy of purified oleo-resin extract of myrrh derived from Commiphora molmol tree, (known as Mirazid) was studied against an Egyptian strain of Schistosoma mansoni in mice. Seventy adult male mice were used in this study. They were divided into 4 groups: G.I: consisted of control noninfected nontreated mice. G.II: comprised the noninfected treated mice and was subdivided into two subgroups, subgroup II-A: included mice which received Myrrh extract dissolved in cremophore EL and subgroup II-B: included mice which were treated with cremophore EL. G.III: consisted of the infected nontreated animals and G.IV: included infected mice which were treated with myrrh extract. The drug was given 8 weeks post infection in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight/day for 5 successive days. All animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks from the beginning of the experiment. Liver paraffin sections were prepared and stained with H&E, Masson's Trichrome stain, PAS stain and Wilder's technique. A morphometric study was performed for the mean number and perimeter of the granulomas. Area percentage of the total collagen content around central veins as well as in portal areas was also estimated. The livers of the animals in G.II which received either myrrh extract (subgroup II-A) or cremophore EL (subgroup II-B) showed a more or less normal histological profile when compared to G.I (noninfected-nontreated group). G.IV (Infected treated G.) showed complete preservation of the hepatic architecture. Most of the hepatocytes appeared almost normal. The reticular network in the central part of the granulomas as well as in the portal tracts appeared rarefied. The hepatic reticular network was preserved. A significant decrease in the number and size of granulomas with significant reduction in the collagen content deposition in portal tracts and around central veins was detected when compared to G.III (infected nontreated mice). The data of this study proved the efficacy of myrrh as a promising

  17. THE BIMODAL DISTRIBUTION: DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT OF FINE AND COARSE PARTICLES AS SEPARATE AND DISTINCT COMPONENTS OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the early 1970s, it was understood that combustion particles were formed mostly in sizes below 1 um diameter, and windblown dust was suspended in sizes mostly above 1 um diameter. However, particle size distribution was thought of as a single mode. Particles were thought to f...

  18. The Role of Iron in Libby Amphibole-Induced Lung Injury and Inflammation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Complexation of host iron (Fe) on the surface of inhaled asbestos fibers has been postulated to cause oxidative stress contributing to in vivo pulmonary injury and inflammation. We examined the role of Fe in Libby amphibole (LA; mean length 4.99um ± 4.53 and width 0.28um ± 0.19)...

  19. First Results from the ISO-IRAS Faint Galaxy Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolstencroft, R. D.; Wehrle, A. E.; Levine, D. A.

    1997-01-01

    We present the first result from the ISO-IRAS Faint Galaxy Survey (IIFGS), a program designed to obtain ISO observations of the most distant and luminous galaxies in the IRAS Faint Source Survey by filling short gaps in the ISO observing schedule with pairs of 12um ISOCAM AND 90um ISOPHOT observation.

  20. Closing the Math Achievement Gap: Institutions Find Success with MyMathLab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Pearl

    2012-01-01

    Institutions find success with Pearson Education's MyMathLab. The Department of Mathematical Sciences at the University of Memphis (UM) reported a narrowing of the achievement gap between Black and White students. According to the study conducted by UM professors and titled "The Effectiveness of Blended Instruction in Postsecondary General…

  1. p63 is required beside p53 for PERP-mediated apoptosis in uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Awais, Raheela; Spiller, David G; White, Michael R H; Paraoan, Luminita

    2016-01-01

    Background: PERP (p53 apoptosis effector related to PMP-22), a transcriptional target of p53, is downregulated and contributes to the impairment of apoptosis in uveal melanoma (UM). Intriguingly, PERP is not induced in UM despite functional p53. p63, located on chromosome 3, which is characteristically altered in high-risk UM, can transactivate PERP. Here, we determine the functional role of p63 expression in the initiation of p53/PERP-mediated apoptosis in UM. Methods: PERP expression was monitored by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and immunoblotting in UM cell lines treated with DNA-damaging agents. The functional role of p63 was assessed by transient expression of p63-turbo GFP (p63-tGFP) in the apoptosis- resistant, 3q-deficient OCM-1 cells. Expression and localisation of p63, PERP and p53, and induction of apoptosis were characterised by qPCR, immunoblotting and live cell confocal microscopy. Results: PERP expression was significantly downregulated in all UM cell lines. DNA-damaging treatments failed to induce apoptosis and activate PERP in OCM-1 cells, which displayed non-functional levels of p63. Expression of p63-tGFP induced apoptosis with marked increase in PERP expression and associated p53 accumulation. Conclusions: Lack of p63 contributes to reduced PERP levels and impaired p53-mediated apoptosis in UM. p63 expression is required for PERP-mediated apoptosis in UM. PMID:27584665

  2. Eccrine porocarcinoma: cytologic diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).

    PubMed

    Kalogeraki, Alexandra; Tamiolakis, Dimitrios; Tsagatakis, Thomas; Geronatsiou, Katerina; Haniotis, Vrettos; Kafoussi, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O porocarcinoma écrino (PE) é um tumor maligno pouco comum dos anexos cutâneos. Trata-se de um adenocarcinoma da glândula sudorípara écrina com propensão para recorrer localmente e para originar metástases ao longo dos gânglios linfáticos regionais. Este artigo apresenta um diagnóstico por citologia aspirativa com agulha fina (CAAF) de um PE, associado ao exame histológico e de imunocito/histoquímica.Caso Clínico: São descritos os achados da citologia de um porocarcinoma écrino numa doente de 76 anos de idade, bem como as características histológicas do tumor cutâneo. A citologia aspirativa revelou que o tumor se caracterizava pela presença de células atípicas malignas com citoplasma basófilo, núcleos hipercromáticos e nucléolos proeminentes. O diagnóstico citológico foi confirmado pela histologia.Conclusões: É crucial obter um diagnóstico pré-operatório preciso de modo a desencadear um plano cirúrgico curativo. A CAAF possibilita uma abordagem pouco invasiva, segura e efectiva, de modo a esclarecer um diagnóstico diferencial exigente.

  3. Taming the "Beast": An Archival Management System Based on EAD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Jennie A.; Evans, Jennifer; Kumar, Amit

    2006-01-01

    In April 2005, the University of Maryland Libraries launched "ArchivesUM" (www.lib.umd.edu/archivesum), an online database of finding aids for manuscript and archival collections using Encoded Archival Description (EAD). "ArchivesUM," however, is only the publicly available end-product of a much larger project-an integrated system that ties…

  4. Vienna in the Early Twentieth Century: The Cultural Response to Modernization. Curriculum Units, NEH Institute, Summer 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene.

    These curriculum units were developed by participants in the National Endowment for the Humanities seminar at the University of Oregon in 1993. The lessons include: (1) "Schule, Freunde, Liebe: Wien um die Jahrhundertwende (School, Friends, Love: Vienna at the Turn of the Century)" (Linda Hansen; Glenn Tetterton-Opheim); (2) "Kultur in Wien um die…

  5. USING CERAMIC MEMBRANES TO RECYCLE TWO NONIONIC ALKALINE METAL-CLEANING SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One ZrO2 ultrafilter (0.05 um pore size) and two a-Al2O3 microfilters (0.2 and 0.8 um) were used to remove one synthetic ester oil and two polyalphaolefin-based and two petroleum hydrocarbon-based oils and greases from two nonionic alkaline cleaning solutions (e.g., Turco 4215-NC...

  6. Measuring cattle feedlot dust using laser diffraction analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable amounts of particulate matter (PM), including total suspended particulates (TSP), particulates with equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 um (PM10), and particulates with equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 um (PM2.5), are emitted from large beef...

  7. High Performance Lasers and LEDs for Optical Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    High performance 1.3 um lasers and LEDs have been developed for optical communications systems. The lasers exhibit low threshold currents, excellent high speed and spectral characteristics, and high reliability. The surface emitting LEDs provide launched powers greater than -15 dBm into 62.5 um core fiber with rise and fall times suitable for operation to 220 Mb/s.

  8. DETERMINING COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS: A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CANDIDATE METHODOLOGIES - STUDY DESIGN AND RESULTS FROM THE RTP EQUIPMENT SHAKEDOWN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of candidate sampling methods for potential use as a Federal Reference Method (FRM) capable of providing an estimate of coarse particle (PMc: particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 um and 10 um...

  9. Chinese/Chinese American Students at the University of Mississippi from 1946 to 1975

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Hsin-Yi

    2012-01-01

    The historical integration of the University of Mississippi (UM) brought both national and local attention when James Meredith was escorted by U.S. Marshals to enroll and attend classes on October 1, 1962 (Cohodas, 1997; Doyle, 2001; Eagles, 2009). Since the integration of UM, racial issues and efforts to promote racial reconciliation primarily…

  10. SIZE FRACTIONATION OF METALS IN RUNOFF FROM RESIDENTIAL AND HIGHWAY STORM SEWERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater sampling for particulate, colloidal and dissolved metals and organic carbon was conducted for several storms at six outfalls draining locally-designated, nonindustrial land uses in Monmouth County, NJ. Samples were initially sequentially filtered through 5 um, 0.45 um...

  11. Students' Perceptions of Blackboard and Moodle in a Portuguese University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Ana; Areal, Nelson; Silva, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    The use of learning management systems (LMS) has grown considerably in universities around the world. The University of Minho (UM) has pioneered in this area in Portugal, adopting Blackboard as its official LMS. Moodle is also used in UM in scattered initiatives, allowing for interesting comparisons. Previous studies comparing Blackboard and…

  12. DIRECT-DEPOSITION INFRARED SPECTROMETRY WITH GAS AND SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct-deposition Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) system has been evaluated for applicability to gas chromatography (GC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) of environmental analytes. A 100-um i.d. fused-silica transfer line was used for GC, and a 50-um transfer lin...

  13. NUTRIENT LIMITATION OF PHYTOPLANKTON GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY (PENSACOLA BAY, FL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton nutrient limitation was studied in a sub-estuary of lower Pensacola Bay using several techniques. Results for <5 um and . 5 um phytoplankton were similar. Nutrient-addition bioassays indicated year-round nutrient limitation, in contrast to seasonal patterns often ...

  14. DETERMINING COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS: A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CANDIDATE METHODOLOGIES UNDER WINTERTIME CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of sampling methods for potential use as a Federal Reference Method (FRM) capable of providing an estimate of coarse particle (PMc: particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 um and 10 um) mass con...

  15. Description of Globodera ellingtonae n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of cyst nematode, Globodera ellingtoni, is described from soil collected from a field with a cropping history including potatoes in Oregon. It is characterized in having second-stage juveniles (J2) with a body length of 450 um (365-515), stylet length of 20.9 um (19-22.5) with basal kn...

  16. Darwin als Sehhilfe für die Psychologie - Evolutionspsychologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Frank

    Im Folgenden geht es um Einäugige, stereoskopisches Sehen, weite und enge Horizonte, Monokel und Sonnenbrillen. Der Beitrag versucht die Metapher des Sehens und der Sehhilfen anzuwenden, um so zu verdeutlichen, welchen Gewinn die herkömmliche Psychologie durch die Verwendung einer Darwin'schen Brille erlangen kann.

  17. Study Abroad for Chinese University Presidents: How China Is Reforming Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Constance Ewing

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Chinese Ministry of Education sent presidents and party secretaries from its top-ranked universities to the University of Michigan (UM) to learn more about the leadership of research universities. Both the ministry and UM worked hard to make the visit productive, and both parties gained from it. A year later, with the support of the…

  18. Study of factors affecting growth and cold acclimation of Vitis callus cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, L.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro grape tissue culture initiation, growth, and cold acclimation were studied. Factors involved were genotypes, media, plant growth regulators, age, light, temperature, antioxidant, clearing and adsorbing agents, sucrose level, osmotic potential, ABA, chilling and freezing treatments. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1 ..mu..M 2,4-d + 0.1 uM Ba, MS containing 1 uM 2,4-D, and woody plant medium containing 1 uM 2,4-D + 0.1 uM BA produced abundant callus tissue for most grape genotypes; either WPM or MS containing 1 uM BA stimulated shoot growth in all the 12 genotypes tested. Adding 1 uM abscisic acid (ABA) to the B5 medium with 1 uM 2,4-D and 0.5 uM BA enhanced growth and quality of Chancellor callus. /sup 3/H-ABA was taken up actively by callus tissue at 12 days after subculture, but by 20 d this effect disappeared. When /sup 14/C-sucrose was added to the medium. /sup 14/C level of cells reached a plateau after 48 h; this plateau was higher if ABA was also present in the medium. Cells on media containing ABA were larger in size, lighter in color, and more loosely connected.

  19. Repression of genes involved in melanocyte differentiation in uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Marjorie-Allison; Champagne, Sophie; Gaudreault, Manon; Deschambeault, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Uveal melanoma (UM) has been the subject of intense interest due to its distinctive metastatic pattern, which involves hematogenous dissemination of cancerous cells toward the liver in 50% of patients. To search for new UM prognostic markers, the Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) technique was used to isolate genes that are differentially expressed between UM primary tumors and normal uveal melanocytes (UVM). Methods A subtracted cDNA library was prepared using cDNA from uncultured UM primary tumors and UVM. The expression level of selected genes was further validated by cDNA microarray, semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunofluorescence analyses. Results One hundred-fifteen genes were identified using the SSH technique. Microarray analyses comparing the gene expression profiles of UM primary tumors to UVM validated a significant differential expression for 48% of these genes. The expression pattern of selected genes was then analyzed by semi-quantitative RT–PCR and was found to be consistent with the SSH and cDNA microarray findings. A down-regulation of genes associated with melanocyte differentiation was confirmed in UM primary tumors. Presence of undifferentiated cells in the UM was demonstrated by the expression of stem cell markers ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2) and octamer-binding protein 4 (OCT4). Conclusions We demonstrated that the SSH technique is efficient to detect differentially expressed genes between UM and UVM. The genes identified in this study represent valuable candidates for further functional analysis in UM and should be informative in studying the biology of this tumor. In addition, deregulation of the melanocyte differentiation pathway revealed the presence of UM cells exhibiting a stem cell-like phenotype. PMID:22815634

  20. Dual inhibition of protein kinase C and p53-MDM2 or PKC and mTORC1 are novel efficient therapeutic approaches for uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Dahmani, Ahmed; Raymondie, Chloé; Cassoux, Nathalie; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Némati, Fariba; Laurent, Cécile; De Koning, Leanne; Halilovic, Ensar; Jeay, Sebastien; Wylie, Andrew; Emery, Caroline; Roman-Roman, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common cancer of the eye in adults. Many UM patients develop metastases for which no curative treatment has been identified. Novel therapeutic approaches are therefore urgently needed. UM is characterized by mutations in the genes GNAQ and GNA11 which activate the PKC pathway, leading to the use of PKC inhibitors as a rational strategy to treat UM tumors. Encouraging clinical activity has been noted in UM patients treated with PKC inhibitors. However, it is likely that curative treatment regimens will require a combination of targeted therapeutic agents. Employing a large panel of UM patient-derived xenograft models (PDXs), several PKC inhibitor-based combinations were tested in vivo using the PKC inhibitor AEB071. The most promising approaches were further investigated in vitro using our unique panel of UM cell lines. When combined with AEB071, the two agents CGM097 (p53-MDM2 inhibitor) and RAD001 (mTORC1 inhibitor) demonstrated greater activity than single agents, with tumor regression observed in several UM PDXs. Follow-up studies in UM cell lines on these two drug associations confirmed their combination activity and ability to induce cell death. While no effective treatment currently exists for metastatic uveal melanoma, we have discovered using our unique panel of preclinical models that combinations between PKC/mTOR inhibitors and PKC/p53-MDM2 inhibitors are two novel and very effective therapeutic approaches for this disease. Together, our study reveals that combining PKC and p53-MDM2 or mTORC1 inhibitors may provide significant clinical benefit for UM patients. PMID:27507190

  1. Total Proteome Analysis Identifies Migration Defects as a Major Pathogenetic Factor in Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Region (IGHV)-unmutated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia*

    PubMed Central

    Eagle, Gina L.; Zhuang, Jianguo; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Till, Kathleen J.; Jithesh, Puthen V.; Lin, Ke; Johnson, Gillian G.; Oates, Melanie; Park, Kevin; Kitteringham, Neil R.; Pettitt, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    The mutational status of the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region defines two clinically distinct forms of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) known as mutated (M-CLL) and unmutated (UM-CLL). To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the adverse clinical outcome associated with UM-CLL, total proteomes from nine UM-CLL and nine M-CLL samples were analyzed by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based mass spectrometry. Based on the expression of 3521 identified proteins, principal component analysis separated CLL samples into two groups corresponding to immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region mutational status. Computational analysis showed that 43 cell migration/adhesion pathways were significantly enriched by 39 differentially expressed proteins, 35 of which were expressed at significantly lower levels in UM-CLL samples. Furthermore, UM-CLL cells underexpressed proteins associated with cytoskeletal remodeling and overexpressed proteins associated with transcriptional and translational activity. Taken together, our findings indicate that UM-CLL cells are less migratory and more adhesive than M-CLL cells, resulting in their retention in lymph nodes, where they are exposed to proliferative stimuli. In keeping with this hypothesis, analysis of an extended cohort of 120 CLL patients revealed a strong and specific association between UM-CLL and lymphadenopathy. Our study illustrates the potential of total proteome analysis to elucidate pathogenetic mechanisms in cancer. PMID:25645933

  2. The mTOR inhibitor Everolimus synergizes with the PI3K inhibitor GDC0941 to enhance anti-tumor efficacy in uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Amirouchene-Angelozzi, Nabil; Frisch-Dit-Leitz, Estelle; Carita, Guillaume; Dahmani, Ahmed; Raymondie, Chloé; Liot, Géraldine; Gentien, David; Némati, Fariba; Decaudin, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most frequent malignant ocular tumor in adults. While the primary tumor is efficiently treated by surgery and/or radiotherapy, about one third of UM patients develop metastases, for which no effective treatment is currently available. The PKC, MAPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling cascades have been shown to be associated with tumor growth. However, none of the compounds against those pathways results in tumor regression when used as single agents. To identify more effective therapeutic strategies for UM patients, we performed a combination screen using seven targeted agents inhibiting PKC, MEK, AKT, PI3K and mTOR in a panel of ten UM cell lines, representative of the UM disease. We identified a strong synergy between the mTOR inhibitor Everolimus and the PI3K inhibitor GDC0941. This combination resulted in an increase in apoptosis in several UM cell lines compared to monotherapies and enhanced the anti-tumor effect of each single agent in two patient-derived xenografts. Furthermore, we showed that the synergism between the two drugs was associated with the relief by GDC0491 of a reactivation of AKT induced by Everolimus. Altogether, our results highlight a novel and effective combination strategy, which could be beneficial for UM patients. PMID:26988753

  3. Uncooled infrared detectors toward smaller pixel pitch with newly proposed pixel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohyama, Shigeru; Sasaki, Tokuhito; Endoh, Tsutomu; Sano, Masahiko; Katoh, Kouji; Kurashina, Seiji; Miyoshi, Masaru; Yamazaki, Takao; Ueno, Munetaka; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Imai, Tadashi

    2011-06-01

    Since authors have successfully demonstrated uncooled infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) with 23.5 um pixel pitch, it has been widely utilized for commercial applications such as thermography, security camera and so on. One of the key issues for uncooled IR detector technology is to shrink the pixel size. The smaller the pixel pitch, the more the IR camera products become compact and the less cost. This paper proposes a new pixel structure with a diaphragm and beams which are placed in different level, to realize an uncooled IRFPA with smaller pixel pitch )<=17 μm). The upper level consists of diaphragm with VOx bolometer and IR absorber layers, while the lower level consists of the two beams, which are designed to place on the adjacent pixels. The test devices of this pixel design with 12 um, 15 um and 17 um pitch have been fabricated on the Si ROIC of QVGA (320 × 240) with 23.5 um pitch. Their performances reveal nearly equal to the IRFPA with 23.5 um pitch. For example, noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 12 μm pixel is 63.1 mK with thermal time constant of 14.5 msec. In addition, this new structure is expected to be more effective for the existing IRFPA with 23.5 um pitch in order to improve the IR responsivity.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MILO. I. HD 7449 radial velocities (Rodigas+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodigas, T. J.; Arriagada, P.; Faherty, J.; Anglada-Escude, G.; Kaib, N.; Butler, R. P.; Shectman, S.; Weinberger, A.; Males, J. R.; Morzinski, K. M.; Close, L. M.; Hinz, P. M.; Crane, J. D.; Thompson, I.; Teske, J.; Diaz, M.; Minniti, D.; Lopez-Morales, M.; Adams, F. C.; Boss, A. P.

    2016-04-01

    We observed HD 7449 using the Magellan Clay Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile on the nights of UT 2014 November 5 and 22. We observed the star with VisAO at Ys (0.99um) and with Clio-2 at H (1.65um) and Ks (2.15um) on the first night and with VisAO at r' (0.63um), i' (0.77um), z' (0.91um), and with Clio-2 at J (1.1um) on the second night. RV data on HD 7449 were first acquired as part of the Magellan Planet Search Program, which originally made use of the MIKE echelle spectrometer (R~70000 in the blue and ~50000 in the red; wavelength coverage ranges from 3900 to 6200Å) on the Magellan Clay telescope until 2009 September. HD 7449 was subsequently observed using the Carnegie Magellan/PFS (3880-6680Å with R~80000 in the iodine region). We also included in our analysis RVs measured with HARPS and CORALIE. These RVs were originally reported in Dumusque et al. (2011, J/A+A/535/A55). HARPS data on HD 7449 has been supplemented by the ESO archive. See section 2.2 for further explanations. (1 data file).

  5. Lack of GNAQ germline mutations in uveal melanoma patients with high risk for hereditary cancer predisposition.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H; Pilarski, Robert; Massengill, James B; Christopher, Benjamin B; Davidorf, Frederick H

    2011-06-01

    A high frequency of somatic mutation in GNAQ has been reported in uveal melanoma (UM). GNAQ is located in the chromosomal band 9q21, the same chromosomal band that harbors a putative candidate gene for hereditary UM. We investigated the frequency of germline sequence alterations in the GNAQ gene in UM patients with increased predisposition to hereditary cancer. A total of 44 high risk UM patients were studied including three patients with a family history of UM, 15 patients with a family history of cutaneous melanoma (CM), three patients with early age at onset of their UM (<30 years) and 23 patients with strong family history of cancer and/or personal history of multiple primary tumors. Mutational screening of the seven exons of GNAQ and nearby intronic sequence was carried out by direct sequencing. We identified two deep intronic variants but no potential pathogenic mutations in GNAQ. Our results exclude GNAQ as a candidate gene in UM patients with a high risk for hereditary cancer predisposition.

  6. Identification of chemoresistant factors by protein expression analysis with iTRAQ for head and neck carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, K; Tsuchiya, Y; Okamoto, H; Ijichi, K; Gosho, M; Fukayama, M; Yoshikawa, K; Ueda, H; Bradford, C R; Carey, T E; Ogawa, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin and other anticancer drugs are important in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; however, some tumours develop drug resistance. If chemoresistance could be determined before treatment, unnecessary drug administration would be avoided. Here, we investigated chemoresistance factors by comprehensive analyses at the protein level. Methods: Four human carcinoma cell lines were used: cisplatin-sensitive UM-SCC-23, UM-SCC-23-CDDPR with acquired cisplatin resistance, naturally cisplatin-resistant UM-SCC-81B, and UM-SCC-23/WR with acquired 5-fluorouracil resistance. Extracted proteins were labelled with iTRAQ and analysed by tandem mass spectrometry to identify resistance. Protein expression was confirmed by western blotting and functional analysis was carried out using siRNA. Results: Thirteen multiple-drug resistance proteins were identified, as well as seven proteins with specific resistance to cisplatin, including α-enolase. Differential expression of these proteins in cisplatin-resistant and -sensitive cell lines was confirmed by western blotting. Functional analysis for α-enolase by siRNA showed that cisplatin sensitivity significantly was increased in UM-SCC-81B and slightly in UM-SCC-23-CDDPR but not in UM-SCC-23/WR cells. Conclusions: We identified proteins thought to mediate anticancer drug resistance using recent proteome technology and identified α-enolase as a true cisplatin chemoresistance factor. Such proteins could be used as biomarkers for anticancer agent resistance and as targets of cancer therapy. PMID:25032734

  7. Genetic markers of pigmentation are novel risk loci for uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Robert; Vogelsang, Matjaz; Ucisik-Akkaya, Esma; Rai, Karan; Pilarski, Robert; Martinez, Carlos N; Rendleman, Justin; Kazlow, Esther; Nagdimov, Khagay; Osman, Iman; Klein, Robert J; Davidorf, Frederick H; Cebulla, Colleen M; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H; Kirchhoff, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    While the role of genetic risk factors in the etiology of uveal melanoma (UM) has been strongly suggested, the genetic susceptibility to UM is currently vastly unexplored. Due to shared epidemiological risk factors between cutaneous melanoma (CM) and UM, in this study we have selected 28 SNPs identified as risk variants in previous genome-wide association studies on CM or CM-related host phenotypes (such as pigmentation and eye color) and tested them for association with UM risk. By logistic regression analysis of 272 UM cases and 1782 controls using an additive model, we identified five variants significantly associated with UM risk, all passing adjustment for multiple testing. The three most significantly associated variants rs12913832 (OR = 0.529, 95% CI 0.415-0.673; p = 8.47E-08), rs1129038 (OR = 0.533, 95% CI 0.419-0.678; p = 1.19E-07) and rs916977 (OR = 0.465, 95% CI 0.339-0.637; p = 3.04E-07) are correlated (r(2) > 0.5) and map at 15q12 in the region of HERC2/OCA2, which determines eye-color in the human population. Our data provides first evidence that the genetic factors associated with pigmentation traits are risk loci of UM susceptibility. PMID:27499155

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SFR IRAS 05137+3919 star and jet multiplicity (Cesaroni+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaroni, R.; Massi, F.; Arcidiacono, C.; Beltran, M. T.; Persi, P.; Tapia, M.; Molinari, S.; Testi, L.; Busoni, L.; Riccardi, A.; Boutsia, K.; Bisogni, S.; McCarthy, D.; Kulesa, C.

    2015-11-01

    Near-IR images were taken in the night of December 12, 2009 with LUCI at the Large Binocular Telescope (Mount Graham, Arizona), through the standard broad-band filters H (λc=1.653um) and Ks (λc=2.163um), and the narrow-band filters FeII (λc=1.646um, including the [FeII] 1.64-um line) and H2 (λc=2.122um, including the H2v=1-0 S(1) line at 2.12um). Data were also collected on October 9 and 12, 2013, using the PISCES Near Infrared Camera installed at the focal plane of the First Light Adaptive Optics system of the Large Binocular Telescope. Ground-based diffraction-limited mid-infrared images at 8.9, 9.9, 12.7, and 18.7um of IRAS 05137+3919 were taken on the night of November 9, 2006 with the mid-infrared camera CID mounted on the 2.1m telescope of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional at San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico. (5 data files).

