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Sample records for olfactory stimulus 1-octanol

  1. The C. elegans D2-Like Dopamine Receptor DOP-3 Decreases Behavioral Sensitivity to the Olfactory Stimulus 1-Octanol

    PubMed Central

    Ezak, Meredith J.; Ferkey, Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    We previously found that dopamine signaling modulates the sensitivity of wild-type C. elegans to the aversive odorant 1-octanol. C. elegans lacking the CAT-2 tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme, which is required for dopamine biosynthesis, are hypersensitive in their behavioral avoidance of dilute concentrations of octanol. Dopamine can also modulate the context-dependent response of C. elegans lacking RGS-3 function, a negative regulator of Gα signaling. rgs-3 mutant animals are defective in their avoidance of 100% octanol when they are assayed in the absence of food (E. coli bacterial lawn), but their response is restored when they are assayed in the presence of food or exogenous dopamine. However, it is not known which receptor might be mediating dopamine's effects on octanol avoidance. Herein we describe a role for the C. elegans D2-like receptor DOP-3 in the regulation of olfactory sensitivity. We show that DOP-3 is required for the ability of food and exogenous dopamine to rescue the octanol avoidance defect of rgs-3 mutant animals. In addition, otherwise wild-type animals lacking DOP-3 function are hypersensitive to dilute octanol, reminiscent of cat-2 mutants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that DOP-3 function in the ASH sensory neurons is sufficient to rescue the hypersensitivity of dop-3 mutant animals, while dop-3 RNAi knockdown in ASH results in octanol hypersensitivity. Taken together, our data suggest that dopaminergic signaling through DOP-3 normally acts to dampen ASH signaling and behavioral sensitivity to octanol. PMID:20209143

  2. Understanding smell--the olfactory stimulus problem.

    PubMed

    Auffarth, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    The main problem with sensory processing is the difficulty in relating sensory input to physiological responses and perception. This is especially problematic at higher levels of processing, where complex cues elicit highly specific responses. In olfaction, this relationship is particularly obfuscated by the difficulty of characterizing stimulus statistics and perception. The core questions in olfaction are hence the so-called stimulus problem, which refers to the understanding of the stimulus, and the structure-activity and structure-odor relationships, which refer to the molecular basis of smell. It is widely accepted that the recognition of odorants by receptors is governed by the detection of physico-chemical properties and that the physical space is highly complex. Not surprisingly, ideas differ about how odor stimuli should be classified and about the very nature of information that the brain extracts from odors. Even though there are many measures for smell, there is none that accurately describes all aspects of it. Here, we summarize recent developments in the understanding of olfaction. We argue that an approach to olfactory function where information processing is emphasized could contribute to a high degree to our understanding of smell as a perceptual phenomenon emerging from neural computations. Further, we argue that combined analysis of the stimulus, biology, physiology, and behavior and perception can provide new insights into olfactory function. We hope that the reader can use this review as a competent guide and overview of research activities in olfactory physiology, psychophysics, computation, and psychology. We propose avenues for research, particularly in the systematic characterization of receptive fields and of perception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coding of odor stimulus features among secondary olfactory structures

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Christina Z.; Adjei, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems must represent stimuli in manners dependent upon a wealth of factors, including stimulus intensity and duration. One way the brain might handle these complex functions is to assign the tasks throughout distributed nodes, each contributing to information processing. We sought to explore this important aspect of sensory network function in the mammalian olfactory system, wherein the intensity and duration of odor exposure are critical contributors to odor perception. This is a quintessential model for exploring processing schemes given the distribution of odor information by olfactory bulb mitral and tufted cells into several anatomically distinct secondary processing stages, including the piriform cortex (PCX) and olfactory tubercle (OT), whose unique contributions to odor coding are unresolved. We explored the coding of PCX and OT neuron responses to odor intensity and duration. We found that both structures similarly partake in representing descending intensities of odors by reduced recruitment and modulation of neurons. Additionally, while neurons in the OT adapt to odor exposure, they display reduced capacity to adapt to either repeated presentations of odor or a single prolonged odor presentation compared with neurons in the PCX. These results provide insights into manners whereby secondary olfactory structures may, at least in some cases, uniquely represent stimulus features. PMID:26041832

  4. A novel multicomponent stimulus device for use in olfactory experiments.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Shannon B; Kuebler, Linda S; Veit, Daniel; Steck, Kathrin; Schmidt, Alexandra; Knaden, Markus; Hansson, Bill S

    2011-01-30

    Olfactory studies have expanded beyond the study of single compound odor perception to explore the processing of complex mixtures and blends. The spatiotemporal presentation of blend stimuli is a challenging task requiring volatiles with diverse chemical and physical properties to be presented as a unified stimulus. This not only necessitates accurate control of the timing and homogeneity of the odor stream, but requires attention to the concentration of each blend component presented. We have developed a novel, multicomponent stimulus system for use in olfactory experiments that is capable of presenting up to 8 different odors simultaneously or in sequence at defined concentrations and time scales. Each odor is separated to minimize physical or chemical interactions, and stimulations are performed from a saturated headspace of the odor solution. Stimulus concentrations can be measured empirically or estimated using common gas laws. Photoionization detector measurements show that stimuli could be presented as cohesive blends or single components at frequencies of at least 10Hz without leakage or contamination. Solid phase microextraction measurements also show that the concentration of each component could be equilibrated through regulation of each component line's flow rate based on the different partial vapor pressures of the odorants. This device provides a unique method for introducing complex volatile mixtures for olfactory studies in a variety of animal taxa and allows for accurate control of odor intensities in both time and space.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Olfactory Responses to Stimulus Mixtures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-26

    addition, the recent molecular cloning of the olfactory neuron-specific G- protein, Golf, from rat olfactory epithelium (25), has prompted a re-evaluation... molecular cloning of a G-protein that is exclusively expressed within olfactory neurons (25) prompted a re-evaluation of the molecular identities of...Fritsch, E.F. and Maniatis, T. (1989) Plasmid vectors. In Molecular Cloning : A Laboratory Manual, pp. 1.1-1.110. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold

  6. The role of olfactory stimulus in adult mammalian neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Arisi, Gabriel M; Foresti, Maira L; Mukherjee, Sanjib; Shapiro, Lee A

    2012-02-14

    Neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian brain in discrete regions related to olfactory sensory signaling and integration. The olfactory receptor cell population is in constant turn-over through local progenitor cells. Also, newborn neurons are added to the olfactory bulbs through a major migratory route from the subventricular zone, the rostral migratory stream. The olfactory bulbs project to different brain structures, including: piriform cortex, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, striatum and hippocampus. These structures play important roles in odor identification, feeding behavior, social interactions, reproductive behavior, behavioral reinforcement, emotional responses, learning and memory. In all of these regions neurogenesis has been described in normal and in manipulated mammalian brain. These data are reviewed in the context of a sensory-behavioral hypothesis on adult neurogenesis that olfactory input modulates neurogenesis in many different regions of the brain.

  7. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of methanol + 1-octanol and ethanol + 1-octanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Arce, A.; Blanco, A.; Soto, A.; Tojo, J.

    1995-07-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methanol + 1-octanol and ethanol + 1-octanol have been measured at 101.325 kPa. The results were checked for thermodynamic consistency using Fredenslund et al.`s test, correlated using Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations for the liquid phase activity coefficients, and compared with the predictions of the ASOG, UNIFAC, and modified UNIFAC group contribution methods.

  8. Uncoupling stimulus specificity and glomerular position in the mouse olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingji; Huang, Guangzhe; Dewan, Adam; Feinstein, Paul; Bozza, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Sensory information is often mapped systematically in the brain with neighboring neurons responding to similar stimulus features. The olfactory system represents chemical information as spatial and temporal activity patterns across glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. However, the degree to which chemical features are mapped systematically in the glomerular array has remained controversial. Here, we test the hypothesis that the dual roles of odorant receptors, in axon guidance and odor detection, can serve as a mechanism to map olfactory inputs with respect to their function. We compared the relationship between response specificity and glomerular formation in genetically-defined olfactory sensory neurons expressing variant odorant receptors. We find that sensory neurons with the same odor response profile can be mapped to different regions of the bulb, and that neurons with different response profiles can be mapped to the same glomeruli. Our data demonstrate that the two functions of odorant receptors can be uncoupled, indicating that the mechanisms that map olfactory sensory inputs to glomeruli do so without regard to stimulus specificity. PMID:22926192

  9. Liquid-liquid equilibria of water + methanol + 1-octanol and water + ethanol + 1-octanol at various temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Arce, A.; Blanco, A.; Souza, P.; Vidal, I. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    This study is part of a wider program of research on the recovery of light alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions using high molecular weight solvents. The authors report liquid-liquid equilibrium data and binodal curves for the systems water + methanol + 1-octanol and water + ethanol + 1-octanol at 25, 35, and 45 C. The data were fitted to the NRTL and UNIQUAC equations.

  10. Contrast enhancement of stimulus intermittency in a primary olfactory network and its behavioral significance

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hong; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Gage, Stephanie L; Hildebrand, John G

    2009-01-01

    Background An animal navigating to an unseen odor source must accurately resolve the spatiotemporal distribution of that stimulus in order to express appropriate upwind flight behavior. Intermittency of natural odor plumes, caused by air turbulence, is critically important for many insects, including the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, for odor-modulated search behavior to an odor source. When a moth's antennae receive intermittent odor stimulation, the projection neurons (PNs) in the primary olfactory centers (the antennal lobes), which are analogous to the olfactory bulbs of vertebrates, generate discrete bursts of action potentials separated by periods of inhibition, suggesting that the PNs may use the binary burst/non-burst neural patterns to resolve and enhance the intermittency of the stimulus encountered in the odor plume. Results We tested this hypothesis first by establishing that bicuculline methiodide reliably and reversibly disrupted the ability of PNs to produce bursting response patterns. Behavioral studies, in turn, demonstrated that after injecting this drug into the antennal lobe at the effective concentration used in the physiological experiments animals could no longer efficiently locate the odor source, even though they had detected the odor signal. Conclusions Our results establish a direct link between the bursting response pattern of PNs and the odor-tracking behavior of the moth, demonstrating the behavioral significance of resolving the dynamics of a natural odor stimulus in antennal lobe circuits. PMID:19232128

  11. The relation between stimulus and response in olfactory receptor cells of the tiger salamander.

    PubMed Central

    Firestein, S; Picco, C; Menini, A

    1993-01-01

    1. Olfactory receptor cells were isolated from the adult tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum and the current in response to odorant stimuli was measured with the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique while odorants at known concentrations were rapidly applied for controlled exposure times. 2. Three odorants, cineole, isoamyl acetate and acetophenone, were first applied at 5 x 10(-4) M. Out of forty-nine cells tested, 53% responded to one odorant only, 22% to two odorants and 25% to all three odorants. 3. The amplitude of the current in response to a given odorant concentration was found to be dependent on the duration of the odorant stimulus and reached a saturating peak value at 1.2 s of stimulus duration. 4. The current measured at the peak of the response for odorant steps of 1.2 s as a function of odorant concentration was well described by the Hill equation for the three odorants with Hill coefficients higher than 1 and K1/2 (odorant concentration needed to activate half the maximal current) ranging from 3 x 10(-6) to 9 x 10(-5) M. 5. It is concluded that olfactory receptor cells are broadly tuned and have a low apparent affinity for odorants, integrate stimulus information over time, and have a narrow dynamic range. PMID:8254501

  12. The Stimulus-Dependent Gradient of Cyp26B1+ Olfactory Sensory Neurons Is Necessary for the Functional Integrity of the Olfactory Sensory Map.

    PubMed

    Login, Hande; Håglin, Sofia; Berghard, Anna; Bohm, Staffan

    2015-10-07

    Stimulus-dependent expression of the retinoic acid-inactivating enzyme Cyp26B1 in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) forms a dorsomedial (DM)-ventrolateral (VL) gradient in the mouse olfactory epithelium. The gradient correlates spatially with different rates of OSN turnover, as well as the functional organization of the olfactory sensory map, into overlapping zones of OSNs that express different odorant receptors (ORs). Here, we analyze transgenic mice that, instead of a stimulus-dependent Cyp26B1 gradient, have constitutive Cyp26B1 levels in all OSNs. Starting postnatally, OSN differentiation is decreased and progenitor proliferation is increased. Initially, these effects are selective to the VL-most zone and correlate with reduced ATF5 expression and accumulation of OSNs that do not express ORs. Transcription factor ATF5 is known to stabilize OR gene choice via onset of the stimulus-transducing enzyme adenylyl cyclase type 3. During further postnatal development of Cyp26B1 mice, an anomalous DM(high)-VL(low) expression gradient of adenylyl cyclase type 3 appears, which coincides with altered OR frequencies and OR zones. All OR zones expand ventrolaterally except for the VL-most zone, which contracts. The expansion results in an increased zonal overlap that is also evident in the innervation pattern of OSN axon terminals in olfactory bulbs. These findings together identify a mechanism by which postnatal sensory-stimulated vitamin A metabolism modifies the generation of spatially specified neurons and their precise topographic connectivity. The distributed patterns of vitamin A-metabolizing enzymes in the nervous system suggest the possibility that the mechanism may also regulate neuroplasticity in circuits other than the olfactory sensory map. The mouse olfactory sensory map is functionally wired according to precise axonal projections of spatially organized classes of olfactory sensory neurons in the nose. The genetically controlled mechanisms that regulate the

  13. Effect of Olfactory Stimulus on the Flight Course of a Honeybee, Apis mellifera, in a Wind Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Ikeno, Hidetoshi; Akamatsu, Tadaaki; Hasegawa, Yuji; Ai, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the honeybee, Apis mellifera, uses olfactory stimulus as important information for orienting to food sources. Several studies on olfactory-induced orientation flight have been conducted in wind tunnels and in the field. From these studies, optical sensing is used as the main information with the addition of olfactory signals and the navigational course followed by these sensory information. However, it is not clear how olfactory information is reflected in the navigation of flight. In this study, we analyzed the detailed properties of flight when oriented to an odor source in a wind tunnel. We recorded flying bees with a video camera to analyze the flight area, speed, angular velocity and trajectory. After bees were trained to be attracted to a feeder, the flight trajectories with or without the olfactory stimulus located upwind of the feeder were compared. The results showed that honeybees flew back and forth in the proximity of the odor source, and the search range corresponded approximately to the odor spread area. It was also shown that the angular velocity was different inside and outside the odor spread area, and trajectories tended to be bent or curved just outside the area. PMID:26462581

  14. Effect of Olfactory Stimulus on the Flight Course of a Honeybee, Apis mellifera, in a Wind Tunnel.

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Hidetoshi; Akamatsu, Tadaaki; Hasegawa, Yuji; Ai, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-31

    It is known that the honeybee, Apis mellifera, uses olfactory stimulus as important information for orienting to food sources. Several studies on olfactory-induced orientation flight have been conducted in wind tunnels and in the field. From these studies, optical sensing is used as the main information with the addition of olfactory signals and the navigational course followed by these sensory information. However, it is not clear how olfactory information is reflected in the navigation of flight. In this study, we analyzed the detailed properties of flight when oriented to an odor source in a wind tunnel. We recorded flying bees with a video camera to analyze the flight area, speed, angular velocity and trajectory. After bees were trained to be attracted to a feeder, the flight trajectories with or without the olfactory stimulus located upwind of the feeder were compared. The results showed that honeybees flew back and forth in the proximity of the odor source, and the search range corresponded approximately to the odor spread area. It was also shown that the angular velocity was different inside and outside the odor spread area, and trajectories tended to be bent or curved just outside the area.

  15. Solubility of hydrogen in octane, 1-octanol, and squalane

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Way, T.R.; Feldman, K.T. Jr.; Razani, A.

    1997-01-01

    The solubilities of hydrogen in various liquids were measured over the pressure ranges from 690 to 1,380 kPa at a temperature of 22 C by using the modified Benson and Krause method. The liquids include octane, 1-octanol, and squalane. The solubility increases with increasing pressure and is described by Henry`s Law.

  16. A General Odorant Background Affects the Coding of Pheromone Stimulus Intermittency in Specialist Olfactory Receptor Neurones

    PubMed Central

    Rouyar, Angela; Party, Virginie; Prešern, Janez; Blejec, Andrej; Renou, Michel

    2011-01-01

    In nature the aerial trace of pheromone used by male moths to find a female appears as a train of discontinuous pulses separated by gaps among a complex odorant background constituted of plant volatiles. We investigated the effect of such background odor on behavior and coding of temporal parameters of pheromone pulse trains in the pheromone olfactory receptor neurons of Spodoptera littoralis. Effects of linalool background were tested by measuring walking behavior towards a source of pheromone. While velocity and orientation index did drop when linalool was turned on, both parameters recovered back to pre-background values after 40 s with linalool still present. Photo-ionization detector was used to characterize pulse delivery by our stimulator. The photo-ionization detector signal reached 71% of maximum amplitude at 50 ms pulses and followed the stimulus period at repetition rates up to 10 pulses/s. However, at high pulse rates the concentration of the odorant did not return to base level during inter-pulse intervals. Linalool decreased the intensity and shortened the response of receptor neurons to pulses. High contrast (>10 dB) in firing rate between pulses and inter-pulse intervals was observed for 1 and 4 pulses/s, both with and without background. Significantly more neurons followed the 4 pulses/s pattern when delivered over linalool; at the same time the information content was preserved almost to the control values. Rapid recovery of behavior shows that change of perceived intensity is more important than absolute stimulus intensity. While decreasing the response intensity, background odor preserved the temporal parameters of the specific signal. PMID:22028879

  17. Tonic and stimulus-evoked nitric oxide production in the mouse olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Graeme; Buerk, Donald G.; Ma, Jie; Gelperin, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been long assumed to play a key role in mammalian olfaction. This was based largely on circumstantial evidence, i.e. prominent staining for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclic GMP or soluble guanylyl cyclase, an effector enzyme activated by NO, in local interneurons of the olfactory bulb. Here we employ innovative custom-fabricated NO micro-sensors to obtain the first direct, time-resolved measurements of NO signaling in the olfactory bulb. In 400 μm thick mouse olfactory bulb slices, we detected a steady average basal level of 87 nM NO in the extracellular space of mitral or granule cell layers. This NO ‘tone’ was sensitive to NOS substrate manipulation (200 μM L-arginine, 2 mM L-NAME) and Mg2+ modulation of NMDA receptor conductance. Electrical stimulation of olfactory nerve fibers evoked transient (peak at 10 s) increments in NO levels 90 – 100 nM above baseline. In the anesthetized mouse, NO micro-sensors inserted into the granule cell layer detected NO transients averaging 55 nM in amplitude and peaking at 3.4 sec after onset of a 5 sec odorant stimulation. These findings suggest dual roles for NO signaling in the olfactory bulb – tonic inhibitory control of principal neurons, and regulation of circuit dynamics during odor information processing. PMID:18407420

  18. Solubility of pyrene in binary alkane + 1-octanol solvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Zvaigzne, A.I.; Acree, W.E. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    Solid-liquid equilibrium data of organic nonelectrolyte systems are becoming increasingly important in the petroleum industry, particularly in light of present trends toward heavier feedstocks and known carcinogenicity/mutagenicity of many of the larger polycyclic aromatic compounds. Experimental solubilities are reported for pyrene dissolved in seven binary mixtures containing 1-octanol with hexane, heptane, octane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, and (1,1-dimethylethyl)cyclohexane at 26 C. Results of these measurements are used to test two mathematical representations based upon the combined nearly ideal binary solvent (NIBS)/Redlich-Kister equation and modified Wilson model. For the system studied, the three-parameter combined NIBS/Redlich-Kister equation was found to provide the better mathematical representation, with deviations between experimental and back-calculated values being on the order of {+-}1.5% or lees. Slightly larger deviations were noted in the case of the two-parameter modified Wilson equation.

  19. Evaluation of auditory, visual and olfactory event-related potentials for comparing interspersed- and single-stimulus paradigms.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Steven; Andersson, Linus; Olofsson, Jonas K; McCormack, Michael; Polich, John

    2011-09-01

    An interspersed-stimulus paradigm (ISP) for event-related potential (ERP) recordings in which different sensory modality stimuli are presented within the same test session was developed to minimize recording time and facilitate modality comparison. The present study compared the ISP with a single-stimulus paradigm (SSP), using auditory, visual, and olfactory stimuli. Normal participants (n=16) were assessed on two independent test occasions to obtain data on inter-paradigm and test-retest reliability. Peak amplitude/latency and area measures were obtained for the N1, P2 and P3 peaks for each paradigm. Except for larger auditory and visual P3 peaks and smaller visual P2 peaks in the ISP, no significant differences in amplitudes or latencies were found between the two paradigms. Correlation coefficients between paradigms were generally fairly high (amplitude mean r=0.76; latency r=0.42). Test-retest reliability within paradigms for amplitudes (ISP r=0.70; SSP r=0.68) and latencies (ISP r=0.44; SSP r=0.42) was similar across paradigms. The findings suggest that the ISP, compared to the SSP, produces, in general, highly comparable auditory, visual, and olfactory peak amplitudes and latencies, and comparable reliability estimates, even though the ISP takes much less time to record (25 vs. 50min). The larger auditory and visual P3 peaks and smaller visual P2 peaks in the ISP may be attributable to a less predictable stimulus environment. Thus, this method enables systematic comparisons of ERP peaks across sensory modalities while reducing testing time. Practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cholinergic Modulation during Acquisition of Olfactory Fear Conditioning Alters Learning and Stimulus Generalization in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavesi, Eloisa; Gooch, Allison; Lee, Elizabeth; Fletcher, Max L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of cholinergic neurotransmission in olfactory fear learning. Mice receiving pairings of odor and foot shock displayed fear to the trained odor the following day. Pretraining injections of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine had no effect on subsequent freezing, while the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine significantly…

  1. Cholinergic Modulation during Acquisition of Olfactory Fear Conditioning Alters Learning and Stimulus Generalization in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavesi, Eloisa; Gooch, Allison; Lee, Elizabeth; Fletcher, Max L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of cholinergic neurotransmission in olfactory fear learning. Mice receiving pairings of odor and foot shock displayed fear to the trained odor the following day. Pretraining injections of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine had no effect on subsequent freezing, while the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine significantly…

  2. Neurogenesis Drives Stimulus Decorrelation in a Model of the Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Siu-Fai; Wick, Stuart D.; Riecke, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    The reshaping and decorrelation of similar activity patterns by neuronal networks can enhance their discriminability, storage, and retrieval. How can such networks learn to decorrelate new complex patterns, as they arise in the olfactory system? Using a computational network model for the dominant neural populations of the olfactory bulb we show that fundamental aspects of the adult neurogenesis observed in the olfactory bulb – the persistent addition of new inhibitory granule cells to the network, their activity-dependent survival, and the reciprocal character of their synapses with the principal mitral cells – are sufficient to restructure the network and to alter its encoding of odor stimuli adaptively so as to reduce the correlations between the bulbar representations of similar stimuli. The decorrelation is quite robust with respect to various types of perturbations of the reciprocity. The model parsimoniously captures the experimentally observed role of neurogenesis in perceptual learning and the enhanced response of young granule cells to novel stimuli. Moreover, it makes specific predictions for the type of odor enrichment that should be effective in enhancing the ability of animals to discriminate similar odor mixtures. PMID:22442645

  3. Estimation of solubility of organic compounds in 1-octanol

    SciTech Connect

    Li, A.; Pinsuwan, S.; Yalkowsky, S.H.

    1994-12-31

    Five methods were evaluated for their ability to estimate the solubility of organic compounds in 1-octanol. OCTASOL is a modified group contribution method developed in this study. Another proposed method uses the product of octanol-water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) and water solubility (S{sub w}) as the approximate of octanol solubility. The average absolute error of the estimate obtained from using OCTASOL is 0.25 log units for the training set (N = 180), and 0.29 log units for a test set (N = 10). When the K{sub ow}*S{sub w} method is used, the error is 0.29 log units (N = 124). Three other approaches (ideal solubility, regular solution theory, and UNIFAC) are also evaluated. Their average absolute errors are 0.85 (N = 209), 0.58 (N = 174), and 0.31 (N = 1 31) log units, respectively. The difference between ideal solubility and octanol solubility increases as the latter decreases. Regular solution theory, combined with Fedors` group contribution method to estimate solubility parameter of solutes, compensates significantly for the systematic errors resulted from using the ideal solubility. Lack of the needed group interaction parameters prevents application of UNIFAC to about 50 compounds in the data set used in this study.

  4. Prediction of 1-octanol solubilities using data from the Open Notebook Science Challenge.

    PubMed

    Buonaiuto, Michael A; Lang, Andrew S I D

    2015-12-01

    1-Octanol solubility is important in a variety of applications involving pharmacology and environmental chemistry. Current models are linear in nature and often require foreknowledge of either melting point or aqueous solubility. Here we extend the range of applicability of 1-octanol solubility models by creating a random forest model that can predict 1-octanol solubilities directly from structure. We created a random forest model using CDK descriptors that has an out-of-bag (OOB) R(2) value of 0.66 and an OOB mean squared error of 0.34. The model has been deployed for general use as a Shiny application. The 1-octanol solubility model provides reasonably accurate predictions of the 1-octanol solubility of organic solutes directly from structure. The model was developed under Open Notebook Science conditions which makes it open, reproducible, and as useful as possible.Graphical abstract.

  5. Densities, refractive indices, and excess molar volumes of the ternary systems water + methanol + 1-octanol and water + ethanol + 1-octanol and their binary mixtures at 298. 15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Arce, A.; Blanco, A.; Soto, A.; Vidal, I. )

    1993-04-01

    The densities, refractive indices, and excess molar volumes of the ternary systems water + methanol + 1-octanol and water + ethanol + 1-octanol have been determined at 298.15 K. These physical properties are easily measured, and the authors' tabulated data thus allow indirect determination of the composition of arbitrary mixtures. The authors have found no directly comparable data in the literature, though data are available for the binary mixtures formed by these components and for other ternary mixtures containing these binary systems. The excess volumes have been correlated using Redlich-Kister functions.

  6. Brain activation by an olfactory stimulus paired with juvenile play in female rats.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Ramos, P; McCarthy, M M; Bowers, J M; Miquel, M; Manzo, J; Coria-Avila, G A

    2014-06-22

    We have previously shown that reward experienced during social play at juvenile age can be paired with artificial odors, and later in adulthood facilitate olfactory conditioned partner preferences (PP) in female rats. Herein, we examined the expression of FOS immunoreactivity (FOS-IR) following exposure to the odor paired with juvenile play (CS+). Starting at day P31 females received daily 30-min periods of social play with lemon-scented (paired group) or unscented females (unpaired group). At day P42, they were tested for play-PP with two juvenile males, one bearing the CS+ (lemon) and one bearing a novel odor (almond). Females were ovariectomized, hormone-primed and at day P55 tested for sexual-PP between two adult stud males scented with lemon or almond. In both tests, females from the paired group displayed conditioned PP (play or sexual) toward males bearing the CS+. In the present experiments females were exposed at day P59 to the CS+ during 60 min and their brains processed for FOS-IR. One group of female rats (Play+Sex) underwent play-PP and sexual-PP, whereas a second group of females (Play-only) underwent exclusively play-PP but not sexual-PP. Results showed that in the Play-only experiment exposure to the CS+ induced more FOS-IR in the medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, dorsal striatum, and ventral tegmental area as compared to females from the unpaired group. In the Play+Sex experiment, more FOS-IR was observed in the piriform cortex, dorsal striatum, lateral septum, nucleus accumbens shell, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial amygdala as compared to females from the unpaired group. Taken together, these results indicate mesocorticolimbic brain areas direct the expectation and/or choice of conditioned partners in female rats. In addition, transferring the meaning of play to sex preference requires different brain areas.

  7. Relation between stimulus and response in frog olfactory receptor neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Lánský, Petr; Duchamp, André; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia

    2003-09-01

    The spiking activity of receptor neurons was recorded extracellularly in the frog olfactory epithelium in response to four odourants applied at precisely controlled concentrations. A set of criteria was formulated to define the spikes in the response. Four variables - latency, duration, number of interspike intervals and frequency - were determined to quantify the responses. They were studied at the single neuron, neuron population and ciliary membrane levels. The dose-response curves were determined using specific functions and their characteristics were evaluated. The characteristic molar concentrations at threshold or at maximum duration and the characteristics of variables, e.g. minimum latency or maximum frequency, have asymmetric histograms with peaks close to the origin and long tails. Dynamic ranges have even more asymmetric histograms, so that a significant fraction of neurons presents a much wider range than their one-decade peak. From these histograms, response properties of the whole neuron population can be inferred. In general, location along the concentration axis (thresholds), width (dynamic ranges) and heights of dose-response curves are independent, which explains the diversity of curves, prevents their global categorization and supports the qualitative coding of odourants. No evidence for odourant-independent types of neurons was found. Finally, receptor activation and ciliary membrane conductance were reconstructed in the framework of a model based on firing data, known mucus biochemical and neuron morpho-electrical characteristics. It is in agreement with independent determinations of Kd of odourant-receptor interaction and of conductance characteristics, and describes their statistical distributions in the neuron population.

  8. Heterogeneous uptake of 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol on liquid water and 1-octanol droplets.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongquan; Demerjian, Kenneth L; Williams, Leah R; Worsnop, Douglas R; Kolb, Charles E; Davidovits, Paul

    2006-06-01

    The heterogeneous uptake of the 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol, F(CF2)8CH2CH2OH, on liquid water surfaces over the temperature range 256-273 K and on 1-octanol surfaces over the temperature range 264-295 K has been investigated with a droplet train flow reactor. The uptake coefficient on water droplets is zero within the error of the measurement (+/-0.01) and is independent of droplet temperature. In contrast, significant uptake onto 1-octanol is observed. Measured uptake coefficients for 1-octanol showed a negative temperature dependence, varying from 0.034 +/- 0.005 (1sigma) at 295 K to 0.103 +/- 0.009 at 264 K. The measured uptake coefficients on 1-octanol were independent of gas-liquid contact time, for typical contact times varying between 3 and 15 ms, and independent of the 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol gas-phase concentration, indicating that the uptake coefficients are equivalent to mass accommodation coefficients. The uptake coefficients on 1-octanol were also independent of relative humidity. These results show that the uptake of FTOHs on or into the aqueous component of cloud/fog droplets or aqueous aerosol particles is not likely to be an important atmospheric sink for these compounds. In these experiments, 1-octanol was used as a model compound for organic-containing atmospheric particles. The larger uptake coefficient measured for 1-octanol surfaces indicates that FTOH partitioning to organic-containing cloud/fog droplets and aerosol particles may be an atmospheric loss mechanism.

  9. Microbial production of 1-octanol: A naturally excreted biofuel with diesel-like properties

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, M. Kalim; Dandapani, Hariharan; Thiel, Kati; Jones, Patrik R.

    2014-01-01

    The development of sustainable, bio-based technologies to convert solar energy and carbon dioxide into fuels is a grand challenge. A core part of this challenge is to produce a fuel that is compatible with the existing transportation infrastructure. This task is further compounded by the commercial desire to separate the fuel from the biotechnological host. Based on its fuel characteristics, 1-octanol was identified as an attractive metabolic target with diesel-like properties. We therefore engineered a synthetic pathway specifically for the biosynthesis of 1-octanol in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) by over-expression of three enzymes (thioesterase, carboxylic acid reductase and aldehyde reductase) and one maturation factor (phosphopantetheinyl transferase). Induction of this pathway in a shake flask resulted in 4.4 mg 1-octanol L−1 h−1 which exceeded the productivity of previously engineered strains. Furthermore, the majority (73%) of the fatty alcohol was localised within the media without the addition of detergent or solvent overlay. The deletion of acrA reduced the production and excretion of 1-octanol by 3-fold relative to the wild-type, suggesting that the AcrAB–TolC complex may be responsible for the majority of product efflux. This study presents 1-octanol as a potential fuel target that can be synthesised and naturally accumulated within the media using engineered microbes. PMID:27066394

  10. Surface tension of aqueous lithium bromide solutions containing 1-octanol as a heat-transfer additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Kenji; Mori, Y.H.

    1996-11-01

    The surface tension of simulated heat-pump working fluids, aqueous solutions of lithium bromide containing 1-octanol, has been measured, for the first time using a recently developed technique (Ishida et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1,324 (1993)) which is inherently suitable for characterizing the surfactant solution surfaces from the aspects of thermodynamic adsorption equilibrium and adsorption kinetics. The measurement has revealed that even the highest-grade reagents of lithium bromide commercially available are not necessarily free from surfactant impurities. Obtained data on the surface tension vs 1-octanol concentration have been examined on the basis of an equilibrium adsorption model. Through the optimal fitting of the Langmuir-type surface equation of state to the data, they have calculated the surface tension vs surface excess relation and also the variation in surface tension vs 1-octanol concentration relation with the surface area per unit volume of a given solution.

  11. Preparation and characterization of magnetorheological fluids by dispersion of carbonyl iron microparticles in PAO/1-octanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morillas, Jose R.; Bombard, Antonio J. F.; de Vicente, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This work reports an investigation into the effect of 1-octanol concentration in the formulation of concentrated polyalphaolefin-based magnetorheological fluids. Special emphasis is paid to the understanding of their kinetic stability and redispersibility characteristics in the ‘off-state’ (absence of magnetic field). Techniques employed involve light scattering, electroacoustics and rheometry, using a vane tool, to precisely determine the yield value. The results obtained show a minimum in the rheological material functions for 1-octanol concentrations within the range 0.5-5.0 wt%. This finding is tentatively explained in terms of the potential energy of interaction between the dispersed particles as a result of the formation of 1-octanol micelles in good agreement with Bombard and Dukhin (2014 Langmuir 30 4517-21).

  12. Phase volume changes accompanying water extraction from aqueous electrolyte solutions by 1-octanol

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; Moyer, B.A.

    1995-03-01

    The extraction of water by 1-octanol was calculated as a function of aqueous electrolyte concentration and initial O/A volume ratio for a series of representative salts, including LiCl, NaCl, KCl, NaNO{sub 3}, NaClO{sub 4}, MgCl{sub 2}, and CaCl{sub 2}. These results were then used to calculate the resultant phase-volume changes and aqueous-electrolyte-concentration changes. Such corrections are necessitated for precise extraction measurements employing 1-octanol as a diluent, especially as the O/A phase ratio exceeds unity. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Direct calculation of 1-octanol-water partition coefficients from adaptive biasing force molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Navendu; Kamath, Ganesh; Chelst, Issac; Potoff, Jeffrey J

    2012-07-07

    The 1-octanol-water partition coefficient log K(ow) of a solute is a key parameter used in the prediction of a wide variety of complex phenomena such as drug availability and bioaccumulation potential of trace contaminants. In this work, adaptive biasing force molecular dynamics simulations are used to determine absolute free energies of hydration, solvation, and 1-octanol-water partition coefficients for n-alkanes from methane to octane. Two approaches are evaluated; the direct transfer of the solute from 1-octanol to water phase, and separate transfers of the solute from the water or 1-octanol phase to vacuum, with both methods yielding statistically indistinguishable results. Calculations performed with the TIP4P and SPC∕E water models and the TraPPE united-atom force field for n-alkanes show that the choice of water model has a negligible effect on predicted free energies of transfer and partition coefficients for n-alkanes. A comparison of calculations using wet and dry octanol phases shows that the predictions for log K(ow) using wet octanol are 0.2-0.4 log units lower than for dry octanol, although this is within the statistical uncertainty of the calculation.

  14. Characterizing Olfactory Perceptual Similarity Using Carbon Chain Discrimination in Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Performance on olfactory tests can be influenced by a number of stimulus characteristics including chemical structure, concentration, perceptual similarity, and previous experience with the test odorants. Few of these parameters have been extensively characterized in the Fischer 344 rat strain. To investigate how odor quality affects perception in this rat strain, we measured how graded perceptual similarity, created by varying carbon chain length across a series of homologous alcohol pairs, influenced odor discrimination using a liquid-motivated go/no-go task. We employed an automated, liquid-dilution olfactometer to train Fischer 344 rats (N = 8) on a 2-odor discrimination task. Six odorants (1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, and 1-octanol) were arranged to produce 15 novel odorant pairs differing between 1 and 5 carbon atoms; testing sessions included presentation of only 1 pseudorandomly assigned pair daily (200 trials). Results show that although rats can learn to discriminate between any 2 odorant pairs, performance declines systematically as the pairs become more structurally similar and, therefore, more perceptually confusing. As such, the easier discrimination pairs produced reliable ceiling effects across all rats, whereas performance for the difficult discrimination pairs was consistently worse, even after repeated testing. These data emphasize the importance of considering odorant stimulus dimensions in experimental designs employing olfactory stimuli. Moreover, establishing baseline olfactory performance in Fischer 344 rats may be particularly useful for predicting age-related cognitive decline in this model. PMID:24488965

  15. Characterizing olfactory perceptual similarity using carbon chain discrimination in Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Wendy M; Setlow, Barry; Bizon, Jennifer L; Smith, David W

    2014-05-01

    Performance on olfactory tests can be influenced by a number of stimulus characteristics including chemical structure, concentration, perceptual similarity, and previous experience with the test odorants. Few of these parameters have been extensively characterized in the Fischer 344 rat strain. To investigate how odor quality affects perception in this rat strain, we measured how graded perceptual similarity, created by varying carbon chain length across a series of homologous alcohol pairs, influenced odor discrimination using a liquid-motivated go/no-go task. We employed an automated, liquid-dilution olfactometer to train Fischer 344 rats (N = 8) on a 2-odor discrimination task. Six odorants (1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, and 1-octanol) were arranged to produce 15 novel odorant pairs differing between 1 and 5 carbon atoms; testing sessions included presentation of only 1 pseudorandomly assigned pair daily (200 trials). Results show that although rats can learn to discriminate between any 2 odorant pairs, performance declines systematically as the pairs become more structurally similar and, therefore, more perceptually confusing. As such, the easier discrimination pairs produced reliable ceiling effects across all rats, whereas performance for the difficult discrimination pairs was consistently worse, even after repeated testing. These data emphasize the importance of considering odorant stimulus dimensions in experimental designs employing olfactory stimuli. Moreover, establishing baseline olfactory performance in Fischer 344 rats may be particularly useful for predicting age-related cognitive decline in this model.

  16. Excess Gibbs free energies at several temperatures of butanone with 1-hexanol or 1-octanol

    SciTech Connect

    Garriga, R.; Sanchez, F.; Perez, P.; Gracia, M.

    1996-09-01

    Vapor pressures of butanone + 1-hexanol or 1-octanol, at several temperatures between 288.15 K and 323.15 K, were measured by a static method. Activity coefficients and excess molar Gibbs free energies G{sup E} were calculated by Barker`s method. Reduction of the vapor pressure data is carried out by means of the Redlich-Kister and Wilson correlations.

  17. Phase transitions of n-hexadecane in nanoencapsulated binary solutions of n-hexadecane and 1-octanol.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, Kyle W; Nguyen, Vincent T; Adalsteinsson, Thorsteinn

    2012-04-05

    Binary solutions of n-hexadecane and 1-octanol were encapsulated within poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) nanocapsules and the phase transition behavior of the n-hexadecane studied. A sigmoidal correlation was found between the binary composition of the encapsulated oil and the oil formulation prior to encapsulation. At low 1-octanol fractions in the synthesis, almost no alcohol was encapsulated, but at high 1-octanol fractions, the capsules were enriched in alcohol. The freezing point of the encapsulated n-hexadecane was considerably lower than in the bulk phase. This freezing point was further reduced as the radius of the particle was reduced, which is expected from the Gibbs-Thompson equation. The extracted value at infinite radii was, however, 14 °C below the bulk freezing point. The colligative effect of 1-octanol on the freezing point of n-hexadecane, i.e., dT(f)/dx(m), where x(m) is the mass fraction of 1-octanol, was nearly identical to that measured in the bulk system. The specific enthalpy of freezing for the encapsulated system was considerably different from the bulk system. In the bulk system, the freezing enthalpy for n-hexadecane was nearly constant up to 60% mass of 1-octanol. The freezing enthalpy for the encapsulated n-hexadecane showed greater variation with % mass 1-octanol, and had a considerably lower absolute value than the bulk system.

  18. The effect of cholesterol on the partitioning of 1-octanol into POPC vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariaee Kouchaksaraee, Roja

    Microcalorimetry has become a method of choice for sensitive characterization of biomolecular interactions. In this study, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the partitioning of 1-octanol into lipid bilayers composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), a semi-unsaturated lipid, and cholesterol, a steroid, as a function of cholesterol molar concentration. The ITC instrument measures the heat evolved or absorbed upon titration of a liposome dispersion, at concentrations ranging from 0 to 40% cholesterol, into a suspension of 1-octanol in water. A model function was fit to the data in order to determine the partition coefficient of octanol into POPC bilayers and the enthalpy of interaction. I found that the partition coefficient increases and the heat of interaction becomes less negative with increasing cholesterol content, in contrast to results found by other groups for partitioning of alcohols into lipid-cholesterol bilayers containing saturated lipids. The heat of dilution of vesicles was also measured. Keywords: Partition coefficient; POPC; 1-Octanol; Cholesterol; Isothermal titration calorimetry; Lipid-alcohol interactions. Subject Terms: Calorimetry; Membranes (Biology); Biophysics; Biology -- Technique; Bilayer lipid membranes -- Biotechnology; Lipid membranes -- Biotechnology.

  19. Salting-out phenomenon and 1-octanol/water partition coefficient of metalaxyl pesticide.

    PubMed

    Saab, J; Bassil, G; Abou Naccoul, R; Stephan, J; Mokbel, I; Jose, J

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we present the effect of inorganic cations such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ on the salting-out phenomenon of metalaxyl from pure water to aqueous salt solutions. Moreover the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient in pure water is presented. To accomplish this, aqueous solubility of metalaxyl was determined in pure water, in different salt solution (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2), and at different concentration level ranging from 0.01 to 1.5 M. The 1-octanol/water partition coefficient was determined using the static shake-flask method. Solubility was determined using dynamic saturation method for pure water in the range of 298.15-325.15 K and at 298.15 K for different salt solutions. The solubility value in pure water for studied interval was found constant (m=3.118×10(-2) mol kg(-1)). Solubility values were used to calculate the standard molar Gibbs free energy of dissolution (ΔsolG°) and transfer (ΔtrG°) at 298.15 K. The values of ΔtrG° from pure to all studied aqueous salt solutions did not exceed 2 kJ mol(-1), the value of ΔsolG° of dissolution is 18.5 ±0.72 kJ mol(-1). The 1-octanol/water partition coefficient in pure water log Ko/w is equal to 1.69. The obtained results confirm the classification of the neutral metalaxyl as a slightly hydrophobic molecule. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Density and viscosity for monoethanolamine + 1-propanol, + 1-hexanol, and + 1-octanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.J.; Lin, T.K.; Pai, Y.H.; Lin, K.S.

    1997-09-01

    Monoethanolamine (MEA) is a feasible agent for removing carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from sour gases. Densities and viscosities were measured for monoethanolamine (MEA) + 1-propanol, MEA + 1-hexanol, and MEA + 1-octanol at 303.15 K, 313.15 K, and 323.15 K. The excess volumes and viscosity deviations from the mole fraction average were calculated and correlated by a Redlich-Kister type equation. McAllister`s three-body interaction model was also applied to correlate the kinematic viscosities.

  1. 1-Octanol, a self-inhibitor of spore germination in Penicillium camemberti.

    PubMed

    Gillot, Guillaume; Decourcelle, Nicolas; Dauer, Gaëlle; Barbier, Georges; Coton, Emmanuel; Delmail, David; Mounier, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    Penicillium camemberti is a technologically relevant fungus used to manufacture mold-ripened cheeses. This fungal species produces many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including ammonia, methyl-ketones, alcohols and esters. Although it is now well known that VOCs can act as signaling molecules, nothing is known about their involvement in P. camemberti lifecycle. In this study, spore germination was shown to be self-regulated by quorum sensing in P. camemberti. This phenomenon, also called "crowding effect", is population-dependent (i.e. observed at high population densities). After determining the volatile nature of the compounds involved in this process, 1-octanol was identified as the main compound produced at high-spore density using GC-MS. Its inhibitory effect was confirmed in vitro and 3 mM 1-octanol totally inhibited spore germination while 100 μM only transiently inhibited spore germination. This is the first time that self-inhibition of spore germination is demonstrated in P. camemberti. The obtained results provide interesting perspectives for better control of mold-ripened cheese processes.

  2. Comparison of hydrogen bonding in 1-octanol and 2-octanol as probed by spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Palombo, Francesca; Sassi, Paola; Paolantoni, Marco; Morresi, Assunta; Cataliotti, Rosario Sergio

    2006-09-14

    Liquid 1-octanol and 2-octanol have been investigated by infrared (IR), Raman, and Brillouin experiments in the 10-90 degrees C temperature range. Self-association properties of the neat liquids are described in terms of a three-state model in which OH oscillators differently implicated in the formation of H-bonds are considered. The results are in quantitative agreement with recent computational studies for 1-octanol. The H-bond probability is obtained by Raman data, and a stochastic model of H-bonded chains gives a consistent picture of the self-association characteristics. Average values of hydrogen bond enthalpy and entropy are evaluated. The H-bond formation enthalpy is ca. -22 kJ/mol and is slightly dependent on the structural isomerism. The different degree of self-association for the two octanols is attributed to entropic factors. The more shielded 2-isomer forms larger fractions of smaller, less cooperative, and more ordered clusters, likely corresponding to cyclic structures. Signatures of a different cluster organization are also evidenced by comparing the H-bond energy dispersion (HBED) of OH stretching IR bands. A limiting cooperative H-bond enthalpy value of 27 kJ/mol is found. It is also proposed that the different H-bonding capabilities may modulate the extent of interaggregate hydrocarbon interactions, which is important in explaining the differences in molar volume, compressibility, and vaporization enthalpy for the two isomers.

  3. Liquefaction of sawdust in 1-octanol using acidic ionic liquids as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zexiang; Zheng, Huaiyu; Fan, Liwei; Liao, Yiqiang; Ding, Bingjing; Huang, Biao

    2013-08-01

    Acidic ionic liquids (AILs) as a novel catalyst in biomass liquefaction can accord with the demand of green chemistry and enhance the development of biomass thermal chemical conversion. A series of AILs containing HSO4- were synthesized by the imidazolium cation functionalization and applied to the Chinese fir sawdust liquefaction in 1-octanol in this paper. The experimental results showed that the liquefaction rate was gradually improved with the AILs acidity increasing, and reached 71.5% when 1-(4-sulfobutyl)-3-methylmidazolium hydrosulfate was used as catalyst with the 6:1 mass ratio of 1-octanol to sawdust at 423K after 60 min. Lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose were orderly desquamated, and then depolymerized and liquefied with the catalyst acidity increasing in the sawdust liquefaction process. The light oil was mainly composed of the octyl ether and the octyl ester compounds, suggesting that the solvent may play an important role in producing the high octane rating biofuel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Solvation of decane and benzene in mixtures of 1-octanol and N, N-dimethylformamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustov, A. V.; Smirnova, N. L.

    2016-09-01

    The heats of dissolution of decane and benzene in a model system of octanol-1 (OctOH) and N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at 308 K are measured using a variable temperature calorimeter equipped with an isothermal shell. Standard enthalpies are determined and standard heat capacities of dissolution in the temperature range of 298-318 K are calculated using data obtained in [1, 2]. The state of hydrocarbon molecules in a binary mixture is studied in terms of the enhanced coordination model (ECM). Benzene is shown to be preferentially solvated by DMF over the range of physiological temperatures. The solvation shell of decane is found to be strongly enriched with 1-octanol. It is obvious that although both hydrocarbons are nonpolar, the presence of the aromatic π-system in benzene leads to drastic differences in their solvation in a lipid-protein medium.

  5. Preferable solvatation of decane and benzene in 1-octanol- N, N-dimethylformamide mixed solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustov, A. V.; Smirnova, N. L.; Berezin, M. B.

    2014-01-01

    Heat effects of the dissolution of decane and benzene in a model system of 1-octanol (OctOH)- N, N-dimethylformamide are measured at 298 and 318 K using a variable temperature calorimeter with an isotermic shell. The state of hydrocarbon molecules in the mixed solvent is studied using an extended coordination model and is compared to earlier data for ethyl acetate (EtOAc), DMF, OctOH, and tetramethyl hematoporphyrin (TMHP). It is shown that the polar carboxylic groups of porphyrin are preferably solvated by amide molecules due to stronger interaction with DMF, while nonpolar aliphatic groups are solvated by alcohol molecules. We conclude that a solvate shell of aromatic benzene is strongly enriched with DMF over the range of compositions, suggesting that the weakening of the preferable solvatation of porphyrin relative to EtOAc is due primarily to the influence of nonpolar substituents.

  6. Thermodynamic and structural description of europium complexation in 1-octanol solution

    SciTech Connect

    Charbonnel, M.C.; Vu, T.H.; Boubals, N.; Couston, L.

    2008-07-01

    Polydentate N-bearing ligands such as bis-triazinyl-pyridines (BTPS) are interesting extractants for actinide(III)/lanthanide(III) separation. A description of europium complexation in 1-octanol solutions was undertaken to enhance the knowledge of the extraction mechanisms. Time- Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF) spectroscopy allows determination of the first solvation shell for europium(III) nitrate, chloride, and perchlorate with different amounts of water. Europium nitrate complexation by iPr-BTP was then studied by TRLIF and microcalorimetry; the stability constant related to the formation of Eu(BTP){sub 3}{sup 3+} is similar by both techniques (log {beta}{sub 3} = 11.3 {+-} 0.5). The difference of solvation of the cation seems to have an influence on the thermodynamic properties related to the complexation with organic ligands. (authors)

  7. 1-Octanol/Water Partition Coefficients of n-Alkanes from Molecular Simulations of Absolute Solvation Free Energies.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Nuno M; Queimada, António J; Jorge, Miguel; Macedo, Eugénia A; Economou, Ioannis G

    2009-09-08

    The 1-octanol/water partition coefficient is an important thermodynamic variable usually employed to understand and quantify the partitioning of solutes between aqueous and organic phases. It finds widespread use in many empirical correlations to evaluate the environmental fate of pollutants as well as in the design of pharmaceuticals. The experimental evaluation of 1-octanol/water partition coefficients is an expensive and time-consuming procedure, and thus, theoretical estimation methods are needed, particularly when a physical sample of the solute may not yet be available, such as in pharmaceutical screening. 1-Octanol/water partition coefficients can be obtained from Gibbs free energies of solvation of the solute in both the aqueous and the octanol phases. The accurate evaluation of free energy differences remains today a challenging problem in computational chemistry. In order to study the absolute solvation Gibbs free energies in 1-octanol, a solvent that can mimic many properties of important biological systems, free energy calculations for n-alkanes in the range C1-C8 were performed using molecular simulation techniques, following the thermodynamic integration approach. In the first part of this paper, we test different force fields by evaluating their performance in reproducing pure 1-octanol properties. It is concluded that all-atom force fields can provide good accuracy but at the cost of a higher computational time compared to that of the united-atom force fields. Recent versions of united-atom force fields, such as Gromos and TraPPE, provide satisfactory results and are, thus, useful alternatives to the more expensive all-atom models. In the second part of the paper, the Gibbs free energy of solvation in 1-octanol is calculated for several n-alkanes using three force fields to describe the solutes, namely Gromos, TraPPE, and OPLS-AA. Generally, the results obtained are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data and are of similar

  8. Kinetics of the extraction of succinic acid with tri-n-octylamine in 1-octanol solution.

    PubMed

    Jun, Young-Si; Huh, Yun Suk; Hong, Won Hi; Hong, Yeon Ki

    2005-01-01

    Kinetic studies for the extraction of succinic acid from aqueous solution with 1-octanol solutions of tri-n-octylamine (TOA) were carried out using a stirred cell with a microporous hydrophobic membrane. The interfacial concentrations of species were correlated and thus the intrinsic kinetics was obtained. The overall extraction process was controlled by the chemical reaction at or near the interface between the aqueous and organic phases. The formation reaction of succinic acid-TOA complex was found to be first order with respect to the concentration of succinic acid in the aqueous phase and the order of 0.5 with respect to that of TOA in the organic phase with a rate constant of (3.14 +/- 0.6) x 10(-8) m(2.5) x mol(-0.5) x s(-1). The dissociation reaction of succinic acid-TOA complex was found to be the second-order with respect to that of succinic acid-TOA complex in the organic phase and the order of -2 with respect to that of TOA in the organic phase with a rate constant of (1.44 +/- 1.4) x 10(-4) mol x m(-2) x s(-1).

  9. pKa and solubility of drugs in water, ethanol, and 1-octanol.

    PubMed

    Domańska, Urszula; Pobudkowska, Aneta; Pelczarska, Aleksandra; Gierycz, Paweł

    2009-07-02

    Dissociation constants and corresponding pK(a) values of five drugs were obtained with the Bates-Schwarzenbach method using a Perkin-Elmer Lambda 35 UV/vis spectrophotometer at temperature 298.15 K in the buffer solutions. Atropine, promethazine hydrochloride, ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, and meclofenamic acid sodium salt exhibited pK(a) values of 10.3, 6.47, 5.38, 4.50, and 4.39, respectively. The equilibrium mole fraction solubilities of six drugs were measured in a range of temperatures from 240 to 340 K in three important solvents for drugs: water, ethanol, and 1-octanol using the dynamic method. The basic thermal properties of pure drugs, i.e., melting and glass-transition temperatures, as well as the enthalpy of melting and the molar heat capacity at glass transition (at constant pressure) have been measured with the differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Molar volumes have been calculated with the Barton group contribution method. The experimental solubility data have been correlated by means of three commonly known G(E) equations: the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC, with the assumption that the systems studied here have revealed simple eutectic mixtures. As a measure of goodness of correlation, the root-mean-square deviations of temperature have been used. The activity coefficients of the drugs in saturated solutions for each correlated binary mixture were calculated from the experimental data.

  10. [FTIR analysis of products derived from wood liquefaction with 1-octanol].

    PubMed

    Zou, Xian-Wu; Yang, Zhi; Qin, Te-Fu

    2009-06-01

    Solvolysis is one of the important processes of biomass liquefaction. To produce superior quality liquid biofuel from biomass under mild conditions, it is essential to exploit novel reactive liquid solvent. Furthermore, the evaluation of liquefaction efficiency is carried out mainly by the means of analysis of the products derived from biomass liquefaction. In the present study, liquefaction of poplar wood powder in acidified 1-octanol was investigated with a stainless steel autoclave. Residue, heavy oil and light oil were separated from the liquefaction products by extraction with acetone and n-hexane successively. FTIR analysis was carried out on these liquefaction compositions to illuminate the liquefaction regularities and mechanisms of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin of wood. The results showed that liquefaction oils were complex mixture containing hydroxide, carbonyl, methoxyl, aromatic and aether. Liquefactions of cellulose and hemicellulose were easier than that of lignin. Cellulose and hemicellulose were converted to light oil, however, lignin was mainly converted to heavy oil. At 150 degrees C, lignin was depolymerized and degraded into micromolecular aromatic compounds, among which condensation reactions took place when reaction temperature increased.

  11. Enthalpy of solvation correlations for gaseous solutes dissolved in water and in 1-octanol based on the Abraham model.

    PubMed

    Mintz, Christina; Clark, Michael; Acree, William E; Abraham, Michael H

    2007-01-01

    Data have been assembled on the enthalpies of solvation of 373 compounds in water and 138 compounds in 1-octanol. It is shown that an Abraham solvation equation with five descriptors can be used to correlate the experimental solvation enthalpies to within standard deviations of 3.68 kJ/mol (water) and 2.66 kJ/mol (1-octanol). The derived correlations provide very accurate mathematical descriptions of the observed enthalpies of solvation, which in the case of water span a range of 150 kJ/mol. Division of the experimental values into a training set and a test set shows that there is no bias in predictions and that the predictive capability of the correlations is better than 4 kJ/mol.

  12. Equilibria and speciation in the solvent extraction of lithium chloride by nonamethyl-14-crown-4 ether in 1-octanol

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; Chen, Z.; Cavenaugh, K.L.; Sachleben, R.A.; Moyer, B.A.

    1996-05-30

    The equilibria and speciation in the solvent extraction of LiCl by nonamethyl-14-crown-4 ether in 1-octanol have been determined by use of ion chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyses, equilibrium modeling with the program SXLSQI, and {sup 7}Li NMR measurements. SXLSQI modeling of the extraction data indicates the formation of a 1:1 metal:crown complex in the organic phase. The complex apparently exists as an ion-pair Li(crown)Cl, which partially dissociates to the complex cation Li(crown){sup +} and free chloride anion Cl{sup -}. Extraction of LiCl by 1-octanol to give the organic-phase ion-pair LiCl and its dissociated ions Li{sup +} and Cl{sup -} must be included in the data analysis. {sup 7}Li NMR measurements verify the existence of free and crown-complexed lithium species in 1-octanol, and the measurements quantitatively agree with results from the SXLSQI model. 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Adsorption of 1-octanol at the free water surface as studied by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedlovszky, Pál; Varga, Imre; Gilányi, Tibor

    2004-06-01

    The adsorption of 1-octanol at the free water surface has been investigated by Monte Carlo computer simulation. Six different systems, built up by an aqueous and a vapor phase, the latter also containing various number of octanol molecules, have been simulated. The number of the octanol molecules has been chosen in such a way that the octanol surface density varies in a broad range, between 0.27 and 7.83 μmol/m2 in the six systems simulated. For reference, the interfacial system containing bulk liquid octanol in the apolar phase has also been simulated. The results have shown that the formation of hydrogen bonds between the interfacial water and adsorbed octanol molecules is of key importance in determining the properties of the adsorbed layer. At low octanol surface concentration values all the octanol molecules are strongly (i.e., by hydrogen bonds) bound to the aqueous phase, whereas their interaction with each other is negligibly small. Hence, they are preferentially oriented in such a way that their own binding energy (and thus their own free energy) is minimized. In this preferred orientation the O-H bond of the octanol molecule points flatly toward the aqueous phase, declining by about 30° from the interfacial plane, irrespectively from whether the octanol molecule is the H-donor or the H-acceptor partner in the hydrogen bond. Hence, in its preferred orientation the octanol molecule can form at least two low energy hydrogen bonds with water: one as a H-donor and another one as a H-acceptor. Moreover, the preferred orientation of the hydrogen bonded water partners is close to one of the two preferred interfacial water alignments, in which the plane of the water molecule is parallel with the interface. When increasing the octanol surface density, the water surface gets saturated with hydrogen bonded octanols, and hence any further octanol molecule can just simply condense to the layer of the adsorbed octanols. The surface density value at which this

  14. Evidence for self-association of nonionic and other organic solutes in liquid phases comprising 1-octanol and water.

    PubMed

    Lodge, Keith B; Egyepong, Ebenezer J

    2010-04-22

    We use a monomer-single-multimer model to judge whether there is significant self-association of an organic solute distributed between 1-octanol and water. Self-association leads to octanol-water partition coefficients, K(ow), that depend upon the concentration of solute and this affects their application, significantly so for lipophilic compounds. Our measurements, done over as wide a range of concentration as possible, suggest that: (1) For toluene, there is dimerization in the water and tetramerization in 1-octanol. (2) For p-xylene, there is significant self-association of unknown degree in 1-octanol. (3) Biphenyl exhibits no self-association in either phase. The model confirms the conclusion that there is self-association of nicotimamide only in the aqueous phase, a conclusion reached in original measurements and interpretation (Charman, W. N.; Lai, C. S. C.; Finnin, B. C.; Reed, B. L. Pharm. Res. 1991, 8, 1144-1150). Our analysis of published measurements on the four isomers of hexachlorocyclohexanes (Paschke, A.; Shuurmann, G. Chem. Eng. Technol. 2000, 23, 666-670) leads to the conclusion that there is significant self-association of unknown degree in the aqueous phase. There is a discernible region of concentration-independent behavior as infinite dilution is approached in the aqueous phase, except notably for the hexachlorocyclohexanes. We suggest this is due to self-association incorporating the solvent to form multimer-solvent complexes. The data suggest that self-association, when it occurs, has a greater significance in the more lipophilic cases and this may partly explain why the variability in measurements of octanol-water partition coefficients between laboratories tends to be larger and significant for more lipophilic solutes.

  15. A Comparison of the Microbial Production and Combustion Characteristics of Three Alcohol Biofuels: Ethanol, 1-Butanol, and 1-Octanol.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Florian; Blank, Lars M; Jones, Patrik R; Akhtar, M Kalim

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, microbes have been engineered for the manufacture of a variety of biofuels. Saturated linear-chain alcohols have great potential as transport biofuels. Their hydrocarbon backbones, as well as oxygenated content, confer combustive properties that make it suitable for use in internal combustion engines. Herein, we compared the microbial production and combustion characteristics of ethanol, 1-butanol, and 1-octanol. In terms of productivity and efficiency, current microbial platforms favor the production of ethanol. From a combustion standpoint, the most suitable fuel for spark-ignition engines would be ethanol, while for compression-ignition engines it would be 1-octanol. However, any general conclusions drawn at this stage regarding the most superior biofuel would be premature, as there are still many areas that need to be addressed, such as large-scale purification and pipeline compatibility. So far, the difficulties in developing and optimizing microbial platforms for fuel production, particularly for newer fuel candidates, stem from our poor understanding of the myriad biological factors underpinning them. A great deal of attention therefore needs to be given to the fundamental mechanisms that govern biological processes. Additionally, research needs to be undertaken across a wide range of disciplines to overcome issues of sustainability and commercial viability.

  16. A Comparison of the Microbial Production and Combustion Characteristics of Three Alcohol Biofuels: Ethanol, 1-Butanol, and 1-Octanol

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Florian; Blank, Lars M.; Jones, Patrik R.; Akhtar, M. Kalim

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, microbes have been engineered for the manufacture of a variety of biofuels. Saturated linear-chain alcohols have great potential as transport biofuels. Their hydrocarbon backbones, as well as oxygenated content, confer combustive properties that make it suitable for use in internal combustion engines. Herein, we compared the microbial production and combustion characteristics of ethanol, 1-butanol, and 1-octanol. In terms of productivity and efficiency, current microbial platforms favor the production of ethanol. From a combustion standpoint, the most suitable fuel for spark-ignition engines would be ethanol, while for compression-ignition engines it would be 1-octanol. However, any general conclusions drawn at this stage regarding the most superior biofuel would be premature, as there are still many areas that need to be addressed, such as large-scale purification and pipeline compatibility. So far, the difficulties in developing and optimizing microbial platforms for fuel production, particularly for newer fuel candidates, stem from our poor understanding of the myriad biological factors underpinning them. A great deal of attention therefore needs to be given to the fundamental mechanisms that govern biological processes. Additionally, research needs to be undertaken across a wide range of disciplines to overcome issues of sustainability and commercial viability. PMID:26301219

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of 1-octanol on anchored titanium oxide and on TiO{sub 2} powder catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Hiromi; Ichihashi, Yuichi; Harada, Masaru

    1996-01-01

    The liquid-phase photocatalytic oxidative degradation of 1-octanol in oxygenated acetonitrile on highly dispersed titanium oxide catalysts anchored onto transparent Vycor glass was compared with that obtained on standard TiO{sup 2} powder. The anchored photocatalysts were prepared through the facile reaction between surface OH groups of Vycor glass and TiCl{sub 4}. UV irradiation of the anchored catalyst at room temperature led to the photocatalytic degradation of 1-octanol and the production of 1-octanal as the major product. The large surface area of the photocatalyst was one of the most important factors in achieving a high efficiency in the liquid-phase photocatalytic reaction. The specific photocatalytic activity per unit weight of titanium oxide of the highly dispersed anchored catalyst was much higher than that for the TiO{sub 2} powder because of the high activity of the charge transfer complex (Ti{sup 3+}-O{sup -}){sup *}. Furthermore, the filtration of the anchored photocatalysts from the liquid reactants was much easier than that of the small particles of TiO{sub 2} powder. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Determination of infinite dilution activity coefficients and 1-octanol/water partition coefficients of volatile organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Tse, G.; Sandler, S.I. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    The characterization of pollutants is of growing interest as concerns about the environment increase. One parameter useful in predicting the fate of a chemical in the environment, the infinite dilution activity coefficient, has been determined here for several EPA priority pollutants in 1-octanol at 25 C using a relative gas-liquid chromatographic measurement technique. A simple correlation has been developed relating the limiting activity coefficients of a species in pure water and in pure 1-octanol to its octanol/water partition coefficient. Agreement between the experimental results and published values is very good. The method developed here of computing the octanol/water partition coefficient from gas chromatographic measurements of its infinite dilution activity coefficients is an improvement over traditional partition coefficient determination methods in that it is easier and quicker, without a loss of accuracy. Furthermore, the authors show that this method is applicable to chemicals covering a large range of hydrophobicities (1.0 < log K[sub OW] < 5.0).