  9. Cleavage of resveratrol in fungi: characterization of the enzyme Rco1 from Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Brefort, Thomas; Scherzinger, Daniel; Limón, M Carmen; Estrada, Alejandro F; Trautmann, Danika; Mengel, Carina; Avalos, Javier; Al-Babili, Salim

    2011-02-01

    Ustilago maydis, the causative agent of corn smut disease, contains two genes encoding members of the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family, a group of enzymes that cleave double bonds in different substrates. One of them, Cco1, was formerly identified as a β-carotene cleaving enzyme. Here we elucidate the function of the protein encoded by the second gene, termed here as Ustilago maydis Resveratrol cleavage oxygenase 1 (Um Rco1). In vitro incubations of heterologously expressed and purified UM Rco1 with different carotenoid and stilbene substrates demonstrate that it cleaves the interphenyl Cα-Cβ double bond of the phytoalexin resveratrol and its derivative piceatannol. Um Rco1 exhibits a high degree of substrate specificity, as suggested by the lack of activity on carotenoids and the other resveratrol-related compounds tested. The activity of Um Rco1 was confirmed by incubation of U. maydis rco1 deletion and over-expression strains with resveratrol. Furthermore, treatment with resveratrol resulted in striking alterations of cell morphology. However, pathogenicity assays indicated that Um rco1 is largely dispensable for biotrophic development. Our work reveals Um Rco1 as the first eukaryotic resveratrol cleavage enzyme identified so far. Moreover, Um Rco1 represents a subfamily of fungal enzymes likely involved in the degradation of stilbene compounds, as suggested by the cleavage of resveratrol by homologs from Aspergillus fumigatus, Chaetomium globosum and Botryotinia fuckeliana.

  10. Genetic markers of pigmentation are novel risk loci for uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Robert; Vogelsang, Matjaz; Ucisik-Akkaya, Esma; Rai, Karan; Pilarski, Robert; Martinez, Carlos N.; Rendleman, Justin; Kazlow, Esther; Nagdimov, Khagay; Osman, Iman; Klein, Robert J.; Davidorf , Frederick H.; Cebulla, Colleen M.; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H.; Kirchhoff , Tomas

    2016-01-01

    While the role of genetic risk factors in the etiology of uveal melanoma (UM) has been strongly suggested, the genetic susceptibility to UM is currently vastly unexplored. Due to shared epidemiological risk factors between cutaneous melanoma (CM) and UM, in this study we have selected 28 SNPs identified as risk variants in previous genome-wide association studies on CM or CM-related host phenotypes (such as pigmentation and eye color) and tested them for association with UM risk. By logistic regression analysis of 272 UM cases and 1782 controls using an additive model, we identified five variants significantly associated with UM risk, all passing adjustment for multiple testing. The three most significantly associated variants rs12913832 (OR = 0.529, 95% CI 0.415–0.673; p = 8.47E-08), rs1129038 (OR = 0.533, 95% CI 0.419–0.678; p = 1.19E-07) and rs916977 (OR = 0.465, 95% CI 0.339–0.637; p = 3.04E-07) are correlated (r2 > 0.5) and map at 15q12 in the region of HERC2/OCA2, which determines eye-color in the human population. Our data provides first evidence that the genetic factors associated with pigmentation traits are risk loci of UM susceptibility. PMID:27499155

  11. FIFI-LS Imaging of [O III] Line Emission in the Nucleus and Spiral Arm of M83: Tracing the Stellar Radiation FIelds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    We propose to map the [O III] 52 um (two spatial positions) and 88 um (one spatial position) line emission from the nucleus and SW bar/spiral arm interface region of M83. These data will be used together with publically available [O III] 88 um, [N III] 57 um, and [N II] 122 um line emission observed with Herschel/PACS in the same positions to constrain the ionized gas density, the hardness of the stellar radiation fields (hence most massive star on the Main Sequence), and the O/N ratio (which reflects the numbers of cycles for stellar processing). We will also take advantage of the [O I] 63 um, [O I] 146 um, and [C II] 158 um line mapping available in the Herschel archives to complete a far-IR line study of these regions. The combined data sets trace the strength of the FUV (6 - 13.6 eV) radiation field, the numbers of ionizing photons, and the radiation field hardness allowing us to characterize the stellar populations in this nearby grand design spiral galaxy and make a robust measure of the O/N ratio at the nucleus and spiral arm 2.2 kpc away. The FIFI-LS [OIII] 52 um line provides the gas-density probe that is the lynch-pin for our technique. These measurements will provide a local benchmark for our line-ratio techniques that can be applied to fine-structure line studies of high-z galaxies where it is expected that stellar radiation fields will be harder, and the O/N ratio will be larger in the lowest metalicity galaxies. Therefore, the proposed observations are of fundamental importance for the understanding of the evolution of star formation over cosmic time.

  12. Melanoma candidate genes CDKN2A/p16/INK4A, p14ARF, and CDK4 sequencing in patients with uveal melanoma with relative high-risk for hereditary cancer predisposition.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H; Pilarski, Robert; Massengill, James B; Christopher, Benjamin N; Noss, Ryan; Davidorf, Frederick H

    2011-06-01

    The reported frequencies of germline mutations in the melanoma candidate genes are low in patients with uveal melanoma (UM). However, the number of families studied is limited and the majority of the published reports used low-sensitivity techniques for mutational screening. Identifying the frequency of alterations in any of the melanoma genes in patients with UM with increased hereditary cancer risk is important for proper counseling of these patients. We studied a total of 47 patients with UM including three with a family history of UM, 18 with a family and/or personal history of cutaneous melanoma (CM), three with early age at diagnosis (<30), 11 with increased risk for a known familial cancer syndrome, and 12 with a second primary tumor. Germline screening for mutations in CDKN2A, p14ARF, and exon 2 of CDK4 was carried out by direct sequencing. We identified a variant (IVS1-69 C>T) of uncertain significance in exon 1b of p14ARF in one of the patients with UM and his mother who also had UM. The variant was neither detected in any of the other patients with UM nor in 146 controls. We did not identify pathogenic mutations in CDKN2A nor exon 2 of CDK4 gene. Our study supports the low frequency of germline mutation of the CM candidate genes in patients with UM with family histories suggestive of a high risk for hereditary cancer. Germline testing for CDKN2A might be reserved for patients with UM with a family history of two or more CM.

  13. Towards reducing the impacts of unwanted movements on identification of motion intentions.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangxin; Chen, Shixiong; Zhang, Haoshi; Samuel, Oluwarotimi Williams; Wang, Hui; Fang, Peng; Zhang, Xiufeng; Li, Guanglin

    2016-06-01

    Surface electromyogram (sEMG) has been extensively used as a control signal in prosthesis devices. However, it is still a great challenge to make multifunctional myoelectric prostheses clinically available due to a number of critical issues associated with existing EMG based control strategy. One such issue would be the effect of unwanted movements (UMs) that are inadvertently done by users on the performance of movement classification in EMG pattern recognition based algorithms. Since UMs are not considered in training a classifier, they would decay the performance of a trained classifier in identifying the target movements (TMs), which would cause some undesired actions in control of multifunctional prostheses. In this study, the impact of UMs was systemically investigated in both able-bodied subjects and transradial amputees. Our results showed that the UMs would be unevenly classified into all classes of the TMs. To reduce the impact of the UMs on the performance of a classifier, a new training strategy that would categorize all possible UMs into a new movement class was proposed and a metric called Reject Ratio that is a measure of how many UMs is rejected by a trained classifier was adopted. The results showed that the average Reject Ratio across all the participants was greater than 91%, meanwhile the average classification accuracy of TMs was above 99% when UMs occurred. This suggests that the proposed training strategy could greatly reduce the impact of UMs on the performance of the trained classifier in identifying the TMs and may enhance the robustness of myoelectric control in clinical applications. PMID:27093136

  14. DemaDb: an integrated dematiaceous fungal genomes database

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Chee Sian; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Toh, Yue Fen; Lee, Kok Wei; Cheong, Wei-Hien; Yee, Wai-Yan; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yap, Soon-Joo; Ng, Kee Peng

    2016-01-01

    Many species of dematiaceous fungi are associated with allergic reactions and potentially fatal diseases in human, especially in tropical climates. Over the past 10 years, we have isolated more than 400 dematiaceous fungi from various clinical samples. In this study, DemaDb, an integrated database was designed to support the integration and analysis of dematiaceous fungal genomes. A total of 92 072 putative genes and 6527 pathways that identified in eight dematiaceous fungi (Bipolaris papendorfii UM 226, Daldinia eschscholtzii UM 1400, D. eschscholtzii UM 1020, Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis UM 256, Ochroconis mirabilis UM 578, Cladosporium sphaerospermum UM 843, Herpotrichiellaceae sp. UM 238 and Pleosporales sp. UM 1110) were deposited in DemaDb. DemaDb includes functional annotations for all predicted gene models in all genomes, such as Gene Ontology, EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Pfam and InterProScan. All predicted protein models were further functionally annotated to Carbohydrate-Active enzymes, peptidases, secondary metabolites and virulence factors. DemaDb Genome Browser enables users to browse and visualize entire genomes with annotation data including gene prediction, structure, orientation and custom feature tracks. The Pathway Browser based on the KEGG pathway database allows users to look into molecular interaction and reaction networks for all KEGG annotated genes. The availability of downloadable files containing assembly, nucleic acid, as well as protein data allows the direct retrieval for further downstream works. DemaDb is a useful resource for fungal research community especially those involved in genome-scale analysis, functional genomics, genetics and disease studies of dematiaceous fungi. Database URL: http://fungaldb.um.edu.my PMID:26980516

  15. FIRE Classification of iPTF13bvn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, M. M.; Degenaar, N.; Polishook, D.

    2013-06-01

    We observed iPTF13bvn (ATEL#5137) with the Folded-port InfraRed Echellette (FIRE; Simcoe et al. 2010) spectrograph on the Magellan Baade telescope on UT 2013 Jun 19.04. The spectrum covers 0.8 to 2.5um and shows prominent P Cygni profile of Helium I at 1.083 um at avelocity of 23000 km/s. We note that the 2um Helium I line is relatively weak. Confirming the tentative classification based on the optical spectrum (ATEL#5142), we conclude this is a supernova of Type Ib.

  16. Raízes pós-mitológicas da Astronomia Clássica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Bartolo, L.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.

    2004-02-01

    Apresentamos como a invenção de um modelo astronômico e cosmológico fundado em causas naturais foi um processo gestado num ambiente cultural específico, o do advento do pensamento pós-mitológico, que tem como sua raiz mais funda a trajetória particular da Grécia Antiga, com ênfase na resolução de uma grave crise social e a evolução do mundo clássico para o contexto espiritual de um império universal.

  17. Uncooled infrared detector and imager development at DALI Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Chi, Jiguang; Qian, Liangshan; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Xiaorong; Ma, Zhigang

    2015-06-01

    Zhejiang Dali Technology Co. Ltd. is one of the major players in the China Infrared industry. The company has been working on infrared imagers using uncooled FPAs for about 15 years. It started the research and development of uncooled microbolometer detectors since 2006, and has brought several uncooled detectors into mass production, including 35um 384x288, 25um 160x120, 384x288, 640x480, and 17um 384x288, 640x480. In this presentation, we will describe the uncooled infrared detector and imager development at DALI Technology.

  18. Unconsummated marriages: a separate and different clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Gindin, Leon Roberto; Resnicoff, Diana

    2002-01-01

    We bring our experience in the treatment of unconsummated marriages (UM). We postulate that it is an independent clinical entity. Since 1991, 199 couples with UM have sought treatment in our center in Buenos Aires. A new approach to this problem is based on an intensive treatment session that lasts a whole day and a pledge to pay only if therapy succeeds. The outcome was a success (97%) with coitus consummation. We make a long-term follow up. The advantages are the brevity of the treatment and lack of desertions. We postulate that UM cannot be approached with an individual perspective or with the usual psychotherapy techniques.

  19. Development and Test Results of a System on a Chip for a data Handling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boléat, C.; Coldefy, J.-F.; Lefebvre, M.; Souryi, M.; Weigand, R.

    This document presents the architecture definition, the main architecture and technical choices, their developments and the tests results of the System on a Chip development performed by ESTEC and ASTRIUM. The need for an integrated DHS is very important for next future missions. This development raises the problem of functions to be implemented, cross-strapping implementation, reliability and testability. 1- INTRODUCTION The level of integration of radiation tolerant technology is continuously increasing. By now, 0.35 um CMOS technology are available for space applications, an adaptation of 0.25 um or 0.18 um processes are in progress. More than

  20. Landsat 7 - First Cloud-free Image of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Yellowstone Lake, in the center of Yellowstone National Park, was taken by Landsat 7 on July 13, 1999. Bands 5 (1.65um),4 (.825um), and 2 (.565um) were used for red, green, and blue, respectively. Water appears blue/black, snow light blue, mature forest red/green, young forest pink, and grass and fields appear light green. Southwest of the lake is young forest that is growing in the wake of the widespread fires of 1988. For more information, see: Landsat 7 Fact Sheet Landsat 7 in Mission Control Image by Rich Irish, NASA GSFC

  1. On the Formation of a Study Group to the Realization of Workshops for Teachers: Astronomy in Basic Education in Umuarama-Pr (Spanish Title: De la Formación de un Grupo de Estudios a la Realización de los Talleres Para los Profesores: la Astronomía en la Educación Básica en Umuarama-Pr ) Da Formação de um Grupo de Estudos À Realização de Oficinas Para Professores: a Astronomia na Educação Básica em Umuarama-Pr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusso, Diane; Akira Sakai, Otávio

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we aimed to present the activities developed by the Astronomy Study Group (ASG) to contribute to the dissemination and improvement of the astronomy teaching-learning. The results of a research carried out in schools of Umuarama-PR are shown, with the intention of checking the students' knowledge and interest in relation to Astronomy. It is reported the realization of workshops for Science teachers linked to the Education Regional Nucleus. The research and the workshop execution promoted the direct contact of the study group with the community; the results were used to diagnose the state of astronomy teaching-learning, in the basic education in Umuarama-PR. En este artículo se intenta presentar las actividades desarrolladas por el Grupo de Estudios de Astronomía (GEA) y contribuir para la divulgación y mejoría de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la Astronomía. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación realizada en las escuelas de Umuarama-PR, con la intención de determinar el grado de conocimiento y el interés de los estudiantes en relación a la astronomía. Se relata la realización de talleres de capacitación para los profesores de ciencias vinculados al Núcleo Regional del Educación. La ejecución de la investigación y de los talleres promovió el contacto directo del grupo de estudios con la comunidad; los resultados sirvieron de diagnóstico de la enseñanza aprendizaje de la astronomía en la educación básica en Umuarama-PR. Neste artigo, objetiva-se apresentar as atividades desenvolvidas pelo Grupo de Estudos de Astronomia (GEA) e contribuir para a divulgação e melhoria do ensino-aprendizagem de astronomia. São apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa realizada nas escolas de Umuarama-PR, com o intuito de averiguar o conhecimento e o interesse dos estudantes em relação à astronomia. Relata-se a realização de oficinas de capacitação para professores de ciências vinculados ao Núcleo Regional de Educação. A execução da pesquisa e das oficinas promoveu o contato direto do grupo de estudos com a comunidade; os resultados serviram de diagnóstico do ensino-aprendizagem de astronomia, na educação básica, em Umuarama-PR.

  2. Use of the University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database for study of microbial degradation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous on earth and have diverse metabolic transformative capabilities important for environmental biodegradation of chemicals that helps maintain ecosystem and human health. Microbial biodegradative metabolism is the main focus of the University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database (UM-BBD). UM-BBD data has also been used to develop a computational metabolic pathway prediction system that can be applied to chemicals for which biodegradation data is currently lacking. The UM-Pathway Prediction System (UM-PPS) relies on metabolic rules that are based on organic functional groups and predicts plausible biodegradative metabolism. The predictions are useful to environmental chemists that look for metabolic intermediates, for regulators looking for potential toxic products, for microbiologists seeking to understand microbial biodegradation, and others with a wide-range of interests. PMID:22587916

  3. Differences in Hospital Managers', Unit Managers', and Health Care Workers' Perceptions of the Safety Climate for Respiratory Protection.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kristina; Rogers, Bonnie M E; Brosseau, Lisa M; Payne, Julianne; Cooney, Jennifer; Joe, Lauren; Novak, Debra

    2016-07-01

    This article compares hospital managers' (HM), unit managers' (UM), and health care workers' (HCW) perceptions of respiratory protection safety climate in acute care hospitals. The article is based on survey responses from 215 HMs, 245 UMs, and 1,105 HCWs employed by 98 acute care hospitals in six states. Ten survey questions assessed five of the key dimensions of safety climate commonly identified in the literature: managerial commitment to safety, management feedback on safety procedures, coworkers' safety norms, worker involvement, and worker safety training. Clinically and statistically significant differences were found across the three respondent types. HCWs had less positive perceptions of management commitment, worker involvement, and safety training aspects of safety climate than HMs and UMs. UMs had more positive perceptions of management's supervision of HCWs' respiratory protection practices. Implications for practice improvements indicate the need for frontline HCWs' inclusion in efforts to reduce safety climate barriers and better support effective respiratory protection programs and daily health protection practices.

  4. EFFECT OF BODY SIZE ON BREATHING PATTERN AND FINE PARTICLE DEPOSITION IN CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inter-child variability in breathing patterns may contribute to variability in fine particle, lung deposition and morbidity in children associated with those particles. Fractional deposition (DF) of fine particles (2um monodisperse, carnauba wax particles) was measured in healthy...

  5. Prediction of the force required to unwrap a thin-film origami structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Lee; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    We consider thin film membranes wrapped around a polygonal hub according to the origami crease pattern developed by Guest and Pellegrino. The problem of unwrapping such membranes is important for applications such as space solar sails. Their deployment can be controlled by displacing four edge points radially outwards. During deployment the film buckles multiple times, creating a complex deployment force profile. We have used finite element simulations to investigate how different models of the creases affect the predicted force profile and we have compared the results of our simulations with experimental results for Kapton thin film thicknesses of 50um, 25um, 12.5um and 7.5um. The deployment force profile is also highly dependent on the initial packaged configuration of the film, which in our model is obtained by simulating the folding process from a flat state. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. 1353006.

  6. ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING, MILITARY AIR COMMAND COMMUNICATION CENTER PRECAST CONCRETE WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING, MILITARY AIR COMMAND COMMUNICATION CENTER PRECAST CONCRETE WALL DETAILS. DATED 03/15/1971 - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  7. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO SCALE CENTERED ON BUILDING (12/30/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  8. Basic Physics Data: Measurement of Neutron Multiplicity from Induced Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzi, Sara; Haight, Robert

    2015-05-04

    From October 1 to October 17 a team of researchers from UM visited the LANSCE facility for an experiment during beam-time allotted from October 4 to October 17. A total of 24 detectors were used at LANSCE including liquid organic scintillation detectors (EJ-309), NaI scintillation detectors, and Li-6 enriched glass detectors. It is a double time-offlight (TOF) measurement using spallation neutrons generated by a target bombarded with pulsed high-energy protons. The neutrons travel to an LLNL-manufactured parallel plate avalanche chamber (PPAC) loaded with thin U-235 foils in which fission events are induced. The generated fission neutrons and photons are then detected in a detector array designed and built at UM and shipped to LANSCE. Preparations were made at UM, where setup and proposed detectors were tested. The UM equipment was then shipped to LANSCE for use at the 15L beam of the weapons neutron research (WNR) facility.

  9. 77 FR 20645 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... Panel; Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery (CHAVI-ID) (UM1). Date: April 24....nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  10. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases? Asbestos-related lung diseases are diseases caused ... peritoneum (PER-ih-to-NE-um). Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Figure A shows the location of the ...

  11. 78 FR 22274 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Panel; ``Leadership Group for a Clinical Research Network on Microbicides to Prevent HIV Infection (UM1..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 9, 2013....

  12. A Student Authored Online Medical Education Textbook: Editing Patterns and Content Evaluation of a Medical Student Wiki

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, CL; Schulz1, Wade L.; Terrence, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The University of Minnesota medical student wiki (UMMedWiki) allows students to collaboratively edit classroom notes to support medical education. Since 2007, UMMedWiki has grown to include 1,591 articles that have collectively received 1.2 million pageviews. Although small-scale wikis have become increasingly important, little is known about their dynamics compared to large wikis, such as Wikipedia. To better understand UMMedWiki’s management and its potential reproducibility at other medical schools, we used an edit log with 28,000 entries to evaluate the behavior of its student editors. The development of tools to survey UMMedwiki allows for quality comparisons that improve both the wiki and the curriculum itself. We completed a content survey by comparing the UMMedWiki with two types of rubric data: TIME, a medical education taxonomy consisting of 1500 terms and national epidemiological data on 2,100 diseases. PMID:22195202

  13. Urine Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

  14. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (For Children)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cases, doctors will do a test called a barium (say: BAIR-ee-um) swallow or an upper ... drink a thick liquid containing a substance called barium. (It can be chalky, but sometimes it's flavored.) ...

  15. Unfallprävention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebermann, Hans-Joachim; Jordan, Patrick

    Im Folgenden geht es um die Grundlagen der Flugsicherheit. Sie ist die Voraussetzung für die Akzeptanz des Flugzeuges als öffentliches Transportmittel und den wirtschaftlichen Erfolg eines Flugbetriebes.

  16. Proteomics of Uveal Melanoma: A Minireview

    PubMed Central

    Abildgaard, Søren K. O.; Vorum, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) continues to be associated with a high mortality rate of up to 50% due to metastatic spread primarily to the liver. Currently there are relatively effective treatments for the primary tumor, though the management of the metastatic disease remains inadequate. Conventional diagnostic tools have a low sensitivity for detecting metastasis, and early detection of metastatic spread would allow more treatment options that could ultimately increase survival of UM patients. Advanced proteomic methods have already helped to find potential biomarkers associated with UM pathogenesis and metastasis. In the present review we discuss the field of proteomics in relation to studies elucidating biomarkers of UM, where proteins such as S-100β, osteopontin (OPN), and melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) have been shown to be associated with metastasis. PMID:24078811

  17. 76 FR 57748 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed Meetings... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Core Infrastructure and Methodological Research for Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts (UM1)....

  18. Utilization management affects health care practices at Walter Reed Army Medical Center: analytical methods applied to decrease length of stay and assign appropriate level of care.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J S; Hamm, C K; Pierce, J R; Kussman, M J

    1999-12-01

    The Department of Defense has embraced utilization management (UM) as an important tool to control and possibly decrease medical costs. Budgetary withholds have been taken by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) to encourage the military services to implement UM programs. In response, Walter Reed Army Medical Center implemented a UM program along with other initiatives to effect changes in the delivery of inpatient care. This paper describes this UM program and other organizational initiatives, such as the introduction of new levels of care in an attempt to effect reductions in length of stay and unnecessary admissions. We demonstrate the use of a diversity of databases and analytical methods to quantify improved utilization and management of resources. The initiatives described significantly reduced hospital length of stay and inappropriate inpatient days. Without solid command and clinical leadership support and empowerment of the professional staffs, these significant changes and improvements could not have occurred.

  19. Carrageenan Gum and Adherent Invasive Escherichia coli in a Piglet Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Impact on Intestinal Mucosa-associated Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Munyaka, Peris M.; Sepehri, Shadi; Ghia, Jean-Eric; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including Crohn's disease (CD), and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic conditions characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation. Adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) pathotype has been increasingly implicated in the etiopathogenesis of IBD. In a 21-day study, we investigated the effects of AIEC strain UM146 inoculation on microbiota profile of the ileal, cecal, ascending and descending colon in a pig model of experimental colitis. Carrageenan gum (CG) was used to induce colitis in weaner piglets whereas AIEC strain UM146 previously isolated from a CD patient was included to investigate a cause or consequence effect in IBD. Treatments were: (1) control; (2) CG; (3) AIEC strain UM146; and (4) CG+UM146. Pigs in groups 2 and 4 received 1% CG in drinking water from day 1 of the study while pigs in groups 3 and 4 were inoculated with UM146 on day 8. Following euthanization on day 21, tissue mucosal scrapings were collected and used for DNA extraction. The V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene was then subjected to Illumina sequencing. Microbial diversity, composition, and the predicted functional metagenome were determined in addition to short chain fatty acids profiles in the digesta and inflammatory cytokines in the intestinal tissue. CG-induced colitis decreased bacterial species richness and shifted community composition. At the phylum level, an increase in Proteobacteria and Deferribacteres and a decrease in Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were observed in CG and CGUM146 compared to control and UM146. The metabolic capacity of the microbiome was also altered in CG and CGUM146 compared to UM146 and control in the colon. We demonstrated that CG resulted in bacterial dysbiosis and shifted community composition similar to what has been previously observed in IBD patients. However, AIEC strain UM146 alone did not cause any clear changes compared to CG or control in our experimental IBD pig model. PMID:27092122

  20. Oncogenic role of microRNA-20a in human uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jinzi; Jiang, Jian; Wang, Shuhong; Xia, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    As a member of the microRNA (miR)-17-92 cluster, miR-20a has been indicated to be involved in the regulation of the proliferation and invasion of various cancer cells. Previous studies have observed elevated plasma levels of miR-20a in patients with uveal melanoma (UM), compared with normal controls. In the present study, the potential function of miR-20a in UM was investigated. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to detect the expression levels of miR-20a in UM cells and tissues. The functions of miR-20a on cell proliferation, migration and invasion were determined in vitro using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and Transwell assays, respectively. The expression levels of miR-20a were significantly increased in the UM cells and tissues (P<0.05). Subsequently, miR-20a mimics were transfected into UM cells, which led to increases in cell growth, migration and invasion activities. By contrast, miR-20a inhibition markedly suppressed the viability and motility of UM cells in vitro. These data provided convincing evidence that miR-20a may function as an oncogenic miRNA, and may be involved in promoting cell growth and motility in the molecular etiology of UM, suggesting its potential as a candidate therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with UM. PMID:27356499

  1. [Considerations for angiogenesis inhibitors: pharmacoeconomics: blessing or curse for medical care?].

    PubMed

    Schöffski, Oliver; Cremers, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    Innovative neue Arzneimittel wie die Angiogenesehemmer verursachen im Gesundheitssystem hohe Kosten. In diesem Beitrag soll dargestellt werden, wie sich die Gesundheitsökonomie diesem Thema nähert, wie sie versucht Kennzahlen zu ermitteln, durch die eine effiziente Steuerung des Gesundheitswesens möglich wird. Es ist aber nicht zu beschönigen: Es geht im Endeffekt um Rationierung und damit um ein unangenehmes Thema.

  2. Development and External Validation of a Prognostic Nomogram for Metastatic Uveal Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Valpione, Sara; Moser, Justin C.; Parrozzani, Raffaele; Bazzi, Marco; Mansfield, Aaron S.; Mocellin, Simone; Pigozzo, Jacopo; Midena, Edoardo; Markovic, Svetomir N.; Aliberti, Camillo; Campana, Luca G.; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 50% of patients with uveal melanoma (UM) will develop metastatic disease, usually involving the liver. The outcome of metastatic UM (mUM) is generally poor and no standard therapy has been established. Additionally, clinicians lack a validated prognostic tool to evaluate these patients. The aim of this work was to develop a reliable prognostic nomogram for clinicians. Patients and Methods Two cohorts of mUM patients, from Veneto Oncology Institute (IOV) (N=152) and Mayo Clinic (MC) (N=102), were analyzed to develop and externally validate, a prognostic nomogram. Results The median survival of mUM was 17.2 months in the IOV cohort and 19.7 in the MC cohort. Percentage of liver involvement (HR 1.6), elevated levels of serum LDH (HR 1.6), and a WHO performance status=1 (HR 1.5) or 2–3 (HR 4.6) were associated with worse prognosis. Longer disease-free interval from diagnosis of UM to that of mUM conferred a survival advantage (HR 0.9). The nomogram had a concordance probability of 0.75 (SE .006) in the development dataset (IOV), and 0.80 (SE .009) in the external validation (MC). Nomogram predictions were well calibrated. Conclusions The nomogram, which includes percentage of liver involvement, LDH levels, WHO performance status and disease free-interval accurately predicts the prognosis of mUM and could be useful for decision-making and risk stratification for clinical trials. PMID:25780931

  3. Method of producing superconducting fibers of bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide (Bi(2212) and Bi(2223))

    DOEpatents

    Schwartzkopf, Louis A.

    1991-10-01

    Fibers of Bi(2212) have been produce by pendant drop melt extraction. This technique involves the end of a rod of Bi(2212) melted with a hydrogen-oxygen torch, followed by lowering onto the edge of a spinning wheel. The fibers are up to 15 cm in length with the usual lateral dimensions, ranging from 20 um to 30 um. The fibers require a heat treatment to make them superconducting.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Orion A North prestellar core properties (Salji+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salji, C. J.; Richer, J. S.; Buckle, J. V.; Hatchell, J.; Kirk, H.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Di Francesco, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-11-01

    Between 2011 November and 2013 October, a total of 23, ~40min observations at 850um and 450um were made of fully sampled 30 and 15 arcmin diameter circular regions using PONG1800 and 900 mapping modes. All observations of Orion A North were conducted during grade 1 or 2 weather defined according to the opacity at 225GHz {tau}225<0.08 and were made under Project IDs MJLSG22 and MJLSG31. (2 data files).

  5. Heterophyid eggs in human stool samples in Assam: first report for India.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, J; Narain, K; Srivastava, V K

    1995-09-01

    Two cases from a Muslim family in upper Assam were found to pass trematode eggs morphologically similar to the members of the family Heterophyidae Odhner, 1914. The eggs characteristically yellowish brown in colour, ovoid, have a thick shell and are operculate. They measured 31.5 +/- 2.0 um SD x 22.4 +/- 1.9 um SD with well developed miracidium. This is the first record of human heterophyid infection from India. PMID:9163707

  6. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.

    2015-03-01

    Solar and atmospheric science radiometers, e.g. pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and photovoltaic cells are calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference, which is maintained by Absolute Cavity Radiometers (ACRs). The ACR is an open cavity with no window, developed to measure extended broadband direct solar irradiance beyond the ultraviolet and infrared bands below and above 0.2 um and 50 um, respectively. On the other hand, pyranometers and pyrheliometers are developed to measure broadband shortwave irradiance from approximately 0.3 um to 3 um, while the present photovoltaic cells are limited to approximately 0.3 um to 1 um. The broadband mismatch of ACR versus such radiometers causes discrepancy in radiometers' calibration methods that has not been discussed or addressed in the solar and atmospheric science literature. Pyrgeometers are also used for solar and atmospheric science applications and are calibrated with traceability to consensus reference, yet are calibrated during nighttime only, because no consensus reference has yet been established for the daytime longwave irradiance. This poster shows a method to measure the broadband IR irradiance in the direct solar beam from 3 um to 50 um, as a first step that might be used to help develop calibration methods to address the mismatch between broadband ACR and shortwave radiometers, and the lack of a daytime reference for pyrgeometers. The irradiance was measured from sunrise to sunset for 5 days when the sun disk was cloudless; the irradiance varied from approximately 1 Wm-2 to 16 Wm-2 for solar zenith angle from 80 degrees to 16 degrees respectively; estimated uncertainty is 1.5 Wm-2.

  7. Clinical analysis of a large kindred with the pallister ulnar-mammary syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Bamshad, M.; Root, S.; Carey, J.C.

    1996-11-11

    The ulnar-mammary syndrome (UMS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by posterior limb deficiencies or duplications, apocrine/mammary gland hypoplasia and/or dysfunction, abnormal dentition, delayed puberty in males, and genital anomalies. We present the clinical descriptions of 33 members of a six generation kindred with UMS. The number of affected individuals in this family is more than the sum of all previously reported cases of UMS. The clinical expression of UMS is highly variable. While most patients have limb deficiencies, the range of abnormalities extends from hypoplasia of the terminal phalanx of the 5th digit to complete absence of the ulna and 3rd, 4th, and 5th digits. Moreover, affected individuals may have posterior digital duplications with or without contralateral limb deficiencies. Apocrine gland abnormalities range from diminished axillary perspiration with normal breast development and lactation, to complete absence of the breasts and no axillary perspiration. Dental abnormalities include misplaced or absent teeth. Affected males consistently undergo delayed puberty, and both sexes have diminished to absent axillary hair. Imperforate hymen were seen in some affected women. A gene for UMS was mapped to chromosome area 12q23-q24.1. A mutation in the gene causing UMS can interfere with limb patterning in the proximal/distal, anterior/posterior, and dorsal/ventral axes. This mutation disturbs development of the posterior elements of forearm, wrist, and hand while growth and development of the anterior elements remain normal. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Unconsummated marriage: can it still be considered a consequence of vaginismus?

    PubMed

    Michetti, P M; Silvaggi, M; Fabrizi, A; Tartaglia, N; Rossi, R; Simonelli, C

    2014-01-01

    Unconsummated marriage (UM) is the failure to perform successful sexual intercourse at the beginning of the marriage. Vaginismus has been traditionally reported as the leading cause. ED is also a leading cause for UM. This appears to be a significant problem in the conservative middle-Eastern societies and in the developing countries, where couples are strongly prevented by religious rules and cultural taboos from sexual experiences before wedding. One could think that according to major sexual freedom and information, in Western countries UM is now disappearing, but the number of observed cases by the authors in 2008-2012 was relevant. The aim of this study is to compare the literature data from non-Western countries with the features of UM in Western ones, focusing on cases observed by the authors, and to verify whether the etiology of UM proposed in the '70s is still relevant, outlining any changes that occur in current reality. In our series, traditional appearance of UM is no more effective, while the role of man is undervalued, because of his frailty, lack of self-confidence and ignorance, expressing a social and cultural change of man's role in the couple.

  9. The genetics of uveal melanoma: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Helgadottir, Hildur; Höiom, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common malignant eye tumor in adults affecting ~7,000 individuals per year worldwide. UM is a rare subtype of melanoma with distinct clinical and molecular features as compared to other melanoma subtypes. UMs lack the most typical cutaneous melanoma-associated mutations (BRAF, NRAS, and NF1) and are instead characterized by a different set of genes with oncogenic or loss-of-function mutations. By next-generation sequencing efforts on UM tumors, several driver genes have been detected. The most frequent ones are BAP1, EIF1AX, GNA11, GNAQ, and SF3B1. In many cases, mutations in these genes appear in a mutually exclusive manner, have different risk of metastasis, and are consequently of prognostic importance. The majority of UM cases are sporadic but a few percentage of the cases occurs in families with an inherited predisposition for this malignancy. In recent years, germline mutations in the BAP1 gene have been found to segregate in an autosomal dominant pattern with numerous different cancer types including UM in cancer-prone families. This cancer syndrome has been denoted as the tumor predisposition syndrome.

  10. In vivo monitoring of nanosphere onsite delivery using fiber optic microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Leu-Wei; Yang, Chung-Shi

    2005-02-01

    To recognize the information of ischemia-induced blood vessel permeability would be valuable to formulate the drugs for optimal local delivery, we constructed an implantable needle type fiber-optic microprobe for the monitoring of in vivo fluorescent substances in anesthetized rats. This fiber-optic microprobe was composed of coaxial optical fibers and catheterized using a thin wall tubing of stainless steel (~400 um O.D. and ~300 um I.D.). The central fiber, with 100 um core diameter and 20 um cladding, coated with a 30 um layer of gold, was surrounded by 10 fibers with 50 um cores. The central fiber carried the light from the 488 nm Argon laser to the tissue while the surrounding fibers collected the emitted fluorescence to the detector. When the fiber-optic microprobe was placed in the solutions containing various concentrations of fluorescent nanospheres (20 nm), either with or without 10% lipofundin as optical phantom, nanosphere concentration-dependent responses of the fluorescence intensity were observed. The microprobe was then implanted into the liver and the brain of anesthetized rats to monitor the in situ extravasation of pre-administered fluorescent nanospheres from vasculature following the ischemic insults. Both the hepatic and cerebral ischemic insults showed immediate increases of the extracellular 20 nm fluorescent nanospheres. The implantable fiber-optic microprobe constructed in present study provides itself as a minimally-invasive technique capable of investigating the vascular permeability for in vivo nanosphere delivery in both ischemic liver and brain.

  11. BRD4-targeted therapy induces Myc-independent cytotoxicity in Gnaq/11-mutatant uveal melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Grazia; Sawle, Ashley D; Musi, Elgilda; Schwartz, Gary K

    2015-10-20

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is an aggressive intraocular malignancy with limited therapeutic options. Both primary and metastatic UM are characterized by oncogenic mutations in the G-protein alpha subunit q and 11. Furthermore, nearly 40% of UM has amplification of the chromosomal arm 8q and monosomy of chromosome 3, with consequent anomalies of MYC copy number. Chromatin regulators have become attractive targets for cancer therapy. In particular, the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) inhibitor JQ1 has shown selective inhibition of c-Myc expression with antiproliferative activity in hematopoietic and solid tumors. Here we provide evidence that JQ1 had cytotoxic activity in UM cell lines carrying Gnaq/11 mutations, while in cells without the mutations had little effects. Using microarray analysis, we identified a large subset of genes modulated by JQ1 involved in the regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA repair. Further analysis of selected genes determined that the concomitant silencing of Bcl-xL and Rad51 represented the minimal requirement to mimic the apoptotic effects of JQ1 in the mutant cells, independently of c-Myc. In addition, administration of JQ1 to mouse xenograft models of Gnaq-mutant UM resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth.Collectively, our results define BRD4 targeting as a novel therapeutic intervention against UM with Gnaq/Gna11 mutations. PMID:26397223

  12. Force of an actin spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jennifer; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The acrosomal process of the horseshoe crab sperm is a novel mechanochemical molecular spring that converts its elastic stain energy to mechanical work upon the chemical activation by Ca2+. Twisted and bent, the initial state of the acrosomal bundle features a high degree of complexity in its structure and the energy is believed to be stored in the highly strained actin filaments as an elastic potential energy. When activated, the bundle relaxes from the coil of the highly twisted and bent filaments to its straight conformation at a mean velocity of 15um/s. The mean extension velocity increases dramatically from 3um/s to 27um/s when temperature of the medium is changed from 9.6C to 32C (respective viscosities of 1.25-0.75cp), yet it exhibits a very weak dependence on changes in the medium viscosity (1cp-33cp). These experiments suggest that the uncoiling of the actin spring should be limited not by the viscosity of the medium but by the unlatching events of involved proteins at a molecular level. Unlike the viscosity-limited processes, where force is directly related to the rate of the reaction, a direct measurement is required to obtain the spring force of the acrosomal process. The extending acrosomal bundle is forced to push against a barrier and its elastic buckling response is analyzed to measure the force generated during the uncoiling.

  13. Quantification of urban metabolism through coupling with the life cycle assessment framework: concept development and case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Benjamin; Birkved, Morten; Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hauschild, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Cities now consume resources and produce waste in amounts that are incommensurate with the populations they contain. Quantifying and benchmarking the environmental impacts of cities is essential if urbanization of the world’s growing population is to occur sustainably. Urban metabolism (UM) is a promising assessment form in that it provides the annual sum material and energy inputs, and the resultant emissions of the emergent infrastructural needs of a city’s sociotechnical subsystems. By fusing UM and life cycle assessment (UM-LCA) this study advances the ability to quantify environmental impacts of cities by modeling pressures embedded in the flows upstream (entering) and downstream (leaving) of the actual urban systems studied, and by introducing an advanced suite of indicators. Applied to five global cities, the developed UM-LCA model provided enhanced quantification of mass and energy flows through cities over earlier UM methods. The hybrid model approach also enabled the dominant sources of a city’s different environmental footprints to be identified, making UM-LCA a novel and potentially powerful tool for policy makers in developing and monitoring urban development policies. Combining outputs with socioeconomic data hinted at how these forces influenced the footprints of the case cities, with wealthier ones more associated with personal consumption related impacts and poorer ones more affected by local burdens from archaic infrastructure.

  14. Performance evaluation of MCT arrays developed for SWIR and hyperspectral applications: test bench and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvet, L.; Martin, E.; Nelms, N.

    2009-07-01

    We report here the first results of a performance evaluation program of two MCT arrays developed under ESA (European Space Agency) contracts by SOFRADIR. The program will first somehow repeat the electro-optical tests performed by the manufacturer and then focus on dark current and quantum efficiency. The first detector has a cut-off at 2.5 um and a format of 1000 x 256 (so called "SHOWMA") with 30 um pitch. A customized dewar has been manufactured in order to allow in particular a proper dark current measurements over a wide range of temperature. The second detector has a cut-off at 2.2 um with a format of 500 x256 (so called "BEPI") and a 30 um pitch. The particularity of the second detector is to have the CdZnTe substrate removed, leading to a sensitivity down to 0.4 um, as was requested for the targeted application (hyperspectral imager on board Bepi Colombo). It was delivered in a sealed dedicated miniaturized dewar with cooler. A complete electro-optical test bench has been developed and its commissioning will also be detailed. The test bench allows in particular quantum efficiency measurements over the full wavelength range 0.3 to 2.5 um.

  15. The genetics of uveal melanoma: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Helgadottir, Hildur; Höiom, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common malignant eye tumor in adults affecting ~7,000 individuals per year worldwide. UM is a rare subtype of melanoma with distinct clinical and molecular features as compared to other melanoma subtypes. UMs lack the most typical cutaneous melanoma-associated mutations (BRAF, NRAS, and NF1) and are instead characterized by a different set of genes with oncogenic or loss-of-function mutations. By next-generation sequencing efforts on UM tumors, several driver genes have been detected. The most frequent ones are BAP1, EIF1AX, GNA11, GNAQ, and SF3B1. In many cases, mutations in these genes appear in a mutually exclusive manner, have different risk of metastasis, and are consequently of prognostic importance. The majority of UM cases are sporadic but a few percentage of the cases occurs in families with an inherited predisposition for this malignancy. In recent years, germline mutations in the BAP1 gene have been found to segregate in an autosomal dominant pattern with numerous different cancer types including UM in cancer-prone families. This cancer syndrome has been denoted as the tumor predisposition syndrome. PMID:27660484

  16. [Estimation of uncertainty of measurement in clinical biochemistry].

    PubMed

    Enea, Maria; Hristodorescu, Cristina; Schiriac, Corina; Morariu, Dana; Mutiu, Tr; Dumitriu, Irina; Gurzu, B

    2009-01-01

    The uncertainty of measurement (UM) or measurement uncertainty is known as the parameter associated with the result of a measurement. Repeated measurements usually reveal slightly different results for the same analyte, sometimes a little higher, sometimes a little lower, because the results of a measurement are depending not only by the analyte itself, but also, by a number of error factors that could give doubts about the estimate. The uncertainty of the measurement represent the quantitative, mathematically expression of this doubt. UM is a range of measured values which is probably to enclose the true value of the measured. Calculation of UM for all types of laboratories is regularized by the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (abbreviated GUM) and the SR ENV 13005 : 2003 (both recognized by European Accreditation). Even if the GUM rules about UM estimation are very strictly, the offering of the result together with UM will increase the confidence of customers (patients or physicians). In this study the authors are presenting the possibilities of UM assessing in labs from our country by using the data obtained in the procedures of methods validation, during the internal and external quality control.

  17. Ga Lithography in Sputtered Niobium for Superconductive Micro and Nanowires.

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Michael David; Lewis, Rupert M.; Wolfley, Steven L.; Monson, Todd C.

    2014-08-18

    This work demonstrates the use of FIB implanted Ga as a lithographic mask for plasma etching of Nb films. Using a highly collimated Ga beam of a FIB, Nb is implanted 12 nm deep with a 14 nm thick Ga layer providing etch selectivity better than 15:1 with fluorine based etch chemistry. Implanted square test patterns, both 10 um by and 10 um and 100 um by 100 um, demonstrate that doses above than 7.5 x 1015 cm-2 at 30 kV provide adequate mask protection for a 205 nm thick, sputtered Nb film. The resolution of this dry lithographic technique is demonstrated by fabrication of nanowires 75 nm wide by 10 um long connected to 50 um wide contact pads. The residual resistance ratio of patterned Nb films was 3. The superconducting transition temperature, Tc =7.7 K, was measured using MPMS. This nanoscale, dry lithographic technique was extended to sputtered TiN and Ta here and could be used on other fluorine etched superconductors such as NbN, NbSi, and NbTi.

  18. Ga Lithography in Sputtered Niobium for Superconductive Micro and Nanowires.

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Henry, Michael David; Lewis, Rupert M.; Wolfley, Steven L.; Monson, Todd C.

    2014-08-18

    This work demonstrates the use of FIB implanted Ga as a lithographic mask for plasma etching of Nb films. Using a highly collimated Ga beam of a FIB, Nb is implanted 12 nm deep with a 14 nm thick Ga layer providing etch selectivity better than 15:1 with fluorine based etch chemistry. Implanted square test patterns, both 10 um by and 10 um and 100 um by 100 um, demonstrate that doses above than 7.5 x 1015 cm-2 at 30 kV provide adequate mask protection for a 205 nm thick, sputtered Nb film. The resolution of this dry lithographic techniquemore » is demonstrated by fabrication of nanowires 75 nm wide by 10 um long connected to 50 um wide contact pads. The residual resistance ratio of patterned Nb films was 3. The superconducting transition temperature, Tc =7.7 K, was measured using MPMS. This nanoscale, dry lithographic technique was extended to sputtered TiN and Ta here and could be used on other fluorine etched superconductors such as NbN, NbSi, and NbTi.« less

  19. Interstellar Dust: New Views After Spitzer, Herschel, and Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draine, Bruce T.

    2015-08-01

    The Spitzer, Herschel, and Planck missions have provided observational data that inform and challenge existing models for interstellar dust. These data will guide us in the development of a new generation of dust models.For dust in the general diffuse interstellar medium, these three missions have provided:* 5-20 um PAH emission spectra for a range of regions* determinations of the 10um and 18um silicate absorption and emission profiles in different environments* new determinations of the wavelength-dependent extinction in the mid-IR* spectral energy distributions out to 160um (with Spitzer), to 500um with Herschel, and out to 3mm with Planck* observations of "anomalous microwave emission" from dust near 1 cm* polarization of the dust emission from 4mm to 850um.Models for interstellar dust are constrained by these new data, and also by many other observational constraints, including extinction and polarization of starlight at optical wavelengths, the scattering of starllight by dust, scattering and extinction of X-rays by dust, and ground-based studies of the anomalous microwave emission.I will review where the models now stand, what appear to be the greatest challenges, and directions for future work.

  20. The genetics of uveal melanoma: current insights.

    PubMed

    Helgadottir, Hildur; Höiom, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common malignant eye tumor in adults affecting ~7,000 individuals per year worldwide. UM is a rare subtype of melanoma with distinct clinical and molecular features as compared to other melanoma subtypes. UMs lack the most typical cutaneous melanoma-associated mutations (BRAF, NRAS, and NF1) and are instead characterized by a different set of genes with oncogenic or loss-of-function mutations. By next-generation sequencing efforts on UM tumors, several driver genes have been detected. The most frequent ones are BAP1, EIF1AX, GNA11, GNAQ, and SF3B1. In many cases, mutations in these genes appear in a mutually exclusive manner, have different risk of metastasis, and are consequently of prognostic importance. The majority of UM cases are sporadic but a few percentage of the cases occurs in families with an inherited predisposition for this malignancy. In recent years, germline mutations in the BAP1 gene have been found to segregate in an autosomal dominant pattern with numerous different cancer types including UM in cancer-prone families. This cancer syndrome has been denoted as the tumor predisposition syndrome. PMID:27660484

  1. Patient-derived xenografts recapitulate molecular features of human uveal melanomas.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Cécile; Gentien, David; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Némati, Fariba; Nicolas, André; Tesson, Bruno; Desjardins, Laurence; Mariani, Pascale; Rapinat, Audrey; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Couturier, Jérôme; Hupé, Philippe; de Koning, Leanne; Dubois, Thierry; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Stern, Marc-Henri; Barillot, Emmanuel; Harbour, J William; Saule, Simon; Decaudin, Didier

    2013-06-01

    We have previously developed a new method for the development and maintenance of uveal melanoma (UM) xenografts in immunodeficient mice. Here, we compare the genetic profiles of the primary tumors to their corresponding xenografts that have been passaged over time. The study included sixteen primary UMs and corresponding xenografts at very early (P1), early (P4), and late (P9) in vivo passages. The tumors were analyzed for mutation status of GNAQ, GNA11, GNAS, GNA15, BAP1, and BRAF, chromosomal copy number alterations using Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Genome-Wide Human SNP6.0 arrays, gene expression profiles using GeneChip(®) Human Exon 1.0 ST arrays, BAP1 mRNA and protein expression, and MAPK pathway status using Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA). The UM xenografts accurately recapitulated the genetic features of primary human UMs and they exhibited genetic stability over the course of their in vivo maintenance. Our technique for establishing and maintaining primary UMs as xenograft tumors in immunodeficient mice exhibit a high degree of genetic conservation between the primary tumors and the xenograft tumors over multiple passages in vivo. These models therefore constitute valuable preclinical tool for drug screening in UM.

  2. Clinico-Pathological Association of Delineated miRNAs in Uveal Melanoma with Monosomy 3/Disomy 3 Chromosomal Aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Nalini; Kanwar, Jagat; Deepa, Perinkulam Ravi; Khetan, Vikas; Crowley, Tamsyn M.; Raguraman, Rajeswari; Sugneswari, Ganesan; Rishi, Pukhraj; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To correlate the differentially expressed miRNAs with clinico-pathological features in uveal melanoma (UM) tumors harbouring chromosomal 3 aberrations among South Asian Indian cohort. Methods Based on chromosomal 3 aberration, UM (n = 86) were grouped into monosomy 3 (M3; n = 51) and disomy 3 (D3; n = 35) by chromogenic in-situ hybridisation (CISH). The clinico-pathological features were recorded. miRNA profiling was performed in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) UM samples (n = 6) using Agilent, Human miRNA microarray, 8x15KV3 arrays. The association between miRNAs and clinico-pathological features were studied using univariate and multivariate analysis. miRNA-gene targets were predicted using Target-scan and MiRanda database. Significantly dys-regulated miRNAs were validated in FFPE UM (n = 86) and mRNAs were validated in frozen UM (n = 10) by qRT-PCR. Metastasis free-survival and miRNA expressions were analysed by Kaplen-Meier analysis in UM tissues (n = 52). Results Unsupervised analysis revealed 585 differentially expressed miRNAs while supervised analysis demonstrated 82 miRNAs (FDR; Q = 0.0). Differential expression of 8 miRNAs: miR-214, miR-149*, miR-143, miR-146b, miR-199a, let7b, miR-1238 and miR-134 were studied. Gene target prediction revealed SMAD4, WISP1, HIPK1, HDAC8 and C-KIT as the post-transcriptional regulators of miR-146b, miR-199a, miR-1238 and miR-134. Five miRNAs (miR-214, miR146b, miR-143, miR-199a and miR-134) were found to be differentially expressed in M3/ D3 UM tumors. In UM patients with liver metastasis, miR-149* and miR-134 expressions were strongly correlated. Conclusion UM can be stratified using miRNAs from FFPE sections. miRNAs predicting liver metastasis and survival have been identified. Mechanistic linkage of de-regulated miRNA/mRNA expressions provide new insights on their role in UM progression and aggressiveness. PMID:26812476

  3. Non-contact optical measurement of lens capsule thickness during simulated accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziebarth, Noel; Manns, Fabrice; Acosta, Ana-Carolina; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To non-invasively measure the thickness of the anterior and posterior lens capsule, and to determine if it significantly changes during accommodation. Methods: Anterior and posterior capsule thickness was measured on post-mortem lenses using a non-contact optical system using a focus-detection technique. The optical system uses a 670nm laser beam delivered to a single-mode fiber coupler. The output of the fiber coupler is focused on the tissue surface using an aspheric lens (NA=0.68) mounted on a translation stage with a motorized actuator. Light reflected from the sample surface is collected by the fiber coupler and sent to a photoreceiver connected to a computer-controlled data acquisition system. Optical intensity peaks are detected when the aspheric lens is focused on the capsule boundaries. The capsule thickness is equal to the distance traveled between two peaks multiplied by the capsule refractive index. Anterior and posterior lens capsule thickness measurements were performed on 18 cynomolgus (age average: 6+/-1 years, range: 4-7 years) eyes, 1 rhesus (age: 2 years) eye, and 12 human (age average: 65+/-16, range: 47-92) eyes during simulated accommodation. The mounted sample was placed under the focusing objective of the optical system so that the light was incident on the center pole. Measurements were taken of the anterior lens capsule in the unstretched and the stretched 5mm states. The lens was flipped, and the same procedure was performed for the posterior lens capsule. Results: The precision of the optical system was determined to be +/-0.5um. The resolution is 4um and the sensitivity is 52dB. The human anterior lens capsule thickness was 6.0+/-1.2um unstretched and 4.9+/-0.9um stretched (p=0.008). The human posterior lens capsule was 5.7+/-1.2um unstretched and 5.7+/-1.4um stretched (p=0.974). The monkey anterior lens capsule thickness was 5.9+/-1.9um unstretched and 4.8+/-1.0um stretched (p=0.002). The monkey posterior lens capsule was 5

  4. Late Pan-African granite emplacement during regional deformation, evidence from magnetic fabric and structural studies in the Hammamat-Atalla area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiling, R. O.; de Wall, H.; Sadek, M. F.; Dietl, C.