  19. Developmental regulation of the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 and 1-octanol on neuronogenesis: implications for a hypothesis relating to mitogen-antimitogen opposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goto, T.; Takahashi, T.; Miyama, S.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Bhide, P. G.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    2002-01-01

    Neocortical neurons arise from a pseudostratified ventricular epithelium (PVE) that lies within the ventricular zone (VZ) at the margins of the embryonic cerebral ventricles. We examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and 1-octanol on cell output behavior of the PVE in explants of the embryonic mouse cerebral wall. FGF-2 is mitogenic and 1-octanol antimitogenic in the PVE. Whereas all postmitotic cells migrate out of the VZ in vivo, in the explants some postmitotic cells remain within the VZ. We refer to these cells as the indeterminate or I fraction, because they neither exit from the VZ nor reenter S phase as part of the proliferative (P) fraction. They are considered to be either in an extremely prolonged G(1) phase, unable to pass the G(1)/S transition, or in the G(0) state. The I fate choice is modulated by both FGF-2 and 1-octanol. FGF-2 decreased the I fraction and increased the P fraction. In contrast, 1-octanol increased the I fraction and nearly eliminated the P fraction. The effects of FGF-2 and 1-octanol were developmentally regulated, in that they were observed in the developmentally advanced lateral region of the cerebral wall but not in the medial region. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Developmental regulation of the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 and 1-octanol on neuronogenesis: implications for a hypothesis relating to mitogen-antimitogen opposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goto, T.; Takahashi, T.; Miyama, S.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Bhide, P. G.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    2002-01-01

    Neocortical neurons arise from a pseudostratified ventricular epithelium (PVE) that lies within the ventricular zone (VZ) at the margins of the embryonic cerebral ventricles. We examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and 1-octanol on cell output behavior of the PVE in explants of the embryonic mouse cerebral wall. FGF-2 is mitogenic and 1-octanol antimitogenic in the PVE. Whereas all postmitotic cells migrate out of the VZ in vivo, in the explants some postmitotic cells remain within the VZ. We refer to these cells as the indeterminate or I fraction, because they neither exit from the VZ nor reenter S phase as part of the proliferative (P) fraction. They are considered to be either in an extremely prolonged G(1) phase, unable to pass the G(1)/S transition, or in the G(0) state. The I fate choice is modulated by both FGF-2 and 1-octanol. FGF-2 decreased the I fraction and increased the P fraction. In contrast, 1-octanol increased the I fraction and nearly eliminated the P fraction. The effects of FGF-2 and 1-octanol were developmentally regulated, in that they were observed in the developmentally advanced lateral region of the cerebral wall but not in the medial region. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Enthalpies of mixing and intermolecular interactions in the 1-octanol-dimethylformamide system at 298-318 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, N. L.; Kustov, A. V.

    2013-05-01

    The heat effects of solution of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and 1-octanol (OctOH) in the DMF (1)-OctOH (2) system are measured over the range of compositions using a variable-temperature isothermal-shell calorimeter at 298, 308, and 318 K. The partial molar enthalpies of the binary mixture components and the enthalpies and heat capacities of mixing are determined. It is found that the amide-alcohol mixing is strongly endothermic and very weakly depends on temperature. The enthalpy and specific heat parameters of binary and ternary interactions between the DMF molecules in OctOH and the OctOH molecules in DMF are determined in terms of the virial expansion technique, and it is shown that the two nonelectrolytes exhibit a tendency to homoassociation.

  2. Pump-Probe Spectroscopy of Thermal Cis-Trans Isomerization Process of Methyl Red in 1-Octanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joukai, Tatsuya; Kita, Kenji; Yano, Ryuzi

    Thermal cis-trans isomerization process of Methyl Red in 1-Octanol at room temperature was studied by pump-probe spectroscopy. The isomerization rate increased as the dye concentration was increased. However, at concentrations above ~ 3 × 10-5 mol/L, the isomerization rate became almost constant regardless of the dye concentration. We interpreted that the concentration dependence of the thermal isomerization rate was caused by the creation of hydrogen-bonded dimer molecules. When a dimer is formed, one of the dye molecules which form the dimer easily changes its form from the cis isomer to the trans isomer. As the dye concentration is increased, the ratio of dyes which form dimer molecules will increase. When the dye concentration is high enough, most dye molecules form dimer molecules. Thus the isomerization rate averaged over the dye molecules is constant.

  3. Aqueous solubilities, vapor pressures, and 1-octanol-water partition coefficients for C9-C14 linear alkylbenzenes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherblom, P.M.; Gschwend, P.M.; Eganhouse, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements and estimates of aqueous solubilities, 1-octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow), and vapor pressures were made for 29 linear alkylbenzenes having alkyl chain lengths of 9-14 carbons. The ranges of values observed were vapor pressures from 0.002 to 0.418 Pa, log Kow, from 6.83 to 9.95, and aqueous solubilities from 4 to 38 nmol??L-1. Measured values exhibited a relationship to both the alkyl chain length and the position of phenyl substitution on the alkyl chain. Measurement of the aqueous concentrations resulting from equilibration of a mixture of alkylbenzenes yielded higher than expected values, indicating cosolute or other interactive effects caused enhanced aqueous concentrations of these compounds. ?? 1992 American Chemical Society.

  4. Olfactory illusions: where are they?

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    It has been suggested that there maybe no olfactory illusions. This manuscript examines this claim and argues that it arises because olfactory illusions are not typically accompanied by an awareness of their illusory nature. To demonstrate that olfactory illusions do occur, the relevant empirical literature is reviewed, by examining instances of where the same stimulus results in different percepts, and of where different stimuli result in the same percept. The final part of the manuscript evaluates the evidence favoring the existence of olfactory illusions, and then examines why they may not typically be accompanied by awareness. Three contributory mechanisms are discussed, relating to difficulty of verification and paucity of olfactory knowledge, the role of change blindness, and restricted access consciousness in this sense.

  5. Viscosities and densities for heptane + 1-pentanol, + 1-hexanol, + 1-heptanol, + 1-octanol, + 1-decanol, and + 1-dodecanol at 298.15 K and 308.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, N.V.; Valand, M.K.

    1996-11-01

    Densities and viscosities for heptane + 1-pentanol, + 1-hexanol, + 1-heptanol, + 1-octanol, + 1-decanol, and + 1-dodecanol are reported at (298.15 K and 308.15) K. The viscosity deviations were calculated. The mixture viscosity data were fitted to the semiempirical equations of Grunberg-Nissan, Heric, McAllister, and Auslander.

  6. An open-label, single-dose, crossover study of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of two oral formulations of 1-octanol in patients with essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Nahab, Fatta B; Wittevrongel, Loretta; Ippolito, Dominic; Toro, Camilo; Grimes, George J; Starling, Judith; Potti, Gopal; Haubenberger, Dietrich; Bowen, Daniel; Buchwald, Peter; Dong, Chuanhui; Kalowitz, Daniel; Hallett, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Existing therapeutic options for management of essential tremor are frequently limited by poor efficacy and adverse effects. Likely the most potent tremor suppressant used is ethanol, although its use is prohibitive due to a brief therapeutic window, and the obvious implications of excessive alcohol use. Longer-chain alcohols have been shown to suppress tremor in harmaline animal models, and appear to be safe and well tolerated in 2 prior studies in humans. Here we report on the findings of a phase I/II study of 1-octanol designed to explore pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety. The most significant finding was the identification of octanoic acid as the product of rapid 1-octanol metabolism. Furthermore, the temporal profile of efficacy closely matches the plasma concentration of octanoic acid. Therefore, these findings identify a novel class of compound (e.g., carboxylic acids) with tremor suppressive properties in ET. Administration of 1-octanol also appears to be safe based on various measures collected. Essential tremor (ET) is the most common tremor disorder, with tremors occurring during static posturing or movement. These tremors are known to briefly improve in many cases after alcohol (ethanol) consumption. Two previous studies of a longer chain alcohol, 1-octanol, have demonstrated longer duration tremor-suppressive effects without the occurrence of intoxication. The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of 1-octanol and its primary metabolite octanoic acid using two formulations, along with additional safety and efficacy measures. Participants with proven ethanol-responsive ET were recruited into 1 of 2 parts: (part A) a dose escalation study (1-64 mg/kg; n = 4), and (part B) a fixed dose (64 mg/kg; n = 10) balanced, open-label crossover design. Two participants in part B then completed an exploratory part C evaluating 128 mg/kg.Plasma samples were collected at 10 intervals during a 6-hour period postingestion. Efficacy was

  7. Dispersion stability of 1-octanethiol coated Cu nanoparticles in a 1-octanol solvent for the application of nanoink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Danee; Baik, Jong-Hwan; Choi, Da-hyun; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2014-08-01

    Conductive ink with Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) has various advantages compared with conventional ink, such as good electrical conductivity and low cost. However, it suffers through easily oxidization problem, leading to an unstable electrical conductivity, which decreases over time. Therefore, it is important to prevent (or least minimize) oxidation of the Cu NPs. In this study, Cu NPs with diameter of 50 nm were coated with 1-octanethiol (CH3(CH2)7SH) in a high-vacuum condition (5.33 × 10-4 Pa). The coating conditions were systematically varied to investigate the effect on the coating thicknesses. Coated Cu NPs were dispersed in 1-octanol to form the conductive ink, and the dispersion behavior was studied as a function of the thickness of the 1-octanethiol coating. The thickness of the coating layer was characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy analysis, and was found to be 3 nm, 6 nm, and 10 nm. The dispersion stability of the inks was characterized by Turbiscan dispersion stability and viscosity measurements, and it was found that the copper nanoink formed using Cu NPs with a 6-nm-thick coating exhibited the most stable dispersion properties.

  8. Ring-size and substituent effects in the solvent extraction of alkali metal nitrates by crown ethers in 1,2-dichloroethane and 1-octanol

    SciTech Connect

    Sachleben, R.A.; Deng, Y.; Bailey, D.R.; Moyer, B.A.

    1996-11-01

    The extraction of alkali metal nitrate salts by solutions of crown ethers in each of the two diluents 1,2-dichloroethane and 1-octanol has been surveyed. The crown ethers include 18-crown-6, 21-crown-7, and 24-crown-8 ethers bearing cyclohexano, benzo, t-alkylbenzo, and/or furano substituents. The extraction efficiencies of the different crown ethers are examined in terms of ring-size, substituent, and solvent effects. Partition ratios for the crown ethers between water and either 1,2-dichloroethane or 1-octanol are discussed. The extraction selectivities, expressed as the separation factor for cesium over sodium, are examined in relation to crown ether structure. 62 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Crystal structure of [Eu(CyMe4-BTBP)2κ2O,O'-(NO3)](NO3)2·n-C8H17OH and its structure in 1-octanol solution.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Daniel; Persson, Ingmar; Ekberg, Christian

    2013-03-21

    The structure of the [Eu(CyMe(4)-BTBP)(2)(NO(3))(n)]((3-n)+) complex in 1-octanol solution and solid state has been determined by EXAFS and X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure shows that 1-octanol binds only to the europium(III)-coordinated BTBP molecules through weak van der Waals forces, making it the first indication of the role of the extraction solvent.

  10. Partition coefficients of some environmentally important organic compounds between 1-octanol and water from reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, S.; Hauthal, W.H. . Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie); Maurer, G. . Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik)

    1994-07-01

    1-Octanol/water partition coefficients in infinite dilution of several phenol, indole, biphenyl, and naphthalene derivatives, a few polycyclic aromatic compounds, and some polyfunctional haloaromatics determined by using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) are reported. These data may be used for estimating the ecotoxicological impact of those compounds identified in brown coal liquids (e.g., hydroxyaromatic compounds), as well as for the extension of methods to correlate and predict partition coefficients in organic/aqueous liquid phases.

  11. Identity Matching-to-Sample with Olfactory Stimuli in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Tracy; Pitts, Raymond C.; Galizio, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Identity matching-to-sample has been difficult to demonstrate in rats, but most studies have used visual stimuli. There is evidence that rats can acquire complex forms of olfactory stimulus control, and the present study explored the possibility that identity matching might be facilitated in rats if olfactory stimuli were used. Four rats were…

  12. Stimulus Control and Compounding with Ambient Odor as a Discriminative Stimulus on a Free-Operant Baseline

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Scott I; Weiss, Stanley J

    2007-01-01

    Previous experiments have demonstrated that the simultaneous presentation of independently established discriminative stimuli can control rates of operant responding substantially higher than the rates occasioned by the individual stimuli. This “additive summation” phenomenon has been shown with a variety of different reinforcers (e.g., food, water, shock avoidance, cocaine, and heroin). Discriminative stimuli previously used in such studies have been limited to the visual and auditory sensory modalities. The present experiment sought to (1) establish stimulus control on a free-operant baseline with an ambient olfactory discriminative stimulus, (2) compare olfactory control to that produced with an auditory discriminative stimulus, and (3) determine whether compounding independently established olfactory and auditory discriminative stimuli produces additive summation. Rats lever pressed for food on a variable-interval schedule in the presence of either a tone or an odor, with comparable control developed to each stimulus. In the absence of these stimuli responding was not reinforced. During stimulus compounding tests, the tone-plus-odor compound occasioned more than double the responses occasioned by either the tone or odor presented individually. Thus, the current study (1) established stimulus control with an ambient olfactory discriminative stimulus in a traditional free-operant setting and (2) extended the generality of stimulus-compounding effects by demonstrating additive summation when olfactory and auditory discriminative stimuli were presented simultaneously. PMID:17465315

  13. Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Sun, Guohua; Li, Hongmei

    2012-10-15

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%.

  14. Olfactory Blocking and Odorant Similarity in the Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Bertram; Giurfa, Martin; Guerrieri, Fernando; Lachnit, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Blocking occurs when previous training with a stimulus A reduces (blocks) subsequent learning about a stimulus B, when A and B are trained in compound. The question of whether blocking exists in olfactory conditioning of proboscis extension reflex (PER) in honeybees is under debate. The last published accounts on blocking in honeybees state that…

  15. Olfactory Blocking and Odorant Similarity in the Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Bertram; Giurfa, Martin; Guerrieri, Fernando; Lachnit, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Blocking occurs when previous training with a stimulus A reduces (blocks) subsequent learning about a stimulus B, when A and B are trained in compound. The question of whether blocking exists in olfactory conditioning of proboscis extension reflex (PER) in honeybees is under debate. The last published accounts on blocking in honeybees state that…

  16. H2-driven biotransformation of n-octane to 1-octanol by a recombinant Pseudomonas putida strain co-synthesizing an O2-tolerant hydrogenase and a P450 monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Thomas H; Lauterbach, Lars; Honda Malca, Sumire; Nestl, Bettina M; Hauer, Bernhard; Lenz, Oliver

    2015-11-21

    An in vivo biotransformation system is presented that affords the hydroxylation of n-octane to 1-octanol on the basis of NADH-dependent CYP153A monooxygenase and NAD(+)-reducing hydrogenase heterologously synthesized in a bacterial host. The hydrogenase sustains H2-driven NADH cofactor regeneration even in the presence of O2, the co-substrate of monooxygenase.

  17. Olfactory neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, T.A.; McLean, P.; Juillard, G.J.; Parker, R.G.

    1989-06-15

    Fifteen patients with olfactory neuroblastoma were treated during the 17-year period of 1969 to 1986. Data was analyzed with respect to age at presentation, sex, presenting signs and symptoms, stage, and results of treatment. Age ranged from 4 to 67 years with the median age being 27 years. Median follow-up was 8 years. Local control was achieved in nine of nine patients or 100% with successful surgical resection, i.e., minimal residual disease, followed by postoperative radiation therapy (45 to 65 Gy) was employed. There were no distant failures when the primary site was controlled. Regional lymph node metastases were infrequent: only 13% (two of 15 patients) presented with positive nodes. Three of four patients treated initially with surgery alone had a local recurrence, two of which were successfully salvaged by combined therapy. There were four patients treated with radiation therapy alone: three had persistent disease after radiation therapy, and one patient was controlled with 65 Gy. Olfactory neuroblastoma has a propensity to recur locally when treated with surgery alone. The authors' experience suggests excellent local control can be achieved with surgery immediately followed by radiation therapy. Thus the authors recommend planned combined treatment for all resectable lesions.

  18. Elucidating the association of water in wet 1-octanol from normal to high temperature by near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Palombo, Francesca; Tassaing, Thierry; Paolantoni, Marco; Sassi, Paola; Morresi, Assunta

    2010-07-22

    Near- (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) absorption spectra of pure and water-saturated 1-octanol were measured along the liquid-gas coexistence curve from ambient temperature and pressure up to 300 degrees C and 10 MPa. Density of the mixture as a function of temperature was assessed by spectral analysis in the NIR region. Two distinct regimes of temperature were identified in the evolution of solvent-subtracted spectra: at normal conditions and up to 180 degrees C, water is organized in multimeric H-bonded aggregates, while at higher temperature, mainly dimers and monomers exist. Water-water and alcohol-alcohol H-bonding interactions play a major role in wet octanol at low temperature, with resulting microheterogeneity and water segregation at a molecular level; on the other hand, water-alcohol interactions are relevant at higher temperature, as also revealed by the estimated density. At low temperature, water dissolved in octanol shows features which are comparable to those of interfacial water obtained by vibrational sum frequency (VSF) spectroscopy, while at high temperature the spectra generally reproduce those of water in the supercritical phase. Overall spectral assignment was supported by ab initio calculations at the MP2 level on small water clusters.

  19. Pseudohydroxide Extraction from Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Solutions with 3,5-di-tert-Butylphenol in Isopar® L Modified with 1-Octanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2006-06-01

    Pseudohydroxide extraction (PHE) was investigated for recovery of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) from alkaline process solutions. PHE relies on the deprotonation of a lipophilic weak acid by hydroxide ion with concomitant transfer of sodium ion into an organic phase. Contact of the sodium-loaded organic phase with water results in the reconstitution of the extractant in the organic phase and NaOH in the aqueous phase, thus leading to a process in which NaOH equivalents are transferred from an alkaline feed solution to an aqueous stripping solution. In this work, we researched PHE using a process-friendly diluent—Isopar® L. The lipophilic cation exchanger 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol (35-DTBP) was used as the extractant. The Isopar® L diluent was modified with 1-octanol to improve its solvation properties and the solubility of 35-DTBP so that practical Na+ concentrations could be achieved in the process solvent. The PHE mechanism at process-relevant conditions was explored by Raman and FTIR spectroscopic measurements. Electrospray mass spectroscopic results indicated extensive aggregation of the sodium phenolate at high Na+ loading. An equilibrium computer modeling suggested that the Na+ extraction behavior can be largely explained by the formation of 1:1 and 1:2 Na/35-DTBP species in the organic phase. Extraction isotherms obtained using caustic leaching simulant solutions indicate the potential utility of this approach for recycling NaOH from complex alkaline mixtures.

  20. Application of ALOGPS to predict 1-octanol/water distribution coefficients, logP, and logD, of AstraZeneca in-house database.

    PubMed

    Tetko, Igor V; Bruneau, Pierre

    2004-12-01

    The ALOGPS 2.1 was developed to predict 1-octanol/water partition coefficients, logP, and aqueous solubility of neutral compounds. An exclusive feature of this program is its ability to incorporate new user-provided data by means of self-learning properties of Associative Neural Networks. Using this feature, it calculated a similar performance, RMSE = 0.7 and mean average error 0.5, for 2569 neutral logP, and 8122 pH-dependent logD(7.4), distribution coefficients from the AstraZeneca "in-house" database. The high performance of the program for the logD(7.4) prediction looks surprising, because this property also depends on ionization constants pKa. Therefore, logD(7.4) is considered to be more difficult to predict than its neutral analog. We explain and illustrate this result and, moreover, discuss a possible application of the approach to calculate other pharmacokinetic and biological activities of chemicals important for drug development. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  1. Stimulus Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Stimulus funds unquestionably have helped many schools keep going through tough times, but for many institutions, the tough times aren't going away anytime soon. That is why, a little more than a year after Congress passed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and began allocating billions of dollars in aid across the nation, the so-called…

  2. Responses of the Rat Olfactory Epithelium to Retronasal Air Flow

    PubMed Central

    Scott, John W.; Acevedo, Humberto P.; Sherrill, Lisa; Phan, Maggie

    2008-01-01

    Responses of the rat olfactory epithelium were assessed with the electroolfactogram while odorants were presented to the external nares with an artificial sniff or to the internal nares by positive pressure. A series of seven odorants that varied from very polar, hydrophilic odorants to very non-polar, hydrophobic odorants were used. While the polar odorants activated the dorsal olfactory epithelium when presented by the external nares (orthonasal presentation), they were not effective when forced through the nasal cavity from the internal nares (retronasal presentation). However, the non-polar odorants were effective in both stimulus modes. These results were independent of stimulus concentration or of humidity of the carrier air. Similar results were obtained with multiunit recording from olfactory bulb. These results help to explain why human investigations often report differences in the sensation or ability to discriminate odorants presented orthonasally vs. retronasally. The results also strongly support the importance of odorant sorption in normal olfactory processes. PMID:17215498

  3. The Presentation of Olfactory-Trigeminal Mixed Stimuli Increases the Response to Subsequent Olfactory Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Walliczek-Dworschak, Ute; Poncelet, Johan; Baum, Daniel; Baki, Ramona; Sinding, Charlotte; Warr, Jonathan; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-01-09

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of (1) the addition of trigeminal stimuli to an olfactory stimulus and (2) the congruence in the odorous mixture after repeated odor presentation. Twenty-five normosmic volunteers were enrolled and presented stimulation blocks, consisting of three habituation stimuli (H) (orange odor), one dishabituation (DH) (control condition, orange odor; congruent condition, orange odor + CO2; incongruent condition, orange odor + l-isopulegol), and one dishabituated stimulus (D) (orange odor). Olfactory event-related potentials were analyzed. Response amplitudes differed significantly in the incongruent condition (N1P2 between H3 and D; peak to peak N1P2 at electrode positions Cz, Fz, and Pz; response amplitudes between H3 and DH). The addition of CO2 modified the perception of orange odor, pronouncing a fruity note, whereas the addition of l-isopulegol as a DH pronounced the l-isopulegol note. This study provides evidence that incongruent trigeminal-olfactory stimulants increase the response to subsequent olfactory stimulus.

  4. Olfactory phenotypic expression unveils human aging

    PubMed Central

    Mazzatenta, Andrea; Cellerino, Alessandro; Origlia, Nicola; Barloscio, Davide; Sartucci, Ferdinando; Giulio, Camillo Di; Domenici, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of the natural aging of olfaction and its declinein the absence of any overt disease conditions remains unclear. Here, we investigated this mechanism through measurement of one of the parameters of olfactory function, the absolute threshold, in a healthy population from childhood to old age. The absolute olfactory threshold data were collected from an Italian observational study with 622 participants aged 5-105 years. A subjective testing procedure of constant stimuli was used, which was also compared to the ‘staircase’ method, with the calculation of the reliability. The n-butanol stimulus was used as an ascending series of nine molar concentrations that were monitored using an electronic nose. The data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics because of the multimodal distribution. We show that the age-related variations in the absolute olfactory threshold are not continuous; instead, there are multiple olfactory phenotypes. Three distinct age-related phenotypes were defined, termed as ‘juvenile’, ‘mature’ and ‘elder’. The frequency of these three phenotypes depends on age. Our data suggest that the sense of smell does not decrease linearly with aging. Our findings provide the basis for further understanding of olfactory loss as an anticipatory sign of aging and neurodegenerative processes. PMID:27027240

  5. Multiple Reversal Olfactory Learning in Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Theo; Giurfa, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In multiple reversal learning, animals trained to discriminate a reinforced from a non-reinforced stimulus are subjected to various, successive reversals of stimulus contingencies (e.g. A+ vs. B−, A− vs. B+, A+ vs. B−). This protocol is useful to determine whether or not animals “learn to learn” and solve successive discriminations faster (or with fewer errors) with increasing reversal experience. Here we used the olfactory conditioning of proboscis extension reflex to study how honeybees Apis mellifera perform in a multiple reversal task. Our experiment contemplated four consecutive differential conditioning phases involving the same odors (A+ vs. B− to A− vs. B+ to A+ vs. B− to A− vs. B+). We show that bees in which the weight of reinforced or non-reinforced stimuli was similar mastered the multiple olfactory reversals. Bees which failed the task exhibited asymmetric responses to reinforced and non-reinforced stimuli, thus being unable to rapidly reverse stimulus contingencies. Efficient reversers did not improve their successive discriminations but rather tended to generalize their choice to both odors at the end of conditioning. As a consequence, both discrimination and reversal efficiency decreased along experimental phases. This result invalidates a learning-to-learn effect and indicates that bees do not only respond to the actual stimulus contingencies but rather combine these with an average of past experiences with the same stimuli. PMID:20700501

  6. The developmental stage of chicken embryos modulates the impact of in ovo olfactory stimulation on food preferences.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Calandreau, Ludovic; Arnould, Cécile; Lévy, Frédéric

    2012-03-01

    Like mammals, bird embryos are capable of chemosensory learning, but the ontogeny of their feeding preferences has not been examined. We tested if the timing of stimulation in chicken embryos modulates the impact of in ovo olfactory stimulation on later food preferences. We exposed chicken embryos to an olfactory stimulus for a 4-day period in the middle or toward the end of the incubation period. The chicks were tested for their preference between foods with and without the olfactory stimulus in 3-min choice tests and on a 24-h time scale. Regardless of the type of food (familiar or novel) or the duration of the test, the control chicks not exposed to the olfactory stimulus consistently showed significant preferences for non-odorized foods. Chicks that were exposed in ovo to the olfactory stimulus did not show a preference for odorized or non-odorized foods. Only those chicks that were exposed to the olfactory stimulus toward the end of the incubation period differed from the controls and incorporated a higher proportion of odorized food into their diets on a 24-h time scale. This result indicates that olfactory stimulation at the end of embryonic development has a stronger impact on later feeding preferences. Our findings contribute to the growing pool of recent data appreciating the impact of olfactory signals on behavior regulation in avian species.

  7. Binaral interaction and centrifugal input enhances spatial contrast in olfactory bulb activation.

    PubMed

    Singer, Benjamin H; Kim, Soyoun; Zochowski, Michal

    2007-01-01

    We used paired-pulse odorant stimulation, with a conditioning stimulus delivered either ipsilateral or contralateral to a test stimulus, to unmask the effects of centrifugal feedback on olfactory bulb responses. In reptiles and mammals there are no direct connections between the paired olfactory bulbs, and thus all information transfer between the olfactory bulbs depends on feedback from retrobulbar structures. We measured odor-induced activity in the turtle olfactory bulb using a voltage-sensitive dye and a 464-element photodiode array, which allowed us to monitor the spatial variation in activation of the olfactory bulb. We found that both contralateral and ipsilateral conditioning stimuli evoked long-lasting inhibition of olfactory bulb activation. In contrast to previous studies using local field potential recording to monitor activity at a single site, we found that this inhibition increased contrast in the spatial patterning of activation over the dorsal surface of the olfactory bulb. Inhibition was also increased when different odorants were used as conditioning and test stimuli, suggesting a role for centrifugal feedback in olfactory discrimination. These results highlight the functional importance of centrifugal feedback and information processing in a broadly distributed olfactory network.

  8. Appetitive but Not Aversive Olfactory Conditioning Modifies Antennal Movements in Honeybees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholé, Hanna; Junca, Pierre; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, two olfactory conditioning protocols allow the study of appetitive and aversive Pavlovian associations. Appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) involves associating an odor, the conditioned stimulus (CS) with a sucrose solution, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Conversely, aversive conditioning of the sting…

  9. Appetitive but Not Aversive Olfactory Conditioning Modifies Antennal Movements in Honeybees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholé, Hanna; Junca, Pierre; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, two olfactory conditioning protocols allow the study of appetitive and aversive Pavlovian associations. Appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) involves associating an odor, the conditioned stimulus (CS) with a sucrose solution, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Conversely, aversive conditioning of the sting…

  10. New sensitive micro-measurements of dynamic surface tension and diffusion coefficients: Validated and tested for the adsorption of 1-Octanol at a microscopic air-water interface and its dissolution into water.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Koji; Parra, Elisa; Needham, David

    2017-02-15

    Currently available dynamic surface tension (DST) measurement methods, such as Wilhelmy plate, droplet- or bubble-based methods, still have various experimental limitations such as the large size of the interface, convection in the solution, or a certain "dead time" at initial measurement. These limitations create inconsistencies for the kinetic analysis of surfactant adsorption/desorption, especially significant for ionic surfactants. Here, the "micropipette interfacial area-expansion method" was introduced and validated as a new DST measurement having a high enough sensitivity to detect diffusion controlled molecular adsorption at the air-water interfaces. To validate the new technique, the diffusion coefficient of 1-Octanol in water was investigated with existing models: the Ward Tordai model for the long time adsorption regime (1-100s), and the Langmuir and Frumkin adsorption isotherm models for surface excess concentration. We found that the measured diffusion coefficient of 1-Octanol, 7.2±0.8×10(-6)cm(2)/s, showed excellent agreement with the result from an alternative method, "single microdroplet catching method", to measure the diffusion coefficient from diffusion-controlled microdroplet dissolution, 7.3±0.1×10(-6)cm(2)/s. These new techniques for determining adsorption and diffusion coefficients can apply for a range of surface active molecules, especially the less-characterized ionic surfactants, and biological compounds such as lipids, peptides, and proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Variation in complex olfactory stimuli and its influence on odour recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Wrigh, Geraldine A.; Smith, Brian H.

    2004-01-01

    Natural olfactory stimuli are often complex and highly variable. The olfactory systems of animals are likely to have evolved to use specific features of olfactory stimuli for identification and discrimination. Here, we train honeybees to learn chemically defined odorant mixtures that systematically vary from trial to trial and then examine how they generalize to each odorant present in the mixture. An odorant that was present at a constant concentration in a mixture becomes more representative of the mixture than other variable odorants. We also show that both variation and intensity of a complex olfactory stimulus affect the rate of generalization by honeybees to subsequent olfactory stimuli. These results have implications for the way that all animals perceive and attend to features of olfactory stimuli. PMID:15058390

  12. Olfactory Perceptual Learning Requires Action of Noradrenaline in the Olfactory Bulb: Comparison with Olfactory Associative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinera, Jennifer; Kermen, Florence; Sacquet, Joëlle; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie; Richard, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Noradrenaline contributes to olfactory-guided behaviors but its role in olfactory learning during adulthood is poorly documented. We investigated its implication in olfactory associative and perceptual learning using local infusion of mixed a1-ß adrenergic receptor antagonist (labetalol) in the adult mouse olfactory bulb. We reported that…

  13. Olfactory Perceptual Learning Requires Action of Noradrenaline in the Olfactory Bulb: Comparison with Olfactory Associative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinera, Jennifer; Kermen, Florence; Sacquet, Joëlle; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie; Richard, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Noradrenaline contributes to olfactory-guided behaviors but its role in olfactory learning during adulthood is poorly documented. We investigated its implication in olfactory associative and perceptual learning using local infusion of mixed a1-ß adrenergic receptor antagonist (labetalol) in the adult mouse olfactory bulb. We reported that…

  14. Mind the gap: olfactory trace conditioning in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Szyszka, Paul; Demmler, Christiane; Oemisch, Mariann; Sommer, Ludwig; Biergans, Stephanie; Birnbach, Benjamin; Silbering, Ana F; Galizia, C Giovanni

    2011-05-18

    Trace conditioning is a form of classical conditioning, where a neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) is associated with a following appetitive or aversive stimulus (unconditioned stimulus, US). Unlike classical delay conditioning, in trace conditioning there is a stimulus-free gap between CS and US, and thus a poststimulus neural representation (trace) of the CS is required to bridge the gap until its association with the US. The properties of such stimulus traces are not well understood, nor are their underlying physiological mechanisms. Using behavioral and physiological approaches, we studied appetitive olfactory trace conditioning in honeybees. We found that single-odor presentation created a trace containing information about odor identity. This trace conveyed odor information about the initial stimulus and was robust against interference by other odors. Memory acquisition decreased with increasing CS-US gap length. The maximum learnable CS-US gap length could be extended by previous trace-conditioning experience. Furthermore, acquisition improved when an additional odor was presented during the CS-US gap. Using calcium imaging, we tested whether projection neurons in the primary olfactory brain area, the antennal lobe, contain a CS trace. We found odor-specific persistent responses after stimulus offset. These post-odor responses, however, did not encode the CS trace, and perceived odor quality could be predicted by the initial but not by the post-odor response. Our data suggest that olfactory trace conditioning is a less reflexive form of learning than classical delay conditioning, indicating that odor traces might involve higher-level cognitive processes.

  15. Posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Daniel H; Costanzo, Richard M

    2016-04-01

    Impairment of smell may occur following injury to any portion of the olfactory tract, from nasal cavity to brain. A thorough understanding of the anatomy and pathophysiology combined with comprehensively obtained history, physical exam, olfactory testing, and neuroimaging may help to identify the mechanism of dysfunction and suggest possible treatments. Although most olfactory deficits are neuronal mediated and therefore currently unable to be corrected, promising technology may provide novel treatment options for those most affected. Until that day, patient counseling with compensatory strategies and reassurance is essential for the maintenance of safety and QoL in this unique and challenging patient population.

  16. Muscarinic ACh Receptors Contribute to Aversive Olfactory Learning in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Bryon; Molina-Fernández, Claudia; Ugalde, María Beatriz; Tognarelli, Eduardo I.; Angel, Cristian; Campusano, Jorge M.

    2015-01-01

    The most studied form of associative learning in Drosophila consists in pairing an odorant, the conditioned stimulus (CS), with an unconditioned stimulus (US). The timely arrival of the CS and US information to a specific Drosophila brain association region, the mushroom bodies (MB), can induce new olfactory memories. Thus, the MB is considered a coincidence detector. It has been shown that olfactory information is conveyed to the MB through cholinergic inputs that activate acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, while the US is encoded by biogenic amine (BA) systems. In recent years, we have advanced our understanding on the specific neural BA pathways and receptors involved in olfactory learning and memory. However, little information exists on the contribution of cholinergic receptors to this process. Here we evaluate for the first time the proposition that, as in mammals, muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) contribute to memory formation in Drosophila. Our results show that pharmacological and genetic blockade of mAChRs in MB disrupts olfactory aversive memory in larvae. This effect is not explained by an alteration in the ability of animals to respond to odorants or to execute motor programs. These results show that mAChRs in MB contribute to generating olfactory memories in Drosophila. PMID:26380118

  17. Suppression of Odorant Responses by Odorants in Olfactory Receptor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurahashi, Takashi; Lowe, Graeme; Gold, Geoffrey H.

    1994-07-01

    Odorants activate an inward current in vertebrate olfactory receptor cells. Here it is shown, in receptor cells from the newt, that odorants can also suppress this current, by a mechanism that is distinct from inhibition and adaptation. Suppression provides a simple explanation for two seemingly unrelated phenomena: the anomalously long latency of olfactory transduction and the existence of an "off response" at the end of a prolonged stimulus. Suppression may influence the perception of odorants by masking odorant responses and by sharpening the odorant specificities of single cells.

  18. Ionotropic Crustacean Olfactory Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Elizabeth A.; Bobkov, Yuriy; Ukhanov, Kirill; Ache, Barry W.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs), the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling. PMID:23573266

  19. Effects of odor stimulation on antidromic spikes in olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Scott, John W; Sherrill, Lisa

    2008-12-01

    Spikes were evoked in rat olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) populations by electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb nerve layer in pentobarbital anesthetized rats. The latencies and recording positions for these compound spikes showed that they originated in olfactory epithelium. Dual simultaneous recordings indicated conduction velocities in the C-fiber range, around 0.5 m/s. These spikes are concluded to arise from antidromically activated olfactory sensory neurons. Electrical stimulation at 5 Hz was used to track changes in the size and latency of the antidromic compound population spike during the odor response. Strong odorant stimuli suppressed the spike size and prolonged its latency. The latency was prolonged throughout long odor stimuli, indicating continued activation of olfactory receptor neuron axons. The amounts of spike suppression and latency change were strongly correlated with the electroolfactogram (EOG) peak size evoked at the same site across odorants and across stimulus intensities. We conclude that the curve of antidromic spike suppression gives a reasonable representation of spiking activity in olfactory sensory neurons driven by odorants and that the correlation of peak spike suppression with the peak EOG shows the accuracy of the EOG as an estimate of intracellular potential in the population of olfactory sensory neurons. In addition, these results have important implications about traffic in olfactory nerve bundles. We did not observe multiple peaks corresponding to stimulated and unstimulated receptor neurons. This suggests synchronization of spikes in olfactory nerve, perhaps by ephaptic interactions. The long-lasting effect on spike latency shows that action potentials continue in the nerve throughout the duration of an odor stimulus in spite of many reports of depolarization block in olfactory receptor neuron cell bodies. Finally, strong odor stimulation caused almost complete block of antidromic spikes. This indicates that a very

  20. Reversing Stimulus Timing in Visual Conditioning Leads to Memories with Opposite Valence in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Katrin; Yarali, Ayse; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    Animals need to associate different environmental stimuli with each other regardless of whether they temporally overlap or not. Drosophila melanogaster displays olfactory trace conditioning, where an odor is followed by electric shock reinforcement after a temporal gap, leading to conditioned odor avoidance. Reversing the stimulus timing in olfactory conditioning results in the reversal of memory valence such that an odor that follows shock is later on approached (i.e. relief conditioning). Here, we explored the effects of stimulus timing on memory in another sensory modality, using a visual conditioning paradigm. We found that flies form visual memories of opposite valence depending on stimulus timing and can associate a visual stimulus with reinforcement despite being presented with a temporal gap. These results suggest that associative memories with non-overlapping stimuli and the effect of stimulus timing on memory valence are shared across sensory modalities. PMID:26430885

  1. Acetylcholine and Olfactory Perceptual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Donald A.; Fletcher, Max L.; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2004-01-01

    Olfactory perceptual learning is a relatively long-term, learned increase in perceptual acuity, and has been described in both humans and animals. Data from recent electrophysiological studies have indicated that olfactory perceptual learning may be correlated with changes in odorant receptive fields of neurons in the olfactory bulb and piriform…

  2. Acetylcholine and Olfactory Perceptual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Donald A.; Fletcher, Max L.; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2004-01-01

    Olfactory perceptual learning is a relatively long-term, learned increase in perceptual acuity, and has been described in both humans and animals. Data from recent electrophysiological studies have indicated that olfactory perceptual learning may be correlated with changes in odorant receptive fields of neurons in the olfactory bulb and piriform…

  3. Assessing olfactory performance in an Old World primate, Macaca nemestrina.

    PubMed

    Hübener, F; Laska, M

    1998-06-15

    The present study demonstrates that an operant conditioning paradigm, originally designed for assessing olfactory performance in a small New World primate, the squirrel monkey, can successfully be adapted for use with a large Old World primate, the pigtail macaque. Using a task designed to simulate olfactory-guided foraging behavior, based on multiple discrimination of simultaneously presented odor stimuli, we could show that Macaca nemestrina is able to learn to discriminate between objects on the basis of odor cues. Moreover, they could readily transfer to new S+ and S- stimuli and could remember the significance of previously learned odor stimuli even after a 3-week break. Furthermore, we could show that this method is suitable for obtaining reliable measures of olfactory sensitivity. The few modifications of the original method employed here did not affect essential features such as the mode of stimulus presentation (odorized paper strips attached to manipulation objects) and the choice criterion (opening or rejecting the odorized manipulation objects), thus for the first time enabling valid interspecific comparisons of olfactory capabilities between a catarrhine and a platyrrhine primate species. Our results indicate that M. nemestrina and Saimiri sciureus are similar with regard to several measures of olfactory performance, such as speed of initial task acquisition and ability to master transfer tasks as well as their sensitivity to a food-related odorant.

  4. Neuronal Basis of Innate Olfactory Attraction to Ethanol in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Andrea; Ruppert, Manuela; Hendrich, Oliver; Giang, Thomas; Ogueta, Maite; Hampel, Stefanie; Vollbach, Marvin; Büschges, Ansgar; Scholz, Henrike

    2012-01-01

    The decision to move towards a mating partner or a food source is essential for life. The mechanisms underlying these behaviors are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of octopamine – the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline – in innate olfactory attraction to ethanol. We confirmed that preference is caused via an olfactory stimulus by dissecting the function of the olfactory co-receptor Orco (formally known as OR83b). Orco function is not required for ethanol recognition per se, however it plays a role in context dependent recognition of ethanol. Odor-evoked ethanol preference requires the function of Tbh (Tyramine β hydroxalyse), the rate-limiting enzyme of octopamine synthesis. In addition, neuronal activity in a subset of octopaminergic neurons is necessary for olfactory ethanol preference. Notably, a specific neuronal activation pattern of tyraminergic/octopaminergic neurons elicit preference and is therefore sufficient to induce preference. In contrast, dopamine dependent increase in locomotor activity is not sufficient for olfactory ethanol preference. Consistent with the role of noradrenaline in mammalian drug induced rewards, we provide evidence that in adult Drosophila the octopaminergic neurotransmitter functions as a reinforcer and that the molecular dissection of the innate attraction to ethanol uncovers the basic properties of a response selection system. PMID:23284851

  5. Extinction reverses olfactory fear-conditioned increases in neuron number and glomerular size

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Filomene G.; Dias, Brian G.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2015-01-01

    Although much work has investigated the contribution of brain regions such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex to the processing of fear learning and memory, fewer studies have examined the role of sensory systems, in particular the olfactory system, in the detection and perception of cues involved in learning and memory. The primary sensory receptive field maps of the olfactory system are exquisitely organized and respond dynamically to cues in the environment, remaining plastic from development through adulthood. We have previously demonstrated that olfactory fear conditioning leads to increased odorant-specific receptor representation in the main olfactory epithelium and in glomeruli within the olfactory bulb. We now demonstrate that olfactory extinction training specific to the conditioned odor stimulus reverses the conditioning-associated freezing behavior and odor learning-induced structural changes in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb in an odorant ligand-specific manner. These data suggest that learning-induced freezing behavior, structural alterations, and enhanced neural sensory representation can be reversed in adult mice following extinction training. PMID:26420875

  6. Stimulus Reporting Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Faced with their first reporting deadlines for economic-stimulus aid to education, school districts are toiling over how every stimulus penny has been spent so far and how many jobs have been saved--numbers that will be scrutinized not just by the public, but by government auditors as well. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, passed by…

  7. Stimulus Reporting Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Faced with their first reporting deadlines for economic-stimulus aid to education, school districts are toiling over how every stimulus penny has been spent so far and how many jobs have been saved--numbers that will be scrutinized not just by the public, but by government auditors as well. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, passed by…

  8. Performance breakdown in optimal stimulus decoding.

    PubMed

    Lubomir Kostal; Lansky, Petr; Pilarski, Stevan

    2015-06-01

    One of the primary goals of neuroscience is to understand how neurons encode and process information about their environment. The problem is often approached indirectly by examining the degree to which the neuronal response reflects the stimulus feature of interest. In this context, the methods of signal estimation and detection theory provide the theoretical limits on the decoding accuracy with which the stimulus can be identified. The Cramér-Rao lower bound on the decoding precision is widely used, since it can be evaluated easily once the mathematical model of the stimulus-response relationship is determined. However, little is known about the behavior of different decoding schemes with respect to the bound if the neuronal population size is limited. We show that under broad conditions the optimal decoding displays a threshold-like shift in performance in dependence on the population size. The onset of the threshold determines a critical range where a small increment in size, signal-to-noise ratio or observation time yields a dramatic gain in the decoding precision. We demonstrate the existence of such threshold regions in early auditory and olfactory information coding. We discuss the origin of the threshold effect and its impact on the design of effective coding approaches in terms of relevant population size.

  9. Performance breakdown in optimal stimulus decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostal, Lubomir; Lansky, Petr; Pilarski, Stevan

    2015-06-01

    Objective. One of the primary goals of neuroscience is to understand how neurons encode and process information about their environment. The problem is often approached indirectly by examining the degree to which the neuronal response reflects the stimulus feature of interest. Approach. In this context, the methods of signal estimation and detection theory provide the theoretical limits on the decoding accuracy with which the stimulus can be identified. The Cramér-Rao lower bound on the decoding precision is widely used, since it can be evaluated easily once the mathematical model of the stimulus-response relationship is determined. However, little is known about the behavior of different decoding schemes with respect to the bound if the neuronal population size is limited. Main results. We show that under broad conditions the optimal decoding displays a threshold-like shift in performance in dependence on the population size. The onset of the threshold determines a critical range where a small increment in size, signal-to-noise ratio or observation time yields a dramatic gain in the decoding precision. Significance. We demonstrate the existence of such threshold regions in early auditory and olfactory information coding. We discuss the origin of the threshold effect and its impact on the design of effective coding approaches in terms of relevant population size.

  10. Olfactory toxicity in fishes.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B; Baldwin, David H; Hara, Toshiaki J; Ross, Peter S; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2010-01-21

    Olfaction conveys critical environmental information to fishes, enabling activities such as mating, locating food, discriminating kin, avoiding predators and homing. All of these behaviors can be impaired or lost as a result of exposure to toxic contaminants in surface waters. Historically, teleost olfaction studies have focused on behavioral responses to anthropogenic contaminants (e.g., avoidance). More recently, there has been a shift towards understanding the underlying mechanisms and functional significance of contaminant-mediated changes in fish olfaction. This includes a consideration of how contaminants affect the olfactory nervous system and, by extension, the downstream physiological and behavioral processes that together comprise a normal response to naturally occurring stimuli (e.g., reproductive priming or releasing pheromones). Numerous studies spanning several species have shown that ecologically relevant exposures to common pollutants such as metals and pesticides can interfere with fish olfaction and disrupt life history processes that determine individual survival and reproductive success. This represents one of the pathways by which toxic chemicals in aquatic habitats may increasingly contribute to the decline and at-risk status of many commercially and ecologically important fish stocks. Despite our emerging understanding of the threats that pollution poses for chemical communication in aquatic communities, many research challenges remain. These include: (1) the determination of specific mechanisms of toxicity in the fish olfactory sensory epithelium; (2) an understanding of the impacts of complex chemical mixtures; (3) the capacity to assess olfactory toxicity in fish in situ; (4) the impacts of toxins on olfactory-mediated behaviors that are still poorly understood for many fish species; and (5) the connections between sublethal effects on individual fish and the long-term viability of wild populations. This review summarizes and integrates

  11. Primary Events in Olfactory Reception

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-08

    sustentacular cells and Bowman’s glands and that it is deposited in the lower mucus layer of olfactory neuroepithelium. Next, we extracted mRNA from...protrude from the dendritic tips of olfactory receptor neurons. These cilia are surrounded by a layer of mucus that lines the olfactory...neuroepithelium. Odorants that enter the nasal cavity with the inspired air partition into and diffuse through this aqueous mucus layer on their way to odorant

  12. Sildenafil affects olfactory function.

    PubMed

    Gudziol, V; Mück-Weymann, M; Seizinger, O; Rauh, R; Siffert, W; Hummel, T

    2007-01-01

    Sildenafil is the first member of a new class of oral drugs effective for erectile dysfunction. However, approximately 20% of patients complain about nasal congestion after sildenafil administration. Because nasal airflow and olfaction are closely linked, the sense of smell was evaluated in 20 young, healthy volunteers after the administration of 50 and 100 mg sildenafil, and placebo in a double-blinded, crossover study. Olfactory function was evaluated using a standardized and validated test (Sniffin' Sticks). To investigate a possible impact of G-protein beta3 subunit C825T polymorphism on the effect of sildenafil on olfaction the genotype of all subjects was determined. The effect of sildenafil on olfaction was only present at a dose of 100 mg but not at a dose of 50 mg sildenafil. The genotypes TT, CC and TC of the G-protein beta3 C825T polymorphism had no impact on the change in olfactory function. Higher sildenafil doses may produce decreased olfactory sensitivity.

  13. Recent Trend in Development of Olfactory Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagida, Yasuyuki

    An olfactory display is a device that generates scented air with desired concentration of aroma, and delivers it to the user's olfactory organ. In this article, the nature of olfaction is briefly described from the view point of how to configure olfactory displays. Next, component technologies to compose olfactory displays, i.e., making scents and delivering scents, are categorized. Several existing olfactory display systems are introduced to show the current status of research and development of olfactory displays.

  14. [Olfactory receptors and odour coding].

    PubMed

    Pernollet, Jean-Claude; Sanz, Guenhaël; Briand, Loïc

    2006-09-01

    The first step of olfactory detection involves interactions between odorant molecules and neuronal protein receptors. Odour coding results from the combinatory activation of a set of receptors and rests on their clonal expression and olfactory neurone connexion, which lead to formation of a specific sensory map in the cortex. This system, sufficient to discriminate myriads of odorants with a mere 350 different receptors, allows humans to smell molecules that are not natural (new cooking flavours, synthetic chemicals...). The extreme olfactory genome diversity explains the absence of odour semantics. Olfactory receptors are also involved in cellular chemotaxis.

  15. Recovery of olfactory function after bilateral bulbectomy.

    PubMed

    Wright, J W; Harding, J W

    1982-04-16

    Mice were trained to discriminate between scented and unscented air. After olfactory bulbs were removed, discrimination was lost, but returned with the formation of synaptic connections between regenerated primary olfactory neurons and the cortex of the forebrain. The acquisition of a second olfactory-mediated task by long-term bulbectomized mice and controls was indistinguishable. The results emphasize the plasticity of the nervous system, correlate the presence of neural connections between olfactory mucosa and forebrain with the recovery of olfactory function, suggest that olfactory-mediated memory resides at least in part outside the olfactory bulbs, and demonstrate that the bulbs are not required for the acquisition of olfactory tasks.

  16. It takes two—coincidence coding within the dual olfactory pathway of the honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Brill, Martin F.; Meyer, Anneke; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    To rapidly process biologically relevant stimuli, sensory systems have developed a broad variety of coding mechanisms like parallel processing and coincidence detection. Parallel processing (e.g., in the visual system), increases both computational capacity and processing speed by simultaneously coding different aspects of the same stimulus. Coincidence detection is an efficient way to integrate information from different sources. Coincidence has been shown to promote associative learning and memory or stimulus feature detection (e.g., in auditory delay lines). Within the dual olfactory pathway of the honeybee both of these mechanisms might be implemented by uniglomerular projection neurons (PNs) that transfer information from the primary olfactory centers, the antennal lobe (AL), to a multimodal integration center, the mushroom body (MB). PNs from anatomically distinct tracts respond to the same stimulus space, but have different physiological properties, characteristics that are prerequisites for parallel processing of different stimulus aspects. However, the PN pathways also display mirror-imaged like anatomical trajectories that resemble neuronal coincidence detectors as known from auditory delay lines. To investigate temporal processing of olfactory information, we recorded PN odor responses simultaneously from both tracts and measured coincident activity of PNs within and between tracts. Our results show that coincidence levels are different within each of the two tracts. Coincidence also occurs between tracts, but to a minor extent compared to coincidence within tracts. Taken together our findings support the relevance of spike timing in coding of olfactory information (temporal code). PMID:26283968

  17. Stimulus Responsive Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darran Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  18. Stimulus responsive nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darren Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  19. The Stimulus test stand

    SciTech Connect

    Christofek, L.; Rapidis, P.; Reinhard, A.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    The Stimulus Test Stand was originally constructed and assembled for testing the SVX2 ASIC readout and then upgraded for SVX3 ASIC prototyping and testing. We have modified this system for SVX4 ASIC [1] prototype testing. We described the individual components below. Additional details for other hardware for SVX4 testing can be found in reference [2]. We provide a description of the Stimulus Test Stand used for prototype testing of the SVX4 chip.

  20. Stimulus Responsive Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darran Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment including a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  1. Olfactory learning promotes input-specific synaptic plasticity in adult-born neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lepousez, Gabriel; Nissant, Antoine; Bryant, Alex K.; Gheusi, Gilles; Greer, Charles A.; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The production of new neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) through adulthood is a major mechanism of structural and functional plasticity underlying learning-induced circuit remodeling. The recruitment of adult-born OB neurons depends not only on sensory input but also on the context in which the olfactory stimulus is received. Among the multiple steps of adult neurogenesis, the integration and survival of adult-born neurons are both strongly influenced by olfactory learning. Conversely, optogenetic stimulation of adult-born neurons has been shown to specifically improve olfactory learning and long-term memory. However, the nature of the circuit and the synaptic mechanisms underlying this reciprocal influence are not yet known. Here, we showed that olfactory learning increases the spine density in a region-restricted manner along the dendritic tree of adult-born granule cells (GCs). Anatomical and electrophysiological analysis of adult-born GCs showed that olfactory learning promotes a remodeling of both excitatory and inhibitory inputs selectively in the deep dendritic domain. Circuit mapping revealed that the malleable dendritic portion of adult-born neurons receives excitatory inputs mostly from the regions of the olfactory cortex that project back to the OB. Finally, selective optogenetic stimulation of olfactory cortical projections to the OB showed that learning strengthens these inputs onto adult-born GCs. We conclude that learning promotes input-specific synaptic plasticity in adult-born neurons, which reinforces the top-down influence from the olfactory cortex to early stages of olfactory information processing. PMID:25189772

  2. An Evaluation of a Stimulus Preference Assessment of Auditory Stimuli for Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrocks, Erin; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous researchers have used stimulus preference assessment (SPA) methods to identify salient reinforcers for individuals with developmental disabilities including tangible, leisure, edible and olfactory stimuli. In the present study, SPA procedures were used to identify potential auditory reinforcers and determine the reinforcement value of…

  3. An Evaluation of a Stimulus Preference Assessment of Auditory Stimuli for Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrocks, Erin; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous researchers have used stimulus preference assessment (SPA) methods to identify salient reinforcers for individuals with developmental disabilities including tangible, leisure, edible and olfactory stimuli. In the present study, SPA procedures were used to identify potential auditory reinforcers and determine the reinforcement value of…

  4. Effects of Caffeine on Olfactory Learning in Crickets.

    PubMed

    Sugimachi, Seigo; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto; Okada, Jiro

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine is a plant-derived alkaloid that is generally known as a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. In order to examine the effects of caffeine on higher CNS functions in insects, we used an appetitive olfactory learning paradigm for the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Crickets can form significant long-term memories (LTMs) after repetitive training sessions, during which they associate a conditioned stimulus (CS: odor) with an unconditioned stimulus (US: reward). Administration of hemolymphal injections of caffeine established LTM after only single-trial conditioning over a wide range of caffeine dosages (1.6 µµg/kg to 39 mg/kg). We investigated the physiological mechanisms underlying this enhancement of olfactory learning performance pharmacologically, focusing on three major physiological roles of caffeine: 1) inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE), 2) agonism of ryanodine receptors, and 3) antagonism of adenosine receptors. Application of drugs relevant to these actions resulted in significant effects on LTM formation. These results suggest that externally applied caffeine enhances LTM formation in insect olfactory learning via multiple cellular mechanisms.

  5. Detecting Gustatory–Olfactory Flavor Mixtures: Models of Probability Summation

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuizen, Maria G.; Shepard, Timothy G.; Shavit, Adam Y.

    2012-01-01

    Odorants and flavorants typically contain many components. It is generally easier to detect multicomponent stimuli than to detect a single component, through either neural integration or probability summation (PS) (or both). PS assumes that the sensory effects of 2 (or more) stimulus components (e.g., gustatory and olfactory components of a flavorant) are detected in statistically independent channels, that each channel makes a separate decision whether a component is detected, and that the behavioral response depends solely on the separate decisions. Models of PS traditionally assume high thresholds for detecting each component, noise being irrelevant. The core assumptions may be adapted, however, to signal-detection theory, where noise limits detection. The present article derives predictions of high-threshold and signal-detection models of independent-decision PS in detecting gustatory–olfactory flavorants, comparing predictions in yes/no and 2-alternative forced-choice tasks using blocked and intermixed stimulus designs. The models also extend to measures of response times to suprathreshold flavorants. Predictions derived from high-threshold and signal-detection models differ markedly. Available empirical evidence on gustatory–olfactory flavor detection suggests that neither the high-threshold nor the signal-detection versions of PS can readily account for the results, which likely reflect neural integration in the flavor system. PMID:22075720

  6. Retronasal odor representations in the dorsal olfactory bulb of rats

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Shree Hari; Verhagen, Justus V.

    2012-01-01

    Animals perceive their olfactory environment not only from odors originating in the external world (orthonasal route) but also from odors released in the oral cavity while eating food (retronasal route). Retronasal olfaction is crucial for the perception of food flavor in humans. However, little is known about the retronasal stimulus coding in the brain. The most basic question is if and how route affects the odor representations at the level of the olfactory bulb (OB), where odor quality codes originate. We used optical calcium imaging of presynaptic dorsal OB responses to odorants in anesthetized rats to ask whether the rat OB could be activated retronasally, and how these responses compare to orthonasal responses under similar conditions. We further investigated the effects of specific odorant properties on orthoversus retronasal response patterns. We found that at a physiologically relevant flow rate retronasal odorants can effectively reach the olfactory receptor neurons, eliciting glomerular response patterns that grossly overlap with those of orthonasal responses, but differ from the orthonasal patterns in the response amplitude and temporal dynamics. Interestingly, such differences correlated well with specific odorant properties. Less volatile odorants yielded relatively smaller responses retronasally, but volatility did not affect relative temporal profiles. More polar odorants responded with relatively longer onset latency and time to peak retronasally, but polarity did not affect relative response magnitudes. These data provide insight into the early stages of retronasal stimulus coding and establish relationships between ortho- and retronasal odor representations in the rat OB. PMID:22674270

  7. Retronasal odor representations in the dorsal olfactory bulb of rats.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Shree Hari; Verhagen, Justus V

    2012-06-06

    Animals perceive their olfactory environment not only from odors originating in the external world (orthonasal route) but also from odors released in the oral cavity while eating food (retronasal route). Retronasal olfaction is crucial for the perception of food flavor in humans. However, little is known about the retronasal stimulus coding in the brain. The most basic questions are if and how route affects the odor representations at the level of the olfactory bulb (OB), where odor quality codes originate. We used optical calcium imaging of presynaptic dorsal OB responses to odorants in anesthetized rats to ask whether the rat OB could be activated retronasally, and how these responses compare to orthonasal responses under similar conditions. We further investigated the effects of specific odorant properties on orthonasal versus retronasal response patterns. We found that at a physiologically relevant flow rate, retronasal odorants can effectively reach the olfactory receptor neurons, eliciting glomerular response patterns that grossly overlap with those of orthonasal responses, but differ from the orthonasal patterns in the response amplitude and temporal dynamics. Interestingly, such differences correlated well with specific odorant properties. Less volatile odorants yielded relatively smaller responses retronasally, but volatility did not affect relative temporal profiles. More polar odorants responded with relatively longer onset latency and time to peak retronasally, but polarity did not affect relative response magnitudes. These data provide insight into the early stages of retronasal stimulus coding and establish relationships between orthonasal and retronasal odor representations in the rat OB.

  8. Synchronized Activity in The Main and Accessory Olfactory Bulbs and Vomeronasal Amygdala Elicited by Chemical Signals in Freely Behaving Mice.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Bellver, Cecília; Martínez-Bellver, Sergio; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique; Teruel-Martí, Vicent

    2017-08-30

    Chemosensory processing in mammals involves the olfactory and vomeronasal systems, but how the activity of both circuits is integrated is unknown. In our study, we recorded the electrophysiological activity in the olfactory bulbs and the vomeronasal amygdala in freely behaving mice exploring a battery of neutral and conspecific stimuli. The exploration of stimuli, including a neutral stimulus, induced synchronic activity in the olfactory bulbs characterized by a dominant theta rhythmicity, with specific theta-gamma coupling, distinguishing between vomeronasal and olfactory structures. The correlated activation of the bulbs suggests a coupling between the stimuli internalization in the nasal cavity and the vomeronasal pumping. In the amygdala, male stimuli are preferentially processed in the medial nucleus, whereas female cues induced a differential response in the posteromedial cortical amygdala. Thus, particular theta-gamma patterns in the olfactory network modulates the integration of chemosensory information in the amygdala, allowing the selection of an appropriate behaviour.

  9. Differences in peripheral sensory input to the olfactory bulb between male and female mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kass, Marley D.; Czarnecki, Lindsey A.; Moberly, Andrew H.; McGann, John P.

    2017-04-01

    Female mammals generally have a superior sense of smell than males, but the biological basis of this difference is unknown. Here, we demonstrate sexually dimorphic neural coding of odorants by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), primary sensory neurons that physically contact odor molecules in the nose and provide the initial sensory input to the brain’s olfactory bulb. We performed in vivo optical neurophysiology to visualize odorant-evoked OSN synaptic output into olfactory bub glomeruli in unmanipulated (gonad-intact) adult mice from both sexes, and found that in females odorant presentation evoked more rapid OSN signaling over a broader range of OSNs than in males. These spatiotemporal differences enhanced the contrast between the neural representations of chemically related odorants in females compared to males during stimulus presentation. Removing circulating sex hormones makes these signals slower and less discriminable in females, while in males they become faster and more discriminable, suggesting opposite roles for gonadal hormones in influencing male and female olfactory function. These results demonstrate that the famous sex difference in olfactory abilities likely originates in the primary sensory neurons, and suggest that hormonal modulation of the peripheral olfactory system could underlie differences in how males and females experience the olfactory world.

  10. An arterially perfused nose-olfactory bulb preparation of the rat.

    PubMed

    Pérez de los Cobos Pallarés, Fernando; Stanić, Davor; Farmer, David; Dutschmann, Mathias; Egger, Veronica

    2015-09-01

    A main feature of the mammalian olfactory bulb network is the presence of various rhythmic activities, in particular, gamma, beta, and theta oscillations, with the latter coupled to the respiratory rhythm. Interactions between those oscillations as well as the spatial distribution of network activation are likely to determine olfactory coding. Here, we describe a novel semi-intact perfused nose-olfactory bulb-brain stem preparation in rats with both a preserved olfactory epithelium and brain stem, which could be particularly suitable for the study of oscillatory activity and spatial odor mapping within the olfactory bulb, in particular, in hitherto inaccessible locations. In the perfused olfactory bulb, we observed robust spontaneous oscillations, mostly in the theta range. Odor application resulted in an increase in oscillatory power in higher frequency ranges, stimulus-locked local field potentials, and excitation or inhibition of individual bulbar neurons, similar to odor responses reported from in vivo recordings. Thus our method constitutes the first viable in situ preparation of a mammalian system that uses airborne odor stimuli and preserves these characteristic features of odor processing. This preparation will allow the use of highly invasive experimental procedures and the application of techniques such as patch-clamp recording, high-resolution imaging, and optogenetics within the entire olfactory bulb.

  11. The sensory basis of olfactory search behavior in banded kokopu ( Galaxias fasciatus).

    PubMed

    Baker, Cindy F; Montgomery, John C; Dennis, Todd E

    2002-08-01

    The sensory basis of olfactory search behavior was investigated in the banded kokopu, Galaxias fasciatus, using a flow tank. In the presence of a 2 cm s(-1) current flow, banded kokopu use both water current and chemical information to locate a food odor source. The superficial neuromasts of the lateral line system mediate the rheotactic component of the odor search. A physical block of one olfactory nostril did not affect the olfactory search strategy employed by banded kokopu in still water or in the presence of a current flow. Thus, there is no evidence that banded kokopu perform a bilateral comparison of the olfactory stimulus during their odor search. Previously, olfaction and gustation have been the only sensory systems shown to directly mediate orientation and movement towards odor sources in fish. The use of hydrodynamic cues by fish in location of an olfactory source has been previously proposed, but without direct experimental identification of the sensory systems employed. This study identifies the contributing roles of both olfactory and hydrodynamic sensory systems to the olfactory search repertoire of fish.

  12. Olfactory dysfunction and daily life.

    PubMed

    Frasnelli, Johannes; Hummel, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with parosmia suffer more in their daily life than patients who experience only quantitative olfactory loss. Two hundred five outpatients of the Smell and Taste Clinic and 25 healthy controls were included. The newly developed Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders (QOD) was administered in combination with other psychometric tests (Beck Depression Inventory, "Befindlichkeitsskala" and the Short Form-36 Health Survey) along with an olfactory test ("Sniffin' Sticks"). Results of the QOD were found to be an appropriate and valid measure of the impact of olfactory dysfunction on daily life. Patients with parosmia and quantitative olfactory dysfunction show higher rates of daily life complaints when compared to patients suffering from quantitative olfactory impairment only (QOD-PS: P=0.005). In addition, hyposmic and anosmic patients indicated significantly more complaints compared to patients with normosmia. Further, female patients seemed to suffer more from olfactory dysfunction than male patients. In conclusion, the assessment of the degree of qualitative olfactory dysfunction may be possible by the use of instruments based on questionnaires regarding daily life problems.

  13. Stimulus control: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Dinsmoor, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The second part of my tutorial stresses the systematic importance of two parameters of discrimination training: (a) the magnitude of the physical difference between the positive and the negative stimulus (disparity) and (b) the magnitude of the difference between the positive stimulus, in particular, and the background stimulation (salience). It then examines the role these variables play in such complex phenomena as blocking and overshadowing, progressive discrimination training, and the transfer of control by fading. It concludes by considering concept formation and imitation, which are important forms of application, and recent work on equivalence relations. PMID:22478222

  14. GABAergic feedback signaling into the calyces of the mushroom bodies enables olfactory reversal learning in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Boitard, Constance; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Isabel, Guillaume; Giurfa, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In reversal learning, subjects first learn to respond to a reinforced stimulus A and not to a non-reinforced stimulus B (A+ vs. B−) and then have to learn the opposite when stimulus contingencies are reversed (A− vs. B+). This change in stimulus valence generates a transitory ambiguity at the level of stimulus outcome that needs to be overcome to solve the second discrimination. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) efficiently master reversal learning in the olfactory domain. The mushroom bodies (MBs), higher-order structures of the insect brain, are required to solve this task. Here we aimed at uncovering the neural circuits facilitating reversal learning in honey bees. We trained bees using the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) coupled with localized pharmacological inhibition of Gamma-AminoButyric Acid (GABA)ergic signaling in the MBs. We show that inhibition of ionotropic but not metabotropic GABAergic signaling into the MB calyces impairs reversal learning, but leaves intact the capacity to perform two consecutive elemental olfactory discriminations with ambiguity of stimulus valence. On the contrary, inhibition of ionotropic GABAergic signaling into the MB lobes had no effect on reversal learning. Our results are thus consistent with a specific requirement of the feedback neurons (FNs) providing ionotropic GABAergic signaling from the MB lobes to the calyces for counteracting ambiguity of stimulus valence in reversal learning. PMID:26283938

  15. Rapid classical conditioning of odor response in a physiological model for olfactory research, the tiger salamander.

    PubMed

    Dorries, K M; White, J; Kauer, J S

    1997-06-01

    In recent years there have been a number of important advances in the understanding of cellular mechanisms related to olfactory function. Hypotheses regarding the complex relationships among odorant structure, physiological activity and behavioral outcome generated by these findings, however, remain largely untested due to a paucity of psychophysical data on stimulus discrimination in the same experimental species. Comparisons between behavioral and physiological responses are essential for elucidating the critical aspects of stimulus coding in sensory systems. We have developed a method for generating psychophysical data in one of the primary model species used in olfactory research, the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum. These psychophysical experiments are carried out under the same conditions as physiological experiments in our laboratory. Using classical conditioning, individual salamanders are trained over a period of 2-3 h to show skin potential responses to odor and not air. Failure to train using backward pairing demonstrates that the response is not due to sensitization or pseudoconditioning. The conditioned response is mediated by the olfactory pathway, as it is blocked by olfactory nerve section. We show that salamanders detect three odorants that are commonly used stimuli in physiological experiments (butyl alcohol, butyl acetate and amyl acetate), but cannot detect a fourth common experimental odorant, camphor. This method should be a powerful tool for studying olfactory information processing by providing data on discriminability of stimuli used in salamander physiological studies.

  16. Interests and Stimulus Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, George B.; Donnenwerth, Gregory V.

    1969-01-01

    Examines relationships between Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) and vocational interests measured by the Kuder and Strong Vocational Interest Blank, among alcoholics and undergraduates. Results support construct validity of the SSS and provide further evidence of modes of expression of stimulus-seeking needs in personality. (Author/CJ)

  17. Reflections on Stimulus Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Murray

    2008-01-01

    The topic of stimulus control is too broad and complex to be traceable here. It would probably take a two-semester course to cover just the highlights of that field's evolution. The more restricted topic of equivalence relations has itself become so broad that even an introductory summary requires more time than we have available. An examination…

  18. Olfactory receptor gene expression in tiger salamander olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Marchand, James E; Yang, Xinhai; Chikaraishi, Dona; Krieger, Jurgen; Breer, Heinz; Kauer, John S

    2004-06-28

    Physiological studies of odor-elicited responses from the olfactory epithelium and bulb in the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, have elucidated a number of features of olfactory coding that appear to be conserved across several vertebrate species. This animal model has provided an accessible in vivo system for observing individual and ensemble olfactory responses to odorant stimulation using biochemical, neurophysiological, and behavioral assays. In this paper we have complemented these studies by characterizing 35 candidate odorant receptor genes. These receptor sequences are similar to those of the large families of olfactory receptors found in mammals and fish. In situ hybridization, using RNA probes to 20 of these sequences, demonstrates differential distributions of labeled cells across the extent and within the depth of the olfactory epithelium. The distributions of cells labeled with probes to different receptors show spatially restricted patterns that are generally localized to different degrees in medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions. The patterns of receptor expression in the ventral olfactory epithelium (OE) are mirrored in the dorsal OE. We present a hypothesis as to how the sensory neuron populations expressing different receptor types responding to a particular odorant may relate to the distribution patterns of epithelial and bulbar responses previously characterized using single-unit and voltage-sensitive dye recording methods. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Spatiotemporal Alterations in Primary Odorant Representations in Olfactory Marker Protein Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Marley D.; Moberly, Andrew H.; McGann, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory marker protein (OMP) is highly and selectively expressed in primary olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) across species, but its physiological function remains unclear. Previous studies in the olfactory epithelium suggest that it accelerates the neural response to odorants and may modulate the odorant-selectivity of OSNs. Here we used a line of gene-targeted mice that express the fluorescent exocytosis indicator synaptopHluorin in place of OMP to compare spatiotemporal patterns of odorant-evoked neurotransmitter release from OSNs in adult mice that were heterozygous for OMP or OMP-null. We found that these patterns, which constitute the primary neural representation of each odorant, developed more slowly during the odorant presentation in OMP knockout mice but eventually reached the same magnitude as in heterozygous mice. In the olfactory bulb, each glomerulus receives synaptic input from a subpopulation of OSNs that all express the same odor receptor and thus typically respond to a specific subset of odorants. We observed that in OMP knockout mice, OSNs innervating a given glomerulus typically responded to a broader range of odorants than in OMP heterozygous mice and thus each odorant evoked synaptic input to a larger number of glomeruli. In an olfactory habituation task, OMP knockout mice behaved differently than wild-type mice, exhibiting a delay in their onset to investigate an odor stimulus during its first presentation and less habituation to that stimulus over repeated presentations. These results suggest that the actions of OMP in olfactory transduction carry through to the primary sensory representations of olfactory stimuli in adult mice in vivo. PMID:23630588

  20. Comparison of two stimulus-delivery systems for measurement of nasal pungency thresholds.

    PubMed

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S; Hiraishi, T; Abraham, M H; Gola, J M

    2000-06-01

    Using representative members of each of three homologous series of chemicals-ketones, acetates and alcohols-we measured nasal pungency thresholds in anosmics via two stimulus-delivery systems. The first system consists of the fairly commonly used 270 ml, plastic 'squeeze bottles'. The second system consists of 1900 ml, glass vessels with Teflon tubing and nose-pieces. Although bulkier and more susceptible to mechanical breakage, the glass vessels possess advantages that can allow them to provide 'environmentally realistic' chemosensory thresholds, i.e. thresholds closer in absolute values to those that might be obtained under whole-body exposures. Such advantages include a larger volume of the vapor-source to accommodate whole sniffs, and a tight nose-nose-piece connection to avoid stimulus dilution. The outcome revealed that, for every chemical, the glass vessels provided nasal pungency thresholds significantly lower than those provided by the squeeze bottles. The difference amounted, on average, to a factor of 4.6, though the relative potency of the compounds remained the same under both systems. Additionally, when tested with the highest homologues used here, namely, octyl acetate and 1-octanol, anosmics using the glass vessels had little or no difficulty achieving the criterion for threshold whereas they did have difficulty when using the squeeze bottles.

  1. Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, C H; Shephard, B C; Daniel, S E

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate olfactory function in Parkinson's disease. A standardised odour identification test was used, together with an evoked potential assessment with hydrogen sulphide. In addition, histological analysis was performed on the olfactory bulbs of cadavers who died from Parkinson's disease. Over 70% of patients studied (71 of 96) were outside the 95% limit of normal on the identification test in an age matched sample and there was an unusual pattern of selective loss to certain odours, not hitherto described. The evoked potentials were significantly delayed but of comparable amplitude to a control matched population. Of the 73 patients studied only 37 had a technically satisfactory record containing a clear response to both gases and of these, 12 were delayed. For H2S there was more delay on stimulating the right nostril than the left. Some patients with normal smell identification test scores had delayed evoked potentials. In the pathological examination of olfactory bulbs from eight brains, changes characteristic of Parkinson's disease (Lewy bodies) were seen in every olfactory bulb, particularly in the anterior olfactory nucleus, and were sufficiently distinct to allow a presumptive diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Olfactory damage in Parkinson's disease is consistent and severe and may provide an important clue to the aetiology of the disease.

  2. Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, C H; Shephard, B C; Daniel, S E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate olfactory function in Parkinson's disease. METHODS: A standardised odour identification test was used, together with an evoked potential assessment with hydrogen sulphide. In addition, histological analysis was performed on the olfactory bulbs of cadavers who died from Parkinson's disease. RESULTS: Over 70% of patients studied (71 of 96) were outside the 95% limit of normal on the identification test in an age matched sample and there was an unusual pattern of selective loss to certain odours, not hitherto described. The evoked potentials were significantly delayed but of comparable amplitude to a control matched population. Of the 73 patients studied only 37 had a technically satisfactory record containing a clear response to both gases and of these, 12 were delayed. For H2S there was more delay on stimulating the right nostril than the left. Some patients with normal smell identification test scores had delayed evoked potentials. In the pathological examination of olfactory bulbs from eight brains, changes characteristic of Parkinson's disease (Lewy bodies) were seen in every olfactory bulb, particularly in the anterior olfactory nucleus, and were sufficiently distinct to allow a presumptive diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. CONCLUSIONS: Olfactory damage in Parkinson's disease is consistent and severe and may provide an important clue to the aetiology of the disease. Images PMID:9153598

  3. Insight of scent: experimental evidence of olfactory capabilities in the wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans).

    PubMed

    Mardon, J; Nesterova, A P; Traugott, J; Saunders, S M; Bonadonna, F

    2010-02-15

    Wandering albatrosses routinely forage over thousands of kilometres of open ocean, but the sensory mechanisms used in the food search itself have not been completely elucidated. Recent telemetry studies show that some spatial behaviours of the species are consistent with the 'multimodal foraging strategy' hypothesis which proposes that birds use a combination of olfactory and visual cues while foraging at sea. The 'multimodal foraging strategy' hypothesis, however, still suffers from a lack of experimental evidence, particularly regarding the olfactory capabilities of wandering albatrosses. As an initial step to test the hypothesis, we carried out behavioural experiments exploring the sensory capabilities of adult wandering albatrosses at a breeding colony. Three two-choice tests were designed to investigate the birds' response to olfactory and visual stimuli, individually or in combination. Perception of the different stimuli was assessed by comparing the amount of exploration directed towards an 'experimental' display or a 'control' display. Our results indicate that birds were able to perceive the three types of stimulus presented: olfactory, visual and combined. Moreover, olfactory and visual cues were found to have additional effects on the exploratory behaviours of males. This simple experimental demonstration of reasonable olfactory capabilities in the wandering albatross supports the 'multimodal foraging strategy' and is consistent with recent hypotheses of the evolutionary history of procellariiforms.

  4. Stimulus Variables and Interpersonal Attraction: The Stimulus Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffitt, William

    In interpersonal attraction, studies and judgment research evaluation of a stimulus is often a function of the context within which the stimulus appears. The first experiment was designed to examine "contrast effects" (shifts in the rated value of a stimulus away from the contextual values) when all attitudinal information was received from two…

  5. Lateralization in human nasal chemoreception: differences in bilateral electrodermal responses related to olfactory and trigeminal stimuli.

    PubMed

    Brand, G; Millot, J L; Saffaux, M; Morand-Villeneuve, N

    2002-07-18

    The study of olfactory lateralization in humans has given rise to many publications, but the findings have often been contradictory. There is growing evidence to suggest that the nature of the olfactory stimulus influences the processes of lateralization. An important factor could be the trigeminal component. Indeed, most odorants simultaneously stimulate both olfactory (CN I) and trigeminal (CN V) systems which differ in terms of their central projections, ipsilaterally for CN I and contralaterally for CN V. The aim of this study was to investigate variations in psychophysiological measurements between a nasal input with low (phenyl ethyl alcohol (PEA)) and high (allyl isothiocyanate (AIC)) intranal trigeminal stimulation. In a first experiment (20 subjects), the intensity, hedonicity and irritation levels of stimulus were tested with a psychophysical evaluation to study the possible influences of perceptual characteristics. A second experiment (37 subjects) used bilateral electrodermal recordings and compared the skin conductance responses (SCRs) for both nasal inputs on either monorhinal and birhinal stimulations. Firstly, the electrodermal activity (EDA) results showed no differences between the two nostrils for PEA as well as AIC, but differences in relation to the type of stimulus, e.g. higher amplitude in response to AIC versus PEA. Secondly, the results indicated bilateral differences in EDA recordings related to the nature of the stimulus and are discussed in terms of hemispheric asymmetric activation.

  6. Stimulus Recognition and Associative Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runquist, Willard N.; Evans, Annabel

    1972-01-01

    Purpose of this experiment was to investigate the relationship between stimulus recognition and various learning conditions which were designed to affect both stimulus encoding and associative learning in a paired-associate task. (Authors)

  7. How does long-term odor deprivation affect the olfactory capacity of adult mice?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Unilateral naris occlusion (UNO) has been the most common method of effecting stimulus deprivation in studies of olfactory plasticity. However, despite the large corpus on the effects of this manipulation, dating back to the 19th century, little is known about its behavioral sequela. Here we report the results of standard olfactory habituation and discrimination studies on adult mice that had undergone perinatal UNO followed by adult contralateral olfactory bulbectomy (bulb-x). Methods The olfactory performance of UNO mice was compared to matched controls that had unilateral bulb-x but open nares. Both habituation and discrimination (operant) experiments employed a protocol in which after successful dishabituation or discrimination to dilute individual odors (A = 0.01% isoamyl acetate; B = 0.01% ethyl butyrate; each v/v in mineral oil), mice were challenged with a single odor versus a mixture comparison (A vs. A + B). In a series of tests the volume portion of Odor B in the mixture was systematically decreased until dishabituation or discrimination thresholds were reached. Results For the habituation experiment, UNOs (n = 10) and controls (n = 9) dishabituated to a 10% mixture of Odor B in Odor A after being habituated to A alone, while both groups failed to show differential responding to a 2% mixture of B in A. However, the UNO group's increased investigation durations for the 2% mixture approached significance (p < 0.06). A replication of this study (7 controls & 8 UNOs) confirmed that controls did not differentiate Odor A and a 2% mixture of B in A but UNOs did not (p < 0.05). For the discrimination experiment, 4 UNOs and 4 controls were shaped to dig in one of two containers of sand that contained the S+ odor (Odor B) to obtain sugar pellet rewards. As in the habituation experiment, UNOs displayed greater olfactory capacity than controls on this task. Controls and UNOs had an average mixture discrimination threshold of 1.6% (± 0.4) and 0.22% (± 0

  8. Sadness might isolate you in a non-smelling world: olfactory perception and depression

    PubMed Central

    Schablitzky, Sylvia; Pause, Bettina M.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) occurs with a high prevalence among mental illnesses. MDD patients experience sadness and hopelessness, with blunted affective reactivity. However, such depressive episodes are also key symptoms in other depressive disorders, like Bipolar Disorder (BPD) or Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Moreover, depressive symptoms can also be found in healthy individuals, but are experienced as less severe or for a shorter duration than in patients. Here, it is aimed to summarize studies investigating odor perception in depression, including depressive states in healthy individuals and patient populations. Odor perception in depression has been assessed with psychophysical methods (olfactory sensitivity, odor identification, and discrimination), and odor ratings (intensity, emotional valence, familiarity). In addition, some studies investigated affective reactions to odors, and physiological and anatomical correlates of odor perception in depression. The summary reveals that MDD is associated with reduced olfactory sensitivity. However, odor identification and discrimination scores seem to be unaffected by depression. The reduced olfactory sensitivity might be associated with a reduced ability to encode olfactory information and a reduced volume of the olfactory bulb. While similar processes seem to occur in healthy individuals experiencing depressive states, they have not been observed in BPD or SAD patients. However, in order to conclude that the reduced olfactory sensitivity is directly linked to depression, it is suggested that studies should implement control measures of cognitive performances or perceptual abilities in other stimulus modalities. It is concluded that the reduced olfactory performance in MDD patients seems to be disorder-, modality-, and test-specific, and that the application of an appropriate olfactory and cognitive test-battery might be highly useful in the differential diagnosis of MDD. PMID:24570666

  9. System identification of Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Anmo J; Lazar, Aurel A; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B

    2011-02-01

    The lack of a deeper understanding of how olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) encode odors has hindered the progress in understanding the olfactory signal processing in higher brain centers. Here we employ methods of system identification to investigate the encoding of time-varying odor stimuli and their representation for further processing in the spike domain by Drosophila OSNs. In order to apply system identification techniques, we built a novel low-turbulence odor delivery system that allowed us to deliver airborne stimuli in a precise and reproducible fashion. The system provides a 1% tolerance in stimulus reproducibility and an exact control of odor concentration and concentration gradient on a millisecond time scale. Using this novel setup, we recorded and analyzed the in-vivo response of OSNs to a wide range of time-varying odor waveforms. We report for the first time that across trials the response of OR59b OSNs is very precise and reproducible. Further, we empirically show that the response of an OSN depends not only on the concentration, but also on the rate of change of the odor concentration. Moreover, we demonstrate that a two-dimensional (2D) Encoding Manifold in a concentration-concentration gradient space provides a quantitative description of the neuron's response. We then use the white noise system identification methodology to construct one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson (LNP) cascade models of the sensory neuron for a fixed mean odor concentration and fixed contrast. We show that in terms of predicting the intensity rate of the spike train, the 2D LNP model performs on par with the 1D LNP model, with a root mean-square error (RMSE) increase of about 5 to 10%. Surprisingly, we find that for a fixed contrast of the white noise odor waveforms, the nonlinear block of each of the two models changes with the mean input concentration. The shape of the nonlinearities of both the 1D and the 2D LNP model appears to be

  10. Experimental evolution of olfactory memory in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mery, Frederic; Pont, Juliette; Preat, Thomas; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2007-01-01

    In order to address the nature of genetic variation in learning performance, we investigated the response to classical olfactory conditioning in "high-learning" Drosophila melanogaster lines previously subject to selection for the ability to learn an association between the flavor of an oviposition medium and bitter taste. In a T-maze choice test, the seven high-learning lines were better at avoiding an odor previously associated with aversive mechanical shock than were five unselected "low-learning" lines originating from the same natural population. Thus, the evolved improvement in learning ability of high-learning lines generalized to another aversion learning task involving a different aversive stimulus (shock instead of bitter taste) and a different behavioral context than that used to impose selection. In this olfactory shock task, the high-learning lines showed improvements in the learning rate as well as in two forms of consolidated memory: anesthesia-resistant memory and long-term memory. Thus, genetic variation underlying the experimental evolution of learning performance in the high-learning lines affected several phases of memory formation in the course of olfactory aversive learning. However, the two forms of consolidated memory were negatively correlated among replicate high-learning lines, which is consistent with a recent hypothesis that these two forms of consolidated memory are antagonistic.

  11. Olfactory discrimination in the western lowland gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla.

    PubMed

    Hepper, Peter G; Wells, Deborah L

    2012-04-01

    The olfactory abilities of great apes have been subject to little empirical investigation, save for a few observational reports. This study, using an habituation/dishabituation task, provides experimental evidence for a core olfactory ability, namely, olfactory discrimination, in the gorilla. In Experiment 1, six zoo-housed western lowland gorillas were individually presented with the same odour on four trials, and with a novel odour on the fifth trial. Odours (almond and vanilla) were presented on plastic balls, and behavioural responses of sniffing and chewing/licking the balls were recorded. A second experiment presented the same odour on four trials and no odour on the fifth to examine whether any dishabituation was due to the presence of a new odour or the absence of the familiar odour. Gorillas habituated their behaviour with repeated presentation of the same odour, but dishabituated, i.e. increased sniffing and chewing/licking, when presented with the novel odour. No dishabituation was noted when using water as the stimulus across all trials or when used as the novel odour. Overall, results show that gorillas are able to discriminate between odours.

  12. [Olfactory sensory perception].

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Aler; Fresno, María Javiera; Santander, Hugo; Valenzuela, Saúl; Gutiérrez, Mario Felipe; Miralles, Rodolfo

    2011-03-01

    The five senses have had a fundamental importance for survival and socialization of human beings. From an evolutionary point of view the sense of smell is the oldest. This sense has a strong representation within the genome, allowing the existence of many types of receptors that allow us to capture multiple volatile odor producing molecules, sending electrical signals to higher centers to report the outside world. Several cortical areas are activated in the brain, which are interconnected to form an extensive and complex neural network, linking for example, areas involved with memory and emotions, thus giving this sense of perceptual richness. While the concept of flavor is largely related to the sense of taste, smell provides the necessary integration with the rest of the senses and higher functions. Fully understanding the sense of smell is relevant to health professionals. Knowing the characteristics of the receptors, the transduction processes and convergence of information in the higher centers involved, we can properly detect olfactory disorders in our patients.

  13. Evolution of insect olfactory receptors

    PubMed Central

    Missbach, Christine; Dweck, Hany KM; Vogel, Heiko; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Hansson, Bill S; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory sense detects a plethora of behaviorally relevant odor molecules; gene families involved in olfaction exhibit high diversity in different animal phyla. Insects detect volatile molecules using olfactory (OR) or ionotropic receptors (IR) and in some cases gustatory receptors (GRs). While IRs are expressed in olfactory organs across Protostomia, ORs have been hypothesized to be an adaptation to a terrestrial insect lifestyle. We investigated the olfactory system of the primary wingless bristletail Lepismachilis y-signata (Archaeognatha), the firebrat Thermobia domestica (Zygentoma) and the neopteran leaf insect Phyllium siccifolium (Phasmatodea). ORs and the olfactory coreceptor (Orco) are with very high probability lacking in Lepismachilis; in Thermobia we have identified three Orco candidates, and in Phyllium a fully developed OR/Orco-based system. We suggest that ORs did not arise as an adaptation to a terrestrial lifestyle, but evolved later in insect evolution, with Orco being present before the appearance of ORs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02115.001 PMID:24670956

  14. Compensatory plasticity in the olfactory epithelium: age, timing, and reversibility

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Casey N.

    2015-01-01

    Like other biological systems, olfaction responds “homeostatically” to enduring change in the stimulus environment. This adaptive mechanism, referred to as compensatory plasticity, has been studied almost exclusively in developing animals. Thus it is unknown if this phenomenon is limited to ontogenesis and irreversible, characteristics common to some other forms of plasticity. Here we explore the effects of odor deprivation on the adult mouse olfactory epithelium (OE) using nasal plugs to eliminate nasal airflow unilaterally. Plugs were in place for 2–6 wk after which electroolfactograms (EOGs) were recorded from the occluded and open sides of the nasal cavity. Mean EOG amplitudes were significantly greater on the occluded than on the open side. The duration of plugging did not affect the results, suggesting that maximal compensation occurs within 2 wk or less. The magnitude of the EOG difference between the open and occluded side in plugged mice was comparable to adults that had undergone surgical naris occlusion as neonates. When plugs were removed after 4 wk followed by 2 wk of recovery, mean EOG amplitudes were not significantly different between the always-open and previously plugged sides of the nasal cavity suggesting that this form of plasticity is reversible. Taken together, these results suggest that compensatory plasticity is a constitutive mechanism of olfactory receptor neurons that allows these cells to recalibrate their stimulus-response relationship to fit the statistics of their current odor environment. PMID:26269548

  15. Evidence for a role of GABA- and glutamate-gated chloride channels in olfactory memory.

    PubMed

    Boumghar, Katia; Couret-Fauvel, Thomas; Garcia, Mikael; Armengaud, Catherine

    2012-11-01

    In the honeybee, we investigated the role of transmissions mediated by GABA-gated chloride channels and glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) of the mushroom bodies (MBs) on olfactory learning using a single-trial olfactory conditioning paradigm. The GABAergic antagonist picrotoxin (PTX) or the GluCl antagonist L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (L-trans-PDC) was injected alone or in combination into the α-lobes of MBs. PTX impaired early long-term olfactory memory when injected before conditioning or before testing. L-trans-PDC alone induced no significant effect on learning and memory but induced a less specific response to the conditioned odor. When injected before PTX, L-trans-PDC was able to modulate PTX effects. These results emphasize the role of MB GABA-gated chloride channels in consolidation processes and strongly support that GluCls are involved in the perception of the conditioned stimulus.

  16. Neuronal pattern separation in the olfactory bulb improves odor discrimination learning.

    PubMed

    Gschwend, Olivier; Abraham, Nixon M; Lagier, Samuel; Begnaud, Frédéric; Rodriguez, Ivan; Carleton, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Neuronal pattern separation is thought to enable the brain to disambiguate sensory stimuli with overlapping features, thereby extracting valuable information. In the olfactory system, it remains unknown whether pattern separation acts as a driving force for sensory discrimination and the learning thereof. We found that overlapping odor-evoked input patterns to the mouse olfactory bulb (OB) were dynamically reformatted in the network on the timescale of a single breath, giving rise to separated patterns of activity in an ensemble of output neurons, mitral/tufted (M/T) cells. Notably, the extent of pattern separation in M/T assemblies predicted behavioral discrimination performance during the learning phase. Furthermore, exciting or inhibiting GABAergic OB interneurons, using optogenetics or pharmacogenetics, altered pattern separation and thereby odor discrimination learning in a bidirectional way. In conclusion, we propose that the OB network can act as a pattern separator facilitating olfactory stimulus distinction, a process that is sculpted by synaptic inhibition.

  17. Mechanisms and benefits of granule cell latency coding in the mouse olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Giridhar, Sonya; Urban, Nathaniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory circuits are critical for shaping odor representations in the olfactory bulb. There, individual granule cells can respond to brief stimulation with extremely long (up to 1000 ms), input-specific latencies that are highly reliable. However, the mechanism and function of this long timescale activity remain unknown. We sought to elucidate the mechanism responsible for long-latency activity, and to understand the impact of widely distributed interneuron latencies on olfactory coding. We used a combination of electrophysiological, optical, and pharmacological techniques to show that long-latency inhibition is driven by late onset synaptic excitation to granule cells. This late excitation originates from tufted cells, which have intrinsic properties that favor longer latency spiking than mitral cells. Using computational modeling, we show that widely distributed interneuron latency increases the discriminability of similar stimuli. Thus, long-latency inhibition in the olfactory bulb requires a combination of circuit- and cellular-level mechanisms that function to improve stimulus representations. PMID:22754503

  18. Rapid and continuous activity-dependent plasticity of olfactory sensory input

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, Claire E. J.; Park, Una; Belluscio, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Incorporation of new neurons enables plasticity and repair of circuits in the adult brain. Adult neurogenesis is a key feature of the mammalian olfactory system, with new olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) wiring into highly organized olfactory bulb (OB) circuits throughout life. However, neither when new postnatally generated OSNs first form synapses nor whether OSNs retain the capacity for synaptogenesis once mature, is known. Therefore, how integration of adult-born OSNs may contribute to lifelong OB plasticity is unclear. Here, we use a combination of electron microscopy, optogenetic activation and in vivo time-lapse imaging to show that newly generated OSNs form highly dynamic synapses and are capable of eliciting robust stimulus-locked firing of neurons in the mouse OB. Furthermore, we demonstrate that mature OSN axons undergo continuous activity-dependent synaptic remodelling that persists into adulthood. OSN synaptogenesis, therefore, provides a sustained potential for OB plasticity and repair that is much faster than OSN replacement alone. PMID:26898529

  19. DSL-Notch signaling in the Drosophila brain in response to olfactory stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lieber, Toby; Kidd, Simon; Struhl, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Summary Delta/Serrate/Lag2 (DSL) ligands and their Notch family receptors have profound and pervasive roles in development. They are also expressed in adult tissues, notably in mature neurons and glia in the brain, where their roles are unknown. Here, focusing on the sense of smell in adult Drosophila, we show that Notch is activated in select olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in an odorant specific fashion. This response requires olfactory receptor activity and the Notch ligand Delta. We present evidence that Notch activation depends on synaptic transmission by the ORNs in which the receptors are active, and is modulated by the activity of local interneurons in the antennal lobe. It is also subject to regulatory inputs from olfactory receptor activity in other ORNs. These findings identify a new correlate of stimulus-dependent brain activity, and potentially new forms of neural integration and plasticity. PMID:21315258

  20. DSL-Notch signaling in the Drosophila brain in response to olfactory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Toby; Kidd, Simon; Struhl, Gary

    2011-02-10

    Delta/Serrate/Lag2 (DSL) ligands and their Notch family receptors have profound and pervasive roles in development. They are also expressed in adult tissues, notably in mature neurons and glia in the brain, where their roles are unknown. Here, focusing on the sense of smell in adult Drosophila, we show that Notch is activated in select olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in an odorant-specific fashion. This response requires olfactory receptor activity and the Notch ligand Delta. We present evidence that Notch activation depends on synaptic transmission by the ORNs in which the receptors are active and is modulated by the activity of local interneurons in the antennal lobe. It is also subject to regulatory inputs from olfactory receptor activity in other ORNs. These findings identify a correlate of stimulus-dependent brain activity and potentially new forms of neural integration and plasticity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Paraneoplastic syndromes in olfactory neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Gabrych, Anna; Czapiewski, Piotr; Sworczak, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare malignant neoplasm of sinonasal tract, derived from olfactory epithelium. Unilateral nasal obstruction, epistaxis, sinusitis, and headaches are common symptoms. Olfactory neuroblastoma shows neuroendocrine differentiation and similarly to other neuroendocrine tumors can produce several types of peptic substances and hormones. Excess production of these substances can be responsible for different types of endocrinological paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS). Moreover, besides endocrinological, in ONB may also occur neurological PNS, caused by immune cross-reactivity between tumor and normal host tissues in the nervous system. Paraneoplastic syndromes in ONB include: syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH), ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS), humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), hypertension due to catecholamine secretion by tumor, opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia (OMA) and paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. Paraneoplastic syndromes in ONB tend to have atypical features, therefore diagnosis may be difficult. In this review, we described initial symptoms, patterns of presentation, treatment and outcome of paraneoplastic syndromes in ONB, reported in the literature. PMID:26199564

  2. Salivary conditioning with antennal gustatory unconditioned stimulus in an insect.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Sato, Chihiro; Kuramochi, Tomokazu; Nishino, Hiroshi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2008-07-01

    Classical conditioning of olfactory conditioning stimulus (CS) with gustatory unconditioned stimulus (US) in insects has been used as a pertinent model for elucidation of neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory. However, a conditioning system in which stable intracellular recordings from brain neurons are feasibly obtained while monitoring the conditioning effect has remained to be established. Recently, we found classical conditioning of salivation in cockroaches Periplaneta americana, in which an odor was associated with sucrose solution applied to the mouth, and this conditioning could be monitored by activities of salivary neurons. Application of gustatory US to the mouth, however, leads to feeding movement accompanying a movement of the brain that prevents stable recordings from brain neurons. Here we investigated whether a gustatory stimulus presented to an antenna could serve as an effective US for producing salivary conditioning. Presentation of sucrose or sodium chloride solution to an antenna induced salivation and also increased activities of salivary neurons. A single pairing trial of an odor with antennal presentation of sucrose or sodium chloride solution produced conditioning of salivation or of activities of salivary neurons. Five pairing trials led to a conditioning effect that lasted for one day. Water or tactile stimulus presented to an antenna was not effective for producing conditioning. The results demonstrate that gustatory US presented to an antenna is as effective as that presented to the mouth for producing salivary conditioning. This conditioning system provides a useful model for studying the neural basis of learning at the level of singly identifiable neurons.

  3. Olfactory epithelium in the olfactory recess: a case study in new world leaf-nosed bats.

    PubMed

    Eiting, Thomas P; Smith, Timothy D; Dumont, Elizabeth R

    2014-11-01

    The olfactory recess (OR) is a restricted space at the back of the nasal fossa in many mammals that is thought to improve olfactory function. Mammals that have an olfactory recess are usually described as keen-scented, while those that do not are typically thought of as less reliant on olfaction. However, the presence of an olfactory recess is not a binary trait. Many mammal families have members that vary substantially in the size and complexity of the olfactory recess. There is also variation in the amount of olfactory epithelium (OE) that is housed in the olfactory recess. Among New World leaf-nosed bats (family Phyllostomidae), species vary by over an order of magnitude in how much of their total OE lies within the OR. Does this variation relate to previously documented neuroanatomical proxies for olfactory reliance? Using data from 12 species of phyllostomid bats, we addressed the hypothesis that the amount of OE within the OR relates to a species' dependence on olfaction, as measured by two commonly used neuroanatomical metrics, the size of the olfactory bulb, and the number of glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, which are the first processing units within the olfactory signal cascade. We found that the percentage of OE within the OR does not relate to either measure of olfactory "ability." This suggests that olfactory reliance is not reflected in the size of the olfactory recess. We explore other roles that the olfactory recess may play. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Successful acquisition of an olfactory discrimination test by Asian elephants, Elephas maximus.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Josefin; Amundin, Mats; Laska, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    The present study demonstrates that Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, can successfully be trained to cooperate in an olfactory discrimination test based on a food-rewarded two-alternative instrumental conditioning procedure. The animals learned the basic principle of the test within only 60 trials and readily mastered intramodal stimulus transfer tasks. Further, they were capable of distinguishing between structurally related odor stimuli and remembered the reward value of previously learned odor stimuli after 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks of recess without any signs of forgetting. The precision and consistency of the elephants' performance in tests of odor discrimination ability and long-term odor memory demonstrate the suitability of this method for assessing olfactory function in this proboscid species. An across-species comparison of several measures of olfactory learning capabilities such as speed of initial task acquisition and ability to master intramodal stimulus transfer tasks shows that Asian elephants are at least as good in their performance as mice, rats, and dogs, and clearly superior to nonhuman primates and fur seals. The results support the notion that Asian elephants may use olfactory cues for social communication and food selection and that the sense of smell may play an important role in the control of their behavior.

  5. High-speed odor transduction and pulse tracking by insect olfactory receptor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Szyszka, Paul; Gerkin, Richard C.; Galizia, C. Giovanni; Smith, Brian H.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory systems encode both the static quality of a stimulus (e.g., color or shape) and its kinetics (e.g., speed and direction). The limits with which stimulus kinetics can be resolved are well understood in vision, audition, and somatosensation. However, the maximum temporal resolution of olfactory systems has not been accurately determined. Here, we probe the limits of temporal resolution in insect olfaction by delivering high frequency odor pulses and measuring sensory responses in the antennae. We show that transduction times and pulse tracking capabilities of olfactory receptor neurons are faster than previously reported. Once an odorant arrives at the boundary layer of the antenna, odor transduction can occur within less than 2 ms and fluctuating odor stimuli can be resolved at frequencies more than 100 Hz. Thus, insect olfactory receptor neurons can track stimuli of very short duration, as occur when their antennae encounter narrow filaments in an odor plume. These results provide a new upper bound to the kinetics of odor tracking in insect olfactory receptor neurons and to the latency of initial transduction events in olfaction. PMID:25385618

  6. Olfactory instruction for fear: neural system analysis.

    PubMed

    Canteras, Newton S; Pavesi, Eloisa; Carobrez, Antonio P

    2015-01-01

    Different types of predator odors engage elements of the hypothalamic predator-responsive circuit, which has been largely investigated in studies using cat odor exposure. Studies using cat odor have led to detailed mapping of the neural sites involved in innate and contextual fear responses. Here, we reviewed three lines of work examining the dynamics of the neural systems that organize innate and learned fear responses to cat odor. In the first section, we explored the neural systems involved in innate fear responses and in the acquisition and expression of fear conditioning to cat odor, with a particular emphasis on the role of the dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMd) and the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (PAGdl), which are key sites that influence innate fear and contextual conditioning. In the second section, we reviewed how chemical stimulation of the PMd and PAGdl may serve as a useful unconditioned stimulus in an olfactory fear conditioning paradigm; these experiments provide an interesting perspective for the understanding of learned fear to predator odor. Finally, in the third section, we explored the fact that neutral odors that acquire an aversive valence in a shock-paired conditioning paradigm may mimic predator odor and mobilize elements of the hypothalamic predator-responsive circuit.

  7. Brief Exposure to Sensory Cues Elicits Stimulus-Nonspecific General Sensitization in an Insect

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Violaine; Party, Virginie; Renou, Michel; Anderson, Peter; Gadenne, Christophe; Marion-Poll, Frédéric; Anton, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    The effect of repeated exposure to sensory stimuli, with or without reward is well known to induce stimulus-specific modifications of behaviour, described as different forms of learning. In recent studies we showed that a brief single pre-exposure to the female-produced sex pheromone or even a predator sound can increase the behavioural and central nervous responses to this pheromone in males of the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis. To investigate if this increase in sensitivity might be restricted to the pheromone system or is a form of general sensitization, we studied here if a brief pre-exposure to stimuli of different modalities can reciprocally change behavioural and physiological responses to olfactory and gustatory stimuli. Olfactory and gustatory pre-exposure and subsequent behavioural tests were carried out to reveal possible intra- and cross-modal effects. Attraction to pheromone, monitored with a locomotion compensator, increased after exposure to olfactory and gustatory stimuli. Behavioural responses to sucrose, investigated using the proboscis extension reflex, increased equally after pre-exposure to olfactory and gustatory cues. Pheromone-specific neurons in the brain and antennal gustatory neurons did, however, not change their sensitivity after sucrose exposure. The observed intra- and reciprocal cross-modal effects of pre-exposure may represent a new form of stimulus-nonspecific general sensitization originating from modifications at higher sensory processing levels. PMID:22457821

  8. Contextual taste cues modulate olfactory learning in C. elegans by an occasion-setting mechanism.

    PubMed

    Law, Eric; Nuttley, William M; van der Kooy, Derek

    2004-07-27

    Manipulations of context can affect learning and memory performance across species in many associative learning paradigms. Using taste cues to create distinct contexts for olfactory adaptation assays in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we now show that performance in this associative learning paradigm is sensitive to context manipulations, and we investigate the mechanism(s) used for the integration of context cues in learning. One possibility is that the taste and olfactory stimuli are perceived as a combined, blended cue that the animals then associate with the unconditioned stimulus (US) in the same manner as with any other unitary conditioned stimuli (CS). Alternatively, an occasion-setting model suggests that the taste cues only define the appropriate context for olfactory memory retrieval without directly entering into the primary association. Analysis of genetic mutants demonstrated that the olfactory and context cues are sensed by distinct primary sensory neurons and that the animals' ability to use taste cues to modulate olfactory learning is independent from their ability to utilize these same taste cues for adaptation. We interpret these results as evidence for the occasion-setting mechanism in which context cues modulate primary Pavlovian association by functioning in a hierarchical manner to define the appropriate setting for memory recall.

  9. Time-course of trigeminal versus olfactory stimulation: evidence from chemosensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Flohr, Elena L R; Boesveldt, Sanne; Haehner, Antje; Iannilli, Emilia; Sinding, Charlotte; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Habituation of responses to chemosensory signals has been explored in many ways. Strong habituation and adaptation processes can be observed at the various levels of processing. For example, with repeated exposure, amplitudes of chemosensory event-related potentials (ERP) decrease over time. However, long-term habituation has not been investigated so far and investigations of differences in habituation between trigeminal and olfactory ERPs are very rare. The present study investigated habituation over a period of approximately 80 min for two olfactory and one trigeminal stimulus, respectively. Habituation was examined analyzing the N1 and P2 amplitudes and latencies of chemosensory ERPs and intensity ratings. It was shown that amplitudes of both components - and intensity ratings - decreased from the first to the last block. Concerning ERP latencies no effects of habituation were seen. Amplitudes of trigeminal ERPs diminished faster than amplitudes of olfactory ERPs, indicating that the habituation of trigeminal ERPs is stronger than habituation of olfactory ERPs. Amplitudes of trigeminal ERPs were generally higher than amplitudes of olfactory ERPs, as it has been shown in various studies before. The results reflect relatively selective central changes in response to chemosensory stimuli over time.

  10. Response Times to Gustatory–Olfactory Flavor Mixtures: Role of Congruence

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Timothy G.; Veldhuizen, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    A mixture of perceptually congruent gustatory and olfactory flavorants (sucrose and citral) was previously shown to be detected faster than predicted by a model of probability summation that assumes stochastically independent processing of the individual gustatory and olfactory signals. This outcome suggests substantial integration of the signals. Does substantial integration also characterize responses to mixtures of incongruent flavorants? Here, we report simple response times (RTs) to detect brief pulses of 3 possible flavorants: monosodium glutamate, MSG (gustatory: “umami” quality), citral (olfactory: citrus quality), and a mixture of MSG and citral (gustatory–olfactory). Each stimulus (and, on a fraction of trials, water) was presented orally through a computer-operated, automated flow system, and subjects were instructed to press a button as soon as they detected any of the 3 non-water stimuli. Unlike responses previously found to the congruent mixture of sucrose and citral, responses here to the incongruent mixture of MSG and citral took significantly longer (RTs were greater) and showed lower detection rates than the values predicted by probability summation. This outcome suggests that the integration of gustatory and olfactory flavor signals is less extensive when the component flavors are perceptually incongruent rather than congruent, perhaps because incongruent flavors are less familiar. PMID:26304508

  11. Neural Correlates of Stimulus Reportability

    PubMed Central

    Hulme, Oliver J.; Friston, Karl F.; Zeki, Semir

    2012-01-01

    Most experiments on the “neural correlates of consciousness” employ stimulus reportability as an operational definition of what is consciously perceived. The interpretation of such experiments therefore depends critically on understanding the neural basis of stimulus reportability. Using a high volume of fMRI data, we investigated the neural correlates of stimulus reportability using a partial report object detection paradigm. Subjects were presented with a random array of circularly arranged disc-stimuli and were cued, after variable delays (following stimulus offset), to report the presence or absence of a disc at the cued location, using variable motor actions. By uncoupling stimulus processing, decision, and motor response, we were able to use signal detection theory to deconstruct the neural basis of stimulus reportability. We show that retinotopically specific responses in the early visual cortex correlate with stimulus processing but not decision or report; a network of parietal/temporal regions correlates with decisions but not stimulus presence, whereas classical motor regions correlate with report. These findings provide a basic framework for understanding the neural basis of stimulus reportability without the theoretical burden of presupposing a relationship between reportability and consciousness. PMID:18823251

  12. Stimulus effects on local preference: stimulus-response contingencies, stimulus-food pairing, and stimulus-food correlation.

    PubMed

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M

    2010-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained in a procedure in which concurrent-schedule food ratios changed unpredictably across seven unsignaled components after 10 food deliveries. Additional green-key stimulus presentations also occurred on the two alternatives, sometimes in the same ratio as the component food ratio, and sometimes in the inverse ratio. In eight experimental conditions, we varied the contingencies surrounding these additional stimuli: In two conditions, stimulus onset and offset were noncontingent; in another two, stimulus onset was noncontingent, and offset was response contingent. In four conditions, both stimulus onset and offset were contingent, and in two of these conditions the stimulus was simultaneously paired with food delivery. Sensitivity to component food ratios was significantly higher when stimulus onset was response contingent compared to when it was noncontingent. Choice changes following food delivery were similar in all eight conditions. Choice changes following stimuli were smaller than those following food, and directionally were completely determined by the food-ratio:stimulus-ratio correlation, not by the stimulus contingency nor by whether the stimulus was paired with food or not. These results support the idea that conditional reinforcers may best be viewed as signals for next-food location rather than as stimuli that have acquired hedonic value, at least when the signals are differential with respect to future conditions.

  13. Hypothyroidism Affects Olfactory Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Świdziński, Teodor; Czerniejewska-Wolska, Hanna; Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bożena; Owecki, Maciej; Głowacka, Maria Danuta; Frankowska, Anna; Łącka, Katarzyna; Glapiński, Mariusz; Maciejewska-Szaniec, Zofia; Świdziński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Background. Objective electrophysiological methods for investigations of the organ of smell consist in recordings of olfactory cortex responses to specific, time restricted odor stimuli. In hypothyroidism have impaired sense of smell. Material and Methods. Two groups: control of 31 healthy subjects and study group of 21 with hypothyroidism. The inclusion criterion for the study group was the TSH range from 3.54 to 110 μIU/mL. Aim. Assessment of the latency time of evoked responses from the olfactory nerve N1 and the trigeminal nerve N5 using two smells of mint and anise in hypothyroidism. Results. The smell perception in subjective olfactory tests was normal in 85% of the hypothyroid group. Differences were noticed in the objective tests. The detailed intergroup analysis of latency times of recorded cortical responses PN5 and PN1 performed by means between the groups of patients with overt clinical hypothyroidism versus subclinical hypothyroidism demonstrated a significant difference (p < 0.05) whereas no such differences were found between the control group versus subclinical hypothyroidism group (p > 0.05). Conclusion. We can conclude that registration of cortex potentials at irritation of olfactory and trigeminal nerves offers possibilities for using this method as an objective indicator of hypothyroidism severity and prognostic process factor. PMID:27656655

  14. Hypothyroidism Affects Olfactory Evoked Potentials.

    PubMed

    Świdziński, Teodor; Linkowska-Świdzińska, Kamila; Czerniejewska-Wolska, Hanna; Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bożena; Owecki, Maciej; Głowacka, Maria Danuta; Frankowska, Anna; Łącka, Katarzyna; Glapiński, Mariusz; Maciejewska-Szaniec, Zofia; Świdziński, Piotr

    Background. Objective electrophysiological methods for investigations of the organ of smell consist in recordings of olfactory cortex responses to specific, time restricted odor stimuli. In hypothyroidism have impaired sense of smell. Material and Methods. Two groups: control of 31 healthy subjects and study group of 21 with hypothyroidism. The inclusion criterion for the study group was the TSH range from 3.54 to 110 μIU/mL. Aim. Assessment of the latency time of evoked responses from the olfactory nerve N1 and the trigeminal nerve N5 using two smells of mint and anise in hypothyroidism. Results. The smell perception in subjective olfactory tests was normal in 85% of the hypothyroid group. Differences were noticed in the objective tests. The detailed intergroup analysis of latency times of recorded cortical responses PN5 and PN1 performed by means between the groups of patients with overt clinical hypothyroidism versus subclinical hypothyroidism demonstrated a significant difference (p < 0.05) whereas no such differences were found between the control group versus subclinical hypothyroidism group (p > 0.05). Conclusion. We can conclude that registration of cortex potentials at irritation of olfactory and trigeminal nerves offers possibilities for using this method as an objective indicator of hypothyroidism severity and prognostic process factor.

  15. Stimulus Equivalence, Generalization, and Contextual Stimulus Control in Verbal Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdardottir, Zuilma Gabriela; Mackay, Harry A.; Green, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus generalization and contextual control affect the development of equivalence classes. Experiment 1 demonstrated primary stimulus generalization from the members of trained equivalence classes. Adults were taught to match six spoken Icelandic nouns and corresponding printed words and pictures to one another in computerized three-choice…

  16. Stimulus Equivalence, Generalization, and Contextual Stimulus Control in Verbal Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdardottir, Zuilma Gabriela; Mackay, Harry A.; Green, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus generalization and contextual control affect the development of equivalence classes. Experiment 1 demonstrated primary stimulus generalization from the members of trained equivalence classes. Adults were taught to match six spoken Icelandic nouns and corresponding printed words and pictures to one another in computerized three-choice…

  17. Correlations among stimuli affect stimulus matching and stimulus liking.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Dióghenes; Tonneau, François

    2016-09-01

    Human subjects were exposed to AB, AC stimulus pairs and then to matching-to-sample tests of stimulus equivalence (B-A, C-A, B-C, C-B) or to a task in which stimulus compounds (BA, CA, BC, CB) were rated for attractiveness. Matching-to-sample tests revealed emergent B-A, C-A, B-C, and C-B choices, replicating previous results in the literature. The mean proportion of correct, emergent choices increased as a function of exposure to the AB, AC pairs. On the rating task, the liking scores of all stimulus compounds also increased as a function of exposure to the AB, AC pairs. After limited exposure to these pairs, however, the liking scores of the BC and CB compounds were negative. These findings are discussed in relation to perceptual and associative perspectives on the behavioral effects of stimulus correlations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Strong single-fiber sensory inputs to olfactory cortex: implications for olfactory coding.

    PubMed

    Franks, Kevin M; Isaacson, Jeffry S

    2006-02-02

    Olfactory information is first encoded in a combinatorial fashion by olfactory bulb glomeruli, which individually represent distinct chemical features of odors. This information is then transmitted to piriform (olfactory) cortex, via axons of olfactory bulb mitral and tufted (M/T) cells, where it is presumed to form the odor percept. However, mechanisms governing the integration of sensory information in mammalian olfactory cortex are unclear. Here we show that single M/T cells can make powerful connections with cortical pyramidal cells, and coincident input from few M/T cells is sufficient to elicit spike output. These findings suggest that odor coding is broad and distributed in olfactory cortex.

  19. Stimulus control and associative learning.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, B A

    1984-01-01

    Interest in operant research on stimulus control has declined at the same time that much interest has burgeoned in nonoperant areas. Several examples of this shift toward traditional learning theory are considered, all of which have sponsored theoretical approaches that attempt to characterize the underlying associative units. These theoretical approaches are defended on the grounds that they have generated a deeper understanding of a variety of often puzzling phenomena. My projection is that future research will be determined even more strongly by theories about the structure of associations. Particular issues for which such discussion will have major impact include (1) whether conditional stimulus control is qualitatively different than simpler forms of stimulus control, (2) whether stimulus control is organized hierarchically, and (3) the origin of categories of stimulus equivalence. PMID:6520579

  20. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Aiello-Mora, Mario; Maronpot, Robert R.; Doty, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was administered to 62 MC / 25 controls 21.2 ±2.7 y. MC subjects had significantly lower UPSIT scores: 34.24 ± 0.42 versus controls 35.76 ± 0.40, p=0.03. Olfaction deficits were present in 35.5% MC and 12% of controls. MC APOE ε 4 carriers failed 2.4 ± 0.54 items in the 10-item smell identification scale from the UPSIT related to Alzheimer's disease, while APOE 2/3 and 3/3 subjects failed 1.36 ± 0.16 items, p = 0.01. MC residents exhibited OB endothelial hyperplasia, neuronal accumulation of particles (2/35), and immunoreactivity to beta amyloid βA42 (29/35) and/or α-synuclein (4/35) in neurons, glial cells and/or blood vessels. Ultrafine particles were present in OBs endothelial cytoplasm and basement membranes. Control OBs were unremarkable. Air pollution exposure is associated with olfactory dysfunction and OB pathology, APOE 4 may confer greater susceptibility to such abnormalities, and ultrafine particles could play a key role in the OB pathology. This study contributes to our understanding of the influences of air pollution on olfaction and its potential contribution to neurodegeneration. PMID:19297138

  1. Does iron deficiency anemia affect olfactory function?

    PubMed

    Dinc, Mehmet Emre; Dalgic, Abdullah; Ulusoy, Seckin; Dizdar, Denizhan; Develioglu, Omer; Topak, Murat

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion This study found a negative effect of IDA on olfactory function. IDA leads to a reduction in olfactory function, and decreases in hemoglobin levels result in further reduction in olfactory function. Objective This study examined the effects of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) on olfactory function. Method The study enrolled 50 IDA patients and 50 healthy subjects. Olfactory function was evaluated using the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test. The diagnosis of IDA was made according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Results Patients with IDA had a significantly lower threshold, discrimination, and identification (TDI) value, and a lower threshold compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of smell selectivity values.

  2. Profiling of Olfactory Receptor Gene Expression in Whole Human Olfactory Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Tarabichi, Maxime; Gregoire, Françoise; Dumont, Jacques E.; Chatelain, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory perception is mediated by a large array of olfactory receptor genes. The human genome contains 851 olfactory receptor gene loci. More than 50% of the loci are annotated as nonfunctional due to frame-disrupting mutations. Furthermore haplotypic missense alleles can be nonfunctional resulting from substitution of key amino acids governing protein folding or interactions with signal transduction components. Beyond their role in odor recognition, functional olfactory receptors are also required for a proper targeting of olfactory neuron axons to their corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Therefore, we anticipate that profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa and analysis in the human population of their expression should provide an opportunity to select the frequently expressed and potentially functional olfactory receptors in view of a systematic deorphanization. To address this issue, we designed a TaqMan Low Density Array (Applied Biosystems), containing probes for 356 predicted human olfactory receptor loci to investigate their expression in whole human olfactory mucosa tissues from 26 individuals (13 women, 13 men; aged from 39 to 81 years, with an average of 67±11 years for women and 63±12 years for men). Total RNA isolation, DNase treatment, RNA integrity evaluation and reverse transcription were performed for these 26 samples. Then 384 targeted genes (including endogenous control genes and reference genes specifically expressed in olfactory epithelium for normalization purpose) were analyzed using the same real-time reverse transcription PCR platform. On average, the expression of 273 human olfactory receptor genes was observed in the 26 selected whole human olfactory mucosa analyzed, of which 90 were expressed in all 26 individuals. Most of the olfactory receptors deorphanized to date on the basis of sensitivity to known odorant molecules, which are described in the literature, were found in the

  3. Olfactory neuroblastoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    USLU, GONCA HANEDAN; CANYILMAZ, EMINE; ZENGIN, AHMET YASAR; MUNGAN, SEVDEGUL; YONEY, ADNAN; BAHADIR, OSMAN; GOCMEZ, HUSEYIN

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (ON) is a rare type of malignant neoplasm originating from the olfactory neuroepithelial cells of the nasal cavity. ON is also known as esthesioneuroblastoma or neuroendocrine carcinoma. The malignancy accounts for <3% of tumors originating in the nasal cavity. Through the nasal cavity, ON may infiltrate the sinuses, the orbit and the cranium. The tumor is characterized by a pattern of slow growth and local recurrences. Treatment options are surgical excision or surgery combined with a radiotherapy (RT) and/or chemotherapy combination treatment. The present study reports the case of a 69-year-old patient with a mass in the nasal cavity who was treated by combined surgical excision and RT. The literature for ON and the treatment of the tumor are also discussed. PMID:26788185

  4. Linking local circuit inhibition to olfactory behavior: a critical role for granule cells in olfactory discrimination.

    PubMed

    Strowbridge, Ben W

    2010-02-11

    In this issue of Neuron, Abraham et al. report a direct connection between inhibitory function and olfactory behavior. Using molecular methods to alter glutamate receptor subunit composition in olfactory bulb granule cells, the authors found a selective modulation in the time required for difficult, but not simple, olfactory discrimination tasks.

  5. Role of Centrifugal Projections to the Olfactory Bulb in Olfactory Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiselycznyk, Carly L.; Zhang, Steven; Linster, Christine

    2006-01-01

    While there is evidence that feedback projections from cortical and neuromodulatory structures to the olfactory bulb are crucial for maintaining the oscillatory dynamics of olfactory bulb processing, it is not clear how changes in dynamics are related to odor perception. Using electrical lesions of the olfactory peduncle, sparing output from the…

  6. Role of Centrifugal Projections to the Olfactory Bulb in Olfactory Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiselycznyk, Carly L.; Zhang, Steven; Linster, Christine

    2006-01-01

    While there is evidence that feedback projections from cortical and neuromodulatory structures to the olfactory bulb are crucial for maintaining the oscillatory dynamics of olfactory bulb processing, it is not clear how changes in dynamics are related to odor perception. Using electrical lesions of the olfactory peduncle, sparing output from the…

  7. Human olfactory receptor responses to odorants

    PubMed Central

    Mainland, Joel D; Li, Yun R; Zhou, Ting; Liu, Wen Ling L; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Although the human olfactory system is capable of discriminating a vast number of odors, we do not currently understand what chemical features are encoded by olfactory receptors. In large part this is due to a paucity of data in a search space covering the interactions of hundreds of receptors with billions of odorous molecules. Of the approximately 400 intact human odorant receptors, only 10% have a published ligand. Here we used a heterologous luciferase assay to screen 73 odorants against a clone library of 511 human olfactory receptors. This dataset will allow other researchers to interrogate the combinatorial nature of olfactory coding. PMID:25977809

  8. An argument for an olfactory thalamus.

    PubMed

    Kay, Leslie M; Sherman, S Murray

    2007-02-01

    The mammalian olfactory system is unique in that sensory receptors synapse directly into the olfactory bulb of the forebrain without the thalamic relay that is common to all other sensory pathways. We argue that the olfactory bulb has an equivalent role to the thalamus, because the two regions have very similar structures and functions. Both the thalamus and the olfactory bulb are the final stage in sensory processing before reaching target cortical regions, at which there is a massive increase in neuron and synapse numbers. Thus, both structures act as a bottleneck that is a target for various modulatory inputs, and this arrangement enables efficient control of information flow before cortical processing occurs.

  9. Stimulus Structure, Discrimination, and Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runquist, Willard N.

    1975-01-01

    The general purpose of this experiment was to determine whether differences in stimulus discrimination, as determined by the MIR (missing-item recognition) test, are correlated with interference in recall, as demanded by the discriminative coding hypothesis. (Author/RK)

  10. Interglomerular Connectivity within the Canonical and GC-D/Necklace Olfactory Subsystems

    PubMed Central

    Puche, Adam C.; Munger, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian main olfactory system contains several subsystems that differ not only in the receptors they express and the glomerular targets they innervate within the main olfactory bulb (MOB), but also in the strategies they use to process odor information. The canonical main olfactory system employs a combinatorial coding strategy that represents odorant identity as a pattern of glomerular activity. By contrast, the "GC-D/necklace" olfactory subsystem—formed by olfactory sensory neurons expressing the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D and their target necklace glomeruli (NGs) encircling the caudal MOB—is critical for the detection of a small number of semiochemicals that promote the acquisition of food preferences. The formation of these socially-transmitted food preferences requires the animal to integrate information about two types of olfactory stimuli: these specialized social chemosignals and the food odors themselves. However, the neural mechanisms with which the GC-D/necklace subsystem processes this information are unclear. We used stimulus-induced increases in intrinsic fluorescence signals to map functional circuitry associated with NGs and canonical glomeruli (CGs) in the MOB. As expected, CG-associated activity spread laterally through both the glomerular and external plexiform layers associated with activated glomeruli. Activation of CGs or NGs resulted in activity spread between the two types of glomeruli; there was no evidence of preferential connectivity between individual necklace glomeruli. These results support previous anatomical findings that suggest the canonical and GC-D/necklace subsystems are functionally connected and may integrate general odor and semiochemical information in the MOB. PMID:27902696

  11. Olfactory speed - Temporal odor processing of paired stimuli.

    PubMed

    Schriever, V A; Frenzel, C; Wernecke, S; Croy, I; Valder, C; Hummel, T

    2015-06-04

    Compared to other senses, temporal perception of odors seems fairly slow. In addition it has been shown in previous studies that even not consciously perceived odors could influence our behavior. Aim of the current study therefore was to study the interstimulus interval (ISI) length, which is necessary between two repetitive stimuli to be able to perceive them separately. The additional aim focused on observing central odor processing of not perceived odorous stimuli. The study was divided into three parts. In each part healthy, normosmic volunteers were included. In part I and II stimulus pairs (CO2, H2S, orange and phenyl ethyl alcohol (PEA)) were presented to the subjects via a computer-controlled olfactometer with short ISI of 0.6-9s. The decision whether one or two stimuli were perceived was recorded. In addition the influence of odor valence, trigeminallity and concentrations was observed. In part III olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) to perceived and not-perceived odors were recorded. The two stimuli of a stimulus pair were perceived separately more often with increasing ISI length. This increase was significant until an ISI between the stimuli of 4s. Odor intensity, pleasantness, trigeminallity and sex had no major influence on this. In addition we were able to observe that OERPs are less often detected in response to not perceived olfactory stimuli. However, the presence of OERP in response to not perceived stimuli in more than half of the cases indicated that even not perceived stimuli are centrally processed. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Induction of Associative Olfactory Memory by Targeted Activation of Single Olfactory Neurons in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Takato; Lee, Chi-Yu; Yoshida-Kasikawa, Maki; Honjo, Ken; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that associative memory is formed by at least two sets of external stimuli, CS and US, that are transmitted to the memory centers by distinctive conversing pathways. However, whether associative memory can be induced by the activation of only the olfactory CS and a biogenic amine-mediated US pathways remains to be elucidated. In this study, we substituted the reward signals with dTrpA1-mediated thermogenetic activation of octopaminergic neurons and the odor signals by ChR2-mediated optical activation of a specific class of olfactory neurons. We show that targeted activation of the olfactory receptor and the octopaminergic neurons is indeed sufficient for the formation of associative olfactory memory in the larval brain. We also show that targeted stimulation of only a single type of olfactory receptor neurons is sufficient to induce olfactory memory that is indistinguishable from natural memory induced by the activation of multiple olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:24762789

  13. The Rate of Concentration Change and How It Determines the Resolving Power of Olfactory Receptor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tichy, Harald; Hellwig, Maria; Zopf, Lydia M.

    2016-01-01

    The response characteristics of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and their corollary, the differential sensitivity and the resolving power, are fundamental to understand olfactory coding and the information extracted from a fluctuating olfactory signal. Previous work has focused on the temporal resolution of odor pulses presented for very brief periods at varying concentrations. The time course of the odor pulses as a stimulus parameter has not been considered. The present study investigated the precision of the ON and OFF ORNs on the antennae of the cockroach to discriminate increments and decrements of continuously rising and falling odor concentrations. Stimulation consisted of ramp-like upward and downward concentration changes in a trapezoid fashion. By varying ramp steepness, we examined the effect of the rate of concentration change. Both ORNs were clearly dependent on continuously rising and falling odor concentrations. As the rate of upward and downward concentration changes increases, differential sensitivity improves. Since the scatter of responses around the stimulus-response functions also increases, the resolving power for concentration increments and decrements deteriorates. Thus, the slower the rate of concentration change, the higher the precision in differentiating small concentration changes. Intuitively, the inverse relationship between the rate of concentration change and the resolving power is not surprising because accuracy requires time. A high degree of precision at slow concentration rates enables the cockroach to use information about the onset and offset slopes of odor pulses in addition to the pulse height to encode the spatial-temporal structure of turbulent odor plumes. PMID:28082912

  14. Postnatal development attunes olfactory bulb mitral cells to high-frequency signaling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yiyi; Burton, Shawn D; Tripathy, Shreejoy J; Urban, Nathaniel N

    2015-11-01

    Mitral cells (MCs) are a major class of principal neurons in the vertebrate olfactory bulb, conveying odor-evoked activity from the peripheral sensory neurons to olfactory cortex. Previous work has described the development of MC morphology and connectivity during the first few weeks of postnatal development. However, little is known about the postnatal development of MC intrinsic biophysical properties. To understand stimulus encoding in the developing olfactory bulb, we have therefore examined the development of MC intrinsic biophysical properties in acute slices from postnatal day (P)7-P35 mice. Across development, we observed systematic changes in passive membrane properties and action potential waveforms consistent with a developmental increase in sodium and potassium conductances. We further observed developmental decreases in hyperpolarization-evoked membrane potential sag and firing regularity, extending recent links between MC sag heterogeneity and firing patterns. We then applied a novel combination of statistical analyses to examine how the evolution of these intrinsic biophysical properties specifically influenced the representation of fluctuating stimuli by MCs. We found that immature MCs responded to frozen fluctuating stimuli with lower firing rates, lower spike-time reliability, and lower between-cell spike-time correlations than more mature MCs. Analysis of spike-triggered averages revealed that these changes in spike timing were driven by a developmental shift from broad integration of inputs to more selective detection of coincident inputs. Consistent with this shift, generalized linear model fits to MC firing responses demonstrated an enhanced encoding of high-frequency stimulus features by mature MCs.