    2014-11-01

    Field investigations, microstructural observations, and magnetic fabric analyses revealed a polyphase, late Pan-African deformational evolution in the Um Sheqila-Um Had (595 Ma) composite pluton and in the Hammamat and Atalla areas of the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt in Ediacaran times. Major stages are early shortening (NNW-SSE), subsequent strike-slip (NW-SE shear zones), and late shortening (NW-SE). Strain studies on pebbles and xenoliths together with AMS data show a predominance of shallow, NW-SE trending X axes or magnetic lineations, associated with steep, NW-SE striking magnetic foliations. Magnetic fabrics and microstructures indicate a tectonic fabric in the Um Sheqila-Um Had granitoid plutons, which is dominated by steep NW-SE striking foliations and shallow NW-SE trending lineations, similar to those in the high-angle Atalla Shear Zone. There is a change of lineation directions from ESE-WNW at Um Sheqila (oldest) to NW-SE to Um Had II (youngest). This pattern may indicate an influence of strike-slip and is also consistent with NE-SW compression. This holds also true for the asymmetry of the contact aureole, which is extended towards NW, parallel with the trend of the magnetic lineation. The character and orientation of the deformation pattern in the Um Sheqila-Um Had plutons and the Atalla Shear Zone is thus similar to the pattern of the late shortening phase. The intrusion of the Um Sheqila-Um Had granitoid rocks, therefore, took place before the late shortening stage, but postdates early deformation, which, according to published data, was associated with lithospheric thinning in the Central Eastern Desert. Therefore, these Pan-African plutons do not represent the earliest post-deformational intrusions but a late stage of syn-deformational magmatic activity. At a regional scale, this deformation with steep foliations and shallow lineations may also be related with lateral escape tectonics. The pluton emplacement, the importance of transcurrent

  5. FIFI-LS [OIII] Spectrosopy of Nearby Infrared Bright Galaxies: Tracing Stellar Populations, the O/N Abundance Ratio, and absolute abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Gordon

    We propose to map the [OIII] 52 um line emission from the central regions of five infrared bright, nearby star forming galaxies, NGC 1808, NGC 1365, NGC 3256, NGC 4945, and Arp 299. These data will be used together with publically available [OIII] 88 um, [NII] 122 um, and [NIII] 57 um line detections from Herschel/PACS and H radio recombination line interferometric observations to constrain the ionized gas density and mass, the hardness of the stellar radiation fields (hence most massive star on the main sequence), the O/N ratio (reflecting the numbers of cycles for star formation) and the ionized gas phase N/H and O/H abundances which measure the star formation efficiency integrated over time. We will also use the Herschel archival [OI] 63 and 146 um, and [CII] 158 um imaging to characterize the neutral ISM and the strength of the FUV (6-13.6 eV) stellar radiation fields. Together we will have a continuous measure of the stellar UV radiation fields from 6 to 54 eV thereby constraining the numbers of upper main sequence stars. The proposed FIFI-LS [OIII] 52 um line observations are the lynch-pin that holds the technique together. These measurements provide a local benchmark for our line-ratio techniques that can be applied to similar studies of high-z galaxies where it is expected that stellar radiation fields will be harder, and the O/N radio will be larger for the lowest metallicity galaxies. Therefore, the proposed observations are fundamentally important to our understanding of the star formation process over cosmic time.

  6. Development of an In-line Urine Monitoring System for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during space flight causes bone loss when calcium and other metabolic by-products are excreted in urine voids. Frequent and accurate measurement of urine void volume and constituents is thus essential in determining crew bone loss and the effectiveness of the countermeasures that are taken to minimize this loss. Earlier space shuttle Urine Monitoring System (UMS) technology was unable to accurately measure urine void volumes due to the cross-contamination that took place between users, as well as to fluid system instabilities. Crew urine voids are currently collected manually in a flexible plastic bag that contains a known tracer quantity. A crew member must completely mix the contents of this bag before withdrawing a representative syringe sample for later ground analysis. The existing bag system accuracy is therefore highly dependent on mixing technique. The International Space Station (ISS) UMS has been developed as an automated device that collects urine from the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) urinal funnel interface, separates the urine, measures void volume, and allows for syringe sampling. After the ISS UMS has been used by a crew member, it delivers urine to the WHC for normal processing. The UMS plumbing is then flushed with a small volume of water. The current ISS UMS design incorporates an innovative rotary separator that minimizes foaming, consequently greatly reducing cross-contamination among urine voids (less than 0.5 mL urine) while also providing accurate volume measurements (less than 2 percent error for 100 to 1,000 mL void volumes). ISS UMS performance has been validated through extensive ground tests and reduced-gravity aircraft flights. The locker-sized ISS UMS is currently undergoing a design modification that will permit it to interface with the ISS Node 3 WHC Russian toilet (ACY) hardware. The operating principles, characteristics, and results of this design modification are outlined here.

  7. Calcium regulation by temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential channels in human uveal melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mergler, Stefan; Derckx, Raissa; Reinach, Peter S; Garreis, Fabian; Böhm, Arina; Schmelzer, Lisa; Skosyrski, Sergej; Ramesh, Niraja; Abdelmessih, Suzette; Polat, Onur Kerem; Khajavi, Noushafarin; Riechardt, Aline Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is both the most common and fatal intraocular cancer among adults worldwide. As with all types of neoplasia, changes in Ca(2+) channel regulation can contribute to the onset and progression of this pathological condition. Transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) are two different types of Ca(2+) permeation pathways that can be dysregulated during neoplasia. We determined in malignant human UM and healthy uvea and four different UM cell lines whether there is gene and functional expression of TRP subtypes and CB1 since they could serve as drug targets to either prevent or inhibit initiation and progression of UM. RT-PCR, Ca(2+) transients, immunohistochemistry and planar patch-clamp analysis probed for their gene expression and functional activity, respectively. In UM cells, TRPV1 and TRPM8 gene expression was identified. Capsaicin (CAP), menthol or icilin induced Ca(2+) transients as well as changes in ion current behavior characteristic of TRPV1 and TRPM8 expression. Such effects were blocked with either La(3+), capsazepine (CPZ) or BCTC. TRPA1 and CB1 are highly expressed in human uvea, but TRPA1 is not expressed in all UM cell lines. In UM cells, the CB1 agonist, WIN 55,212-2, induced Ca(2+) transients, which were suppressed by La(3+) and CPZ whereas CAP-induced Ca(2+) transients could also be suppressed by CB1 activation. Identification of functional TRPV1, TRPM8, TRPA1 and CB1 expression in these tissues may provide novel drug targets for treatment of this aggressive neoplastic disease.

  8. Monitoring the Near-infrared Volcanic Flux from Io's Jupiter-facing Hemisphere from Fan Mountain Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrutskie, Michael F.; Nelson, Matthew J.; Schmidt, Carl

    2016-10-01

    Fan Mountain Observatory, near Charlottesville, Virginia, is a dark-sky site that supports a number of telescopes including a 31-inch reflecting telescope equipped with a 1024x1024 HgCdTe 1-2.5 um (YJHK) imager. Reflected sunlight ordinarily overwhelms Io's comparatively weak K-band (2.0-2.4 um) volcanic emission in unresolved observations, however when Io is eclipsed in Jupiter's shadow even a small infrared-equipped telescope can detect Io's volcanic emission. The Fan Mountain Infrared Camera observed Io in eclipse at regular intervals, typically weekly, during the few months before and after Jupiter's March 2016 opposition. When in eclipse Io's Jupiter-facing hemisphere is oriented toward Earth with sub-Earth longitudes at the time of observation ranging from 345 - 360 degrees (pre-opposition) to 0 - 15 degrees (post-opposition). A K-band filter (2.04-2.42 um) provided a bulk measurement of Io's volcanic flux weighted largely toward the 2.4 um end of this filter given the typical 500K color temperature of the volcanic emission. Most epochs also included observation in a narrowband filter centered at 2.12 um that, when combined with the broadband "long" wavelength measurement, provided a proxy for color temperature. The K-band flux of Io varied by more than 2 magnitudes during the 7 month observation interval. The [2.12 um - K-band] color of the emission strongly correlated with the K-band flux in the expected sense that the color temperature of the emission increased when Io's broadband volcanic flux was the greatest. One epoch of TripleSpec near-IR Io eclipse spectroscopy (0.90 - 2.45 um; R~3000) from the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope provided ground truth for transforming the filter photometry into quantitative temperatures.

  9. On telescópio remoto do Observatório Abrahão de Moraes - Obelix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neres, N. L.; Raffaelli, J. C.; Medina Tanco, G. A.; Horvath, J. E.; Maluhy, R.; Martins, A.; Orselli, M. I. V.

    2003-08-01

    Foi desenvolvido um telescópio totalmente automático situado no Observatório Abrahão de Moraes, em Valinhos-SP, que possibilita observações remotas via Internet tanto para fins profissionais como didáticos. Usando um programa navegador da WWW, o observador tem acesso a páginas interativas que permitem não só apontar o telescópio e receber as imagens, como também controlar a abertura e o fechamento da cúpula, monitorar temperatura, umidade e orvalho e receber imagens das câmaras de segurança. O fechamento da cúpula é feito automaticamente em caso de perigo de condensação. O sistema consiste de uma câmara Apogee, uma roda de filtros SBIG modelo CFW-8 com filtros RGB e um telescópio Meade. A observação remota é feita usando programas comerciais da área. Uma caixa de controle com lógica programável controla o movimento da cúpula e a energização do telescópio. Um software em LabView adquire os dados da estação meteorológica, que inclui um sensor de chuva desenvolvido no IAG, e apresenta seus valores atuais e históricos. Usando uma facilidade do próprio LabView, a saída desse software é exportada para a Internet. Um programa em C disponibiliza as imagens das câmaras de segurança usando uma placa de captura de vídeo e um seqüencial de vídeo que foi adaptado para ser controlado pelo PC. O sistema completo já se encontra operacional.

  10. Growth at high pH and sodium and potassium tolerance in media above the cytoplasmic pH depend on ENA ATPases in Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Benito, Begoña; Garciadeblás, Blanca; Pérez-Martín, José; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alonso

    2009-06-01

    Potassium and Na(+) effluxes across the plasma membrane are crucial processes for the ionic homeostasis of cells. In fungal cells, these effluxes are mediated by cation/H(+) antiporters and ENA ATPases. We have cloned and studied the functions of the two ENA ATPases of Ustilago maydis, U. maydis Ena1 (UmEna1) and UmEna2. UmEna1 is a typical K(+) or Na(+) efflux ATPase whose function is indispensable for growth at pH 9.0 and for even modest Na(+) or K(+) tolerances above pH 8.0. UmEna1 locates to the plasma membrane and has the characteristics of the low-Na(+)/K(+)-discrimination ENA ATPases. However, it still protects U. maydis cells in high-Na(+) media because Na(+) showed a low cytoplasmic toxicity. The UmEna2 ATPase is phylogenetically distant from UmEna1 and is located mainly at the endoplasmic reticulum. The function of UmEna2 is not clear, but we found that it shares several similarities with Neurospora crassa ENA2, which suggests that endomembrane ENA ATPases may exist in many fungi. The expression of ena1 and ena2 transcripts in U. maydis was enhanced at high pH and at high K(+) and Na(+) concentrations. We discuss that there are two modes of Na(+) tolerance in fungi: the high-Na(+)-content mode, involving ENA ATPases with low Na(+)/K(+) discrimination, as described here for U. maydis, and the low-Na(+)-content mode, involving Na(+)-specific ENA ATPases, as in Neurospora crassa.

  11. First Asteroid Spectrometric Observations with BTA: 3045 Alois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busarev, V. V.; Burenkov, A. N.; Pramskij, A. G.

    2001-11-01

    BTA, Russian 6-m telescope, was mainly used for faint stars and extragalactic objects observations. We have firstly performed with the telescope spectrometric observations of a main belt asteroid, 3045 Alois, and are planning to use it for Centaurs and Kuiper Belt objects spectrometry. We have obtained some results of the observations. Spectra of Alois were recorded on two nights of March 2001 (29/30 and 30/31) with a long slit spectrograph (UAGS + CCD) in the .38-.80 um spectral range. HD105633 (G5) [1] considered as a solar analog was also observed, and the data were used for calculation the asteroid reflectance spectra. It was found that reflectance spectra of Alois obtained on different nights have various continuum slopes and absorption features. The reflectance spectrum on 29/30 March had a flat continuum in the range .44-.65 um and absorption bands at .5 um (ab. 7 % with respect to the continuum) similar to that found on the E-type asteroid 2035 Stearns [2], and at .80 um (ab. 25 %). Another one on 30/31 March had a red continuum in the range .40-.67 um and absorption bands at .43 um (ab. 6 %) resembling absorption features found on some C-, M- and S-type asteroids [3, 4], and at .80 um (ab. 17 %). From the data and taking into account the mean heliocentric distance of 3045 Alois (3.13 AU) we suppose that the asteroid having irregular spectral characteristics may be of M- or E-type and possibly hydrated. Unfortunately, its albedo and rotational period remain still unknown. [1] Mermilliod J.-C. (1994) Bull. Inf. CDS 45, 3. [2] Fornasier S. and Lazzarine M. (2001) Icarus 152, 127-133. [3] Vilas F. et al. (1993) Icarus 102, 225-231. [4] Busarev V. V. (2001) LPSC XXXII, abs. 1927.

  12. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy rate stable at major Canadian breast cancer center

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Amanda; Sandhu, Lakhbir; Cil, Tulin D; Hofer, Stefan O P; Zhong, Toni

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine trends of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) rates at a Canadian academic breast cancer center. METHODS: A single-institution retrospective cohort study was completed. Women of any age who underwent at least a unilateral mastectomy (UM) for primary unilateral breast carcinoma between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2010 were included. Patients who underwent CPM on the same day as UM were isolated to create two distinct cohorts. Patient and procedure characteristics were compared across groups using R software (version 3.1.0). The percentage of CPMs per year was determined. The Cochrane-Armitage test was used to assess the trend of CPMs over time. A P value of < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: A total of 811 women met the inclusions/exclusion criteria; 759 (93.6%) underwent UM alone and 52 (6.4%) underwent UM with immediate CPM. The absolute number of procedures (UM and UM + CPM) increased over time, from 83 in 2004 to 147 in 2010 reflecting an increase in mastectomy volume. Annual CPM rates did not increase over time (P = 0.7) and varied between 2.6% to 10.7%. Family history of breast cancer [OR 3.6 (1.8-7.3)] and immediate reconstruction [10.0 (5.2-19.3)] were both significantly associated with CPM. Women who underwent CPM were younger (median age CPM 49 years vs UM 52 years, P < 0.0001) but age less than 50 years was not statistically associated with increased rates of CPM. CONCLUSION: CPM rates from 2004 to 2010 at a high-volume Canadian breast cancer center did not increase over time, in contrast to trends observed in the United States. PMID:27298770

  13. Waves of the Future (for Mars): In-Situ Mid-infrared, Near-infrared, and Visible Spectroscopic Analysis of Antarctic Cryptoendolithic Communities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, K. P.; Calrson, R.; Sun, H.; Anderson, M.; Wynn, W.; Levy, R.

    2005-12-01

    We have analyzed both the surface expression and depth profile of cryptoendolithic microbial communities at Battleship Promontory, in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Data was collected on site with an active mid-infrared Fourier transform microspectrometer (2.6 - 15 um), a near-infrared spectrometer (0.9-1.8 um), and a visible spectrometer (0.4-1 um). The trio of instruments are connected to microscopes that yield ~1 mm2 spatial resolution on the sample and they are mounted on two perpendicular motorized stages that allow for spatial scanning over an area of ~2cm2. Here we present results on the surface expression of the subsurface microbes in these three spectral regions and we present results on the analysis of a colonized sample examined in cross section. The former case has direct application to the remote, robotic detection of life within the rocks of Mars and the later case provides fundamental insights into the geological and biological interactions that make the Antarctic cryptoendolithic ecosystems possible. Non-invasive surface detection of cyanobacterial dominated communities was possible through the observation of several distinct bands: the carbon-hydrogen stretching modes (symmetric and asymmetric) for CH, CH2, and CH3 in the regions of 3.3-3.6 um and 3.6-3.7 um; the NH2 scissoring and C=O stretch near 6.0 um; the amide I of beta-pleated structures at ~6.1 um; and the 6.4 um - 6.6 um bands of N-H in plane bend of the amide II functional group. In combination, these bands make a strong case for carbohydrates and proteins associated with life. Not surprisingly, as the integrity of the amorphous silica surface varnish improved, our ability to detected the subsurface biosignature decreased. We note, however, that by utilizing the JPL rock crusher in Antarctica, a device designed to fly on the Mars Science Laboratory mission, the mid-infrared biosignature was easily detected. In the cross-section analysis the mid-infrared data provide a depth profile

  14. Heterologous production and characterization of a chlorogenic acid esterase from Ustilago maydis with a potential use in baking.

    PubMed

    Nieter, Annabel; Kelle, Sebastian; Takenberg, Meike; Linke, Diana; Bunzel, Mirko; Popper, Lutz; Berger, Ralf G

    2016-10-15

    Ustilago maydis, an edible mushroom growing on maize (Zea mays), is consumed as the food delicacy huitlacoche in Mexico. A chlorogenic acid esterase from this basidiomycete was expressed in good yields cultivating the heterologous host Pichia pastoris on the 5L bioreactor scale (reUmChlE; 45.9UL(-1)). In contrast to previously described chlorogenic acid esterases, the reUmChlE was also active towards feruloylated saccharides. The enzyme preferred substrates with the ferulic acid esterified to the O-5 position of arabinose residues, typical of graminaceous monocots, over the O-2 position of arabinose or the O-6 position of galactose residues. Determination of kcat/Km showed that the reUmChlE hydrolyzed chlorogenic acid 18-fold more efficiently than methyl ferulate, p-coumarate or caffeate. Phenolic acids were released by reUmChlE from natural substrates, such as destarched wheat bran, sugar beet pectin and coffee pulp. Treatment of wheat dough using reUmChlE resulted in a noticeable softening indicating a potential application of the enzyme in bakery and confectionery. PMID:27173527

  15. Medusa consumption and prey selection of silver pomfret Pampus argenteus juveniles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunsheng; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Chen, Siqing; Shi, Zhaohong; Yan, Jingping; Liu, Changlin

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored Aurelia aurita and Rhopilema esculent um consumption by silver pomfret juveniles, as well as their prey selection between the two jellyfish species. Silver pomfret juveniles weighing 1±0.1 g actively preyed on both the species. Their daily A. aurita consumption was 11.6 times their own body weights regardless of the size of A. aurita medusae. Their daily R. esculent um consumption was 13, 9.1, 5, and 4.1 times their own body weights when the R. esculentum medusae were 10, 20, 30, and 40 mm in bell diameter, respectively. The survival rates of the R. esculent um were higher than those of the A. aurita. When the R. esculent um medusae were more than 30 mm in bell diameter, their survival rate exceeded 92%. Silver pomfrets serve as a type of potential predators on A. aurita in coastal waters, and they have little influence on R. esculent um with a size exceeding 30 mm. Besides, A. aurita may be able to be used as fish prey in silver pomfret artificial breeding.

  16. The paradoxical role of urinary macromolecules in the aggregation of calcium oxalate: a further plea to increase diuresis in stone metaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Baumann, J M; Affolter, B

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to get information on aggregation (AGN) of urinary calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx) which seems to occur in stone formation despite a protecting coat of urinary macromolecules (UMs). CaOx crystallization was directly produced in urine, control and albumin solution by Ox titration and was spectrophotometrically followed. A rapid decrease of optical density indicating AGN was absent in 14 of 15 freshly voided urines of 5 healthy controls. However, in the presence of UM-coated hydroxyapatite all urines with relative high sodium concentration, being an indicator of concentrated urine, showed a pronounced AGN which was abolished when these urines were diluted. Albumin relatively found to be an inhibitor of AGN showed after temporary adsorption on Ca Phosphate (CaP) massive self-AGN and changed to a promoter of CaOx AGN. Self-AGN after adsorption on surfaces especially of CaP, being an important compound of Randall's plaques, can thus explain this paradoxical behavior of UMs. Aggregated UMs probably bridge zones of electrostatic repulsion between UM-coated crystals with identical electrical surface charge. These zones extend by urine dilution which decreases ionic strength. Diminution of urinary concentration by increasing diuresis seems, therefore, to be important in stone metaphylaxis.

  17. Utilization management in radiology: basic concepts and applications.

    PubMed

    Otero, Hansel J; Ondategui-Parra, Silvia; Nathanson, Eric M; Erturk, Sukru Mehmet; Ros, Pablo R

    2006-05-01

    With the current constraints on health care resources and emphasis on value for money, resource utilization must be constantly revised and its value demonstrated. For this purpose, utilization management (UM) provides a series of methods to evaluate the appropriateness of health care resources. The ultimate goal of UM is to achieve the best patient outcomes using the most appropriate resources. The implementation of these procedures also targets variation in practice and promotes cost-effective clinical decision making. Inappropriate utilization is a major problem in health care today, particularly in capital-intensive fields such as imaging. High imaging utilization supposes losses to insurers and care-provider organizations and an overload for radiologists, while underutilization carries significant risks for patients, with the potential for a negative impact on outcomes. Imaging use must be assessed as frequently as new technologies arise. Given the fast pace at which this is happening, UM provides a crucial solution for continuous revision and assessment as an integrative process. The authors offer a practical guide for radiologists in UM, describing its role in today's health care finances. The key issue is to present UM as an approach for improvement that could bring benefits to all parties by adding efficiency to the health care delivery process. Utilization management represents an important opportunity for radiologists to be involved in the decision-making process, regulating the use of their services and providing fast feedback to other specialties that rely on imaging as a complement to their clinical practice.

  18. Ultramicroscopy as a novel tool to unravel the tropism of AAV gene therapy vectors in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Sandro; Bode, Julia; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; von Kalle, Christof; Cartier, Nathalie; Tews, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have advanced to the vanguard of gene therapy. Numerous naturally occurring serotypes have been used to target cells in various tissues. There is a strong need for fast and dynamic methods which efficiently unravel viral tropism in whole organs. Ultramicroscopy (UM) is a novel fluorescence microscopy technique that images optically cleared undissected specimens, achieving good resolutions at high penetration depths while being non-destructive. UM was applied to obtain high-resolution 3D analysis of AAV transduction in adult mouse brains, especially in the hippocampus, a region of interest for Alzheimer’s disease therapy. We separately or simultaneously compared transduction efficacies for commonly used serotypes (AAV9 and AAVrh10) using fluorescent reporter expression. We provide a detailed comparative and quantitative analysis of the transduction profiles. UM allowed a rapid analysis of marker fluorescence expression in neurons with intact projections deep inside the brain, in defined anatomical structures. Major hippocampal neuronal transduction was observed with both vectors, with slightly better efficacy for AAV9 in UM. Glial response and synaptic marker expression did not change post transduction.We propose UM as a novel valuable complementary tool to efficiently and simultaneously unravel tropism of different viruses in a single non-dissected adult rodent brain. PMID:27320056

  19. Modulation of GABA-stimulated chloride influx into membrane vesicles from rat cerebral cortex by triazolobenzodiazepines

    SciTech Connect

    Obata, T.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of triazolobenzodiazepines of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake by membrane vesicles from rat cerebral cortex were examined. Triazolam and alprazolam showed a significant enhancement of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake at 0.01-10 uM. On the other hand, adinazolam showed a small enhancement at 0.1-1 uM followed by a significant inhibition of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake at 100 uM. The enhancement of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake by 1 uM alprazolam was antagonized by Ro15-1788, a benzodiazepine antagonist, but the inhibition of this response by 30 uM adinazolam was not antagonized by Ro15-1788. These results indicate that triazolobenzodiazepines enhanced GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake through benzodiazepine receptors. High concentrations of adinazolam inhibit GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake which may be due to the direct blockade of GABA-gated chloride channel. 23 references, 4 figures.

  20. Creating a full-sky map of PAH emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkeley, Matthew; Kogut, Alan J.; Chuss, David T.; WISE

    2016-06-01

    Accurate characterization of foreground components has been a pressing issue in the CMB community for some time. In particular, the Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME), first detected in 1995 and confirmed by WMAP and Planck, has remained mysterious, though the leading hypothesis proposes that this excess emission is due to electric dipole emission from spinning dust grains. The leading candidate for such ‘spinning dust’ is Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs have characteristic emission lines in the mid-IR and can be analyzed using archived data from the WISE satellite. We have been working using publicly available data from WISE to create a full-sky map across the four WISE frequency bands: 3.4um, 4.6um, 12um and 22um. PAH emission is brightest in the 12um band; however it is possible to localize this population more accurately by linearly combining the maps across all four frequencies to create a full-sky map tracing the small-grain population of PAHs.We present preliminary results from this work.

  1. The Roles of Cloud Drop Effective Radius and LWP in Determining Rain Properties in Marine Stratocumulus

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.

    2012-07-04

    Numerical simulations described in previous studies showed that adding cloud condensation nuclei to marine stratocumulus can prevent their breakup from closed into open cells. Additional analyses of the same simulations show that the suppression of rain is well described in terms of cloud drop effective radius (re). Rain is initiated when re near cloud top is around 12-14 um. Cloud water starts to get depleted when column-maximum rain intensity (Rmax) exceeds 0.1 mm h-1. This happens when cloud-top re reaches 14 um. Rmax is mostly less than 0.1 mm h-1 at re<14 um, regardless of the cloud water path, but increases rapidly when re exceeds 14 um. This is in agreement with recent aircraft observations and theoretical observations in convective clouds so that the mechanism is not limited to describing marine stratocumulus. These results support the hypothesis that the onset of significant precipitation is determined by the number of nucleated cloud drops and the height (H) above cloud base within the cloud that is required for cloud drops to reach re of 14 um. In turn, this can explain the conditions for initiation of significant drizzle and opening of closed cells providing the basis for a simple parameterization for GCMs that unifies the representation of both precipitating and non-precipitating clouds as well as the transition between them. Furthermore, satellite global observations of cloud depth (from base to top), and cloud top re can be used to derive and validate this parameterization.

  2. Heterologous production and characterization of a chlorogenic acid esterase from Ustilago maydis with a potential use in baking.

    PubMed

    Nieter, Annabel; Kelle, Sebastian; Takenberg, Meike; Linke, Diana; Bunzel, Mirko; Popper, Lutz; Berger, Ralf G

    2016-10-15

    Ustilago maydis, an edible mushroom growing on maize (Zea mays), is consumed as the food delicacy huitlacoche in Mexico. A chlorogenic acid esterase from this basidiomycete was expressed in good yields cultivating the heterologous host Pichia pastoris on the 5L bioreactor scale (reUmChlE; 45.9UL(-1)). In contrast to previously described chlorogenic acid esterases, the reUmChlE was also active towards feruloylated saccharides. The enzyme preferred substrates with the ferulic acid esterified to the O-5 position of arabinose residues, typical of graminaceous monocots, over the O-2 position of arabinose or the O-6 position of galactose residues. Determination of kcat/Km showed that the reUmChlE hydrolyzed chlorogenic acid 18-fold more efficiently than methyl ferulate, p-coumarate or caffeate. Phenolic acids were released by reUmChlE from natural substrates, such as destarched wheat bran, sugar beet pectin and coffee pulp. Treatment of wheat dough using reUmChlE resulted in a noticeable softening indicating a potential application of the enzyme in bakery and confectionery.