  15. Stimulus Equivalence, Generalization, and Contextual Stimulus Control in Verbal Classes

    PubMed Central

    Sigurðardóttir, Zuilma Gabriela; Mackay, Harry A; Green, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus generalization and contextual control affect the development of equivalence classes. Experiment 1 demonstrated primary stimulus generalization from the members of trained equivalence classes. Adults were taught to match six spoken Icelandic nouns and corresponding printed words and pictures to one another in computerized three-choice matching-to-sample tasks. Tests confirmed that six equivalence classes had formed. Without further training, plural forms of the stimuli were presented in tests for all matching performances. All participants demonstrated virtually errorless performances. In Experiment 2, classifications of the nouns used in Experiment 1 were brought under contextual control. Three nouns were feminine and three were masculine. The match-to-sample training taught participants to select a comparison of the same number as the sample (i.e., singular or plural) in the presence of contextual stimulus A regardless of noun gender. Concurrently, in the presence of contextual stimulus B, participants were taught to select a comparison of the same gender as the sample (i.e., feminine or masculine), regardless of number. Generalization was assessed using a card-sorting test. All participants eventually sorted the cards correctly into gender and number stimulus classes. When printed words used in training were replaced by their picture equivalents, participants demonstrated almost errorless performances. PMID:22754102

  16. Olfactory epithelium changes in germfree mice

    PubMed Central

    François, Adrien; Grebert, Denise; Rhimi, Moez; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Naudon, Laurent; Rabot, Sylvie; Meunier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal epithelium development is dramatically impaired in germfree rodents, but the consequences of the absence of microbiota have been overlooked in other epithelia. In the present study, we present the first description of the bacterial communities associated with the olfactory epithelium and explored differences in olfactory epithelium characteristics between germfree and conventional, specific pathogen-free, mice. While the anatomy of the olfactory epithelium was not significantly different, we observed a thinner olfactory cilia layer along with a decreased cellular turn-over in germfree mice. Using electro-olfactogram, we recorded the responses of olfactory sensitive neuronal populations to various odorant stimulations. We observed a global increase in the amplitude of responses to odorants in germfree mice as well as altered responses kinetics. These changes were associated with a decreased transcription of most olfactory transduction actors and of olfactory xenobiotic metabolising enzymes. Overall, we present here the first evidence that the microbiota modulates the physiology of olfactory epithelium. As olfaction is a major sensory modality for most animal species, the microbiota may have an important impact on animal physiology and behaviour through olfaction alteration. PMID:27089944

  17. Odourant dominance in olfactory mixture processing: what makes a strong odourant?

    PubMed

    Schubert, Marco; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Galizia, Giovanni; Giurfa, Martin

    2015-03-07

    The question of how animals process stimulus mixtures remains controversial as opposing views propose that mixtures are processed analytically, as the sum of their elements, or holistically, as unique entities different from their elements. Overshadowing is a widespread phenomenon that can help decide between these alternatives. In overshadowing, an individual trained with a binary mixture learns one element better at the expense of the other. Although element salience (learning success) has been suggested as a main explanation for overshadowing, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. We studied olfactory overshadowing in honeybees to uncover the mechanisms underlying olfactory-mixture processing. We provide, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive dataset on overshadowing to date based on 90 experimental groups involving more than 2700 bees trained either with six odourants or with their resulting 15 binary mixtures. We found that bees process olfactory mixtures analytically and that salience alone cannot predict overshadowing. After normalizing learning success, we found that an unexpected feature, the generalization profile of an odourant, was determinant for overshadowing. Odourants that induced less generalization enhanced their distinctiveness and became dominant in the mixture. Our study thus uncovers features that determine odourant dominance within olfactory mixtures and allows the referring of this phenomenon to differences in neural activity both at the receptor and the central level in the insect nervous system.

  18. Side-Specificity of Olfactory Learning in the Honeybee: Generalization between Odors and Sides

    PubMed Central

    Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Menzel, Randolf

    2001-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) can be trained to associate an odor stimulus with a sucrose reward. The neural structures involved in the detection and integration of olfactory stimuli are represented bilaterally in the brain. Little is known about the respective roles of the two sides of the brain in olfactory learning. Does each side learn independently of the other, or do they communicate, and if so, to what extent and at what level of neural integration? We addressed these questions using the proboscis extension response (PER) conditioning paradigm applied in a preparation that allows the separation of the two input sides during olfactory stimulations. Bees conditioned to two odorants A and B, one being learned on each side (A+/B+ training), showed in extinction tests rather unspecific responses: They responded to both odorants on both sides. This could be attributable to either a transfer of the learned information between sides, or to a generalization between odorants on each side. By subjecting bees to conditioning on one side only (A+/0 training), we found that the learned information is indeed transferred between sides. However, when bees were trained explicitly to give opposite values to the two odorants on the two sides (A+B−/B+A− training), they showed clear side-specific response patterns to these odorants. These results are used in the elaboration of a functional model of laterality of olfactory learning and memory processing in the honeybee brain. PMID:11584076

  19. Side-specificity of olfactory learning in the honeybee: generalization between odors and sides.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, J C; Menzel, R

    2001-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) can be trained to associate an odor stimulus with a sucrose reward. The neural structures involved in the detection and integration of olfactory stimuli are represented bilaterally in the brain. Little is known about the respective roles of the two sides of the brain in olfactory learning. Does each side learn independently of the other, or do they communicate, and if so, to what extent and at what level of neural integration? We addressed these questions using the proboscis extension response (PER) conditioning paradigm applied in a preparation that allows the separation of the two input sides during olfactory stimulations. Bees conditioned to two odorants A and B, one being learned on each side (A+/B+ training), showed in extinction tests rather unspecific responses: They responded to both odorants on both sides. This could be attributable to either a transfer of the learned information between sides, or to a generalization between odorants on each side. By subjecting bees to conditioning on one side only (A+/0 training), we found that the learned information is indeed transferred between sides. However, when bees were trained explicitly to give opposite values to the two odorants on the two sides (A+B-/B+A- training), they showed clear side-specific response patterns to these odorants. These results are used in the elaboration of a functional model of laterality of olfactory learning and memory processing in the honeybee brain.

  20. Olfactory experience shapes the evaluation of odour similarity in ants: a behavioural and computational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Margot; Nowotny, Thomas; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual similarity between stimuli is often assessed via generalization, the response to stimuli that are similar to the one which was previously conditioned. Although conditioning procedures are variable, studies on how this variation may affect perceptual similarity remain scarce. Here, we use a combination of behavioural and computational analyses to investigate the influence of olfactory conditioning procedures on odour generalization in ants. Insects were trained following either absolute conditioning, in which a single odour (an aldehyde) was rewarded with sucrose, or differential conditioning, in which one odour (the same aldehyde) was similarly rewarded and another odour (an aldehyde differing in carbon-chain length) was punished with quinine. The response to the trained odours and generalization to other aldehydes were assessed. We show that olfactory similarity, rather than being immutable, varies with the conditioning procedure. Compared with absolute conditioning, differential conditioning enhances olfactory discrimination. This improvement is best described by a multiplicative interaction between two independent processes, the excitatory and inhibitory generalization gradients induced by the rewarded and the punished odour, respectively. We show that olfactory similarity is dramatically shaped by an individual's perceptual experience and suggest a new hypothesis for the nature of stimulus interactions underlying experience-dependent changes in perceptual similarity. PMID:27581883

  1. Disgust-Related Olfactory Processing: The Role of Gender and Trait Disgust.

    PubMed

    Schienle, Anne; Schöpf, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    For the rejection of disgusting and potentially health-threatening food, the sense of smell plays a critical role. We conducted two experiments in order to investigate the role of gender and trait disgust (the temporally stable tendency to experience disgust across different situations) on disgust-related olfactory processing. A total of 40 men and women (Study 1), as well as a group of women divided according to high versus low trait disgust (Study 2, n = 59), were compared with regard to their odor thresholds for carbon disulfide (which smells like spoiled food) and a control stimulus ( n-butanol). The stimuli were rated for experienced arousal, negative valence, and familiarity. In addition, all participants underwent the "Sniffin' Sticks" battery assessing general olfactory performance. We found that women had a lower carbon disulfide threshold and rated this odorant as more unpleasant than men. Trait disgust was neither associated with the detection of the odorant signaling spoilage, nor with general olfactory function. The latter finding questions the role of this personality trait for olfactory-driven food-rejection responses, at least for normosmic individuals.

  2. Response of the hammerhead shark olfactory epithelium to amino acid stimuli.

    PubMed

    Tricas, Timothy C; Kajiura, Stephen M; Summers, Adam P

    2009-10-01

    Sharks and rays are highly sensitive to chemical stimuli in their natural environment but several hypotheses predict that hammerhead sharks, with their expanded head and enlarged olfactory epithelium, have particularly acute olfactory systems. We used the electro-olfactogram (EOG) technique to compare the relative response of the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) olfactory epithelium to 20 proteinogenic amino acids and determine the sensitivity for 6 amino acids. At micromolar concentrations, cysteine evoked the greatest EOG response which was approximately twice as large as that of alanine. The weakest response was obtained for proline followed by aspartic acid and isoleucine. The olfactory epithelium showed adaptation to sequential stimulation, and recovery was related to the inter-stimulus time period. Estimated EOG response thresholds were in the sub-nanomolar range for both alanine (9.2 x 10(-11) M) and cysteine (8.4 x 10(-10) M) and in the micromolar range for proline and serine. These thresholds from 10(-10) to 10(-6) M for the scalloped hammerhead shark are comparable or lower than those reported for other teleost and elasmobranch species. Future work should focus on binary and more complex compounds to test for competition and cross-adaptation for different classes of peripheral receptors, and their responses to molecules found in biologically relevant stimuli.

  3. Nasal gel and olfactory cleft.

    PubMed

    Herranz González-Botas, Jesús; Padín Seara, Anselmo

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether a nasal gel, administrated using a radial-hole inhaler, reaches the olfactory cleft and if a different administration method influences distribution. Sixteen healthy volunteers underwent a nasal endoscopy at 1 and 7minutes after the administration of a intranasal gel, with a different method in each fossa. No dye deposition was identified at the olfactory cleft, middle turbinate or middle meatus. In all cases the gel was identified at the nasal vestibule. On the right side, the second most frequent dye identification area was the inferior turbinate, with a rate of 87% at the first minute and 75% at 7 minutes. It was followed by the septum (75 and 62%) and the inferior meatus (6.2 and 12.5%). On the left side, the second most frequent stained area was the septum (18.7 and 13.5%), followed by the inferior meatus (6.5 and 65%). No inferior turbinate staining was found in the left side. There was a significant difference in the deposition rate at the septum (P<.01) and inferior turbinate (P<.001), when both administration methods were compared. No nasal gel, administrated using a radial-hole inhaler, was found at the olfactory cleft, middle turbinate or middle meatus. Gel distribution was located at the anterior and inferior portion of the nose, independent of the administration method used. Significantly different gel distribution rates were found at the septum and inferior turbinate when the 2 administration methods were compared. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Carving Executive Control at Its Joints: Working Memory Capacity Predicts Stimulus-Stimulus, but Not Stimulus-Response, Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Matt E.; Kane, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and 2 different forms of cognitive conflict: stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) interference. Our goal was to test whether WMC's relation to conflict-task performance is mediated by stimulus-identification processes (captured by S-S conflict),…

  5. Carving Executive Control at Its Joints: Working Memory Capacity Predicts Stimulus-Stimulus, but Not Stimulus-Response, Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Matt E.; Kane, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and 2 different forms of cognitive conflict: stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) interference. Our goal was to test whether WMC's relation to conflict-task performance is mediated by stimulus-identification processes (captured by S-S conflict),…

  6. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    PubMed

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-09

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  7. Temporal patterns and selectivity in the unitary responses of olfactory receptors in the tiger salamander to odor stimulation

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Temporal patterns and selectivity in unitary responses of 100 single olfactory receptors in the tiger salamander to odor stimulation were investigated. An olfactometer which permitted control of stimulus concentration, duration, and flow rate was calibrated with a gas chromatograph. Stimulus pulses were monitored by recording the electroolfactogram from the surface of the olfactory epithelium. Both diphasic and triphasic spikes were recorded extracellularly. No discernible differences in types of responses, reproducibility of responses, and cross-unit distribution of spontaneous rates distinguished diphasic from triphasic units. The cross-unit selectivity in responses to the seven olfactory stimulants used and the range of odorant concentrations which effectively evoked these responses suggest variations in types and number of types of receptive sites on each cell. Temporal patterns in the unitary responses were generally less complex than those observed in the olfactory bulb. Phasic stimulations evoked phasic patterns. Tonic stimulations evoked phasic/tonic patterns. Occasionally poststimulus depressions or elevations in firing rates were observed. The nature of these patterns varied somewhat with odorant concentration for a particular unit. PMID:479819

  8. Differential Effects of Active Attention and Age on Event-related Potentials to Visual and Olfactory Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Charlie D.; Murphy, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Normal aging impairs olfactory functioning both centrally and peripherally. The P3 peak of the event related potential (ERP), evoked by active response to a target stimulus, is considered a reflection of central cognitive processing. It can also be evoked in a passive task to both auditory and visual stimuli. Our goal was to investigate whether age influences amplitude and latency of the ERP differentially in active and passive tasks to olfactory stimuli. Olfactory and visual event-related potentials were elicited with a single-stimulus paradigm in separate active and passive task response conditions. Participants included 30 healthy individuals from three age groups, young, middle age, and older adults. Results indicated that P3 ERP latency increased with age in both sensory modalities. P3 latencies for active versus passive tasks were similar across age groups for visual ERPs, but in the olfactory modality, older adults demonstrated significantly longer latencies in the passive task compared to the active task. Future directions should include research on specific clinical populations utilizing active versus passive task conditions. PMID:20688110

  9. Functional Sub-Circuits of the Olfactory System Viewed from the Olfactory Bulb and the Olfactory Tubercle.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Understanding of the olfactory neural circuits has progressed beyond analysis of how odor information from the external environment is processed in the brain. While spatially-organized sub-circuits were found to exist up to the olfactory bulb (OB), the arrangement in the olfactory cortex (OC), especially in its representative piriform cortex (PC), appears diffuse and dispersed. An emerging view is that the activity of OC neurons may not simply encode odor identity but rather encode plastic odor information such as odor value. Although many studies support this notion, odor value can be either positive or negative, and the existence of sub-circuits corresponding to individual value types is not well explored. To address this question, I introduce here two olfactory areas other than the PC, OB and olfactory tubercle (OT) whose analysis may facilitate understanding of functional sub-circuits related to different odor values. Peripheral and centrifugal inputs to the OB are considered to relate to odor identity and odor value, respectively and centrifugal inputs to the OB potentially represent different odor values during different behavioral periods. The OT has spatially-segregated functional domains related to distinct motivated and hedonic behaviors. Thus, the OT provides a good starting point from which functional sub-circuits across various olfactory regions can be traced. Further analysis across wide areas of the olfactory system will likely reveal the functional sub-circuits that link odor identity with distinct odor values and direct distinct odor-induced motivated and hedonic behaviors.

  10. Neuromodulation of olfactory sensitivity in the peripheral olfactory organs of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Jung, Je Won; Kim, Jin-Hee; Pfeiffer, Rita; Ahn, Young-Joon; Page, Terry L; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory sensitivity exhibits daily fluctuations. Several studies have suggested that the olfactory system in insects is modulated by both biogenic amines and neuropeptides. However, molecular and neural mechanisms underlying olfactory modulation in the periphery remain unclear since neuronal circuits regulating olfactory sensitivity have not been identified. Here, we investigated the structure and function of these signaling pathways in the peripheral olfactory system of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, utilizing in situ hybridization, qRT-PCR, and electrophysiological approaches. We showed that tachykinin was co-localized with the octopamine receptor in antennal neurons located near the antennal nerves. In addition, the tachykinin receptor was found to be expressed in most of the olfactory receptor neurons in antennae. Functionally, the effects of direct injection of tachykinin peptides, dsRNAs of tachykinin, tachykinin receptors, and octopamine receptors provided further support for the view that both octopamine and tachykinin modulate olfactory sensitivity. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that octopamine and tachykinin in antennal neurons are olfactory regulators in the periphery. We propose here the hypothesis that octopamine released from neurons in the brain regulates the release of tachykinin from the octopamine receptor neurons in antennae, which in turn modulates the olfactory sensitivity of olfactory receptor neurons, which house tachykinin receptors.

  11. Intravenous olfactory test latency correlates with improvement in post-infectious olfactory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Horikiri, Kyohei; Kikuta, Shu; Kanaya, Kaori; Shimizu, Yuya; Nishijima, Hironobu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Kondo, Kenji

    2017-10-01

    This cohort study showed that onset latency in the intravenous olfactory test (IVO) may help predict when olfaction in patients with post-infectious olfactory dysfunction (PIOD) improves. To identify factors that predict the olfactory improvement period in patients with PIOD. All consecutive patients presenting with PIOD in 1994-2014 who were followed up for 2 years were identified retrospectively. The ability of demographic/clinical factors (age, sex, body mass index, presence/absence of allergic rhinitis, treatment/non-treatment with herbal medicines, patient dependence on herbal medicine treatment, presence/absence of diabetes mellitus, and smoking status) and olfactory test factors (response/no response and onset latency and duration in the IVO test, and detection and recognition scores on the T&T olfactory test) to predict the olfactory improvement period (defined respectively as the time from PIOD onset or olfactory testing to the first self-report of olfaction improvement) was analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression. Of the 187 PIOD patients, the prognostic ability of demographic/clinical factors was analyzed in 65. None predicted the olfactory improvement period. Of the 65 patients, 20 did not respond in the IVO test. In the remaining 45 patients, onset latency (but not the other olfactory test factors) was a significant prognosticator of olfactory improvement period (R(2)=0.24, p = 0.003).

  12. A Closer Look at Acid-Base Olfactory Titrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neppel, Kerry; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Queen, Connie; Reed, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory titrations using raw onions and eugenol as acid-base indicators are reported. An in-depth investigation on olfactory titrations is presented to include requirements for potential olfactory indicators and protocols for using garlic, onions, and vanillin as acid-base olfactory indicators are tested.

  13. A Closer Look at Acid-Base Olfactory Titrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neppel, Kerry; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Queen, Connie; Reed, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory titrations using raw onions and eugenol as acid-base indicators are reported. An in-depth investigation on olfactory titrations is presented to include requirements for potential olfactory indicators and protocols for using garlic, onions, and vanillin as acid-base olfactory indicators are tested.

  14. 21 CFR 874.1600 - Olfactory test device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1600 Olfactory test device. (a) Identification. An olfactory test device is used to determine whether an olfactory loss is present. The device... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Olfactory test device. 874.1600 Section...

  15. 21 CFR 874.1600 - Olfactory test device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1600 Olfactory test device. (a) Identification. An olfactory test device is used to determine whether an olfactory loss is present. The device... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Olfactory test device. 874.1600 Section...

  16. Detection of Olfactory Dysfunction Using Olfactory Event Related Potentials in Young Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Caminiti, Fabrizia; De Salvo, Simona; De Cola, Maria Cristina; Russo, Margherita; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia; Ciurleo, Rosella

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies reported olfactory dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis. The estimate of the incidence of olfactory deficits in multiple sclerosis is uncertain; this may arise from different testing methods that may be influenced by patients' response bias and clinical, demographic and cognitive features. Aims To evaluate objectively the olfactory function using Olfactory Event Related Potentials. Materials and Methods We tested the olfactory function of 30 patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (mean age of 36.03±6.96 years) and of 30 age, sex and smoking–habit matched healthy controls by using olfactory potentials. A selective and controlled stimulation of the olfactory system to elicit the olfactory event related potentials was achieved by a computer-controlled olfactometer linked directly with electroencephalograph. Relationships between olfactory potential results and patients' clinical characteristics, such as gender, disability status score, disease-modifying therapy, and disease duration, were evaluated. Results Seven of 30 patients did not show olfactory event related potentials. Sixteen of remaining 23 patients had a mean value of amplitude significantly lower than control group (p<0.01). The presence/absence of olfactory event related potentials was associated with dichotomous expanded disability status scale (p = 0.0433), as well as inversely correlated with the disease duration (r = −0.3641, p = 0.0479). Conclusion Unbiased olfactory dysfunction of different severity found in multiple sclerosis patients suggests an organic impairment which could be related to neuroinflammatory and/or neurodegenerative processes of olfactory networks, supporting the recent findings on neurophysiopathology of disease. PMID:25047369

  17. Redundancy of olfactory sensory pathways for odor-aversion memory in the terrestrial slug Limax valentianus.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Miki; Ito, Etsuro; Matsuo, Ryota

    2008-06-01

    Terrestrial slugs have the ability to learn and remember a food odor paired with an aversive stimulus. Olfaction in slugs involves the tips of two pairs of tentacles, the superior and the inferior tentacles. Sensory nerves in both pairs of the tentacles transmit olfactory information to the structure in the CNS, the procerebrum where learning and memory formation occur. We investigated the role of each pair of tentacles in odor-aversion learning, and examined the ability of slugs to recall memory after selective surgical amputation. Our results show that memory formation was not altered by the amputation of either one of the pairs before or after odor-aversion learning, while the odor sensibility of the slugs was maintained. These data suggest that either pair of tentacles is sufficient for the acquisition and retrieval of aversive olfactory memory.

  18. Olfactory sensitivity to the pheromone, androstenone, is sexually dimorphic in the pig.

    PubMed

    Dorries, K M; Adkins-Regan, E; Halpern, B P

    1995-02-01

    Sexually dimorphic pheromone pathways have been used successfully to study insect olfactory coding. As one of the few mammalian species with an identified sex pheromone, the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) may be an ideal vertebrate species in which to examine sex differences in olfactory processing of a specific stimulus. In this experiment, androstenone and control odor detection thresholds were measured in adult male, female, and castrated male pigs. In an operant task, pigs were tested with descending concentration series of both androstenone and geraniol. All groups were equally sensitive to geraniol, but there was a sex difference in sensitivity to the odor of androstenone. Female pigs' detection threshold was a dilution fivefold lower than the threshold for intact males. Castrated males did not differ significantly from either males or females. This is the first example of a sexual dimorphism in sensitivity to a mammalian pheromone.

  19. Olfactory bulb units - Activity correlated with inhalation cycles and odor quality.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macrides, F.; Chorover, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    Single olfactory bulb units were studied in two macrosmatic species of rodents under conditions intended to preserve the cyclical stimulation which normally accompanies nasal breathing. Patterns of unit activity related to the inhalation cycle were observed in all animals, often in the absence of specific stimuli, and could not be explained in simple mechanical terms. Distinctive changes in these patterns occurred in response to certain odors, and were generally independent of changes in the overall firing frequency. These findings indicate that a change in the overall firing frequency of unit discharges is neither a necessary nor sufficient measure of responsiveness to odors in the rodent olfactory bulb, and that stimulus-specific temporal distributions of unit firing may be involved in olfacto-endocrine activities.

  20. Olfactory hedonic context affects both self-report and behavioural indices of palatability.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J; Tomiczek, Caroline; Oaten, Megan

    2007-01-01

    Prior exposure to either a pleasant or unpleasant context may affect later hedonic judgments of a common target stimulus. We explored whether this effect translates into behaviour in the chemical senses. In experiment 1 participants experienced either a pleasant or unpleasant set of odours or pictures, followed by an unfamiliar odour. After self-report hedonic evaluations of the odour, participants were allowed to drink it in solution, followed by a further evaluation of its flavour. Participants reported liking the odour less after smelling pleasant odours and drank less of it too, relative to the unpleasant context. There was no differential context effect for emotive pictures. Experiment 2 replicated these effects, but also included a no-context control. This revealed that the consumption effect was localised to the pleasant olfactory context, whilst contextual effects for liking ratings were primarily localised to the unpleasant olfactory context. In conclusion, hedonic context affects both self-report and behaviour, but not in the same way.

  1. Olfactory bulb units - Activity correlated with inhalation cycles and odor quality.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macrides, F.; Chorover, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    Single olfactory bulb units were studied in two macrosmatic species of rodents under conditions intended to preserve the cyclical stimulation which normally accompanies nasal breathing. Patterns of unit activity related to the inhalation cycle were observed in all animals, often in the absence of specific stimuli, and could not be explained in simple mechanical terms. Distinctive changes in these patterns occurred in response to certain odors, and were generally independent of changes in the overall firing frequency. These findings indicate that a change in the overall firing frequency of unit discharges is neither a necessary nor sufficient measure of responsiveness to odors in the rodent olfactory bulb, and that stimulus-specific temporal distributions of unit firing may be involved in olfacto-endocrine activities.

  2. A portable experimental apparatus for human olfactory fMRI experiments.

    PubMed

    Sezille, C; Messaoudi, B; Bertrand, A; Joussain, P; Thévenet, M; Bensafi, M

    2013-08-15

    Human olfactory perception can be measured using psychophysical tools or more complex odor generating devices systems, namely olfactometers. The present paper is aimed at presenting a new inexpensive, non-voluminous portable olfactometer adapted for human fMRI experiments. The system adjusts odorant stimulus presentation to human nasal respiration and records behavioral responses in the same experimental device. Validation by psychophysical measures and photo-ionization detection showed a linear increase in both odor intensity perception and vapor concentration as a function of odorant concentration. Further validation by brain imaging revealed neural activation in typical olfactory areas. In summary, the system represents a new low-cost, easy-use, easy-maintenance portable olfactometry tool for brain imaging, opening up new possibilities for investigating neural response to odors using event-related fMRI designs.

  3. Caffeine and the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, M G

    1997-08-01

    Caffeine, a popular CNS stimulant, is the most widely used neuroactive drug. Present in coffee, tea, chocolate, and soft drinks as well as over-the-counter and prescription medications, it influences millions of users. This agent has achieved recent notoriety because its dependency consequences and addictive potential have been re-examined and emphasized. Caffeine's central actions are thought to be mediated through adenosine (A) receptors and monoamine neurotransmitters. The present article suggests that the olfactory bulb (OB) may be an important site in the brain that is responsible for caffeine's central actions in several species. This conclusion is based on the extraordinarily robust and selective effects of caffeine on norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and particularly serotonin (5HT) utilization in the OB of mice. We believe that these phenomena should be given appropriate consideration as a basis for caffeine's central actions, even in primates. Concurrently, we review a rich rodent literature concerned with A, 5HT, NE, and DA receptors in the OB and related structures along with other monoamine parameters. We also review a more limited literature concerned with the primate OB. Finally, we cite the literature that treats the dependency and addictive effects of caffeine in humans, and relate the findings to possible olfactory mechanisms.

  4. Preliminary Modeling and Simulation Study on Olfactory Cell Sensation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Jun; Chen Peihua; Liu Qingjun; Wang Ping; Yang Wei

    2009-05-23

    This paper introduced olfactory sensory neuron's whole-cell model with a concrete voltage-gated ionic channels and simulation. Though there are many models in olfactory sensory neuron and olfactory bulb, it remains uncertain how they express the logic of olfactory information processing. In this article, the olfactory neural network model is also introduced. This model specifies the connections among neural ensembles of the olfactory system. The simulation results of the neural network model are consistent with the observed olfactory biological characteristics such as 1/f-type power spectrum and oscillations.

  5. Ca2+-activated K+ currents regulate odor adaptation by modulating spike encoding of olfactory receptor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Fusao

    2002-01-01

    The olfactory system is thought to accomplish odor adaptation through the ciliary transduction machinery in olfactory receptor cells (ORCs). However, ORCs that have lost their cilia can exhibit spike frequency accommodation in which the action potential frequency decreases with time despite a steady depolarizing stimulus. This raises the possibility that somatic ionic channels in ORCs might serve for odor adaptation at the level of spike encoding, because spiking responses in ORCs encode the odor information. Here I investigate the adaptational mechanism at the somatic membrane using conventional and dynamic patch-clamp recording techniques, which enable the ciliary mechanism to be bypassed. A conditioning stimulus with an odorant-induced current markedly shifted the response range of action potentials induced by the same test stimulus to higher concentrations of the odorant, indicating odor adaptation. This effect was inhibited by charybdotoxin and iberiotoxin, Ca2+-activated K+ channel blockers, suggesting that somatic Ca2+-activated K+ currents regulate odor adaptation by modulating spike encoding. I conclude that not only the ciliary machinery but also the somatic membrane currents are crucial to odor adaptation. PMID:11916858

  6. Context-dependent olfactory learning monitored by activities of salivary neurons in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Chihiro Sato; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Nishino, Hiroshi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Context-dependent discrimination learning, a sophisticated form of nonelemental associative learning, has been found in many animals, including insects. The major purpose of this research is to establish a method for monitoring this form of nonelemental learning in rigidly restrained insects for investigation of underlying neural mechanisms. We report context-dependent olfactory learning (occasion-setting problem solving) of salivation, which can be monitored as activity changes of salivary neurons in immobilized cockroaches, Periplaneta americana. A group of cockroaches was trained to associate peppermint odor (conditioned stimulus, CS) with sucrose solution reward (unconditioned stimulus, US) while vanilla odor was presented alone without pairing with the US under a flickering light condition (1.0 Hz) and also trained to associate vanilla odor with sucrose reward while peppermint odor was presented alone under a steady light condition. After training, the responses of salivary neurons to the rewarded peppermint odor were significantly greater than those to the unrewarded vanilla odor under steady illumination and those to the rewarded vanilla odor was significantly greater than those to the unrewarded peppermint odor in the presence of flickering light. Similar context-dependent responses were observed in another group of cockroaches trained with the opposite stimulus arrangement. This study demonstrates context-dependent olfactory learning of salivation for the first time in any vertebrate and invertebrate species, which can be monitored by activity changes of salivary neurons in restrained cockroaches.

  7. Plasticity-driven individualization of olfactory coding in mushroom body output neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hige, Toshihide; Aso, Yoshinori; Rubin, Gerald M.; Turner, Glenn C.

    2015-01-01

    Although all sensory circuits ascend to higher brain areas where stimuli are represented in sparse, stimulus-specific activity patterns, relatively little is known about sensory coding on the descending side of neural circuits, as a network converges. In insects, mushroom bodies (MBs) have been an important model system for studying sparse coding in the olfactory system1–3, where this format is important for accurate memory formation4–6. In Drosophila, it has recently been shown that the 2000 Kenyon cells (KCs) of the MB converge onto a population of only 35 MB output neurons (MBONs), that fall into 22 anatomically distinct cell types7,8. Here we provide the first comprehensive view of olfactory representations at the fourth layer of the circuit, where we find a clear transition in the principles of sensory coding. We show that MBON tuning curves are highly correlated with one another. This is in sharp contrast to the process of progressive decorrelation of tuning in the earlier layers of the circuit2,9. Instead, at the population level, odor representations are reformatted so that positive and negative correlations arise between representations of different odors. At the single-cell level, we show that uniquely identifiable MBONs display profoundly different tuning across different animals, but tuning of the same neuron across the two hemispheres of an individual fly was nearly identical. Thus, individualized coordination of tuning arises at this level of the olfactory circuit. Furthermore, we find that this individualization is an active process that requires a learning-related gene, rutabaga. Ultimately, neural circuits have to flexibly map highly stimulus-specific information in sparse layers onto a limited number of different motor outputs. The reformatting of sensory representations we observe here may mark the beginning of this sensory-motor transition in the olfactory system. PMID:26416731

  8. [Odor sensing system and olfactory display].

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2014-01-01

    In this review, an odor sensing system and an olfactory display are introduced into people in pharmacy. An odor sensing system consists of an array of sensors with partially overlapping specificities and pattern recognition technique. One of examples of odor sensing systems is a halitosis sensor which quantifies the mixture composition of three volatile sulfide compounds. A halitosis sensor was realized using a preconcentrator to raise sensitivity and an electrochemical sensor array to suppress the influence of humidity. Partial least squares (PLS) method was used to quantify the mixture composition. The experiment reveals that the sufficient accuracy was obtained. Moreover, the olfactory display, which present scents to human noses, is explained. A multi-component olfactory display enables the presentation of a variety of smells. The two types of multi-component olfactory display are described. The first one uses many solenoid valves with high speed switching. The valve ON frequency determines the concentration of the corresponding odor component. The latter one consists of miniaturized liquid pumps and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer. It enables the wearable olfactory display without smell persistence. Finally, the application of the olfactory display is demonstrated. Virtual ice cream shop with scents was made as a content of interactive art. People can enjoy harmony among vision, audition and olfaction. In conclusion, both odor sensing system and olfactory display can contribute to the field of human health care.

  9. Information processing in the mammalian olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Gheusi, Gilles; Vincent, Jean-Didier

    2005-01-01

    Recently, modern neuroscience has made considerable progress in understanding how the brain perceives, discriminates, and recognizes odorant molecules. This growing knowledge took over when the sense of smell was no longer considered only as a matter for poetry or the perfume industry. Over the last decades, chemical senses captured the attention of scientists who started to investigate the different stages of olfactory pathways. Distinct fields such as genetic, biochemistry, cellular biology, neurophysiology, and behavior have contributed to provide a picture of how odor information is processed in the olfactory system as it moves from the periphery to higher areas of the brain. So far, the combination of these approaches has been most effective at the cellular level, but there are already signs, and even greater hope, that the same is gradually happening at the systems level. This review summarizes the current ideas concerning the cellular mechanisms and organizational strategies used by the olfactory system to process olfactory information. We present findings that exemplified the high degree of olfactory plasticity, with special emphasis on the first central relay of the olfactory system. Recent observations supporting the necessity of such plasticity for adult brain functions are also discussed. Due to space constraints, this review focuses mainly on the olfactory systems of vertebrates, and primarily those of mammals.

  10. Olfactory Behavioral Testing in the Adult Mouse

    PubMed Central

    M. Witt, Rochelle; M. Galligan, Meghan; R. Despinoy, Jennifer; Segal, Rosalind

    2009-01-01

    The rodent olfactory system is of increasing interest to scientists, studied, in part, in systems biology because of its stereotyped, yet accessible circuitry. In addition, this area's unique ability to generate new neurons throughout an organism's lifetime makes it an attractive system for developmental and regenerative biologists alike. Such interest necessitates a means for a quick, yet reliable assessment of olfactory function. Many tests of olfactory ability are complex, variable or not specifically designed for mice. Also, some tests are sensitive to memory deficits as well as defects in olfactory abilities, confounding obtained results. Here, we describe a simple battery of tests designed to identify defects in olfactory sensitivity and preference. First, an initial general health assessment allows for the identification of animals suitable for further testing. Second, mice are exposed to various dilutions of scents to ascertain whether there is a threshold difference. Third, mice are presented with various scents, both attractive and aversive, that allow for the assessment of olfactory preference. These simple studies should make the initial characterization of olfactory behavior accessible for labs of varied resources and expertise. PMID:19229182

  11. Olfactory behavioral testing in the adult mouse.

    PubMed

    Witt, Rochelle M; Galligan, Meghan M; Despinoy, Jennifer R; Segal, Rosalind

    2009-01-28

    The rodent olfactory system is of increasing interest to scientists, studied, in part, in systems biology because of its stereotyped, yet accessible circuitry. In addition, this area's unique ability to generate new neurons throughout an organism's lifetime makes it an attractive system for developmental and regenerative biologists alike. Such interest necessitates a means for a quick, yet reliable assessment of olfactory function. Many tests of olfactory ability are complex, variable or not specifically designed for mice. Also, some tests are sensitive to memory deficits as well as defects in olfactory abilities, confounding obtained results. Here, we describe a simple battery of tests designed to identify defects in olfactory sensitivity and preference. First, an initial general health assessment allows for the identification of animals suitable for further testing. Second, mice are exposed to various dilutions of scents to ascertain whether there is a threshold difference. Third, mice are presented with various scents, both attractive and aversive, that allow for the assessment of olfactory preference. These simple studies should make the initial characterization of olfactory behavior accessible for labs of varied resources and expertise.

  12. Flavor Identification and Intensity: Effects of Stimulus Context

    PubMed Central

    Hallowell, Emily S.; Parikh, Roshan; Veldhuizen, Maria G.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments presented oral mixtures containing different proportions of the gustatory flavorant sucrose and an olfactory flavorant, either citral (Experiment 1) or lemon (Experiment 2). In 4 different sessions of each experiment, subjects identified each mixture as “mostly sugar” or “mostly citrus/lemon” or rated the perceived intensities of the sweet and citrus components. Different sessions also presented the mixtures in different contexts, with mixtures containing relatively high concentrations of sucrose or citral/lemon presented more often (skew sucrose or skew citral/lemon). As expected, in both experiments, varying stimulus context affected both identification and perceived intensity: Skewing to sucrose versus citral/lemon decreased the probability of identifying the stimuli as “mostly sugar” and reduced the ratings of sweet intensity relative to citrus intensity. Across both contextual conditions of both experiments, flavor identification associated closely with the ratio of the perceived sweet and citrus intensities. The results accord with a model, extrapolated from signal-detection theory, in which sensory events are represented as multisensory–multidimensional distributions in perceptual space. Changing stimulus context can shift the locations of the distributions relative to response criteria, Decision rules guide judgments based on both sensory events and criteria, these rules not necessarily being identical in tasks of identification and intensity rating. PMID:26830499

  13. Mushroom body extrinsic neurons in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) brain integrate context and cue values upon attentional stimulus selection.

    PubMed

    Filla, Ina; Menzel, Randolf

    2015-09-01

    Multimodal GABA-immunoreactive feedback neurons in the honeybee brain connecting the output region of the mushroom body with its input are expected to tune the input to the mushroom body in an experience-dependent way. These neurons are known to change their rate responses to learned olfactory stimuli. In this work we ask whether these neurons also transmit learned attentional effects during multisensory integration. We find that a visual context and an olfactory cue change the rate responses of these neurons after learning according to the associated values of both context and cue. The learned visual context promotes attentional response selection by enhancing olfactory stimulus valuation at both the behavioral and the neural level. During a rewarded visual context, bees reacted faster and more reliably to a rewarded odor. We interpreted this as the result of the observed enhanced neural discharge toward the odor. An unrewarded context reduced already low rate responses to the unrewarded odor. In addition to stimulus valuation, these feedback neurons generate a neural error signal after an incorrect behavioral response. This might act as a learning signal in feedback neurons. All of these effects were exclusively found in trials in which the animal prepares for a motor response that happens during attentional stimulus selection. We discuss possible implications of the results for the feedback connections of the mushroom body.

  14. Olfactory deposition of inhaled nanoparticles in humans

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Kimbell, Julia S.

    2016-01-01

    Context Inhaled nanoparticles can migrate to the brain via the olfactory bulb, as demonstrated in experiments in several animal species. This route of exposure may be the mechanism behind the correlation between air pollution and human neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Objectives This manuscript aims to (1) estimate the dose of inhaled nanoparticles that deposit in the human olfactory epithelium during nasal breathing at rest and (2) compare the olfactory dose in humans with our earlier dose estimates for rats. Materials and methods An anatomically-accurate model of the human nasal cavity was developed based on computed tomography scans. The deposition of 1–100 nm particles in the whole nasal cavity and its olfactory region were estimated via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Our CFD methods were validated by comparing our numerical predictions for whole-nose deposition with experimental data and previous CFD studies in the literature. Results In humans, olfactory dose of inhaled nanoparticles is highest for 1–2 nm particles with approximately 1% of inhaled particles depositing in the olfactory region. As particle size grows to 100 nm, olfactory deposition decreases to 0.01% of inhaled particles. Discussion and conclusion Our results suggest that the percentage of inhaled particles that deposit in the olfactory region is lower in humans than in rats. However, olfactory dose per unit surface area is estimated to be higher in humans due to their larger minute volume. These dose estimates are important for risk assessment and dose-response studies investigating the neurotoxicity of inhaled nanoparticles. PMID:26194036

  15. Olfactory deposition of inhaled nanoparticles in humans.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Guilherme J M; Schroeter, Jeffry D; Kimbell, Julia S

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles can migrate to the brain via the olfactory bulb, as demonstrated in experiments in several animal species. This route of exposure may be the mechanism behind the correlation between air pollution and human neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. This article aims to (i) estimate the dose of inhaled nanoparticles that deposit in the human olfactory epithelium during nasal breathing at rest and (ii) compare the olfactory dose in humans with our earlier dose estimates for rats. An anatomically-accurate model of the human nasal cavity was developed based on computed tomography scans. The deposition of 1-100 nm particles in the whole nasal cavity and its olfactory region were estimated via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Our CFD methods were validated by comparing our numerical predictions for whole-nose deposition with experimental data and previous CFD studies in the literature. In humans, olfactory dose of inhaled nanoparticles is highest for 1-2 nm particles with ∼1% of inhaled particles depositing in the olfactory region. As particle size grows to 100 nm, olfactory deposition decreases to 0.01% of inhaled particles. Our results suggest that the percentage of inhaled particles that deposit in the olfactory region is lower in humans than in rats. However, olfactory dose per unit surface area is estimated to be higher in humans in the 1--7 nm size range due to the larger inhalation rate in humans. These dose estimates are important for risk assessment and dose-response studies investigating the neurotoxicity of inhaled nanoparticles.

  16. Stomatin-related olfactory protein, SRO, specifically expressed in the murine olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Kobayakawa, Ko; Hayashi, Reiko; Morita, Kenji; Miyamichi, Kazunari; Oka, Yuichiro; Tsuboi, Akio; Sakano, Hitoshi

    2002-07-15

    We identified a stomatin-related olfactory protein (SRO) that is specifically expressed in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). The mouse sro gene encodes a polypeptide of 287 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 32 kDa. SRO shares 82% sequence similarity with the murine stomatin, 78% with Caenorhabditis elegans MEC-2, and 77% with C. elegans UNC-1. Unlike other stomatin-family genes, the sro transcript was present only in OSNs of the main olfactory epithelium. No sro expression was seen in vomeronasal neurons. SRO was abundant in most apical dendrites of OSNs, including olfactory cilia. Immunoprecipitation revealed that SRO associates with adenylyl cyclase type III and caveolin-1 in the low-density membrane fraction of olfactory cilia. Furthermore, anti-SRO antibodies stimulated cAMP production in fractionated cilia membrane. SRO may play a crucial role in modulating odorant signals in the lipid rafts of olfactory cilia.

  17. The Olfactory Mosaic: Bringing an Olfactory Network Together for Odor Perception.

    PubMed

    Courtiol, Emmanuelle; Wilson, Donald A

    2017-01-01

    Olfactory perception and its underlying neural mechanisms are not fixed, but rather vary over time, dependent on various parameters such as state, task, or learning experience. In olfaction, one of the primary sensory areas beyond the olfactory bulb is the piriform cortex. Due to an increasing number of functions attributed to the piriform cortex, it has been argued to be an associative cortex rather than a simple primary sensory cortex. In fact, the piriform cortex plays a key role in creating olfactory percepts, helping to form configural odor objects from the molecular features extracted in the nose. Moreover, its dynamic interactions with other olfactory and nonolfactory areas are also critical in shaping the olfactory percept and resulting behavioral responses. In this brief review, we will describe the key role of the piriform cortex in the larger olfactory perceptual network, some of the many actors of this network, and the importance of the dynamic interactions among the piriform-trans-thalamic and limbic pathways.

  18. Unraveling Cajal's view of the olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Figueres-Oñate, María; Gutiérrez, Yolanda; López-Mascaraque, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory system has a highly regular organization of interconnected synaptic circuits from the periphery. It is therefore an excellent model for understanding general principles about how the brain processes information. Cajal revealed the basic cell types and their interconnections at the end of the XIX century. Since his original descriptions, the observation and analysis of the olfactory system and its components represents a major topic in neuroscience studies, providing important insights into the neural mechanisms. In this review, we will highlight the importance of Cajal contributions and his legacy to the actual knowledge of the olfactory system. PMID:25071462

  19. Defining the Stimulus - A Memoir

    PubMed Central

    Terrace, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The eminent psychophysicist, S. S. Stevens, once remarked that, “the basic problem of psychology was the definition of the stimulus” (Stevens, 1951, p. 46). By expanding the traditional definition of the stimulus, the study of animal learning has metamorphosed into animal cognition. The main impetus for that change was the recognition that it is often necessary to postulate a representation between the traditional S and R of learning theory. Representations allow a subject to re-present a stimulus it learned previously that is currently absent. Thus, in delayed-matching-to-sample, one has to assume that a subject responds to a representation of the sample during test if it responds correctly. Other examples, to name but a few, include concept formation, spatial memory, serial memory, learning a numerical rule, imitation and metacognition. Whereas a representation used to be regarded as a mentalistic phenomenon that was unworthy of scientific inquiry, it can now be operationally defined. To accommodate representations, the traditional discriminative stimulus has to be expanded to allow for the role of representations. The resulting composite can account for a significantly larger portion of the variance of performance measures than the exteroceptive stimulus could by itself. PMID:19969047

  20. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  1. Stimulus Effects on Local Preference: Stimulus-Response Contingencies, Stimulus-Food Pairing, and Stimulus-Food Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained in a procedure in which concurrent-schedule food ratios changed unpredictably across seven unsignaled components after 10 food deliveries. Additional green-key stimulus presentations also occurred on the two alternatives, sometimes in the same ratio as the component food ratio, and sometimes in the inverse ratio. In eight…

  2. Olfactory deficits decrease the time resolution for trigeminal lateralization.

    PubMed

    Oleszkiewicz, A; Meusel, T; Güpfert, M; Westermann, B; Hummel, T; Welge-Lüssen, A

    2017-09-15

    To date the temporal resolution of the detection of almost simultaneously applied intranasal trigeminal stimuli is unknown. The aim of our study was to examine this temporal resolution in an/hyposmic subjects, who are known to have reduced trigeminal sensitivity and compare it with healthy controls. Participants were 20 posttraumatic an/hyposmic patients, and 23 healthy controls (matched with regard to sex and age). Olfactory function was tested psychophysically using the Sniffin´ Sticks test battery. Bilateral trigeminal stimulation was carried out using a birhinal high-precision olfactometer. The trigeminal stimulus used was CO₂ 60% v/v, the interstimulus interval ranged from 28 to 32s, stimulus duration was 200ms. Time-lags tested between right and left side of stimulation were at 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200ms. Subjects raised their left or right hand to indicate the side on which the stimulus had been perceived first. In both groups the accuracy in the trigeminal lateralization task increased with the time-lag but normosmic subjects significantly outperformed an/hyposmics in the 200ms time-lag condition. Normosmics significantly exceeded 50% chance level at the time-lag of 80ms, whereas an/hyposmics were only able to score above chance starting from 120ms time-lag. Lateralization scores significantly decreased with age. At a time lag of 200ms intranasal trigeminal stimuli can be lateralized. The reduced trigeminal sensitivity in patients with anosmia or hyposmia leads to an increased time lag required for correct perception of intranasal, almost simultaneously, applied stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Olfactory learning and memory in the disease vector mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Vinauger, Clément; Lutz, Eleanor K.; Riffell, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory learning in blood-feeding insects, such as mosquitoes, could play an important role in host preference and disease transmission. However, standardised protocols allowing testing of their learning abilities are currently lacking, and how different olfactory stimuli are learned by these insects remains unknown. Using a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm, we trained individuals and groups of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to associate an odorant conditioned stimulus (CS) with a blood-reinforced thermal stimulus (unconditioned stimulus; US). Results showed, first, that mosquitoes could learn the association between L-lactic acid and the US, and retained the association for at least 24 h. Second, the success of olfactory conditioning was dependent upon the CS – some odorants that elicited indifferent responses in naïve mosquitoes, such as L-lactic acid and 1-octen-3-ol, were readily learned, whereas others went from aversive to attractive after training (Z-3-hexen-1-ol) or were untrainable (β-myrcene and benzyl alcohol). Third, we examined whether mosquitoes' ability to learn could interfere with the action of the insect repellent DEET. Results demonstrated that pre-exposure and the presence of DEET in the CS reduced the aversive effects of DEET. Last, the nature of the formed memories was explored. Experiments using cold-shock treatments within the first 6 h post-training (for testing anaesthesia-resistant memory) and a protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide; to disrupt the formation of long-term memory) both affected mosquitoes' performances. Together, these results show that learning is a crucial component in odour responses in A. aegypti, and provide the first evidence for the functional role of different memory traces in these responses. PMID:24737761

  4. Smelling themselves: Dogs investigate their own odours longer when modified in an "olfactory mirror" test.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Alexandra

    2017-10-01

    While domestic dogs, Canis familiaris, have been found to be skillful at social cognitive tasks and even some meta-cognitive tasks, they have not passed the test of mirror self-recognition (MSR). Acknowledging the motivational and sensory challenges that might hinder performance, even before the question of self-recognition is broached, this study creates and enacts a novel design extrapolated from the species' natural behaviour. Given dogs' use of olfactory signals in communication, this experiment presents dogs with various canisters for approach and investigation. Each holds an odorous stimulus: in the critical test, either an "olfactory mirror" of the subject - the dog's own urine - or one in which the odour stimulus is modified. By looking at subjects' investigation times of each canister, it is shown that dogs distinguish between the olfactory "image" of themselves when modified: investigating their own odour for longer when it had an additional odour accompanying it than when it did not. Such behaviour implies a recognition of the odour as being of or from "themselves." The ecological validity of this odour presentation is examined by presenting to the subjects odours of other known or unknown dogs: dogs spend longer investigating the odour of other dogs than their own odour. Finally, in a second experiment, subjects spent longer with the modified stimulus than with the modified odour by itself, indicating that novelty alone does not explain the dogs' behavior. This study translates the MSR study for a species whose primary sensory modality is olfaction, and finds both that natural sniffing behaviour can be replicated in the lab and that dogs show more investigative interest in their own odours when modified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of antennal sensilla, larvae morphology and olfactory genes of Melipona scutellaris stingless bee.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Washington João de; Fujimura, Patrícia Tieme; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Cloonan, Kevin; da Silva, Neide Maria; Araújo, Ester Cristina Borges; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Leal, Walter S

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence in the literature suggesting that caste differentiation in the stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris, and other bees in the genus Melipona, is triggered by environmental signals, particularly a primer pheromone. With the proper amount of food and a chemical stimulus, 25% of females emerge as queens, in agreement with a long-standing "two loci/two alleles model" proposed in the 1950s. We surmised that these larvae must be equipped with an olfactory system for reception of these chemical signals. Here we describe for the first time the diversity of antennal sensilla in adults and the morphology of larvae of M. scutellaris. Having found evidence for putative olfactory sensilla in larvae, we next asked whether olfactory proteins were expressed in larvae. Since the molecular basis of M. scutellaris is still unknown, we cloned olfactory genes encoding chemosensory proteins (CSP) and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) using M. scutellaris cDNA template and primers designed on the basis CSPs and OBPs previously reported from the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. We cloned two CSP and two OBP genes and then attempted to express the proteins encoded by these genes. With a recombinant OBP, MscuOBP8, and a combinatorial single-chain variable fragment antibody library, we generated anti-MscuOBP8 monoclonal antibody. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that the anti-MscuOBP8 binds specifically to the MscuOBP8. Next, we found evidence that MscuOBP8 is expressed in M. scutellaris larvae and it is located in the mandibular region, thus further supporting the hypothesis of olfactory function in immature stages. Lastly, molecular modeling suggests that MscuOBP8 may function as a carrier of primer pheromones or other ligands.

  6. The Interglomerular Circuit Potently Inhibits Olfactory Bulb Output Neurons by Both Direct and Indirect Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Puche, Adam C.; Shipley, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory processing shapes our perception. In mammals, odor information is encoded by combinatorial activity patterns of olfactory bulb (OB) glomeruli. Glomeruli are richly interconnected by short axon cells (SACs), which form the interglomerular circuit (IGC). It is unclear how the IGC impacts OB output to downstream neural circuits. We combined in vitro and in vivo electrophysiology with optogenetics in mice and found the following: (1) the IGC potently and monosynaptically inhibits the OB output neurons mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) by GABA release from SACs: (2) gap junction-mediated electrical coupling is strong for the SAC→MTC synapse, but negligible for the SAC→ETC synapse; (3) brief IGC-mediated inhibition is temporally prolonged by the intrinsic properties of MTCs; and (4) sniff frequency IGC activation in vivo generates persistent MTC inhibition. These findings suggest that the temporal sequence of glomerular activation by sensory input determines which stimulus features are transmitted to downstream olfactory networks and those filtered by lateral inhibition. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Odor identity is encoded by combinatorial patterns of activated glomeruli, the initial signal transformation site of the olfactory system. Lateral circuit processing among activated glomeruli modulates olfactory signal transformation before transmission to higher brain centers. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo optogenetics, this work demonstrates that interglomerular circuitry produces potent inhibition of olfactory bulb output neurons via direct chemical and electrical synapses as well as by indirect pathways. The direct inhibitory synaptic input engages mitral cell intrinsic membrane properties to generate inhibition that outlasts the initial synaptic action. PMID:27629712

  7. Repeated formaldehyde inhalation impaired olfactory function and changed SNAP25 proteins in olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Yan, Weiqun; Bai, Yang; Zhu, Yingqiao; Ma, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Formaldehyde inhalation exposure, which can occur through occupational exposure, can lead to sensory irritation, neurotoxicity, mood disorders, and learning and memory impairment. However, its influence on olfactory function is unclear. To investigate the mechanism and the effect of repeated formaldehyde inhalation exposure on olfactory function. Rats were treated with formaldehyde inhalation (13·5±1·5 ppm, twice 30 minutes/day) for 14 days. Buried food pellet and locomotive activity tests were used to detect olfactory function and locomotion. Western blots were used to evaluate synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) protein levels in the olfactory bulb (OB) lysate and synaptosome, as well as mature and immature olfactory sensory neuron markers, olfactory marker protein (OMP), and Tuj-1. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect SNAP25 mRNA amounts. Repeated formaldehyde inhalation exposure impaired olfactory function, whereas locomotive activities were unaffected. SNAP25 protein decreased significantly in the OB, but not in the occipital lobe. SNAP25 also decreased in the OB synaptosome when synaptophysin did not change after formaldehyde treatment. mRNA levels of SNAP25A and SNAP25B were unaffected. Mature and immature olfactory sensory neuron marker, OMP, and Tuj-1, did not change after formaldehyde treatment. Repeated formaldehyde exposure impaired olfactory function by disturbing SNAP25 protein in the OB.

  8. Pharmacology of mammalian olfactory receptors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard S; Peterlin, Zita; Araneda, Ricardo C

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian species have evolved a large and diverse number of odorant receptors (ORs). These proteins comprise the largest family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) known, amounting to ~1,000-different receptors in the rodent. From the perspective of olfactory coding, the availability of such a vast number of chemosensory receptors poses several fascinating questions; in addition, such a large repertoire provides an attractive biological model to study ligand-receptor interactions. The limited functional expression of these receptors in heterologous systems, however, has greatly hampered attempts to deorphanize them. We have employed a successful approach that combines electrophysiological and imaging techniques to analyze the response profiles of single sensory neurons. Our approach has enabled us to characterize the "odor space" of a population of native aldehyde receptors and the molecular range of a genetically engineered receptor, OR-I7.

  9. Correlation between olfactory severity ratings based on olfactory function test scores and self-reported severity rating of olfactory loss.

    PubMed

    Seok, Jungirl; Shim, Ye Ji; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2017-07-01

    Olfactory test scores are significantly correlated with self-rated severity scales. However, the statistical rating based on olfactory tests did not strongly agree with the self-reported severity rating. This suggests that there is a discrepancy between olfactory test results and the severity described by patients themselves. This study aimed to identify the correlation between statistical ratings based on test scores and self-rating of the severity of olfactory loss. A total of 1555 subjects were asked to rate olfactory loss severity by one of five scales. Olfactory tests consist of the butanol threshold test (BTT) and cross-cultural smell identification test (CCSIT). There were significant correlations between BTT scores and self-rated severity scales (r = 0.619, p < 0.001) and between CCSIT scores and self-rated severity scales (r = 0.597, p < 0.001) after adjustment for age, sex, and medical conditions. Using discriminant analysis for both BTT and CCSIT, scores 0-4 could be statistically rated as anosmia, scores 5 and 6 as severe hyposmia, scores 7 and 8 as moderate hyposmia, and scores 9-12 as normosmia (Wilks's lambda = 0.605, p < 0.001 for BTT and Wilks's lambda = 0.597, p < 0.001 for CCSIT).

  10. Understanding the Odour Spaces: A Step towards Solving Olfactory Stimulus-Percept Problem.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ritesh; Kaur, Rishemjit; Auffarth, Benjamin; Bhondekar, Amol P

    2015-01-01

    Odours are highly complex, relying on hundreds of receptors, and people are known to disagree in their linguistic descriptions of smells. It is partly due to these facts that, it is very hard to map the domain of odour molecules or their structure to that of perceptual representations, a problem that has been referred to as the Structure-Odour-Relationship. We collected a number of diverse open domain databases of odour molecules having unorganised perceptual descriptors, and developed a graphical method to find the similarity between perceptual descriptors; which is intuitive and can be used to identify perceptual classes. We then separately projected the physico-chemical and perceptual features of these molecules in a non-linear dimension and clustered the similar molecules. We found a significant overlap between the spatial positioning of the clustered molecules in the physico-chemical and perceptual spaces. We also developed a statistical method of predicting the perceptual qualities of a novel molecule using its physico-chemical properties with high receiver operating characteristics(ROC).

  11. Understanding the Odour Spaces: A Step towards Solving Olfactory Stimulus-Percept Problem

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ritesh; Bhondekar, Amol P.

    2015-01-01

    Odours are highly complex, relying on hundreds of receptors, and people are known to disagree in their linguistic descriptions of smells. It is partly due to these facts that, it is very hard to map the domain of odour molecules or their structure to that of perceptual representations, a problem that has been referred to as the Structure-Odour-Relationship. We collected a number of diverse open domain databases of odour molecules having unorganised perceptual descriptors, and developed a graphical method to find the similarity between perceptual descriptors; which is intuitive and can be used to identify perceptual classes. We then separately projected the physico-chemical and perceptual features of these molecules in a non-linear dimension and clustered the similar molecules. We found a significant overlap between the spatial positioning of the clustered molecules in the physico-chemical and perceptual spaces. We also developed a statistical method of predicting the perceptual qualities of a novel molecule using its physico-chemical properties with high receiver operating characteristics(ROC). PMID:26484763

  12. Modeling Olfactory Bulb Evolution through Primate Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Heritage, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive characterizations of primates have usually included a reduction in olfactory sensitivity. However, this inference of derivation and directionality assumes an ancestral state of olfaction, usually by comparison to a group of extant non-primate mammals. Thus, the accuracy of the inference depends on the assumed ancestral state. Here I present a phylogenetic model of continuous trait evolution that reconstructs olfactory bulb volumes for ancestral nodes of primates and mammal outgroups. Parent-daughter comparisons suggest that, relative to the ancestral euarchontan, the crown-primate node is plesiomorphic and that derived reduction in olfactory sensitivity is an attribute of the haplorhine lineage. The model also suggests a derived increase in olfactory sensitivity at the strepsirrhine node. This oppositional diversification of the strepsirrhine and haplorhine lineages from an intermediate and non-derived ancestor is inconsistent with a characterization of graded reduction through primate evolution. PMID:25426851

  13. The Pig Olfactory Brain: A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Sanford; Osterberg, Stephen K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that pigs are reputed to have excellent olfactory abilities, few studies have examined regions of the pig brain involved in the sense of smell. The present study provides an overview of the olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus, and piriform cortex of adult pigs using several approaches. Nissl, myelin, and Golgi stains were used to produce a general overview of the organization of the regions and confocal microscopy was employed to examine 1) projection neurons, 2) GABAergic local circuit neurons that express somatostatin, parvalbumin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, or calretinin, 3) neuromodulatory fibers (cholinergic and serotonergic), and 4) glia (astrocytes and microglia). The findings revealed that pig olfactory structures are quite large, highly organized and follow the general patterns observed in mammals. PMID:26936231

  14. Methods to measure olfactory behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Junhui; Wang, Wenbin; Pan, Yung-Wei; Lu, Song; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-01-01

    Mice rely on the sense of olfaction to detect food sources, recognize social and mating partners, and avoid predators. Many behaviors of mice including learning and memory, social interaction, fear, and anxiety are closely associated with their function of olfaction, and behavior tasks designed to evaluate those brain functions may use odors as cues. Accurate assessment of olfaction is not only essential for the study of olfactory system but also critical for proper interpretation of various mouse behaviors especially learning and memory, emotionality and affect, and sociality. Here we describe a series of behavior experiments that offer multidimensional and quantitative assessments for mouse’s olfactory function, including olfactory habituation, discrimination, odor preference, odor detection sensitivity, and olfactory memory, to both social and nonsocial odors. PMID:25645244

  15. A multisensory network for olfactory processing

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Joost X.; Blankenship, Meredith L.; Li, Jennifer X.; Katz, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Primary gustatory cortex (GC) is connected (both mono- and poly-synaptically) to primary olfactory (piriform) cortex (PC)—connections that might be hypothesized to underlie the construction of a “flavor” percept when both gustatory and olfactory stimuli are present. Here, we use multi-site electrophysiology and optical inhibition of GC neurons (GCx, produced via infection with ArchT) to demonstrate that, indeed, during gustatory stimulation, taste-selective information is transmitted from GC to PC. We go on to show that these connections impact olfactory processing even in the absence of gustatory stimulation: GCx alters PC responses to olfactory stimuli presented alone, enhancing some and eliminating others, despite leaving the path from nasal epithelium to PC intact. Finally, we show the functional importance of this latter phenomenon, demonstrating that GCx renders rats unable to properly recognize odor stimuli. This sequence of findings suggests that sensory processing may be more intrinsically integrative than previously thought. PMID:26441351

  16. Cladistic Analysis of Olfactory and Vomeronasal Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Gutierrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Lanuza, Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2010-01-01

    Most tetrapods possess two nasal organs for detecting chemicals in their environment, which are the sensory detectors of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. The seventies’ view that the olfactory system was only devoted to sense volatiles, whereas the vomeronasal system was exclusively specialized for pheromone detection was challenged by accumulating data showing deep anatomical and functional interrelationships between both systems. In addition, the assumption that the vomeronasal system appeared as an adaptation to terrestrial life is being questioned as well. The aim of the present work is to use a comparative strategy to gain insight in our understanding of the evolution of chemical “cortex.” We have analyzed the organization of the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices of reptiles, marsupials, and placental mammals and we have compared our findings with data from other taxa in order to better understand the evolutionary history of the nasal sensory systems in vertebrates. The olfactory and vomeronsasal cortices have been re-investigated in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica), and rats (Rattus norvegicus) by tracing the efferents of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs using injections of neuroanatomical anterograde tracers (dextran-amines). In snakes, the medial olfactory tract is quite evident, whereas the main vomeronasal-recipient structure, the nucleus sphaericus is a folded cortical-like structure, located at the caudal edge of the amygdala. In marsupials, which are acallosal mammals, the rhinal fissure is relatively dorsal and the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices relatively expanded. Placental mammals, like marsupials, show partially overlapping olfactory and vomeronasal projections in the rostral basal telencephalon. These data raise the interesting question of how the telencephalon has been re-organized in different groups according to the biological relevance of chemical senses. PMID:21290004

  17. Cladistic analysis of olfactory and vomeronasal systems.

    PubMed

    Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Gutierrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Lanuza, Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2011-01-01

    Most tetrapods possess two nasal organs for detecting chemicals in their environment, which are the sensory detectors of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. The seventies' view that the olfactory system was only devoted to sense volatiles, whereas the vomeronasal system was exclusively specialized for pheromone detection was challenged by accumulating data showing deep anatomical and functional interrelationships between both systems. In addition, the assumption that the vomeronasal system appeared as an adaptation to terrestrial life is being questioned as well. The aim of the present work is to use a comparative strategy to gain insight in our understanding of the evolution of chemical "cortex." We have analyzed the organization of the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices of reptiles, marsupials, and placental mammals and we have compared our findings with data from other taxa in order to better understand the evolutionary history of the nasal sensory systems in vertebrates. The olfactory and vomeronsasal cortices have been re-investigated in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica), and rats (Rattus norvegicus) by tracing the efferents of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs using injections of neuroanatomical anterograde tracers (dextran-amines). In snakes, the medial olfactory tract is quite evident, whereas the main vomeronasal-recipient structure, the nucleus sphaericus is a folded cortical-like structure, located at the caudal edge of the amygdala. In marsupials, which are acallosal mammals, the rhinal fissure is relatively dorsal and the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices relatively expanded. Placental mammals, like marsupials, show partially overlapping olfactory and vomeronasal projections in the rostral basal telencephalon. These data raise the interesting question of how the telencephalon has been re-organized in different groups according to the biological relevance of chemical senses.

  18. Dimorphic olfactory lobes in the arthropoda.

    PubMed

    Strausfeld, Nicholas; Reisenman, Carolina E

    2009-07-01

    Specialized olfactory lobe glomeruli relating to sexual or caste differences have been observed in at least five orders of insects, suggesting an early appearance of this trait in insect evolution. Dimorphism is not limited to nocturnal species, but occurs even in insects that are known to use vision for courtship. Other than a single description, there is no evidence for similar structures occurring in the Crustacea, suggesting that the evolution of dimorphic olfactory systems may typify terrestrial arthropods.

  19. Cortical Feedback Control of Olfactory Bulb Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Alison M.; Sturgill, James F.; Poo, Cindy; Isaacson, Jeffry S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Olfactory cortex pyramidal cells integrate sensory input from olfactory bulb mitral and tufted (M/T) cells and project axons back to the bulb. However, the impact of cortical feedback projections on olfactory bulb circuits is unclear. Here, we selectively express channelrhodopsin-2 in olfactory cortex pyramidal cells and show that cortical feedback projections excite diverse populations of bulb interneurons. Activation of cortical fibers directly excites GABAergic granule cells, which in turn inhibit M/T cells. However, we show that cortical inputs preferentially target short axon cells that drive feedforward inhibition of granule cells. In vivo, activation of olfactory cortex that only weakly affects spontaneous M/T cell firing strongly gates odor-evoked M/T cell responses: cortical activity suppresses odor-evoked excitation and enhances odor-evoked inhibition. Together, these results indicate that although cortical projections have diverse actions on olfactory bulb microcircuits, the net effect of cortical feedback on M/T cells is an amplification of odor-evoked inhibition. PMID:23259951

  20. A new dopaminergic nigro-olfactory projection.

    PubMed

    Höglinger, Günter U; Alvarez-Fischer, Daniel; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Djufri, Miriam; Windolph, Andrea; Keber, Ursula; Borta, Andreas; Ries, Vincent; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Scheller, Dieter; Oertel, Wolfgang H

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by massive loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Whereas onset of motor impairments reflects a rather advanced stage of the disorder, hyposmia often marks the beginning of the disease. Little is known about the role of the nigro-striatal system in olfaction under physiological conditions and the anatomical basis of hyposmia in PD. Yet, the early occurrence of olfactory dysfunction implies that pathogens such as environmental toxins could incite the disease via the olfactory system. In the present study, we demonstrate a dopaminergic innervation from neurons in the substantia nigra to the olfactory bulb by axonal tracing studies. Injection of two dopaminergic neurotoxins-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and 6-hydroxydopamine-into the olfactory bulb induced a decrease in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. In turn, ablation of the nigral projection led to impaired olfactory perception. Hyposmia following dopaminergic deafferentation was reversed by treatment with the D1/D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist rotigotine. Hence, we demonstrate for the first time the existence of a direct dopaminergic projection into the olfactory bulb and identify its origin in the substantia nigra in rats. These observations may provide a neuroanatomical basis for invasion of environmental toxins into the basal ganglia and for hyposmia as frequent symptom in PD.

  1. Olfactory processing in a changing brain.

    PubMed

    Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Gheusi, Gilles

    2003-09-15

    The perception of odorant molecules provides the essential information that allows animals to explore their surrounding. We describe here how the external world of scents may sculpt the activity of the first central relay of the olfactory system, i.e., the olfactory bulb. This structure is one of the few brain areas to continuously replace one of its neuronal populations: the local GABAergic interneurons. How the newly generated neurons integrate into a pre-existing neural network and how basic olfactory functions are maintained when a large percentage of neurons are subjected to continuous renewal, are important questions that have recently received new insights. Furthermore, we shall see how the adult neurogenesis is specifically subjected to experience-dependent modulation. In particular, we shall describe the sensitivity of the bulbar neurogenesis to the activity level of sensory inputs from the olfactory epithelium and, in turn, how this neurogenesis may adjust the neural network functioning to optimize odor information processing. Finally, we shall discuss the behavioral consequences of the bulbar neurogenesis and how it may be appropriate for the sense of smell. By maintaining a constitutive turnover of bulbar interneurons subjected to modulation by environmental cues, we propose that adult ongoing neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb is associated with improved olfactory memory. These recent findings not only provide new fuel for the molecular and cellular bases of sensory perception but should also shed light onto cellular bases of learning and memory.

  2. Investigating the roles of odor-evoked oscillations in information processing in the turtle olfactory bulb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soyoun

    It has been earlier established that presentation of an odorant stimulus to the turtle evokes specific spatio-temporal responses in the olfactory bulb. This response includes three distinct oscillatory patterns (rostral, middle and caudal) that have different spatial (locations and scopes) and temporal (frequencies and delay from the odorant onset) properties. In this thesis we investigate, using modeling and experimental approaches; the mechanisms of formation and the role of the oscillatory patterning in the turtle olfactory bulb. We have built a computational model that incorporates the basic anatomy and neurophysiology of the olfactory bulb to investigate how the observed patterns relate to activity of individual neurons and what roles they could play in olfactory information processing. We show that three basic anatomical/physiological properties of the olfactory network underlie formation of a temporal sequence of simultaneous activations of glomerular modules: fast synaptic inhibition between populations of excitatory and inhibitory cells, slow self-inhibition observed on excitatory cells; and input strength. The model suggests that the role of oscillations is to organize the neural activity in a temporal sequence which groups the activation of glomerular modules based on the input strength similarity. We show that this type of code explains particularly well the experimental findings reported also by other groups, showing that temporal patterning may mediate discrimination of similar odorants. Furthermore, we showed that within our model, feedback from cortical regions of the brain could modulate oscillatory patterning and provide mechanisms to generate experimentally observed period doubling in one of the oscillations. This requires the cortical processing to act as a type of coincidence modulator and provide functional coupling between excitatory modules that is absent in the bulbar network. This hypothesis is partially supported by our experiments that

  3. Economic Stimulus: Issues and Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-16

    that “fiscal action could be helpful in principle , as fiscal and monetary stimulus together may provide broader support for the economy than monetary...have sought to contain damages spilling over from housing and financial markets to the broader economy , including monetary policy, which is the...including leaving the government holding large amounts of mortgage debt. With the worsening performance of the economy , congressional leaders and

  4. Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Berquist, Michael D; Fantegrossi, William E

    2017-03-25

    Numerous drugs elicit locomotor stimulant effects at appropriate doses; however, we typically reserve the term psychostimulant to refer to drugs with affinity for monoamine reuptake transporters. This chapter comprises select experiments that have characterized the discriminative stimulus effects of psychostimulants using drug discrimination procedures. The substitution profiles of psychostimulants in laboratory rodents are generally consistent with those observed in human and nonhuman primate drug discrimination experiments. Notably, two major classes of psychostimulants can be distinguished as those that function as passive monoamine reuptake inhibitors (such as cocaine) and those that function as substrates for monoamine transporters and stimulate monoamine release (such as the amphetamines). Nevertheless, the discriminative stimulus effects of both classes of psychostimulant are quite similar, and drugs from different classes will substitute for one another. Most importantly, for both the cocaine-like and amphetamine-like psychostimulants, dopaminergic mechanisms most saliently determine discriminative stimulus effects, but these effects can be modulated by alterations in noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission as well. Thusly, the drug discrimination assay is useful for characterizing the interoceptive effects of psychostimulants and determining the mechanisms that contribute to their subjective effects in humans.

  5. Lectin binding to olfactory system in a shark, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, V; Ciani, F

    1993-01-01

    Lectin histochemical studies were performed on the olfactory system of Scyliorhinus canicula to identify specific glycoconjugates on the cell surface of primary olfactory neurons. The olfactory receptor cells, the olfactory nerve fibers and their terminals in the bulbs were labelled with SBA, BSA-I and BSA-I-B4. The lectin staining patterns indicate that the membranes of small-spotted catshark olfactory neurons had glycoproteins with alpha-galactose residues. This carbohydrate moiety could be related to modulation of the cell-cell interactions in the olfactory system.

  6. Distinct lateral inhibitory circuits drive parallel processing of sensory information in the mammalian olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Geramita, Matthew A; Burton, Shawn D; Urban, Nathan N

    2016-01-01

    Splitting sensory information into parallel pathways is a common strategy in sensory systems. Yet, how circuits in these parallel pathways are composed to maintain or even enhance the encoding of specific stimulus features is poorly understood. Here, we have investigated the parallel pathways formed by mitral and tufted cells of the olfactory system in mice and characterized the emergence of feature selectivity in these cell types via distinct lateral inhibitory circuits. We find differences in activity-dependent lateral inhibition between mitral and tufted cells that likely reflect newly described differences in the activation of deep and superficial granule cells. Simulations show that these circuit-level differences allow mitral and tufted cells to best discriminate odors in separate concentration ranges, indicating that segregating information about different ranges of stimulus intensity may be an important function of these parallel sensory pathways. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16039.001 PMID:27351103

  7. Distinct lateral inhibitory circuits drive parallel processing of sensory information in the mammalian olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Geramita, Matthew A; Burton, Shawn D; Urban, Nathan N

    2016-06-28

    Splitting sensory information into parallel pathways is a common strategy in sensory systems. Yet, how circuits in these parallel pathways are composed to maintain or even enhance the encoding of specific stimulus features is poorly understood. Here, we have investigated the parallel pathways formed by mitral and tufted cells of the olfactory system in mice and characterized the emergence of feature selectivity in these cell types via distinct lateral inhibitory circuits. We find differences in activity-dependent lateral inhibition between mitral and tufted cells that likely reflect newly described differences in the activation of deep and superficial granule cells. Simulations show that these circuit-level differences allow mitral and tufted cells to best discriminate odors in separate concentration ranges, indicating that segregating information about different ranges of stimulus intensity may be an important function of these parallel sensory pathways.

  8. Damage to Olfactory Progenitor Cells Is Involved in Cigarette Smoke-Induced Olfactory Dysfunction in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ueha, Rumi; Ueha, Satoshi; Kondo, Kenji; Sakamoto, Takashi; Kikuta, Shu; Kanaya, Kaori; Nishijima, Hironobu; Matsushima, Kouji; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke is a major cause of olfactory dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanisms by which cigarette smoke interferes with the highly regenerative olfactory nerve system remain unclear. To investigate whether cigarette smoke induces olfactory dysfunction by disrupting cell proliferation and cell survival in the olfactory epithelium (OE), we developed a mouse model of smoking that involved intranasal administration of a cigarette smoke solution (CSS). Immunohistological analyses and behavioral testing showed that CSS administration during a period of 24 days reduced the number of olfactory marker protein-positive mature olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the OE and induced olfactory dysfunction. These changes coincided with a reduction in the number of SOX2(+) ORN progenitors and Ki-67(+) proliferating cells in the basal layer of the OE, an increase in the number of caspase-3(+) apoptotic cells, and an increase in the expression of mRNA for the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. Notably, the proliferating ORN progenitor population recovered after cessation of treatment with CSS, resulting in the subsequent restoration of mature ORN numbers and olfaction. These results suggest that SOX2(+) ORN progenitors are targets of CSS-induced impairment of the OE, and that by damaging the ORN progenitor population and increasing ORN death, CSS exposure eventually overwhelms the regenerative capacity of the epithelium, resulting in reduced numbers of mature ORNs and olfactory dysfunction.

  9. Olfactory Fear Conditioning Induces Field Potential Potentiation in Rat Olfactory Cortex and Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messaoudi, Belkacem; Granjon, Lionel; Mouly, Anne-Marie; Sevelinges, Yannick; Gervais, Remi

    2004-01-01

    The widely used Pavlovian fear-conditioning paradigms used for studying the neurobiology of learning and memory have mainly used auditory cues as conditioned stimuli (CS). The present work assessed the neural network involved in olfactory fear conditioning, using olfactory bulb stimulation-induced field potential signal (EFP) as a marker of…

  10. The location of olfactory receptors within olfactory epithelium is independent of odorant volatility and solubility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Our objective was to study the pattern of olfactory receptor expression within the dorsal and ventral regions of the mouse olfactory epithelium. We hypothesized that olfactory receptors were distributed based on the chemical properties of their ligands: e.g. receptors for polar, hydrophilic and weakly volatile odorants would be present in the dorsal region of olfactory epithelium; while receptors for non-polar, more volatile odorants would be distributed to the ventral region. To test our hypothesis, we used micro-transplantation of cilia-enriched plasma membranes derived from dorsal or ventral regions of the olfactory epithelium into Xenopus oocytes for electrophysiological characterization against a panel of 100 odorants. Findings Odorants detected by ORs from the dorsal and ventral regions showed overlap in volatility and water solubility. We did not find evidence for a correlation between the solubility and volatility of odorants and the functional expression of olfactory receptors in the dorsal or ventral region of the olfactory epithelia. Conclusions No simple clustering or relationship between chemical properties of odorants could be associated with the different regions of the olfactory epithelium. These results suggest that the location of ORs within the epithelium is not organized based on the physico-chemical properties of their ligands. PMID:21548958

  11. Olfactory imprinting is correlated with changes in gene expression in the olfactory epithelia of the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Harden, Maegan V; Newton, Lucy A; Lloyd, Russell C; Whitlock, Kathleen E

    2006-11-01

    Odors experienced as juveniles can have significant effects on the behavior of mature organisms. A dramatic example of this occurs in salmon, where the odors experienced by developing fish determine the river to which they return as adults. Further examples of olfactory memories are found in many animals including vertebrates and invertebrates. Yet, the cellular and molecular bases underlying the formation of olfactory memory are poorly understood. We have devised a series of experiments to determine whether zebrafish can form olfactory memories much like those observed in salmonids. Here we show for the first time that zebrafish form and retain olfactory memories of an artificial odorant, phenylethyl alcohol (PEA), experienced as juveniles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that exposure to PEA results in changes in gene expression within the olfactory sensory system. These changes are evident by in situ hybridization in the olfactory epithelium of the developing zebrafish. Strikingly, our analysis by in situ hybridization demonstrates that the transcription factor, otx2, is up regulated in the olfactory sensory epithelia in response to PEA. This increase is evident at 2-3 days postfertilization and is maintained in the adult animals. We propose that the changes in otx2 gene expression are manifest as an increase in the number of neuronal precursors in the cells olfactory epithelium of the odor-exposed fish. Thus, our results reveal a role for the environment in controlling gene expression in the developing peripheral nervous system.

  12. Notch1 activity in the olfactory bulb is odour-dependent and contributes to olfactory behaviour.

    PubMed

    Brai, Emanuele; Marathe, Swananda; Zentilin, Lorena; Giacca, Mauro; Nimpf, Johannes; Kretz, Robert; Scotti, Alessandra; Alberi, Lavinia

    2014-11-01

    Notch signalling plays an important role in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory functions in both Drosophila and rodents. In this paper, we report that this feature is not restricted to hippocampal networks but also involves the olfactory bulb (OB). Odour discrimination and olfactory learning in rodents are essential for survival. Notch1 expression is enriched in mitral cells of the mouse OB. These principal neurons are responsive to specific input odorants and relay the signal to the olfactory cortex. Olfactory stimulation activates a subset of mitral cells, which show an increase in Notch activity. In Notch1cKOKln mice, the loss of Notch1 in mitral cells affects the magnitude of the neuronal response to olfactory stimuli. In addition, Notch1cKOKln mice display reduced olfactory aversion to propionic acid as compared to wildtype controls. This indicates, for the first time, that Notch1 is involved in olfactory processing and may contribute to olfactory behaviour. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Relation of the volume of the olfactory bulb to psychophysical measures of olfactory function.

    PubMed

    Mazal, Patricia Portillo; Haehner, Antje; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to investigate whether changes in olfactory bulb volume relate to changes in specific olfactory functions. We studied currently available peer-reviewed articles on the volume of the human olfactory bulb that also included a psychophysical measure of olfactory function. In the present review, we observed a very clear and consistent correlation between general olfactory function and olfactory bulb (OB) volume. We were not able to find a clear relationship between a specific smell component and OB volume, even when analyzing pathologic conditions separately. In some cases, changes were observed for different subtests, but these changes did not significantly correlate with OB volume or had only a borderline correlation. In other cases, we found contradictory data. Several factors may contribute to the difficulties in finding correlations with the different components of smell: (1) the OB volume may be influenced by information from olfactory receptor neurons (bottom-up effect), information from central nervous system (top-down effect) and by direct damage; (2) most pathologic conditions affect more than one area of the olfactory pathway; (3) small sample sizes of hyposmic subjects were used. We believe that it is necessary to do further studies with larger numbers of subjects to answer the currently investigated question.

  14. Olfactory Fear Conditioning Induces Field Potential Potentiation in Rat Olfactory Cortex and Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messaoudi, Belkacem; Granjon, Lionel; Mouly, Anne-Marie; Sevelinges, Yannick; Gervais, Remi

    2004-01-01

    The widely used Pavlovian fear-conditioning paradigms used for studying the neurobiology of learning and memory have mainly used auditory cues as conditioned stimuli (CS). The present work assessed the neural network involved in olfactory fear conditioning, using olfactory bulb stimulation-induced field potential signal (EFP) as a marker of…

  15. Perceptual judgements and chronic imaging of altered odour maps indicate comprehensive stimulus template matching in olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Bracey, Edward F.; Pichler, Bruno; Schaefer, Andreas T.; Wallace, Damian J.; Margrie, Troy W.

    2013-01-01

    Lesion experiments suggest that odour input to the olfactory bulb contains significant redundant signal such that rodents can discern odours using minimal stimulus-related information. Here we investigate the dependence of odour-quality perception on the integrity of glomerular activity by comparing odour-evoked activity maps before and after epithelial lesions. Lesions prevent mice from recognizing previously experienced odours and differentially delay discrimination learning of unrecognized and novel odour pairs. Poor recognition results not from mice experiencing an altered concentration of an odour but from perception of apparent novel qualities. Consistent with this, relative intensity of glomerular activity following lesions is altered compared with maps recorded in shams and by varying odour concentration. Together, these data show that odour recognition relies on comprehensively matching input patterns to a previously generated stimulus template. When encountering novel odours, access to all glomerular activity ensures rapid generation of new templates to perform accurate perceptual judgements. PMID:23820818

  16. Responses of mitral/tufted cells to orthodromic and antidromic electrical stimulation in the olfactory bulb of the tiger salamander.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, K A; Kauer, J S

    1988-06-01

    1. Responses evoked by electrical stimulation of the olfactory nerve and olfactory tracts were analyzed in 46 output cells of the salamander olfactory bulb, in vivo. Labeling of several cells with horseradish peroxidase indicated that they were mitral and/or tufted neurons. The responses contained reproducible sequences of depolarizing and hyperpolarizing potentials, which changed with increases in stimulus intensity. 2. Stimulation of the nerve with intensities subthreshold for evoking spikes in the recorded cell resulted in a small depolarization followed by a period of hyperpolarization, during which spontaneous spikes were suppressed. With suprathreshold stimulus intensities, a single spike or often a burst of spikes was evoked, followed by a complex prolonged hyperpolarization. When full spikes were blocked by injecting hyperpolarizing current through the recording electrode, an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) with two major components and sometimes a fast prepotential were observed at the beginning of the response. Amplitudes of the EPSP and hyperpolarization increased with graded increases in stimulus intensity. In tests with paired stimulus volleys, spike generation was inhibited for at least 1 s and often for several seconds during the hyperpolarization. 3. Stimulation of the tracts with intensities subthreshold for evoking spikes in the recorded cell resulted in a complex prolonged hyperpolarization. With suprathreshold stimulus intensities, a single spike was evoked, followed by a similar period of hyperpolarization. When full spikes were blocked by injecting hyperpolarizing current through the recording electrode, a small antidromic spike, presumably generated in the axon or initial segment, was often observed. Amplitude of the hyperpolarization increased with graded increases in stimulus intensity. In tests with paired volleys, generation of a full antidromic spike was inhibited for a period that usually began 20-30 ms, following the spike

  17. Microanatomy and surgical relevance of the olfactory cistern.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shou-Sen; Zheng, He-Ping; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Fa-Hui; Jing, Jun-Jie; Wang, Ru-Mi

    2008-01-01

    All surgical approaches to the anterior skull base involve the olfactory cistern and have the risk of damaging the olfactory nerve. The purpose of this study was to describe the microanatomical features of the olfactory cistern and discuss its surgical relevance. In this study, the olfactory cisterns of 15 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads were dissected using a surgical microscope. The results showed that the olfactory cistern was situated in the superficial part of the olfactory sulcus, which separated the gyrus retus from the orbital gyrus. In coronal section, the cistern was triangular in shape; its anterior part enveloped the olfactory bulbs and was high and broad; its posterior part was medial-superior to internal carotid artery and was also much broader. There were one or several openings in the inferior wall of the posterior part in 53.4% of the cisterns. The olfactory cistern communicated with the surrounding subarachnoind cisterns through these openings. The middle part of the olfactory cistern gradually narrowed down posteriorly. Most cisterns were spacious with a few fibrous trabeculas and bands between the olfactory nerves and cistern walls. However 23% of the cisterns were narrow with the cistern walls tightly encasing the olfactory nerve. There were two or three of arterial loops in each olfactory sulcus, from which long, fine olfactory arteries originated. The olfactory arteries coursed along the olfactory nerve and gave off many terminal branches to provide the main blood supply to the olfactory nerve in most cisterns, but the blood supply was in segmental style in a few cisterns. Moreover, the veins of the cistern appeared to be more segmental than the olfactory arteries in most cisterns. These results suggested that most olfactory cisterns are spacious with relatively independent blood supply, and it is reasonable to separate the olfactory tract with its independent blood supply from the frontal lobe by 1-2 cm in the subfrontal approach, the

  18. Stimulus and network dynamics collide in a ratiometric model of the antennal lobe macroglomerular complex.

    PubMed

    Chong, Kwok Ying; Capurro, Alberto; Karout, Salah; Pearce, Timothy Charles

    2012-01-01

    Time is considered to be an important encoding dimension in olfaction, as neural populations generate odour-specific spatiotemporal responses to constant stimuli. However, during pheromone mediated anemotactic search insects must discriminate specific ratios of blend components from rapidly time varying input. The dynamics intrinsic to olfactory processing and those of naturalistic stimuli can therefore potentially collide, thereby confounding ratiometric information. In this paper we use a computational model of the macroglomerular complex of the insect antennal lobe to study the impact on ratiometric information of this potential collision between network and stimulus dynamics. We show that the model exhibits two different dynamical regimes depending upon the connectivity pattern between inhibitory interneurons (that we refer to as fixed point attractor and limit cycle attractor), which both generate ratio-specific trajectories in the projection neuron output population that are reminiscent of temporal patterning and periodic hyperpolarisation observed in olfactory antennal lobe neurons. We compare the performance of the two corresponding population codes for reporting ratiometric blend information to higher centres of the insect brain. Our key finding is that whilst the dynamically rich limit cycle attractor spatiotemporal code is faster and more efficient in transmitting blend information under certain conditions it is also more prone to interference between network and stimulus dynamics, thus degrading ratiometric information under naturalistic input conditions. Our results suggest that rich intrinsically generated network dynamics can provide a powerful means of encoding multidimensional stimuli with high accuracy and efficiency, but only when isolated from stimulus dynamics. This interference between temporal dynamics of the stimulus and temporal patterns of neural activity constitutes a real challenge that must be successfully solved by the nervous system

  19. Effects of oral Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol on the cerebral processing of olfactory input in healthy non-addicted subjects.

    PubMed

    Walter, Carmen; Oertel, Bruno G; Felden, Lisa; Nöth, Ulrike; Vermehren, Johannes; Deichmann, Ralf; Lötsch, Jörn

    2017-09-02

    Considering the increasing acknowledgment of the human sense of smell as a significant component of the quality of life, olfactory drug effects gain potential clinical importance. A recent observation in a human experimental context indicated that Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impaired the subject's performance in olfactory tests. To further analyze the role of THC in human olfaction, the present report addresses its effects on the central processing of olfactory stimuli. Employing a placebo-controlled randomized crossover design, an oral dose of 20 mg THC was administered in 15 healthy volunteers. The central processing of olfactory input, consisting of short pulses of gaseous vanillin or hydrogen sulfide, and for comparison, of non-odorous but painful carbon dioxide, were investigated before and after administration of THC or placebo in a pharmacological functional magnet resonance imaging study. Following THC administration, the vanillin stimuli lost their pleasantness and became hedonically inert. This observation had its functional correlate in reduced stimulus-associated brain activations located in the left amygdala, the hippocampus and superior temporal pole (peak MNI coordinates x = - 27, y = - 1, z = - 26 mm p = 0.039). Differences in amygdala activations were significantly correlated with the corresponding differences in vanillin pleasantness (p = 0.025). By contrast, no effects were observed on the perception of processing of H2S stimuli. The results support that THC induced a modulation of the central processing of olfactory input. The THC-induced reduction in the pleasantness of a pleasurable odor was accompanied by reduced activations in the limbic system. Results agree with previous observation of negative effects of cannabinoids on the human sense of smell and strengthen the evidence that THC-based medications will be among drugs with olfactory side effects.

  20. Converging circuits mediate temperature and shock aversive olfactory conditioning in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Galili, Dana Shani; Dylla, Kristina V; Lüdke, Alja; Friedrich, Anja B; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Wong, Jin Yan Hilary; Ho, Chien Hsien; Szyszka, Paul; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2014-08-04

    Drosophila learn to avoid odors that are paired with aversive stimuli. Electric shock is a potent aversive stimulus that acts via dopamine neurons to elicit avoidance of the associated odor. While dopamine signaling has been demonstrated to mediate olfactory electric shock conditioning, it remains unclear how this pathway is involved in other types of behavioral reinforcement, such as in learned avoidance of odors paired with increased temperature. To better understand the neural mechanisms of distinct aversive reinforcement signals, we here established an olfactory temperature conditioning assay comparable to olfactory electric shock conditioning. We show that the AC neurons, which are internal thermal receptors expressing dTrpA1, are selectively required for odor-temperature but not for odor-shock memory. Furthermore, these separate sensory pathways for increased temperature and shock converge onto overlapping populations of dopamine neurons that signal aversive reinforcement. Temperature conditioning appears to require a subset of the dopamine neurons required for electric shock conditioning. We conclude that dopamine neurons integrate different noxious signals into a general aversive reinforcement pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Successful acquisition of an olfactory discrimination paradigm by South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus.

    PubMed

    Laska, Matthias; Svelander, Madeleine; Amundin, Mats

    2008-03-18

    The present study demonstrates that South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus, can successfully be trained to discriminate between objects on the basis of odor cues. Using a task based on a food-rewarded two-choice discrimination of simultaneously presented odor stimuli the animals acquired the basic operant conditioning paradigm within 480 to 880 stimulus contacts. Moreover, the fur seals could readily transfer to new S+ and S- stimuli, were capable of distinguishing between fish- and non-fish odors as well as between two fish odors, and were able to remember the reward value of previously learned odor stimuli even after 2- and 15-week breaks. The precision and consistency of the fur seals' performance in tests of discrimination ability and memory demonstrate the suitability of this paradigm for assessing olfactory function in this pinniped. An across-species comparison of several measures of olfactory learning capabilities such as speed of initial task acquisition and ability to master transfer tasks shows that A. pusillus is similar in performance to non-human primates, but inferior to rodents such as mice and rats. The results support the assumption that fur seals may use olfactory cues for social communication and food selection and that the sense of smell may play an hitherto underestimated role in the control of their behavior.

  2. Olfactory receptor neurons use gain control and complementary kinetics to encode intermittent odorant stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Gorur-Shandilya, Srinivas; Demir, Mahmut; Long, Junjiajia; Clark, Damon A; Emonet, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Insects find food and mates by navigating odorant plumes that can be highly intermittent, with intensities and durations that vary rapidly over orders of magnitude. Much is known about olfactory responses to pulses and steps, but it remains unclear how olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) detect the intensity and timing of natural stimuli, where the absence of scale in the signal makes detection a formidable olfactory task. By stimulating Drosophila ORNs in vivo with naturalistic and Gaussian stimuli, we show that ORNs adapt to stimulus mean and variance, and that adaptation and saturation contribute to naturalistic sensing. Mean-dependent gain control followed the Weber-Fechner relation and occurred primarily at odor transduction, while variance-dependent gain control occurred at both transduction and spiking. Transduction and spike generation possessed complementary kinetic properties, that together preserved the timing of odorant encounters in ORN spiking, regardless of intensity. Such scale-invariance could be critical during odor plume navigation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27670.001 PMID:28653907

  3. Insect-like olfactory adaptations in the terrestrial giant robber crab.

    PubMed

    Stensmyr, Marcus C; Erland, Susanne; Hallberg, Eric; Wallén, Rita; Greenaway, Peter; Hansson, Bill S

    2005-01-26

    The robber crab (Birgus latro), also known as the coconut crab, is the world's largest land-living arthropod, with a weight reaching 4 kg and a length of over half a meter. Apart from the marine larval stage, this crab is fully terrestrial, and will actually drown if submerged in water. A transition from sea to land raises dramatically new demands on the sensory equipment of an animal. In olfaction, the stimulus changes from hydrophilic molecules in aqueous solution to mainly hydrophobic in the gaseous phase. The olfactory system of land crabs thus represents an excellent opportunity for investigating the effects of the transition from sea to land. Have land crabs come to the same solutions as other terrestrial animals, or is their olfactory sense characterized by unique innovations? Here, we show that the robber crab has evolved an olfactory sense with a high degree of resemblance to the insect system. The similarities extend to physiological, behavioral, and morphological characters. The insect nose of the robber crab is a striking example of convergent evolution and nicely illustrates how similar selection pressures result in similar adaptation.

  4. Inhibition among olfactory receptor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Van der Goes van Naters, Wynand

    2013-01-01

    Often assumed to be epiphenomena of a cell’s activity, extracellular currents and resulting potential changes are increasingly recognized to influence the function of other cells in the vicinity. Experimental evidence shows that even small electric fields can modulate spike timing in neurons. Moreover, when neurons are brought close together experimentally or in pathological conditions, activity in one neuron can excite its neighbors. Inhibitory ephaptic mechanisms, however, may depend on more specialized coupling among cells. Recent studies in the Drosophila olfactory system have shown that excitation of a sensory neuron can inhibit its neighbor, and it was speculated that this interaction was ephaptic. Here we give an overview of ephaptic interactions that effect changes in spike timing, excitation or inhibition in diverse systems with potential relevance to human neuroscience. We examine the mechanism of the inhibitory interaction in the Drosophila system and that of the well-studied ephaptic inhibition of the Mauthner cell in more detail. We note that both current towards and current away from the local extracellular environment of a neuron can inhibit it, but the mechanism depends on the specific architecture of each system. PMID:24167484

  5. Olfactory cues modulate facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Demattè, M Luisa; Osterbauer, Robert; Spence, Charles

    2007-07-01

    We report an experiment designed to investigate whether olfactory cues can influence people's judgments of facial attractiveness. Sixteen female participants judged the attractiveness of a series of male faces presented briefly on a computer monitor using a 9-point visual rating scale. While viewing each face, the participants were simultaneously presented with either clean air or else with 1 of 4 odorants (the odor was varied on a trial-by-trial basis) from a custom-built olfactometer. We included 2 pleasant odors (geranium and a male fragrance) and 2 unpleasant odors (rubber and body odor) as confirmed by pilot testing. The results showed that the participants rated the male faces as being significantly less attractive in the presence of an unpleasant odor than when the faces were presented together with a pleasant odor or with clean air (these conditions did not differ significantly). These results demonstrate the cross-modal influence that unpleasant odors can have on people's judgments of facial attractiveness. Interestingly, this pattern of results was unaffected by whether the odors were body relevant (the body odor and the male fragrance) or not (the rubber and geranium odors).

  6. Zincergic innervation from the anterior olfactory nucleus to the olfactory bulb displays plastic responses after mitral cell loss.

    PubMed

    Airado, Carmen; Gómez, Carmela; Recio, Javier S; Baltanás, Fernando C; Weruaga, Eduardo; Alonso, José R

    2008-12-01

    Zinc ions are selectively accumulated in certain neurons (zinc-enriched neurons). The mouse olfactory bulb is richly innervated by zinc-enriched terminals. Here, the plasticity of the zincergic system was studied in the olfactory bulb of the Purkinje Cell Degeneration mutant mouse, an animal with specific postnatal neurodegeneration of the main projection neurons of the olfactory bulb. The analysis focused particularly on the anterior olfactory nucleus since most centrifugal afferents coming to the olfactory bulb arise from this structure. Zinc-enriched terminals in the olfactory bulb and zinc-enriched somata in the anterior olfactory nucleus were visualized after selenite injections. Immunohistochemistry against the vesicular zinc transporter was also carried out to confirm the distribution pattern of zinc-enriched terminals in the olfactory bulb. The mutant mice showed a clear reorganization of zincergic centrifugal projections from the anterior olfactory nucleus to the olfactory bulb. First, all zincergic contralateral neurons projecting to the olfactory bulb were absent in the mutant mice. Second, a significant increase in the number of stained somata was detected in the ipsilateral anterior olfactory nucleus. Since no noticeable changes were observed in the zinc-enriched terminals in the olfactory bulb, it is conceivable that mitral cell loss could induce a reorganization of zinc-enriched projections coming from the anterior olfactory nucleus, probably directed at balancing the global zincergic centrifugal modulation. These results show that zincergic anterior olfactory nucleus cells projecting to the olfactory bulb undergo plastic changes to adapt to the loss of mitral cells in the olfactory bulb of Purkinje Cell Degeneration mutant mice.

  7. An Olfactory Indicator for Acid-Base Titrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N.

    1990-01-01

    The use of an olfactory acid-base indicator in titrations for visually impaired students is discussed. Potential olfactory indicators include eugenol, thymol, vanillin, and thiophenol. Titrations performed with each indicator with eugenol proved to be successful. (KR)

  8. Physical Variables in the Olfactory Stimulation Process

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Don

    1963-01-01

    Electrical recording from small twigs of nerve in a tortoise showed that olfactory, vomeronasal, and trigeminal receptors in the nose are responsive to various odorants. No one kind of receptor was most sensitive to all odorants. For controlled stimulation, odorant was caused to appear in a stream of gas already flowing through the nose. Of the parameters definable at the naris, temperature, relative humidity, and nature of inert gas had little effect on olfactory responses to amyl acetate, whereas odorant species, odorant concentration, and volume flow rate effectively determined the responses of all nasal chemoreceptors. An intrinsic variable of accessibility to the receptors, particularly olfactory, was demonstrated. Flow dependence of chemoreceptor responses is thought to reflect the necessity for delivery of odorant molecules to receptor sites. Since the olfactory receptors are relatively exposed, plateauing of the response with flow rate for slightly soluble odorants suggests an approach to concentration equilibrium in the overlying mucus with that in the air entering the naris. Accordingly, data for responses to amyl acetate were fitted with Beidler's (1954) taste equation for two kinds of sites being active. The requirement for finite aqueous solubility, if true, suggests substitution of aqueous solutions for gaseous solutions. A suitable medium was found and results conformed to expectations. Olfactory receptors were insensitive to variation of ionic strength, pH, and osmotic pressure. PMID:13994681

  9. Olfactory coding in the honeybee lateral horn.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Edith; Carcaud, Julie; Combe, Maud; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2014-03-03

    Olfactory systems dynamically encode odor information in the nervous system. Insects constitute a well-established model for the study of the neural processes underlying olfactory perception. In insects, odors are detected by sensory neurons located in the antennae, whose axons project to a primary processing center, the antennal lobe. There, the olfactory message is reshaped and further conveyed to higher-order centers, the mushroom bodies and the lateral horn. Previous work has intensively analyzed the principles of olfactory processing in the antennal lobe and in the mushroom bodies. However, how the lateral horn participates in olfactory coding remains comparatively more enigmatic. We studied odor representation at the input to the lateral horn of the honeybee, a social insect that relies on both floral odors for foraging and pheromones for social communication. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we show consistent neural activity in the honeybee lateral horn upon stimulation with both floral volatiles and social pheromones. Recordings reveal odor-specific maps in this brain region as stimulations with the same odorant elicit more similar spatial activity patterns than stimulations with different odorants. Odor-similarity relationships are mostly conserved between antennal lobe and lateral horn, so that odor maps recorded in the lateral horn allow predicting bees' behavioral responses to floral odorants. In addition, a clear segregation of odorants based on pheromone type is found in both structures. The lateral horn thus contains an odor-specific map with distinct representations for the different bee pheromones, a prerequisite for eliciting specific behaviors.

  10. Perceptual and Neural Olfactory Similarity in Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2005-01-01

    The question of whether or not neural activity patterns recorded in the olfactory centres of the brain correspond to olfactory perceptual measures remains unanswered. To address this question, we studied olfaction in honeybees Apis mellifera using the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response. We conditioned bees to odours and tested generalisation responses to different odours. Sixteen odours were used, which varied both in their functional group (primary and secondary alcohols, aldehydes and ketones) and in their carbon-chain length (from six to nine carbons).The results obtained by presentation of a total of 16 × 16 odour pairs show that (i) all odorants presented could be learned, although acquisition was lower for short-chain ketones; (ii) generalisation varied depending both on the functional group and the carbon-chain length of odours trained; higher generalisation was found between long-chain than between short-chain molecules and between groups such as primary and secondary alcohols; (iii) for some odour pairs, cross-generalisation between odorants was asymmetric; (iv) a putative olfactory space could be defined for the honeybee with functional group and carbon-chain length as inner dimensions; (v) perceptual distances in such a space correlate well with physiological distances determined from optophysiological recordings of antennal lobe activity. We conclude that functional group and carbon-chain length are inner dimensions of the honeybee olfactory space and that neural activity in the antennal lobe reflects the perceptual quality of odours. PMID:15736975

  11. Olfactory and Gustatory Function After Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Holinski, Franca; Menenakos, Charalambos; Haber, Georg; Olze, Heidi; Ordemann, Juergen

    2015-12-01

    Neither hormone levels nor malabsorption alone fully explains the distinct weight loss after bariatric surgery in morbidly obese patients. Postoperatively, patients regularly report a change in the sense of taste and the development of food aversions. Hedonic and sensory components like olfactory and gustatory stimuli significantly affect appetite and flavour. We prospectively analysed the orthonasal olfactory and gustatory function with psychophysical testing in 44 patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or adjustable gastric banding (AGB) and in 23 healthy controls. About 22.7 % of morbidly obese patients were hyposmic, showing significantly lower threshold-discrimination-identification (TDI) scores (p = 0.009) with decreased discrimination and identification ability. In addition, 22.7 % of patients were tested to be limited in gustatory function, with significantly lower taste strip test (TST) scores (p = 0.003). Six months after surgery, olfactory and gustatory function was not different when compared to healthy controls. Due to obesity, patients frequently show impaired olfactory and gustatory function. Six months after laparoscopic bariatric surgery, both chemosensory functions improve. The TDI test is an appropriate tool to measure olfactory function in obese patients.

  12. Receptor guanylyl cyclases in mammalian olfactory function

    PubMed Central

    Zufall, Frank; Munger, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    The contributions of guanylyl cyclases to sensory signaling in the olfactory system have been unclear. Recently, studies of a specialized subpopulation of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) located in the main olfactory epithelium have provided important insights into the neuronal function of one receptor guanylyl cyclase, GC-D. Mice expressing reporters such as β-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein in OSNs that normally express GC-D have allowed investigators to identify these neurons in situ, facilitating anatomical and physiological studies of this sparse neuronal population. The specific perturbation of GC-D function in vivo has helped to resolve the role of this guanylyl cyclase in the transduction of olfactory stimuli. Similar approaches could be useful for the study of the orphan receptor GC-G, which is expressed in another distinct subpopulation of sensory neurons located in the Grueneberg ganglion. In this review, we discuss key findings that have reinvigorated the study of guanylyl cyclase function in the olfactory system. PMID:19941039

  13. Chemical olfactory signals and parenthood in mammals.

    PubMed

    Corona, Rebeca; Lévy, Frédéric

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". In mammalian species, odor cues emitted by the newborn are essential to establish maternal behavior at parturition and coordinate early mother-infant interactions. Offspring odors become potent attractive stimuli at parturition promoting the contact with the young to ensure that normal maternal care develops. In some species odors provide a basis for individual recognition of the offspring and highly specialized neural mechanisms for learning the infant signals have evolved. Both the main and the accessory olfactory systems are involved in the onset of maternal care, but only the former contributes to individual odor discrimination of the young. Electrophysiological and neurochemical changes occur in the main olfactory bulb leading to a coding of the olfactory signature of the familiar young. Olfactory neurogenesis could also contribute to motherhood and associated learning. Parturition and interactions with the young influence neurogenesis and some evidence indicates a functional link between olfactory neurogenesis and maternal behavior. Although a simple compound has been found which regulates anogenital licking in the rat, studies identifying the chemical nature of these odors are lacking. Neonatal body odors seem to be particularly salient to human mothers who are able to identify their infant's odors. Recent studies have revealed some neural processing of these cues confirming the importance of mother-young chemical communication in our own species.

  14. Honey Bees Modulate Their Olfactory Learning in the Presence of Hornet Predators and Alarm Component

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengwei; Qu, Yufeng; Dong, Shihao; Wen, Ping; Li, Jianjun; Tan, Ken; Menzel, Randolf

    2016-01-01

    In Southeast Asia the native honey bee species Apis cerana is often attacked by hornets (Vespa velutina), mainly in the period from April to November. During the co-evolution of these two species honey bees have developed several strategies to defend themselves such as learning the odors of hornets and releasing alarm components to inform other mates. However, so far little is known about whether and how honey bees modulate their olfactory learning in the presence of the hornet predator and alarm components of honey bee itself. In the present study, we test for associative olfactory learning of A. cerana in the presence of predator odors, the alarm pheromone component isopentyl acetate (IPA), or a floral odor (hexanal) as a control. The results show that bees can detect live hornet odors, that there is almost no association between the innately aversive hornet odor and the appetitive stimulus sucrose, and that IPA is less well associated with an appetitive stimulus when compared with a floral odor. In order to imitate natural conditions, e.g. when bees are foraging on flowers and a predator shows up, or alarm pheromone is released by a captured mate, we tested combinations of the hornet odor and floral odor, or IPA and floral odor. Both of these combinations led to reduced learning scores. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the prey-predator system between A. cerana and V. velutina. PMID:26919132

  15. Emergent identity but not symmetry following successive olfactory discrimination training in rats.

    PubMed

    Prichard, Ashley; Panoz-Brown, Danielle; Bruce, Katherine; Galizio, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The search for symmetry in nonhuman subjects has been successful in recent studies in pigeons (e.g., Urcuioli, 2008). The key to these successes has been the use of successive discrimination procedures and combined training on identity, as well as arbitrary, baseline relations. The present study was an effort to extend the findings and theoretical analysis developed by Urcuioli and his colleagues to rats using olfactory rather than visual stimuli. Experiment 1 was a systematic replication of Urcuioli's (2008) demonstration of symmetry in pigeons. Rats were exposed to unreinforced symmetry probes following training with two arbitrary and four identity conditional discriminations. Response rates on symmetry probe trials were low and provided little evidence for emergent symmetry in any of the seven rats tested. In Experiment 2, a separate group of six rats was trained on four identity relations and was then exposed to probe trials with four novel odor stimuli. Response rates were high on identity probe trials, and low on nonmatching probe trials. The similar patterns of responding on baseline and probe trials that were shown by most rats provided a demonstration of generalized identity matching. These findings suggest that the development of stimulus control topographies in rats with olfactory stimuli may differ from those that emerge in pigeons with visual stimuli. Urcuioli's (2008) theory has been highly successful in predicting conditions necessary for stimulus class formation in pigeons, but may not be sufficient to fully understand determinants of emergent behaviors in other nonhuman species.

  16. EMERGENT IDENTITY BUT NOT SYMMETRY FOLLOWING SUCCESSIVE OLFACTORY DISCRIMINATION TRAINING IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Prichard, Ashley; Panoz-Brown, Danielle; Bruce, Katherine; Galizio, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The search for symmetry in nonhuman subjects has been successful in recent studies in pigeons (e.g., Urcuioli, 2008). The key to these successes has been the use of successive discrimination procedures and combined training on identity, as well as arbitrary, baseline relations. The present study was an effort to extend the findings and theoretical analysis developed by Urcuioli and his colleagues to rats using olfactory rather than visual stimuli. Experiment 1 was a systematic replication of Urcuioli’s (2008) demonstration of symmetry in pigeons. Rats were exposed to unreinforced symmetry probes following training with two arbitrary and four identity conditional discriminations. Response rates on symmetry probe trials were low and provided little evidence for emergent symmetry in any of the seven rats tested. In Experiment 2, a separate group of six rats was trained on four identity relations and was then exposed to probe trials with four novel odor stimuli. Response rates were high on identity probe trials, and low on nonmatching probe trials. The similar patterns of responding on baseline and probe trials that were shown by most rats provided a demonstration of generalized identity matching. These findings suggest that the development of stimulus control topographies in rats with olfactory stimuli may differ from those that emerge in pigeons with visual stimuli. Urcuioli’s (2008) theory has been highly successful in predicting conditions necessary for stimulus class formation in pigeons, but may not be sufficient to fully understand determinants of emergent behaviors in other nonhuman species. PMID:26377436

  17. Honey Bees Modulate Their Olfactory Learning in the Presence of Hornet Predators and Alarm Component.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengwei; Qu, Yufeng; Dong, Shihao; Wen, Ping; Li, Jianjun; Tan, Ken; Menzel, Randolf

    2016-01-01

    In Southeast Asia the native honey bee species Apis cerana is often attacked by hornets (Vespa velutina), mainly in the period from April to November. During the co-evolution of these two species honey bees have developed several strategies to defend themselves such as learning the odors of hornets and releasing alarm components to inform other mates. However, so far little is known about whether and how honey bees modulate their olfactory learning in the presence of the hornet predator and alarm components of honey bee itself. In the present study, we test for associative olfactory learning of A. cerana in the presence of predator odors, the alarm pheromone component isopentyl acetate (IPA), or a floral odor (hexanal) as a control. The results show that bees can detect live hornet odors, that there is almost no association between the innately aversive hornet odor and the appetitive stimulus sucrose, and that IPA is less well associated with an appetitive stimulus when compared with a floral odor. In order to imitate natural conditions, e.g. when bees are foraging on flowers and a predator shows up, or alarm pheromone is released by a captured mate, we tested combinations of the hornet odor and floral odor, or IPA and floral odor. Both of these combinations led to reduced learning scores. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the prey-predator system between A. cerana and V. velutina.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of pattern formation and pattern recognition in the rabbit olfactory bulb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Bill

    1986-10-01

    A mathematical model of the process of pattern recognition in the first olfactory sensory cortex of the rabbit is presented. It explains the formation and alteration of spatial patterns in neural activity observed experimentally during classical Pavlovian conditioning. On each inspiration of the animal, a surge of receptor input enters the olfactory bulb. EEG activity recorded at the surface of the bulb undergoes a transition from a low amplitude background state of temporal disorder to coherent oscillation. There is a distinctive spatial pattern of rms amplitude in this oscillation which changes reliably to a second pattern during each successful recognition by the animal of a conditioned stimulus odor. When a new odor is paired as conditioned stimulus, these patterns are replaced by new patterns that stabilize as the animal adapts to the new environment. I will argue that a unification of the theories of pattern formation and associative memory is required to account for these observations. This is achieved in a model of the bulb as a discrete excitable medium with spatially inhomogeneous coupling expressed by a connection matrix. The theory of multiple Hopf bifurcations is employed to find coupled equations for the amplitudes of competing unstable oscillatory modes. These may be created in the system by proper coupling and selectively evoked by specific classes of inputs. This allows a view of limit cycle attractors as “stored” fixed points of a gradient vector field and thereby recovers the more familiar dynamical systems picture of associative memory.

  19. Using Intrinsic Flavoprotein and NAD(P)H Imaging to Map Functional Circuitry in the Main Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Puche, Adam C.; Munger, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Neurons exhibit strong coupling of electrochemical and metabolic activity. Increases in intrinsic fluorescence from either oxidized flavoproteins or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) [NAD(P)H] in the mitochondria have been used as an indicator of neuronal activity for the functional mapping of neural circuits. However, this technique has not been used to investigate the flow of olfactory information within the circuitry of the main olfactory bulb (MOB). We found that intrinsic flavoprotein fluorescence signals induced by electrical stimulation of single glomeruli displayed biphasic responses within both the glomerular (GL) and external plexiform layers (EPL) of the MOB. Pharmacological blockers of mitochondrial activity, voltage-gated Na+ channels, or ionotropic glutamate receptors abolished stimulus-dependent flavoprotein responses. Blockade of GABAA receptors enhanced the amplitude and spatiotemporal spread of the flavoprotein signals, indicating an important role for inhibitory neurotransmission in shaping the spread of neural activity in the MOB. Stimulus-dependent spread of fluorescence across the GL and EPL displayed a spatial distribution consistent with that of individual glomerular microcircuits mapped by neuroanatomic tract tracing. These findings demonstrated the feasibility of intrinsic fluorescence imaging in the olfactory systems and provided a new tool to examine the functional circuitry of the MOB. PMID:27902689

  20. Olfactory region schwannoma: Excision with preservation of olfaction.

    PubMed

    Salunke, Pravin; Patra, Devi Prasad; Futane, Sameer; Nada, Ritambhara

    2014-07-01

    Olfactory region schwannomas are rare, but when they occur, they commonly arise from the meningeal branches of the trigeminal nerve and may present without involvement of the olfaction. A 24 year old lady presented with hemifacial paraesthesias. Radiology revealed a large olfactory region enhancing lesion. She was operated through a transbasal with olfactory preserving approach. This manuscript highlights the importance of olfactory preservation in such lesions.

  1. Odour aversion after olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Carcaud, Julie; Roussel, Edith; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2009-03-01

    In Pavlovian conditioning, an originally neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus or CS) gains control over an animal's reflex after its association with a biologically relevant stimulus (unconditioned stimulus or US). As a consequence, a conditioned response is emitted by the animal upon further CS presentations. In such a situation, the subject exhibits a reflex response, so that whether the CS thereby acquires a positive or a negative value for the animal is difficult to assess. In honeybees, Apis mellifera, an odour (CS) can be associated either with sucrose solution (US) in the appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER), or with an electric shock (US) in the aversive conditioning of the sting extension reflex (SER). The term ;aversive' may not apply to the latter as bees do not suppress SER as a consequence of learning but, on the contrary, start emitting SER to the CS. To determine whether the CS acquires a positive or a negative value in these conditioning forms, we compared the orientation behaviour of freely walking honeybees in an olfactory-cued Y-maze after training them with an odour-sucrose association (PER conditioning) or an odour-shock association (SER conditioning). We show that the same odours can acquire either a positive value when associated to sucrose, or a negative value when associated to an electric shock, as bees respectively approach or avoid the CS in the Y-maze. Importantly, these results clearly establish the aversive nature of SER conditioning in honeybees.

  2. Changes in the neural representation of odorants after olfactory deprivation in the adult mouse olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Kass, Marley D; Pottackal, Joseph; Turkel, Daniel J; McGann, John P

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory sensory deprivation during development has been shown to induce significant alterations in the neurophysiology of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), the primary sensory inputs to the brain's olfactory bulb. Deprivation has also been shown to alter the neurochemistry of the adult olfactory system, but the physiological consequences of these changes are poorly understood. Here we used in vivo synaptopHluorin (spH) imaging to visualize odorant-evoked neurotransmitter release from ORNs in adult transgenic mice that underwent 4 weeks of unilateral olfactory deprivation. Deprivation reduced odorant-evoked spH signals compared with sham-occluded mice. Unexpectedly, this reduction was equivalent between ORNs on the open and plugged sides. Changes in odorant selectivity of glomerular subpopulations of ORNs were also observed, but only in ORNs on the open side of deprived mice. These results suggest that naris occlusion in adult mice produces substantial changes in primary olfactory processing which may reflect not only the decrease in olfactory stimulation on the occluded side but also the alteration of response properties on the intact side. We also observed a modest effect of true sham occlusions that included noseplug insertion and removal, suggesting that conventional noseplug techniques may have physiological effects independent of deprivation per se and thus require more careful controls than has been previously appreciated.

  3. The projection from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb in the salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum.

    PubMed

    Mackay-Sim, A; Nathan, M H

    1984-01-01

    Odor quality may be represented as a "topographic" code of responses of receptor cells throughout the olfactory epithelium, with this code conveyed to the central nervous system by a topographic projection from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb. There is good evidence for topographic differences in odor-induced receptor cell activity in the tiger salamander but there is no evidence for a topographic epithelium-to-bulb projection in this species. In the present study 3H-leucine autoradiography was used to trace the projections of olfactory receptor neurons in the tiger salamander. Thirteen animals received small injections of tritiated leucine into different regions of the dorsal or the ventral olfactory epithelium, or into the ventrolateral, "vomeronasal organ". The results show that the anterior-to-posterior axes in the dorsal and ventral epithelia are represented along the ventral-to-dorsal axis in the rostral end of the olfactory bulb. The "vomeronasal organ" projects to the caudal end of the bulb. We conclude that the central projection of the olfactory epithelium in the tiger salamander is topographically organised only along the antero-posterior axis and not the medio-lateral axis. Thus epithelial receptor cell activity along the anteroposterior axis would be represented in the glomerular layer of the bulb by activity along its ventro-dorsal axis.

  4. Application of artificial neural networks on mosquito Olfactory Receptor Neurons for an olfactory biosensor.

    PubMed

    Bachtiar, Luqman R; Unsworth, Charles P; Newcomb, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Various odorants such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and 1-octen-3-ol, underlie the host-seeking behaviors of the major malaria vector Anopheles Gambiae. Highlighted by the olfactory processing strength of the mosquito, such a powerful olfactory sense could serve as the sensors of an artificial olfactory biosensor. In this work, we use the firing rates of the A. Gambiae mosquito Olfactory Receptor Neurons (ORNs), to train an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for the classification of volatile odorants into their known chemical classes and assess their suitability for an olfactory biosensor. With the implementation of bootstrapping, a more representative result was obtained wherein we demonstrate the training of a hybrid ANN consisting of an array of Multi-Layer Perceptrons (MLPs) with optimal number of hidden neurons. The ANN system was able to correctly class 90.1% of the previously unseen odorants, thus demonstrating very strong evidence for the use of A. Gambiae olfactory receptors coupled with an ANN as an olfactory biosensor.

  5. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    PubMed

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  6. [Olfactory dysfunction: correlation of olfactory bulb volume on MRI and objective olfactometry].

    PubMed

    Bauknecht, H-C; Jach, C; Fleiner, F; Sedlmaier, B; Göktas, O

    2010-02-01

    To define the role of olfactory bulb volume measurement by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting olfactory dysfunction in comparison with objective olfactometry. Thirty patients with suspected olfactory dysfunction (16 women, 14 men; mean age 52 years, range 20 - 79 years) were examined by MRI and objective olfactometry between January 2006 and January 2009. Olfactory bulb volumes were measured by two neuroradiologists using 3D MR data sets. The olfactory function was categorized as normosmia, hyposmia, and anosmia on the basis of objective olfactometry. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for objective olfactometry and olfactory bulb volumes on MRI. ROC analysis was performed to determine whether MRI bulb volumes can serve to predict anosmia or hyposmia. The bulb volumes measured by MRI ranged from 0 to 135.9 mm (3). Based on olfactometry, anosmia was present in 11 patients (total bulb volume of 15.7 +/- 23.3 mm (3)), hyposmia in 9 patients (total bulb volume of 50.0 +/- 25.5 mm (3)), and normosmia in 10 patients (total bulb volume of 110.7 +/- 21.5 mm (3)). There was good correlation (r > 0.9) between objective olfactometry and olfactory bulb volume on MRI. ROC analysis yielded a cut-off value of 32 mm (3) for anosmia, which had a sensitivity of 0.91 and specificity of 0.947. The cut-off value for olfactory dysfunction was 80.7 mm (3) (sensitivity 0.95; specificity of 0.9). The olfactory bulb volume determined by MRI is a suitable parameter for diagnosing complete or partial loss of the sense of smell.

  7. Does post-infectious olfactory loss affect mood more severely than chronic sinusitis with olfactory loss?

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong G; Lee, Jun-Seok; Park, Gi C

    2014-11-01

    Olfactory deficits that develop after viral upper respiratory infection (URI) may have different effects on patient depression index compared to chronic sinusitis with olfactory loss. However, there have been no controlled trials to evaluate the different effects of chronic sinusitis and URI on depression index. Prospective study of 25 subjects in two groups. This study enrolled 25 participants who were diagnosed with post-URI olfactory loss as the study group and 25 patients with chronic sinusitis and olfactory loss as a control group. Control group participants were matched for age, sex, and degree of olfactory loss (threshold, discrimination, and identification [TDI]). We compared the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores of each group and analyzed the correlation between TDI and BDI. The mean BDI score of the post-URI group was significantly higher than that of the control group (14.52 ± 6.59 vs. 9.32 ± 5.23; P=.002). Age, sex, and TDI score did not affect BDI score in the post-URI olfactory loss group. However, BDI score in the sinusitis group was inversely correlated with TDI score (R=-0.423; P=.035), and the BDI score of female subjects (11.00 ± 5.13) was significantly higher than that of male subjects (5.00 ± 2.16; P = .047). Post-URI olfactory loss affected patient mood more severely than chronic sinusitis with a similar degree of olfactory loss. This influence was not affected by sex, age, or TDI score in the post-URI olfactory loss group. 3b. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Anatomical and molecular consequences of Unilateral Naris Closure on two populations of olfactory sensory neurons expressing defined odorant receptors.

    PubMed

    Molinas, Adrien; Aoudé, Imad; Soubeyre, Vanessa; Tazir, Bassim; Cadiou, Hervé; Grosmaitre, Xavier

    2016-07-28

    Mammalian olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), the primary elements of the olfactory system, are located in the olfactory epithelium lining the nasal cavity. Exposed to the environment, their lifespan is short. Consequently, OSNs are regularly regenerated and several reports show that activity strongly modulates their development and regeneration: the peripheral olfactory system can adjust to the amount of stimulus through compensatory mechanisms. Unilateral naris occlusion (UNO) was frequently used to investigate this mechanism at the entire epithelium level. However, there is little data regarding the effects of UNO at the cellular level, especially on individual neuronal populations expressing a defined odorant receptor. Here, using UNO during the first three postnatal weeks, we analyzed the anatomical and molecular consequences of sensory deprivation in OSNs populations expressing the MOR23 and M71 receptors. The density of MOR23-expressing neurons is decreased in the closed side while UNO does not affect the density of M71-expressing neurons. Using Real Time qPCR on isolated neurons, we observed that UNO modulates the transcript levels for transduction pathway proteins (odorant receptors, CNGA2, PDE1c). The transcripts modulated by UNO will differ between populations depending on the receptor expressed. These results suggest that sensory deprivation will have different effects on different OSNs' populations. As a consequence, early experience will shape the functional properties of OSNs differently depending on the type of odorant receptor they express.

  9. Neural Correlates of Olfactory Learning: Critical Role of Centrifugal Neuromodulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Max L.; Chen, Wei R.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian olfactory system is well established for its remarkable capability of undergoing experience-dependent plasticity. Although this process involves changes at multiple stages throughout the central olfactory pathway, even the early stages of processing, such as the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex, can display a high degree of…

  10. Individual olfactory perception reveals meaningful nonolfactory genetic information

    PubMed Central

    Secundo, Lavi; Snitz, Kobi; Weissler, Kineret; Pinchover, Liron; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Loewenthal, Ron; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Frumin, Idan; Bar-Zvi, Dana; Shushan, Sagit; Sobel, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Each person expresses a potentially unique subset of ∼400 different olfactory receptor subtypes. Given that the receptors we express partially determine the odors we smell, it follows that each person may have a unique nose; to capture this, we devised a sensitive test of olfactory perception we termed the “olfactory fingerprint.” Olfactory fingerprints relied on matrices of perceived odorant similarity derived from descriptors applied to the odorants. We initially fingerprinted 89 individuals using 28 odors and 54 descriptors. We found that each person had a unique olfactory fingerprint (P < 10−10), which was odor specific but descriptor independent. We could identify individuals from this pool using randomly selected sets of 7 odors and 11 descriptors alone. Extrapolating from this data, we determined that using 34 odors and 35 descriptors we could individually identify each of the 7 billion people on earth. Olfactory perception, however, fluctuates over time, calling into question our proposed perceptual readout of presumably stable genetic makeup. To test whether fingerprints remain informative despite this temporal fluctuation, building on the linkage between olfactory receptors and HLA, we hypothesized that olfactory perception may relate to HLA. We obtained olfactory fingerprints and HLA typing for 130 individuals, and found that olfactory fingerprint matching using only four odorants was significantly related to HLA matching (P < 10−4), such that olfactory fingerprints can save 32% of HLA tests in a population screen (P < 10−6). In conclusion, a precise measure of olfactory perception reveals meaningful nonolfactory genetic information. PMID:26100865

  11. Neural Correlates of Olfactory Learning: Critical Role of Centrifugal Neuromodulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Max L.; Chen, Wei R.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian olfactory system is well established for its remarkable capability of undergoing experience-dependent plasticity. Although this process involves changes at multiple stages throughout the central olfactory pathway, even the early stages of processing, such as the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex, can display a high degree of…

  12. Individual olfactory perception reveals meaningful nonolfactory genetic information.

    PubMed

    Secundo, Lavi; Snitz, Kobi; Weissler, Kineret; Pinchover, Liron; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Loewenthal, Ron; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Frumin, Idan; Bar-Zvi, Dana; Shushan, Sagit; Sobel, Noam

    2015-07-14

    Each person expresses a potentially unique subset of ∼ 400 different olfactory receptor subtypes. Given that the receptors we express partially determine the odors we smell, it follows that each person may have a unique nose; to capture this, we devised a sensitive test of olfactory perception we termed the "olfactory fingerprint." Olfactory fingerprints relied on matrices of perceived odorant similarity derived from descriptors applied to the odorants. We initially fingerprinted 89 individuals using 28 odors and 54 descriptors. We found that each person had a unique olfactory fingerprint (P < 10(-10)), which was odor specific but descriptor independent. We could identify individuals from this pool using randomly selected sets of 7 odors and 11 descriptors alone. Extrapolating from this data, we determined that using 34 odors and 35 descriptors we could individually identify each of the 7 billion people on earth. Olfactory perception, however, fluctuates over time, calling into question our proposed perceptual readout of presumably stable genetic makeup. To test whether fingerprints remain informative despite this temporal fluctuation, building on the linkage between olfactory receptors and HLA, we hypothesized that olfactory perception may relate to HLA. We obtained olfactory fingerprints and HLA typing for 130 individuals, and found that olfactory fingerprint matching using only four odorants was significantly related to HLA matching (P < 10(-4)), such that olfactory fingerprints can save 32% of HLA tests in a population screen (P < 10(-6)). In conclusion, a precise measure of olfactory perception reveals meaningful nonolfactory genetic information.

  13. Reading cinnamon activates olfactory brain regions.

    PubMed

    González, Julio; Barros-Loscertales, Alfonso; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Meseguer, Vanessa; Sanjuán, Ana; Belloch, Vicente; Avila, César

    2006-08-15

    Some words immediately and automatically remind us of odours, smells and scents, whereas other language items do not evoke such associations. This study investigated, for the first time, the abstract linking of linguistic and odour information using modern neuroimaging techniques (functional MRI). Subjects passively read odour-related words ('garlic', 'cinnamon', 'jasmine') and neutral language items. The odour-related terms elicited activation in the primary olfactory cortex, which include the piriform cortex and the amygdala. Our results suggest the activation of widely distributed cortical cell assemblies in the processing of olfactory words. These distributed neuron populations extend into language areas but also reach some parts of the olfactory system. These distributed neural systems may be the basis of the processing of language elements, their related conceptual and semantic information and the associated sensory information.

  14. Patch-clamping arthropod olfactory receptor neurons to study mechanisms of olfactory transduction.

    PubMed

    Hatt, H; Ache, B W

    1996-10-21

    The olfactory organ of arthropods such as lobsters and insects consists of an array of hair-like sensilla located on the antenna. Each sensillum contains from two to several hundred primary olfactory receptor neurons. The receptor neurons can be patch-clamped in three different types of preparations: intact cells in situ, cultured cells and outer dendrites. These preparations permit using a wide range of experimental strategies to study mechanisms of olfactory transduction. The ability to integrate data from three complementary preparations is a particular advantage of using arthropod models to understand how odor information is encoded by the primary receptor cell in olfaction.

  15. Laminar disorganisation of mitral cells in the olfactory bulb does not affect topographic targeting of primary olfactory axons.

    PubMed

    Royal, S J; Gambello, M J; Wynshaw-Boris, A; Key, B; Clarris, H J

    2002-04-05

    Primary olfactory neurons expressing the same odorant receptor protein typically project to topographically fixed olfactory bulb sites. While cell adhesion molecules and odorant receptors have been implicated in guidance of primary olfactory axons, the postsynaptic mitral cells may also have a role in final target selection. We have examined the effect of disorganisation of the mitral cell soma layer in mutant mice heterozygous for the beta-subunit of platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (Lis1(-/+)) on the targeting of primary olfactory axons. Lis1(-/+) mice display abnormal lamination of neurons in the olfactory bulb. Lis1(-/+) mice were crossed with the P2-IRES-tau:LacZ line of transgenic mice that selectively expresses beta-galactosidase in primary olfactory neurons expressing the P2 odorant receptor. LacZ histochemistry revealed blue-stained P2 axons that targeted topographically fixed glomeruli in these mice in a manner similar to that observed in the parent P2-IRES-tau:LacZ line. Thus, despite the aberrant organisation of postsynaptic mitral cells in Lis1(-/+) mice, primary olfactory axons continued to converge and form glomeruli at correct sites in the olfactory bulb. Next we examined whether challenging primary olfactory axons in adult Lis(-/+) mice with regeneration would affect their ability to converge and form glomeruli. Following partial chemical ablation of the olfactory neuroepithelium with dichlobenil, primary olfactory neurons die and are replaced by newly differentiating neurons that project axons to the olfactory bulb where they converge and form glomeruli. Despite the aberrant mitral cell layer in Lis(-/+) mice, primary olfactory axons continued to converge and form glomeruli during regeneration. Together these results demonstrate that the convergence of primary olfactory axons during development and regeneration is not affected by gross perturbations to the lamination of the mitral cell layer. Thus, these results support evidence from

  16. Modulation by cyclic GMP of the odour sensitivity of vertebrate olfactory receptor cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leinders-Zufall, T.; Shepherd, G. M.; Zufall, F.

    1996-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated a significant role for the cGMP second messenger system in vertebrate olfactory transduction but no clear functions have been identified for cGMP so far. Here, we have examined the effects of 8-Br-cGMP and carbon monoxide (CO) on odour responses of salamander olfactory receptor neurons using perforated patch recordings. We report that 8-Br-cGMP strongly down-regulates the odour sensitivity of the cells, with a K1/2 of 460 nM. This adaptation-like effect can be mimicked by CO, an activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase, with a K1/2 of 1 microM. Sensitivity modulation is achieved through a regulatory chain of events in which cGMP stimulates a persistent background current due to the activation of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. This in turn leads to sustained Ca2+ entry providing a negative feedback signal. One consequence of the Ca2+ entry is a shift to the right of the stimulus-response curve and a reduction in saturating odour currents. Together, these two effects can reduce the sensory generator current by up to twenty-fold. Thus, cGMP functions to control the gain of the G-protein coupled cAMP pathway. Another consequence of the action of cGMP is a marked prolongation of the odour response kinetics. The effects of CO/cGMP are long-lasting and can continue for minutes. Hence, we propose that cGMP helps to prevent saturation of the cell's response by adjusting the operational range of the cAMP cascade and contributes to olfactory adaptation by decreasing the sensitivity of olfactory receptor cells to repeated odour stimuli.