  3. Identification of differentially expressed genes in uveal melanoma using suppressive subtractive hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Landreville, Solange; Lupien, Caroline B.; Vigneault, Francois; Gaudreault, Manon; Mathieu, Mélissa; Rousseau, Alain P.; Guérin, Sylvain L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary cancer of the eye, resulting not only in vision loss, but also in metastatic death. This study attempts to identify changes in the patterns of gene expression that lead to malignant transformation and proliferation of normal uveal melanocytes (UVM) using the Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) technique. Methods The SSH technique was used to isolate genes that are differentially expressed in the TP31 cell line derived from a primary UM compared to UVM. The expression level of selected genes was further validated by microarray, semi-quantitative RT–PCR and western blot analyses. Results Analysis of the subtracted libraries revealed that 37 and 36 genes were, respectively, up- and downregulated in TP31 cells compared to UVM. Differential expression of the majority of these genes was confirmed by comparing UM cells with UVM by microarray. The expression pattern of selected genes was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT–PCR and western blot, and was found to be consistent with the SSH findings. Conclusions We demonstrated that the SSH technique is efficient to detect differentially expressed genes in UM. The genes identified in this study represent valuable candidates for further functional analysis in UM and should be informative in studying the biology of this tumor. PMID:21647268

  4. TOXICOLOGY STUDIES OF LEWISITE AND SULFUR MUSTARD AGENTS:GENETIC TOXICITY OF LEWISITE (L) IN CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Jostes,R.F. Jr.; Sasser, LB; Rausch, R.J.

    1989-05-31

    The cytotoxic clastogenic and mutagenic effects of the arsenic containing vesicant, Lewisite (L) [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine], have been investigated using Chinese hamster ovary cells. One hour exposures to Lewisite were cytotoxic in uM amounts. The cell survival response yields a D37 of 0.6 uM and an extrapolation number of 2.5. The mutagenic response at the hypoxantnine-guanine phosporibosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus was sporadic and not significantly greater than control values when cells were exposed over a range of 0.125 to2.0 uM. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction, a measure of chromosomal rearrangement, was weakly positive over a range of 0.25 to 1.0 uM but the values were not significantly greater than the control response. Chromosomal aberrations were induced at 0.75 and 1.0 UMin one experiment and 0.5 and 0.75 uM in another experiment. The Induced values were significantly greater than the control values. Lewisite appears to be cytotoxic and clastogenic in our investigations but SCE and mutation at the HGPRT locus are not significantly greater than control values. Lewisita toxicity was in some ways similar to radiomimetic chemicals such as bleomycin.

  5. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight needs to be better understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a crew member s urine can evaluate the effectiveness of bone loss countermeasures. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross-contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross-contamination (<0.7 mL urine) and has volume accuracy of 2% between 100 to 1000 mL urine voids. Designed to provide a non-invasive means to collect urine samples from crew members, the ISS UMS operates in-line with the Node 3 Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). The ISS UMS has undergone modifications required to interface with the WHC, including material changes, science algorithm improvements, and software platform revisions. Integrated functional testing was performed to determine the pressure drop, air flow rate, and the maximum amount of fluid capable of being discharged from the UMS to the WHC. This paper will detail the results of the science and the functional integration tests.

  6. Joint torque and angle estimation by using ultrasonic muscle activity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Yoichiro; Tanaka, Takayuki; Kaneko, Shun'ichi; Feng, Maria Q.

    2005-12-01

    We have proposed a brand-new noninvasive ultrasonic sensor for measuring muscle activities named as Ultrasonic Muscle Activity Sensor (UMS). In the previous paper, the authors achieved to accurately estimate joint torque by using UMS and electromyogram (EMG) which is one of the most popular sensors. This paper aims to realize to measure not only joint torque also joint angle by using UMS and EMG. In order to estimate torque and angle of a knee joint, muscle activities of quadriceps femoris and biceps femoris were measured by both UMS and EMG. These targeted muscles are related to contraction and extension of knee joint. Simultaneously, actual torque on the knee joint caused by these muscles was measured by using torque sensor. The knee joint angle was fixed by torque sensor in the experiment, therefore the measurement was in isometric state. In the result, we found that the estimated torque and angle have high correlation coefficient to actual torque and angle. This means that the sensor can be used for angle estimation as well torque estimation. Therefore, it is shown that the combined use of UMS and EMG is effective to torque and angle estimation.

  7. Molecular cloning and heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris of X-prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase from basidiomycete Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Ibarra, J Antonio; Chávez-Camarillo, Griselda; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes

    2014-03-01

    Dipeptidyl aminopeptidases are enzymes involved in the posttranslational control of bioactive peptides. Here we identified the gene dapUm in Ustilago maydis by homology with other fungal dipeptidyl aminopeptidases. Analysis of the dapUm-deduced amino acid sequence indicated that it encodes for membrane-type serine protease with a characteristic prolyl oligopeptidase catalytic motif triad: Ser, Asp, His. In order to overexpress the DapUm, the gene encoding for it was cloned and transformed into Pichia. Using this system, we observed a ∼ 125-kDa recombinant protein with an optimal enzymatic activity at pH 6.0 and at 40 °C for the Ala-Pro-p-nitroanilide substrate and an experimental pH of 6.9. U. maydis DapUm was specifically inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and Pefabloc, confirming the presence of a serine residue in the active site. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on the cloning and expression of a DPP IV dipeptidyl aminopeptidase from a basidiomycete organism. Moreover, the use of recombinant DapUm will allow us to further study and characterize this enzyme, in addition to testing chemical compounds for pharmaceutical purposes.

  8. The paradoxical role of urinary macromolecules in the aggregation of calcium oxalate: a further plea to increase diuresis in stone metaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Baumann, J M; Affolter, B

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to get information on aggregation (AGN) of urinary calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx) which seems to occur in stone formation despite a protecting coat of urinary macromolecules (UMs). CaOx crystallization was directly produced in urine, control and albumin solution by Ox titration and was spectrophotometrically followed. A rapid decrease of optical density indicating AGN was absent in 14 of 15 freshly voided urines of 5 healthy controls. However, in the presence of UM-coated hydroxyapatite all urines with relative high sodium concentration, being an indicator of concentrated urine, showed a pronounced AGN which was abolished when these urines were diluted. Albumin relatively found to be an inhibitor of AGN showed after temporary adsorption on Ca Phosphate (CaP) massive self-AGN and changed to a promoter of CaOx AGN. Self-AGN after adsorption on surfaces especially of CaP, being an important compound of Randall's plaques, can thus explain this paradoxical behavior of UMs. Aggregated UMs probably bridge zones of electrostatic repulsion between UM-coated crystals with identical electrical surface charge. These zones extend by urine dilution which decreases ionic strength. Diminution of urinary concentration by increasing diuresis seems, therefore, to be important in stone metaphylaxis. PMID:26920852

  9. Fiber optic TDLAS-based multi-gas remote detection system for mine goaf fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yubin; Li, Yanfang; Shang, Ying; Zhang, Tingting; Song, Zhiqiang; Wang, Chang; Liu, Tongyu

    2010-10-01

    Spontaneous combustion in coal goaf area is one of major disasters in coal mines. Detection technology based on signature Gas is the primary means of spontaneous combustion forecasting of coal goaf area. A real-time remote fire gas detection system is proposed based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology, to achieve valid test of signature gas (CO, CO2, CH4, C2H2 and C2H4). The System uses the wavelength, respectively 1.567um, 1.608um, 1.653um, 1.530um, 1.623um near-infrared band fiber-coupled distributed feedback laser (DFB) as the light source, Combined wavelength modulation spectroscopy and harmonic detection technique, developed a fiber-coupled white-type long-path gas absorption cell, to achieve high sensitivity detection of gas concentration. The system achieved a remote on-line monitoring of multi-component gas concentration,to meet the fire forecast need for Coal goaf area. There are obvious advantages Compared with the existing beam tube monitoring system in coal mine.

  10. Final Technical Report for University of Michigan Industrial Assessment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Atreya, Arvind

    2007-04-17

    The UM Industrial Assessment Center assisted 119 primary metals, automotive parts, metal casting, chemicals, forest products, agricultural, and glass manufacturers in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana to become more productive and profitable by identifying and recommending specific measures to improve energy efficiency, reduce waste and increase productivity. This directly benefits the environment by saving a total of 309,194 MMBtu of energy resulting in reduction of 0.004 metric tons of carbon emissions. The $4,618,740 implemented cost savings generated also saves jobs that are evaporating from the manufacturing industries in the US. Most importantly, the UM Industrial Assessment Center provided extremely valuable energy education to forty one UM graduate and undergraduate students. The practical experience complements their classroom education. This also has a large multiplier effect because the students take the knowledge and training with them.

  11. Accuracy tests of the tessellated SLBM model

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A L; Myers, S C

    2007-07-20

    We have compared the Seismic Location Base Model (SLBM) tessellated model (version 2.0 Beta, posted July 3, 2007) with the GNEMRE Unified Model. The comparison is done on a layer/depth-by-layer/depth and layer/velocity-by-layer/velocity comparison. The SLBM earth model is defined on a tessellation that spans the globe at a constant resolution of about 1 degree (Ballard, 2007). For the tests, we used the earth model in file ''unified{_}iasp.grid''. This model contains the top 8 layers of the Unified Model (UM) embedded in a global IASP91 grid. Our test queried the same set of nodes included in the UM model file. To query the model stored in memory, we used some of the functionality built into the SLBMInterface object. We used the method get InterpolatedPoint() to return desired values for each layer at user-specified points. The values returned include: depth to the top of each layer, layer velocity, layer thickness and (for the upper-mantle layer) velocity gradient. The SLBM earth model has an extra middle crust layer whose values are used when Pg/Lg phases are being calculated. This extra layer was not accessed by our tests. Figures 1 to 8 compare the layer depths, P velocities and P gradients in the UM and SLBM models. The figures show results for the three sediment layers, three crustal layers and the upper mantle layer defined in the UM model. Each layer in the models (sediment1, sediment2, sediment3, upper crust, middle crust, lower crust and upper mantle) is shown on a separate figure. The upper mantle P velocity and gradient distribution are shown on Figures 7 and 8. The left and center images in the top row of each figure is the rendering of depth to the top of the specified layer for the UM and SLBM models. When a layer has zero thickness, its depth is the same as that of the layer above. The right image in the top row is the difference between in layer depth for the UM and SLBM renderings. The left and center images in the bottom row of the figures are

  12. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals a Possible Novel Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium Species with High Pathogenic Potential.

    PubMed

    Choo, Siew Woh; Dutta, Avirup; Wong, Guat Jah; Wee, Wei Yee; Ang, Mia Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria have been reported to cause a wide range of human diseases. We present the first whole-genome study of a Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium sp. UM_CSW (referred to hereafter as UM_CSW), isolated from a patient diagnosed with bronchiectasis. Our data suggest that this clinical isolate is likely a novel mycobacterial species, supported by clear evidence from molecular phylogenetic, comparative genomic, ANI and AAI analyses. UM_CSW is closely related to the Mycobacterium avium complex. While it has characteristic features of an environmental bacterium, it also shows a high pathogenic potential with the presence of a wide variety of putative genes related to bacterial virulence and shares very similar pathogenomic profiles with the known pathogenic mycobacterial species. Thus, we conclude that this possible novel Mycobacterium species should be tightly monitored for its possible causative role in human infections. PMID:27035710

  13. Characterization of NIR InGaAs imager arrays for the JDEM SNAPmission concept

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, S.; Cole, M.D.; Hancock, B.; Ringold, P.; Wrigley, C.; Bonati, M.; Brown, M.G.; Schubnell, M.; Rahmer, G.; Guzman, D.; Figer,D.; Tarle, G.; Smith, R.M.; Bebek, C.

    2006-05-23

    We present the results of a study of the performance of InGaAs detectors conducted for the SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) dark energy mission concept. Low temperature data from a nominal 1.7um cut-off wavelength 1kx1k InGaAs photodiode array, hybridized to a Rockwell H1RG multiplexer suggest that InGaAs detector performance is comparable to those of existing 1.7um cut-off HgCdTe arrays. Advances in 1.7um HgCdTe dark current and noise initiated by the SNAP detector research and development program makes it the baseline detector technology for SNAP. However, the results presented herein suggest that existing InGaAs technology is a suitable alternative for other future astronomy applications.

  14. Planar Foil MRT Instability Measurements Using a 1-MA LTD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zier, J. C.; Chalenski, D. A.; Patel, S. G.; French, D. M.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Gomez, M. R.; Lau, Y. Y.; Steiner, A. M.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Weis, M. R.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Lopez, M. R.; Cuneo, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    Initial dynamic load experiments were performed on UM's 1-MA linear transformer driver (LTD) facility, MAIZE, to characterize magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability growth and plasma dynamics on planar-foil plasmas. The loads utilized a double current return plate geometry with a 400 nm-thick Al foil positioned between the return plates. Magnetic pressure accelerated the foil plasma to drive MRT instability that was measured using shadowgraphy. Plasma dynamics were observed to be dominated by an initial expansion phase where both foil interfaces were found to be MRT unstable with 85-105 ns e-folding times. This research was supported by US DoE award number DE-SC0002590, US DoE through SNL award numbers 240985 and 768225 to UM, and from NSF award number PHY 0903340 to UM. JC Zier and SG Patel were supported by NPSC fellowships through SNL.

  15. Isolation and characterization of sulfite oxidase from Alligator mississipiensis

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, A.; Neame, P.J.; Barber, M.J. )

    1991-03-11

    Sulfite oxidase has been isolated from fresh alligator liver using ammonium sulfate and acetone fractionation, DEAE chromatography and FPLC on Mono Q. The enzyme is dimeric and exhibits a subunit M. Wt. of approximately 58 kDa, larger than that of chicken SO. EPR spectroscopy of the partially-reduced enzyme revealed a single Mo(V) species while visible spectroscopy revealed the presence of cytochrome b{sub 557}. Maximal activities were obtained at pH 8 and 9, respectively. K{sub m}'s for SO{sub 3}{sup 2 {minus}}, cyt. c and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3 {minus}} were 23.5 uM, 2.9 uM and 8.0 uM, respectively. Sequencing of peptides obtained by endoprotease K digestion indicated regions of extensive sequence similarity to chicken and rat enzymes in both heme and Mo-pterin domains. Regions of sequence dissimilarity were also found.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Serpens MWC 297 (Rumble+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, D.; Hatchell, J.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Kirk, H.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Di, Francesco J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-thompson, D.; Allen, L. E.; Cieza, L. A.; Dunham, M. M.; Harvey, P. M.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Bastien, P.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-09-01

    Serpens MWC 297 was observed with SCUBA-2 on the 2012 July 5 and 8 as part of the JCMT GBS MJLSG33 SCUBA-2 Serpens Campaign. Continuum observations at 850 and 450um were made using fully sampled 30 arcmin diameter circular regions centered on RA=18:28:13.8, DE=-03:44:01.7 (J2000). The MWC 297 region was observed twice by Spitzer in the mid-infrared, first as part of the Spitzer Young Clusters Survey (SYC; Gutermuth et al., 2009, Cat. J/ApJS/184/18) and secondly as part of the Spitzer legacy programme 'Gould's Belt: star formation in the solar neighbourhood' (SGBS, PID: 30574). In both surveys, mapping observations were taken at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0um with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and at 24um with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). (3 data files).

  17. Photoluminescence Imaging of Large-Grain CdTe for Grain Boundary Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Steve; Allende Motz, Alyssa; Reese, Matthew O.; Burst, James M.; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2015-06-14

    In this work, we use photoluminescence (PL) imaging to characterize CdTe grain boundary recombination. We use a silicon megapixel camera and green (532 nm) laser diodes for excitation. A microscope objective lens system is used for high spatial resolution and a field of view down to 190 um x 190 um. PL images of large-grain (5 to 50 um) CdTe samples show grain boundary and grain interior features that vary with processing conditions. PL images of samples in the as-deposited state show distinct dark grain boundaries that suggest high excess carrier recombination. A CdCl2 treatment leads to PL images with very little distinction at the grain boundaries, which illustrates the grain boundary passivation properties. Other process conditions are also shown, along with comparisons of PL images to high spatial resolution time-resolved PL carrier lifetime maps.

  18. Investigation of Electron Transfer-Based Photonic and Electro-Optic Materials and Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Bromenshenk, Jerry J; Abbott, Edwin H; Dickensheets, David; Donovan, Richard P; Hobbs, J D; Spangler, Lee; McGuirl, Michele A; Spangler, Charles; Rebane, Aleksander; Rosenburg, Edward; Schmidt, V H; Singel, David J

    2008-03-28

    Montana's state program began its sixth year in 2006. The project's research cluster focused on physical, chemical, and biological materials that exhibit unique electron-transfer properties. Our investigators have filed several patents and have also have established five spin-off businesses (3 MSU, 2 UM) and a research center (MT Tech). In addition, this project involved faculty and students at three campuses (MSU, UM, MT Tech) and has a number of under-represented students, including 10 women and 5 Native Americans. In 2006, there was an added emphasis on exporting seminars and speakers via the Internet from UM to Chief Dull Knife Community College, as well as work with the MT Department of Commerce to better educate our faculty regarding establishing small businesses, licensing and patent issues, and SBIR program opportunities.

  19. Inhibition of the effects of thrombin on guinea pig platelets by the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor RHC 80267

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, D.; Sutherland, C.A.; Khandwala, A.S.; Jamall, I.S.; Kapoor, A.L.

    1986-10-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) and diacylglycerol lipase (DGL) activities were found in guinea pig platelet microsome preparations. No phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity was detected. RHC 80267 (1,6-di (0-(carbamoyl) cyclohexanone oxime)hexane) inhibited DGL activity (IC50 = 4 uM) from guinea pig platelet microsomes but had no effect on PLC. RHC 80267 inhibited platelet aggregation (IC50 = 11 uM), release of arachidonic acid (AA), its metabolites, and ATP (IC50 = 4.5 uM) when guinea pig platelets were challenged with a low concentration of thrombin. We propose that PLC-DGL is an important enzymatic pathway for the release of AA in guinea pig platelets.

  20. Study of relationships of material properties and high efficiency solar cell performance on material composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sah, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    The performance improvements obtainable from extending the traditionally thin back-surface-field (BSF) layer deep into the base of silicon solar cells under terrestrial solar illumination (AM1) are analyzed. This extended BSF cell is also known as the back-drift-field cell. About 100 silicon cells were analyzed, each with a different emitter or base dopant impurity distribution whose selection was based on physically anticipated improvements. The four principal performance parameters (the open-circuit voltage, the short-circuit current, the fill factor, and the maximum efficiency) are computed using a FORTRAN program, called Circuit Technique for Semiconductor-device Analysis, CTSA, which numerically solves the six Shockley Equations under AM1 solar illumination at 88.92 mW/cm, at an optimum cell thickness of 50 um. The results show that very significant performance improvements can be realized by extending the BSF layer thickness from 2 um (18% efficiency) to 40 um (20% efficiency).

  1. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals a Possible Novel Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium Species with High Pathogenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Siew Woh; Dutta, Avirup; Wong, Guat Jah; Wee, Wei Yee; Ang, Mia Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria have been reported to cause a wide range of human diseases. We present the first whole-genome study of a Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium sp. UM_CSW (referred to hereafter as UM_CSW), isolated from a patient diagnosed with bronchiectasis. Our data suggest that this clinical isolate is likely a novel mycobacterial species, supported by clear evidence from molecular phylogenetic, comparative genomic, ANI and AAI analyses. UM_CSW is closely related to the Mycobacterium avium complex. While it has characteristic features of an environmental bacterium, it also shows a high pathogenic potential with the presence of a wide variety of putative genes related to bacterial virulence and shares very similar pathogenomic profiles with the known pathogenic mycobacterial species. Thus, we conclude that this possible novel Mycobacterium species should be tightly monitored for its possible causative role in human infections. PMID:27035710

  2. Printed Module Interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Stockert, Talysa R.; Fields, Jeremy D.; Pach, Gregory F.; Mauger, Scott A.; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.

    2015-06-14

    Monolithic interconnects in photovoltaic modules connect adjacent cells in series, and are typically formed sequentially involving multiple deposition and scribing steps. Interconnect widths of 500 um every 10 mm result in 5% dead area, which does not contribute to power generation in an interconnected solar panel. This work expands on previous work that introduced an alternative interconnection method capable of producing interconnect widths less than 100 um. The interconnect is added to the module in a single step after deposition of the photovoltaic stack, eliminating the need for scribe alignment. This alternative method can be used for all types of thin film photovoltaic modules. Voltage addition with copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells using a 2-scribe printed interconnect approach is demonstrated. Additionally, interconnect widths of 250 um are shown.

  3. University of Malaya dental students' attitudes towards communication skills learning: implications for dental education.

    PubMed

    Nor, Nor Azlida M; Yusof, Zamros Y M; Shahidan, Mohd Noor F M

    2011-12-01

    The Ministry of Higher Education in Malaysia has called for the implementation of a soft skills module in all public universities in Malaysia. In response to this and as part of curriculum development efforts for a new integrated program for 2011, a study was undertaken to improve the University of Malaya (UM) Faculty of Dentistry's communication skills course. One of the study objectives was to investigate dental students' attitudes towards communication skills learning and the association between their attitudes and demographic and education-related characteristics. A cross-sectional survey--using a self-administered twenty-four-item adapted Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) that contained both positive (PAS) and negative (NAS) attitude subscales--was carried out targeting all final-year dental students at the UM and the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). A total of 148 students completed the survey, yielding a response rate of 88.1 percent. Overall, UKM students had significantly more positive attitudes towards communication skills learning (PAS score: mean=48.69, SD=4.48, p<0.001) than UM students (mean=46.03, SD=4.22). There was no statistically significant difference in negative attitudes between the two groups. UKM students with more positive attitudes tended to be female (p<0.05). UM students with more negative attitudes perceived themselves as poor communicators (p<0.05), and UKM students with more negative attitudes tended to have poor English proficiency (p<0.05). This study found that both UM and UKM final-year dental students have positive and negative attitudes towards learning communication skills. These attitudes were significantly associated with certain background and education-related attributes. Outcomes of this study served as a valuable guide in strengthening the communication skills course for the UM's new, integrated dental curriculum. PMID:22184601

  4. Luteimonas tolerans sp. nov., isolated from hexachlorocyclohexane-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Rani, Pooja; Mukherjee, Udita; Verma, Helianthous; Kamra, Komal; Lal, Rup

    2016-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, yellow pigmented bacterial strain (UM1T) was isolated from the hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-contaminated dumpsite located at Ummari village in Lucknow, India. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain UM1T belongs to the genus Luteimonas with Luteimonas aestuarii B9T as the closest neighbour (97.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The DNA G+C content of strain UM1T was 64.3 mol%. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). Main fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C11:0, iso-C11:0 3-OH, iso-C17:0 and summed feature 9 (C16:0 10-methyl and/or iso-C17:1ω9c). Ubiquinone (Q-8) was the only respiratory quinone. Spermidine was detected as the major polyamine. The DNA-DNA relatedness value of strain UM1T with respect to its closest neighbour Luteimonas aestuarii B9T was well below 70 % (∼49%). Thus, data obtained from phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, and chemotaxonomical and biochemical analyses supports classification of strain UM1T as representative of a novel species of the genus Luteimonas, for which the name Luteimonas tolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is UM1T (=DSM 28473T=MCC 2572T=KCTC 42936T). PMID:26869334

  5. Activation of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor Inhibits Gluconeogenesis without Affecting Lipogenesis or Fatty Acid Synthesis in Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Caitlin; Pan, Yongmei; Li, Linhao; Heyward, Scott; Moeller, Timothy; Swaan, Peter W.; Wang, Hongbing

    2014-01-01

    Objective Accumulating evidence suggests that activation of mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) alleviates type 2 diabetes and obesity by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis. However, the role of human (h) CAR in energy metabolism is largely unknown. The present study aims to investigate the effects of selective hCAR activators on hepatic energy metabolism in human primary hepatocytes (HPH). Methods Ligand-based structure-activity models were used for virtual screening of the Specs database (www.specs.net) followed by biological validation in cell-based luciferase assays. The effects of two novel hCAR activators (UM104 and UM145) on hepatic energy metabolism were evaluated in HPH. Results Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses reveal that activation of hCAR by UM104 and UM145 significantly repressed the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, two pivotal gluconeogenic enzymes, while exerting negligible effects on the expression of genes associated with lipogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. Functional experiments show that UM104 and UM145 markedly inhibit hepatic synthesis of glucose but not triglycerides in HPH. In contrast, activation of mCAR by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene, a selective mCAR activator, repressed the expression of genes associated with gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis in mouse primary hepatocytes, which were consistent with previous observations in mouse model in vivo. Conclusion Our findings uncover an important species difference between hCAR and mCAR in hepatic energy metabolism, where hCAR selectively inhibits gluconeogenesis without suppressing fatty acid synthesis. Implications Such species selectivity should be considered when exploring CAR as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. PMID:24878338

  6. Delivering informatics capabilities to an AHC research community through public/private partnerships (PPP).

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin A; Athey, Brian D; Chahal, Amar P S; Sahai, Priti

    2008-11-06

    Velos eResearch is a commercially-developed, regulatory-compliant, web-based clinical research information system from Velos Inc. Aithent Inc. is a software development services company. The University of Michigan (UM) has public/private partnerships with Velos and Aithent to collaborate on development of additional capabilities, modules, and new products to better support the needs of clinical and translational research communities. These partnerships provide UM with a mechanism for obtaining high-quality functionally comprehensive capabilities more quickly and at lower cost, while the corporate partners get a quality advisory and development partner--this benefits all parties. The UM chose to partner with Velos in part because of its commitment to interoperability. Velos is an active participant in the NCI caBIG project and is committed to caBIG compatibility. Velos already provides interoperability with other Velos sites in the CTSA context. One example of the partnership is co-development of integrated specimen management capabilities. UM spent more than a year defining business requirements and technical specifications for, and is funding development of, this capability. UM also facilitates an autonomous user community (20+ institutions, 7 CTSA awardees); the broad goal of the group is to share experiences, expertise, identify collaborative opportunities, and support one another as well as provide a source of future needs identification to Velos. Advantages and risks related to delivering informatics capabilities to an AHC research community through a public/private partnership will be presented. The UM, Velos and Aithent will discuss frameworks, agreements and other factors that have contributed to a successful partnership.

  7. Fly ash formation and penetration through the electrostatic precipitator at PC boilers firing South African and Colombian coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kauppinen, E.I.; Lind, T.M.; Ylatalo, V.