  17. Modulation by cyclic GMP of the odour sensitivity of vertebrate olfactory receptor cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leinders-Zufall, T.; Shepherd, G. M.; Zufall, F.

    1996-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated a significant role for the cGMP second messenger system in vertebrate olfactory transduction but no clear functions have been identified for cGMP so far. Here, we have examined the effects of 8-Br-cGMP and carbon monoxide (CO) on odour responses of salamander olfactory receptor neurons using perforated patch recordings. We report that 8-Br-cGMP strongly down-regulates the odour sensitivity of the cells, with a K1/2 of 460 nM. This adaptation-like effect can be mimicked by CO, an activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase, with a K1/2 of 1 microM. Sensitivity modulation is achieved through a regulatory chain of events in which cGMP stimulates a persistent background current due to the activation of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. This in turn leads to sustained Ca2+ entry providing a negative feedback signal. One consequence of the Ca2+ entry is a shift to the right of the stimulus-response curve and a reduction in saturating odour currents. Together, these two effects can reduce the sensory generator current by up to twenty-fold. Thus, cGMP functions to control the gain of the G-protein coupled cAMP pathway. Another consequence of the action of cGMP is a marked prolongation of the odour response kinetics. The effects of CO/cGMP are long-lasting and can continue for minutes. Hence, we propose that cGMP helps to prevent saturation of the cell's response by adjusting the operational range of the cAMP cascade and contributes to olfactory adaptation by decreasing the sensitivity of olfactory receptor cells to repeated odour stimuli.

  18. Olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex in honeybees: Memory dependence on trial number, interstimulus interval, intertrial interval, and protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Giurfa, Martin; Fabre, Eve; Flaven-Pouchon, Justin; Groll, Helga; Oberwallner, Barbara; Vergoz, Vanina; Roussel, Edith; Sandoz, Jean Christophe

    2009-12-01

    Harnessed bees learn to associate an odorant with an electric shock so that afterward the odorant alone elicits the sting extension response (SER). We studied the dependency of retention on interstimulus interval (ISI), intertrial interval (ITI), and number of conditioning trials in the framework of olfactory SER conditioning. Forward ISIs (conditioned stimulus [CS] before unconditioned stimulus [US]) supported higher retention than a backward one (US before CS) with an optimum around 3 sec. Spaced trials (ITI 10 min) supported higher retention than massed trials (ITI 1 min) and led to the formation of a late long-term memory (l-LTM) that depended on protein synthesis. Our results reaffirm olfactory SER conditioning as a reliable tool for the study of learning and memory.

  19. Measuring Olfactory Processes in Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Schellinck, Heather

    2017-09-04

    This paper briefly reviews the literature that describes olfactory acuity and odor discrimination learning. The results of current studies that examined the role of neurotransmitters in odor discrimination learning are discussed as are those that investigated pattern recognition and models of human disease. The methodology associated with such work is also described and its role in creating disparate results assessed. Recommendations for increasing the reliability and validity of experiments so as to further our understanding of olfactory processes in both healthy mice and those modelling human disease are made throughout the paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Olfactory regulation of mosquito–host interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zwiebel, L.J.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    Mosquitoes that act as disease vectors rely upon olfactory cues to direct several important behaviors that are fundamentally involved in establishing their overall vectorial capacity. Of these, the propensity to select humans for blood feeding is arguably the most important of these olfactory driven behaviors in so far as it significantly contributes to the ability of these mosquitoes to transmit pathogens that cause diseases such as dengue, yellow fever and most significantly human malaria. Here, we review significant advances in behavioral, physiological and molecular investigations into mosquito host preference, with a particular emphasis on studies that have emerged in the post-genomic era that seek to combine these approaches. PMID:15242705

  1. High olfactory sensitivity for dimethyl sulphide in harbour seals

    PubMed Central

    Kowalewsky, Sylvia; Dambach, Martin; Mauck, Björn; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2005-01-01

    Productive areas are patchily distributed at sea and represent important feeding grounds for many marine organisms. Although pinnipeds are known to travel on direct routes and return regularly to particular feeding sites, the environmental information seals use to perform this navigation is as yet unknown. As atmospheric dimethyl sulphide (DMS) has been demonstrated to be a reliable indicator for profitable foraging areas, we tested seals for their ability to smell DMS at concentrations typical for the marine environment. Using a go/no-go response paradigm we determined the DMS detection threshold in two harbour seals (Phoca vitulina vitulina). DMS stimuli from 8.05×108 to 8 pmol (DMS) m−3(air) were tested against a control stimulus using a custom-made olfactometer. DMS-thresholds determined for both seals (20 and 13 pmol m−3) indicate that seals can detect ambient concentrations associated with high primary productivity, e.g. in the North Atlantic. Thus, seals possess an extraordinarily high olfactory sensitivity for DMS, which could provide a sensory basis for identifying or orienting to profitable foraging grounds. PMID:17148339

  2. Olfactory Processing and Behavior Downstream from Highly Selective Receptor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Schlief, Michelle L.; Wilson, Rachel I.

    2010-01-01

    In either the vertebrate nose or the insect antenna, most olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) respond to multiple odors. However, some ORNs respond to just a single odor, or at most to a few highly related odors. It has been hypothesized that narrowly-tuned ORNs project to narrowly-tuned neurons in the brain, and that these dedicated circuits mediate innate behavioral responses to a particular ligand. Here we have investigated neural activity and behavior downstream from two narrowly-tuned ORN types in Drosophila. We found that genetically ablating either of these ORN types impairs innate behavioral attraction to their cognate ligand. Neurons in the antennal lobe postsynaptic to one of these ORN types are, like their presynaptic ORNs, narrowly tuned to a pheromone. However, neurons postsynaptic to the second ORN type are broadly tuned. These results demonstrate that some narrowly-tuned ORNs project to dedicated central circuits, ensuring a tight connection between stimulus and behavior, whereas others project to central neurons which participate in the ensemble representations of many odors. PMID:17417635

  3. Rapid odor perception in rat olfactory bulb by microelectrode array*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Dong, Qi; Zhuang, Liu-jing; Li, Rong; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Responses of 302 mitral/tufted (M/T) cells in the olfactory bulb were recorded from 42 anesthetized freely breathing rats using a 16-channel microwire electrode array. Saturated vapors of four pure chemicals, anisole, carvone, citral and isoamyl acetate were applied. After aligning spike trains to the initial phase of the inhalation after odor onset, the responses of M/T cells showed transient temporal features including excitatory and inhibitory patterns. Both odor-evoked patterns indicated that mammals recognize odors within a short respiration cycle after odor stimulus. Due to the small amount of information received from a single cell, we pooled results from all responsive M/T cells to study the ensemble activity. The firing rates of the cell ensembles were computed over 100 ms bins and population vectors were constructed. The high dimension vectors were condensed into three dimensions for visualization using principal component analysis. The trajectories of both excitatory and inhibitory cell ensembles displayed strong dynamics during odor stimulation. The distances among cluster centers were enlarged compared to those of the resting state. Thus, we presumed that pictures of odor information sent to higher brain regions were depicted and odor discrimination was completed within the first breathing cycle. PMID:23225857

  4. Topological Reorganization of Odor Representations in the Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Yaksi, Emre; Judkewitz, Benjamin; Friedrich, Rainer W

    2007-01-01

    Odors are initially represented in the olfactory bulb (OB) by patterns of sensory input across the array of glomeruli. Although activated glomeruli are often widely distributed, glomeruli responding to stimuli sharing molecular features tend to be loosely clustered and thus establish a fractured chemotopic map. Neuronal circuits in the OB transform glomerular patterns of sensory input into spatiotemporal patterns of output activity and thereby extract information about a stimulus. It is, however, unknown whether the chemotopic spatial organization of glomerular inputs is maintained during these computations. To explore this issue, we measured spatiotemporal patterns of odor-evoked activity across thousands of individual neurons in the zebrafish OB by temporally deconvolved two-photon Ca2+ imaging. Mitral cells and interneurons were distinguished by transgenic markers and exhibited different response selectivities. Shortly after response onset, activity patterns exhibited foci of activity associated with certain chemical features throughout all layers. During the subsequent few hundred milliseconds, however, MC activity was locally sparsened within the initial foci in an odor-specific manner. As a consequence, chemotopic maps disappeared and activity patterns became more informative about precise odor identity. Hence, chemotopic maps of glomerular input activity are initially transmitted to OB outputs, but not maintained during pattern processing. Nevertheless, transient chemotopic maps may support neuronal computations by establishing important synaptic interactions within the circuit. These results provide insights into the functional topology of neural activity patterns and its potential role in circuit function. PMID:17608564

  5. Poverty of the stimulus revisited.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Robert C; Pietroski, Paul; Yankama, Beracah; Chomsky, Noam

    2011-01-01

    A central goal of modern generative grammar has been to discover invariant properties of human languages that reflect "the innate schematism of mind that is applied to the data of experience" and that "might reasonably be attributed to the organism itself as its contribution to the task of the acquisition of knowledge" (Chomsky, 1971). Candidates for such invariances include the structure dependence of grammatical rules, and in particular, certain constraints on question formation. Various "poverty of stimulus" (POS) arguments suggest that these invariances reflect an innate human endowment, as opposed to common experience: Such experience warrants selection of the grammars acquired only if humans assume, a priori, that selectable grammars respect substantive constraints. Recently, several researchers have tried to rebut these POS arguments. In response, we illustrate why POS arguments remain an important source of support for appeal to a priori structure-dependent constraints on the grammars that humans naturally acquire. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Does stimulus appearance affect learning?

    PubMed

    Pothos, Emmanuel M; Chater, Nick; Ziori, Eleni

    2006-01-01

    We examined the learning process with 3 sets of stimuli that have identical symbolic structure but differ in appearance (meaningless letter strings, arrangements of geometric shapes, and sequences of cities). One hypothesis is that the learning process aims to encode symbolic regularity in the same way, largely regardless of appearance. Another is that different types of stimuli bias the learning process to operate in different ways. Using the experimental paradigm of artificial grammar learning, we provided a preliminary test of these hypotheses. In Experiments 1 and 2 we measured performance in terms of grammaticality and found no difference across the 3 sets of stimuli. In Experiment 3 we analyzed performance in terms of both grammaticality and chunk strength. Again we found no differences in performance. Our tentative conclusion is that the learning process aims to encode symbolic regularity independent of stimulus appearance.

  7. Same same but different: the case of olfactory imagery

    PubMed Central

    Arshamian, Artin; Larsson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the present work we present an overview of experimental findings corroborating olfactory imagery observations with the visual and auditory modalities. Overall, the results indicate that imagery of olfactory information share many features with those observed in the primary senses although some major differences are evident. One such difference pertains to the considerable individual differences observed, with the majority being unable to reproduce olfactory information in their mind. Here, we highlight factors that are positively related to an olfactory imagery capacity, such as semantic knowledge, perceptual experience, and olfactory interest that may serve as potential moderators of the large individual variation. PMID:24550862

  8. [Conjugated variability of spontaneous activity and behavioral response to olfactory stimuli in the taiga tick (Ixodes persulcatus)].

    PubMed

    Romashchenko, A V; Shnaĭder, E P; Petrovskiĭ, D V; Moshkin, M P

    2013-01-01

    According to -the automatic tracing of the movement of ticks in a Petri dish, motivational variability of the spontaneous activity and behavioral response of the taiga tick to olfactory stimuli was analyzed. In the studied sample, two groups of ticks that differ in the movement trajectory in the absence of stimulus were isolated, including ticks that mainly moved on the edge of the dish at maximum accessible height (group 1) and ticks that mainly moved at the bottom and wall of the dish (group 2). It was registered that ticks of group 1 (as opposed to ticks of group 2) demonstrated a pronounced behavioral response to olfactory stimuli (human synthetic pheromones and ammonia) and negative geotaxis. It was established that belonging to these groups depended On the time of day when the testing was performed and did not depend on the physiological age and infectious status.

  9. Accessory Olfactory Bulb Function is Modulated by Input from the Main Olfactory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Slotnick, Burton; Restrepo, Diego; Schellinck, Heather; Archbold, Georgina; Price, Stephen; Lin, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    While it is now established that sensory neurons in both the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ may be activated by both general and pheromonal odorants, it remains unclear what initiates sampling by the VNO. Anterograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase was used to determine that adequate intranasal syringing with zinc sulfate interrupted all inputs to the main olfactory bulb but left intact those to the accessory olfactory bulb. Adult male treated mice were frankly anosmic when tested with pheromonal and non-pheromonal odors and failed to engage in aggressive behavior. Treated juvenile females failed to show puberty acceleration subsequent to exposure to bedding from adult males. Activation of the immediate early gene c-Fos and electro-vomeronasogram recording confirmed the integrity of the vomeronasal system in zinc sulfate treated mice. These results support the hypothesis that odor detection by the main olfactory epithelium is required to initiate sampling by the vomeronasal system. PMID:20377623

  10. Olfactory sensations produced by high-energy photon irradiation of the olfactory receptor mucosa in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Sagar, S.M.; Thomas, R.J.; Loverock, L.T.; Spittle, M.F. )

    1991-04-01

    During irradiation of volumes that incorporate the olfactory system, a proportion of patients have complained of a pungent smell. A retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence of this side-effect. A questionnaire was sent to 40 patients whose treatment volumes included the olfactory region and also to a control group treated away from this region. The irradiated tumor volumes included the frontal lobe, whole brain, nasopharynx, pituitary fossa, and maxillary antrum. Of the 25 patients who replied, 60% experienced odorous symptoms during irradiation. They described the odor as unpleasant and consistent with ozone. Stimulation of olfactory receptors is considered to be caused by the radiochemical formation of ozone and free radicals in the mucus overlying the olfactory mucosa.

  11. Accessory olfactory bulb function is modulated by input from the main olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Slotnick, Burton; Restrepo, Diego; Schellinck, Heather; Archbold, Georgina; Price, Stephen; Lin, Weihong

    2010-03-01

    Although it is now established that sensory neurons in both the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ may be activated by both general and pheromonal odorants, it remains unclear what initiates sampling by the vomeronasal organ. Anterograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase was used to determine that adequate intranasal syringing with zinc sulfate interrupted all inputs to the main olfactory bulb but left intact those to the accessory olfactory bulb. Adult male treated mice were frankly anosmic when tested with pheromonal and non-pheromonal odors and failed to engage in aggressive behavior. Treated juvenile females failed to show puberty acceleration subsequent to exposure to bedding from adult males. Activation of the immediate early gene c-Fos and electrovomeronasogram recording confirmed the integrity of the vomeronasal system in zinc sulfate-treated mice. These results support the hypothesis that odor detection by the main olfactory epithelium is required to initiate sampling by the vomeronasal system.

  12. On the organization of olfactory and vomeronasal cortices.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2009-01-12

    Classically, the olfactory and vomeronasal pathways are thought to run in parallel non-overlapping axes in the forebrain subserving different functions. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs (primary projections), which in turn project to different areas of the telencephalon in a non-topographic fashion (secondary projections) and so on (tertiary projections). New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs converge widely in the rostral basal telencephalon. In contrast, in the vomeronasal system, cloning two classes of vomeronasal receptors (V1R and V2R) has led to the distinction of two anatomically and functionally independent pathways that reach some common, but also some different, targets in the amygdala. Tertiary projections from the olfactory and vomeronasal amygdalae are directed to the ventral striatum, which thus becomes a site for processing and potential convergence of chemosensory stimuli. Functional data indicate that the olfactory and vomeronasal systems are able to detect and process volatiles (presumptive olfactory cues) as well as pheromones in both epithelia and bulbs. Collectively, these data indicate that the anatomical and functional distinction between the olfactory and vomeronasal systems should be re-evaluated. Specifically, the recipient cortex should be reorganized to include olfactory, vomeronasal (convergent and V1R and V2R specific areas) and mixed (olfactory and vomeronasal) chemosensory cortices. This new perspective could help to unravel olfactory and vomeronasal interactions in behavioral paradigms.

  13. Shh-proteoglycan interactions regulate maturation of olfactory glomerular circuitry.

    PubMed

    Persson, Laura; Witt, Rochelle M; Galligan, Meghan; Greer, Paul L; Eisner, Adriana; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Datta, Sandeep R; Segal, Rosalind A

    2014-12-01

    The olfactory system relies on precise circuitry connecting olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and appropriate relay and processing neurons of the olfactory bulb (OB). In mammals, the exact correspondence between specific olfactory receptor types and individual glomeruli enables a spatially precise map of glomerular activation that corresponds to distinct odors. However, the mechanisms that govern the establishment and maintenance of the glomerular circuitry are largely unknown. Here we show that high levels of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling at multiple sites enable refinement and maintenance of olfactory glomerular circuitry. Mice expressing a mutant version of Shh (Shh(Ala/Ala)), with impaired binding to proteoglycan co-receptors, exhibit disproportionately small olfactory bulbs containing fewer glomeruli. Notably, in mutant animals the correspondence between individual glomeruli and specific olfactory receptors is lost, as olfactory sensory neurons expressing different olfactory receptors converge on the same glomeruli. These deficits arise at late stages in post-natal development and continue into adulthood, indicating impaired pruning of erroneous connections within the olfactory bulb. In addition, mature Shh(Ala/Ala) mice exhibit decreased proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ), with particular reduction in neurogenesis of calbindin-expressing periglomerular cells. Thus, Shh interactions with proteoglycan co-receptors function at multiple locations to regulate neurogenesis and precise olfactory connectivity, thereby promoting functional neuronal circuitry.

  14. Shh-Proteoglycan Interactions Regulate Maturation of Olfactory Glomerular Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Laura; Witt, Rochelle M.; Galligan, Meghan; Greer, Paul L.; Eisner, Adriana; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F.; Datta, Sandeep R.; Segal, Rosalind A.

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory system relies on precise circuitry connecting olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and appropriate relay and processing neurons of the olfactory bulb (OB). In mammals, the exact correspondence between specific olfactory receptor types and individual glomeruli enables a spatially precise map of glomerular activation that corresponds to distinct odors. However, the mechanisms that govern the establishment and maintenance of the glomerular circuitry are largely unknown. Here we show that high levels of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling at multiple sites enable refinement and maintenance of olfactory glomerular circuitry. Mice expressing a mutant version of Shh (ShhAla/Ala), with impaired binding to proteoglycan co-receptors, exhibit disproportionately small olfactory bulbs containing fewer glomeruli. Notably, in mutant animals the correspondence between individual glomeruli and specific olfactory receptors is lost, as olfactory sensory neurons expressing different olfactory receptors converge on the same glomeruli. These deficits arise at late stages in post-natal development and continue into adulthood, indicating impaired pruning of erroneous connections within the olfactory bulb. In addition, mature ShhAla/Ala mice exhibit decreased proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ), with particular reduction in neurogenesis of calbindin-expressing periglomerular cells. Thus, Shh interactions with proteoglycan co-receptors function at multiple locations to regulate neurogenesis and precise olfactory connectivity, thereby promoting functional neuronal circuitry. PMID:24913191

  15. Olfactory ensheathing cells: biology in neural development and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhida; He, Cheng

    2010-12-01

    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) constitute a unique population of glia that accompany and ensheath the primary olfactory axons. They are thought to be critical for spontaneous growth of olfactory axons within the developing and adult olfactory nervous system, and have recently emerged as potential candidates for cell-mediated repair of neural injuries. Here, based on the current research, we give an overview of the biology of OECs in neural development and regeneration. This review starts with a detailed description of the cellular and molecular biological properties of OECs. Their functions in olfactory neurogenesis, olfactory axonal growth and olfactory bulb formation are sequently discussed. We also describe therapeutic applications of OECs for the treatment of a variety of neural lesions, including spinal cord injury, stroke, degenerative diseases, and PNS injuries. Finally, we address issues that may foster a better understanding of OECs in neural development and regeneration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sphenoid esthesioneuroblastoma arising from the hindmost olfactory filament.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Mami; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Tatsunori; Ito, Juichi

    2015-04-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), or olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from the olfactory neuroepithelium. Typically, ENBs are found in the olfactory cleft with extension to the ethmoid sinuses or anterior skull base. Here we report a case of ENB located in the sphenoid sinus, which had been considered as an ectopic ENB. However, endoscopic resection revealed the continuity of the tumor with the hindmost olfactory filament. The present case suggests that an ENB in the sphenoid sinus was not ectopic, but arose from the normal olfactory neuroepithelium. This continuity of the ENB with this filament indicated that the tumor was not ectopic, and that there was possible tumor invasion into the olfactory neuroepithelium in the cribriform niche. Therefore, pathological examination of the olfactory neuroepithelium in the cribriform niche may be necessary in case of sphenoid ENBs.

  17. Olfactory perception, communication, and the nose-to-brain pathway.

    PubMed

    Stockhorst, Ursula; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2004-10-30

    The present paper's aim is of to give an overview about the basic knowledge as well as actual topics of olfaction--with a special regard on behavior. We summarize different functions of the nose and the olfactory system in human physiology and psychology. We will first describe the functional anatomy of the olfactory system in man. Afterwards, the function of the olfactory system will be viewed from an evolutionary and phylogenetic perspective. We will further outline the main features of olfactory perception, and will show how olfactory perception is influenced by learning. Olfactory signals are relevant stimuli that affect communication. Consequently, the role of the olfactory system in social interaction and mood will be described and gender differences will be addressed. Finally, the function of the nose as an interface to the brain, including implications for pharmacology, will be discussed.

  18. Changes in Olfactory Sensory Neuron Physiology and Olfactory Perceptual Learning After Odorant Exposure in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Marley D.; Guang, Stephanie A.; Moberly, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    The adult olfactory system undergoes experience-dependent plasticity to adapt to the olfactory environment. This plasticity may be accompanied by perceptual changes, including improved olfactory discrimination. Here, we assessed experience-dependent changes in the perception of a homologous aldehyde pair by testing mice in a cross-habituation/dishabituation behavioral paradigm before and after a week-long ester-odorant exposure protocol. In a parallel experiment, we used optical neurophysiology to observe neurotransmitter release from olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) terminals in vivo, and thus compared primary sensory representations of the aldehydes before and after the week-long ester-odorant exposure in individual animals. Mice could not discriminate between the aldehydes during pre-exposure testing, but ester-exposed subjects spontaneously discriminated between the homologous pair after exposure, whereas home cage control mice cross-habituated. Ester exposure did not alter the spatial pattern, peak magnitude, or odorant-selectivity of aldehyde-evoked OSN input to olfactory bulb glomeruli, but did alter the temporal dynamics of that input to make the time course of OSN input more dissimilar between odorants. Together, these findings demonstrate that odor exposure can induce both physiological and perceptual changes in odor processing, and suggest that changes in the temporal patterns of OSN input to olfactory bulb glomeruli could induce differences in odor quality. PMID:26514410

  19. The diversified function and potential therapy of ectopic olfactory receptors in non-olfactory tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Hong; Fu, Nian; Chen, Linxi

    2017-03-24

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are mainly distributed in olfactory neurons and play a key role in detecting volatile odorants, eventually resulting in the production of smell perception. Recently, it is also reported that ORs are expressed in non-olfactory tissues including heart, lung, sperm, skin, and cancerous tissues. Interestingly, ectopic ORs are associated with the development of diseases in non-olfactory tissues. For instance, ectopic ORs initiate the hypoxic ventilatory responses and maintain the oxygen homeostasis of breathing in the carotid body when oxygen levels decline. Ectopic ORs induce glucose homeostasis in diabetes. Ectopic ORs regulate systemic blood pressure by increasing renin secretion and vasodilation. Ectopic ORs participate in the process of tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, and invasiveness. Ectopic ORs accelerate the occurrence of obesity, angiogenesis and wound-healing processes. Ectopic ORs affect fetal hemoglobin levels in sickle cell anemia and thalassemia. Finally, we also elaborate some ligands targeting for ORs. Obviously, the diversified function and related signal pathway of ectopic ORs may play a potential therapeutic target in non-olfactory tissues. Thus, this review focuses on the latest research results about the diversified function and therapeutic potential of ectopic ORs in non-olfactory tissues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Innate olfactory preferences in dung beetles.

    PubMed

    Dormont, Laurent; Jay-Robert, Pierre; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Rapior, Sylvie; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre

    2010-09-15

    The effects of insect larval diet on adult olfactory responses to host-plant or food volatiles are still debated. The induction of adult host preferences has been studied in insects with diverse ecologies, including parasitoids, flower-visitors and phytophagous species. We investigated this question for the first time in a coprophagous insect species. Larvae of the French scarab dung beetle Agrilinus constans were reared on four different artificial substrates containing dung from cattle, horse, sheep or wild boar, and responses of imagos to dung volatiles were then behaviourally tested in an olfactometer. We also reported the first analysis of the composition of different mammal dung volatiles. We showed that adult beetles were more attracted to cattle and sheep dung odours, and that larval feeding experience had no effect on the adult olfactory responses to dung volatiles. A second experiment showed that the presence of other insects inside the dung resource affects the process of dung selection by adults. We identified 64 chemical compounds from dung emissions, and showed that dung volatiles clearly differed among different mammal species, allowing olfactory discrimination by dung beetles. Our results suggest that resource selection in coprophagous insects may be based on innate olfactory preferences. Further experiments should examine whether Agrilinus adults can learn new dung odours, and whether larval diet may influence the behaviour of adults in other coprophagous species.

  1. Encoding olfactory signals via multiple chemosensory systems.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minghong

    2007-01-01

    Most animals have evolved multiple olfactory systems to detect general odors as well as social cues. The sophistication and interaction of these systems permit precise detection of food, danger, and mates, all crucial elements for survival. In most mammals, the nose contains two well described chemosensory apparatuses (the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ), each of which comprises several subtypes of sensory neurons expressing distinct receptors and signal transduction machineries. In many species (e.g., rodents), the nasal cavity also includes two spatially segregated clusters of neurons forming the septal organ of Masera and the Grueneberg ganglion. Results of recent studies suggest that these chemosensory systems perceive diverse but overlapping olfactory cues and that some neurons may even detect the pressure changes carried by the airflow. This review provides an update on how chemosensory neurons transduce chemical (and possibly mechanical) stimuli into electrical signals, and what information each system brings into the brain. Future investigation will focus on the specific ligands that each system detects with a behavioral context and the processing networks that each system involves in the brain. Such studies will lead to a better understanding of how the multiple olfactory systems, acting in concert, offer a complete representation of the chemical world.

  2. Functional Neuroanatomy of "Drosophila" Olfactory Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Davis, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying "Drosophila" learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive…

  3. Acid sensing by the Drosophila olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Minrong; Min, Soohong; Grosjean, Yael; Leblanc, Charlotte; Bell, Rati; Benton, Richard; Suh, Greg S B

    2010-12-02

    The odour of acids has a distinct quality that is perceived as sharp, pungent and often irritating. How acidity is sensed and translated into an appropriate behavioural response is poorly understood. Here we describe a functionally segregated population of olfactory sensory neurons in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, that are highly selective for acidity. These olfactory sensory neurons express IR64a, a member of the recently identified ionotropic receptor (IR) family of putative olfactory receptors. In vivo calcium imaging showed that IR64a+ neurons projecting to the DC4 glomerulus in the antennal lobe are specifically activated by acids. Flies in which the function of IR64a+ neurons or the IR64a gene is disrupted had defects in acid-evoked physiological and behavioural responses, but their responses to non-acidic odorants remained unaffected. Furthermore, artificial stimulation of IR64a+ neurons elicited avoidance responses. Taken together, these results identify cellular and molecular substrates for acid detection in the Drosophila olfactory system and support a labelled-line mode of acidity coding at the periphery.

  4. Olfactory Learning in Individually Assayed Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Sabine; Stocker, Reinhard F.; Gerber, Bertram

    2003-01-01

    Insect and mammalian olfactory systems are strikingly similar. Therefore, Drosophila can be used as a simple model for olfaction and olfactory learning. The brain of adult Drosophila, however, is still complex. We therefore chose to work on the larva with its yet simpler but adult-like olfactory system and provide evidence for olfactory learning in individually assayed Drosophila larvae. We developed a differential conditioning paradigm in which odorants are paired with positive (“+” fructose) or negative (“-” quinine or sodium chloride) gustatory reinforcers. Test performance of individuals from two treatment conditions is compared—one received odorant A with the positive reinforcer and odorant B with a negative reinforcer (A+/B-); animals from the other treatment condition were trained reciprocally (A-/B+). During test, differences in choice between A and B of individuals having undergone either A+/B- or A-/B+ training therefore indicate associative learning. We provide such evidence for both combinations of reinforcers; this was replicable across repetitions, laboratories, and experimenters. We further show that breaks improve performance, in accord with basic principles of associative learning. The present individual assay will facilitate electrophysiological studies, which necessarily use individuals. As such approaches are established for the larval neuromuscular synapse, but not in adults, an individual larval learning paradigm will serve to link behavioral levels of analysis to synaptic physiology. PMID:12773586

  5. Propagation of olfactory information in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Root, Cory M; Semmelhack, Julia L; Wong, Allan M; Flores, Jorge; Wang, Jing W

    2007-07-10

    Investigating how information propagates between layers in the olfactory system is an important step toward understanding the olfactory code. Each glomerular output projection neuron (PN) receives two sources of input: the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) of the same glomerulus and interneurons that innervate many glomeruli. We therefore asked how these inputs interact to produce PN output. We used receptor gene mutations to silence all of the ORNs innervating a specific glomerulus and recorded PN activity with two-photon calcium imaging and electrophysiology. We found evidence for balanced excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs but saw little or no response in the absence of direct ORN input. We next asked whether any transformation of activity occurs at successive layers of the antennal lobe. We found a strong link between PN firing and dendritic calcium elevation, the latter of which is tightly correlated with calcium activity in ORN axons, supporting the idea of glomerular propagation of olfactory information. Finally, we showed that odors are represented by a sparse population of PNs. Together, these results are consistent with the idea that direct receptor input provides the main excitatory drive to PNs, whereas interneurons modulate PN output. Balanced excitatory and inhibitory interneuron input may provide a mechanism to adjust PN sensitivity.

  6. Adult Neurogenesis and the Olfactory System

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Mary C.; Greer, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Though initially described in the early 1960s, it is only within the past decade that the concept of continuing adult neurogenesis has gained widespread acceptance. Neuroblasts from the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) into the olfactory bulb, where they differentiate into interneurons. Neuroblasts from the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal formation show relatively little migratory behavior, and differentiate into dentate gyrus granule cells. In sharp contrast to embryonic and perinatal development, these newly differentiated neurons must integrate into a fully functional circuit, without disrupting ongoing performance. Here, after a brief historical overview and introduction to olfactory circuitry, we review recent advances in the biology of neural stem cells, mechanisms of migration in the RMS and olfactory bulb, differentiation and survival of new neurons, and finally mechanisms of synaptic integration. Our primary focus is on the olfactory system, but we also contrast the events occurring there with those in the hippocampal formation. Although both SVZ and SGZ neurogenesis are involved in some types of learning, their full functional significance remains unclear. Since both systems offer models of integration of new neuroblasts, there is immense interest in using neural stem cells to replace neurons lost in injury or disease. Though many questions remain unanswered, new insights appear daily about adult neurogenesis, regulatory mechanisms, and the fates of the progeny. We discuss here some of the central features of these advances, as well as speculate on future research directions. PMID:19615423

  7. Functional Neuroanatomy of "Drosophila" Olfactory Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Davis, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying "Drosophila" learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive…

  8. Olfactory Environment Design for Human Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, C. S.; Holland, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    Smell is usually deemed the least important of the five senses. To contradict this assertion, however, there is no shortage of scientific literature which concludes that olfaction is of very great significance to humans. Odours have been shown to have a variety of effects on humans, and are capable of changing both behaviour and cognitive processing in ways that we are frequently completely unconscious of. Examples of this include alertness, alteration of mood, capacity for ideation and intellectual performance. To date, the design of human spacecraft has concentrated on making their olfactory environments, where possible, `odour neutral' - that is ensuring that all unpleasant and/or offensive odours are removed. Here it suggested that spacecraft (and other extraterrestrial facilities for human inhabitation) might benefit from having their olfactory environments designed to be `odour positive', that is to use odours and olfaction for the positive benefit of their residents. This paper presents a summary of current olfactory research and considers both its positive and negative implications for humans in space. It then discusses `odour positive' design of spacecraft olfactory environments and the possible benefits accruing from this approach before examining its implications for the architecture of spacecraft environmental control systems.

  9. Sex differences in the human olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Junque, Carme; Giménez, Mónica; Caldú, Xavier; Segovia, Santiago; Guillamon, Antonio

    2006-10-20

    The olfactory system (accessory) implicated in reproductive physiology and behavior in mammals is sexually dimorphic. These brain sex differences present two main characteristics: they are seen in neural circuits related to sexual behavior and sexual physiology and they take one of two opposite morphological patterns (male>female or female>male). The present work reports sex differences in the olfactory system in a large homogeneous sample of men (40) and women (51) using of voxel-based morphology. Gray matter concentration showed sexual dimorphism in several olfactory regions. Women have a higher concentration in the orbitofrontal cortex involving Brodmann's areas 10, 11 and 25 and temporomedial cortex (bilateral hippocampus and right amygdala), as well as their left basal insular cortex. In contrast, men show a higher gray matter concentration in the left entorhinal cortex (Brodmann's area 28), right ventral pallidum, dorsal left insular cortex and a region of the orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 25). This study supports the hypothesis that the mammalian olfactory system is a sexually dimorphic network and provides a theoretical framework for the morphofunctional approach to sex differences in the human brain.

  10. Freezing to the predator odor 2,4,5 dihydro 2,5 trimethylthiazoline (TMT) is disrupted by olfactory bulb removal but not trigeminal deafferentation.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Luke W; Asok, Arun; Heyward, Frankie D; Rosen, Jeffrey B

    2013-09-15

    2,4,5 dihydro 2,5 trimethylthiazoline (TMT) is a synthesized component of red fox anal secretions that reliably elicits defensive behaviors in rats and mice. TMT differs from other predator odors because it is a single molecule, it can be synthesized in large quantities, and the dose for exposure is highly controllable in an experimental setting. TMT has become a popular tool for studying the brain mechanisms that mediate innate fear behavior to olfactory stimuli. However, this view of TMT as a biologically relevant olfactory stimulus has been challenged by suggestions that the odor elicits fear behavior due to its irritating properties, presumably working through a nociceptive mechanism. To address this criticism our lab measured freezing behavior in rats during exposures to 2 odors (TMT and butyric acid) and H2O (no odor control) following either surgical transection of the trigeminal nerves or ablation of the olfactory bulbs. Our findings (Experiment 1) indicate that freezing behavior to TMT requires an intact olfactory system, as indicated by the loss of freezing following olfactory bulb removal. Experiment 2 revealed that rats with trigeminal nerve transection freeze normally to TMT, suggesting the olfactory system mediates this behavior to TMT. A replication of Experiment 1 that included contextual fear conditioning revealed that the decreased freezing behavior was not due to an inability of olfactory bulb ablated rats to freeze (Experiment 3). Taken together, these findings support TMT's role as an ecologically relevant predator odor useful in experiments of unconditioned fear that is mediated via olfaction and not nociception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunocytochemical characterisation of olfactory ensheathing cells of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Lazzari, Maurizio; Bettini, Simone; Franceschini, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Continuous lifelong neurogenesis is typical of the vertebrate olfactory system. The regenerative ability of olfactory receptor neurons is dependent on the glial cell type specific to the olfactory pathway, designated ‘olfactory ensheathing cells'. Several studies to date have focused on mammalian olfactory ensheathing cells, owing to their potential roles in cell-based therapy for spinal cord injury repair. However, limited information is available regarding this glial cell type in non-mammalian vertebrates, particularly anamniotes. In the current immunocytochemical study, we analysed the features of olfactory ensheathing cells in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Fish provide a good model for studying glial cells associated with the olfactory pathway of non-mammalian vertebrates. In particular, zebrafish has numerous valuable features that enable its use as a prime model organism for genetic, neurobiological and developmental studies, as well as toxicology and genomics research. Paraffin sections from decalcified heads of zebrafish were processed immunocytochemically to detect proteins used in the research on mammalian olfactory ensheathing cells, including glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), S100, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), polysialylated NCAM (PSA-NCAM), vimentin (VIM), p75NTR and galactin (Gal)-1. Notably, GFAP, S100, NCAM and Gal-1 were clearly observed, whereas no vimentin staining was detected. Weak immunostaining for PSA-NCAM and p75NTR was evident. Moreover the degree of marker expression was not uniform in various tracts of the zebrafish olfactory pathway. The immunostaining patterns of the zebrafish olfactory system are distinct from those of other fish to some extent, suggesting interspecific differences. We also showed that the olfactory pathway of zebrafish expresses markers of mammalian olfactory ensheathing cells. The olfactory systems of vertebrates have similarities but there are also marked variations between them. The issue of whether

  12. [Comparison of therapeutic effects of olfactory ensheathing cells derived from olfactory mucosa or olfactory bulb on spinal cord injury mouse models].

    PubMed

    Wang, Libin; Yang, Ping; Liang, Xueyun; Ma, Lijun; Wei, Jun

    2014-04-01

    To isolate and culture olfactory ensheathing cells from different origins, compare their different biological characteristics, and evaluate their therapeutic effect on spinal cord injury mouse models. The olfactory ensheathing cells from olfactory mucosa or olfactory bulb were isolated and cultured by differential adhesion method. The expressions of S100 and P75 proteins were examined by immunofluorescence staining; their growth curves were drawn by MTT colorimetric assay; the secretion of neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) was measured by ELISA; the gene expressions of BDNF, NGF, NT-3, neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43), and microtubule-associated protein (MAP-2) were quantified by real-time PCR; the therapeutic effect on spinal cord injury mouse models was evaluated by Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale, which had been carried out daily for 8 weeks after the olfactory ensheathing cells of the two different origins were respectively grafted to the mouse models. The two types of olfactory ensheathing cells showed bipolar or tripolar shape; both of them were S100 and P75 protein positive; both of them expressing the gene of BDNF, NGF, NT-3, and NT-4; the olfactory bulb-derived cells did not express MAP-2, but it highly expressed GAP-43 gene; the olfactory mucosa-derived cells displayed a low expression of MAP-2 and GAP-43; the growth speed of olfactory bulb-derived cells was faster than that of the olfactory mucosa-derived cells. Both of them could secrete BDNF, NGF, and NT-3, but the neurotrophic factor levels secreted in the olfactory mucosa-derived cells were higher. The daily neurological BBB scoring showed that the therapeutic effect of olfactory mucosa-derived cells on spinal cord injury mouse models was better than that of the olfactory bulb-derived cells. There exist biological differences between the olfactory mucosa

  13. Olfactory perception, cognition, and dysfunction in humans.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    The main functions of olfaction relate to finding food, avoiding predators and disease, and social communication. Its role in detecting food has resulted in a unique dual mode sensory system. Environmental odorants are 'smelled' via the external nostrils, while volatile chemicals in food-detected by the same receptors-arrive via the nasopharynx, contributing to flavor. This arrangement allows the brain to link the consequences of eating with a food's odor, and then later to use this information in the search for food. Recognizing an odorant-a food, mate, or predator-requires the detection of complex chemical blends against a noisy chemical background. The brain solves this problem in two ways. First, by rapid adaptation to background odorants so that new odorants stand out. Second, by pattern matching the neural representation of an odorant to prior olfactory experiences. This account is consistent with olfactory sensory physiology, anatomy, and psychology. Odor perception, and its products, may be subject to further processing-olfactory cognition. While olfactory cognition has features in common with visual or auditory cognition, several aspects are unique, and even those that are common may be instantiated in different ways. These differences can be productively used to evaluate the generality of models of cognition and consciousness. Finally, the olfactory system can breakdown, and this may be predictive of the onset of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's, as well as having prognostic value in other disorders such as schizophrenia. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:273-284. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1224 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Electrophysiological evidence for acidic, basic, and neutral amino acid olfactory receptor sites in the catfish

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Electrophysiological experiments indicate that olfactory receptors of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, contain different receptor sites for the acidic (A), basic (B), and neutral amino acids; further, at least two partially interacting neutral sites exist, one for the hydrophilic neutral amino acids containing short side chains (SCN), and the second for the hydrophobic amino acids containing long side chains (LCN). The extent of cross-adaptation was determined by comparing the electro-olfactogram (EOG) responses to 20 "test" amino acids during continuous bathing of the olfactory mucosa with water only (control) to those during each of the eight "adapting" amino acid regimes. Both the adapting and test amino acids were adjusted in concentrations to provide approximately equal response magnitudes in the unadapted state. Under all eight adapting regimes, the test EOG responses were reduced from those obtained in the unadapted state, but substantial quantitative differences resulted, depending upon the molecular structure of the adapting stimulus. Analyses of the patterns of EOG responses to the test stimuli identified and characterized the respective "transduction processes," a term used to describe membrane events initiated by a particular subset of amino acid stimuli that are intricately linked to the origin of the olfactory receptor potential. Only when the stimulus compounds interact with different transduction processes are the stimuli assumed to bind to different membrane "sites." Four relatively independent L-alpha-amino acid transduction processes (and thus at least four binding sites) identified in this report include: (a) the A process for aspartic and glutamic acids; (b) the B process for arginine and lysine; (c) the SCN process for glycine, alanine, serine, glutamine, and possibly cysteine; (d) the LCN process for methionine, ethionine, valine, norvaline, leucine, norleucine, glutamic acid-gamma-methyl ester, histidine, phenylalanine, and also

  15. Investigation of Stimulus-Response Compatibility Using a Startling Acoustic Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslovat, Dana; Carlsen, Anthony N.; Franks, Ian M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the processes underlying stimulus-response compatibility by using a lateralized auditory stimulus in a simple and choice reaction time (RT) paradigm. Participants were asked to make either a left or right key lift in response to either a control (80dB) or startling (124dB) stimulus presented to either the left ear, right ear, or…

  16. Investigation of Stimulus-Response Compatibility Using a Startling Acoustic Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslovat, Dana; Carlsen, Anthony N.; Franks, Ian M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the processes underlying stimulus-response compatibility by using a lateralized auditory stimulus in a simple and choice reaction time (RT) paradigm. Participants were asked to make either a left or right key lift in response to either a control (80dB) or startling (124dB) stimulus presented to either the left ear, right ear, or…

  17. Intensity invariant dynamics and odor-specific latencies in olfactory receptor neuron response.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Carlotta; Carlson, John R; Emonet, Thierry

    2013-04-10

    Odors elicit spatiotemporal patterns of activity in the brain. Spatial patterns arise from the specificity of the interaction between odorants and odorant receptors expressed in different olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), but the origin of temporal patterns of activity and their role in odor coding remain unclear. We investigate how physiological aspects of ORN response and physical aspects of odor stimuli give rise to diverse responses in Drosophila ORNs. We show that odor stimuli have intrinsic dynamics that depend on odor type and strongly affect ORN response. Using linear-nonlinear modeling to remove the contribution of the stimulus dynamics from the ORN dynamics, we study the physiological properties of the response to different odorants and concentrations. For several odorants and receptor types, the ORN response dynamics normalized by the peak response are independent of stimulus intensity for a large portion of the dynamic range of the neuron. Adaptation to a background odor changes the gain and dynamic range of the response but does not affect normalized response dynamics. Stimulating ORNs with various odorants reveals significant odor-dependent delays in the ORN response functions. However, these differences can be dominated by differences in stimulus dynamics. In one case the response of one ORN to two odorants is predicted solely from measurements of the odor signals. Within a large portion of their dynamic range, ORNs can capture information about stimulus dynamics independently from intensity while introducing odor-dependent delays. How insects might use odor-specific stimulus dynamics and ORN dynamics in discrimination and navigation tasks remains an open question.

  18. Why Additional Presentations Help Identify a Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guest, Duncan; Kent, Christopher; Adelman, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Nosofsky (1983) reported that additional stimulus presentations within a trial increase discriminability in absolute identification, suggesting that each presentation creates an independent stimulus representation, but it remains unclear whether exposure duration or the formation of independent representations improves discrimination in such…

  19. Stimulus Intensity and the Perception of Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.; Stewart, Neil; Wearden, John H.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the widely reported finding that the subjective duration of a stimulus is positively related to its magnitude. In Experiments 1 and 2 we show that, for both auditory and visual stimuli, the effect of stimulus magnitude on the perception of duration depends upon the background: Against a high intensity background, weak stimuli…

  20. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  1. Stimulus Intensity and the Perception of Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.; Stewart, Neil; Wearden, John H.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the widely reported finding that the subjective duration of a stimulus is positively related to its magnitude. In Experiments 1 and 2 we show that, for both auditory and visual stimuli, the effect of stimulus magnitude on the perception of duration depends upon the background: Against a high intensity background, weak stimuli…

  2. Why Additional Presentations Help Identify a Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guest, Duncan; Kent, Christopher; Adelman, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Nosofsky (1983) reported that additional stimulus presentations within a trial increase discriminability in absolute identification, suggesting that each presentation creates an independent stimulus representation, but it remains unclear whether exposure duration or the formation of independent representations improves discrimination in such…

  3. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  4. Stimulus Overselectivity: Empirical Basis and Diagnostic Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the empirical basis for the phenomena known as stimulus overselectivity. Stimulus overselectivity involves responding on the basis of a restricted range of elements or features that are discriminative for reinforcement. The manner in which such a response pattern impedes the skill acquisition in children is identified. A…

  5. The olfactory sense: a developmental and lifespan perspective.

    PubMed

    Wittmann-Price, Ruth A

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this literature review is to discuss human olfactory development, function and assessment through the lifespan. This article will highlight the importance of accurate olfactory function assessment. Olfactory function in humans is an understudied sense and may contribute significantly to patient safety and quality of life. Studies related to olfactory function are presented for different life stages. Olfactory development is reviewed as is terminology used to describe functionality. This article highlights the need for nursing assessment of olfactory function to develop holistic nursing interventions since there are implications for patient safety, quality of life issues related to respiratory function, bonding and nutrition. Literature review. Articles were searched in CINAHL, PsychInfo and PubMed limited to those published in English to 2010 with the key terms 'olfactory and nursing'. The search yielded 47 articles that were clinically based on patient care. Those articles that dealt specifically with traumatic brain syndrome were excluded. However, peer reviewed and research article were both specified. There is evidence that olfactory assessment should be completed by nurses on high risk populations to ensure patent safety and enhance quality of life. More studies are needed to improve clinical knowledge about the role of olfactory function. Nurses are in a prime position to assess olfactory function for patients at high risk for deficits to provide holistic nursing care. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Gyrodactylus salmonis infection impairs the olfactory system of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Lari, E; Pyle, G G

    2017-01-20

    Monogenean worms are ectoparasites that are known to be infectious to a wide variety of fish. Few species of monogenean parasites have been reported in the olfactory chamber of fish in current peer-reviewed literature. However, the impacts of these parasites on the olfactory system are not well understood. In this study, the effects of Gyrodactylus salmonis on the olfactory system structure and performance were investigated in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The olfactory performance of the infected fish was examined using an electro-olfactography (EOG) technique, while the ultrastructure of the olfactory rosette was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM). The infected rainbow trout displayed reduced responses to two standard olfactory cues (L-alanine and TCA). The SEM micrographs revealed that many regions of the olfactory epithelium in the infected fish were heavily pitted and the LM examination of the olfactory epithelium showed local proliferation of mucous cells in the sensory regions as compared to the control group. The results of this study demonstrated that G. salmonis causes physical damage to the olfactory system of fish that lead to olfactory impairment.

  7. Early olfactory experience induces structural changes in the primary olfactory center of an insect brain.

    PubMed

    Arenas, A; Giurfa, M; Sandoz, J C; Hourcade, B; Devaud, J M; Farina, W M

    2012-03-01

    The antennal lobe (AL) is the first olfactory center of the insect brain and is constituted of different functional units, the glomeruli. In the AL, odors are coded as spatiotemporal patterns of glomerular activity. In honeybees, olfactory learning during early adulthood modifies neural activity in the AL on a long-term scale and also enhances later memory retention. By means of behavioral experiments, we first verified that olfactory learning between the fifth and eighth day of adulthood induces better retention performances at a late adult stage than the same experience acquired before or after this period. We checked that the specificity of memory for the odorants used was improved. We then studied whether such early olfactory learning also induces long-term structural changes in the AL consistent with the formation of long-term olfactory memories. We also measured the volume of 15 identified glomeruli in the ALs of 17-day-old honeybees that either experienced an odor associated with sucrose solution between the fifth and eighth day of adulthood or were left untreated. We found that early olfactory experience induces glomerulus-selective increases in volume that were specific to the learned odor. By comparing our volumetric measures with calcium-imaging recordings from a previous study, performed in 17-day-old bees subjected to the same treatment and experimental conditions, we found that glomeruli that showed structural changes after early learning were those that exhibited a significant increase in neural activity. Our results make evident a correlation between structural and functional changes in the AL following early olfactory learning.

  8. Olfactory Cleft Endoscopy Scale correlates with olfactory metrics in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Zachary M.; Hyer, J. Madison; Karnezis, Tom T.; Schlosser, Rodney J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Olfactory loss affects a majority of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Traditional objective measures of disease severity, including endoscopy scales, focus upon the paranasal sinuses and often have weak correlation to olfaction. Methods Adults with CRS were prospectively evaluated by blinded reviewers with a novel Olfactory Cleft Endoscopy Scale (OCES) that evaluated discharge, polyps, edema, crusting and scarring of the olfactory cleft. Objective olfactory function was assessed using “Sniffin’ Sticks testing, including composite threshold-discrimination-identification (TDI) scores. Olfactory-specific quality-of-life was evaluated using the short modified version of the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders (QOD-NS). Inter- and intra-rater reliability was assessed among 3 reviewers for OCES grading. Multivariate linear regression was then used to test associations between OCES scores and measures of olfaction, controlling for potential confounding factors. Results The OCES score was evaluated in 38 patients and had a high overall reliability (ICC=0.92; 95% CI: 0.91–0.96). The OCES significantly correlated with objective olfaction as measured by TDI score (p<0.001), with TDI score falling by 1.13 points for every 1 point increase in OCES score. Similar significant associations were found for threshold, discrimination, and identification scores (p<0.003 for all) after controlling for age, gender, race, and reviewer/review. The OCES was also highly associated with patient-reported QOD-NS scores (p=0.009). Conclusion A novel olfactory cleft endoscopy scale shows high reliability and correlates with both objective and patient-reported olfaction in patients with CRS. Further studies to determine prognostic value and responsiveness to change are warranted. PMID:26718315

  9. Local neurons play key roles in the mammalian olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Saghatelyan, Armen; Carleton, Alan; Lagier, Samuel; de Chevigny, Antoine; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2003-01-01

    Over the past few decades, research exploring how the brain perceives, discriminates, and recognizes odorant molecules has received a growing interest. Today, olfaction is no longer considered a matter of poetry. Chemical senses entered the biological era when an increasing number of scientists started to elucidate the early stages of the olfactory pathway. A combination of genetic, biochemical, cellular, electrophysiological and behavioral methods has provided a picture of how odor information is processed in the olfactory system as it moves from the periphery to higher areas of the brain. Our group is exploring the physiology of the main olfactory bulb, the first processing relay in the mammalian brain. From different electrophysiological approaches, we are attempting to understand the cellular rules that contribute to the synaptic transmission and plasticity at this central relay. How olfactory sensory inputs, originating from the olfactory epithelium located in the nasal cavity, are encoded in the main olfactory bulb remains a crucial question for understanding odor processing. More importantly, the persistence of a high level of neurogenesis continuously supplying the adult olfactory bulb with newborn local neurons provides an attractive model to investigate how basic olfactory functions are maintained when a large proportion of local neurons are continuously renewed. For this purpose, we summarize the current ideas concerning the molecular mechanisms and organizational strategies used by the olfactory system to encode and process information in the main olfactory bulb. We discuss the degree of sensitivity of the bulbar neuronal network activity to the persistence of this high level of neurogenesis that is modulated by sensory experience. Finally, it is worth mentioning that analyzing the molecular mechanisms and organizational strategies used by the olfactory system to transduce, encode, and process odorant information in the olfactory bulb should aid in

  10. Anatomical specializations for enhanced olfactory sensitivity in kiwi, Apteryx mantelli.

    PubMed

    Corfield, Jeremy R; Eisthen, Heather L; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Parsons, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The ability to function in a nocturnal and ground-dwelling niche requires a unique set of sensory specializations. The New Zealand kiwi has shifted away from vision, instead relying on auditory and tactile stimuli to function in its environment and locate prey. Behavioral evidence suggests that kiwi also rely on their sense of smell, using olfactory cues in foraging and possibly also in communication and social interactions. Anatomical studies appear to support these observations: the olfactory bulbs and tubercles have been suggested to be large in the kiwi relative to other birds, although the extent of this enlargement is poorly understood. In this study, we examine the size of the olfactory bulbs in kiwi and compare them with 55 other bird species, including emus, ostriches, rheas, tinamous, and 2 extinct species of moa (Dinornithiformes). We also examine the cytoarchitecture of the olfactory bulbs and olfactory epithelium to determine if any neural specializations beyond size are present that would increase olfactory acuity. Kiwi were a clear outlier in our analysis, with olfactory bulbs that are proportionately larger than those of any other bird in this study. Emus, close relatives of the kiwi, also had a relative enlargement of the olfactory bulbs, possibly supporting a phylogenetic link to well-developed olfaction. The olfactory bulbs in kiwi are almost in direct contact with the olfactory epithelium, which is indeed well developed and complex, with olfactory receptor cells occupying a large percentage of the epithelium. The anatomy of the kiwi olfactory system supports an enhancement for olfactory sensitivities, which is undoubtedly associated with their unique nocturnal niche.

  11. Identification of Gustatory–Olfactory Flavor Mixtures: Effects of Linguistic Labeling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments, using different ranges and numbers of stimuli, examined how linguistic labels affect the identification of flavor mixtures containing different proportions of sucrose (gustatory flavorant) and citral (olfactory flavorant). Both experiments asked subjects to identify each stimulus as having either “mostly sugar” or “mostly citrus.” In one condition, no labels preceded the flavor stimuli. In another condition, each flavor stimulus followed a label, either SUGAR or CITRUS, which, the subjects were informed, usually though not always named the stronger flavor component; that is, the labels were probabilistically valid. The results of both experiments showed that the labels systematically modified the identification responses: Subjects responded “sugar” or “citrus” more often when the flavor stimulus followed the corresponding label, SUGAR or CITRUS. But the labels hardly affected overall accuracy of identification. Accuracy was possibly limited, however, by both the confusability of the flavor stimuli per se and the way that confusability could limit the opportunity to discern the probabilistic associations between labels and individual flavor stimuli. We describe the results in terms of a decision-theoretic model, in which labels induce shifts in response criteria governing the identification responses, or possibly effect changes in the sensory representations of the flavorants themselves. PMID:23329730

  12. Differential Muscarinic Modulation in the Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard S.; Hu, Ruilong; DeSouza, Andre; Eberly, Christian L.; Krahe, Krista; Chan, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Neuromodulation of olfactory circuits by acetylcholine (ACh) plays an important role in odor discrimination and learning. Early processing of chemosensory signals occurs in two functionally and anatomically distinct regions, the main and accessory olfactory bulbs (MOB and AOB), which receive extensive cholinergic input from the basal forebrain. Here, we explore the regulation of AOB and MOB circuits by ACh, and how cholinergic modulation influences olfactory-mediated behaviors in mice. Surprisingly, despite the presence of a conserved circuit, activation of muscarinic ACh receptors revealed marked differences in cholinergic modulation of output neurons: excitation in the AOB and inhibition in the MOB. Granule cells (GCs), the most abundant intrinsic neuron in the OB, also exhibited a complex muscarinic response. While GCs in the AOB were excited, MOB GCs exhibited a dual muscarinic action in the form of a hyperpolarization and an increase in excitability uncovered by cell depolarization. Furthermore, ACh influenced the input–output relationship of mitral cells in the AOB and MOB differently showing a net effect on gain in mitral cells of the MOB, but not in the AOB. Interestingly, despite the striking differences in neuromodulatory actions on output neurons, chemogenetic inhibition of cholinergic neurons produced similar perturbations in olfactory behaviors mediated by these two regions. Decreasing ACh in the OB disrupted the natural discrimination of molecularly related odors and the natural investigation of odors associated with social behaviors. Thus, the distinct neuromodulation by ACh in these circuits could underlie different solutions to the processing of general odors and semiochemicals, and the diverse olfactory behaviors they trigger. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT State-dependent cholinergic modulation of brain circuits is critical for several high-level cognitive functions, including attention and memory. Here, we provide new evidence that cholinergic

  13. Odor detection ability and thallium-201 transport in the olfactory nerve of traumatic olfactory-impaired mice.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Hideaki; Kinoshita, Yayoi; Washiyama, Kohshin; Ogawa, Daisuke; Amano, Ryohei; Hirota, Kyoko; Tsukatani, Toshiaki; Furukawa, Mitsuru; Miwa, Takaki

    2008-09-01

    Although olfactory nerve damage is a contributing factor in the diagnosis of posttraumatic olfactory loss, at present, there are no methods to directly assess injury to these nerves. We have shown that following olfactory nerve injury in mice, thallium-201 (201 Tl) transport from the nasal cavity to the olfactory bulb decreases. To determine if olfactory function after nerve injury could be assessed with nasal administration of 201 Tl, we measured the correlation between odor detection ability (ODA) and the rate of transport of 201 Tl in olfactory nerves. Both ODA and 201 Tl transport were measured after bilateral olfactory nerve transection for a 4-week period. Cycloheximide solution was used for ODA against tap water. 201 Tl transport was measured as the ratio of radioactivity in the nasal cavity and olfactory bulb with gamma spectrometry. There was a significant correlation between ODA and the rate of 201 Tl transport in the olfactory nerve. These findings suggest that olfactory function after nerve injury can be objectively evaluated with the nasal administration of 201 Tl.

  14. Olfactory sensory neurons are trophically dependent on the olfactory bulb for their prolonged survival.

    PubMed

    Schwob, J E; Szumowski, K E; Stasky, A A

    1992-10-01

    In most neural systems, developing neurons are trophically dependent on contact with their synaptic target for their survival and for some features of their differentiation. However, in the olfactory system, it is unclear whether or not the survival and differentiation of olfactory sensory neurons depend on contact with the olfactory bulb (normally the sole synaptic target for these neurons). In order to address this issue, we examined neuronal life-span and differentiation in adult rats subjected to unilateral olfactory bulb ablation at least 1 month prior to use. Life-span of a newly generated cohort of olfactory neurons was determined by labeling them at their "birth" via the incorporation of 3H-thymidine. In the absence of the bulb, neurons are continually produced at a twofold greater rate. However, the epithelium on the ablated side is thinner, indicating that average neuronal life-span must be reduced in the targetless epithelium. Indeed, nearly 90% of the labeled neurons disappear from the bulbectomized side between 5 d and 2 weeks of neuronal age. Moreover, on electron microscopic examination, olfactory axons are degenerating in large numbers on the ablated side. Since labeled neurons migrate apically through the width of the epithelium during this same period, it appears that most, if not all, neurons on the ablated side have a life-span on the order of 2 weeks or less. In contrast, there is a more moderate degree of neuronal loss on the unoperated side of the same animals during the first 2 weeks after tracer injection, and that occurs while the neurons are concentrated in the deeper half of the epithelium, suggesting that there is a preexisting population of neurons in the control epithelium that does not die during this period. Likewise, degenerating axons are much less frequent on the unoperated side. We conclude that life-span is significantly shorter for olfactory neurons born in the targetless epithelium and that olfactory neurons are trophically

  15. Tunicamycin impairs olfactory learning and synaptic plasticity in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jia; Okutani, Fumino; Murata, Yoshihiro; Taniguchi, Mutsuo; Namba, Toshiharu; Wang, Yu-Jie; Kaba, Hideto

    2017-03-06

    Tunicamycin (TM) induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits N-glycosylation in cells. ER stress is associated with neuronal death in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and most patients complain of the impairment of olfactory recognition. Here we examined the effects of TM on aversive olfactory learning and the underlying synaptic plasticity in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). Behavioral experiments demonstrated that the intrabulbar infusion of TM disabled aversive olfactory learning without affecting short-term memory. Histological analyses revealed that TM infusion upregulated C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a marker of ER stress, in the mitral and granule cell layers of MOB. Electrophysiological data indicated that TM inhibited tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) at the dendrodendritic excitatory synapse from mitral to granule cells. A low dose of TM (250nM) abolished the late phase of LTP, and a high dose (1μM) inhibited the early and late phases of LTP. Further, high-dose, but not low-dose, TM reduced the paired-pulse facilitation ratio, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of TM on LTP are partially mediated through the presynaptic machinery. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that TM-induced ER stress impairs olfactory learning by inhibiting synaptic plasticity via presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms in MOB.

  16. Activity-dependent and graded BACE1 expression in the olfactory epithelium is mediated by the retinoic acid metabolizing enzyme CYP26B1.

    PubMed

    Login, Hande; Butowt, Rafal; Bohm, Staffan

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that environmental influences play a key role in sculpting neuronal connectivity in the brain. One example is the olfactory sensory map of topographic axonal connectivity. While intrinsic odorant receptor signaling in olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) determines anterior-posterior counter gradients of the axonal guidance receptors Neuropilin-1 and Plexin-A1, little is known about stimulus-dependent gradients of protein expression, which correlates with the functional organization of the olfactory sensory map along its dorsomedial (DM)-ventrolateral (VL) axis. Deficiency of the Alzheimer's β-secretase BACE1, which is expressed in a DM(low)-VL(high) gradient, results in OSN axon targeting errors in a DM > VL and gene dose-dependent manner. We show that expression of BACE1 and the all-trans retinoic acid (RA)-degrading enzyme Cyp26B1 form DM-VL counter gradients in the olfactory epithelium. Analyses of mRNA and protein levels in OSNs after naris occlusion, in mice deficient in the olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated channel and in relation to onset of respiration, show that BACE1 and Cyp26B1 expression in OSNs inversely depend on neuronal activity. Overexpression of a Cyp26B1 or presence of a dominant negative RA receptor transgene selectively in OSNs, inhibit BACE1 expression while leaving the DM(low)-VL(high) gradient of the axonal guidance protein Neuropilin-2 intact. We conclude that stimulus-dependent neuronal activity can control the expression of the RA catabolic enzyme Cyp26B1 and downstream genes such as BACE1. This result is pertinent to an understanding of the mechanisms by which a topographic pattern of connectivity is achieved and modified as a consequence of graded gene expression and sensory experience.

  17. Olfactory drug effects approached from human-derived data.

    PubMed

    Lötsch, Jörn; Knothe, Claudia; Lippmann, Catharina; Ultsch, Alfred; Hummel, Thomas; Walter, Carmen

    2015-11-01

    The complexity of the sense of smell makes adverse olfactory effects of drugs highly likely, which can impact a patient's quality of life. Here, we present a bioinformatics approach that identifies drugs with potential olfactory effects by connecting drug target expression patterns in human olfactory tissue with drug-related information and the underlying molecular drug targets taken from publically available databases. We identified 71 drugs with listed olfactory effects and 147 different targets. Taking the target-based approach further, we found additional drugs with potential olfactory effects, including 152 different substances interacting with genes expressed in the human olfactory bulb. Our proposed bioinformatics approach provides plausible hypotheses about mechanistic drug effects for drug discovery and repurposing and, thus, would be appropriate for use during drug development.

  18. Localization of neurotrophin receptors in olfactory epithelium and bulb.

    PubMed

    Deckner, M L; Frisén, J; Verge, V M; Hökfelt, T; Risling, M

    1993-12-13

    We used in situ hybridization to localize trk, trkB and trkC mRNA, in rat and cat olfactory bulb. Expression of mRNA encoding truncated trkB receptors was seen in all layers, while only very modest full-length trkB expression could be detected. trkC hybridization was seen in all layers, most dense in the mitral cell layer. The localization of full-length tyrosine kinase trkB receptor in olfactory bulb and epithelium was examined with immunohistochemistry. trkB-like immunoreactivity was seen in the fila olfactoria, epithelium and in vitro, in olfactory sensory neurones. Since BDNF is expressed by olfactory sensory neurone target cells in the olfactory bulb, these data suggest that BDNF may act as a target derived neurotrophic factor in the primary olfactory system.

  19. Neural Sensitivity to Odorants in Deprived and Normal Olfactory Bulbs

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Francisco B.; Huerta, Ramón; Aylwin, Maria de la Luz

    2013-01-01

    Early olfactory deprivation in rodents is accompanied by an homeostatic regulation of the synaptic connectivity in the olfactory bulb (OB). However, its consequences in the neural sensitivity and discrimination have not been elucidated. We compared the odorant sensitivity and discrimination in early sensory deprived and normal OBs in anesthetized rats. We show that the deprived OB exhibits an increased sensitivity to different odorants when compared to the normal OB. Our results indicate that early olfactory stimulation enhances discriminability of the olfactory stimuli. We found that deprived olfactory bulbs adjusts the overall excitatory and inhibitory mitral cells (MCs) responses to odorants but the receptive fields become wider than in the normal olfactory bulbs. Taken together, these results suggest that an early natural sensory stimulation sharpens the receptor fields resulting in a larger discrimination capability. These results are consistent with previous evidence that a varied experience with odorants modulates the OB's synaptic connections and increases MCs selectivity. PMID:23580211

  20. Olfactory pathogenesis of idiopathic Parkinson disease revisited.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Alicja; Bagic, Anto

    2008-06-15

    Idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) is traditionally considered a movement disorder with hallmark lesions located in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). However, recent histopathological studies of some PD cases suggest the possibility of a multisystem disorder which progresses in a predictable sequence as described in Braak's staging criteria. The disease process starts in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (dmX) and anterior olfactory nucleus and bulb, and from there, spreads through the brainstem nuclei to ultimately reach the SNpc, which then presents as symptomatic PD. In this article, we would like to revisit the olfactory pathogenesis of PD based on Braak's staging system and review anatomical pathways supporting such a possibility. We also suggest some biomarkers for early stages of PD. Additionally, we present and discuss the possibility that a prion-like process underlies the neurodegenerative changes in PD.

  1. Olfactory Orientation and Navigation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Lucia F.; Arter, Jennifer; Cook, Amy; Sulloway, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Although predicted by theory, there is no direct evidence that an animal can define an arbitrary location in space as a coordinate location on an odor grid. Here we show that humans can do so. Using a spatial match-to-sample procedure, humans were led to a random location within a room diffused with two odors. After brief sampling and spatial disorientation, they had to return to this location. Over three conditions, participants had access to different sensory stimuli: olfactory only, visual only, and a final control condition with no olfactory, visual, or auditory stimuli. Humans located the target with higher accuracy in the olfaction-only condition than in the control condition and showed higher accuracy than chance. Thus a mechanism long proposed for the homing pigeon, the ability to define a location on a map constructed from chemical stimuli, may also be a navigational mechanism used by humans. PMID:26083337

  2. Mirror Sniffing: Humans Mimic Olfactory Sampling Behavior

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ample evidence suggests that social chemosignaling plays a significant role in human behavior. Processing of odors and chemosignals depends on sniffing. Given this, we hypothesized that humans may have evolved an automatic mechanism driving sniffs in response to conspecific sniffing. To test this, we measured sniffing behavior of human subjects watching the movie Perfume, which contains many olfactory sniffing events. Despite the total absence of odor, observers sniffed when characters in the movie sniffed. Moreover, this effect was most pronounced in scenes where subjects heard the sniff but did not see the sniffed-at object. We liken this response to the orienting towards conspecific gaze in vision and argue that its robustness further highlights the significance of olfactory information processing in human behavior. PMID:24457159

  3. Subthreshold olfactory stimulation can enhance sweetness.

    PubMed

    Labbe, D; Rytz, A; Morgenegg, C; Ali, S; Martin, N

    2007-03-01

    The impact of olfactory perception on sweetness was explored in a model solution using odorants at subthreshold concentrations. First, the impact of 6 odorants, previously described in the literature as congruent with sweetness, was investigated at suprathreshold level in a sucrose solution. Ethyl butyrate and maltol were selected as they had the highest and the lowest sweetness-enhancing properties, respectively. Second, the impact on sweetness of the 2 odorants was investigated at subthreshold concentrations. A system delivering a continuous liquid flow at the same sucrose level, but with varying odorant concentrations, was used. At a subthreshold level, ethyl butyrate but not maltol significantly enhanced the sweetness of the sucrose solution. This study highlights that olfactory perception induced by odorants at a subthreshold level can significantly modulate taste perception. Finally, contrary to results observed with ethyl butyrate at suprathreshold levels, at subthreshold levels, the intensity of sweetness enhancement was not proportional to ethyl butyrate concentration.

  4. Mirror sniffing: humans mimic olfactory sampling behavior.

    PubMed

    Arzi, Anat; Shedlesky, Limor; Secundo, Lavi; Sobel, Noam

    2014-05-01

    Ample evidence suggests that social chemosignaling plays a significant role in human behavior. Processing of odors and chemosignals depends on sniffing. Given this, we hypothesized that humans may have evolved an automatic mechanism driving sniffs in response to conspecific sniffing. To test this, we measured sniffing behavior of human subjects watching the movie Perfume, which contains many olfactory sniffing events. Despite the total absence of odor, observers sniffed when characters in the movie sniffed. Moreover, this effect was most pronounced in scenes where subjects heard the sniff but did not see the sniffed-at object. We liken this response to the orienting towards conspecific gaze in vision and argue that its robustness further highlights the significance of olfactory information processing in human behavior.

  5. Odors Discrimination by Olfactory Epithelium Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingjun; Hu, Ning; Ye, Weiwei; Zhang, Fenni; Wang, Hua; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    Humans are exploring the bionic biological olfaction to sense the various trace components of gas or liquid in many fields. For achieving the goal, we endeavor to establish a bioelectronic nose system for odor detection by combining intact bioactive function units with sensors. The bioelectronic nose is based on the olfactory epithelium of rat and microelectrode array (MEA). The olfactory epithelium biosensor generates extracellular potentials in presence of odor, and presents obvious specificity under different odors condition. The odor response signals can be distinguished with each other effectively by signal sorting. On basis of bioactive MEA hybrid system and the improved signal processing analysis, the bioelectronic nose will realize odor discrimination by the specific feature of signals response to various odors.

  6. Olfactory kin recognition in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Krause, E Tobias; Krüger, Oliver; Kohlmeier, Philip; Caspers, Barbara A

    2012-06-23

    The ability to recognize close relatives in order to cooperate or to avoid inbreeding is widespread across all taxa. One accepted mechanism for kin recognition in birds is associative learning of visual or acoustic cues. However, how could individuals ever learn to recognize unfamiliar kin? Here, we provide the first evidence for a novel mechanism of kin recognition in birds. Zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) fledglings are able to distinguish between kin and non-kin based on olfactory cues alone. Since olfactory cues are likely to be genetically based, this finding establishes a neglected mechanism of kin recognition in birds, particularly in songbirds, with potentially far-reaching consequences for both kin selection and inbreeding avoidance.

  7. Endocannabinoid modulation in the olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Breunig, Esther; Czesnik, Dirk; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Manzini, Ivan; Schild, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    Appetite, food intake, and energy balance are closely linked to the endocannabinoid system in the central nervous system. Now, endocannabinoid modulation has been discovered in the peripheral olfactory system of larval Xenopus laevis. The endocannabinoid 2-AG has been shown to influence odorant-detection thresholds according to the hunger state of the animal. Hungry animals have increased 2-AG levels due to enhanced synthesis of 2-AG in sustentacular supporting cells. This renders olfactory receptor neurons, exhibiting CB1 receptors, more sensitive at detecting lower odorant concentrations, which probably helps the animal to locate food. Since taste and vision are also influenced by endocannabinoids, this kind of modulation might boost sensory inputs of food in hungry animals.

  8. Divisive normalization in olfactory population codes

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Shawn R; Bhandawat, Vikas; Wilson, Rachel Irene

    2010-01-01

    In many regions of the visual system, the activity of a neuron is normalized by the activity of other neurons in the same region. Here we show that a similar normalization occurs during olfactory processing in the Drosophila antennal lobe. We exploit the orderly anatomy of this circuit to independently manipulate feedforward and lateral input to second-order projection neurons (PNs). Lateral inhibition increases the level of feedforward input needed to drive PNs to saturation, and this normalization scales with the total activity of the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) population. Increasing total ORN activity also makes PN responses more transient. Strikingly, a model with just two variables (feedforward and total ORN activity) accurately predicts PN odor responses. Finally, we show that discrimination by a linear decoder is facilitated by two complementary transformations: the saturating transformation intrinsic to each processing channel boosts weak signals, while normalization helps equalize responses to different stimuli. PMID:20435004

  9. Descriptive epidemiology of selected olfactory tumors.

    PubMed

    Villano, J Lee; Bressler, Linda; Propp, Jennifer M; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Martin, Iman K; Dolecek, Therese A; McCarthy, Bridget J

    2010-10-01

    Olfactory tumors, especially olfactory neuroblastomas (ON) and carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation (CND), are extremely rare, and little descriptive epidemiologic information is available. The objective of this study was to more fully describe selected olfactory tumors using a large population-based cancer incidence database. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 9 registries limited-use data were reviewed from 1973 to 2006 for selected nasal cavity (C30.0) and accessory sinus (C31.0-31.9) tumors. Frequencies, incidence rates, and relative survival rates were estimated using SEER*Stat, v6.5.2. The majority of cases were squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), while the incidence of ON was greater than CND. For ON, the incidence was highest in the 60-79 year age group, while for SCC, the incidence was highest in the 80+ year age group. For CND, the incidence leveled off in the oldest age groups. Survival rates were highest for ON (>70% alive at 5 years after diagnosis) and poorest for CND (44% alive at 5 years). Adjuvant radiation therapy did not improve survival over surgery alone in ON. In SCC, survival was worse in patients who received adjuvant radiation compared to patients who had surgery alone. Our analysis confirms some previously published information, and adds new information about the incidence and demographics of ON and CND. In addition, our analysis documents the lack of benefit of adjuvant radiation in ON. It is not feasible to conduct prospective trials in patients with these rare diseases, and the importance of registry data in learning about olfactory tumors is emphasized.

  10. Olfactory Stimuli Increase Presence in Virtual Environments

    PubMed Central

    Munyan, Benson G.; Neer, Sandra M.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Jentsch, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background Exposure therapy (EXP) is the most empirically supported treatment for anxiety and trauma-related disorders. EXP consists of repeated exposure to a feared object or situation in the absence of the feared outcome in order to extinguish associated anxiety. Key to the success of EXP is the need to present the feared object/event/situation in as much detail and utilizing as many sensory modalities as possible, in order to augment the sense of presence during exposure sessions. Various technologies used to augment the exposure therapy process by presenting multi-sensory cues (e.g., sights, smells, sounds). Studies have shown that scents can elicit emotionally charged memories, but no prior research has examined the effect of olfactory stimuli upon the patient’s sense of presence during simulated exposure tasks. Methods 60 adult participants navigated a mildly anxiety-producing virtual environment (VE) similar to those used in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Participants had no autobiographical memory associated with the VE. State anxiety, Presence ratings, and electrodermal (EDA) activity were collected throughout the experiment. Results Utilizing a Bonferroni corrected Linear Mixed Model, our results showed statistically significant relationships between olfactory stimuli and presence as assessed by both the Igroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ: R2 = 0.85, (F(3,52) = 6.625, p = 0.0007) and a single item visual-analogue scale (R2 = 0.85, (F(3,52) = 5.382, p = 0.0027). State anxiety was unaffected by the presence or absence of olfactory cues. EDA was unaffected by experimental condition. Conclusion Olfactory stimuli increase presence in virtual environments that approximate those typical in exposure therapy, but did not increase EDA. Additionally, once administered, the removal of scents resulted in a disproportionate decrease in presence. Implications for incorporating the use of scents to increase the efficacy of exposure therapy is discussed. PMID

  11. Profound Olfactory Dysfunction in Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E.; Bayona, Edgardo A.; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Osman, Allen; Doty, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disease strongly identified with deficient acetylcholine receptor transmission at the post-synaptic neuromuscular junction, is accompanied by a profound loss of olfactory function. Twenty-seven MG patients, 27 matched healthy controls, and 11 patients with polymiositis, a disease with peripheral neuromuscular symptoms analogous to myasthenia gravis with no known central nervous system involvement, were tested. All were administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and the Picture Identification Test (PIT), a test analogous in content and form to the UPSIT designed to control for non-olfactory cognitive confounds. The UPSIT scores of the myasthenia gravis patients were markedly lower than those of the age- and sex-matched normal controls [respective means (SDs) = 20.15 (6.40) & 35.67 (4.95); p<0.0001], as well as those of the polymiositis patients who scored slightly below the normal range [33.30 (1.42); p<0.0001]. The latter finding, along with direct monitoring of the inhalation of the patients during testing, implies that the MG-related olfactory deficit is unlikely due to difficulties sniffing, per se. All PIT scores were within or near the normal range, although subtle deficits were apparent in both the MG and PM patients, conceivably reflecting influences of mild cognitive impairment. No relationships between performance on the UPSIT and thymectomy, time since diagnosis, type of treatment regimen, or the presence or absence of serum anti-nicotinic or muscarinic antibodies were apparent. Our findings suggest that MG influences olfactory function to the same degree as observed in a number of neurodegenerative diseases in which central nervous system cholinergic dysfunction has been documented. PMID:23082113

  12. Stimulus independence, social cognition and consciousness.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Abstract A consensus emerging from neuroscience is that certain brain regions show activity correlated with stimulus independent (e.g. private) conscious thought and yet are also implicated in public social processes. The fact that systems supporting social processing also exhibit activity with no obvious perceptual referent, can be seen as support for the framework suggested by Graziano and Kerber (this volume) once it is recognized that the property of stimulus independence is also an important feature of consciousness. Understanding the social basis behind private stimulus independent thought, therefore, may provide an important assessment of the validity of the Graziano and Kerber hypothesis.

  13. Functional neuroanatomy of Drosophila olfactory memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba

    2014-01-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying Drosophila learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive and aversive reinforcers: (1) Which neurons within the olfactory nervous system mediate the acquisition of memory? (2) What is the complete neural circuitry extending from the site(s) of acquisition to the site(s) controlling memory expression? (3) How is information processed across this circuit to consolidate early-forming, disruptable memories to stable, late memories? Much progress has been made and a few strong conclusions have emerged: (1) Acquisition occurs at multiple sites within the olfactory nervous system but is mediated predominantly by the γ mushroom body neurons. (2) The expression of long-term memory is completely dependent on the synaptic output of α/β mushroom body neurons. (3) Consolidation occurs, in part, through circuit interactions between mushroom body and dorsal paired medial neurons. Despite this progress, a complete and unified model that details the pathway from acquisition to memory expression remains elusive. PMID:25225297

  14. Neurally Encoding Time for Olfactory Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Park, In Jun; Hein, Andrew M.; Bobkov, Yuriy V.; Reidenbach, Matthew A.; Ache, Barry W.; Principe, Jose C.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately encoding time is one of the fundamental challenges faced by the nervous system in mediating behavior. We recently reported that some animals have a specialized population of rhythmically active neurons in their olfactory organs with the potential to peripherally encode temporal information about odor encounters. If these neurons do indeed encode the timing of odor arrivals, it should be possible to demonstrate that this capacity has some functional significance. Here we show how this sensory input can profoundly influence an animal’s ability to locate the source of odor cues in realistic turbulent environments—a common task faced by species that rely on olfactory cues for navigation. Using detailed data from a turbulent plume created in the laboratory, we reconstruct the spatiotemporal behavior of a real odor field. We use recurrence theory to show that information about position relative to the source of the odor plume is embedded in the timing between odor pulses. Then, using a parameterized computational model, we show how an animal can use populations of rhythmically active neurons to capture and encode this temporal information in real time, and use it to efficiently navigate to an odor source. Our results demonstrate that the capacity to accurately encode temporal information about sensory cues may be crucial for efficient olfactory navigation. More generally, our results suggest a mechanism for extracting and encoding temporal information from the sensory environment that could have broad utility for neural information processing. PMID:26730727

  15. Cycloheximide: No Ordinary Bitter Stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Hettinger, Thomas P.; Formaker, Bradley K.; Frank, Marion E.

    2007-01-01

    Cycloheximide (CyX), a toxic antibiotic with a unique chemical structure generated by the actinomycete, Streptomyces griseus, has emerged as a primary focus of studies on mammalian bitter taste. Rats and mice avoid it at concentrations well below the thresholds for most bitter stimuli and T2R G-protein-coupled receptors specific for CyX with appropriate sensitivity are identified for those species. Like mouse and rat, golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus, also detected and rejected micromolar levels of CyX, although 1 mM CyX failed to activate the hamster chorda tympani nerve. Hamsters showed an initial tolerance for 500 μM CyX, but after that, avoidance of CyX dramatically increased, plasticity not reported for rat or mouse. As the hamster lineage branches well before division of the mouse-rat lineage in evolutionary time, differences between hamster and mouse-rat reactions to CyX are not surprising. Furthermore, unlike hamster LiCl-induced learned aversions, the induced CyX aversion neither specifically nor robustly generalized to other non-ionic bitter stimuli; and unlike adverse reactions to other chemosensory stimuli, aversions to CyX were not mollified by adding a sweetener. Thus, CyX is unlike other bitter stimuli. The gene for the high-affinity CyX receptor is a member of a cluster of 5 orthologous T2R genes that are likely rodent specific; this “CyX clade” is found in the mouse, rat and probably hamster, but not in the human or rabbit genome. The rodent CyX-T2R interaction may be one of multiple lineage-specific stimulus-receptor interactions reflecting a response to a particular environmental toxin. The combination of T2R multiplicity, species divergence and gene duplication results in diverse ligands for multiple species-specific T2R receptors, which confounds definition of ‘bitter’ stimuli across species. PMID:17400304

  16. Zonal organization of the mammalian main and accessory olfactory systems.

    PubMed Central

    Mori, K; von Campenhause, H; Yoshihara, Y

    2000-01-01

    Zonal organization is one of the characteristic features observed in both main and accessory olfactory systems. In the main olfactory system, most of the odorant receptors are classified into four groups according to their zonal expression patterns in the olfactory epithelium. Each group of odorant receptors is expressed by sensory neurons distributed within one of four circumscribed zones. Olfactory sensory neurons in a given zone of the epithelium project their axons to the glomeruli in a corresponding zone of the main olfactory bulb. Glomeruli in the same zone tend to represent similar odorant receptors having similar tuning specificity to odorants. Vomeronasal receptors (or pheromone receptors) are classified into two groups in the accessory olfactory system. Each group of receptors is expressed by vomeronasal sensory neurons in either the apical or basal zone of the vomeronasal epithelium. Sensory neurons in the apical zone project their axons to the rostral zone of the accessory olfactory bulb and form synaptic connections with mitral tufted cells belonging to the rostral zone. Signals originated from basal zone sensory neurons are sent to mitral tufted cells in the caudal zone of the accessory olfactory bulb. We discuss functional implications of the zonal organization in both main and accessory olfactory systems. PMID:11205342

  17. Olfactory performance in spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 patients.

    PubMed

    Galvez, Victor; Diaz, Rosalinda; Hernandez-Castillo, Carlos Roberto; Campos-Romo, Aurelio; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2014-05-01

    A large body of evidence has shown olfactory deficits in many neurodegenerative diseases. However, the nature of the olfactory impairment remains poorly understood partly because the majority of studies have only explored smell identification capabilities. The purpose of the present study was twofold. First we wanted to test if patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia and visual loss, also have olfactory deficits. Secondly, we wanted to test the nature of the olfactory deficits by testing not only the identification level but also olfactory threshold and discrimination. Based on the olfactory dysfunction found in different neurodegenerative diseases and functional neuroimaging data showing cerebellar activation during olfaction, we hypothesized that SCA7 patients would show an olfactory impairment. To test this hypothesis we studied twenty-eight genetically confirmed SCA7 patients and twenty-seven matched controls using the Sniffing Sticks Test and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). The results show that SCA7 patients' ability to discriminate and identify odors is significantly impaired, although their odor detection thresholds were at normal levels. These results suggest that SCA7 neurological damage affects olfactory perception but spares the patients' olfactory sensory capabilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion associated with olfactory neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Yumusakhuylu, Ali Cemal; Binnetoglu, Adem; Topuz, Muhammet Fatih; Bozkurtlar, Emine Baş; Baglam, Tekin; Sari, Murat

    2013-11-01

    This study reports a patient having olfactory neuroblastoma complicated by syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare tumor that begins in the olfactory membrane. Only 10 cases have been reported previously. Because of having nonspecific symptoms, most patients manifest at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. Olfactory neuroblastoma may show local invasion and/or distant metastasis. We demonstrated preoperatively clinical and biochemical parameters consistent with antidiuretic hormone syndrome turned to normal ranges after the treatment. Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy are the choices of treatment; among these, surgery is an indispensible treatment.

  19. Anatomy, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry of the olfactory subsystems in mice.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Arthur W; Núñez, Gonzalo; Sánchez Quinteiro, Pablo; Salazar, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    The four regions of the murine nasal cavity featuring olfactory neurons were studied anatomically and by labeling with lectins and relevant antibodies with a view to establishing criteria for the identification of olfactory subsystems that are readily applicable to other mammals. In the main olfactory epithelium and the septal organ the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are embedded in quasi-stratified columnar epithelium; vomeronasal OSNs are embedded in epithelium lining the medial interior wall of the vomeronasal duct and do not make contact with the mucosa of the main nasal cavity; and in Grüneberg's ganglion a small isolated population of OSNs lies adjacent to, but not within, the epithelium. With the exception of Grüneberg's ganglion, all the tissues expressing olfactory marker protein (OMP) (the above four nasal territories, the vomeronasal and main olfactory nerves, and the main and accessory olfactory bulbs) are also labeled by Lycopersicum esculentum agglutinin, while Ulex europaeus agglutinin I labels all and only tissues expressing Gαi2 (the apical sensory neurons of the vomeronasal organ, their axons, and their glomerular destinations in the anterior accessory olfactory bulb). These staining patterns of UEA-I and LEA may facilitate the characterization of olfactory anatomy in other species. A 710-section atlas of the anatomy of the murine nasal cavity has been made available on line.

  20. Anatomy, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry of the olfactory subsystems in mice

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Arthur W.; Núñez, Gonzalo; Sánchez Quinteiro, Pablo; Salazar, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    The four regions of the murine nasal cavity featuring olfactory neurons were studied anatomically and by labeling with lectins and relevant antibodies with a view to establishing criteria for the identification of olfactory subsystems that are readily applicable to other mammals. In the main olfactory epithelium and the septal organ the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are embedded in quasi-stratified columnar epithelium; vomeronasal OSNs are embedded in epithelium lining the medial interior wall of the vomeronasal duct and do not make contact with the mucosa of the main nasal cavity; and in Grüneberg's ganglion a small isolated population of OSNs lies adjacent to, but not within, the epithelium. With the exception of Grüneberg's ganglion, all the tissues expressing olfactory marker protein (OMP) (the above four nasal territories, the vomeronasal and main olfactory nerves, and the main and accessory olfactory bulbs) are also labeled by Lycopersicum esculentum agglutinin, while Ulex europaeus agglutinin I labels all and only tissues expressing Gαi2 (the apical sensory neurons of the vomeronasal organ, their axons, and their glomerular destinations in the anterior accessory olfactory bulb). These staining patterns of UEA-I and LEA may facilitate the characterization of olfactory anatomy in other species. A 710-section atlas of the anatomy of the murine nasal cavity has been made available on line. PMID:25071468

  1. Application of the European Test of Olfactory Capabilities in patients with olfactory impairment.

    PubMed

    Joussain, P; Bessy, M; Faure, F; Bellil, D; Landis, B N; Hugentobler, M; Tuorila, H; Mustonen, S; Vento, S I; Delphin-Combe, F; Krolak-Salmon, P; Rouby, C; Bensafi, M

    2016-02-01

    A central issue in olfaction concerns the characterization of loss of olfactory function: partial (hyposmia) or total (anosmia). This paper reports the application in a clinical setting of the European Test of Olfactory Capabilities (ETOC), combining odor detection and identification. The study included three phases. In phase 1, anosmics, hyposmics and controls were tested with the 16-items version of the ETOC. In phase 2, a short version of the ETOC was developed: patients with and controls without olfactory impairment were tested on a 6-items ETOC. In phase 3, to predict olfactory impairments in new individuals, the 16-items ETOC was administered on samples of young and older adults, and the 6-items version was applied in samples of young, elderly participants and Alzheimer patients. In phase 1, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of ETOC scores classified patients and controls with 87.5 % accuracy. In phase 2, LDA provided 84 % correct classification. Results of phase 3 revealed: (1) 16-items ETOC: whereas in young adults, 10 % were classified as hyposmic and 90 % as normosmic, in elderly, 1 % were classified as anosmic, 39 % hyposmic and 60 % normosmic; (2) 6-items ETOC: 15 % of the young adults were classified as having olfactory impairment, compared to 28 % in the older group and 83 % in Alzheimer patients. In conclusion, the ETOC enables characterizing the prevalence of olfactory impairment in young subjects and in normal and pathological aging. Whereas the 16-items ETOC is more discriminant, the short ETOC may provide a fast (5-10 min) tool to assess olfaction in clinical settings.

  2. Continuous- and Discrete-Time Stimulus Sequences for High Stimulus Rate Paradigm in Evoked Potential Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Jiang-hua; Lin, Lin

    2013-01-01

    To obtain reliable transient auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) from EEGs recorded using high stimulus rate (HSR) paradigm, it is critical to design the stimulus sequences of appropriate frequency properties. Traditionally, the individual stimulus events in a stimulus sequence occur only at discrete time points dependent on the sampling frequency of the recording system and the duration of stimulus sequence. This dependency likely causes the implementation of suboptimal stimulus sequences, sacrificing the reliability of resulting AEPs. In this paper, we explicate the use of continuous-time stimulus sequence for HSR paradigm, which is independent of the discrete electroencephalogram (EEG) recording system. We employ simulation studies to examine the applicability of the continuous-time stimulus sequences and the impacts of sampling frequency on AEPs in traditional studies using discrete-time design. Results from these studies show that the continuous-time sequences can offer better frequency properties and improve the reliability of recovered AEPs. Furthermore, we find that the errors in the recovered AEPs depend critically on the sampling frequencies of experimental systems, and their relationship can be fitted using a reciprocal function. As such, our study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the applicability and advantages of continuous-time stimulus sequences for HSR paradigm and by revealing the relationship between the reliability of AEPs and sampling frequencies of the experimental systems when discrete-time stimulus sequences are used in traditional manner for the HSR paradigm. PMID:23606900

  3. Continuous- and discrete-time stimulus sequences for high stimulus rate paradigm in evoked potential studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Jiang-hua; Lin, Lin; Zhan, Chang'an A

    2013-01-01

    To obtain reliable transient auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) from EEGs recorded using high stimulus rate (HSR) paradigm, it is critical to design the stimulus sequences of appropriate frequency properties. Traditionally, the individual stimulus events in a stimulus sequence occur only at discrete time points dependent on the sampling frequency of the recording system and the duration of stimulus sequence. This dependency likely causes the implementation of suboptimal stimulus sequences, sacrificing the reliability of resulting AEPs. In this paper, we explicate the use of continuous-time stimulus sequence for HSR paradigm, which is independent of the discrete electroencephalogram (EEG) recording system. We employ simulation studies to examine the applicability of the continuous-time stimulus sequences and the impacts of sampling frequency on AEPs in traditional studies using discrete-time design. Results from these studies show that the continuous-time sequences can offer better frequency properties and improve the reliability of recovered AEPs. Furthermore, we find that the errors in the recovered AEPs depend critically on the sampling frequencies of experimental systems, and their relationship can be fitted using a reciprocal function. As such, our study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the applicability and advantages of continuous-time stimulus sequences for HSR paradigm and by revealing the relationship between the reliability of AEPs and sampling frequencies of the experimental systems when discrete-time stimulus sequences are used in traditional manner for the HSR paradigm.

  4. Pulse Width Modulation Applied to Olfactory Stimulation for Intensity Tuning.

    PubMed

    Andrieu, Patrice; Billot, Pierre-Édouard; Millot, Jean-Louis; Gharbi, Tijani

    2015-01-01

    For most olfactometers described in the literature, adjusting olfactory stimulation intensity involves modifying the dilution of the odorant in a neutral solution (water, mineral, oil, etc.), the dilution of the odorant air in neutral airflow, or the surface of the odorant in contact with airflow. But, for most of these above-mentioned devices, manual intervention is necessary for adjusting concentration. We present in this article a method of controlling odorant concentration via a computer which can be implemented on even the most dynamic olfactometers. We used Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), a technique commonly used in electronic or electrical engineering, and we have applied it to odor delivery. PWM, when applied to odor delivery, comprises an alternative presentation of odorant air and clean air at a high frequency. The cycle period (odor presentation and rest) is 200 ms. In order to modify odorant concentration, the ratio between the odorant period and clean air presentation during a cycle is modified. This ratio is named duty cycle. Gas chromatography measurements show that this method offers a range of mixing factors from 33% to 100% (continuous presentation of odor). Proof of principle is provided via a psychophysical experiment. Three odors (isoamyl acetate, butanol and pyridine) were presented to twenty subjects. Each odor was delivered three times with five values of duty cycles. After each stimulation, the subjects were asked to estimate the intensity of the stimulus on a 10 point scale, ranging from 0 (undetectable) to 9 (very strong). Results show a main effect of the duty cycles on the intensity ratings for all tested odors.

  5. Feedback from network states generates variability in a probabilistic olfactory circuit

    PubMed Central

    Gordus, Andrew; Pokala, Navin; Levy, Sagi; Flavell, Steven W.; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2016-01-01

    Summary Variability is a prominent feature of behavior, and an active element of certain behavioral strategies. To understand how neuronal circuits control variability, we examined the propagation of sensory information in a chemotaxis circuit of Caenorhabditis elegans where discrete sensory inputs can drive a probabilistic behavioral response. Olfactory neurons respond to odor stimuli with rapid and reliable changes in activity, but downstream AIB interneurons respond with a probabilistic delay. The interneuron response to odor depends on the collective activity of multiple neurons – AIB, RIM, and AVA -- when the odor stimulus arrives. Certain activity states of the network correlate with reliable responses to odor stimuli. Artificially generating these activity states by modifying neuronal activity increases the reliability of odor responses in interneurons and the reliability of the behavioral response to odor. The integration of sensory information with network state may represent a general mechanism for generating variability in behavior. PMID:25772698

  6. Stimulus Generalization in Autistic and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Deborah; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A comparative assessment of eight normal and eight psychotic children in a stimulus generalization paradigm using simple and complex figures. Six of the subjects fulfilled the criteria for infantile autism. (CM)

  7. Accommodation stimulus and response determinations with autorefractors.

    PubMed

    Atchison, David A; Varnas, Saulius R

    2017-01-01

    To develop equations for accommodation stimulus and accommodation response with autorefractors when the accommodation stimulus is produced by combinations of object distances and lenses placed in front of eyes, and to give worked examples using these equations. Simple ray tracing was used to determine stimulus and response equations, taking into account the reference positions for targets, for refraction, and for autorefractor readings. Several examples applying equations are provided. Features of these examples include evaluating approximate calculations that have been used previously, demonstrating which equations should be used in different circumstances, how to substitute numbers into equations, how to deal with discrepancies between subjective and objective refraction, and how to deal with astigmatism. Problems associated with measuring accommodation response by placing lenses in front of the eye are discussed. Accurate equations for accommodation stimulus and accommodation response for a range of accommodation stimuli in different setups have been developed. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  8. Photoperiod mediated changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Walton, James C; Pyter, Leah M; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2012-01-01

    Brain plasticity, in relation to new adult mammalian neurons generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, has been well described. However, the functional outcome of new adult olfactory neurons born in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles is not clearly defined, as manipulating neurogenesis through various methods has given inconsistent and conflicting results in lab mice. Several small rodent species, including Peromyscus leucopus, display seasonal (photoperiodic) brain plasticity in brain volume, hippocampal function, and hippocampus-dependent behaviors; plasticity in the olfactory system of photoperiodic rodents remains largely uninvestigated. We exposed adult male P. leucopus to long day lengths (LD) and short day lengths (SD) for 10 to 15 weeks and then examined olfactory bulb cell proliferation and survival using the thymidine analog BrdU, olfactory bulb granule cell morphology using Golgi-Cox staining, and behavioral investigation of same-sex conspecific urine. SD mice did not differ from LD counterparts in granular cell morphology of the dendrites or in dendritic spine density. Although there were no differences due to photoperiod in habituation to water odor, SD mice rapidly habituated to male urine, whereas LD mice did not. In addition, short day induced changes in olfactory behavior were associated with increased neurogenesis in the caudal plexiform and granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, an area known to preferentially respond to water-soluble odorants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that photoperiod, without altering olfactory bulb neuronal morphology, alters olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in Peromyscus leucopus.

  9. Photoperiod Mediated Changes in Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis and Olfactory Behavior in Male White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus leucopus)

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Zachary M.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2012-01-01

    Brain plasticity, in relation to new adult mammalian neurons generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, has been well described. However, the functional outcome of new adult olfactory neurons born in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles is not clearly defined, as manipulating neurogenesis through various methods has given inconsistent and conflicting results in lab mice. Several small rodent species, including Peromyscus leucopus, display seasonal (photoperiodic) brain plasticity in brain volume, hippocampal function, and hippocampus-dependent behaviors; plasticity in the olfactory system of photoperiodic rodents remains largely uninvestigated. We exposed adult male P. leucopus to long day lengths (LD) and short day lengths (SD) for 10 to 15 weeks and then examined olfactory bulb cell proliferation and survival using the thymidine analog BrdU, olfactory bulb granule cell morphology using Golgi-Cox staining, and behavioral investigation of same-sex conspecific urine. SD mice did not differ from LD counterparts in granular cell morphology of the dendrites or in dendritic spine density. Although there were no differences due to photoperiod in habituation to water odor, SD mice rapidly habituated to male urine, whereas LD mice did not. In addition, short day induced changes in olfactory behavior were associated with increased neurogenesis in the caudal plexiform and granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, an area known to preferentially respond to water-soluble odorants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that photoperiod, without altering olfactory bulb neuronal morphology, alters olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in Peromyscus leucopus. PMID:22912730

  10. The olfactory apparatus of the bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus): fine structure and presence of a septal olfactory organ.

    PubMed Central

    Kratzing, J E

    1978-01-01

    The structure and extent of olfactory epithelium in the bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus) were examined by light and electron microscopy. Sensory epithelium covers most of the dorsal conchae, though non-sensory epithelium lines ventrally facing scrolls. The middle conchae are partly covered by olfactory epithelium, the proportion of olfactory to ciliated respiratory epithelium increasing caudally. Ventral conchae are lined by non-sensory ciliated epithelium. The nasal septum ends short of the floor of the nasal cavity in its caudal two thirds. It is covered dorsally by olfactory epithelium. The ventral margin has rounded lateral extensions which carry the isolated strips of olfactory epithelium which form the septal olfactory organ. The fine structure of the olfactory epithelium is the same in all areas. Cell types include olfactory receptors, supporting cells, two types of basal cell and rarer pale and brush cells. There is considerable morphological variation in olfactory cells, and evidence suggestive of continuing turnover in the receptor cell population. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:640961

  11. α-Synuclein in the olfactory system of a mouse model of Parkinson's disease: correlation with olfactory projections.

    PubMed

    Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2012-04-01

    Olfactory deficits are an early feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Neuropathologically, α-synucleinopathy (Lewy bodies and neurites) is observed earlier (stage 1) in the olfactory system than in the substantia nigra (stage 3), and this could underlies the early olfactory symptoms. In the present report, we analyzed the distribution of α-synuclein deposits in tertiary olfactory structures (anterior olfactory nucleus, olfactory tubercle, piriform cortex, posterolateral cortical amygdala and lateral entorhinal cortex) of homozygous transgenic mice (aged 2-8 months) overexpressing the human A53T variant of α-synuclein. To address the hypothesis of progressive α-synucleinopathy within the olfactory system, the distribution of α-synuclein was analyzed in conjunction with tracer injections into the main olfactory bulb. The time-course of α-synuclein expression revealed a significant increase in the piriform cortex at the age of 8 months compared to other brain structures. Tracing experiments revealed that olfactory projections are reduced in homozygous as compared to wild type animals. Double-labeling experiments show labeled axonal collaterals of mitral cells entering layer II of the piriform cortex in close proximity to α-synuclein-positive cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study addressing the progression of α-synuclein expression in a vulnerable neuronal pathway in PD.

  12. Respiration Gates Sensory Input Responses in the Mitral Cell Layer of the Olfactory Bulb.

    PubMed

    Short, Shaina M; Morse, Thomas M; McTavish, Thomas S; Shepherd, Gordon M; Verhagen, Justus V

    2016-01-01

    Respiration plays an essential role in odor processing. Even in the absence of odors, oscillating excitatory and inhibitory activity in the olfactory bulb synchronizes with respiration, commonly resulting in a burst of action potentials in mammalian mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) during the transition from inhalation to exhalation. This excitation is followed by inhibition that quiets MTC activity in both the glomerular and granule cell layers. Odor processing is hypothesized to be modulated by and may even rely on respiration-mediated activity, yet exactly how respiration influences sensory processing by MTCs is still not well understood. By using optogenetics to stimulate discrete sensory inputs in vivo, it was possible to temporally vary the stimulus to occur at unique phases of each respiration. Single unit recordings obtained from the mitral cell layer were used to map spatiotemporal patterns of glomerular evoked responses that were unique to stimulations occurring during periods of inhalation or exhalation. Sensory evoked activity in MTCs was gated to periods outside phasic respiratory mediated firing, causing net shifts in MTC activity across the cycle. In contrast, odor evoked inhibitory responses appear to be permitted throughout the respiratory cycle. Computational models were used to further explore mechanisms of inhibition that can be activated by respiratory activity and influence MTC responses. In silico results indicate that both periglomerular and granule cell inhibition can be activated by respiration to internally gate sensory responses in the olfactory bulb. Both the respiration rate and strength of lateral connectivity influenced inhibitory mechanisms that gate sensory evoked responses.

  13. Impacts of upper respiratory tract disease on olfactory behavior of the Mojave desert tortoise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germano, Jennifer; Van Zerr, Vanessa E.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Ken E.; Lamberski, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) caused by Mycoplasma agassizii is considered a threat to desert tortoise populations that should be addressed as part of the recovery of the species. Clinical signs can be intermittent and include serous or mucoid nasal discharge and respiratory difficulty when nares are occluded. This nasal congestion may result in a loss of the olfactory sense. Turtles are known to use olfaction to identify food items, predators, and conspecifics; therefore, it is likely that URTD affects not only their physical well-being but also their behavior and ability to perform necessary functions in the wild. To determine more specifically the impact nasal discharge might have on free-ranging tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), we compared the responses of tortoises with and without nasal discharge and both positive and negative for M. agassizii antibodies to a visually hidden olfactory food stimulus and an empty control. We found that nasal discharge did reduce sense of smell and hence the ability to locate food. Our study also showed that moderate chronic nasal discharge in the absence of other clinical signs did not affect appetite in desert tortoises.

  14. Respiration Gates Sensory Input Responses in the Mitral Cell Layer of the Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Short, Shaina M.; Morse, Thomas M.; McTavish, Thomas S.; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Verhagen, Justus V.

    2016-01-01

    Respiration plays an essential role in odor processing. Even in the absence of odors, oscillating excitatory and inhibitory activity in the olfactory bulb synchronizes with respiration, commonly resulting in a burst of action potentials in mammalian mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) during the transition from inhalation to exhalation. This excitation is followed by inhibition that quiets MTC activity in both the glomerular and granule cell layers. Odor processing is hypothesized to be modulated by and may even rely on respiration-mediated activity, yet exactly how respiration influences sensory processing by MTCs is still not well understood. By using optogenetics to stimulate discrete sensory inputs in vivo, it was possible to temporally vary the stimulus to occur at unique phases of each respiration. Single unit recordings obtained from the mitral cell layer were used to map spatiotemporal patterns of glomerular evoked responses that were unique to stimulations occurring during periods of inhalation or exhalation. Sensory evoked activity in MTCs was gated to periods outside phasic respiratory mediated firing, causing net shifts in MTC activity across the cycle. In contrast, odor evoked inhibitory responses appear to be permitted throughout the respiratory cycle. Computational models were used to further explore mechanisms of inhibition that can be activated by respiratory activity and influence MTC responses. In silico results indicate that both periglomerular and granule cell inhibition can be activated by respiration to internally gate sensory responses in the olfactory bulb. Both the respiration rate and strength of lateral connectivity influenced inhibitory mechanisms that gate sensory evoked responses. PMID:28005923

  15. Odour-modulated collective network oscillations of olfactory interneurons in a terrestrial mollusc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelperin, Alan; Tank, David W.

    1990-05-01

    DETERMINATION of the dynamical structure of neural circuits—the general principles of how neural activity varies with time and manipulates information—is a prerequisite to understanding their computational function1. Rhythmically active or oscillating neural circuits are particularly interesting dynamical structures, as rhythms and oscillations are a prominent feature of mammalian central nervous system electrophysiology. Coherent oscillations by networks of interneurons are observed in the vertebrate olfactory system2,3 and have recently been described in mammalian visual cortex4-6. These interneuronal networks display oscillations in local field potential (LFP) and probability of producing action potentials that are highly correlated between subcircuits sharing the same stimulus features. Much less is known about the existence and importance of network oscillations in the higher centres of invertebrates7. Here we report that a network of olfactory inter-neurons in the cerebral ganglion of the terrestrial mollusc Limax maximus also displays coherent oscillations in LFP which are modified by odour input. This dynamical structure could be central to the odour recognition and odour learning ability of Limax8,9.

  16. An Investigation on the Role of Spike Latency in an Artificial Olfactory System

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Eugenio; Polese, Davide; Dini, Francesca; Paolesse, Roberto; Filippini, Daniel; Lundström, Ingemar; Di Natale, Corrado

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that the reactions to external stimuli may appear only few hundreds of milliseconds after the physical interaction of the stimulus with the proper receptor. This behavior suggests that neurons transmit the largest meaningful part of their signal in the first spikes, and than that the spike latency is a good descriptor of the information content in biological neural networks. In this paper this property has been investigated in an artificial sensorial system where a single layer of spiking neurons is trained with the data generated by an artificial olfactory platform based on a large array of chemical sensors. The capability to discriminate between distinct chemicals and mixtures of them was studied with spiking neural networks endowed with and without lateral inhibitions and considering as output feature of the network both the spikes latency and the average firing rate. Results show that the average firing rate of the output spikes sequences shows the best separation among the experienced vapors, however the latency code is able in a shorter time to correctly discriminate all the tested volatile compounds. This behavior is qualitatively similar to those recently found in natural olfaction, and noteworthy it provides practical suggestions to tail the measurement conditions of artificial olfactory systems defining for each specific case a proper measurement time. PMID:22194721

  17. In vivo functional properties of juxtaglomerular neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Homma, R.; Kovalchuk, Y.; Konnerth, A.; Cohen, L. B.; Garaschuk, O.

    2013-01-01

    Juxtaglomerular neurons represent one of the largest cellular populations in the mammalian olfactory bulb yet their role for signal processing remains unclear. We used two-photon imaging and electrophysiological recordings to clarify the in vivo properties of these cells and their functional organization in the juxtaglomerular space. Juxtaglomerular neurons coded for many perceptual characteristics of the olfactory stimulus such as (1) identity of the odorant, (2) odorant concentration, (3) odorant onset, and (4) offset. The odor-responsive neurons clustered within a narrow area surrounding the glomerulus with the same odorant specificity, with ~80% of responding cells located ≤20 μm from the glomerular border. This stereotypic spatial pattern of activated cells persisted at different odorant concentrations and was found for neurons both activated and inhibited by the odorant. Our data identify a principal glomerulus with a narrow shell of juxtaglomerular neurons as a basic odor coding unit in the glomerular layer and underline the important role of intraglomerular circuitry. PMID:23459031

  18. Visual and olfactory associative learning in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Memory and learning are critical aspects of the ecology of insect vectors of human pathogens because of their potential effects on contacts between vectors and their hosts. Despite this epidemiological importance, there have been only a limited number of studies investigating associative learning in insect vector species and none on Anopheline mosquitoes. Methods A simple behavioural assays was developed to study visual and olfactory associative learning in Anopheles gambiae, the main vector of malaria in Africa. Two contrasted membrane qualities or levels of blood palatability were used as reinforcing stimuli for bi-directional conditioning during blood feeding. Results Under such experimental conditions An. gambiae females learned very rapidly to associate visual (chequered and white patterns) and olfactory cues (presence and absence of cheese or Citronella smell) with the reinforcing stimuli (bloodmeal quality) and remembered the association for up to three days. Associative learning significantly increased with the strength of the conditioning stimuli used. Importantly, learning sometimes occurred faster when a positive reinforcing stimulus (palatable blood) was associated with an innately preferred cue (such as a darker visual pattern). However, the use of too attractive a cue (e.g. Shropshire cheese smell) was counter-productive and decreased learning success. Conclusions The results address an important knowledge gap in mosquito ecology and emphasize the role of associative memory for An. gambiae's host finding and blood-feeding behaviour with important potential implications for vector control. PMID:22284012

  19. Impacts of upper respiratory tract disease on olfactory behavior of the Mojave desert tortoise.

    PubMed

    Germano, Jennifer; Van Zerr, Vanessa E; Esque, Todd C; Nussear, Ken E; Lamberski, Nadine

    2014-04-01

    Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) caused by Mycoplasma agassizii is considered a threat to desert tortoise populations that should be addressed as part of the recovery of the species. Clinical signs can be intermittent and include serous or mucoid nasal discharge and respiratory difficulty when nares are occluded. This nasal congestion may result in a loss of the olfactory sense. Turtles are known to use olfaction to identify food items, predators, and conspecifics; therefore, it is likely that URTD affects not only their physical well-being but also their behavior and ability to perform necessary functions in the wild. To determine more specifically the impact nasal discharge might have on free-ranging tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), we compared the responses of tortoises with and without nasal discharge and both positive and negative for M. agassizii antibodies to a visually hidden olfactory food stimulus and an empty control. We found that nasal discharge did reduce sense of smell and hence the ability to locate food. Our study also showed that moderate chronic nasal discharge in the absence of other clinical signs did not affect appetite in desert tortoises.

  20. Occlusion for stimulus deprivation amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Antonio-Santos, Aileen; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Hatt, Sarah R; Powell, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background Stimulus deprivation amblyopia (SDA) develops due to an obstruction to the passage of light secondary to a condition such as cataract. The obstruction prevents formation of a clear image on the retina. SDA can be resistant to treatment, leading to poor visual prognosis. SDA probably constitutes less than 3% of all amblyopia cases, although precise estimates of prevalence are unknown. In developed countries, most patients present under the age of one year; in less developed parts of the world patients are likely to be older at the time of presentation. The mainstay of treatment is removal of the cataract and then occlusion of the better-seeing eye, but regimens vary, can be difficult to execute, and traditionally are believed to lead to disappointing results. Objectives Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of occlusion therapy for SDA in an attempt to establish realistic treatment outcomes. Where data were available, we also planned to examine evidence of any dose response effect and to assess the effect of the duration, severity, and causative factor on the size and direction of the treatment effect. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2013), the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2013), PubMed (January 1946 to October 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 28 October 2013. Selection criteria We planned

  1. Single stimulus learning in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    O’Neale, Ashley; Ellis, Joseph; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    Learning about a moving visual stimulus was examined in zebrafish larvae using an automated imaging system and a t1-t2 design. In three experiments, zebrafish larvae were exposed to one of two inputs at t1 (either a gray bouncing disk or an identical but stationary disk) followed by a common test at t2 (the gray bouncing disk). Using 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) larvae and 12 stimulus exposures, Experiment 1 established that these different treatments produced differential responding to the moving disk during testing. Larvae familiar with the moving test stimulus were significantly less likely to be still in its presence than larvae that had been exposed to the identical but stationary stimulus. Experiment 2 confirmed this result in 7 dpf larvae and extended the finding to 5 and 6 dpf larvae. Experiment 3 found differential responding to the moving test stimulus with 4 or 8 stimulus exposures but not with just one exposure in 7 dpf larvae. These results provide evidence for learning in very young zebrafish larvae. The merits and challenges of the t1-t2 framework to study learning are discussed. PMID:24012906

  2. Observing Behavior and Atypically Restricted Stimulus Control

    PubMed Central

    Dube, William V; Dickson, Chata A; Balsamo, Lyn M; O'Donnell, Kristin Lombard; Tomanari, Gerson Y; Farren, Kevin M; Wheeler, Emily E; McIlvane, William J

    2010-01-01

    Restricted stimulus control refers to discrimination learning with atypical limitations in the range of controlling stimuli or stimulus features. In the study reported here, 4 normally capable individuals and 10 individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) performed two-sample delayed matching to sample. Sample-stimulus observing was recorded with an eye-tracking apparatus. High accuracy scores indicated stimulus control by both sample stimuli for the 4 nondisabled participants and 4 participants with ID, and eye tracking data showed reliable observing of all stimuli. Intermediate accuracy scores indicated restricted stimulus control for the remaining 6 participants. Their eye-tracking data showed that errors were related to failures to observe sample stimuli and relatively brief observing durations. Five of these participants were then given interventions designed to improve observing behavior. For 4 participants, the interventions resulted initially in elimination of observing failures, increased observing durations, and increased accuracy. For 2 of these participants, contingencies sufficient to maintain adequate observing were not always sufficient to maintain high accuracy; subsequent procedure modifications restored it, however. For the 5th participant, initial improvements in observing were not accompanied by improved accuracy, an apparent instance of observing without attending; accuracy improved only after an additional intervention that imposed contingencies on observing behavior. Thus, interventions that control observing behavior seem necessary but may not always be sufficient for the remediation of restricted stimulus control. PMID:21541173

  3. A monocular contribution to stimulus rivalry.

    PubMed

    Brascamp, Jan; Sohn, Hansem; Lee, Sang-Hun; Blake, Randolph

    2013-05-21

    When corresponding areas of the two eyes view dissimilar images, stable perception gives way to visual competition wherein perceptual awareness alternates between those images. Moreover, a given image can remain visually dominant for several seconds at a time even when the competing images are swapped between the eyes multiple times each second. This perceptual stability across eye swaps has led to the widespread belief that this unique form of visual competition, dubbed stimulus rivalry, is governed by eye-independent neural processes at a purely binocular stage of cortical processing. We tested this idea by investigating the influence of stimulus rivalry on the buildup of the threshold elevation aftereffect, a form of contrast adaptation thought to transpire at early cortical stages that include eye-specific neural activity. Weaker threshold elevation aftereffects were observed when the adapting image was engaged in stimulus rivalry than when it was not, indicating diminished buildup of adaptation during stimulus-rivalry suppression. We then confirmed that this reduction occurred, in part, at eye-specific neural stages by showing that suppression of an image at a given moment specifically diminished adaptation associated with the eye viewing the image at that moment. Considered together, these results imply that eye-specific neural events at early cortical processing stages contribute to stimulus rivalry. We have developed a computational model of stimulus rivalry that successfully implements this idea.

  4. A monocular contribution to stimulus rivalry

    PubMed Central

    Brascamp, Jan; Sohn, Hansem; Lee, Sang-Hun; Blake, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    When corresponding areas of the two eyes view dissimilar images, stable perception gives way to visual competition wherein perceptual awareness alternates between those images. Moreover, a given image can remain visually dominant for several seconds at a time even when the competing images are swapped between the eyes multiple times each second. This perceptual stability across eye swaps has led to the widespread belief that this unique form of visual competition, dubbed stimulus rivalry, is governed by eye-independent neural processes at a purely binocular stage of cortical processing. We tested this idea by investigating the influence of stimulus rivalry on the buildup of the threshold elevation aftereffect, a form of contrast adaptation thought to transpire at early cortical stages that include eye-specific neural activity. Weaker threshold elevation aftereffects were observed when the adapting image was engaged in stimulus rivalry than when it was not, indicating diminished buildup of adaptation during stimulus-rivalry suppression. We then confirmed that this reduction occurred, in part, at eye-specific neural stages by showing that suppression of an image at a given moment specifically diminished adaptation associated with the eye viewing the image at that moment. Considered together, these results imply that eye-specific neural events at early cortical processing stages contribute to stimulus rivalry. We have developed a computational model of stimulus rivalry that successfully implements this idea. PMID:23610414

  5. Tactile localization depends on stimulus intensity.

    PubMed

    Steenbergen, Peter; Buitenweg, Jan R; Trojan, Jörg; Veltink, Peter H

    2014-02-01

    Few experimental data are available about the influence of stimulus intensity on localization of cutaneous stimuli. The localization behavior of an individual as function of the veridical stimulus sites can be represented in the form of a perceptual map. It is unknown how the intensity of cutaneous stimuli influences these perceptual maps. We investigated the effect of stimulus intensity on trial-to-trial localization variability and on perceptual maps. We applied non-painful electrocutaneous stimuli of three different intensities through seven surface electrodes on the lower arm of healthy participants. They localized the stimuli on a tablet monitor mounted directly above their arm, on which a photograph of this arm was presented. The length of the arm over which the stimuli were localized was contracted when compared to the real electrode positions. This length increased toward veridical with increasing stimulus intensity. The trial-to-trial variance of the localizations dropped significantly with increasing intensity. Furthermore, localization biases of individual stimulus positions were shown to decrease with increasing stimulus intensity. We conclude that tactile stimuli are localized closer to veridical with increasing intensity in two respects: the localizations become more consistent and more accurate.

  6. Appetitive but not aversive olfactory conditioning modifies antennal movements in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Cholé, Hanna; Junca, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, two olfactory conditioning protocols allow the study of appetitive and aversive Pavlovian associations. Appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) involves associating an odor, the conditioned stimulus (CS) with a sucrose solution, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Conversely, aversive conditioning of the sting extension response (SER) involves associating the odor CS with an electric or thermal shock US. Each protocol is based on the measure of a different behavioral response (proboscis versus sting) and both only provide binary responses (extension or not of the proboscis or sting). These limitations render the measure of the acquired valence of an odor CS difficult without testing the animals in a freely moving situation. Here, we studied the effects of both olfactory conditioning protocols on the movements of the antennae, which are crucial sensory organs for bees. As bees’ antennae are highly mobile, we asked whether their movements in response to an odorant change following appetitive or aversive conditioning and if so, do odor-evoked antennal movements contain information about the acquired valence of the CS? We implemented a tracking system for harnessed bees’ antennal movements based on a motion capture principle at a high frequency rate. We observed that differential appetitive conditioning had a strong effect on antennal movements. Bees responded to the reinforced odorant with a marked forward motion of the antennae and a strong velocity increase. Conversely, differential aversive conditioning had no associative effect on antennal movements. Rather than revealing the acquired valence of an odorant, antennal movements may represent a novel conditioned response taking place during appetitive conditioning and may provide a possible advantage to bees when foraging in natural situations. PMID:26572651

  7. Appetitive but not aversive olfactory conditioning modifies antennal movements in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Cholé, Hanna; Junca, Pierre; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-12-01

    In honeybees, two olfactory conditioning protocols allow the study of appetitive and aversive Pavlovian associations. Appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) involves associating an odor, the conditioned stimulus (CS) with a sucrose solution, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Conversely, aversive conditioning of the sting extension response (SER) involves associating the odor CS with an electric or thermal shock US. Each protocol is based on the measure of a different behavioral response (proboscis versus sting) and both only provide binary responses (extension or not of the proboscis or sting). These limitations render the measure of the acquired valence of an odor CS difficult without testing the animals in a freely moving situation. Here, we studied the effects of both olfactory conditioning protocols on the movements of the antennae, which are crucial sensory organs for bees. As bees' antennae are highly mobile, we asked whether their movements in response to an odorant change following appetitive or aversive conditioning and if so, do odor-evoked antennal movements contain information about the acquired valence of the CS? We implemented a tracking system for harnessed bees' antennal movements based on a motion capture principle at a high frequency rate. We observed that differential appetitive conditioning had a strong effect on antennal movements. Bees responded to the reinforced odorant with a marked forward motion of the antennae and a strong velocity increase. Conversely, differential aversive conditioning had no associative effect on antennal movements. Rather than revealing the acquired valence of an odorant, antennal movements may represent a novel conditioned response taking place during appetitive conditioning and may provide a possible advantage to bees when foraging in natural situations.

  8. Interneurons and beta-amyloid in the olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus and olfactory tubercle in APPxPS1 transgenic mice model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; De La Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2013-09-01

    Impaired olfaction has been described as an early symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuroanatomical changes underlying this deficit in the olfactory system are largely unknown. Given that interneuron populations are crucial in olfactory information processing, we have quantitatively analyzed somatostatin- (SOM), parvalbumin- (PV), and calretinin-expressing (CR) cells in the olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus, and olfactory tubercle in PS1 x APP double transgenic mice model of AD. The experiments were performed in wild type and double transgenic homozygous animal groups of 2, 4, 6, and 8 months of age to analyze early stages of the pathology. In addition, beta-amyloid (Aβ) expression and its correlation with SOM cells have been quantified under confocal microscopy. The results indicate increasing expressions of Aβ with aging as well as an early fall of SOM and CR expression, whereas PV was decreased later in the disease progression. These observations evidence an early, preferential vulnerability of SOM and CR cells in rostral olfactory structures during AD that may be useful to unravel neural basis of olfactory deficits associated to this neurodegenerative disorder. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Focal uncaging of GABA reveals a temporally defined role for GABAergic inhibition during appetitive associative olfactory conditioning in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Raccuglia, Davide; Mueller, Uli

    2013-07-16

    Throughout the animal kingdom, the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a key modulator of physiological processes including learning. With respect to associative learning, the exact time in which GABA interferes with the molecular events of learning has not yet been clearly defined. To address this issue, we used two different approaches to activate GABA receptors during appetitive olfactory conditioning in the honeybee. Injection of GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol 20 min before but not 20 min after associative conditioning affects memory performance. These memory deficits were attenuated by additional training sessions. Muscimol has no effect on sensory perception, odor generalization, and nonassociative learning, indicating a specific role of GABA during associative conditioning. We used photolytic uncaging of GABA to identify the GABA-sensitive time window during the short pairing of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US) that lasts only seconds. Either uncaging of GABA in the antennal lobes or the mushroom bodies during the CS presentation of the CS-US pairing impairs memory formation, while uncaging GABA during the US phase has no effect on memory. Uncaging GABA during the CS presentation in memory retrieval also has no effect. Thus, in honeybee appetitive olfactory learning GABA specifically interferes with the integration of CS and US during associative conditioning and exerts a modulatory role in memory formation depending on the training strength.

  10. Olfactory lateralization in homing pigeons: a GPS study on birds released with unilateral olfactory inputs.

    PubMed

    Gagliardo, Anna; Filannino, Caterina; Ioalè, Paolo; Pecchia, Tommaso; Wikelski, Martin; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-02-15

    A large body of evidence has shown that pigeons rely on an olfactory-based navigational map when homing from unfamiliar locations. Previous studies on pigeons released with one nostril occluded highlighted an asymmetry in favour of the right nostril, particularly concerning the initial orientation performance of naïve birds. Nevertheless, all pigeons experiencing only unilateral olfactory input showed impaired homing, regardless of the side of the occluded nostril. So far this phenomenon has been documented only by observing the birds' vanishing bearings. In the present work we recorded the flight tracks of pigeons with previous homing experience equipped with a GPS data logger and released from an unfamiliar location with the right or the left nostril occluded. The analysis of the tracks revealed that the flight path of the birds with the right nostril occluded was more tortuous than that of unmanipulated controls. Moreover, the pigeons smelling with the left nostril interrupted their journey significantly more frequently and displayed more exploratory activity than the control birds, e.g. during flights around a stopover site. These data suggest a more important involvement of the right olfactory system in processing the olfactory information needed for the operation of the navigational map.

  11. The complete swine olfactory subgenome: expansion of the olfactory gene repertoire in the pig genome.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dinh Truong; Lee, Kyooyeol; Choi, Hojun; Choi, Min-kyeung; Le, Minh Thong; Song, Ning; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Seo, Han Geuk; Oh, Jae-Wook; Lee, Kyungtae; Kim, Tae-Hun; Park, Chankyu

    2012-11-15

    Insects and animals can recognize surrounding environments by detecting thousands of chemical odorants. Olfaction is a complicated process that begins in the olfactory epithelium with the specific binding of volatile odorant molecules to dedicated olfactory receptors (ORs). OR proteins are encoded by the largest gene superfamily in the mammalian genome. We report here the whole genome analysis of the olfactory receptor genes of S. scrofa using conserved OR gene specific motifs and known OR protein sequences from diverse species. We identified 1,301 OR related sequences from the S. scrofa genome assembly, Sscrofa10.2, including 1,113 functional OR genes and 188 pseudogenes. OR genes were located in 46 different regions on 16 pig chromosomes. We classified the ORs into 17 families, three Class I and 14 Class II families, and further grouped them into 349 subfamilies. We also identified inter- and intra-chromosomal duplications of OR genes residing on 11 chromosomes. A significant number of pig OR genes (n = 212) showed less than 60% amino acid sequence similarity to known OR genes of other species. As the genome assembly Sscrofa10.2 covers 99.9% of the pig genome, our analysis represents an almost complete OR gene repertoire from an individual pig genome. We show that S. scrofa has one of the largest OR repertoires, suggesting an expansion of OR genes in the swine genome. A significant number of unique OR genes in the pig genome may suggest the presence of swine specific olfactory stimulation.

  12. Visualizing olfactory learning functional imaging of experience-induced olfactory bulb changes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Max L; Bendahmane, Mounir

    2014-01-01

    The anatomical organization of sensory neuron input allows odor information to be transformed into odorant-specific spatial maps of mitral/tufted cell glomerular activity. In other sensory systems, neuronal representations of sensory stimuli can be reorganized or enhanced following learning or experience. Similarly, several studies have demonstrated both structural and physiological experience-induced changes throughout the olfactory system. As experience-induced changes within this circuit likely serve as an initial site for odor memory formation, the olfactory bulb is an ideal site for optical imaging studies of olfactory learning, as they allow for the visualization of experience-induced changes in the glomerular circuit following learning and how these changes impact of odor representations with the bulb. Presently, optical imaging techniques have been used to visualize experience-induced changes in glomerular odor representations in a variety of paradigms in short-term habituation, chronic odor exposure, and olfactory associative conditioning. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Screen for Genes Expressed in the Olfactory Organs of Drosophila melanogaster Identifies Genes Involved in Olfactory Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Tunstall, Narelle E.; Herr, Anabel; de Bruyne, Marien; Warr, Coral G.

    2012-01-01

    Background For insects the sense of smell and associated olfactory-driven behaviours are essential for survival. Insects detect odorants with families of olfactory receptor proteins that are very different to those of mammals, and there are likely to be other unique genes and genetic pathways involved in the function and development of the insect olfactory system. Methodology/Principal Findings We have performed a genetic screen of a set of 505 Drosophila melanogaster gene trap insertion lines to identify novel genes expressed in the adult olfactory organs. We identified 16 lines with expression in the olfactory organs, many of which exhibited expression of the trapped genes in olfactory receptor neurons. Phenotypic analysis showed that six of the lines have decreased olfactory responses in a behavioural assay, and for one of these we showed that precise excision of the P element reverts the phenotype to wild type, confirming a role for the trapped gene in olfaction. To confirm the identity of the genes trapped in the lines we performed molecular analysis of some of the insertion sites. While for many lines the reported insertion sites were correct, we also demonstrated that for a number of lines the reported location of the element was incorrect, and in three lines there were in fact two pGT element insertions. Conclusions/Significance We identified 16 new genes expressed in the Drosophila olfactory organs, the majority in neurons, and for several of the gene trap lines demonstrated a defect in olfactory-driven behaviour. Further characterisation of these genes and their roles in olfactory system function and development will increase our understanding of how the insect olfactory system has evolved to perform the same essential function to that of mammals, but using very different molecular genetic mechanisms. PMID:22530061

  14. Neuropeptide S facilitates mice olfactory function through activation of cognate receptor-expressing neurons in the olfactory cortex.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Peng; Dong, Chao-Yu; Li, Jing; Kong, Xiang-Pan; Wang, Hai-Liang; Dai, Li-Rong; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a newly identified neuromodulator located in the brainstem and regulates various biological functions by selectively activating the NPS receptors (NPSR). High level expression of NPSR mRNA in the olfactory cortex suggests that NPS-NPSR system might be involved in the regulation of olfactory function. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of NPS or co-injection of NPSR antagonist on the olfactory behaviors, food intake, and c-Fos expression in olfactory cortex in mice. In addition, dual-immunofluorescence was employed to identify NPS-induced Fos immunereactive (-ir) neurons that also bear NPSR. NPS (0.1-1 nmol) i.c.v. injection significantly reduced the latency to find the buried food, and increased olfactory differentiation of different odors and the total sniffing time spent in olfactory habituation/dishabituation tasks. NPS facilitated olfactory ability most at the dose of 0.5 nmol, which could be blocked by co-injection of 40 nmol NPSR antagonist [D-Val(5)]NPS. NPS administration dose-dependently inhibited food intake in fasted mice. Ex-vivo c-Fos and NPSR immunohistochemistry in the olfactory cortex revealed that, as compared with vehicle-treated mice, NPS markedly enhanced c-Fos expression in the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), piriform cortex (Pir), ventral tenia tecta (VTT), the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus (ACo) and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEnt). The percentage of Fos-ir neurons that also express NPSR were 88.5% and 98.1% in the AON and Pir, respectively. The present findings demonstrated that NPS, via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPSR in the olfactory cortex, facilitates olfactory function in mice.