    1995-12-31

    We have studied in detail the properties of fly ash particles in the size range 0.01 to 100 um formed during the combustion of South African and Colombian coals as well as the fly ash penetration through the electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Both coals were fired at a modern, pulverized coal fired boiler. In addition, South African coal was fired at another boiler. Both boilers were equipped with ABB ESP`s. In addition to standard coal analyses methods, both coals were analyzed with computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) to find more detailed information on the distribution of ash forming constituents in coal. Fly ash number and mass size distributions upstream and downstream the ESP were measured with the differential mobility analyzers and low pressure impactors, respectively. Fly ash upstream and downstream the ESPs was analyzed with CCSEM. Fly ash microstructure was determined with SEM and TEM. Fly ash particle number size distributions at conditions upstream the ESP showed a broad mode at 0.1 to 0.2 um. Electron micrographs showed that these ultrafine particles were chain-like agglomerates having few to several tens of 20 to 50 nm primary particles within each agglomerates Primary particles were mostly amorphous oxides of Al and Si coated with Ca. Particles larger than 0.1 um were spheres having ultrafine Primary particles and agglomerates deposited on the surface. Mass size distributions showed a major mode at 15 um. Only 1 to 2 percent of fly ash was smaller than 0.5 um on the mass basis, i.e. had vaporized during combustion. ESP penetration curves showed clear maxima at 0.1 to 1 um. CCSEM results indicated that supermicron fly ash penetration through the ESP was a function of both particle size and composition.

  8. Aggregation of freshly precipitated calcium oxalate crystals in urine of calcium stone patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Baumann, J M; Affolter, B; Casella, R

    2011-12-01

    Aggregation (AGN) of freshly precipitated calcium oxalate crystals was photometrically studied in urine of 30 calcium stone patients and 30 controls, in solutions containing urinary macromolecules (UMS) and in an inhibitor free control solution (CS). Crystals were produced by oxalate titration and crystallization was monitored measuring optical density (OD). Tests were repeated adding hydroxyapatite (HAP) to urine and UMS and adding citrate and pyrophosphate (PPi) to UMS of the controls. AGN was recognized as a rapid OD decrease being at least three times faster than sedimentation of single crystals (p < 0.001) and used to calculate an extent of AGN (EA%). The time between the end of titration and the beginning of AGN was determined as suspension stability (SS). The main effect of urinary inhibitors was retardation of AGN without changing EA, SS being higher in urine than UMS (p < 0.001) and in UMS than CS (p < 0.001). In urine of 63% of controls but only in 33% of patients, no AGN was recorded (p < 0.05). The high inhibitory activity of urine could not be reproduced in UMS even in combination with 3.5 mM citrate or 0.05 mM PPi. 0.05 mg/mL HAP reduced SS in all urine samples to low values and increased the rate of rapid OD decrease, being a measure for the size of aggregates. Retarding AGN of crystals during their passage through the kidney seems to be an important mechanism to prevent stone formation during crystalluria. The promotion of AGN by HAP reveals a new role of Randall's plaques in nephrolithiasis.

  9. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of Mycobacterium brisbanense Reveals a Possible Soil Origin and Capability in Fertiliser Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wee, Wei Yee; Tan, Tze King; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Choo, Siew Woh

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium brisbanense is a member of Mycobacterium fortuitum third biovariant complex, which includes rapidly growing Mycobacterium spp. that normally inhabit soil, dust and water, and can sometimes cause respiratory tract infections in humans. We present the first whole-genome analysis of M. brisbanense UM_WWY which was isolated from a 70-year-old Malaysian patient. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirmed the identification of this strain as M. brisbanense and showed that it has an unusually large genome compared with related mycobacteria. The large genome size of M. brisbanense UM_WWY (~7.7Mbp) is consistent with further findings that this strain has a highly variable genome structure that contains many putative horizontally transferred genomic islands and prophage. Comparative analysis showed that M. brisbanense UM_WWY is the only Mycobacterium species that possesses a complete set of genes encoding enzymes involved in the urea cycle, suggesting that this soil bacterium is able to synthesize urea for use as plant fertilizers. It is likely that M. brisbanense UM_WWY is adapted to live in soil as its primary habitat since the genome contains many genes associated with nitrogen metabolism. Nevertheless, a large number of predicted virulence genes were identified in M. brisbanense UM_WWY that are mostly shared with well-studied mycobacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium abscessus. These findings are consistent with the role of M. brisbanense as an opportunistic pathogen of humans. The whole-genome study of UM_WWY has provided the basis for future work of M. brisbanense. PMID:27031249

  10. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Matthew

    2015-08-20

    By combining the top performing commercial laser beam stabilization system with the most ideal optical imaging configuration, the beamline for the Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will deliver the highest quality and most stable beam to the cathode. To determine the optimal combination, LCLS-II beamline conditions were replicated and the systems tested with a He-Ne laser. The Guidestar-II and MRC active laser beam stabilization systems were evaluated for their ideal positioning and stability. Both a two and four lens optical imaging configuration was then evaluated for beam imaging quality, magnification properties, and natural stability. In their best performances when tested over fifteen hours, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable over approximately 70-110um while the MRC system kept it stable over approximately 90-100um. During short periods of time, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable between 10-20um, but was more susceptible to drift over time, while the MRC system maintained the beam between 30-50um with less overall drift. The best optical imaging configuration proved to be a four lens system that images to the iris located in the cathode room and from there, imaged to the cathode. The magnification from the iris to the cathode was 2:1, within an acceptable tolerance to the expected 2.1:1 magnification. The two lens configuration was slightly more stable in small periods of time (less than 10 minutes) without the assistance of a stability system, approximately 55um compared to approximately 70um, but the four lens configurations beam image had a significantly flatter intensity distribution compared to the two lens configuration which had a Gaussian distribution. A final test still needs to be run with both stability systems running at the same time through the four lens system. With this data, the optimal laser beam stabilization system can be determined for the beamline of LCLS-II.

  11. Ustilago maydis phosphodiesterases play a role in the dimorphic switch and in pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Charu; Aulakh, Kavita B; Edelen, Kaly; Cooper, Michael; Wallen, R Margaret; Adams, Seth; Schultz, David J; Perlin, Michael H

    2013-05-01

    Components of the cAMP (cyclic AMP) signalling cascades are conserved from fungi to humans, and are particularly important for fungal dimorphism and pathogenicity. Previous work has described two phosphodiesterases, UmPde1 and UmPde2, in Ustilago maydis which show strong phosphodiesterase activity. We further characterized the biological function(s) of these phosphodiesterases in U. maydis. Specifically, we examined their possible role(s) in regulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and their roles in filamentous growth and pathogenicity. We found that UmPde1, which shares 35 % similarity with Cryptococcus neoformans Pde1, also displays functional homology with this enzyme. UmPde1 complements the capsule-formation defect of C. neoformans strains deleted for Pde1. In U. maydis, the cell morphology of the umpde1 deletion mutant resembled the multiple budding phenotypes seen with the ubc1 mutant, which lacks the regulatory subunit of PKA. Interestingly, on low-ammonium medium, umpde2 deletion strains showed a reduction in filamentation that was comparable to that of ubc1 deletion strains; however, umpde1 deletion strains showed normal filamentation on low-ammonium medium. Furthermore, both the ubc1 deletion strain in which the PKA pathway was constitutively active and the umpde1 deletion strains were significantly reduced in pathogenicity, while the umpde2 deletion strains showed a trend for reduced pathogenicity compared with wild-type strains. These data support a role for the phosphodiesterases UmPde1 and UmPde2 in regulating the U. maydis cAMP-dependent PKA pathway through modulation of cAMP levels, thus affecting dimorphic growth and pathogenicity.

  12. Patterns of morphological variation in enamel–dentin junction and outer enamel surface of human molars

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Wataru; Yano, Wataru; Nagaoka, Tomohito; Abe, Mikiko; Ohshima, Hayato; Nakatsukasa, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Tooth crown patterning is governed by the growth and folding of the inner enamel epithelium (IEE) and the following enamel deposition forms outer enamel surface (OES). We hypothesized that overall dental crown shape and covariation structure are determined by processes that configurate shape at the enamel–dentine junction (EDJ), the developmental vestige of IEE. This this hypothesis was tested by comparing patterns of morphological variation between EDJ and OES in human permanent maxillary first molar (UM1) and deciduous second molar (um2). Using geometric morphometric methods, we described morphological variation and covariation between EDJ and OES, and evaluated the strength of two components of phenotypic variability, canalization and morphological integration, in addition to the relevant evolutionary flexibility, i.e. the ability to respond to selective pressure. The strength of covariation between EDJ and OES was greater in um2 than in UM1, and the way that multiple traits covary between EDJ and OES was different between these teeth. The variability analyses showed that EDJ had less shape variation and a higher level of morphological integration than OES, which indicated that canalization and morphological integration acted as developmental constraints. These tendencies were greater in UM1 than in um2. On the other hand, EDJ and OES had a comparable level of evolvability in these teeth. Amelogenesis could play a significant role in tooth shape and covariation structure, and its influence was not constant among teeth, which may be responsible for the differences in the rate and/or period of enamel formation. PMID:24689536

  13. University of Malaya dental students' attitudes towards communication skills learning: implications for dental education.

    PubMed

    Nor, Nor Azlida M; Yusof, Zamros Y M; Shahidan, Mohd Noor F M

    2011-12-01

    The Ministry of Higher Education in Malaysia has called for the implementation of a soft skills module in all public universities in Malaysia. In response to this and as part of curriculum development efforts for a new integrated program for 2011, a study was undertaken to improve the University of Malaya (UM) Faculty of Dentistry's communication skills course. One of the study objectives was to investigate dental students' attitudes towards communication skills learning and the association between their attitudes and demographic and education-related characteristics. A cross-sectional survey--using a self-administered twenty-four-item adapted Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) that contained both positive (PAS) and negative (NAS) attitude subscales--was carried out targeting all final-year dental students at the UM and the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). A total of 148 students completed the survey, yielding a response rate of 88.1 percent. Overall, UKM students had significantly more positive attitudes towards communication skills learning (PAS score: mean=48.69, SD=4.48, p<0.001) than UM students (mean=46.03, SD=4.22). There was no statistically significant difference in negative attitudes between the two groups. UKM students with more positive attitudes tended to be female (p<0.05). UM students with more negative attitudes perceived themselves as poor communicators (p<0.05), and UKM students with more negative attitudes tended to have poor English proficiency (p<0.05). This study found that both UM and UKM final-year dental students have positive and negative attitudes towards learning communication skills. These attitudes were significantly associated with certain background and education-related attributes. Outcomes of this study served as a valuable guide in strengthening the communication skills course for the UM's new, integrated dental curriculum.

  14. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of Mycobacterium brisbanense Reveals a Possible Soil Origin and Capability in Fertiliser Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Wei Yee; Tan, Tze King; Jakubovics, Nicholas S.; Choo, Siew Woh

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium brisbanense is a member of Mycobacterium fortuitum third biovariant complex, which includes rapidly growing Mycobacterium spp. that normally inhabit soil, dust and water, and can sometimes cause respiratory tract infections in humans. We present the first whole-genome analysis of M. brisbanense UM_WWY which was isolated from a 70-year-old Malaysian patient. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirmed the identification of this strain as M. brisbanense and showed that it has an unusually large genome compared with related mycobacteria. The large genome size of M. brisbanense UM_WWY (~7.7Mbp) is consistent with further findings that this strain has a highly variable genome structure that contains many putative horizontally transferred genomic islands and prophage. Comparative analysis showed that M. brisbanense UM_WWY is the only Mycobacterium species that possesses a complete set of genes encoding enzymes involved in the urea cycle, suggesting that this soil bacterium is able to synthesize urea for use as plant fertilizers. It is likely that M. brisbanense UM_WWY is adapted to live in soil as its primary habitat since the genome contains many genes associated with nitrogen metabolism. Nevertheless, a large number of predicted virulence genes were identified in M. brisbanense UM_WWY that are mostly shared with well-studied mycobacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium abscessus. These findings are consistent with the role of M. brisbanense as an opportunistic pathogen of humans. The whole-genome study of UM_WWY has provided the basis for future work of M. brisbanense. PMID:27031249

  15. Quantified Histopathology of the Keratoconic Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Jessica H.; Goosey, John D.; Bergmanson, Jan P. G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The present study systematically investigated and quantified histopathological changes in a series of keratoconic (Kc) corneas utilizing a physiologically formulated fixative to not further distort the already distorted diseased corneas. Methods Twelve surgically removed Kc corneal buttons were immediately preserved and processed for light and transmission electron microscopy using an established corneal protocol. Measurements were taken from the central cone and peripheral regions of the host button. The sample size examined ranged in length from 390–2608um centrally and 439–2242um peripherally. Results The average corneal thickness was 437um centrally and 559um peripherally. Epithelial thickness varied centrally from 14–92um and peripherally from 30–91um. A marked thickening of the epithelial basement membrane was noted in 58% of corneas. Centrally, anterior limiting lamina (ALL) was thinned or lost over 60% of the area examined, while peripheral cornea was also affected, but to a lesser extent. Histopathologically, posterior cornea remained undisturbed by the disease. Anteriorly in the stroma, an increased number of cells and tissue debris were encountered and some of these cells were clearly not keratocytes. Conclusions It is concluded that Kc pathology, at least initially, has a distinct anterior focus involving the epithelium, ALL and anterior stroma. The epithelium had lost its cellular uniformity and was compromised by the loss or damage to the ALL. The activity of the hitherto unreported recruited stromal cells may be to break down and remove ALL and anterior stromal lamellae leading to the overall thinning that accompanies this disease. PMID:21623252

  16. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of Mycobacterium brisbanense Reveals a Possible Soil Origin and Capability in Fertiliser Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wee, Wei Yee; Tan, Tze King; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Choo, Siew Woh

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium brisbanense is a member of Mycobacterium fortuitum third biovariant complex, which includes rapidly growing Mycobacterium spp. that normally inhabit soil, dust and water, and can sometimes cause respiratory tract infections in humans. We present the first whole-genome analysis of M. brisbanense UM_WWY which was isolated from a 70-year-old Malaysian patient. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirmed the identification of this strain as M. brisbanense and showed that it has an unusually large genome compared with related mycobacteria. The large genome size of M. brisbanense UM_WWY (~7.7Mbp) is consistent with further findings that this strain has a highly variable genome structure that contains many putative horizontally transferred genomic islands and prophage. Comparative analysis showed that M. brisbanense UM_WWY is the only Mycobacterium species that possesses a complete set of genes encoding enzymes involved in the urea cycle, suggesting that this soil bacterium is able to synthesize urea for use as plant fertilizers. It is likely that M. brisbanense UM_WWY is adapted to live in soil as its primary habitat since the genome contains many genes associated with nitrogen metabolism. Nevertheless, a large number of predicted virulence genes were identified in M. brisbanense UM_WWY that are mostly shared with well-studied mycobacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium abscessus. These findings are consistent with the role of M. brisbanense as an opportunistic pathogen of humans. The whole-genome study of UM_WWY has provided the basis for future work of M. brisbanense.

  17. "INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY SUMMARY AND RESULTS FOR THE FORD NUCLEAR REACTOR, REVISION 1, ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN

    SciTech Connect

    ALTIC, NICK A

    2013-08-01

    At the NRC's request, ORAU conducted confirmatory surveys of the FNR during the period of December 4 through 6, 2012. The survey activities included visual inspections and measurement and sampling activities. Confirmatory activities also included the review and assessment of UM's project documentation and methodologies. Surface scans identified elevated activity in two areas. The first area was on a wall outside of Room 3103 and the second area was in the southwest section on the first floor. The first area was remediated to background levels. However, the second area was due to gamma shine from a neighboring source storage area. A retrospective analysis of UM's FSS data shows that for the SUs investigated by the ORAU survey team, UM met the survey requirements set forth in the FSSP. The total mean surface activity values were directly compared with the mean total surface activity reported by UM. Mean surface activity values determined by UM were within two standard deviations of the mean determined by ORAU. Additionally, all surface activity values were less than the corresponding gross beta DCGL{sub W}. Laboratory analysis of the soil showed that COC concentrations were less than the respective DCGL{sub W} values. For the inter-lab comparison, the DER was above 3 for only one sample. However, since the sum of fractions for each of the soil samples was below 1, thus none of the samples would fail to meet release guidelines. Based on the findings of the side-by-side direct measurements, and after discussion with the NRC and ORAU, UM decided to use a more appropriate source efficiency in their direct measurement calculations and changed their source efficiency from 0.37 to 0.25.

  18. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY SUMMARY AND RESULTS FOR THE FORD NUCLEAR REACTOR, ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN

    SciTech Connect

    ALTIC, NICK A

    2013-07-25

    At the NRC's request, ORAU conducted confirmatory surveys of the FNR during the period of December 4 through 6, 2012. The survey activities included visual inspections and measurement and sampling activities. Confirmatory activities also included the review and assessment of UM's project documentation and methodologies. Surface scans identified elevated activity in two areas. The first area was on a wall outside of Room 3103 and the second area was in the southwest section on the first floor. The first area was remediated to background levels. However, the second area was due to gamma shine from a neighboring source storage area. A retrospective analysis of UM's FSS data shows that for the SUs investigated by the ORAU survey team, UM met the survey requirements set forth in the FSSP. The total mean surface activity values were directly compared with the mean total surface activity reported by UM. Mean surface activity values determined by UM were within two standard deviations of the mean determined by ORAU. Additionally, all surface activity values were less than the corresponding gross beta DCGLW. Laboratory analysis of the soil showed that COC concentrations were less than the respective DCGLW values. For the inter-lab comparison, the DER was above 3 for only one sample. However, since the sum of fractions for each of the soil samples was below 1, thus none of the samples would fail to meet release guidelines. Based on the findings of the side-by-side direct measurements, and after discussion with the NRC and ORAU, UM decided to use a more appropriate source efficiency in their direct measurement calculations and changed their source efficiency from 0.37 to 0.25.

  19. Laboratory simulation of infrared astrophysical features. Ph.D. Thesis; [emission spectra of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    Intermediate resolution emission spectroscopy was used to study a group of 9 terrestrial silicates, 1 synthetic silicate, 6 meteorites and 2 lunar soils; comparisons were made with the intermediate resolution spectra of Comet Kohoutek in order to determine which materials best simulate the 10um astrophysical feature. Mixtures of silicates which would yield spectra matching the spectrum of the comet in the 10um region include: (1) A hydrous layer lattice silicate in combination with a high temperature condensate; (2) an amorphous magnesium silicate in combination with a high temperature condensate and (3) glassy olivine and glassy anorthite in approximately equal proportions.

  20. Compact large-aperture Fabry-Perot interferometer modules for gas spectroscopy at mid-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantojärvi, Uula; Varpula, Aapo; Antila, Tapani; Holmlund, Christer; Mäkynen, Jussi; Näsilä, Antti; Mannila, Rami; Rissanen, Anna; Antila, Jarkko; Disch, Rolf J.; Waldmann, Torsten A.

    2014-03-01

    VTT has developed Fabry-Pérot Interferometers (FPI) for visible and infrared wavelengths since 90's. Here we present two new platforms for mid-infrared gas spectroscopy having a large optical aperture to provide high optical throughput but still enabling miniaturized instrument size. First platform is a tunable filter that replaces a traditional filter wheel, which operates between wavelengths of 4-5 um. Second platform is for correlation spectroscopy where the interferometer provides a comb-like transmission pattern mimicking absorption of diatomic molecules at the wavelength range of 4.7-4.8 um. The Bragg mirrors have 2-4 thin layers of polysilicon and silicon oxide.

  1. Activity profile and physiological response to football training for untrained males and females, elderly and youngsters: influence of the number of players.

    PubMed

    Randers, M B; Nybo, L; Petersen, J; Nielsen, J J; Christiansen, L; Bendiksen, M; Brito, J; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the activity profile, heart rate and metabolic response of small-sided football games for untrained males (UM, n=26) and females (UF, n=21) and investigated the influence of the number of players (UM: 1v1, 3v3, 7v7; UF: 2v2, 4v4 and 7v7). Moreover, heart rate response to small-sided games was studied for children aged 9 and 12 years (C9+C12, n=75), as well as homeless (HM, n=15), middle-aged (MM, n=9) and elderly (EM, n=11) men. During 7v7, muscle glycogen decreased more for UM than UF (28 +/- 6 vs 11 +/- 5%; P<0.05) and lactate increased more (18.4 +/- 3.6 vs 10.8 +/- 2.1 mmol kg(-1) d.w.; P<0.05). For UM, glycogen decreased in all fiber types and blood lactate, glucose and plasma FFA was elevated (P<0.05). The mean heart rate (HR(mean)) and time >90% of HR(max) ranged from 147 +/- 4 (EM) to 162 +/- 2 (UM) b.p.m. and 10.8 +/- 1.5 (UF) to 47.8 +/- 5.8% (EM). Time >90% of HR(max) (UM: 16-17%; UF: 8-13%) and time spent with high speed running (4.1-5.1%) was similar for training with 2-14 players, but more high-intensity runs were performed with few players (UM 1v1: 140 +/- 17; UM 7v7: 97 +/- 5; P<0.05): Small-sided games were shown to elucidate high heart rates for all player groups, independently of age, sex, social background and number of players, and a high number of intense actions both for men and women. Thus, small-sided football games appear to have the potential to create physiological adaptations and improve performance with regular training for a variety of study groups.

  2. Radio AGN signatures in massive quiescent galaxies out to z=1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Allison

    2016-08-01

    This work represents the first multi-wavelength analysis of the average IR and radio emission in 14200 quiescent galaxies out to z=3. By stacking 24um, Herschel and VLA imaging data, we reveal the widespread presence of low-luminosity radio AGN among massive galaxies of Mstar>10^11Msun out to at least z=1.5, reciprocating the fact that massive quiescent galaxies are the preferential hosts of low-lumionsity AGN. Combined with the result of low average 24um emission, we infer that only radio-mode feedback, but not (obscured) quasar-mode feedback, is at work in keeping star formation inefficient in these galaxies.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Submm polarization of Galactic clouds (Vaillancourt+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaillancourt, J. E.; Matthews, B. C.

    2012-10-01

    We have compiled all the spatially coincident data available from the Hertz (350um; Dotson et al. 2010, Cat. J/ApJS/186/406) and SCUBA (850um; Matthews et al. 2009, Cat. J/ApJS/182/143) polarimeters. In order to facilitate this comparison the SCUBA-pol data have been spatially re-sampled to match the spatial locations of the Hertz data; the two instruments have comparable spatial resolution (20"). We find a total of 1699 individual locations which can be compared within 17 different Galactic clouds. (2 data files).

  4. Activity profile and physiological response to football training for untrained males and females, elderly and youngsters: influence of the number of players.

    PubMed

    Randers, M B; Nybo, L; Petersen, J; Nielsen, J J; Christiansen, L; Bendiksen, M; Brito, J; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the activity profile, heart rate and metabolic response of small-sided football games for untrained males (UM, n=26) and females (UF, n=21) and investigated the influence of the number of players (UM: 1v1, 3v3, 7v7; UF: 2v2, 4v4 and 7v7). Moreover, heart rate response to small-sided games was studied for children aged 9 and 12 years (C9+C12, n=75), as well as homeless (HM, n=15), middle-aged (MM, n=9) and elderly (EM, n=11) men. During 7v7, muscle glycogen decreased more for UM than UF (28 +/- 6 vs 11 +/- 5%; P<0.05) and lactate increased more (18.4 +/- 3.6 vs 10.8 +/- 2.1 mmol kg(-1) d.w.; P<0.05). For UM, glycogen decreased in all fiber types and blood lactate, glucose and plasma FFA was elevated (P<0.05). The mean heart rate (HR(mean)) and time >90% of HR(max) ranged from 147 +/- 4 (EM) to 162 +/- 2 (UM) b.p.m. and 10.8 +/- 1.5 (UF) to 47.8 +/- 5.8% (EM). Time >90% of HR(max) (UM: 16-17%; UF: 8-13%) and time spent with high speed running (4.1-5.1%) was similar for training with 2-14 players, but more high-intensity runs were performed with few players (UM 1v1: 140 +/- 17; UM 7v7: 97 +/- 5; P<0.05): Small-sided games were shown to elucidate high heart rates for all player groups, independently of age, sex, social background and number of players, and a high number of intense actions both for men and women. Thus, small-sided football games appear to have the potential to create physiological adaptations and improve performance with regular training for a variety of study groups. PMID:20149143

  5. Investigations of initiation spot size effects

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Steven A; Akinci, Adrian A; Leichty, Gary; Schaffer, Timothy; Murphy, Michael J; Munger, Alan; Thomas, Keith A

    2010-01-01

    As explosive components become smaller, a greater understanding of the effect of initiation spot size on detonation becomes increasingly critical. A series of tests of the effect of initiation spot size will be described. A series of DOI (direct optical initiation) detonators with initiation spots sizes from {approx}50 um to 1000um have been tested to determine laser parameters for threshold firing of low density PETN pressings. Results will be compared with theoretical predictions. Outputs of the initiation source (DOI ablation) have been characterized by a suite of diagnostics including PDV and schlieren imaging. Outputs of complete detonators have been characterized using PDV, streak, and/or schlieren imaging. At present, we have not found the expected change in the threshold energy to spot size relationship for DOI type detonators found in similar earlier for projectiles, slappers and EBWs. New detonators designs (Type C) are currently being tested that will allow the determination of the threshold for spot sizes from 250 um to 105um, where we hope to see change in the threshold vs. spot size relationship. Also, one test of an extremely small diameter spot size (50um) has resulted in preliminary NoGo only results even at energy densities as much as 8 times the energy density of the threshold results presented here. This gives preliminary evidence that 50um spot may be beyond the critical initiation diameter. The constant threshold energy to spot size relationship in the data to date does however still give some insight into the initiation mechanism of DOI detonators. If the DOI initiation mechanism were a 1D mechanism similar to a slapper or a flyer impact, the expected inflection point in the graph would have been between 300um and 500um diameter spot size, within the range of the data presented here. The lack of that inflection point indicates that the DOI initiation mechanism is more likely a 2D mechanism similar to a sphere or rod projectile. We expect to

  6. The James Webb Space Telescope and its Detector Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission, it's scientific goals, and how these drive detector systems technology. We describe the specific technologies that were developed (2.5 um and 5 um cutoff HgCdTe HAWAIIW2RG arrays for the 3 near-IR instruments, SIDECAR ASICs for the near-IR instruments, and Si:As arrays for the raid-IR instrument). We describe status in each of these areas with an emphasis on the performance of the flight detector systems themselves.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Mid-IR QSO spectral templates (Hill+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, A. R.; Gallagher, S. C.; Deo, R. P.; Peeters, E.; Richards, G. T.

    2014-11-01

    We coordinate cross matched the SDSS quasar catalogue (Schneider et al., 2010AJ....139.2360S, Cat. VII/260) with the Spitzer (Werner et al. 2004ApJS..154....1W) Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) archive, using a match radius of 2 arcsec, yielding 184 low-resolution (R~60-130) MIR spectra. We selected all data which had short-low (SL; 5.1-14.3um) and/or long-low (LL; 13.9-39.9um) modules (although not all objects necessarily had both modules), opting to keep only the low-resolution data. (2 data files).

  8. Silicon Ingot Casting - Heat Exchanger Method Multi-wire Slicing - Fixed Abrasive Slicing Technique. Phase 3 Silicon Sheet Growth Development for the Large Area Sheet Task of the Low-cost Solar Array Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, F.; Khattak, C. P.

    1979-01-01

    Several 20 cm diameter silicon ingots, up to 6.3 kg. were cast with good crystallinity. The graphite heat zone can be purified by heating it to high temperatures in vacuum. This is important in reducing costs and purification of large parts. Electroplated wires with 45 um synthetic diamonds and 30 um natural diamonds showed good cutting efficiency and lifetime. During slicing of a 10 cm x 10 cm workpiece, jerky motion occurred in the feed and rocking mechanisms. This problem is corrected and modifications were made to reduce the weight of the bladeheat by 50%.

  9. Spectrum of the Runaway Electron Beam Generated During a Nanosecond Discharge in Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.

    2016-04-01

    The spectrum of supershort avalanche runaway electron beam generated in air at atmospheric pressure is experimentally investigated using a time-of-flight spectrometer and attenuation curves. It is shown that the maximum of the electron energy distribution for the main (second) group of electrons is less than the energy eUm, where Um is the maximal voltage across the gap, and the difference between these energies depends on the design of the cathode and the interelectrode gap in a gas diode. It is confirmed that there are three groups of electrons with different energies in the runaway electron beam spectrum.

  10. Self-replicating quadratics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, Christopher S.; Nadarajah, Saralees

    2012-06-01

    We show that there are exactly four quadratic polynomials, Q(x) = x 2 + ax + b, such that UM0001"> um0001.gif"/> For n = 1, 2, … , these quadratic polynomials can be written as the product of N = 2 n quadratic polynomials in x 1/N , namely, ? , where w N is the Nth root of 1.

  11. Modeling unmanned system collaborative target engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Hicklen, Michael L.

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes a novel algorithm for collaborative target engagement by unmanned systems (UMS) resulting in emergent behavior. We demonstrate UMS collaborative engagement using a simulation testbed model of a road, convoy vehicles traveling along the road, a squadron of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and multiple unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) which are set to detonate when within close proximity to a convoy vehicle. No explicit artificial intelligence or swarming algorithms were used. Collision avoidance was an intrinsic phenomena. All entities acted independently throughout the simulation, but were given similar local instructions for possible courses of action (COAs) depending on current situations. Our algorithm and results are summarized in this paper.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: JCMT Plane Survey: l=30° field (Moore+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. J. T.; Plume, R.; Thompson, M. A.; Parsons, H.; Urquhart, J. S.; Eden, D. J.; Dempsey, J. T.; Morgan, L. K.; Thomas, H. S.; Buckle, J.; Brunt, C. M.; Butner, H.; Carretero, D.; Chrysostomou, A.; Devilliers, H. M.; Fich, M.; Hoare, M. G.; Manser, G.; Mottram, J. C.; Natario, C.; Olguin, F.; Peretto, N.; Polychroni, D.; Redman, R. O.; Rigby, A. J.; Salji, C.; Summers, L. J.; Berry, D.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T.; Pestalozzi, M.; Traficante, A.; Bastien, P.; Difrancesco, J.; Davis, C. J.; Evans, A.; Friberg, P.; Fuller, G. A.; Gibb, A. G.; Gibson, S.; Hill, T.; Johnstone, D.; Joncas, G.; Longmore, S. N.; Lumsden, S. L.; Martin, P. G.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Pineda, J. E.; Purcell, C.; Richer, J. S.; Schieven, G. H.; Shipman, R.; Spaans, M.; Taylor, A. R.; Viti, S.; Weferling, B.; White, G. J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-06-01

    JPS uses the wide-field submm-band bolometer camera SCUBA-2 (the Submm Common-User Bolometer Array 2) in the 850um band at a spatial resolution of 14.5-arcsec. The 850um survey data presented in this paper cover the l=30° field of the JPS and were observed between 2012 June and 2013 October. The 11 tiles making up the field were observed on average three times each. A strategy of minimum elevation limits for given atmospheric opacity bands within the allocated range was adopted, in order to minimize variations in the resulting noise in each repeated tile. (1 data file).

  13. Evolution of the slab bending radius and the bending dissipation in three-dimensional subduction models with a variable slab to upper mantle viscosity ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellart, W. P.

    2009-10-01

    Three-dimensional laboratory subduction models are presented investigating the influence of the slab/upper mantle viscosity ratio (η SP/η UM) on the slab bending radius ( RB), with η SP/η UM = 66-1375. Here, RB is non-dimensionalized by dividing it by the upper mantle thickness ( TUM). The results show that RB/ TUM varies with time, reaching a maximum when the subduction velocity is maximum. Furthermore, RB/ TUM increases approximately linearly with increasing η SP/η UM for the investigated viscosity range. The model results show that the slab bending force ( FBe) and the energy dissipation during bending (Ф Be) are small compared to the negative buoyancy force of the slab ( FBu) and the potential energy release during sinking (Ф Bu). Maxima in Ф Be/Ф Bu (≈ FBe/ FBu) are reached in the early stage of subduction when RB/ TUM is minimum and the slab tip is at 220-440 km depth. Maximum Ф Be/Ф Bu increases with increasing η SP/η UM, with Ф Be/Ф Bu(max) = 0.06, 0.11, 0.18 and 0.22 for η SP/η UM = 66, 217, 709 and 1375, respectively. For subduction depths > 220-440 km, Ф Be/Ф Bu = 0.02-0.11 for all viscosity ratios. Assuming that in nature η SP/η UM < 1000, and that viscous dissipation during plan view curvature of the slab is ≤ 1%, the models predict that in nature most of the slab's potential energy is used to drive mantle flow (on average 88%-97% and minimally 81%), whilst only a small component is used to bend the subducting plate at the hinge (on average 2-11% and maximally 18%). Applying the model predictions for RB/ TUM and Ф Be/Ф Bu to natural subduction zones implies that in nature η SP/η UM = 1-7 × 10 2 and η UM = 0.8-2.7 × 10 20 Pa·s. Finally, the laboratory models, which use glucose syrup and silicone oil as modelling materials, highlight the importance of accurate control on temperature during an experiment. New material investigations show that the viscosity of these two materials decreases exponentially with temperature in

  14. Performance of juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) produced from untreated and cryopreserved milt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Michael C.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the expanding use of milt cryopreservation in aquaculture, the performance of fish produced from this technique has not been fully explored beyond initial rearing stages. We compared the performance of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss produced from untreated (UM) and cryopreserved milt (CM) and reared for 4–9 months. For the 1996 brood, CM alevins were heavier (∼ 1.7%, P < 0.01) than UM alevins and length was influenced by a significant milt-by-family interaction (P < 0.03) suggesting a greater treatment effect for some families. No significant differences were found in length or weight (P > 0.05) for 1997 brood alevins and percent yolk was similar for both broods (P > 0.34). In growth and survival experiment I (GSE-I, 1996), UM and CM juveniles reared in separate tanks and fed to satiation (130 days) showed no significant differences in survival, length or weight (P > 0.05) between milt groups. In contrast, for UM and CM siblings reared in the same tank for 210 days on a low food ration (GSE-II), survival was similar (P > 0.05), but length (UM 4% > CM, P < 0.05) and possibly weight (UM 15% > CM, P = 0.08), were influenced by cryopreservation. Fish from the 1997 brood (GSE-III) were reared for 313 days in a repeat of GSE-II and no differences were found in survival (P = 0.47), length (P = 0.75) or weight (P = 0.76) suggesting considerable heterogeneity between broods. Performance of the 1996 brood was also tested for response to stress and a disease challenge. Cortisol responses of juveniles exposed to acute stress were not significantly different (P = 0.19), but mean cortisol was consistently and significantly greater (P < 0.01) for CM than UM fish exposed to a 48-h stress (increased density). After exposure to three dosages of the bacteria, Listonella anguillarum, we found similar mortality proportions (P = 0.72) for UM and CM fish. Variable juvenile performance for the parameters tested indicated significant

  15. Distinguishing Na, K, and H3O+ Jarosite and Alunite on Mars using VNIR, Emittance and Mossbauer Spectroscopy on the MER and Mars Express/OMEGA Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Rothstein, Y.; Dyar, M. D.; Lane, M. D.; Klima, R. L.; Brophy, G. P.

    2005-12-01

    Jarosite has been identified in layered outcrops in Meridiani by the MER Mossbauer spectrometer [Klingelhofer, et al., 2004] and may be present elsewhere on Mars. We are studying VNIR, emittance and Mossbauer spectroscopy of a suite of synthetic and natural samples of jarosite and alunite from the Brophy collection [e.g. Brophy and Sheridan, 1965]. The characteristic NIR overtones and combination bands in this group differ not only depending on the trivalent cation (e.g. Al for alunite and Fe for jarosite), but also depending on the type of monovalent cation (typically K, Na and/or H3O). The VNIR spectrum of K-jarosite exhibits an OH stretching band at 1.47 um, an OH stretch + 2 bend combination doublet at 1.849 and 1.864 um, plus an OH stretch + bend combination triplet at 2.215, 2.265, and 2.300 um and additional OH and SO4 combination features near 2.40, 2.46, 2.50, 2.60 and 2.62 um. H3O- and Na-jarosite spectra exhibit broader features and the doublet is less resolvable. The spectrum of Na-jarosite contains a band at 1.48 um, a broad asymmetric band near 1.85 um and a triplet near 2.235, 2.275, and 2.310 um, plus additional features near 2.42, 2.47, 2.52, 2.62 and 2.64 um. Band assignments for jarosite and alunite spectra are from Bishop and Murad [2005]. We are in the process of comparing these spectra with the mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of this jarosite group sample suite in order to perform coordinated analyses for this sulfate group on Mars using the MER and Mars Express datasets. References: Bishop, J. L., and E. Murad (2005), The visible and infrared spectral properties of jarosite and alunite, Am. Miner., 90, 1100-1107. Brophy, G. P., and M. F. Sheridan (1965), Sulfate studies IV: The jarosite-natrojarosite-hydronium jarosite solid solution series, Am. Miner., 50, 1595-1607. Klingelhofer, G., et al. (2004), Jarosite and hematite at Meridiani Planum from Opportunity's Mossbauer spectrometer, Science, 306, 1740-1745.

  16. Quantification of skin wrinkles using low coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jung-Taek; Kim, Beop-Min; Son, Sang-Ryoon; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Dong-Yoon; Kim, Youn-Soo

    2004-07-01

    We measure the skin wrinkle topology by means of low coherence interferometry (LCI), which forms the basis of the optical coherence tomography (OCT). The skin topology obtained using LCI and corresponding 2-D fast Fourier transform allow quantification of skin wrinkles. It took approximately 2 minutes to obtain 2.1 mm x 2.1 mm topological image with 4 um and 16 um resolutions in axial and transverse directions, respectively. Measurement examples show the particular case of skin contour change after-wrinkle cosmeceutical treatments and atopic dermatitis

  17. Binary Debris Disks: Follow-on Observations of Spitzer Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansberry, John; Haghighipour, Nader; Jensen, Eric; Kortenkamp, Stephen; Mathieu, Robert; Rieke, George; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Su, Katherine; Trilling, David

    2008-03-01

    We have completed a MIPS survey for debris disks in 63 A5-F5 main sequence binary systems having separations of 0 - 500 AU, placing the secondary within the planet-forming zone. All targets were detected at 24um; at 70um we observed 50 of the targets, detecting 50 of those at SNR > 3. A surprising result of the survey is that 18 of those systems (36%) display 70um emission in excess of the photospheres, a rate is larger than that seen for single stars of comparable age. The 9% excess rate we found at 24um is also high by that comparison. To explore this difference, we propose to complete the initial survey at 70um, and to refine the results for the systems that show excess emission. The systems lacking 70um data ~all have separations > 5 AU: completing the sample will balance the larger number of systems with 70um data and separations < 5AU. These data will provide the control sample for an approved MIPS cycle 4 survey of 50 close binaries, provide the link to existing results for single stars, and should turn up ~4 more debris disks. Our estimates for where the dust resides in these disk systems is crude, with typical errors on the distance between the stars and the dust of about one order of magnitude. We also propose to obtain IRS 7-38um spectra of 15 of the systems known to have excesses, and use the spectra to improve these uncertainties significantly. By modeling the shape of the emission spectrum, we will accurately locate the inner-edges of the disks. For circumbinary disks, the location of the inner-edge will provide tests of models for dynamical stability (of the dust parent bodies), and possibly provide evidence of planets on circumbinary orbits (if the inner-edge turns out to be well outside the region where it would be expected to be stable). For circumstellar disks, the location of the inner-edge may be diagnostic of the presence of planets on circumstellar orbits, if it is found to be well-removed from the star.

  18. Technology for producing carbon field emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Khatapova, R.M.; Demskaya, L.L.; Romanova, V.K.

    1985-12-01

    This paper describes methods for producing field emitters from carbon filaments. Coating of Ni and two-layer coatings of Ni-Mo with a thickness of 10-40 um are applied to the carbon filaments by electrochemical deposition so that they can be spot welded to a metal holder. A technology for attaching carbon filaments with a refractory adhesive composition is also described. Field emitters with point radius of curvature of 0.2-0.4 um are made from three types of carbon filament.

  19. Diode-pumped, electrically tunable erbium-doped fiber-ring laser with fiber Fabry-Perot etalon

    SciTech Connect

    Zyskind, J.L.; Sulfoff, J.W.; Stone, J.; DiGiovanni, D.J.; Stulz, L.W.

    1992-05-22

    An all fiber, diode-pumped, electrically tunable ring laser is reported. Gain is provided by an erbium-doped fiber and tuning by a Fiber Fabry-Perot etalon. The threshold at 1.566 um is 2.9 mW, the slope efficiency is 0.15 and the output 4.2 mW with 32 mW of pump power. The output wavelength can be tuned from 1.525 to 1.586 um with a variation in power of less than 3.5 dB.

  20. Infrared observations of P/Halley and P/Encke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrz, Robert D.; Ney, E. P.

    1988-01-01

    Broadband optical/infrared photometers responding from 0.5 to 23 microns mounted on the Univ. of Minnesota (UM) O'Brien 76-cm telescope, Wyoming Infrared Observatory 234-cm telescope, and UM's Mount Lemmon Infrared Observatory 152-cm telescope were used to measure comet Halley more than 30 times between 12 Dec. 1985 to 6 May 1986. The Wyoming system was used to measure P/Encke on 24 Jul. 1987. The equipment and observations of Halley were fully described by Gehrz and Ney. Conclusions based on a preliminary analysis of the Halley and P/Encke data are reported.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HAPLESS galaxies sample (Clark+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, C. J. R.; Dunne, L.; Gomez, H. L.; Maddox, S.; de Vis, P.; Smith, M. W. L.; Eales, S. A.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bourne, N.; Driver, S. P.; Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Grootes, M. W.; Ivison, R. J.; Schofield, S. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Rowlands, K.; Valiante, E.; Vlahakis, C.; van der Werf, P.; Wright, A. H.; de Zotti, G.

    2016-01-01

    Observations for H-ATLAS were carried out in parallel mode at 100 and 160um with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) and at 250, 350 and 500um with the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) instruments on board Herschel. A sample of 42 galaxies was assembled from the H-ATLAS Phase-1 Version-3 catalogue in the distance range 15

  2. Maximum speeds and alpha angles of flowing avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClung, David; Gauer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    A flowing avalanche is one which initiates as a slab and, if consisting of dry snow, will be enveloped in a turbulent snow dust cloud once the speed reaches about 10 m/s. A flowing avalanche has a dense core of flowing material which dominates the dynamics by serving as the driving force for downslope motion. The flow thickness typically on the order of 1 -10 m which is on the order of about 1% of the length of the flowing mass. We have collected estimates of maximum frontal speed um (m/s) from 118 avalanche events. The analysis is given here with the aim of using the maximum speed scaled with some measure of the terrain scale over which the avalanches ran. We have chosen two measures for scaling, from McClung (1990), McClung and Schaerer (2006) and Gauer (2012). The two measures are the √H0-;√S0-- (total vertical drop; total path length traversed). Our data consist of 118 avalanches with H0 (m)estimated and 106 with S0 (m)estimated. Of these, we have 29 values with H0 (m),S0 (m)and um (m/s)estimated accurately with the avalanche speeds measured all or nearly all along the path. The remainder of the data set includes approximate estimates of um (m/s)from timing the avalanche motion over a known section of the path where approximate maximum speed is expected and with either H0or S0or both estimated. Our analysis consists of fitting the values of um/√H0--; um/√S0- to probability density functions (pdf) to estimate the exceedance probability for the scaled ratios. In general, we found the best fits for the larger data sets to fit a beta pdf and for the subset of 29, we found a shifted log-logistic (s l-l) pdf was best. Our determinations were as a result of fitting the values to 60 different pdfs considering five goodness-of-fit criteria: three goodness-of-fit statistics :K-S (Kolmogorov-Smirnov); A-D (Anderson-Darling) and C-S (Chi-squared) plus probability plots (P-P) and quantile plots (Q-Q). For less than 10% probability of exceedance the results show that

  3. Tillage and straw management affect PM10 emission potential in subarctic Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emission of PM10 (particulates =10 um in diameter regulated by many nations as an air pollutant) from agricultural soils can impact regional air quality. Little information exists that describes the potential for PM10 and airborne dust emissions from subarctic soils or agricultural soils subject to ...

  4. Fillers as Signals: Evidence from a Question-Answering Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Esther J.; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of a human or computer "partner" on the production of fillers ("um" and "uh") during a question and answer task. Experiment 1 investigated whether or not responding to a human partner as opposed to a computer partner results in a higher rate of filler production. Participants…

  5. 76 FR 38710 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...=Twinax+cable&um=1&ie=UTF-8&tbm=shop&cid=15023972358025904938&sa=X&ei=8tDfTaOwIcHagQeVu6DUCg&ved=0CDcQ8wIwAw# . \\5\\ See Release No. 63275 (November 8, 2010) at page 4, 75 FR 70048 (November 16, 2010)...

  6. Narrow band SWIR hyperspectral imaging: a new approach based on volume Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaegen, M.; Lessard, S.; Blais-Ouellette, S.

    2012-06-01

    Volume Bragg grating technology has enabled the development of a new type of staring hyperspectral camera. Based on Bragg Tunable filters, these hyperspectral cameras have both high spectral and spatial resolution, and significantly higher sensitivity than competing technologies like push broom spectrometer, liquid crystal tunable filters, or acousto-optic tunable filters. They are minimally sensitive to polarization and their spectral isolation can reach 106. Here we thus present an innovative tool to collect SWIR hyperspectral data with high spectral and spatial resolution. This new instrument is based on a 3nm bandwidth Bragg Tunable Filter, continuously tunable from 1.0um and 2.5um. Because high spectral resolution also means less light per channel, a low noise custom HgCdTe (MCT) camera was also developed to meet the requirement of the filter. The high speed capability of more than 300 fps and the low operating temperature of 200K (deep cooled option to 77K) allow full frame 500 spectral channel datacube acquisitions in minimal time. Basic principle of this imaging filter will be reviewed as well as the custom MCT camera performances. High resolution hyperspectral measurements will be demonstrated between 1.0um and 2.5um on different objects.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of a Rhodococcus Species Isolated from the Winter Skate Leucoraja ocellata

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Julia; Ho, Ryan; Fernando, Dinesh; Kumar, Ayush; Loewen, Peter C.; Anderson, W. Gary

    2016-01-01

    We report here a genome sequence for Rhodococcus sp. isolate UM008 isolated from the renal/interrenal tissue of the winter skate Leucoraja ocellata. Genome sequence analysis suggests that Rhodococcus bacteria may act in a novel mutualistic relationship with their elasmobranch host, serving as biocatalysts in the steroidogenic pathway of 1α-hydroxycorticosterone. PMID:27587827

  8. The Disfluent Discourse: Effects of Filled Pauses on Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms by which fillers, such as "uh" and "um", affect memory for discourse. Participants listened to and attempted to recall recorded passages adapted from "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland". The type and location of interruptions were manipulated through digital splicing. In Experiment 1, we tested a processing time…

  9. Using Habit Reversal to Decrease Filled Pauses in Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, Carolyn; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of simplified habit reversal in reducing filled pauses that occur during public speaking. Filled pauses consist of "uh," "um," or "er"; clicking sounds; and misuse of the word "like." After baseline, participants received habit reversal training that consisted of…

  10. Asteroids Observed from Santana, CS3 and GMARS Observatories: 2012 April - June

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Robert D.

    2012-10-01

    Lightcurves of seven asteroids were obtained from Santana Observatory, Goat Mountain Astronomical Research Station (GMARS), and the Center for Solar System Studies (CS3): 412 Elisabetha, 1055 Tynka, 1424, Sundmania, 3493 Stepanov, (6254) 1993 UM3, and (33736) 1999 NY36.

  11. N1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane sensitizes bladder cancer cells to doxorubicin by preventing epithelial-mesenchymal transition through inhibition of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinsong; Yu, Haogang; Shen, Mo; Wei, Wei; Xia, Lihong; Zhao, Peng

    2014-02-01

    Drug resistance greatly reduces the efficacy of doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in bladder cancer treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate whether N1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane (GC7), which inhibits eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (eIF5A2) activation, exerts synergistic cytotoxicity with doxorubicin in bladder cancer, and whether eIF5A2 is involved in chemoresistance to doxorubicin-based bladder cancer treatment. BIU-87, J82, and UM-UC-3 bladder cancer cells were transfected with eIF5A2 siRNA or negative control siRNA before incubation with doxorubicin alone or doxorubicin plus GC7 for 48 h. Doxorubicin cytotoxicity was enhanced by GC7 in BIU-87, J82, and UM-UC-3 cells. It significantly inhibited activity of eIF5A2, suppressed doxorubicin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in BIU-87 cells, and promoted mesenchymal-epithelial transition in J82 and UM-UC-3 cells. Knockdown of eIF5A2 sensitized bladder cancer cells to doxorubicin, prevented doxorubicin-induced EMT in BIU-87 cells, and encouraged mesenchymal-epithelial transition in J82 and UM-UC-3 cells. Combination therapy with GC7 may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in bladder cancer by inhibiting eIF5A2 activation and preventing epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  12. Improving the Climate for Graduate Education at a Major Research University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipschutz, Susan S.

    1988-01-01

    The graduate school at the University of Michigan (UM) is seeking to identify the characteristics of a high quality graduate education, taking into account various aspects of quality that are susceptible to numerical analysis as well as those that are not. Contemporary research universities are composed of many autonomous spheres (undergraduate…

  13. Music Therapy for Patients Who Have Undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Chelsea G.; Richardson, Michael; Baynham-Fletcher, Laura; Cohen, Marlene Z.; de Lima, Marcos; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study examines the short- and long-term QOL benefits of a music therapy intervention for patients recovering from hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods. Ninety allogeneic HSCT patients, after transplant, were randomized to receive ISO-principle (i.e., mood matching) based music therapy (MT; n = 29), unstructured music (UM; n = 30), or usual care (UC; n = 31) for four weeks. The ISO principle posits that patients may shift their mood from one state to another by listening to music that is “equal to” the individual's initial mood state and subsequently listening to music selections that gradually shift in tempo and mood to match the patient's desired disposition. Participants in MT and UM groups developed two audio CDs to help them feel more relaxed and energized and were instructed to use the CDs to improve their mood as needed. Short-term effects on mood and long-term effects on QOL were examined. Results. MT and UM participants reported improved mood immediately after listening to CDs; the within-group effect was greater for UM participants compared to MT participants. Participant group was not associated with long-term QOL outcomes. Conclusions. Music listening improves mood acutely but was not associated with long-term benefits in this study. PMID:24527052

  14. Music therapy for patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Chelsea G; Prinsloo, Sarah; Richardson, Michael; Baynham-Fletcher, Laura; Lee, Richard; Chaoul, Alejandro; Cohen, Marlene Z; de Lima, Marcos; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study examines the short- and long-term QOL benefits of a music therapy intervention for patients recovering from hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods. Ninety allogeneic HSCT patients, after transplant, were randomized to receive ISO-principle (i.e., mood matching) based music therapy (MT; n = 29), unstructured music (UM; n = 30), or usual care (UC; n = 31) for four weeks. The ISO principle posits that patients may shift their mood from one state to another by listening to music that is "equal to" the individual's initial mood state and subsequently listening to music selections that gradually shift in tempo and mood to match the patient's desired disposition. Participants in MT and UM groups developed two audio CDs to help them feel more relaxed and energized and were instructed to use the CDs to improve their mood as needed. Short-term effects on mood and long-term effects on QOL were examined. Results. MT and UM participants reported improved mood immediately after listening to CDs; the within-group effect was greater for UM participants compared to MT participants. Participant group was not associated with long-term QOL outcomes. Conclusions. Music listening improves mood acutely but was not associated with long-term benefits in this study.

  15. Ethics Education for Baccalaureate Nursing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryden, Muriel B.; Duckett, Laura

    The final report of a 3-year project which involved the development, implementation, and evaluation of Multi-Course Sequential Learning, a model for integrating ethics education into the curriculum of the undergraduate programs in nursing at the University of Minnesota (UM) in Minneapolis is provided. The project focused on nursing students…

  16. An Institution in Search of Excellence: Lessons Learnt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Fatimah; Awang, Halimah

    2005-01-01

    This is a report of the strategies adopted by the University of Malaya (UM), Malaysia, to address the issues and complexities involved in its search for excellence in teaching and learning, research and service. The story is told how the university sought accreditation through the International Standards Organisation (ISO) and how by uniting their…

  17. Oil crop biomass residue-based media for enhanced algal lipid production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiaochen; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Cheng, Yanling; Chen, Paul; Shi, Jian; Wang, Qin; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of hydrolysates from acid hydrolysis of four different oil crop biomass residues (OCBR) as low cost culture media for algae growth. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to design a series of experiments to optimize the acid hydrolysis conditions through examining the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, and ammonia nitrogen in the hydrolysates. The optimal conditions were found to be using 3% sulfuric acid and hydrolyzing residues at 90 °C for 20 h. The hydrolysates (OCBR media) produced under the optimal conditions were used to cultivate the two algae strains, namely UM258 and UM268. The results from 5 days of cultivation showed that the OCBR media supported faster algae growth with maximal algal biomass yield of 2.7 and 3 g/L, respectively. Moreover, the total lipids for UM258 and UM268 were 54 and 35%, respectively, after 5 days of cultivation, which suggested that the OCBR media allowed the algae strains to accumulate higher lipids probably due to high C/N ratio. Furthermore, over 3% of omega-3 fatty acid (EPA) was produced for the two algae strains. In conclusion, OCBR media are excellent alternative for algae growth and have a great potential for large-scale production of algae-based ingredients for biodiesel as well as high-value food and pharmaceutical products.