  15. Voltage-Dependent Intrinsic Bursting in Olfactory Bulb Golgi Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods…

  16. Dock and Pak regulate olfactory axon pathfinding in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ang, Lay-Hong; Kim, Jenny; Stepensky, Vitaly; Hing, Huey

    2003-04-01

    The convergence of olfactory axons expressing particular odorant receptor (Or) genes on spatially invariant glomeruli in the brain is one of the most dramatic examples of precise axon targeting in developmental neurobiology. The cellular and molecular mechanisms by which olfactory axons pathfind to their targets are poorly understood. We report here that the SH2/SH3 adapter Dock and the serine/threonine kinase Pak are necessary for the precise guidance of olfactory axons. Using antibody localization, mosaic analyses and cell-type specific rescue, we observed that Dock and Pak are expressed in olfactory axons and function autonomously in olfactory neurons to regulate the precise wiring of the olfactory map. Detailed analyses of the mutant phenotypes in whole mutants and in small multicellular clones indicate that Dock and Pak do not control olfactory neuron (ON) differentiation, but specifically regulate multiple aspects of axon trajectories to guide them to their cognate glomeruli. Structure/function studies show that Dock and Pak form a signaling pathway that mediates the response of olfactory axons to guidance cues in the developing antennal lobe (AL). Our findings therefore identify a central signaling module that is used by ONs to project to their cognate glomeruli.

  17. Dietary sodium protects fish against copper-induced olfactory impairment.

    PubMed

    Azizishirazi, Ali; Dew, William A; Bougas, Berenice; Bernatchez, Louis; Pyle, Greg G

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to low concentrations of copper impairs olfaction in fish. To determine the transcriptional changes in the olfactory epithelium induced by copper exposure, wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were exposed to 20 μg/L of copper for 3 and 24h. A novel yellow perch microarray with 1000 candidate genes was used to measure differential gene transcription in the olfactory epithelium. While three hours of exposure to copper changed the transcription of only one gene, the transcriptions of 70 genes were changed after 24h of exposure to copper. Real-time PCR was utilized to determine the effect of exposure duration on two specific genes of interest, two sub-units of Na/K-ATPase. At 24 and 48 h, Na/K-ATPase transcription was down-regulated by copper at olfactory rosettes. As copper-induced impairment of Na/K-ATPase activity in gills can be ameliorated by increased dietary sodium, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were used to determine if elevated dietary sodium was also protective against copper-induced olfactory impairment. Measurement of the olfactory response of rainbow trout using electro-olfactography demonstrated that sodium was protective of copper-induced olfactory dysfunction. This work demonstrates that the transcriptions of both subunits of Na/K-ATPase in the olfactory epithelium of fish are affected by Cu exposure, and that dietary Na protects against Cu-induced olfactory dysfunction.

  18. Voltage-Dependent Intrinsic Bursting in Olfactory Bulb Golgi Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods…

  19. Forward and Back: Motifs of Inhibition in Olfactory Processing

    PubMed Central

    Bazhenov, Maxim; Stopfer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable performance of the olfactory system in classifying and categorizing the complex olfactory environment is built upon several basic neural circuit motifs. These include forms of inhibition that may play comparable roles in widely divergent species. In this issue of Neuron, a new study by Stokes and Isaacson sheds light on how elementary types of inhibition dynamically interact. PMID:20696373

  20. 21 CFR 874.1600 - Olfactory test device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Olfactory test device. 874.1600 Section 874.1600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1600 Olfactory test device....

  1. 21 CFR 874.1600 - Olfactory test device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Olfactory test device. 874.1600 Section 874.1600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1600 Olfactory test device....

  2. 21 CFR 874.1600 - Olfactory test device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Olfactory test device. 874.1600 Section 874.1600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1600 Olfactory test device....

  3. The Odorant Receptor-Dependent Role of Olfactory Marker Protein in Olfactory Receptor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dibattista, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the nasal cavity detect and transduce odorants into action potentials to be conveyed to the olfactory bulb. Odorants are delivered to ORNs via the inhaled air at breathing frequencies that can vary from 2 to 10 Hz in the mouse. Thus olfactory transduction should occur at sufficient speed such that it can accommodate repetitive and frequent stimulation. Activation of odorant receptors (ORs) leads to adenylyl cyclase III activation, cAMP increase, and opening of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. This makes the kinetic regulation of cAMP one of the important determinants for the response time course. We addressed the dynamic regulation of cAMP during the odorant response and examined how basal levels of cAMP are controlled. The latter is particularly relevant as basal cAMP depends on the basal activity of the expressed OR and thus varies across ORNs. We found that olfactory marker protein (OMP), a protein expressed in mature ORNs, controls both basal and odorant-induced cAMP levels in an OR-dependent manner. Lack of OMP increases basal cAMP, thus abolishing differences in basal cAMP levels between ORNs expressing different ORs. Moreover, OMP speeds up signal transduction for ORNs to better synchronize their output with high-frequency stimulation and to perceive brief stimuli. Last, OMP also steepens the dose–response relation to improve concentration coding although at the cost of losing responses to weak stimuli. We conclude that OMP plays a key regulatory role in ORN physiology by controlling multiple facets of the odorant response. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Odorant receptors (ORs) form the largest family of G-protein-coupled receptors in mammals and are expressed in olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). In this paper we show how the olfactory system ensures that monogenic expression of ORs dictates the response profile and the basal noise of ORNs. Olfactory marker protein (OMP), a protein long known to be expressed in mature ORNs

  4. Cytological organization of the alpha component of the anterior olfactory nucleus and olfactory limbus

    PubMed Central

    Larriva-Sahd, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the microscopic organization of a wedge-shaped area at the intersection of the main (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulbs (AOBs), or olfactory limbus (OL), and an additional component of the anterior olfactory nucleus or alpha AON that lies underneath of the AOB. The OL consists of a modified bulbar cortex bounded anteriorly by the MOB and posteriorly by the AOB. In Nissl-stained specimens the OL differs from the MOB by a progressive, antero-posterior decrease in thickness or absence of the external plexiform, mitral/tufted cell, and granule cell layers. On cytoarchitectual grounds the OL is divided from rostral to caudal into three distinct components: a stripe of glomerular-free cortex or preolfactory area (PA), a second or necklace glomerular area, and a wedge-shaped or interstitial area (INA) crowned by the so-called modified glomeruli that appear to belong to the anterior AOB. The strategic location and interactions with the main and AOBs, together with the previously noted functional and connectional evidence, suggest that the OL may be related to both sensory modalities. The alpha component of the anterior olfactory nucleus, a slender cellular cluster (i.e., 650 × 150 μm) paralleling the base of the AOB, contains two neuron types: a pyramidal-like neuron and an interneuron. Dendrites of pyramidal-like cells (P-L) organize into a single bundle that ascends avoiding the AOB to resolve in a trigone bounded by the edge of the OL, the AOB and the dorsal part of the anterior olfactory nucleus. Utrastructurally, the neuropil of the alpha component contains three types of synaptic terminals; one of them immunoreactive to the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase, isoform 67. PMID:22754506

  5. Endothelin uncouples gap junctions in sustentacular cells and olfactory ensheathing cells of the olfactory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Le Bourhis, Mikaël; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Grebert, Denise; Congar, Patrice; Meunier, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Several factors modulate the first step of odour detection in the rat olfactory mucosa (OM). Among others, vasoactive peptides such as endothelin might play multifaceted roles in the different OM cells. Like their counterparts in the central nervous system, the olfactory sensory neurons are encompassed by different glial-like non-neuronal OM cells; sustentacular cells (SCs) surround their cell bodies, whereas olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) wrap their axons. Whereas SCs maintain both the structural and ionic integrity of the OM, OECs assure protection, local blood flow control and guiding of olfactory sensory neuron axons toward the olfactory bulb. We previously showed that these non-neuronal OM cells are particularly responsive to endothelin in vitro. Here, we confirmed that the endothelin system is strongly expressed in the OM using in situ hybridization. We then further explored the effects of endothelin on SCs and OECs using electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging approaches on both in vitro and ex vivo OM preparations. Endothelin induced both robust calcium signals and gap junction uncoupling in both types of cells. This latter effect was mimicked by carbenoxolone, a known gap junction uncoupling agent. However, although endothelin is known for its antiapoptotic effect in the OM, the uncoupling of gap junctions by carbenoxolone was not sufficient to limit the cellular death induced by serum deprivation in OM primary culture. The functional consequence of the endothelin 1-induced reduction of the gap junctional communication between OM non-neuronal cells thus remains to be elucidated. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Destruction of the main olfactory epithelium reduces female sexual behavior and olfactory investigation in female mice.

    PubMed

    Keller, Matthieu; Douhard, Quentin; Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

    2006-05-01

    We studied the contribution of the main olfactory system to mate recognition and sexual behavior in female mice. Female mice received an intranasal irrigation of either a zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) solution to destroy the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) or saline (SAL) to serve as control. ZnSO4-treated female mice were no longer able to reliably distinguish between volatile as well as nonvolatile odors from an intact versus a castrated male. Furthermore, sexual behavior in mating tests with a sexually experienced male was significantly reduced in ZnSO4-treated female mice. Vomeronasal function did not seem to be affected by ZnSO4 treatment: nasal application of male urine induced similar levels of Fos protein in the mitral and granule cells of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of ZnSO4 as well as SAL-treated female mice. Likewise, soybean agglutinin staining, which stains the axons of vomeronasal neurons projecting to the glomerular layer of the AOB was similar in ZnSO4-treated female mice compared to SAL-treated female mice. By contrast, a significant reduction of Fos in the main olfactory bulb was observed in ZnSO4-treated females in comparison to SAL-treated animals, confirming a substantial destruction of the MOE. These results show that the MOE is primarily involved in the detection and processing of odors that are used to localize and identify the sex and endocrine status of conspecifics. By contrast, both the main and accessory olfactory systems contribute to female sexual receptivity in female mice.

  7. Destruction of the Main Olfactory Epithelium Reduces Female Sexual Behavior and Olfactory Investigation in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Matthieu; Douhard, Quentin; Baum, Michael J.; Bakker, Julie

    2008-01-01

    We studied the contribution of the main olfactory system to mate recognition and sexual behavior in female mice. Female mice received an intranasal irrigation of either a zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) solution to destroy the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) or saline (SAL) to serve as control. ZnSO4-treated female mice were no longer able to reliably distinguish between volatile as well as nonvolatile odors from an intact versus a castrated male. Furthermore, sexual behavior in mating tests with a sexually experienced male was significantly reduced in ZnSO4-treated female mice. Vomeronasal function did not seem to be affected by ZnSO4 treatment: nasal application of male urine induced similar levels of Fos protein in the mitral and granule cells of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of ZnSO4 as well as SAL-treated female mice. Likewise, soybean agglutinin staining, which stains the axons of vomeronasal neurons projecting to the glomerular layer of the AOB was similar in ZnSO4-treated female mice compared to SAL-treated female mice. By contrast, a significant reduction of Fos in the main olfactory bulb was observed in ZnSO4-treated females in comparison to SAL-treated animals, confirming a substantial destruction of the MOE. These results show that the MOE is primarily involved in the detection and processing of odors that are used to localize and identify the sex and endocrine status of conspecifics. By contrast, both the main and accessory olfactory systems contribute to female sexual receptivity in female mice. PMID:16484502

  8. [Microsurgical removal of olfactory groove meningiomas].

    PubMed

    Liang, Ri-Sheng; Zhou, Liang-Fu; Mao, Ying; Zhang, Rong; Yang, Wei-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    To explore an effective method for further improving the surgical results of treatment of olfactory groove meningiomas. Sixty seven cases of olfactory groove meningiomas were treated by microneurosurgery, among which fifty seven were de novo cases, eight were recurrent tumors and the other two re-recurrent cases. Modified Derome approach was used in 12 cases, bilateral subfrontal approach in 28 cases, modified pterional approach in 21 cases and unilateral subfrontal approach in six cases. Tumors were resected microsurgically with radical removal of invaded dura, bone, and paranasal sinus mucosa. Reconstruction was performed in patients with skull base defect. Simpson grade I removal was accomplished in 59 cases, grade II in seven cases and grade IV in one case. Among 57 patients with de novo tumor, Simpson I resection was accomplished in 54 cases. Postoperative rhinorrhea and intracranial infection occurred in one case and was cured after temporal lumbar CSF drainage and antibiotic therapy. Two patients (2.9%) died within one month after operation, i.e.one aged patient of heart failure and the other of severe hypothalamus complication. Forty seven patients (72.3%) were followed up from one to ten years with an average of five years and four months. With the exception of two cases died, among the alive 45 patients, there were only three patients with tumor recurrence, which had undergone Simpson II or IV tumor resection. No recurrence was found in cases with Simpson I tumor removal. Previous blurred vision was not improved in three patients, hemiparalysis in two patients, and the other patients recovered well, resuming previous jobs or being able to take care themselves. Total tumor removal (Simpson I) should be the surgical goal for treatment of olfactory groove meningiomas, especially for de novo cases. An appropriate approach is fundamental in the effort to remove an OGM totally. Appropriate anterior skull base reconstruction with vascularized material is

  9. Hidden consequences of olfactory dysfunction: a patient report series

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The negative consequences of olfactory dysfunction for the quality of life are not widely appreciated and the condition is therefore often ignored or trivialized. Methods 1,000 patients with olfactory dysfunction participated in an online study by submitting accounts of their subjective experiences of how they have been affected by their condition. In addition, they were given the chance to answer 43 specific questions about the consequences of their olfactory dysfunction. Results Although there are less practical problems associated with impaired or distorted odor perception than with impairments in visual or auditory perception, many affected individuals report experiencing olfactory dysfunction as a debilitating condition. Smell loss-induced social isolation and smell loss-induced anhedonia can severely affect quality of life. Conclusions Olfactory dysfunction is a serious condition for those affected by it and it deserves more attention from doctors who treat affected patients as well as from scientist who research treatment options. PMID:23875929

  10. Olfactory memory formation in Drosophila: from molecular to systems neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ronald L

    2005-01-01

    The olfactory nervous system of insects and mammals exhibits many similarities, which suggests that the mechanisms for olfactory learning may be shared. Molecular genetic investigations of Drosophila learning have uncovered numerous genes whose gene products are essential for olfactory memory formation. Recent studies of the products of these genes have continued to expand the range of molecular processes known to underlie memory formation. Recent research has also broadened the neuroanatomical areas thought to mediate olfactory learning to include the antennal lobes in addition to a previously accepted and central role for the mushroom bodies. The roles for neurons extrinsic to the mushroom body neurons are becoming better defined. Finally, the genes identified to participate in Drosophila olfactory learning have conserved roles in mammalian organisms, highlighting the value of Drosophila for gene discovery.

  11. Interneurons in the human olfactory system in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Flores-Cuadrado, Alicia; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2016-02-01

    The principal olfactory structures display Alzheimer's disease (AD) related pathology at early stages of the disease. Consequently, olfactory deficits are among the earliest symptoms. Reliable olfactory tests for accurate clinical diagnosis are rarely made. In addition, neuropathological analysis postmortem of olfactory structures is often not made. Therefore, the relationship between the clinical features and the underlying pathology is poorly defined. Traditionally, research into Alzheimer's disease has focused on the degeneration of cortical temporal projection neurons and cholinergic neurons. Recent evidence has demonstrated the neurodegeneration of interneuron populations in AD. This review provides an updated overview of the pathological involvement of interneuron populations in the human olfactory system in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Viewing Olfactory Affective Responses Through the Sniff Prism: Effect of Perceptual Dimensions and Age on Olfactomotor Responses to Odors

    PubMed Central

    Ferdenzi, Camille; Fournel, Arnaud; Thévenet, Marc; Coppin, Géraldine; Bensafi, Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sniffing, which is the active sampling of olfactory information through the nasal cavity, is part of the olfactory percept. It is influenced by stimulus properties, affects how an odor is perceived, and is sufficient (without an odor being present) to activate the olfactory cortex. However, many aspects of the affective correlates of sniffing behavior remain unclear, in particular the modulation of volume and duration as a function of odor hedonics. The present study used a wide range of odorants with contrasted hedonic valence to test: (1) which psychophysical function best describes the relationship between sniffing characteristics and odor hedonics (e.g., linear, or polynomial); (2) whether sniffing characteristics are sensitive to more subtle variations in pleasantness than simple pleasant-unpleasant contrast; (3) how sensitive sniffing is to other perceptual dimensions of odors such as odor familiarity or edibility; and (4) whether the sniffing/hedonic valence relationship is valid in other populations than young adults, such as the elderly. Four experiments were conducted, using 16–48 odorants each, and recruiting a total of 102 participants, including a group of elderly people. Results of the four experiments were very consistent in showing that sniffing was sensitive to subtle variations in unpleasantness but not to subtle variations in pleasantness, and that, the more unpleasant the odor, the more limited the spontaneous sampling of olfactory information through the nasal cavity (smaller volume, shorter duration). This also applied, although to a lesser extent, to elderly participants. Relationships between sniffing and other perceptual dimensions (familiarity, edibility) were less clear. It was concluded that sniffing behavior might be involved in adaptive responses protecting the subject from possibly harmful substances. PMID:26635683

  13. Remote orbital recurrence of olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma).

    PubMed

    Breazzano, Mark P; Lewis, James S; Chambless, Lola B; Rohde, Sarah L; Sobel, Rachel K

    2017-03-31

    Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare and often locally aggressive malignancy that invades the orbit via local destruction. It is known to recur in a delayed fashion, particularly to the neck lymph nodes. This is a case of a 65-year-old gentleman who presents with recurrence in the orbit and a neck lymph node 19 years after treatment for his initial disease. This report describes the longest known interval in orbital recurrence and should alert the monitoring physician that extreme delays in recurrence can occur.

  14. Canine olfactory detection of malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Leon Frederick; Farmery, Luke; George, Susannah Mary Creighton; Farrant, Paul B J

    2013-01-01

    Our patient is a 75-year-old man who presented after his pet dog licked persistently at an asymptomatic lesion behind his right ear. Examination revealed a nodular lesion in the postauricular sulcus. Histology confirmed malignant melanoma, which was subsequently excised. Canine olfactory detection of human malignancy is a well-documented phenomenon. Advanced olfaction is hypothesised to explain canine detection of bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, prostate and skin cancers. Further research in this area may facilitate the development of a highly accurate aid to diagnosis for many malignancies, including melanoma. PMID:24127369

  15. Nasal toxicity, carcinogenicity, and olfactory uptake of metals.

    PubMed

    Sunderman, F W

    2001-01-01

    Occupational exposures to inhalation of certain metal dusts or aerosols can cause loss of olfactory acuity, atrophy of the nasal mucosa, mucosal ulcers, perforated nasal septum, or sinonasal cancer. Anosmia and hyposmia have been observed in workers exposed to Ni- or Cd-containing dusts in alkaline battery factories, nickel refineries, and cadmium industries. Ulcers of the nasal mucosa and perforated nasal septum have been reported in workers exposed to Cr(VI) in chromate production and chrome plating, or to As(III) in arsenic smelters. Atrophy of the olfactory epithelium has been observed in rodents following inhalation of NiSO4 or alphaNi3S2. Cancers of the nose and nasal sinuses have been reported in workers exposed to Ni compounds in nickel refining, cutlery factories, and alkaline battery manufacture, or to Cr(VI) in chromate production and chrome plating. In animals, several metals (eg, Al, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Zn) have been shown to pass via olfactory receptor neurons from the nasal lumen through the cribriform plate to the olfactory bulb. Some metals (eg, Mn, Ni, Zn) can cross synapses in the olfactory bulb and migrate via secondary olfactory neurons to distant nuclei of the brain. After nasal instillation of a metal-containing solution, transport of the metal via olfactory axons can occur rapidly, within hours or a few days (eg, Mn), or slowly over days or weeks (eg, Ni). The olfactory bulb tends to accumulate certain metals (eg, Al, Bi, Cu, Mn, Zn) with greater avidity than other regions of the brain. The molecular mechanisms responsible for metal translocation in olfactory neurons and deposition in the olfactory bulb are unclear, but complexation by metal-binding molecules such as carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) may be involved.

  16. Hypothalamus-olfactory system crosstalk: orexin a immunostaining in mice.

    PubMed

    Gascuel, Jean; Lemoine, Aleth; Rigault, Caroline; Datiche, Frédérique; Benani, Alexandre; Penicaud, Luc; Lopez-Mascaraque, Laura

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that olfaction influences food intake, and conversely, that an individual's nutritional status modulates olfactory sensitivity. However, what is still poorly understood is the neuronal correlate of this relationship, as well as the connections between the olfactory bulb and the hypothalamus. The goal of this report is to analyze the relationship between the olfactory bulb and hypothalamus, focusing on orexin A immunostaining, a hypothalamic neuropeptide that is thought to play a role in states of sleep/wakefulness. Interestingly, orexin A has also been described as a food intake stimulator. Such an effect may be due in part to the stimulation of the olfactory bulbar pathway. In rats, orexin positive cells are concentrated strictly in the lateral hypothalamus, while their projections invade nearly the entire brain including the olfactory system. Therefore, orexin appears to be a good candidate to play a pivotal role in connecting olfactory and hypothalamic pathways. So far, orexin has been described in rats, however, there is still a lack of information concerning its expression in the brains of adult and developing mice. In this context, we revisited the orexin A pattern in adult and developing mice using immunohistological methods and confocal microscopy. Besides minor differences, orexin A immunostaining in mice shares many features with those observed in rats. In the olfactory bulb, even though there are few orexin projections, they reach all the different layers of the olfactory bulb. In contrast to the presence of orexin projections in the main olfactory bulb, almost none have been found in the accessory olfactory bulb. The developmental expression of orexin A supports the hypothesis that orexin expression only appears post-natally.

  17. Cyto- and chemoarchitecture of the monotreme olfactory tubercle.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the olfactory tubercles of two monotremes (platypus and echidna) showed cyto- or chemoarchitectural differences from the tubercles of therian mammals. Nissl staining was applied in conjunction with enzyme reactivity for NADPH diaphorase and acetylcholinesterase, and immunoreactivity for calcium binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin) and tyrosine hydroxylase (echidna only). Golgi impregnations of the tubercle were also available for the echidna. The olfactory tubercle is a poorly laminated structure in the echidna, despite the pronounced development of other components of the echidna olfactory system, and the dense cell layer of the olfactory tubercle was found to be discontinuous and irregular. Granule cell clusters (islands of Calleja) were present, but were small, poorly defined and did not show the intense NADPH diaphorase activity seen in marsupial and placental mammals. A putative small island of Calleja magna was seen in only one echidna out of four. In Golgi impregnations of the echidna olfactory tubercle, the most abundant neuron type was a medium-sized densely spined neuron similar to that seen in the olfactory tubercle of some therians. Large spine-poor neurons were also seen in the polymorphic layer. In the platypus, the olfactory tubercle was very small but showed more pronounced lamination than the echidna, although no granule cell clusters were seen. In both monotremes, the development of the olfactory tubercle was poor relative to other components of the olfactory system (bulb and piriform cortex). The small olfactory tubercle region in the platypus is consistent with poor olfaction in that aquatic mammal, but the tubercle in the echidna is more like that of a microsmatic mammal than other placentals occupying a similar niche (e.g., insectivores).

  18. Inducible activation of ERK5 MAP kinase enhances adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and improves olfactory function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-05-20

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury.

  19. Measurement and Analysis of Olfactory Responses with the Aim of Establishing an Objective Diagnostic Method for Central Olfactory Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Tominori; Wang, Li-Qun; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu; Tonoike, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Teruo

    In order to establish a new diagnostic method for central olfactory disorders and to identify objective indicators, we measured and analyzed brain activities in the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus, region of responsibility for central olfactory disorders. The relationship between olfactory stimulation and brain response at region of responsibility can be examined in terms of fitted responses (FR). FR in these regions may be individual indicators of changes in brain olfactory responses. In the present study, in order to non-invasively and objectively measure olfactory responses, an odor oddball task was conducted on four healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a odorant stimulator with blast-method. The results showed favorable FR and activation in the parahippocampal gyrus or uncus in all subjects. In some subjects, both the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus were activated. Furthermore, activation was also confirmed in the cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and insula. The hippocampus and uncus are known to be involved in the olfactory disorders associated with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and other olfactory disorders. In the future, it will be necessary to further develop the present measurement and analysis method to clarify the relationship between central olfactory disorders and brain activities and establish objective indicators that are useful for diagnosis.

  20. The efferent connections of the olfactory bulb and accessory olfactory bulb in the snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis and Thamnophis radix.

    PubMed

    Halpern, M

    1976-10-01

    The efferent connections of the olfactory bulb and accessory olfactory bulb of two species of garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis and T. radix were studied with experimental anterograde degeneration techniques. Axons of cells located in the olfactory bulb terminate ipsilaterally in all parts of the anterior olfactory nucleus, olfactory tubercle and lateral pallium. In addition, some axons enter the ipsilateral stria medullaris thalami, cross the midline in the habenular commissure, enter the contralateral stria medullaris thalami and terminate in the contralateral lateral pallium. The axons of cells in the accessory olfactory bulb course through the telencephalon completely separated from the fibers of olfactory bulb origin and terminate predominantly in the nucleus sphericus. These results confirm previous reports of the separation between the central projections of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems in a variety of vertebrates. The totality of the separation between these two systems coupled with the extensive development of the vomeronasal-accessory bulb system in these snakes suggests that they may be ideal subjects for further research on the functional significance of the vomeronasal system.

  1. Monoclonal antibody immunohistochemistry of degenerative and renewal patterns in rabbit olfactory receptor neurons following unilateral olfactory bulbectomy.

    PubMed

    Onoda, N

    1988-09-01

    Degeneration and regeneration of olfactory receptor neurons were studied in adult rabbits by immunohistochemical procedures following unilateral olfactory bulbectomy. Staining patterns of the olfactory receptors of the lesioned side were compared with those of the intact side in the nasal septum at various postoperative periods (12h-6 months) following lesion. Monoclonal antibodies, produced against the rabbit olfactory bulb, were used as histochemical markers. A slight decrease in the number of olfactory receptor neurons occurred at 24 h after lesion. One monoclonal antibody 112D5 stained all receptor neurons including degenerating neurons, but the other 114G12 showed a rapid decrease in immunostaining so that 114G12-positive cells disappeared within 7 days after lesion. 114G12-positive cells reappeared at 4 weeks following lesion. By 3 months, 114G12-positive cells were arranged in a plane at the apical region of the superficial compartment of the receptor cell layer, suggesting a recapitulation of development pattern of the receptor neurons. Thereafter, the number of 114G12-positive cells increased progressively and the staining pattern of the olfactory epithelium was like that of control animals by 6 months. Monoclonal antibody 114G12 is thus the first marker that is not specific to olfactory neurons and can be used to characterize certain embryonic traits during the degeneration and regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in the adult mammal.

  2. Inducible Activation of ERK5 MAP Kinase Enhances Adult Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Bulb and Improves Olfactory Function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M.; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury. PMID:25995470

  3. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses toward disgusting stimuli—Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Croy, Ilona; Laqua, Kerstin; Süß, Frank; Joraschky, Peter; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors, or tactile stimuli. Therefore, disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared. A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile, and olfactory channel. Ratings of evoked disgust as well as responses of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate, skin conductance level, systolic blood pressure) were recorded and the effect of stimulus labeling and of repeated presentation was analyzed. Ratings suggested that disgust could be evoked through all senses; they were highest for visual stimuli. However, autonomic reaction toward disgusting stimuli differed according to the channel of presentation. In contrast to the other, olfactory disgust stimuli provoked a strong decrease of systolic blood pressure. Additionally, labeling enhanced disgust ratings and autonomic reaction for olfactory and tactile, but not for visual and auditory stimuli. Repeated presentation indicated that participant's disgust rating diminishes to all but olfactory disgust stimuli. Taken together we argue that the sensory channel through which a disgust reaction is evoked matters. PMID:24027509

  4. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses toward disgusting stimuli-Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Laqua, Kerstin; Süß, Frank; Joraschky, Peter; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors, or tactile stimuli. Therefore, disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared. A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile, and olfactory channel. Ratings of evoked disgust as well as responses of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate, skin conductance level, systolic blood pressure) were recorded and the effect of stimulus labeling and of repeated presentation was analyzed. Ratings suggested that disgust could be evoked through all senses; they were highest for visual stimuli. However, autonomic reaction toward disgusting stimuli differed according to the channel of presentation. In contrast to the other, olfactory disgust stimuli provoked a strong decrease of systolic blood pressure. Additionally, labeling enhanced disgust ratings and autonomic reaction for olfactory and tactile, but not for visual and auditory stimuli. Repeated presentation indicated that participant's disgust rating diminishes to all but olfactory disgust stimuli. Taken together we argue that the sensory channel through which a disgust reaction is evoked matters.

  5. Sample Stimulus Control Shaping and Restricted Stimulus Control in Capuchin Monkeys: A Methodological Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brino, Ana Leda F., Barros, Romariz S., Galvao, Ol; Garotti, M.; Da Cruz, Ilara R. N.; Santos, Jose R.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports use of sample stimulus control shaping procedures to teach arbitrary matching-to-sample to 2 capuchin monkeys ("Cebus apella"). The procedures started with identity matching-to-sample. During shaping, stimulus features of the sample were altered gradually, rendering samples and comparisons increasingly physically dissimilar. The…

  6. Emergent Stimulus Relations Depend on Stimulus Correlation and Not on Reinforcement Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minster, Sara Tepaeru; Elliffe, Douglas; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether novel stimulus relations would emerge from stimulus correlations when those relations explicitly conflicted with reinforced relations. In a symbolic matching-to-sample task using kanji characters as stimuli, we arranged class-specific incorrect comparison stimuli in each of three classes. After presenting either Ax…

  7. Emergent Stimulus Relations Depend on Stimulus Correlation and Not on Reinforcement Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minster, Sara Tepaeru; Elliffe, Douglas; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether novel stimulus relations would emerge from stimulus correlations when those relations explicitly conflicted with reinforced relations. In a symbolic matching-to-sample task using kanji characters as stimuli, we arranged class-specific incorrect comparison stimuli in each of three classes. After presenting either Ax…

  8. Analyzing Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing Effects on Preferences for Speech Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Carp, Charlotte L.; Matthies, Derek W.; Esch, Barbara E.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated effects of stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) on children's vocalizations, but numerous treatment failures have also been reported. The present study attempted to isolate procedural variables related to failures of SSP to condition speech sounds as reinforcers. Three boys diagnosed with autism-spectrum disorders…

  9. Optimal stimulus shapes for neuronal excitation.

    PubMed

    Forger, Daniel B; Paydarfar, David; Clay, John R

    2011-07-01

    An important problem in neuronal computation is to discern how features of stimuli control the timing of action potentials. One aspect of this problem is to determine how an action potential, or spike, can be elicited with the least energy cost, e.g., a minimal amount of applied current. Here we show in the Hodgkin & Huxley model of the action potential and in experiments on squid giant axons that: 1) spike generation in a neuron can be highly discriminatory for stimulus shape and 2) the optimal stimulus shape is dependent upon inputs to the neuron. We show how polarity and time course of post-synaptic currents determine which of these optimal stimulus shapes best excites the neuron. These results are obtained mathematically using the calculus of variations and experimentally using a stochastic search methodology. Our findings reveal a surprising complexity of computation at the single cell level that may be relevant for understanding optimization of signaling in neurons and neuronal networks.

  10. Stimulus-responsive metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Nagarkar, Sanjog S; Desai, Aamod V; Ghosh, Sujit K

    2014-09-01

    Materials that can recognize the changes in their local environment and respond by altering their inherent physical and/or chemical properties are strong candidates for future "smart" technology materials. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years owing to their designable architecture, host-guest chemistry, and softness as porous materials. Despite this fact, studies on the tuning of the properties of MOFs by external stimuli are still rare. This review highlights the recent developments in the field of stimulus-responsive MOFs or so-called smart MOFs. In particular, the various stimuli used and the utility of stimulus-responsive smart MOFs for various applications such as gas storage and separation, sensing, clean energy, catalysis, molecular motors, and biomedical applications are highlighted by using representative examples. Future directions in the developments of stimulus-responsive smart MOFs and their applications are proposed from a personal perspective.

  11. Impact of stimulus uncanniness on speeded response.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Fukuda, Haruaki; Samejima, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Katsumi; Ueda, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In the uncanny valley phenomenon, the causes of the feeling of uncanniness as well as the impact of the uncanniness on behavioral performances still remain open. The present study investigated the behavioral effects of stimulus uncanniness, particularly with respect to speeded response. Pictures of fish were used as visual stimuli. Participants engaged in direction discrimination, spatial cueing, and dot-probe tasks. The results showed that pictures rated as strongly uncanny delayed speeded response in the discrimination of the direction of the fish. In the cueing experiment, where a fish served as a task-irrelevant and unpredictable cue for a peripheral target, we again observed that the detection of a target was slowed when the cue was an uncanny fish. Conversely, the dot-probe task suggested that uncanny fish, unlike threatening stimulus, did not capture visual spatial attention. These results suggested that stimulus uncanniness resulted in the delayed response, and importantly this modulation was not mediated by the feelings of threat.

  12. Contributions to drug abuse research of Steven R. Goldberg's behavioral analysis of stimulus-stimulus contingencies.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jonathan L

    2016-05-01

    By the mid-1960s, the concept that drugs can function as reinforcing stimuli through response-reinforcer contingencies had created a paradigm shift in drug abuse science. Steve Goldberg's first several publications focused instead on stimulus-stimulus contingencies (respondent conditioning) in examining Abraham Wikler's two-factor hypothesis of relapse involving conditioned withdrawal and reinforcing effects of drugs. Goldberg provided a compelling demonstration that histories of contingencies among stimuli could produce lasting withdrawal reactions in primates formerly dependent on opioids. Other studies conducted by Goldberg extended the analysis of effects of stimulus-stimulus contingencies on behavior maintained by opioid reinforcing effects and showed that withdrawal-inducing antagonist administration can produce conditioned increases in self-administration. Subsequent studies of the effects of stimuli associated with cocaine injection under second-order schedules showed that the maintenance of behavior with drug injections was in most important aspects similar to the maintenance of behavior with more conventional reinforcers when the behavior-disrupting pharmacological effects of the drugs were minimized. Studies on second-order schedules demonstrated a wide array of conditions under which behavior could be maintained by drug injection and further influenced by stimulus-stimulus contingencies. These schedules present opportunities to produce in the laboratory complex situations involving response- and stimulus-stimulus contingencies, which go beyond simplistic pairings of stimuli and more closely approximate those found with human drug abusers. A focus on the response- and stimulus-stimulus contingencies, and resulting quantifiable changes in objective and quantifiable behavioral endpoints exemplified by the studies by Steve Goldberg, remains the most promising way forward for studying problems of drug dependence.

  13. An olfactory discrimination procedure for mice.

    PubMed Central

    Mihalick, S M; Langlois, J C; Krienke, J D; Dube, W V

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an olfactory discrimination procedure for mice that is inexpensively implemented and leads to rapid discrimination learning. Mice were first trained to dig in small containers of sand to retrieve bits of buried chocolate. For discrimination training, two containers were presented simultaneously for eight trials per session. One container held sand mixed with cinnamon, and the other held sand mixed with nutmeg. Both containers were baited with chocolate buried in the sand. One odor was designated S+, and mice were allowed to dig and retrieve the chocolate from this container. The other odor was S-, and both containers were removed immediately if subjects began to dig in an S- container. After meeting a two-session acquisition criterion, subjects were given a series of discrimination reversals. In Experiment 1, 12 Swiss-Webster mice (6 male and 6 female) acquired the olfactory discrimination in three to five sessions and completed 3 to 10 successive discrimination reversals within a 50-session testing limit. In Experiment 2, subjects were 14 Pah(enu2) mice, the mouse mutant for phenylketonuria; 7 were homozygotes in which the disorder was expressed (PKU), and 7 were heterozygotes with normal metabolism (non-PKU). Thirteen mice completed pretraining in four to seven sessions, acquisition required 3 to 12 sessions, and all mice completed at least three reversals. Learning rates were similar in PKU and non-PKU mice. We discuss issues related to implementation and several potentially useful procedural variations. PMID:10866354

  14. Ecological adaptation determines functional mammalian olfactory subgenomes

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Sara; Bekaert, Michaël; Crider, Tess A.; Mariani, Stefano; Murphy, William J.; Teeling, Emma C.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to smell is governed by the largest gene family in mammalian genomes, the olfactory receptor (OR) genes. Although these genes are well annotated in the finished human and mouse genomes, we still do not understand which receptors bind specific odorants or how they fully function. Previous comparative studies have been taxonomically limited and mostly focused on the percentage of OR pseudogenes within species. No study has investigated the adaptive changes of functional OR gene families across phylogenetically and ecologically diverse mammals. To determine the extent to which OR gene repertoires have been influenced by habitat, sensory specialization, and other ecological traits, to better understand the functional importance of specific OR gene families and thus the odorants they bind, we compared the functional OR gene repertoires from 50 mammalian genomes. We amplified more than 2000 OR genes in aquatic, semi-aquatic, and flying mammals and coupled these data with 48,000 OR genes from mostly terrestrial mammals, extracted from genomic projects. Phylogenomic, Bayesian assignment, and principle component analyses partitioned species by ecotype (aquatic, semi-aquatic, terrestrial, flying) rather than phylogenetic relatedness, and identified OR families important for each habitat. Functional OR gene repertoires were reduced independently in the multiple origins of aquatic mammals and were significantly divergent in bats. We reject recent neutralist views of olfactory subgenome evolution and correlate specific OR gene families with physiological requirements, a preliminary step toward unraveling the relationship between specific odors and respective OR gene families. PMID:19952139

  15. Widespread ectopic expression of olfactory receptor genes

    PubMed Central

    Feldmesser, Ester; Olender, Tsviya; Khen, Miriam; Yanai, Itai; Ophir, Ron; Lancet, Doron

    2006-01-01

    Background Olfactory receptors (ORs) are the largest gene family in the human genome. Although they are expected to be expressed specifically in olfactory tissues, some ectopic expression has been reported, with special emphasis on sperm and testis. The present study systematically explores the expression patterns of OR genes in a large number of tissues and assesses the potential functional implication of such ectopic expression. Results We analyzed the expression of hundreds of human and mouse OR transcripts, via EST and microarray data, in several dozens of human and mouse tissues. Different tissues had specific, relatively small OR gene subsets which had particularly high expression levels. In testis, average expression was not particularly high, and very few highly expressed genes were found, none corresponding to ORs previously implicated in sperm chemotaxis. Higher expression levels were more common for genes with a non-OR genomic neighbor. Importantly, no correlation in expression levels was detected for human-mouse orthologous pairs. Also, no significant difference in expression levels was seen between intact and pseudogenized ORs, except for the pseudogenes of subfamily 7E which has undergone a human-specific expansion. Conclusion The OR superfamily as a whole, show widespread, locus-dependent and heterogeneous expression, in agreement with a neutral or near neutral evolutionary model for transcription control. These results cannot reject the possibility that small OR subsets might play functional roles in different tissues, however considerable care should be exerted when offering a functional interpretation for ectopic OR expression based only on transcription information. PMID:16716209

  16. Unitary response of mouse olfactory receptor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Chaim, Yair; Cheng, Melody M.; Yau, King-Wai

    2011-01-01

    The sense of smell begins with odorant molecules binding to membrane receptors on the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), thereby activating a G protein, Golf, and the downstream effector enzyme, an adenylyl cyclase (ACIII). Recently, we have found in amphibian ORNs that an odorant-binding event has a low probability of activating sensory transduction at all; even when successful, the resulting unitary response apparently involves a single active Gαolf–ACIII molecular complex. This low amplification is in contrast to rod phototransduction in vision, the best-quantified G-protein signaling pathway, where each photoisomerized rhodopsin molecule is well known to produce substantial amplification by activating many G-protein, and hence effector-enzyme, molecules. We have now carried out similar experiments on mouse ORNs, which offer, additionally, the advantage of genetics. Indeed, we found the same low probability of transduction, based on the unitary olfactory response having a fairly constant amplitude and similar kinetics across different odorants and randomly encountered ORNs. Also, consistent with our picture, the unitary response of Gαolf+/− ORNs was similar to WT in amplitude, although their Gαolf-protein expression was only half of normal. Finally, from the action potential firing, we estimated that ≤19 odorant-binding events successfully triggering transduction in a WT mouse ORN will lead to signaling to the brain. PMID:21187398

  17. Volatile exposure within the honeybee hive and its effect on olfactory discrimination.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Vanesa M; Arenas, Andrés; Farina, Walter M

    2009-08-01

    Honeybees of different ages and reproductive castes cohabit in the hive where they are exposed to many odors that might affect associative learning. Our aim was to analyze the role of odors pre-exposed as volatiles on appetitive learning in honeybees of different ages and search for their long-term effect both under natural and laboratory conditions. By evaluating memory acquisition and retention through a differential proboscis extension response conditioning, we found that hive-exposed odors offered as a reinforced conditioned stimulus during training promoted a learning-reduced effect [latent inhibition (LI)]. On the other hand, no effect was found when the non-reinforced conditioned stimulus was pre-exposed. The LI effect varied with the odor identity. However, only slight differences were found with the age of the bees. Exposure-conditioning intervals longer than 24 h did not show an LI effect unless the odor concentration was increased or exposure was prolonged. Our results show that pre-exposed volatiles could either reduce learning performance, if this odor is later associated with food, or be irrelevant in the case that alternative scented resources circulate within the colony. The differential effects found according to the olfactory exposure characteristics could strongly influence the propagation of chemosensory information within the hive.

  18. Color modulates olfactory learning in honeybees by an occasion-setting mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mota, Theo; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    A sophisticated form of nonelemental learning is provided by occasion setting. In this paradigm, animals learn to disambiguate an uncertain conditioned stimulus using alternative stimuli that do not enter into direct association with the unconditioned stimulus. For instance, animals may learn to discriminate odor rewarded from odor nonrewarded trials if these two situations are indicated by different colors that do not themselves become associated with the reward. Despite a growing interest in nonelemental learning in insects, no study has so far attempted to study occasion setting in restrained honeybees, although this would allow direct access to the neural basis of nonelemental learning. Here we asked whether colors can modulate olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) via an occasion-setting mechanism. We show that intact, harnessed bees are not capable of learning a direct association between color and sucrose. Despite this incapacity, bees solved an occasion-setting discrimination in which colors set the occasion for appropriate responding to an odor that was rewarded or nonrewarded depending on the color. We therefore provide the first controlled demonstration of bimodal (color-odor) occasion setting in harnessed honeybees, which opens the door for studying the neural basis of such bimodal, nonelemental discriminations in insects.

  19. Adaptation as a mechanism for gain control in cockroach ON and OFF olfactory receptor neurons.

    PubMed

    Burgstaller, Maria; Tichy, Harald

    2012-02-01

    In many sensory systems adaptation acts as a gain control mechanism that optimizes sensory performance by trading increased sensitivity to low stimulus intensity for decreased sensitivity to high stimulus intensity. Adaptation of insect antennal olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) has been studied for strong odour concentrations, either pulsed or constant. Here, we report that during slowly oscillating changes in the concentration of the odour of lemon oil, the ON and OFF ORNs on the antenna of the cockroach Periplaneta americana adapt to the actual odour concentration and the rate at which concentration changes. When odour concentration oscillates rapidly with brief periods, adaptation improves gain for instantaneous odour concentration and reduces gain for the rate of concentration change. Conversely, when odour concentration oscillates slowly with long periods, adaptation increases gain for the rate of change at the expense of instantaneous concentration. Without this gain control the ON and OFF ORNs would, at brief oscillation periods, soon reach their saturation level and become insensitive to further concentration increments and decrements. At long oscillation periods, on the other hand, the cue would simply be that the discharge begins to change. Because of the high gain for the rate of change, the cockroach will receive creeping changes in odour concentration, even if they persist in one direction. Gain control permits a high degree of precision at small rates when it counts most, without sacrificing the range of detection and without extending the measuring scale.

  20. Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Inhibition Mapped by Optical Stimulation in Mouse Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Alexander; D’Errico, Anna; Vogel, Martin; Spors, Hartwig

    2016-01-01

    Mitral and tufted cells (MTCs) of the mammalian olfactory bulb are connected via dendrodendritic synapses with inhibitory interneurons in the external plexiform layer. The range, spatial layout, and temporal properties of inhibitory interactions between MTCs mediated by inhibitory interneurons remain unclear. Therefore, we tested for inhibitory interactions using an optogenetic approach. We optically stimulated MTCs expressing channelrhodopsin-2 in transgenic mice, while recording from individual MTCs in juxtacellular or whole-cell configuration in vivo. We used a spatial noise stimulus for mapping interactions between MTCs belonging to different glomeruli in the dorsal bulb. Analyzing firing responses of MTCs to the stimulus, we did not find robust lateral inhibitory effects that were spatially specific. However, analysis of sub-threshold changes in the membrane potential revealed evidence for inhibitory interactions between MTCs that belong to different glomerular units. These lateral inhibitory effects were short-lived and spatially specific. MTC response maps showed hyperpolarizing effects radially extending over more than five glomerular diameters. The inhibitory maps exhibited non-symmetrical yet distance-dependent characteristics. PMID:27047340

  1. Gated currents in isolated olfactory receptor neurons of the larval tiger salamander.

    PubMed

    Firestein, S; Werblin, F S

    1987-09-01

    The electrical properties of enzymatically isolated olfactory receptor cells were studied with whole-cell patch clamp. Voltage-dependent currents could be separated into three ionic components: a transient inward sodium current, a sustained inward calcium current, and an outward potassium current. Three components of the outward current could be identified by their gating and kinetics: a calcium-dependent potassium current [IK(Ca)], a voltage-dependent potassium current [IK(V)], and a transient potassium current (Ia). Typical resting potentials were near -54 mV, and typical input resistance was 3-6 G omega. Thus, only 3 pA of injected current was required to depolarize the cell to spike threshold near -45 mV. The response to a current step consisted of either a single spike regardless of stimulus strength, or a train of less than 8 spikes, decrementing in amplitude and frequency over approximately equal to 250 msec. Thus, the receptor response cannot be finely graded with stimulus intensity.

  2. Carving Executive Control At Its Joints: Working Memory Capacity Predicts Stimulus-Stimulus, But Not Stimulus-Response, Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Matt E.; Kane, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and two different forms of cognitive conflict: stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (SR) interference. Our goal was to test whether WMC’s relation to conflict-task performance is mediated by stimulus-identification processes (captured by S-S conflict), response-selection processes (captured by S-R conflict), or both. In Experiment 1, subjects completed a single task presenting both S-S and S-R conflict trials, plus trials that combined the two conflict types. We limited ostensible goal-maintenance contributions to performance by requiring the same goal for all trial types and by presenting frequent conflict trials that reinforced the goal. WMC predicted resolution of S-S conflict as expected: Higher-WMC subjects showed reduced response time interference. Although WMC also predicted S-R interference, here, higher-WMC subjects showed increased error interference. Experiment 2A replicated these results in a version of the conflict task without combined S-S/S-R trials. Experiment 2B increased the proportion of congruent (non-conflict) trials to promote reliance on goal-maintenance processes. Here, higher-WMC subjects resolved both S-S and S-R conflict more successfully than did lower-WMC subjects. The results were consistent with Kane and Engle’s (2003) two-factor theory of cognitive control, according to which WMC predicts executive-task performance through goal-maintenance and conflict-resolution processes. However, the present results add specificity to the account by suggesting that higher-WMC subjects better resolve cognitive conflict because they more efficiently select relevant stimulus features against irrelevant, distracting ones. PMID:26120774

  3. Carving executive control at its joints: Working memory capacity predicts stimulus-stimulus, but not stimulus-response, conflict.

    PubMed

    Meier, Matt E; Kane, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Three experiments examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and 2 different forms of cognitive conflict: stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) interference. Our goal was to test whether WMC's relation to conflict-task performance is mediated by stimulus-identification processes (captured by S-S conflict), response-selection processes (captured by S-R conflict), or both. In Experiment 1, subjects completed a single task presenting both S-S and S-R conflict trials, plus trials that combined the 2 conflict types. We limited ostensible goal-maintenance contributions to performance by requiring the same goal for all trial types and by presenting frequent conflict trials that reinforced the goal. WMC predicted resolution of S-S conflict as expected: Higher WMC subjects showed reduced response time interference. Although WMC also predicted S-R interference, here, higher WMC subjects showed increased error interference. Experiment 2A replicated these results in a version of the conflict task without combined S-S/S-R trials. Experiment 2B increased the proportion of congruent (nonconflict) trials to promote reliance on goal-maintenance processes. Here, higher WMC subjects resolved both S-S and S-R conflict more successfully than did lower WMC subjects. The results were consistent with Kane and Engle's (2003) 2-factor theory of cognitive control, according to which WMC predicts executive-task performance through goal-maintenance and conflict-resolution processes. However, the present results add specificity to the account by suggesting that higher WMC subjects better resolve cognitive conflict because they more efficiently select relevant stimulus features against irrelevant, distracting ones. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Machine-learned pattern identification in olfactory subtest results

    PubMed Central

    Lötsch, Jörn; Hummel, Thomas; Ultsch, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    The human sense of smell is often analyzed as being composed of three main components comprising olfactory threshold, odor discrimination and the ability to identify odors. A relevant distinction of the three components and their differential changes in distinct disorders remains a research focus. The present data-driven analysis aimed at establishing a cluster structure in the pattern of olfactory subtest results. Therefore, unsupervised machine-learning was applied onto olfactory subtest results acquired in 10,714 subjects with nine different olfactory pathologies. Using the U-matrix, Emergent Self-organizing feature maps (ESOM) identified three different clusters characterized by (i) low threshold and good discrimination and identification, (ii) very high threshold associated with absent to poor discrimination and identification ability, or (iii) medium threshold, i.e., in the mid-range of possible thresholds, associated with reduced discrimination and identification ability. Specific etiologies of olfactory (dys)function were unequally represented in the clusters (p < 2.2 · 10−16). Patients with congenital anosmia were overrepresented in the second cluster while subjects with postinfectious olfactory dysfunction belonged frequently to the third cluster. However, the clusters provided no clear separation between etiologies. Hence, the present verification of a distinct cluster structure encourages continued scientific efforts at olfactory test pattern recognition. PMID:27762302

  5. A lifetime of neurogenesis in the olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Brann, Jessica H.; Firestein, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis continues well beyond embryonic and early postnatal ages in three areas of the nervous system. The subgranular zone supplies new neurons to the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The subventricular zone supplies new interneurons to the olfactory bulb, and the olfactory neuroepithelia generate new excitatory sensory neurons that send their axons to the olfactory bulb. The latter two areas are of particular interest as they contribute new neurons to both ends of a first-level circuit governing olfactory perception. The vomeronasal organ and the main olfactory epithelium comprise the primary peripheral olfactory epithelia. These anatomically distinct areas share common features, as each exhibits extensive neurogenesis well beyond the juvenile phase of development. Here we will discuss the effect of age on the structural and functional significance of neurogenesis in the vomeronasal and olfactory epithelia, from juvenile to advanced adult ages, in several common model systems. We will next discuss how age affects the regenerative capacity of these neural stem cells in response to injury. Finally, we will consider the integration of newborn neurons into an existing circuit as it is modified by the age of the animal. PMID:25018692

  6. Identification of human olfactory cleft mucus proteins using proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Débat, Hélène; Eloit, Corinne; Blon, Florence; Sarazin, Benoît; Henry, Céline; Huet, Jean-Claude; Trotier, Didier; Pernollet, Jean-Claude

    2007-05-01

    In humans, the olfactory epithelium is located in two narrow passages, the olfactory clefts, at the upper part of the nasal cavities. The olfactory epithelium is covered by a mucus layer which is essential for the function of the olfactory neurons that are directly connected with the brain through the cribriform plate. This anatomical weakness of the brain protection may be the source of infection. Little is known about the composition of this mucus in humans. Previous proteomic analyses have been performed on washes of the entire nasal cavities and therefore might better correspond to the mucus over the respiratory epithelium than to the mucus covering the olfactory epithelium. In the present study, we sampled the olfactory mucus directly from the clefts of 16 healthy adult volunteers, and 83 proteins were identified in the samples using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF, RPLC, and Edman sequencing. Forty-three proteins were not previously observed either in nasal mucus sampled through washings, saliva, tear, or cerebrospinal fluid. In Accordance with the data in the protein databases, the most abundant proteins are secreted, whereas some others correspond to intracellular proteins covering a large range of functions: anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, protease inhibition, antioxidant, transport, transcription, transduction, cytoskeletal, regulation, binding, and metabolism of odorant molecules. This study clearly demonstrates the complexity of the mucus covering the human olfactory epithelium, which might comprise potential markers for characterizing pathophysiological states.

  7. Ethmoidectomy combined with superior meatus enlargement increases olfactory airflow.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Hironobu; Kondo, Kenji; Nomura, Tsutomu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between a particular surgical technique in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and airflow changes in the post-operative olfactory region has not been assessed. The present study aimed to compare olfactory airflow after ESS between conventional ethmoidectomy and ethmoidectomy with superior meatus enlargement, using virtual ESS and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Prospective computational study. Nasal computed tomography images of four adult subjects were used to generate models of the nasal airway. The original preoperative model was digitally edited as virtual ESS by performing uncinectomy, ethmoidectomy, antrostomy, and frontal sinusotomy. The following two post-operative models were prepared: conventional ethmoidectomy with normal superior meatus (ESS model) and ethmoidectomy with superior meatus enlargement (ESS-SM model). The calculated three-dimensional nasal geometries were confirmed using virtual endoscopy to ensure that they corresponded to the post-operative anatomy observed in the clinical setting. Steady-state, laminar, inspiratory airflow was simulated, and the velocity, streamline, and mass flow rate in the olfactory region were compared among the preoperative and two postoperative models. The mean velocity in the olfactory region, number of streamlines bound to the olfactory region, and mass flow rate were higher in the ESS-SM model than in the other models. We successfully used an innovative approach involving virtual ESS, virtual endoscopy, and CFD to assess postoperative outcomes after ESS. It is hypothesized that the increased airflow to the olfactory fossa achieved with ESS-SM may lead to improved olfactory function; however, further studies are required. NA.

  8. Olfactory Training Using Heavy and Light Weight Molecule Odors.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Sophia C; Michel, Elisabeth; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background Repeated short-term exposure to odors is known to improve olfaction in patients with acquired olfactory dysfunction. The aim was to find out whether differences in molecular weight of odors used for olfactory training influences olfaction. We hypothesized a greater improvement following training with light weight molecule (LWM) odors. Methods A prospective study was performed in patients with posttraumatic (PTOL) and postviral olfactory loss (PVOL). Olfactory training was performed over a period of 5 months. One group ( n = 48) used four odors containing heavy weight molecules (HWM; >150 g/mol) and another ( n = 48) containing LWM (<150 g/mol). Olfaction was tested before and after the training using the Sniffin' Sticks test. Results Olfactory training was associated with olfactory improvement, with the improvement in PVOL patients being three times greater than that seen in the PTOL group. Compared with LWM training, HWM training was associated with a significantly greater improvement in Phenyl Ethyl Alcohol (PEA) threshold scores in PVOL patients; however, no such improvement could be shown for other subtests or in PTOL patients. Conclusion Overall, training was associated with olfactory improvement. With the exception of threshold scores in PVOL, there were no significant differences between LWM and HWM groups.

  9. Adrenergic modulation of olfactory bulb circuitry affects odor discrimination.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Wilder; Milder, Julie; Restrepo, Diego

    2007-08-01

    A rodent's survival depends upon its ability to perceive odor cues necessary to guide mate selection, sexual behavior, foraging, territorial formation, and predator avoidance. Arguably, the need to discriminate odor cues in a complex olfactory environment requires a highly adaptable olfactory system. Indeed, it has been proposed that context-dependent modulation of the initial sensory relay could alter olfactory perception. Interestingly, 40% of the adrenergic innervation from the locus coeruleus, fibers that are activated by contextual cues, innervates the first relay station in the olfactory system (the main olfactory bulb). Here we utilize restricted pharmacological inhibition of olfactory bulb noradrenergic receptors in awake-behaving animals. We show that combined blockade of alpha and beta adrenergic receptors does not impair two-odor discrimination behavior per se but does impair the ability to discriminate perceptually similar odors. Thus, contextual cues conveyed by noradrenergic fibers alter processing before the second synapse in the olfactory cortex, resulting in tuning of the ability to discriminate between similar odors.

  10. Olfactory function in psychotic disorders: Insights from neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Good, Kimberley P; Sullivan, Randii Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory deficits on measures of identification, familiarity, and memory are consistently noted in patients with psychotic disorders relative to age-matched controls. Olfactory intensity ratings, however, appear to remain intact while the data on hedonics and detection threshold are inconsistent. Despite the behavioral abnormalities noted, no specific regional brain hypoactivity has been identified in psychosis patients, for any of the olfactory domains. However, an intriguing finding emerged from this review in that the amygdala and pirifom cortices were not noted to be abnormal in hedonic processing (nor was the amygdala identified abnormal in any study) in psychotic disorders. This finding is in contrast to the literature in healthy individuals, in that this brain region is strongly implicated in olfactory processing (particularly for unpleasant odorants). Secondary olfactory cortex (orbitofrontal cortices, thalamus, and insula) was abnormally activated in the studies examined, particularly for hedonic processing. Further research, using consistent methodology, is required for better understanding the neurobiology of olfactory deficits. The authors suggest taking age and sex differences into consideration and further contrasting olfactory subgroups (impaired vs intact) to better our understanding of the heterogeneity of psychotic disorders. PMID:26110122

  11. Influence of nasal trigeminal stimuli on olfactory sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Jacquot, Laurence; Monnin, Julie; Brand, Gérard

    2004-04-01

    In the nose, the capacity to detect and react to volatile chemicals is mediated by two separate but interrelated sensory pathways, the olfactory and trigeminal systems. Because most chemosensory stimulants, at sufficient concentration, produce both olfactory and trigeminal sensations (i.e., stinging, burning or pungent), it is relevant to seek how these anatomically distinct systems could interact. This study was designed to evaluate by psychophysical measurements the modifications of the olfactory sensitivity of 20 subjects to phenyl ethyl alcohol (PEA) and butanol (BUT), after trigeminal stimulation with allyl isothiocyanate (AIC). Thresholds obtained in two separate sessions, one with and the other without previous trigeminal stimulation, were compared using a two-alternative forced-choice procedure, with a classical ascending concentrations method. The results showed that, whatever the odorant (PEA or BUT), AIC trigeminal activation produced a decrease in the olfactory thresholds, corresponding to an increase in olfactory sensitivity. These data confirm that in physiological conditions the trigeminal system modulates the activity of olfactory receptor cells but do not exclude the possibility of a central modulation of olfactory information by trigeminal stimuli. These findings are discussed in terms of methodological and physiological conditions.

  12. Delayed olfactory nerve regeneration in ApoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Britto P; Nisar, Rafia; Short, Jody; Randall, Shari; Grissom, Elin; Griffin, Gwen; Switzer, Paul V; Struble, Robert G

    2005-04-11

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a lipid transporting protein, is extensively expressed in the primary olfactory pathway, but its function is unknown. We previously reported increased apoE levels in the olfactory bulb (OB) following olfactory epithelium (OE) lesion in mice, and hypothesized that apoE may play a vital role in olfactory nerve (ON) regeneration. To directly test this hypothesis, we examined the rate of ON regeneration following OE lesion in apoE deficient/knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. OE was lesioned in 2- to 3-month-old mice by intranasal irrigation with Triton X-100 (TX). OB were collected at 0, 3, 7, 21, 42, and 56 days post-lesion. OB recovery was measured by both immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analysis of growth cone associated protein (GAP) 43 and olfactory marker protein (OMP). The results revealed that (1) OMP recovery in the OB was significantly slower in apoE KO compared to WT mice; (2) recovery of glomerular area was similarly slower; and (3) GAP43 increases and return to prelesion levels in the OB were slower in KO mice. Together, these results show that olfactory nerve regeneration is significantly slower in KO mice as compared to WT mice, suggesting apoE facilitates olfactory nerve regeneration.

  13. Respiratory and olfactory turbinal size in canid and arctoid carnivorans

    PubMed Central

    Green, Patrick A; Valkenburgh, Blaire; Pang, Benison; Bird, Deborah; Rowe, Timothy; Curtis, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    Within the nasal cavity of mammals is a complex scaffold of paper-thin bones that function in respiration and olfaction. Known as turbinals, the bones greatly enlarge the surface area available for conditioning inspired air, reducing water loss, and improving olfaction. Given their functional significance, the relative development of turbinal bones might be expected to differ among species with distinct olfactory, thermoregulatory and/or water conservation requirements. Here we explore the surface area of olfactory and respiratory turbinals relative to latitude and diet in terrestrial Caniformia, a group that includes the canid and arctoid carnivorans (mustelids, ursids, procyonids, mephitids, ailurids). Using high-resolution computed tomography x-ray scans, we estimated respiratory and olfactory turbinal surface area and nasal chamber volume from three-dimensional virtual models of skulls. Across the Caniformia, respiratory surface area scaled isometrically with estimates of body size and there was no significant association with climate, as estimated by latitude. Nevertheless, one-on-one comparisons of sister taxa suggest that arctic species may have expanded respiratory turbinals. Olfactory surface area scaled isometrically among arctoids, but showed positive allometry in canids, reflecting the fact that larger canids, all of which are carnivorous, had relatively greater olfactory surface areas. In addition, among the arctoids, large carnivorous species such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and wolverine (Gulo gulo) also displayed enlarged olfactory turbinals. More omnivorous caniform species that feed on substantial quantities of non-vertebrate foods had less expansive olfactory turbinals. Because large carnivorous species hunt widely dispersed prey, an expanded olfactory turbinal surface area may improve a carnivore's ability to detect prey over great distances using olfactory cues. PMID:23035637

  14. Cellular basis for the olfactory response to nicotine.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Bruce; Xu, Jiang; Audige, Valery; Lischka, Fritz W; Rawson, Nancy E

    2010-03-17

    Smokers regulate their smoking behavior on the basis of sensory stimuli independently of the pharmacological effects of nicotine (Rose J. E., et al. (1993) Pharmacol., Biochem. Behav.44 (4), 891-900). A better understanding of sensory mechanisms underlying smoking behavior may help to develop more effective smoking alternatives. Olfactory stimulation by nicotine makes up a considerable part of the flavor of tobacco smoke, yet our understanding of the cellular mechanisms responsible for olfactory detection of nicotine remains incomplete. We used biophysical methods to characterize the nicotine sensitivity and response mechanisms of neurons from olfactory epithelium. In view of substantial differences in the olfactory receptor repertoire between rodent and human (Mombaerts P. (1999) Annu. Rev. Neurosci.22, 487-509), we studied biopsied human olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), cultured human olfactory cells (Gomez G., et al. (2000) J. Neurosci. Res.62 (5), 737-749), and rat olfactory neurons. Rat and human OSNs responded to S(-)-nicotine with a concentration dependent influx of calcium and activation of adenylate cyclase. Some rat OSNs displayed some stereoselectivity, with neurons responding to either enantiomer alone or to both. Freshly biopsied and primary cultured human olfactory neurons were less stereoselective. Nicotinic cholinergic antagonists had no effect on the responses of rat or human OSNs to nicotine. Patch clamp recording of rat OSNs revealed a nicotine-activated, calcium-sensitive nonspecific cation channel. These results indicate that nicotine activates a canonical olfactory receptor pathway rather than nicotinic cholinergic receptors on OSNs. Further, because the nicotine-sensitive mechanisms of rodents appear generally similar to those of humans, this animal model is an appropriate one for studies of nicotine sensation.

  15. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Yutaro; Nagaoka, Akira; Kitami, Asana; Mitsuhashi, Tomomi; Hayakawa, Youichi; Kobayashi, Makito

    2014-01-01

    It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing, and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF) elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we re-examined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO) which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX) which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual behavior. PMID

  16. The Poverty of the Mayan Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pye, Clifton

    2012-01-01

    Poverty of the stimulus (POS) arguments have instigated considerable debate in the recent linguistics literature. This article uses the comparative method to challenge the logic of POS arguments. Rather than question the premises of POS arguments, the article demonstrates how POS arguments for individual languages lead to a "reductio ad absurdum"…

  17. Verbal Stimulus Control and the Intraverbal Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the intraverbal relation is missed in most theories of language. Skinner (1957) attributes this to traditional semantic theories of meaning that focus on the nonverbal referents of words and neglect verbal stimuli as separate sources of control for linguistic behavior. An analysis of verbal stimulus control is presented, along…

  18. Stimulus control of cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Stanley J; Kearns, David N; Cohn, Scott I; Schindler, Charles W; Panlilio, Leigh V

    2003-01-01

    Environmental stimuli that set the occasion wherein drugs are acquired can "trigger" drug-related behavior. Investigating the stimulus control of drug self-administration in laboratory animals should help us better understand this aspect of human drug abuse. Stimulus control of cocaine self-administration was generated here for the first time using multiple and chained schedules with short, frequently-alternating components--like those typically used to study food-maintained responding. The procedures and results are presented along with case histories to illustrate the strategies used to produce this stimulus control. Al