  18. Identification and Characterization of a Rare Fungus, Quambalaria cyanescens, Isolated from the Peritoneal Fluid of a Patient after Nocturnal Intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Chee Sian; Yew, Su Mei; Toh, Yue Fen; Chan, Chai Ling; Lim, Soo Kun; Lee, Kok Wei; Na, Shiang Ling; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-01-01

    Peritonitis is the leading complication of peritoneal dialysis, which is primarily caused by bacteria rather than fungi. Peritonitis is responsible for approximately 18% of the infection-related mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. In this paper, we report the isolation of a rare fungus, Quambalaria cyanescens, from the peritoneal fluid of a man after he switched from continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis to nocturnal intermittent peritoneal dialysis. Based on the morphological examination and multigene phylogeny, the clinical isolate was confirmed as Q. cyanescens. This pathogen exhibited low sensitivity to all tested echinocandins and 5-flucytosine. Interestingly, morphological characterization revealed that Q. cyanescens UM 1095 produced different pigments at low temperatures (25°C and 30°C) on various culture media. It is important to monitor the emergence of this rare fungus as a potential human pathogen in the tropics. This study provides insight into Q. cyanescens UM 1095 phenotype profiles using a Biolog phenotypic microarray (PM). Of the 760 nutrient sources tested, Q. cyanescens UM 1095 utilized 42 compounds, and the fungus can adapt to a broad range of osmotic and acidic environments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of Q. cyanescens from peritoneal fluid, revealing this rare fungus as a potential human pathogen that may be misidentified using conventional methods. The detailed morphological, molecular and phenotypic characterization of Q. cyanescens UM 1095 provides the basis for future studies on its biology, lifestyle, and potential pathogenicity. PMID:26716988

  19. Mid-IR Ultra-Deep Spectroscopy of the Cosmic Infrared Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lin; Bertoldi, Frank; Blain, Andrew; Caputi, Karina; Cesarsky, Catherine; Dole, Herve; Draine, Bruce; Fadda, Dario; Flores, Hector; Frayer, Dave; Genzel, Reinhard; Helou, George; Lagache, Guilaine; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Lutz, Dieter; Puget, Jean-Loup; Sajina, Anna; Sanders, Dave; Spoon, Henrik; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2006-05-01

    We propose to obtain low resolution, mid-IR spectra of a sample of 48 galaxies at z~1 and 2 with 24um flux densities between 0.15-0.5mJy in the CDFS. These sub-mJy 24um sources are shown to dominate the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) emission at 70 & 160um (Dole et al. 2006). Their redshift distribution peaks around 1, with a secondary peak at z~2. This implies these sources are LIRGs and ULIRGs at z=1 and 2, respectively. Measurements of IR luminosity functions support these findings and directly show these populations are responsible for more than 70% of the total (UV+IR) luminosity density at z=0.8-2.5. The proposed program is the natural extension of our previous studies of brighter, mJy 24um galaxies. Our primary goal is to characterize the mid-IR spectral properties of the galaxies producing the bulk of CIB. Specifically, we will disentangle the AGN/SB contribution to mid-IR emission, thus constrain the estimate of bolometric luminosities. The proposed spectra, in combination with brighter samples from previous IRS surveys, will allow us to trace the evolution of AGN/SB ratio, strength of PAH emission and mid-IR opacities as a function of L(ir) and z. The deep mid-IR spectra, together with the existing multi-wavelength dataset, will provide the lasting legacy for the astronomical communities for many years to come.

  20. Roles and Scaffolding in Teletandem Interactions: A Study of the Relations between the Sociocultural and the Language Learning Dimensions in a French-Chinese Teletandem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappellini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Our paper aims to present students' interactions in a teletandem--that is, tandem through desktop videoconference [Telles, J., ed. 2009. "Teletandem. Um contexto virtual, autônomo, colaborativo para aprendizagem das linguas estrangeiras no século XXI". Campinas, SP: Pontes Editores]--telecollaborative project between third-year…

  1. NANOFILTRATION FOULANTS FROM A TREATED SURFACE WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The foulant from pilot nanofiltration membrane elements fed conventionally-treated surface water for 15 months was analyzed for organic, inorganic, and biological parameters. The foulant responsible for flux loss was shown to be a film layer 20 to 80 um thick with the greatest de...

  2. The Big Sky inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

    2009-01-01

    The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

  3. Maximal and functional aerobic capacity as assessed by two graduated field methods in comparison to laboratory exercise testing in moderately trained subjects.

    PubMed

    Ahmaidi, S; Collomp, K; Caillaud, C; Préfaut, C

    1992-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine which of the two commonly used field tests, the 20-meter shuttle run test (20-MST) or the University of Montreal track test (UM-TT), provides the most accurate assessment of maximal and functional aerobic capacity in moderately trained athletes. Eleven male subjects aged from 18 to 30 years were studied in triple incremental and continuous running tests carried out until exhaustion both in laboratory and field conditions. They underwent a laboratory treadmill test and completed the outdoor 20-MST and UM-TT. During the three randomly assigned tests, maximal velocity (Vmax), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), and post-exercise peak blood lactate (P[La]) measurements were made. The results indicate a significant difference in the mean Vmax (F = 9.26, p less than 0.001). Vmax determined by the 20-MST revealed a lower value than by treadmill (16.3%) and the UM-TT (19.3%). In contrast, there was no difference with regard to VO2max (F = 2.95, p = 0.06), HRmax (F = 2.72, p = 0.08), and P[La] (F = 2.79, p = 0.07). These results confirm that the UM-TT is a valid field test of maximal and functional aerobic capacity in moderately trained subjects and suggest that it can be additionally used for exercise prescription.

  4. FTIR analysis of Smoky Mountain aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Blando, J.D.; Porcja, R.J.; Li, T.H.; Lioy, P.; Turpin, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    As part of the Southeastern Aerosol and Visibility Study in the Smoky Mountains (July 15-August 25, 1995), we collected samples on ZnSe discs in a Hering Low Pressure Impactor (LPI) from 7am-7pm daily. Impactor size cuts were 2.0, 1.0, 0.50, 0.26, 0.12, 0.05 um. Samples, blanks, and polystyrene standards were analyzed in a Mattson Research Series 100 FTIR Spectroscope. After initial, non-destructive analysis, a subset of samples were gently rinsed with hexane, acetone, and water in succession and analyzed by FTIR after each rinse. Sulfate and carbonyl were consistently observed in sub-micron particles, and commonly detected with soil dust in the 1-2 um size fraction. Carbonyl is associated with secondary organic aerosol formation. Aliphatics in the Smoky Mountain aerosol were most prevalent in the 1-2 um size fraction, suggesting a primary biogenic origin (e.g., plant waxes and organic acids). This contrasts with aliphatic size distributions in Los Angeles aerosols, which peaked below 0.12 um, and were attributed to automotive emissions.

  5. How to Make Faculty Senates More Effective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sufka, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    The author's experience as the faculty senate chair at the University of Mississippi (UM) during a year of budget crises is likely typical of many other university senate leaders. He found that major challenges face senates trying to play a role in developing budget reduction recommendations. These include: (1) an absence of understanding on the…

  6. Neutrino-driven wakefield plasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, L. A.; Serbeto, A.

    2003-08-01

    Processos envolvendo neutrinos são importantes em uma grande variedade de fenômenos astrofísicos, como as explosões de supernovas. Estes objetos, assim como os pulsares e as galáxias starburst, têm sido propostos como aceleradores cósmicos de partículas de altas energias. Neste trabalho, um modelo clássico de fluidos é utilizado para estudar a interação não-linear entre um feixe de neutrinos e um plasma não-colisional relativístico de pósitrons e elétrons na presença de um campo magnético. Durante a interação, uma onda híbrida superior de grande amplitude é excitada. Para parâmetros típicos de supernovas, verificamos que partículas carregadas "capturadas" por essa onda podem ser aceleradas a altas energias. Este resultado pode ser importante no estudo de mecanismos aceleradores de partículas em ambientes astrofísicos.

  7. Effect of aluminum treatment on proteomes of radicles of seeds derived from Al-treated tomato plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major constraint to plant growth and crop yield in acid soils. Tomato cultivars are especially susceptible to excessive A1 3+ accumulated in the root zone. In this study, tomato plants were grown in a hydroponic culture system supplemented with 50 uM AlK(SO4)2. Seeds harv...

  8. Proteome modification in tomato plants upon long-term aluminum treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to identify the aluminum (Al)-induced proteomes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, “Micro-Tom”) after long-term exposure to the stress factor. Plants were treated in Magnavaca’s solution (pH 4.5) supplemented with 7.5 uM Al3+ ion activity over a 4 month period beginning at the emergen...

  9. Disfluencies, Language Comprehension, and Tree Adjoining Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Fernanda; Lau, Ellen F.; Bailey, Karl G. D.

    2004-01-01

    Disfluencies include editing terms such as "uh" and "um" as well as repeats and revisions. Little is known about how disfluencies are processed, and there has been next to no research focused on the way that disfluencies affect structure-building operations during comprehension. We review major findings from both computational linguistics and…

  10. How Course Redesign at the University of Maryland Is Improving Learning, Lowering Costs, and Increasing Graduation Rates. The Abell Report. Volume 24, No.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Four years ago, the University of Maryland (UM) Board of Regents responded to the national crisis in the college experience--the high incidence of student failure and dropout, the cost of a college degree, and the number of years it was taking to earn one--by contracting with Dr. Carol A. Twigg, president of the National Center for Academic…

  11. NASAL FILTERING OF FINE PARTICLES IN CHILDREN VS. ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nasal efficiency for removing fine particles may be affected by developmental changes in nasal structure associated with age. In healthy Caucasian children (age 6-13, n=17) and adults (age 18-28, n=11) we measured the fractional deposition (DF) of fine particles (1 and 2um MMAD)...

  12. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF INDOOR, OUTDOOR, AND PERSONAL PM2.5 IN SEATTLE, WASHINGTON, USING POSITIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a large exposure assessment and health effects panel study, 33 trace elements and light-absorbing carbon were measured on 24-hr particulate matter with an aero-dynamic diameter <2.5 um (PM2.5) fixed-site filter samples collected between September 26, 2000, and May 25, ...

  13. Evaluation of a native prairie Junegrass collection from Eastern Oregon for use in the Great Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native prairie Junegrass [Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schult.; PJG] has potential for contributing to increased western U.S. rangeland productivity given its putative drought and heat tolerance. In 2010 a collection of PJG was received from L&H Seed Company, originating from several sites in the Um...

  14. Der Strahlenkranz im sonnigen Wasser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Hans Joachim

    2000-01-01

    Wie in der Kunst gibt es auch in der Natur neben dem kreisförmigen Heiligenschein einen strahlenförmigen Nimbus um den Kopfschatten "auserwählter" Personen. Er ist in leicht getrübtem Wasser zu beobachten.

  15. Coniochaeta ligniaria: antifungal activity of the cryptic endophytic fungus associated with autotrophic cultures of the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have addressed the presence and bioactivity of endophytic fungi living in plantlets growing under in vitro conditions. We isolated a fungus UM 109 from autotrophic cultures of the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon). The species was identified as Coniochaeta ligniaria using ...

  16. Metal ions doped chitosan-poly(acrylic acid) nanospheres: Synthesis and their application in simultaneously electrochemical detection of four markers of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Rong, Qinfeng; Feng, Feng; Ma, Zhanfang

    2016-01-15

    In this work, a one-pot method was designed to synthesize copper ions, cadmium ions, lead ions and zinc ions doped chitosan-poly(acrylic acid) nanospheres. Those nanospheres can not only produce independent electrochemical signals, but also react with glutaraldehyde (GA) to immobilize different labeled antibodies. Using the modified nanospheres as immunoprobes, a sandwich-type immunosensor was fabricated to simultaneous detection of four tumor markers (CEA, CA199, CA125 and CA242) of pancreatic cancer. This designed immunosensor exhibited good linear relationships in range from 0.1 to 100ng mL(-1) for CEA, 1 to 150UmL(-1) for CA199, CA125 and CA242, corresponding detection limits 0.02ng mL(-1), 0.4UmL(-1), 0.3UmL(-1) and 0.4UmL(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, the immunosensor was applied in analysis of clinical serum samples, whose results were well agreed with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indicating that the proposed immunosensor gave a hope for the identification and validation of specific early cancer.

  17. DESIGN AND CALIBRATION OF THE EPA PM 2.5 WELL IMPACTOR NINETY-SIX (WINS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA well-type impactor ninety-six (WINS) was designed and calibrated to serve as a particle size separation device for the EPA reference method sampler for particulate matter under 2.5 um aerodynamic diameter. The WINS was designed to operate downstream of a PM10 inlet at a...

  18. Analytik von Lebensmittelallergenen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demmel, Anja; Hahn, Alexandra

    Ansonsten harmlose Lebensmittel oder deren Bestandteile können bei von Lebensmittelallergien betroffenen Personen Überempfindlichkeitsreaktionen auslösen. Hierbei kann es sich um immunvermittelte Lebensmittelallergien oder um Intoleranzen gegenüber bestimmten Lebensmittelbestandteilen handeln. Ein Beispiel für Letzteres ist die Laktoseintoleranz, welche durch einen Enzymdefekt hervorgerufen wird [1]. Im Gegensatz hierzu handelt es sich bei Lebensmittelallergien um Sofortreaktionen, die durch IgE-Antikörper gegen Antigene aus den Lebensmitteln hervorgerufen werden und zu verschiedenen körperlichen Beschwerden führen können. Bei den Antigenen, welche von den von Allergikern produzierten IgE-Antikörpern erkannt werden, handelt es sich vor allem um Proteine [2]. Symptome IgE-vermittelter Reaktionen können zum Beispiel Hautausschlag, eine Schwellung der Schleimhäute oder das sogenannte orale Allergiesyndrom mit allergischen Reaktionen an der Mundschleimhaut und im Magen-Darm-Trakt sein [3]. Die hierbei auftretenden Beschwerden reichen von einem Brennen im Mund und einer Schwellung der Lippen und der Zunge bis zu Atemnot verursachenden Schwellungen im Kehlkopfbereich. In besonders schlimmen Fällen können allergische Reaktionen zu einem anaphylaktischen Schock und zum Tod durch Kreislaufversagen führen [4]. Während klassische Nahrungsallergene häufig komplexe Reaktionen zur Folge haben, ist bei Pollen-assoziierten Nahrungsmittelallergien das orale Allergiesyndrom vorherrschend.

  19. Auf der Suche nach extrasolaren Transitplaneten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, René

    2010-06-01

    Planeten um andere Sonnen, die von der Erde aus gesehen einmal während ihres Orbits vor ihrem Zentralstern vorbeiziehen, eröffnen eine bis vor Kurzem ungeahnte Palette an Möglichkeiten zu ihrer Untersuchung. Nur: Wo am Himmel lassen sich diese Kandidaten für Sternbedeckungen eigentlich finden?

  20. Investigation of Some Transparent Metal Oxides as Damp Heat Protective Coating for CIGS Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.; Yan, F.; Zaaunbrecher, B.; To, B.; Perkins, J.; Noufi, R.

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the protective effectiveness of some transparent metal oxides (TMO) on CIGS solar cell coupons against damp heat (DH) exposure at 85oC and 85% relative humidity (RH). Sputter-deposited bilayer ZnO (BZO) with up to 0.5-um Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer and 0.2-um bilayer InZnO were used as 'inherent' part of device structure on CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG. Sputter-deposited 0.2-um ZnSnO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) 0.1-um Al2O3 were used as overcoat on typical BZO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG solar cells. The results were all negative -- all TMO-coated CIGS cells exhibited substantial degradation in DH. Combining the optical photographs, PL and EL imaging, SEM surface micro-morphology, coupled with XRD, I-V and QE measurements, the causes of the device degradations are attributed to hydrolytic corrosion, flaking, micro-cracking, and delamination induced by the DH moisture. Mechanical stress and decrease in crystallinity (grain size effect) could be additional degrading factors for thicker AZO grown on CdS/CIGS.

  1. Podcasting Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittain, Sarah; Glowacki, Pietrek; Van Ittersum, Jared; Johnson, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    At some point in their educations, students must learn copious amounts of information. To do this, they use a variety of well-known strategies such as study groups, note-taking services, and videotapes of lectures. In fall 2004, a group of first-year dental students at the University of Michigan (U-M) School of Dentistry asked to have all dental…

  2. [Proceedings of the] International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (3rd, Pittsburgh, PA, July 11-13, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ryan S. J. d., Ed.; Merceron, Agathe, Ed.; Pavlik, Philip I., Jr., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The Third International Conference on Data Mining (EDM 2010) was held in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. It follows the second conference at the University of Cordoba, Spain, on July 1-3, 2009 and the first edition of the conference held in Montreal in 2008, and a series of workshops within the AAAI, AIED, EC-TEL, ICALT, ITS, and UM conferences. EDM 2011…

  3. Monosomy 3 status of uveal melanoma metastases is associated with rapidly progressive tumors and short survival.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H; Cebulla, Colleen M; Verma, Vishal; Christopher, Benjamin N; Carson, William E; Olencki, Thomas; Davidorf, Frederick H

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the molecular genetics of uveal melanoma (UM) metastases and correlate it with disease progression. Twelve pathologically confirmed UM metastases from 11 patients were included. Molecular genetic alterations in chromosomes 3 (including the BAP1 region), 8q, 6p, and 1p were investigated by microsatellite genotyping. Mutations in codon 209 of GNAQ and GNA11 genes were studied by restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). We identified monosomy of chromosome 3 in tumors from four patients with an average survival of 5 months (range 1-8 months) from time of diagnosis of metastatic disease. In contrast, tumors with either disomy or partial chromosome 3 alterations showed significantly slower metastatic disease progression with an average survival of 69 months (range 40-123 months, p = 0.003). Alterations in chromosomal arms 1p, 6p, and 8q and mutations in either GNAQ or GNA11 showed no association with disease progression. Prominent mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate was observed in tumors from patients with slowly progressive disease. In conclusion, in UM metastases, monosomy 3 is associated with highly aggressive, rapidly progressive disease while disomy or partial change of 3 and prominent mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate in the tumor is associated with better prognosis. These findings should be considered when designing clinical trials testing effectiveness of various therapies of metastatic UM.

  4. Staring MWIR, LWIR and 2-color and scanning LWIR polarimetry technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Neil R.; Kennedy, Adam; Graham, Roger; Thai, Yen; Stark, Justin; Sienicki, Joe; Fest, Eric

    2011-09-01

    Polarimetry sensor development has been in work for some time to determine the best use of polarimetry to differentiate between manmade objects and objects made by nature. Both MWIR and LWIR and 2-color staring Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) and LWIR scanning FPAs have been built at Raytheon Vision Systems each with exceedingly higher performance. This paper presents polarimetric performance comparisons between staring 2562 MWIR, 2562 LWIR, 5122 LWIR/LWIR staring FPAs and scanning LWIR FPAs. LWIR polarimetry has the largest polarimetric signal level and a larger emissive polarimetric signature than MWIR which makes LWIR less dependent on sun angles. Polished angled glass and metal objects are easily detected using LWIR polarimetry. While single band 9-11 um LWIR polarimetry has advantages adding another band between 3 and 7 um improves the capability of the sensor for polarization and spectral phenomenology. In addition the 3-7 um band has improved NEDT over the 9-11 um band due to the shorter detector cutoff reducing the Noise Equivalent Degree of Linear Polarization. (NEDOLP). To gain acceptance polarimetric sensors must provide intelligence signatures that are better than existing nonpolarimetric Infrared sensors. This paper shows analysis indicating the importance of NEDOLP and Extinction ratios.

  5. CURRENT AND EMERGING TECHNIQUES FOR CHARACTERIZING TROPOSPHERIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter generally includes dust, smoke, soot, or aerosol particles. Environmental research addresses the origin, size, chemical composition, and the formation mechanics of aerosols. In the troposphere, fine aerosols (e.g. with diameters < 2.5 um) remain suspended until...

  6. Teaching a CS Introductory Course: An Active Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moura, Isabel C.; van Hattum-Janssen, Natascha

    2011-01-01

    Computer Science (CS) introductory courses that are offered by the Department of Information Systems at the University of Minho (UM), Portugal, seem to abound in non-motivated students. They are characterized by high failure and withdrawal rates and use mainly deductive teaching approaches. Deductive instruction begins with theories and progresses…

  7. Amphiphilic phthalocyanine-cyclodextrin conjugates for cancer photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Leandro M O; Pereira, Patrícia M R; Maciel, Elisabete; Válega, Mónica; Domingues, Fernando M J; Domingues, Maria R M; Neves, Maria G P M S; Cavaleiro, José A S; Fernandes, Rosa; Tomé, João P C

    2014-08-01

    Three phthalocyanines (Pcs) conjugated with α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins (CDs) were prepared and their application as photosensitizer (PS) agents was assessed by photophysical, photochemical and in vitro photobiological studies. The photoactivity of Pc-α-CD and Pc-γ-CD ensures their potential as PDT drugs against UM-UC-3 human bladder cancer cells. PMID:24943806

  8. An Economist's Approach to Reforming the Uniform Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Gary T.

    1977-01-01

    The standardized approach (Uniform Methodology) to estimating the expected parental contribution for dependent students is evaluated from an economist's perspective. The UM model is shown to fail to treat assets and income in a consistent manner, and recommendations for improvement are offered. (LBH)

  9. Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, retaining wall at Orner Building & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, retaining wall at Orner Building & First U.M. Church Rectory-detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  10. Top-Coating Silicon Onto Ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, J. D.; Nelson, L. D.; Zook, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon for solar cells produced at low cost. Molten silicon poured from quartz trough onto moving carbon-coated ceramic substrate. Doctor blade spreads liquid silicon evenly over substrate. Molten material solidifies to form sheet of polycrystalline silicon having photovoltaic conversion efficiency greater than 10 percent. Method produces 100-um-thick silicon coatings at speed 0.15 centimeter per second.

  11. Report from the Third Mediterranean Society of Comparative Education (MESCE) Conference in Malta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Peter; Borg, Carmel

    2008-01-01

    This is a report of the third meeting of the Mediterranean Comparative Education Society (MESCE) that took place in Malta in May 2008. The full programme can be accessed at: http://www.educ.um.edu.mt/mesce/cprogramme.html. The conference was attended by around 130 people from different countries in the Mediterranean and beyond but concentrated,…

  12. Assessing Faculty Perceptions of Free Educational Resources: One Institution's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Providing financial incentives to faculty who adopt free educational resources in place of traditional textbooks is becoming more common in U.S. higher education institutions. The University of Mississippi (UM) offered liberal arts instructors the opportunity to apply for internal funding to replace one traditional textbook in their classroom with…

  13. Study of neutron physics: conversion of the University of Missouri-Rolla reactor to low-enriched fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Straka, M.; Covington, L.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed study of a fuel conversion (using LEU) has been undertaken for the University of Missouri-Rolla reactor. Results achieved with the available code package have been compared with the measured data whenever possible. The neutronic codes LEOPARD and 2DB-UM provided adequate results in most cases examined.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A CONTINUOUS COARSE (PM10-PM2.5) PARTICLE MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, we describe the development and laboratory and field evaluation of a continuous coarse (2.5-10 um) particle mass (PM) monitor that can provide reliable measurements of the coarse mass (CM) concentrations in time intervals as short as 5-10 min. The operating princ...

  15. Basic fibroblast growth factor support of human embryonic stem cell self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Levenstein, Mark E; Ludwig, Tenneille E; Xu, Ren-He; Llanas, Rachel A; VanDenHeuvel-Kramer, Kaitlyn; Manning, Daisy; Thomson, James A

    2006-03-01

    Human embryonic stem (ES) cells have most commonly been cultured in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) either on fibroblast feeder layers or in fibroblast-conditioned medium. It has recently been reported that elevated concentrations of FGF2 permit the culture of human ES cells in the absence of fibroblasts or fibroblast-conditioned medium. Herein we compare the ability of unconditioned medium (UM) supplemented with 4, 24, 40, 80, 100, and 250 ng/ml FGF2 to sustain low-density human ES cell cultures through multiple passages. In these stringent culture conditions, 4, 24, and 40 ng/ml FGF2 failed to sustain human ES cells through three passages, but 100 ng/ml sustained human ES cells with an effectiveness comparable to conditioned medium (CM). Two human ES cell lines (H1 and H9) were maintained for up to 164 population doublings (7 and 4 months) in UM supplemented with 100 ng/ml FGF2. After prolonged culture, the cells formed teratomas when injected into severe combined immunodeficient beige mice and expressed markers characteristic of undifferentiated human ES cells. We also demonstrate that FGF2 is degraded more rapidly in UM than in CM, partly explaining the need for higher concentrations of FGF2 in UM. These results further facilitate the large-scale, routine culture of human ES cells and suggest that fibroblasts and fibro-blast-conditioned medium sustain human ES cells in part by stabilizing FGF signaling above a critical threshold.

  16. Green IT Best Practices at the University of Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuenkel, MaryBeth

    2009-01-01

    The University of Michigan (U-M) has an award-winning history of sustainability initiatives, including research and student activism as well as campus facilities-related efforts. Environmental conservation programs on campus include alternative transportation, energy audits of and improvements to campus buildings, green purchasing, use of…

  17. Experimental progress in deep and broadband infrared nulling for TPF-I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Bartos, Randall; Gappinger, Robert; Loya, Frank; Moser, Steve; Negron, John

    2005-01-01

    Our activities are focused upon the experimental demonstration of deep nulling in the mid-IR over a wide bandpass. Specifically, our near-term goal is demonstrating a contrast of 10^-6 at 10 um with a 25% spectral bandwidth.

  18. From the Stage to the Classroom: The Performing Arts and Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julie Anne

    2008-01-01

    Established in 1880, the University Musical Society (U.M.S.) in Ann Arbor, Michigan is one of the most innovative venues for music and the performing arts in the United States. Each season, it offers performances by renowned American and international artists. Through the society's youth education program, performers entertain and educate…

  19. Corticospinal Modulations during Bimanual Movement with Different Relative Phases

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Yoshifumi; Jono, Yasutomo; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate corticospinal modulation of bimanual (BM) movement with different relative phases (RPs). The participants rhythmically abducted and adducted the right index finger (unimanual (UM) movement) or both index fingers (BM movement) with a cyclic duration of 1 s. The RP of BM movement, defined as the time difference between one hand movement and the other hand movement, was 0°, 90°, or 180°. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the right flexor dorsal interosseous muscle elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were obtained during UM or BM movement. Corticospinal excitability in the first dorsal interosseous muscle during BM movement with 90° RP was higher than that during UM movement or BM movement with 0° or 180° RP. The correlation between muscle activity level and corticospinal excitability during BM movement with 90° RP was smaller than that during UM movement or BM movement with 0° or 180° RP. The higher corticospinal excitability during BM movement with 90° RP may be caused by the greater effort expended to execute a difficult task, the involvement of interhemispheric interaction, a motor binding process, or task acquisition. The lower dependency of corticospinal excitability on the muscle activity level during BM movement with 90° RP may reflect the minor corticospinal contribution to BM movement with an RP that is not in the attractor state. PMID:27014026

  20. DETECTION OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID USING A FLUORESCENCE IMMUNOANALYZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A flow immunoassay method for the measurement of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was developed. The competitive fluorescence immunoassay relies on the use of antibody- or antigen-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) particles (98 um diameter) as a renewable solid phase. The as...